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NONGQAI : VOLUME 10 NO 4 Table of Contents ADMINISTRATION | ADMINISTRASIE ......................................................................................... 10 Publisher | Uitgewer ....................................................................................................................................10 Contact Details | Kontakbesonderhede .......................................................................................................10 Aim | Doel ....................................................................................................................................................10 Policy | Beleid ...............................................................................................................................................10 Welcome | Welkom .....................................................................................................................................11 ELEKTRONIESE BEDIENING: KOOT SWANEPOEL .................................................................. 12 Sy Hande .......................................................................................................................................................12 “Omgee” ....................................................................................................................................... 13 •

Die Nongqai Trust .................................................................................................................................13

Nongqai Trust: IT 002701/2018 (T): Bank particulars ...........................................................................13

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SOS: NOODBERIG: DRINGEND .................................................................................................. 14 FRONT COVER | VOORBLAD ..................................................................................................... 14 Commandant General PH Grobbelaar, SSA, DSO: Lt.Col. William Marshall........................14 VISIT OUR WEBSITE | BESOEK ONS WEBWERF ..................................................................... 21 Operation “K” ............................................................................................................................... 21 Captured Weapons: Jim Hooper ..................................................................................................................21 Jim Hooper with Unita ..................................................................................................................................32 ......................................................................................................................................................................32 Jim Hooper: Unita .........................................................................................................................................32 Other items of South African Police History ............................................................................. 33 1992: Die referendum ..................................................................................................................................33 Die Afrikaner: Prof Hermann Giliomee .........................................................................................................34 Bevestiging: Prof Giliomee ...........................................................................................................................35 Kwelvrae .......................................................................................................................................................35 ......................................................................................................................................................................36 Nr. 17209 (V) Konst. JJ Huysamen: Huweliksvergunning..............................................................................36 Zarp’e............................................................................................................................................................38 .....................................................................................................................................................................38 Patrolliewa uit vergange se dae....................................................................................................................38 Plofstofeenheid: Philip Malherbe .................................................................................................................39 Contemporary police history | Eietydse polisiegeskiedenis .........................................................................39 •

You be the Judge: Lt.Col. Danie J Putter ...............................................................................................39

Four stages of a Police Officer: Lt.Col. Danie Putter .....................................................................................42 1914: Durban Borough Police.......................................................................................................................43 ‘n King’s Rest-steak: Hennie Heymans..........................................................................................................44 Natal University (Durban): HBH ....................................................................................................................52 Comments by friends and colleagues ...................................................................................................53 Police Stories | Polisiestories: Lt.Col. Danie Putter ......................................................................................57 •

My first day at work. .............................................................................................................................57

Eerste arrestasie ...................................................................................................................................57 3


Hillbrow: Lt. Col. Danie Putter (Strand) .................................................................................................58

Technology vs Brains: Lt.Col. Danie Putter (Strand) ..............................................................................59

Kallie en Elize Knoetze: “Die Bek se Plek”: Naby Brits ..................................................................................59 Bring Sersant terug: AP Stemmet .................................................................................................................60 SAP Skukuza, KNP: Sers. Wynand Petrus du Plessis en gesin .......................................................................61 Wie verdien die medaljes? Genl.maj. Ben du Plessis ...................................................................................61 2019: Onrus en onluste op ons universiteitskampusse ................................................................................65 •

Adam Habib: ‘n Gladdejantjie oor die studente-onrus: Leon Lemmer .................................................65

“I weep for my country” – Dr Mangosuthu Buthelezi ..................................................................................74 1979: Prof Van Jaarsveld geteer en veer ......................................................................................................75 Wyle Mev Annatjie Geldenhuys .................................................................................................. 76 Annatjie Geldenhuys: Eggenote van ‘n voormalige Kommissaris Van Polisie, Genl. Mike Geldenhuys ......76 •

Uittreksel uit Van Kaalvoetseun tot Kommissaris: Deur Hanlie Van Straaten en Hennie Heymans......77

My man, die Generaal. .................................................................................................................................77 Oor die Nongqai se drumpel ....................................................................................................... 81 •

Luit. Charl Steyn (VSA)...........................................................................................................................81

Luit. Barry Taylor (Thailand) en Brig Louis Sauer (Potchefstroom) .......................................................81

POLMED RAAD VAN TRUSTEE’S ............................................................................................... 82 SA RAILWAYS POLICE | SA SPOORWEGPOLISIE ................................................................... 83 Die ongeluk by die vierde agteruitrit (Fourth Reverse): So het ons geëet: Oud-speurdersersant C.C. Collin (No. 1199) .....................................................................................................................................................83 Ongelukstoneel: Foto’s en kommentaar: Mnr Les Pivnic (Australië) ...........................................................84 Kaart van Terrein: John & Jacque Wepener: Welkom ..................................................................................85 Kaarte ongelukstoneel: Bruno Martin (Tasmanië)........................................................................................87 Die Zoeloedans: Kol. DJ Smit ........................................................................................................................89 SA Railways Police: “Bospadda” Resin Model...............................................................................................90 MILITARY HISTORY | KRYGSGESKIEDENIS ............................................................................. 92 Union Defence Force (UDF) | Unie Verdedigingsmag (UVM) ................................................... 92 •

1939 – 1945: Oos-Afrika .......................................................................................................................92 4


Asleep in the Sand: Captain Andre van Ellinckhuyzen (SAPS) .......................................................................92 Tobruk War Cemetery ..................................................................................................................................96 SAW | SADF ..................................................................................................................................................97 •

SAMIL 20: Luit.kol. William Marshall .....................................................................................................97

‘n Parade van ‘n heel ander aard! .........................................................................................................97

Jors Troelie se Pampoen: At Spies: SALM (afgetree).............................................................................98

1. Bewerings: Genl. Magnus Malan: Genl.maj. Gert Opperman ............................................................... 100 2. Bewerings: Genl. Magnus Malan: Genl.maj. Gert Opperman ............................................................... 100 3. Malan-saak: Polisie-Ondersoek ............................................................................................................. 101 4. Malan-saak: Genl. Gert Opperman ........................................................................................................ 101 CCB | BSB................................................................................................................................... 102 •

Parole approved for apartheid hitman Ferdi Barnard........................................................................ 102

SANDF ........................................................................................................................................ 102 •

How MK members "gagged their own mouths" ................................................................................ 102

Wild Geese: Col Mike Hoare...................................................................................................... 105 •

Mike Hoare turns 100 years old ......................................................................................................... 105

POLICE & THE PRESS | POLISIE EN DIE PERS ...................................................................... 108 Mainly of interest to former members of the Security Branch ................................................................. 108 •

The three-ring circus is back in town, alas ......................................................................................... 108

How the apartheid regime burnt books – in their tens of thousands ....................................................... 110 •

Boeke verbrand: Kommentaar deur brig. HB Heymans ..................................................................... 112

Crime intelligence 'affected, but not captured' – Sitole on SSA report ............................................. 114

The Rodrigues prosecution: The LSSA jumps in......................................................................................... 115 •

Jeremy Gordin asks why the Law Society is trying to intervene as an amicus in this case 115

Joao Rodrigues Heads to Court ................................................................................................................. 117 Timol murder accused says he should benefit from amnesty for pre-1994 crimes .................................. 118 Apartheid Criminals must be Prosecuted, Court Hears in Ahmed Timol Case .......................................... 119 1899 – 1902: Pietermaritzburg Borough Police ........................................................................................ 119

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MILITARY AND THE MEDIA | MILITÊR EN DIE MEDIA ............................................................ 120 State capture: Nyanda fired after refusing repeated invitations to meet Guptas..................................... 120 David Mabuza’s hair-raising jet landing ..................................................................................................... 121 “WE WILL REMEMBER THEM”: CAPT. CHARLES ROSS (SAN – RTD.) ............................... 121 South Africans Commonwealth War Casualties Buried Across the World: Part 14: Captain (SAN) Charles Ross (SA Navy Retired)............................................................................................................................... 121 •

Massicualt War Cemetery - Tunisia.................................................................................................... 122

Aeroplane Cemetery - Belgium .......................................................................................................... 123

Bard Cottage Cemetery – Belgium ..................................................................................................... 124

Belgrade Cemetery: Belgium.............................................................................................................. 125

VIP’s / BBP’s............................................................................................................................... 126 Inleiding ..................................................................................................................................................... 126 Leon Lemmer: ‘Die eggenotes agter Afrikaner politieke leiers’ ................................................................ 127 •

Annie Botha ..................................................................................................................................... 128

Isie Smuts ........................................................................................................................................ 128

Mynie Hertzog ................................................................................................................................. 128

Maria Malan ..................................................................................................................................... 129

Mabel Jansen .................................................................................................................................. 130

Susan Strijdom ................................................................................................................................ 130

Betsie Verwoerd ............................................................................................................................. 131

Nellie Swart...................................................................................................................................... 131

Margo Diederichs ........................................................................................................................... 131

Tini Vorster ...................................................................................................................................... 132

Elize Botha ....................................................................................................................................... 132

Marike de Klerk ............................................................................................................................... 132

ANGLO BOER WAR | ANGLO BOERE-OORLOG .................................................................... 133 Die Fort van Vredefort: Deel 2: Philip Malherbe ....................................................................................... 133 Commandant Gerard Mari Johan van Dam (ZARP & SAP): Leon Bezuidenhout ........................................ 136 Zarp’e: Pretoria .......................................................................................................................................... 137

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THE OBSERVATION POST: PETER DICKENS ......................................................................... 138 The Great Escape … was led by a South African! .......................................................................... 138 RSA INTELLIGENCE | RSA INLIGTING..................................................................................... 141 World War 2: Operation Felix .................................................................................................... 141 Felix’s Transmitter ..................................................................................................................................... 141 The story of the Nazi spy in South Africa: Dr Brian Austin & Vincent Harrison ......................................... 141 Post 1994 Spy Wars ................................................................................................................... 150 Zuma manipulated intelligence agency, finds shocking report ................................................................. 150 Spy Wars: How Jacob Zuma established his own network of spooks ........................................................ 151 Spy Wars: Report reveals how Zuma's man at SSA helped build parallel network ................................... 152 Calls made for those implicated in wrongdoing at the SSA to be punished .............................................. 153 Zuma says SSA report was written by 'apartheid spies' ............................................................................ 154 EXPLAINED: Nine things you must know about the bombshell report into spies...................................... 155 DA calls for the immediate suspension of Arthur Fraser and implicated Ministers .................................. 156 Spy Wars: Kasrils says he warned ANC about factions using spooks ......................................................... 156 'No one is going to get away with this' - state security minister on SSA report ........................................ 158 SAFTU calls on the President Ramaphosa to dismiss Arthur Fraser and Siyabonga Cwele with immediate effect ......................................................................................................................................................... 159 Charges laid against Minister of State Security – Busisiwe Mkhwebane ................................... 160 •

Public Protector of South Africa statement ....................................................................................... 160

INTELLIGENCE: INTERNATIONAL ........................................................................................... 161 The Moscow rules ..................................................................................................................................... 161 ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE | REGSPLEGING ................................................................... 162 Magistrate Office: Landdros-kantoor Vrede: OFS ..................................................................................... 162 Konflagrasie ............................................................................................................................................... 163 Hof gee NG Kerk Pak.................................................................................................................................. 163

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POLICE: INTERNATIONAL ........................................................................................................ 165 UK ................................................................................................................................................ 165 •

Inspector Joseph Elliot: Durham County Constabulary: A Tie to the RSA .......................................... 165

➢ When bobbies were on the beat: Glorious photos from the 1950s show the life of a police constable before CCTV, bodycams and Twitter (but they still had plenty of paperwork) ......................................... 168 France ......................................................................................................................................... 174 • Policewoman is shot dead by colleague in France as the pair played a 'game to see who was fastest on the draw' ................................................................................................................................................... 174 New Zealand ............................................................................................................................... 174 • 'I'm no hero': Father, 48, reveals how he grabbed Christchurch killer's assault rifle and smashed his car window forcing him to flee from mosque - bringing an end brutal rampage that left 49 dead................ 174 DEFENCE INTERNATIONAL...................................................................................................... 175 UK ................................................................................................................................................ 175 • Army veterans involved in Bloody Sunday shootings 'could be charged with murder within weeks' - 47 years after the deaths of 14 protesters in Northern Ireland ..................................................................... 175 • Former Army head Lord Dannatt blasts ministers for allowing IRA's political wing to 'rewrite history' as minister proposes 10-year limit on prosecutions of veterans ................................................................... 175 • 'We're going to be sacrificed after 50 years': Veterans tell of fears they'll be next after Bloody Sunday troops probe .............................................................................................................................................. 175 • Lance Corporal, 30, who accidentally shot best friend dead with Glock pistol during game of 'quick draw' while they served in Iraq is jailed for three years ............................................................................ 177 • You can shove your medals! Furious Paratroopers threaten to send their honours back to the Queen in protest at 'scapegoating' of only soldier charged with murder over Bloody Sunday ............................ 178 Germany ..................................................................................................................................... 178 •

“German South West Africa: Camels: For the use of” ....................................................................... 178

WANTED KNOWN | OP SOEK NA ............................................................................................. 179 •

1966: Die Moord op Dr HF Verwoerd ................................................................................................ 179

SA Polisie: Veiligheidstak: Plofstofeenheid: Philip Malherbe ............................................................ 179

Operasie Vula ..................................................................................................................................... 179

Graf: No 47174 Sers. RG Fall .............................................................................................................. 179 8


LETTERS | BRIEWE ................................................................................................................... 180 •

The Nongqai shooting trophy: Mr Jeff Cheg ...................................................................................... 180

Wat is ‘n Mamma? Lt.kol. MJJ van Rensburg (SALM – afgetree) ....................................................... 182

ʼn Terugblik: Anoniem ......................................................................................................................... 183

Kolonel Dolf Odendal ......................................................................................................................... 184

No 3712 Trooper Michael Lawrence Kelly: Natal Police ............................................................................ 185 •

No 4775 (F) Bandsman ML Kelly: Bandsman: Johannesburg ............................................................. 185

1910: Natal Police Band ..................................................................................................................... 185

1910: Duke of Connaught’s Visit: NP Band .............................................................................. 185

1921: SAP Band Johannesburg ........................................................................................................... 186

1922 SAP Band Johannesburg ............................................................................................................ 187

1926 SAP Band ................................................................................................................................... 187

1927 SAP Band ................................................................................................................................... 188

Brig. Willem van Wyk: Lucas Holtzhausen......................................................................................... 188

Uitnodiging aan Mnr. Cyril Ramaphosa: Gawie Rousseau ................................................................. 189

Institute of Race Relations (IRR) ................................................................................................................ 190 •

IRR launches online platform, the Daily Friend .................................................................................. 190

Countering the hate propagated by Julius Malema is our collective responsibility – IRR.................. 191

LAST WORD: REV CHARISSE LE ROUX ................................................................................. 192 INDEMNITY & © | VRYWARING & ©.......................................................................................... 192 End | Slot ................................................................................................................................................ 192

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Met al die kragonderbrekings en beurtkarag word hierdie uitgawe aan Eskom opgedra. Dit was baie moeilik om die uitgawe saam te stel met al die kragonderbrekings. Mens wonder wat mense soos dr. Hendrik van der Bijl hiervan sou dink? ADMINISTRATION | ADMINISTRASIE

Publisher | Uitgewer The Nongqai is compiled by Hennie Heymans (HBH) a retired Brigadier of the late South African Police Force and this e-magazine is published on ISSUU. Hennie lives in Pretoria, ZA. He is passionate about our police-, military- and national security history and holds a MA-degree in National Strategic Studies. Any opinions expressed by him, are entirely his own. Die Nongqai word saamgestel deur Hennie Heymans (HBH), 'n afgetrede brigadier van die voormalige Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiemag en hierdie e-tydskrif word op ISSUU gepubliseer. Hennie woon in Pretoria, ZA. Hy is passievol oor ons polisie-, militĂŞre- en nasionale veiligheidsgeskiedenis en het 'n MA-graad in Nasionale Strategiese Studies verwerf. Enige menings wat hy uitspreek, is uitsluitlik sy eie.

Contact Details | Kontakbesonderhede

Aim | Doel Our goal is to collect and record our national security history for publication in the Nongqai for future generations.

Onthou, skryf u storie, soms kan ons net op u geskrewe weergawe terugval want dit is al wat daar is. Deel u SAP- en SAW-foto’s met ons!

Ons doel is om die nasionale veiligheidsgeskiedenis in die Nongqai aan te teken en so vir die nageslagte bewaar.

Policy | Beleid We publish the articles and stories as we receive them from our correspondents; we only correct the spelling mistakes. It's important to publish the stories in the form and context as we receive them from our correspondents. Policemen and defence personnel have their own language. We are not a scientific or literary journal. We only work with historical building blocks. Ons gebruik die artikels en stories soos ons dit van ons korrespondente ontvang; ons maak slegs die spelfoute reg. Dis belangrik om die stories te bewaar in die vorm en in die konteks soos ons dit 10


ontvang. Lede van die veiligheidsmagte het hul eie taal en ons moet dit ook so aanteken. Ons is nie ‘n letterkundige of wetenskaplike joernaal nie. Ons werk slegs met die boustene van geskiedenis.

Welcome | Welkom Elke mens het sy eie waardes en spreuke waar volgens hy lewe; ek deel met u ‘n paar wat ek in daagliks in my eie lewe met sukses toepas: • No act of kindness, how small, is ever wasted. Tydens my diens in SAP was hierdie my rigsnoer! Ek het eenmaal bv. ‘n ernstige saak opgelos: Die beskuldigde, pistool en ander bewysstukke aan die KOD oorhandig net omdat ek empatie teenoor ‘n nie-wit klaagster wat aangerand was, betoon het. Op groter skaal het lt.kol. IPS Terblanche ‘n katastrofe in Kaapstad gekeer slegs omdat hy vriendelik was met ‘n werker in die SAP-menasie. Dit het ‘n kataklismiese voorval by Caledonplein gekeer. • Persoonlik is ek geseënd en probeer altyd tot seën van ander wees! Dit is soms moeilik! • It’s nice to be important, but far more important to be nice! As voorbeeld mnr. Adriaan Vlok ons oudminister; het my as DK in moeilike tye ondersteun, nog voorbeelde is wyle generaals Mike Geldenhuys, Johann Coetzee, Jannie Geldenhuys en ons oorblywende kommissaris: Johan van der Merwe. In teenstelling was meeste stasiebevelvoerders “rillers” gewees - maar ons weet daar was ‘n spesifieke rede daarvoor! • Skep welwillendheid in jou lewe. Gee bv. die taxi ‘n geleentheid om in die verkeer in te kom. Al sê hy nie dankie, nie voel jy beter en jou hele dag is ‘n seën! Skep ‘n aura van welwillendheid om jouself! • Vandag is ek ‘n “baie, baie ryk man”: Ek het letterlik 1000de boeke gelees en in my leeswerk gespesialiseer in ‘n paar spesifieke rigtings. Ek luister daagliks na mooiste musiek op die aarde! Dit is onaantasbare rykdom. SARS kan nie daaraan raak nie. Ek was op baie plekke in die wêreld; bv. op Kimoi-eiland.1 • Nog iets wat my vreeslik ryk gemaak het, is my talle persoonlike vriende; plaaslik, nasionaal en in die buiteland! Dankie, julle is vir my tot groot seën!

Kinmen was given its name (金門; Jīnmén; 'golden gate') in 1387 when the Hongwu Emperor of China's Ming dynasty appointed a military officer to administer the island and protect it from wokou (pirate) attacks. The name is pronounced Jīnmén in the official Standard Chinese but some of the various names used in English for the islands derive from other Chinese varieties. Quemoy is the name for the island in English and in many European languages and the island's name in postal romanization. It likely began as a Portuguese transcription of the Zhangzhou Hokkien pronunciation of the name, Kimmûi. This form of the islands' name was used almost exclusively in English until the late 20th century and is still used widely in current English-language contexts that involve historical coverage. For example, current works that deal with the First and Second Taiwan Strait Crises (the Quemoy Incident) when the islands received prominent worldwide news coverage as "Quemoy" still use this form. In addition, the former National Kinmen Institute of Technology was renamed National Quemoy University in 2010. Kinmen scholar Wei Jian-feng advocates the use of "Quemoy" to better connect the island to "international society or achieve more recognition in the world". Kinmen is a more recent transcription based on the general rules of the postal romanization system. With some exceptions, this form is used in most current English-language contexts on Kinmen and in Taiwan as a whole. Entities such as the county government, the islands' airport, and the national park use this spelling. Chin-men is the Wade–Giles romanization form of the island's name and appears on some maps using that as their standard. Jinmen is the hanyu pinyin form of the island's name used especially in sources from the People's Republic of China. The Kinmen County Government and ROC central government have adopted Hanyu Pinyin as their standard romanization, such as for names of townships within Kinmen County, but this does not apply to the name of Kinmen itself. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kinmen 1

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• •

Nog iets wat my vreeslik ryk gemaak het, en SARS kan ook nie daaraan raak nie, is besondere rolspelers wat hul eie en die land se nasionale veiligheidsgeskiedenis met my gedeel het. Daar is soveel ou geheimpies! Nie dat dit vandag saak maak nie! Vermy toksiese mense! Ek stap ‘n draai om hulle! Bid eerder vir hulle! Sjoe daar is vreeslike mense op Facebook! Die Engelse noem hulle “trolls.”2 Ek het nooit voorheen sulke mense in die tronk of in die publiek teëgekom nie. Mense wat jou van geen kant ken; maar jou en andere valslik van onsin beskuldig! In watter wêreld leef die mense? Hanteer mense alle met respek, want jy het respek vir jouself! Ek sien so baie mense wat geen selfrespek het nie. Ek bejammer hulle!

Geniet hierdie uitgawe – ek doen die uitleg van die tydskrif persoonlik en probeer my bes om ‘n mooi tydskrif vir u daar te stel.

ELEKTRONIESE BEDIENING: KOOT SWANEPOEL

Sy Hande “Wie mededeelsaam is word geseën, want hy gee van sy kos vir arm mense.” (Spreuke 22 vers 9.) “Generous hands are blessed hands because they give bread to the poor.” (The Message). ‘n Ouerige paartjie kom laat een reënerige aand by ‘n hotel ingestap en vra vir ‘n kamer. Die klerk op nagdiens het gereageer met die gesindheid wat hier in Spreuke staan: “Ons is vol bespreek. Maar ek het self ‘n kamer hier – dis nie juis iets om oor huis toe te skryf nie. Ek sal Mary, ons skoonmaker, vra om die kamer skoon te maak. As julle net so ‘n paar minute sal wag.” Na ‘n tyd is die paartjie na die klerk op nagdiens se kamer toe, en warm tee en toebroodjies is na hulle kamer toe gestuur. ‘n Jaar en ‘n half later, toe die beroemde Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York klaar gebou is, het John Astor, die bejaarde man van ons storie en die eienaar van die hotel, gesê: “Ek wil hê daardie klerk moet my hotel bestuur.” Deur mededeelsaamheid maak GOD van jou hande sy hande.

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Trolls make a deliberately offensive or provocative online posting with the aim of upsetting someone or eliciting an angry response from them.

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“Omgee” • Die Nongqai Trust

Foto geneem tydens die stigting van die Nongqai Trust3. Voor, in gewone volgorde, is me. Ané van der Merwe, ons ouditeur, mnr. Johan Botha en me. Miempie van Wyk, lg. werk met die geldsake. Agter is kapt. Nico Freylinck (oudlid: SAP-sportkantoor), luit.kol. Hein Kilian (Oos-Rand), me. Roelien Hattingh (oud-Assupol) en brig. Hennie Heymans. Ons groepie van ses is al vir ‘n paar jaar besig om ‘n oudlid van die SA Polisiemag by te staan en soms ontvang ons ook ander versoeke vir hulp. Om alles finansieel ordelik te laat verloop is ‘n trust gestig. Ons is tans besig met fondswerwing en sal later in staat wees om veral meer oudlede wat aan PTS ly, by te staan. Baie oudlede is haweloos en verkeer in ellende. Ons is natuurlik ‘n diskresionêre trust. Ondersteun ons gerus!

• Nongqai Trust: IT 002701/2018 (T): Bank particulars Account No: 012747084 Account type: Business Current Account Branch: Menlyn Branch Code: 012345 Branch Code Electronic Payments: 051001 Swift: SBZA ZA JJ

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Ons verkies, om praktiese redes, om Nongqai Trust as twee woorde te skryf – HBH.

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SOS: NOODBERIG: DRINGEND Ons het ‘n oud-SAP-lid wat as tentmaker die Evangelie met oorgawe bedien maar wat in ‘n ernstige finansiële verknorsing verkeer. Hy is getroud, sober en van goeie inbors. Hy is ‘n ware kind van die Here. Die egpaar soek werk as ‘n koshuisvader en koshuismoeder, ‘n plaasopsigter, ‘n wildsplaasopsigter of enige betrekking wat huisvesting verskaf. Hy is baie fiks! Indien u kan help, kontak my asb. – Hennie Heymans

FRONT COVER | VOORBLAD

Commandant General PH Grobbelaar, SSA, DSO: Lt.Col. William Marshall

Pieter Hendrik Grobbelaar was born on 16 September 1908 at Porterville in the Western Cape Province. He joined the Permanent Force as a cadet on 01 April 1929. He then became a Private in the 12th Infantry Battalion of the Citizen Force on 20 Dec 1930. He was promoted to Corporal on 21 Jan 1931, and to Sergeant on 18 Feb 1931. He was appointed to commissioned rank as 2 Lt in the 12th Infantry Battalion on 03 Sep 1933.

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Promoted to Lieutenant on 03 Sep 1933 and transferred to the General List of Officers of the Citizen Force on 12 Sep 1933. Accepted full-time appointment in the Permanent Force in the Rank of Field Cornet and attached to the Special Services Battalion (SSB) on 12 Sep 1933. He was appointed as company Commander of B Coy, SSB and granted temporary rank of Captain whilst holding the appointment on 04 Jan 1934. He was then appointed on 01 June 1934 on short service for a period of three years in the General Duties Branch of the Permanent Force both holding his Field Cornet rank and the temporary rank of Captain. He was then appointed Acting Commander, 1 Wing, SSB for the period 04 to 15 Nov 1934. On 19 Feb 1935, he was transferred to the Pioneer Battalion in Bloemfontein. He was then appointed the Officer Commanding, Training Depot, Bloemfontein on 09 Dec 1935. He resumed duty with the Pioneer Battalion on 08 Feb 1936. On 22 May 1936 he was transferred to the Special Services Battalion once again. He was then appointed Officer Instructor, Infantry Weapons Branch of the SA Military College on 22 May 1936. He was promoted to Captain on 01 Dec 1937 and his engagement in the Permanent Force extended for a further period of three years on 01 Jun 1937. He was transferred to the SA Instructional Corps on 06 Sep 1937. He was then attached to the Pioneer Battalion in Bloemfontein and appointed officer commanding with the temporary higher rank of Major on 01 Oct 1937. Appointed Honorary Aide-de-Camp to his Excellency, the Governor-General whilst stationed in the Orange Free State Command. He relinquished the appointment of Officer Commanding, Pioneer battalion and the temp higher rank of Major on 03 Mar 1938. Posted to the SA Military College for duty as Officer Instructor, Infantry Weapons Branch of the SA Military College on 20 Mar 1938. He relinquishes the appointment as Honorary Aide-de-Camp to his Excellency, the GovernorGeneral on 20 Mar 1938. Permanently appointed in the Permanent Force with substantive rank of Captain on 27 Jul 1938 and with seniority from 02 Jun 1938. He was then appointed as acting Adjutant, SA Military College for the period 21 Oct to 09 Nov 1938. Promoted to temporary Major on 01 Dec 1939. Transferred to the SA Staff Corps on 14 Jul 1940. 15


On 11 Feb 1941, he was then appointed as the Officer Commanding, Training Centre for Armoured Troops in Ladysmith and granted the temporary rank of Lt Col whilst holding the appointment. On 05 Apr 1941, he was appointed Officer Commanding, 7th Armoured Reconnaissance Battalion in addition to his normal duties. He is promoted to the substantive rank of major on 01 Jun 1941. He then left the Union for duties in the Middle East on 09 Jun 1941 and returned on 03 Mar 1941. He was then appointed as the Officer Commanding, Training Centre for Armoured Troops at Kafferskraal on 09 Apr 1942. He then left the Union for duties in the Middle East on 18 Feb 1943 and returned back to the Union on 25 May 1943. He was then attached Training Centre for Armoured Troops on 28 may 1943. He then left the Union for duties in the Middle East on 28 Jun 1943 and appointed Second-inCommand of 12 SA Motorised Brigade (6 SA Armd Div) on 01 Jul 1943. Granted the temp higher rank of Colonel whilst serving as 2IC of 12 SA Mot Bde. Promoted to temp Colonel on 01 Oct 1943. Appointed as Officer Commanding, Reserve Group, 6 SA Armd Div on 28 Dec 1943. Appointed Reserve Staff Officer, 12 SA Mot Bde on 07 May 1944. Left the Middle East for service in Italy on 07 May 1944. Appointed as Acting Officer Commanding, 12 SA Mot Bde for the period02 Nov to 14 Dec 1944. Appointed as Officer Commanding, Reserve Group, 6 SA Armd Div on 15 Dec 1944. Returned to the Union on 04 Dec 1945. Appointed the Officer Commanding of the Youth Training Brigade on 28 Sep 1945. Appointed in the General Duties Branch, SA Army Permanent Force with the rank of Commandant and appointed Officer Commanding, Permanent Force Training Centre on 01 May 1946. Posted on course to the United Kingdom on 11 Jan 1947. Whilst on course he was appointed as Officer Commanding, 2 SSB on 07 Aug 1947 still attached to the UK Forces. Transferred to the SA Staff Corps in the rank of Commandant on 13 Dec 1947. Returned to the Union on 02 Jan 1948. Appointed as General Staff Officer Intelligence, SA Military College on 05 Jan 1948. He was granted the Temporary higher rank of Colonel on 30 Mar 1948 and appointed Acting Officer Commanding Eastern Province Command. On 28 Jun 1948 he was appointed the Acting Commandant of the SA Military College. 16


He was then appointed the Officer Commanding, Orange Free State Command on 29 Oct 1948 and on 09 Dec appointed the Officer Commanding. He was substantively promoted to Colonel on 01 Apr 1949. He then returned to the SA Military College as commander on 01 Jul 1950. Colonel Grobbelaar was appointed Officer Commanding Northern Transvaal Command in addition to his duties at the Military College on 23 Oct 1950 which lasted until 23 Dec 1950. He as then appointed Acting Adjutant general with the temporary rank of Brigadier on 12 Jan 1953 and then appointed Army Chief of Staff on 01 May 1953. He left for special duties overseas for the period 13 Aug to 04 Oct 1954. He was then promoted to the substantive rank of Major General on 01 Apr 1957. Maj General Grobbelaar was appointed Acting Commandant General, SA Defence Force for the period 25 Aug 59 to 22 Sep 59 with the temporary rank of Commandant general. He was appointed Deputy Commandant General, SA Defence Force on 01 Nov 1959. He then served as the Chairman, Planning Commission, SA Defence Force during Jan 1960. He was appointed as the Commandant General, SA Defence Force and promoted to the substantive rank of Commandant General on 31 Dec 1960 until retirement in 1965. He passed away on 22 June 1988. Decorations: SSA, DSO Medals: • • • • • • • • •

PF Good Service Medal and Clasp. Coronation Medal (1953). 1939/45 Star. Africa Star. Italy Star. Defence Medal (British). War Medal 1939/45. Africa Service Medal. Mentioned in Despatches.

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Foto onder se Berig

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VISIT OUR WEBSITE | BESOEK ONS WEBWERF

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Operation “K” Captured Weapons: Jim Hooper

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From top centre, Yugoslavian M60 anti-armour rifle grenade (“heatstrim”), tube containers for obsolete British 51mm (two-inch) mortar bombs donated by Kenya or Zimbabwe, battle-damaged M60, Soviet RGK anti-armour hand grenade, anti-personnel fragmentation rifle grenade (“pencilstrim”). The strim suffix came from the French arms manufacturer Societe Technique de Recherches Industrielles et Mecaniques which made the first rifle grenades bought by the SADF. Thereafter any rifle grenade, regardless of origin, was a "strim."

During that contact, the heatstrim was deflected by a branch and hit the wheel rim of Attie Hattingh’s car. Attie is holding the melted copper cone that focussed the shaped charge.

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Less than a minute after killing an insurgent Franshua du Toit holds the Soviet SKS assault rifle used to launch a heatstrim at Attie Hattingh’s Casspir

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The effect of an RPG-75 on a Casspir. The 40mm laminated glass window offered no resistance to the shaped charge, which mortally wounded Christie “Betoger� Fourie standing behind the turret.

Soviet T-57 anti-tank mines, 200g blocks of TNT and 75g charges for the POMZ antipersonnel stake mines. 24


Marius Brand and Jacobus “Apie� Andries prepare an RPG-7 for the author to fire. 25


Range demonstration to impress observers with the effect of a T57 mine on a bakkie.

Recovered from a cache: TMA-3 mine, 200 and 400g blocks of TNT, RPG-2 warhead, Chinese 82mm mortar rounds.

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Captain Roelf Maritz assembles a Soviet TMK-3 anti-tank mine. The metre-long tilt rod ignited a detonator cord that delayed the shape charge to allow the belly of an armoured vehicles to be over it before exploding.

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Captured Soviet RPD light machine gun. Using the same ammunition as the AK-47, it was carried by a few Koevoet members who liked the high rate of fire and 100-round drum magazine.

Below: Zulu Delta’s Dean Viljoen and NCOs sort through kit collected after contacts with Swapo insurgents. The man at left holds a Soviet SKS, the preferred weapon for launching rifle grenades.

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Soviet PKM machine gun and 100-round box magazine taken after a contact. It fired the same ammunition as the Soviet SKS assault rifle.

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Captain Chris Pieterse with Soviet Degtyaryov DP-27 light machine gun found in a cache. The weapon had long since been declared obsolete by the Red Army.

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Marius Brand examines a Czechoslovak Ĺ korpion 6.5mm machine pistol recovered from a cache. It was a low power, short range weapon illsuited to bush warfare. 31


Jim Hooper with Unita

Jim says: “My third trip with Unita. An unexpected Fapla reconnaissance in force – one infantry brigade with armour – was about 10 kilometres to the east. My protection force decided it was time to blacken up. They thought it hilarious!

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Other items of South African Police History 1992: Die referendum Hallo Hennie Kyk 'n bietjie onder wat ek so 'n paar jaar gelede geskryf het. Wat het die polisiemanne/offisiere gedink destyds, vra jy? Ek kan net vir die Kaapse ouens praat 'n plek waar daar tradisioneel partykeer anders gedink word, nie waar nie? My onthou van destyds was dat ons Kaapse-offisiere/lede redelik blazé was oor die komende oorgang - selfs die referendum. Selfs tydens 27 April 1994 en daarna. Ek ook. Een van daai groot kokkedore waarvan ek hieronder praat, was ook 'n Beukes (nie die een wie jy help met sy herinneringe nie). Hy het my daardie dag beïndruk as 'n uitstekende spreker. Dis min of meer al wat ek kan bydra tot jou vraag. Groete - Fanie

Die realiteite van wat aan die kom was destyds, het stadig maar seker begin deurskemer so na die aanloop van 1994.4 Op ‘n stadium het generaals uit Pretoria ons senior-offisiere in die Terry Terblancheontspanningsaal in Pinelands kom toespreek. Tydens hierdie toesprake het ek die gevoel gekry dat ons sielkundige bearbei moes word om die verandering van regering wat ongetwyfeld op pad was, te aanvaar. Vandag wonder ek hoeveel van hulle werklik uit die hart gepraat het? Een van hulle het, onder andere, verwys na die veranderinge van regering wat in daardie eeu in die SA plaas gevind het en dat die amptenary bloot net voort gegaan het met hulle werk. Selfs ék het dit geweet, maar dit was oorgange van een wit na ‘n ander wit regering. Hierdie keer was dit ‘n oorgang na ‘n swart regering - ‘n hengse verskil. Ek was dus nie veel gerus gestel nie. Daar was ‘n diep gevoel van ongemak hier binne-in my. Talle vrae maal deur jou kop - vrae waarop jy op daardie oomblik geen antwoorde op het nie. Jy kan dinge dink, maar die feit is jy kan nie die toekoms in sien nie. En juis oor hierdie onsekerhede het mense oraloor blikkies kos, beskuit, ammunisie en wat ook al voor die tyd begin opgaar. Wat het hulle gedink en wat het hulle verwag? Ek het begrip daarvoor gehad. Ons is van Afrika. Dit is nou 7 Mei 2014 – so 20 jaar plus enkele dae later - maar ek sal die aanbreek van 1994 en daardie dag se verkiesing nie maklik vergeet nie. Dit was lostsbepalend vir my, in die sin dat dit my loopbaan nie lank daarna nie tot ‘n einde gebring het so in my laat 40’s. Ek het al wat ek hieronder geskryf het (uit my geskrifte) al voorheen geplaas, maar miskien is dit vandag weer tyd om dit te herbesoek. Van julle hier sal dit moontlik onthou.

4

Die referendum was gehou op 17 Maart 1992

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Lede van die Vredeskomitees, monitors, oorsese polisie-offisiere, lede van NRO’s5 en andere het ook in die operasionele kamer van ABS by ons polisiehoofkantoor in Kaapstad gesit en luister na die situasieverslae (SITRAPS) wat kort-kort van oral in die Wes-Kaap oor die telefone, radio’s en faksmasjiene ingekom het. Hierdie waarnemers was bloot hier omdat niemand ons vertrou het nie. ‘n Duidelike gevoel van opgewondenheid het by almal geheers. Party van hierdie ouens het skootrekenaars by hulle gehad en energiek en vervaard sekere inligting oor die verloop van die dag se gebeure daarop ingetik. Ek het op ‘n stadium die operasionele kamer vir ‘n wyle verlaat en ‘n paar vinnige draaie in die townships gaan ry en hier en daar met enkele kiesers gepraat. Die mense het oral oor geduldig in baie lang toue gestaan vir ‘n geleentheid om hulle kruisies vir die eerste maal in hulle lewens te trek. En oral elders sien jy vir baas, miesies, kombuismeid, tuinjong, baba-oppaster, geletterdes, ongeletterdes, kapitaliste, kommuniste, die bourgeois (middelstand), die ploteriaat (werkers) -swart, wit, bruin en geel - in lang, kronkelende toue en al geselsende, hulle beurt afwag om daardie geskiedkundige kruise te maak. Waar daar nog die vorige dag onderlinge spanninge was, het ek die gevoel gekry dat daar ‘n algemene kalmte oor alles en almal gekom het. Die sielkundige impak wat die aanbreek van hierdie geskiedkundige dag op die mense gehad het, was eenvoudig ongelooflik. Dit was skielik asof die onmiddellike verlede heeltemal vergeet is en almal mekaar vergewe het. Die impak wat dit op almal gehad het, was nogtans interessant om te aanskou en te ervaar. Die lang rye kiesers wat rustig daar hulle beurt afgewag het terwyl hulle vriendelik met mekaar gesels het, was miskien inderdaad ‘n verbasende ding as ek dink aan die geweld wat ons nog kort vantevore moes hanteer. Ja, dis nou 20 jaar later. Nou kan ons terug kyk. En jy sal besluit om te gaan stem of nie te stem nie. Dit is jóú keuse. Dit sal gerespekteer word.

Die Afrikaner: Prof Hermann Giliomee Die redakteur van Die Afrikaner skryf in sy hoofartikel soos volg: Prof Hermann Giliomee, bekende skrywer en professor in politiek en politieke geskiedenis, vra in sy nuwe boek, The Rise and Demise of the Afrikaners, of mnr FW de Klerk die blanke kiesers van Suid-Afrika se toestemming gehad het om in 1994 die politieke mag aan die ANC te oorhandig. Prof Giliomee se vraag is betekenisvol. Die vraag aan die blanke kiesers in die referendum op 17 Maart 1992 het gelui: Ondersteun u die voortsetting van die hervormingsproses wat die Staatspresident op 2 Februarie 1990 begin het en wat op ‘n nuwe grondwet deur onderhandeling gemik is? Die ja-stem het slegs toestemming gegee om met onderhandelings met die ANC voort te gaan. Die onderhandelde grondwet moes volgens die bestaande Suid-Afrikaanse grondwet aan die kiesers

5

Nie-regerings organisasies – HBH.

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voorgelê word óf in ‘n landwye verkiesing óf in ‘n referendum. Volgens daardie grondwet kon slegs die blanke kiesers die besluit neem. Dit is nooit gedoen nie. De Klerk het nie die blanke kiesers se toestemming gehad nie en het die onderhandelde grondwet in 1994 ingestel wat op ‘n swart meerderheidsregering uitgeloop het. Daardeur is die politieke mag aan die kommunistiese ANC weggegee. Tydens die debat in die Parlement, volgens Hansard van 24 Januarie 1992 kolom 37, het De Klerk beloof: “...wesenlike wysigings aan die Grondwet van die RSA sal deur óf ‘n referendum óf ‘n verkiesing voorafgegaan word. En verder: “Die regering staan steeds hierby. Ons is in eer gebonde om ‘n referendum te hou wat die kieserskorps... die geleentheid sal bied om hulle uit te spreek oor enige wesenlike voorgestelde wysiging aan die Grondwet.” “Eers na so ‘n referendum, en indien die uitslag positief is, sal implementering volg.” (Kolom 38) Wyle mnr Jaap Marais en ‘n afvaardiging van verteenwoordigers van verskillende Afrikaans Nasionale organisasies het op 26 Junie 1990 reeds met mnr De Klerk in sy kantoor in die Uniegebou ‘n gesprek gehad oor sy pad na die Nuwe Suid-Afrika. Prof Giliomee is reg: FW de Klerk het willens en wetens die Grondwet van Suid-Afrika oortree.

Bevestiging: Prof Giliomee Nongqai het prof. Herman Giliomee vir kommentaar genader. In belang van ons staatkundige- en nasionale veiligheidsgeskiedenis haal ons die professor aan: Beste Hennie. Ja, hierdie was ‘n teer puntjie by De Klerk. Ek het dit ‘n slag met hom opgeneem en sy antwoord was nie baie oortuigend nie. Groete Hermann

Kwelvrae Ek het met ‘n baie senior persoon in die inligtings- en veiligheidsmilieu gesels. Hy het die volgende kwelvrae geopper: 1. Die geskiedenis van Afrika het bo alle twyfel bewys dat ‘n demokratiese staatsbestel gebaseer op Westerse beginsels nie kan slaag nie soos dit tans baie duidelik in Suid-Afrika blyk. Was NI bewus daarvan en het hulle mnr. De Klerk en die lede van sy kabinet daarteen gewaarsku? 2. Dit word allerweë aanvaar dat indien mnr. De Klerk die staatsveiligheidsraad by sy beplanning betrek het verskeie van die gebreke in die grondwet moontlik voorkom kon word. Is NI oor die moontlikheid dat die staatsveiligheidsraad deel van die beplanning moet wees, geraadpleeg? Indien nie, het NI nie dit self oorweeg nie?

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Nr. 17209 (V) Konst. JJ Huysamen: Huweliksvergunning

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Die ampsbrief was op my persoonlik facebook-blad opgelaai en het natuurlik weer vir ons gewys hoe klein die wêreld in werklikheid is:

Grey Greyling Dit is die persoon wat my gewerf en aangesluit het te Springs op 15 Jan 1963

Hennie Heymans Watter een op die vorm?

Grey Greyling JJ Huysamen No 17209, ek het ook saam met hom in sy kantoor kamer 11 te Springs gewerk. Hy was vir baie jare die SB-klerk.

Deon Huysamen Kyk hoe klein is die wêreld. Hy was algemeen bekend as “Huysie” of “oom Huysie”. Het lank saam met Oosie gewerk in kamer 11. Ek is ook op Springs deur sers. Geldenhuys ingesweer in 1963. Ek was na my opleiding “Klein Huysie”6 genoem as ek daar by die kantien gaan kuier het.

Grey Greyling Hy was vir baie jare die kantienman. Ek ken vir Geldenhuys ook die perde man wat toe by tattersalls gaan werk het. Oorlede sers. Potgieter - “Lang Pottie”- was ons kontak daar om in te gaan as jy nie ‘n lid was nie. Is jou broer, Jannie, nog in Pretoria? Hy het my oorlede seun se GO vir my behartig. Oosie leef ook nog, ek dink hy is die enigste van daai tyd - Nongqai Junie 1955 Medalje vir troue diens 17209. 2/sers JJ Huysamen 43 WWR.

6

Jy kan bly wees dat jou naam by “Klein Huysie” gebly het – HBH.

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Zarp’e

Die Zarp’e was ook orals. Sien geel pyl.

Patrolliewa uit vergange se dae

Uit vergange se dae – toe was die SA polisie soms nog ongewapen. 38


Plofstofeenheid: Philip Malherbe

Links die plofstofeenheid se metaalkenteken wat op uniform vertoon word. Regs die plofstofeenheid se sakwapen vir sportbaadjie

Contemporary police history | Eietydse polisiegeskiedenis Sometimes the best police history7 is found in unpretentious language and written straight from the heart. In 50 years’ time one will still be able to evaluate the true feelings of this fine officer – a victim of his time! An excellent officer who had the wrong colour at the wrong time. His peers judge him and find that he could have been a fine police general! (See their comments.) Through the ages man - or let’s say the ordinary little man is always the victim of some politician’s policy.

• You be the Judge: Lt.Col. Danie J Putter

Danie J Putter 28 Feb. 2019 om 20:15 · Today 4 years ago, I left the SAPS after serving for 39 years and 2 months after joining on 197601-07. At the time it was a very emotional and difficult decision to take as I dedicated my whole life to my career choice to 'Protect and Serve'. Looking back at my career it is easy to identify the highs 7

Personally I regard Contemporary Police History in South Africa to be post-1994 – HBH.

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and lows. My promotion to Officer in 1987 was definitely a very proud moment in my career. After being promoted to Lt. Col. in 1995 I had high aspirations of progressing to the rank of a senior officer in future. This dream, however, did not materialize and played a huge part in my decision to resign on 2015-02-28 still holding the rank of Lt.Col., albeit ,20 years later since my last promotion, with a clean disciplinary record. Today, looking back, I would have made the same decision to become a policeman. Nobody said it would be easy but taking everything into consideration I am proud of what I have accomplished. During my career I met and made friends with some amazing people. During the past 4 years I had the opportunity to spend valuable time with my family. Although the past year was very challenging due to health problems, I recovered thanks to higher intervention. 'Praise the Lord '. To each and every one who crossed my path during my career and afterwards, a big thank you. Your contribution to my life was immense and indescribable. God bless you all. I wish you all only the best for the future. • 109 Jy, Elizabeth De Wet, Frans Bedford-Visser en 106 ander. + 39 Opmerkings Steven Payze Awesome words Danie!!!! Stuart Clark You were an officer who led by example and we knew exactly what had to be done and what was expected of us. A true officer and a gentleman. Proud to have worked with you. Saluteđ&#x;‘Žâ€?♂ď¸? Desmond Ralph Panayan Thank you. You served with dedication was proud to have served under you. Learnt many valuable lessons during your watch. God bless you sir. Albert Woolls Danie, ek en Christa kyk met respek na jou, ons onthou beide dat jy die slimste kind in die klas wees. Ons gebede is met jou en sterkte vir jou en jou familie, ons dink aan julle............ Stephen Berrisford saluut to you, meneer. Tup Ormy What amazing and moving words Danie. I am honoured and proud to have served under your command. đ&#x;‘Žâ€?♀ď¸? đ&#x;‘Žâ€?♀ď¸?đ&#x;‘Žâ€?♀ď¸? Winnie also told me that you were the best Station Commander he ever worked under as a 2IC at Umbilo. Enjoy your well deserved retirement with your family and I will look forward to catching up with you one day Sir. đ&#x;‘Žâ€?♀ď¸?đ&#x;‘Žâ€?♀ď¸?đ&#x;‘Žâ€?♀ď¸? Paul Hood Congratulations on your outstanding police career. It is truly something to be very proud of. I have to say sir, that SAP Umbilo made me the man that I am today. You had a very big part to play in that. You led by example, you were strict but fair.‌ Gerhard Veldman Vasbyter par excellence! Derek Vijiam Danie remember ur youngers days as a non-commissioned officer u were a super human being Aubrey Mc Farland A true officer and gentleman Andrew Martin Lovely words Danie. Leon Uys Very true. Robert Pegram Sterkte daar, en geniet die tyd saam met familie. Stuart Dubber Salute Danie. Big respect. Onwards and upwards Colin Truter What a privilege and honour to have served under your command. Would do it all over again. Enjoy the special moments with your family Denise Mostert Ek salueer jou Daniel. Iets om oor te kan spog.đ&#x;‘Žâ€?♂ď¸?đ&#x;™?đ&#x;•´ď¸?đ&#x;Œš Sagren Narasimulu Wise words take care enjoy every moment with your family God bless you Naidoo Kassy Amen. Through our journey some have made it some didn't and thank God for the dedication, loyalty and love you gave to SAPS. Now is the time for your own time. A quality life you owe to yourself. Enjoy this journey because you deserve it. Love, light and peace to you and your family Colonel. God bless. Craig Hardman An Officer and gentleman who could have been a General if not for the ANC government and their discrimination against white Afrikaner policeman. Salute my friend. One of a kind Alec Lester Salute! I echo your sentiments, as I did the same thing albeit a month before I was due to retire. Greg Boucher When only the best will do, take care Dan Vasie Naidu I am proud to be your Police Buddy. You were an outstanding Police Officer. NOW put all that Time, Energy, loyalty and Pride into Yourself and the Family. Take care my Friend. đ&#x;¤— 40


Draveena Parasram Santha Moodley You served well and earned your right to enjoy your life with your loved ones.... God blessđ&#x;™? Lynton Debra You most definitely should have progressed to a more senior rank however we all experienced political bumps during our time and have tried to make positive decisions to keep moving forward. Congratulations on a proud career and thanks for the memories they were fun times along with some disappointments and sadness but we handled them as best we could. Here’s to health and happiness in the future đ&#x;Ľ‚ Sivan Chetty But you were a good officer and a gentleman Rona Bleakley Not only did you save my career (the whole hydrant thing lol - we can joke about it now) but you were instrumental in the officer I became - doing things the right way, dedicated and commitment - I thank you for that. You deserve the happiness - a true inspiration (although I didn’t always realise it at the time) Leon Beneke Jy het jou tyd gedien met lof ,eer en trots. Loop ons almal nie maar dieselfde ou paadjie nie. Geniet jou welverdiende aftrede my vriend . SALUTE!!! Andre Moller Salute you.... God bless. Ursula Bruwer Jonker You were definitely instrumental in many of our lives and decisions we made, a true leader for sure, so glad you were part of my journey during the good and bad times. Saroj Govender All the best Col. U did your best under the circumstances. Enjoy your retirement. God bless. Hennie Heymans Danie - ek wil hierdie stukkie in Nongqai aanhaal - mag ek asb plaas? Danie J Putter Hennie Heymans Met die grootste plesier, Brig. Groete. Danie Putter se loopbaan • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Op 1976-01-07 Student Boksburg. 76-07-07 SAP Kollege Opleiding. 76-12-01 Parkview. 78-02 Hillbrow. 79-07 Malvern, Durban. 1982 bevorder Sers. 1984-08 Grensdiens, Krokodildrift. 1985 Kwa-Dabeka. 1986 bevorder A/O. 1987-04 Offisierskurses. Luit. 1987-07 SB Hillcrest. 1987-09 SB Umbilo. 1989-08 Grensdiens- Basisbevelvoerder, Stafford. 1991-09 SB Durban-Noord. Bevorder Kaptein . 1993-04-01 bevorder Majoor. 1995-04-01 bevorder lt. kol. 1996-03 Sydenham, 2IB. 1997-05 SB Umbilo. 1999-09 Area Durban, Stafoffisier. 2000-04 Area Durban Finansies. 2007-09 Cato Manor, Ondersteunings ( Support )Hoof. 2 008-08 Brighton Beach Finansieele Hoof. 2008-11 Cato Manor, Ondersteuningshoof. 2009-09 Ondersteuningshoof, Athlone, Wes Kaap en 2015-02-29 ontslag.

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Four stages of a Police Officer: Lt.Col. Danie Putter

I suppose you could describe South Africa as "the rapists' democracy". Not only are we the rape capital of the world, but those in authority pillage (rape) all our resources. (Lackadaisical Dan) 42


1914: Durban Borough Police Men marching off to war in Durban. The DBP were also there was a crowd; there were police.

West Street, ubiquitous. If

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‘n King’s Rest-steak: Hennie Heymans Facebook vra ewe ongepoets waaraan dink ek? Ek het vandag 'n King's Rest-steak probeer braai. Lank gelede was ek op 'n polisiestasie genaamd King's Rest gestasioneer. Eers het ek gedink ou Oom Dick King het daar "gerus" nadat hy in 1842 oor die baai met sy perd aangekom het, op pad na Grahamstad om die Britte te kom vra om te help met die Boerebeleg by Congella ens. Later vind ek uit luitenant James Saunders King van die Royal Navy is daar naby begrawe. Maar laat dit wees soos dit wil, King's Rest het baie geskiedenis. As kind het ek baie rondom die polisiestasie daar gespeel as my ouers vir sers. en mev. GGK “Boet” Schmidt (later brigadier) gaan kuier het. Ek het die stasie se stasie-geskiedenis in die SAP-argief nagegaan. King's Rest was vir my 'n idilliese plek en stasie uit die dae van die Natal Police en verskeie opvolgende polisiemagte soos die SABS, die SAP en toe neem die SA Vlootpolisie die stasie oor toe SAP Brighton Beach oopmaak en SAP King’s Rest sluit. Op my aandrang nogal (agteraf gekonkel met brig. SJP du Toit - SK se kantoor in Natal) nadat die vloot onttrek het, om King’s Rest weer terug na die SAP en SAPS te bring en te bewaar. (Tydens onlangse besoek het die plek maar beroerd gelyk!) Soggens op oggendskof moes ons baie rondry - die manne by die kaserne gaan oplaai, ander weer gaan aflaai, prisoniers hof toe neem in Durban en dan die bandietwag by die Durban se tronk met sy spannetjie bandiete daar gaan oplaai. (Wonder of die Durban se tronk nog bestaan? So aan die see se kant van die ou Durban se spoorwegstasie. Ons het ons bevorderingseksamens in die Victor Verster-saal by die gevangenis afgelê. Drie eksamens en baie sweet!) Nou voor konstabel Nyawo inklim, met sy assegaai en bandiete, dan vra hy my om by "Bluff Butchery" stil te hou. Kom ek daar, dan hou ek stil en gee vir hom ook my 20c of 25c. Dan koop hy goedkoop vleis.8 By die stasie aangekom word een bandiet gou "ingesweer as tydelike polisieman" om die patrolliewa te was. Die ou patrolliewa het elke week sy versiening moes kry by Wentworth motorhawe. Die wa se nommer was SAP 10881 - 'n bruin Studebaker Champion!9 (Ek het soms dubbelskof gewerk, as daar nie bestuurder was nie – dit was 'n lekker voertuig om te bestuur!) Die ander bandiete maak die kantore, die "kamp" (ons het in die "ou dae" polisieperde daar gehad) en die omgewing skoon. Om 12:00 skryf die SB in Engels in die VB: “Kampinspeksie: Kampinspeksie deur No 22504T AO W Marais. Kamp en omgewing skoon, asook geboue en selle. Geteken W Marais en die lang storie van sy nommer en rang”. Intussen maak konstabel Nyawo 'n vuur onder die skaduryke groot bome in die kamp se agterplaas. Die bandiete het kaboemielies as rantsoen gekry. Dit word verhit. Intussen woon ek klagtes by en besoek die manne op "beats". Dan braai konstabel Nyawo ons die "goedkoop" beesvleis. As ek dan by die stasie aankom is my vleisie gaar. So op die bruinpapier van die slaghuis - word ek bedien. Die vleis is op die Zulu-manier so in die vlamme geskroei - cheesa inyama - as garnering is growwe sout wat liggies oor die vleis en sy bloedsappe gesprinkel is! Die vleis word met sy O'kapimes in repe gesny. Ek wonder nou hoeveel mense is met die mes gesteek, waarmee die vleis gesny is? Nou gril ek! Nog nooit weer so lekker gebraaide vleis geëet nie. Ek het al chuck, dikrib, kortrib en brisket gebraai. Niks so lekker soos 'n King's Rest-steak nie. (Ek het al voorheen chuck gekoop en beide kante met vurk gekrap en dan sout, peper en Louisiana Cajun- speserye besmeer en dan ingesmeer met olyfolie en dan weer omgedraai en die anderkant gedoen MAAR dit smaak nog glad nie soos konstabel Nyawo se vleis nie. Soms het die Zulu-konstabels gevra ek moet vir hulle walvisvleis by die walvisstasie gaan haal. (Ek dink 5 Recce's het nou die plek) - maar die voorbereiding van walvisvleis is 'n storie vir 'n ander dag!

Destyds bekend as ‘boy’s meat”; ek weet nie wat dit vandag genoem word nie – HBH. Ons die het die patrolliewa 2de-hands van die kwartiermeester ontvang. Die patrolliewa het eers iewers in die land eers sprinkane bestry – dit was in die logboek! – HBH. 8 9

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Hoe mis ek die idilliese dae - ek was lank wyksersant by King's Rest: Die lewe was mooi, ongekompliseerd en vol opwinding - dit was voor die dae van grensdiens! Ons het net onlustedril eenkeer per maand gedoen en so nou en dan gaan dagga uitroei met die Mobiele-eenheid. So nou en dan het ons van faksiegevegte gehoor. Later het dae gekom waarin ons polisiemanne nie veel behae ingehad het nie! 38David Blyth, Pieter Hansen en 36 ander - 34 Opmerkings Die reaksie is ook interessant:

Gertina van der Merwe Wat ‘n lekker vertelling. Ek kry sommer ook ‘n vleislus en ruik daardie vleisie!

Fanie Bouwer Dis nou sommer 'n heeeerlike storie en terugblik!!

Bob Timms Wow Wow Wow such wonderful history Sir.

Hennie Heymans Does the old jail still exist or did it move to Westville?

Bob Timms Westville Sir.

Danie Marais Wow Hennie, wat 'n besonder interessante storie uit die verlede soos ek as landdrosseun kan onthou!

Hennie Heymans Dankie Danie - en dankie vir jou stories wat ek vir die nageslag in die Nongqai publiseer! 45


Herman Sadie Ja Hennie, die stasie was op ʼn mooi plekkie weg gesteek. Ek ruik ook sommer nou die ‘cheesa injama’. Ek gaan sommer nou braai in die Engelse winter đ&#x;˜‚

Robert van Onselen Dankie brig. Hennie vir die vertelling en geskiedenis. Ek vertel graag die geskiedenis van Mara Polisiestasie soos oorvertel aan my en kan u heelwaarskynlik die egtheid daarvan bevestig met tyd. In die jare van die ZAR met Paul Kruger as President het hy dikwels gaan jag en is die afsny van sy duim tydens so ʼn jagtog deel van die geskiedenis. Paul Kruger het egter dikwels gaan jag met ene Coenraad Buys ʼn groot fors man met blou, blou oÍ en blykbaar ook ʼn baie goeie skut en jagter.‌

Hennie Heymans Ek is aangetroude familie van Coenraad (de) Buys. Die eerste Heymans in SA is met sy broer se dogter getroud. Coenraad was lank met rooi hare hy het sowat 40 bywywe gehad oorkant die Visrivier. Buyskop is by Warmbad en Buysdorp is in verre N Tvl. Dankie. Jou neef die prof. het my gekontak en ons het behalwe die geskiedenis ook julle familie uitgelĂŞ. Sy vader was genl. Viktor se dosent op speurderkursus. Vertel my die storie van Mara!

Boet Meintjes Dankie vir die mooi storie so uit die verlede Oom Hennie. Ek stem heelhartig met oom saam, ek het ook al probeer vleis braai soos ons swartmense maar kry dit nie reg nie, hulle vleis en pap het net hulle unieke smaak.

Robert van Onselen Coenraad het ook iewers te Pretoria omgewing gewoon en ongelukkig op ‘n stadium vir hom ‘n swart meisie as bykomende vrou geneem - nie juis is lyn met die Afrikaner van daardie dae se gewoonte nie - nogtans die meisie was die dogter van ene Tshwane en Coenraad 46


het hom glo ingedoen met die lobola en met sy volgelinge en vee vlug vanaf Pretoria met Hoofman Tshwane en sy impi’s agterna. Naby Warmbad onderweg na Nylstroom is Coenraad en sy gevolg ingehaal en het ʼn kop nou genaamd Buyskop bestyg met sy mense. Die kop kon net van een rigting bereik word en Tshwane en sy impi’s was bewus dat Coenraad vuurwapens gehad het en hul sou afmaai sou hul waag om die kop uit te beweeg. Met nagval het Coenraad verkenners na die vure van die impi’s gestuur om te gaan luister wat Tshwane se planne was. Hul het gehoor dat die wapens sou verhoed dat hul die kop bestyg en Coenraad aanval en egter besluit om hulle bo op die kop uit te dors. Terug met die inligting het Coenraad sy mense aangesê om die water van al die diere en mense in velle en houer deur die nag op te vang en dit toe met sonsopkoms oor die kranse afgegooi ten aanskoue van Tshwane en sy impi’s. Net daar het Tshwane die aftog geblaas en teruggekeer na die Pretoria-area en Coenraad het verder noordwaarts getrek na die Schoemansdal omgewing buite Louis Trichardt - ʼn klein Boere nedersetting. Paul Kruger het egter vir Coenraad laat weet dat hy vanweë sy veelwywery nie welkom in die gemeenskap is nie en as waardering vir sy saamjag Paul hom ʼn stuk grond sou gee ongeveer 16 kilometers vanaf Vivo teen die Soutpansberg. Hierdie grond het bekend gestaan as Buysplaas en sou voortaan deur Coenraad en sy geselskap bewoon word. Weens ondertrouery het die Buys gemeenskap uiteindelik ’n groep Kleurlinge tot stand gebring wat vandag nog gemeenskaplik die plaas Buysdorp en Buysplaas benut. Paul Kruger het voorts vir Coenraad belowe dat hy ‘n polisiestasie te Buysdorp sal vestig om na sy mense om te sien. Ek sou latere jare as stasiebevelvoerder te Mara dien en het saam met die landdros van Louis Trichardt plaaslike regulasies soos deur die Buyskomitee goedgekeur tydens wetgewende sittings bekragtig vir nakoming.

Hennie Heymans Dis so interessant! Ek wag vir 'n lekker storie!

Craig Williamson Hennie - you really should write a memoire. Fascinating history.

David Holmes You can and must!

Jan Jordaan Dankie vir so bietjie van waar ek groot geword het, het baie dae daar rond gehang as seuntjie mango’s ens. daar gepluk was seker waar my respek en belang in die polisie begin het.

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Marcia Mcclintock Pragtig.

Petro Gunter Engelbrecht Ek wag ook vir die volgende storie.

David Holmes Beautifully written and mostly understood (met my swak Afrikaans) but it is true Hennie. You will recall that somewhat out of date expression, "Boy's Meat" - well in fact when such meat was cooked in the way you described, it was far nicer than the way we used to cook. Yes, chuck, brisket, scotch fillet, thick flank, thin flank all such wonderful cuts! - What were we thinking?

Piet Van Zyl Ai mooi herinneringe van so lank gelede. Die vleis en prisonier pap was altyd ‘n wenner. Walk Tall!

Nico Visser Ja ver innie verlede !

Errol Massey-Hicks Mooi storie Hennie! Ons wag vir nog! 48


Gavin Tischendorf That is a great bit of history, it is the ‘smaller’ stories that actually tell us about life and gives something special to history. Kan ek dit deel sometime?

Hennie Heymans You may.

Esther Stieger Dit was die 'goeie ou dae'. Daardie dae het polisiestasies nog geblink en was skoner as nou. Dis jammer dat bandiete nie steeds gebruik word om die plekke netjies te hou nie. Ek het hierdie storie nou baie geniet! Skryf die polisie nog bevordering-eksamens?

Hennie Heymans Ongelukkig nie! Ons moes drie eksamens skryf - ek het beide polisie en universiteitskwalifikasies - sal enige tyd varsity eksamen skryf en nie SAP-eksamen nie - jy moes alles uit die kop leer en maand of twee verlof neem om voor te berei. Ek sal nooit die leerstuk mens rea vergeet nie!

Esther Stieger ek onthou ook nog goed hoe hard my pa vir sy bevordering-eksamens geleer het. Dis regtig jammer daardie hoë standaarde word nie meer deesdae handhaaf nie. Toe ek 2 jaar gelede 'n inbraaksaak moes aanhangig by 'n polisiestasie was ek geskok oor die swak diens en vuil toestand van die polisie se gebou.

Blacky Swart Piet Burger was ook by Kings Rest gestasioneer toe ek by Durban-sentraal, Smithstaat was nou woon Piet in Warmbad en ek in Nylstroom ons het ook saam rugby gespeel vir Durban Polisie. 49


Hennie Heymans Ek onthou Piet Burger baie goed - ons het hom net voor sy troue "gearresteer" .... Het hom ontmoet in Warmbad!

Tubby Ueckermann Ek het ook altyd op die plaas my verlustig aan hoe lekker die swart werkers kon eet, met smaak en met die lippe wat so elke nou en dan klap van die lekkerte. Pragtig storie Brig.

Will Roberts Sjoe Brig. dis lekker en seer!

Koot Swanepoel Ja Hennie Heymans dit was die goeie ou dae. As jou blougat polisieman het 'n oud-konstabel, oom Dicks, my altyd vertel van sy "goeie ou dae" dan het ek as jongman altyd gewonder...s al ek ook eendag kan praat van die "goeie ou dae". Ja vandag kan ons of het ons die voorreg om die goeie ou dae in herinnering te roep.

Marietjie van Dyk Baie interessant!

PW van Zyl Julle klomp 'legends' maak my sommer nostalgies!

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Fanie Bouwer wat hy onthou.

Wat my “tiekel� oor Hennie se storie - dis 50+ jare gelede - is die fynere detail

Hendrik Dewet Oosthuizen Fanie: Was laas week in Durban! Nee die tronk bestaan nie meer nie! Daar is nou ‘n soortgelyke ontwikkeling as die Waterfront in die Kaap! Die Durbanse Onluste Eenheid was ook later daar gehuisves! Nou is hy gelyk gemaak met die grond!

Hennie Groenewald Het dit as kind en later saam as polisieman met my Pa, AO Groenewald op Langa geĂŤet. Mnandi! mbengu.đ&#x;˜

Willem D A Basson Mmja, deesdae is dit kayamandi njama, lekker in bruin papier, bees of vark die lekkerder een, tussen twee droĂŤ snye wit of bruinbrood, swart en soet koffie is ‘n moet

Tero Nepgen Fanie ek dink brig. Hennie het baie staaltjies om te vertel. Het hy nog nie boek oor sy lewe as POLISIEMAN geskryf nie. Dan moet hy meer van sy wedervaringe vir ons vertel. Jy weet ek ken jou van jou skooldae af toe ek op Ugie was daarom vra ek jou om hom so bietjie arm te draai.

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Fanie Bouwer Tero Nepgen genade, jy ken my langer as enige ou hier. Net dankbaar jy het ons nie opgesluit daar in die 60's nie

PW van Zyl Ons het baie gemeenskaplike vriende Tero en Fanie!

Tero Nepgen Fanie, nee ek weet, ek was van Des 66 tot Junie 70 en weer van Jan 75 tot Jan 80. Nee wat nie maklik toegesluit nie maar die groot seuns was maar onmoontlik ook vra vir Henry Gray. Hy was onmoontlik stout maar nooit lelike goed aangevang nie.

Frik Bruwer Ek het heelwat vriende gehad wat te Kings Rest gestasioneer was en daai einste Bluff Butchery het nou al so uitgebrei dat daar 24 al om en in Durban is goeie gehalte vleis teen billike pryse. Biltong en droĂŤ wors normaalweg R169@Kg maar as Bokke of Sharks speel is dit teen R120 beskikbaar!!!

George Dreyer Ek het so om en by 2004 'n konferensie by Port Edward bygewoon. Ons het in die Natalse-middellande gestop (kan nie presies onthou waar nie) maar die beesvleis was vir my oor die algemeen smaakliker as waaraan ek gewoond was. Weet nie of dit in die jare was toe die Blou Bulle so baie op hulle m@â‚Źr gekry het nie.

Natal University (Durban): HBH As a young policeman I enrolled at the University of Natal (Durban) and to me it was a great adventure. A real little Boerseun doing everything in English. Did my English improve! (Some words I wrote down phonetically and then later sorted it out!) Many traditions amazed me. As a policeman I was proud when I obtained my degree. It was such an illustrious place - Howard College and Memorial Tower Building (go into the history of these buildings!) - we were a good mixture of left, right and centre regarding political views - there was tolerance for all views and there was a great British tradition - some lecturers were in their gowns when delivering lectures. (It was like Oxford or Cambridge.)

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My English-speaking cousin, lived in a student residence, she said they wore their undergraduate gowns at dinner. I was proud to join the alumni of UND. There were quite a few illustrious academicians - there were also ultra-left-wing lecturers and NUSAS-members had a few scraps with the SAP during protest meetings. The score was sometimes settled on the rugby field University vs Police. One day the students were protesting in front of Saamboubuilding - the Port Natal SAP HQ. They were shouting at jeering. A red municipal bus came by and the driver taking a bunch of about six bananas said: "Hey, you monkeys - have banana!" Life was not so serious however students do play an important role in society from welfare (the annual rag) to student politics they even invited Robert Kennedy to address them. Steve Biko was a well-known figure on the campus. The point of all this is: UND is no more! The old traditions are gone! Education is far more than obtaining a degree! The university without its time-honoured traditions do no longer exist! Students are destroying their student residences and even throwing mattresses and fridges from their windows! What kind of education did they receive? What kind of student traditions do they follow? What is their legacy? I may mention that all this upset me - I grew to love my old university that internationally made its mark! (It no longer offers Afrikaans-Nederlands! It was regarded as one of the best Afrikaans faculties in South Africa headed by prof P du P Grobler!) Comments by friends and colleagues

Danie J Putter Sad but very true. Most if not all of our tertiary institutions are going this way.

Mickey Friedenthal Only country that has students trying to get an education and then burn the place down, IQ - something unknown,

John Elsegood Destroying, removing Afrikaner monuments and the denigration of the Afrikaans language has been a feature of the ANC in their 25 years of corrupt, racist maladministration. 53


Danie Marais Both Tukkies and UPE (University of Port Elizabeth) where I studied cannot be compared to the majestic varsities they were in the 1960's!

Craig Stuart Brown Ja, Brig Hennie, so sad when I see what they've done to the Old Regiments, refuse to wear the uniforms dropped all our 100-year-old traditions so sadđ&#x;˜˘đ&#x;˜˘đ&#x;˜˘

Hennie Heymans RSM - I agree!

Hennie Heymans My friend, Oom Fred Geldenhuis, was RSM of PAG - I see you also left some tracks there!

PW van Zyl Ja, Craig...the likes of you guys, Oom Hennie, your dad and you are legends, getting fewer by the day!

Craig Stuart Brown Hell he was a Legend đ&#x;’‚đ&#x;‘?

Hennie Heymans Had a MM, mention in despatches, Italy Star and MMM

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Craig Stuart Brown Hennie Heymans my Uncle Andre who was with the Police Brigade captured at Tobruk told me a few good war stories but can't share due to language haha he told me that after the war he was told to take his war medals off which he refused a policeman all his life. Salute!

Craig Stuart Brown Hennie Heymans not sure what happened there I have a photo of him with his MM đ&#x;’Şđ&#x;’‚đ&#x;‘?

David Wilson A sad comment on the 'Institutions of Learning' in the once civilized world. Successive Liberal Governments in Canada have attracted, promoted and entrenched their ideology in these great institutions. The new Conservative Government in Ontario finds itself confronted with endless protests following introduction of any legislation. Legislation that the voters approve of. One wonders what time these protestors find for their studies or who funds their 'dial a protest' responses. A happy mix of socialism and anarchy seems to be their aim. A great number of them have heritage in failed states so maybe it follows that they yearn for it here.

Marius Prinsloo Klink baie soos my jong polisiedae in Kaapstad. Daar was gewoonlik net 'n polisie eerste en tweedespan. Maar as ons hoor daar word oor 'n naweek of twee teen UCT gespeel dan daag daar genoeg manne by die oefeninge in die week op om 5 spanne in te skryf.

Rodney Warwick Marius Prinsloo I was at UCT in the 1980s and a big rugby fan. Most if not all of the UCT rugby club guys were not involved in campus politics at all. And if I remember correctly, the police team with the Etzebeth’s and that great flyhalf at one stage. Vlok (?) sometimes lost with big scores put up against them by UCT, particularly in the under 20s. The UCT rugby club of those days was generally pretty strong. Stellenbosch were our tough opponents not Police.

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Marius Prinsloo Rodney Warwick I also remember losing most games but winning the fights, so to speak.

Landman Reid Rentia Ons het emigreer sonder om uit die land te beweeg.

Hennie Heymans Baie wyse woorde!

Aubrey Rautenbach A very Sad state of Affairs today .đ&#x;˜Ą

Rodney Warwick My father graduated at U of N Durban in 1955. It was there he met my Mom. He told me there were still plenty of ex-WW2 veterans amongst the students who already had their tough life experiences and could be pretty rough with kids just out of school who were too big for their boots. That aside it was once a really good university. Unfortunately, the UZN took their "transformation" well beyond the point of self-destruction...the best of Natal youngsters from their best schools have long given it a miss and headed for Stellenbosch and UCT. Africanisation of institutions is the road to corruption and the rubbish bin. Particularly educational institutions.

Hennie Heymans Dr EG Malherbe was the Rector at UND - he was a top DMI-man for Gen. Smuts during WW2. Did you know that Rodney Warwick?

Rodney Warwick Hi Hennie....yes indeed, I think he was Rector in my Dad's time. He was a brilliant academic and not surprising that Smuts took him up into military intelligence. The University of Natal, as you say had some great staff...one also gets a feel of this when reading Alan Paton's autobiographies. And also, some brilliant alumni. 56


Paul Du Preez Howard College was one of the points we had to check every night when I worked at Mayville SAP. Would often take a break and have something to eat on the steps or in the parking lot. Ridge Road was our boundary with Berea SAP - and the white line was the boundary. Two different radio channels for one road Berea ch3 and Mayville back to Sydenham, Pinetown etc ch4. If you did not have both radios on you could miss the action and drive right past a crime in progress on Ridge Road without even knowing. Wonder who came up with that boundary idea.

Nico Carl Lamprecht The Howard College is in its glory, though no mention of City Buildings in Warwick Avenue, behind the Alhambra cinema, the university's campus for working students, many of whom attended the part evening classes as their parents could not afford full time university fees.10

Police Stories | Polisiestories: Lt.Col. Danie Putter • My first day at work. My first day at work was 1976-01-07. No. W68740K Student Constable. Arrived at Boksburg SAP on my bicycle from Witfield approx. 10km's away. After meeting the Station Commander, Lt.Col. Schoeman, I was placed on a shift with W/O van Greunen. My first task was to go and hoist the flag with the flagpole just outside the charge office window. Next to the flagpole was the night curfew clock. My instructions were to hoist the flag and then to ring the bell 3 times. In the interim all the administration staff as well as the staff at Boksburg Radio, next to the police station, were alerted to watch this rookie making an arse of himself. Everyone had a big laugh and so my journey with this, then, proud and respected organization started. My bicycle became a useful exhibit for the Crime Prevention unit to 'invite ' criminals to ply their trade in the CBD. An eventful 6 months to start my career, also coinciding with the start of the Soweto Uprising on 16 June 1976, resulting in working 12 hour shifts and preparing me for what to expect during my journey in SAPS.

• Eerste arrestasie Wie van julle kan julle eerste arrestasie onthou? Myne was op Parkview toe ek met my eerste aand op voetpatrollie in Desember 1976, op die h/v Jan Smuts Rylaan en Dundalkweg, Parkview oorkant die Johannesburgse dieretuin, in stortreën, ʼn swartman met ʼn goiing sak oor sy skouer opgemerk het. Ek en konst. Raphiri het hom nader geroep omdat hy redelik met die sak gesukkel het. By navrae het hy verduidelik dat daar ʼn hoender in die sak was. Raphiri het in die sak geloer en dadelik vir my gesê: 'Hierie is nie die hoener nie'. Ons het met die man en sy sak terug gestap 10

Dr Lamprecht was also a policeman in Durban. Many of us when we read, Law in City Buildings, went to a nearby hotel for a beer before or after classes. Wonder what the hotel was called? – HBH.

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polisiestasie toe. Daar aangekom het ons hom versoek om die 'hoender' uit die sak te haal. Met die het hy ‘n aasvoël, waarvan die vlerkspan geknip was, uit die sak geskud. Genoemde aasvoël was nie baie beïndruk nie en het sy frustrasies op die sponsstoele in die paradekamer uitgehaal. Die kurator van die dieretuin was gekontak en het die aasvoël en werker geïdentifiseer. Na ondervraging het die man erken dat hy die aasvoël gesteel het vir sy gesin se Kersete. My eerste saak Parkview RAA was geregistreer as 'Diefstal van een aasvoël - Waarde R500'. ‘n Berig daar omtrent in die volgende dag se 'Star' koerant het my baie trots laat voel. Wie kan onthou toe Radio voertuie met aanvang van elke skof met ‘n getikte lys van registrasie nr's van gesteelde voertuie voorsien was wat die bemanning op die dashboard gehou het om na te gaan.

• Hillbrow: Lt. Col. Danie Putter (Strand) Introduction: HBH In South Africa we have “farm-policemen and city-cops” apart from policemen in the air, mounted police, railways police and water police and police from various other specialist units. We covered the whole country. Here we get insight to the psyche of the “Hillbrow-Police” a specie on their own, if you will allow me to say so! If you have been a policeman in Hillbrow you really know the ropes. They have more cases in a day than many stations have in a month or year! They even had a case of stock theft when a goat on a veranda was stolen! One of my colleagues told me that all the codes in the crime book had occurred in Hillbrow. I was in command of a section of the police with long hair, they mainly worked “under-cover” and when we finished our work in Johannesburg, they always invited me to accompany them to Fontana, then an all-night open supermarket, to buy food. In reply to my question they said they were “afraid” of the Hillbrow Police which might find them buying food. I won’t elaborate! I think the Hillbrow Police in the ‘70’s and ‘80’s did not like men with long hair. - “Ek gee my hart vir Hillbrow” During 1978 I was transferred from Parkview to Hillbrow. A new chapter in my life which I entered with a lot of apprehension. However, those days Hillbrow was still a very exciting place to be, especially if you were a young policeman looking for excitement. The nightlife was exhilarating and very soon became our playground at night when on rest-days. Places like the Ambassador Hotel, with Dion belting out 'Free me' by Uriah Heep, Fontana and Captain Dorego to still the hunger, the Quirinal and Men's Bar near the Fort Prison were the favourite hangouts. During the day you caught up with the much-needed sleep. I met some amazing people during my time at Hillbrow. Salie Nel, 'Boom' Olivier (both late), W/O's David van Dyk and Nico Putter to name a few. - 'Alle lyke water gegee' There were also some funny moments which I will mention without mentioning names to protect the 'innocent ' involved. There was a big burly member, stationed at Hillbrow mortuary, who would make an occurrence book entry at midnight stating: 'Alle lyke water gegee'.

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One officer, whose beautiful daughter had many young policeman drooling, one night after a few too many, decided to write his own discharge in the OB. Needless to say that he wasn't too popular with the SC11. Everyone will remember 'Andy Capp' doing his tricks on the wall of the canteen, working at the Rand Easter Show when it was still at Milner Park, Casa Blanca roadhouse, the SAP Mobile Charge Office being moved every shift from the Yeoville water tower to Rocky Street/Innes Road, La Fontana, Chelsea Hotel, The night club on top of Hillbrow Tower. Hillbrow was the station where young police constables became policemen. When I left Hillbrow during July 1979 for Malvern, Durban I could echo the words of the song by Johannes Kerkorrel: 'Ek gee my hart vir Hillbrow '.

• Technology vs Brains: Lt.Col. Danie Putter (Strand) During October 1977 whilst stationed at Parkview I was seriously injured in a state vehicle accident whilst off-duty. As a result, I was off sick for 4 months. On my return during February 1978 I was placed on light-duty and assigned to assist Sgt. Bester, a seasoned policeman, with administrative duties. During this time everything was still done manually. The monthly Crime Report (SAP 6) was maintained daily by allocating specific crime codes to every offence registered in the RCI or RCA. The SAP 6 was adjusted daily and by month end the different columns had to balance out in terms of cases reported, cases under investigation, cases to court etc. This was a mammoth task and nerve racking as the final product had to be at the DC office on the 1st of the month. As a result, you had to be at work at the crack of dawn. Any mistakes or miscalculations were seriously frowned upon. Admission of guilt fines paid at the CSC12 had to be listed per Municipality and were paid at the Post Office where a blue receipt was issued which had to be pasted on the reverse of each receipt. A very time-consuming exercise. Filing of dockets in monthly bundles, keeping record of the flow of dockets, was a nightmare. Prisoner’s meals, body receipts, issuing and filing of pocket books, maintaining petrol and vehicle returns ensured that you had a full day whilst on duty. Today everything is computerized and if properly recorded on a daily basis a routine job compared to before. Technology has definitely made our jobs much easier but the skills and knowledge accrued can never be replaced.

Kallie en Elize Knoetze: “Die Bek se Plek”: Naby Brits

Elize Knoetze Hierdie twee oumense het Kallie sien boks in Mmabatho, vrek baie jare gelede, hulle onthou hom nog. Hulle seun speel kompetisie golf in Rustenburg teen Kallie, vertel sy ouers en ouma se versoek

11 12

Station Commander – HBH. Community Service Centre (or in the old days the Charge Office) – HBH.

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is om hom te ontmoet. Seun bel die versoek deur na Kallie en vandag ontmoet hulle mekaar by Magaliespark. Heerlik gesels en heerlik gelag.

Ou Kallie is en bly maar een van Suid-Afrika (en die polisie) se kleurvolle en gewilde karakters. Hy was ‘n goeie bokser en rugbyspeler in die 1970’s – HBH.

Bring Sersant terug: AP Stemmet

NB: No 30320P sersant Wessie van der Westhuizen van SAP King’s Rest het in my jong dae die mense voorwaardelik “geskei” – op voorwaarde slegs hy kon hulle weer “trou”. (Hy doen die skeisaak dan verniet!) Op sy praktiese manier was hy die mindergegoede mense, in ons wyk, in die “pa-slaan-vir-ma”-sake ter wille gewees. Ja, dit was onwettig maar dit het vir hulle gewerk! Dis ook nie elke dag gedoen nie, net in sekere sake. Ek het net van een ernstige geval geweet – HBH. 60


SAP Skukuza, KNP: Sers. Wynand Petrus du Plessis en gesin

Die foto ingestuur deur Wynanda Stander is van haarself en haar pappa, mamma, boeties en sussies. Die foto is laat 1950’s vroeg 1960’s by die Skukuza-polisistasie in die Kruger Nasionalepark geneem. Die sersant dra die kakie uniform. (Die blou en grys is ingestel op 31 Mei 1961 – HBH.)

Wie verdien die medaljes? Genl.maj. Ben du Plessis Wanneer julle die opskrif van hierdie bydrae sien, dan wonder julle seker: “Wat wil hierdie Du Plessis eintlik vir ons vertel?” Wel, elke polisieman wat ‘onder die vorige bedeling’ op die platteland en ook by klein onbekende polisiestasies gestasioneer was en later na groter sentra en selfs stede toe verplaas is, het dalk ‘n gesin gehad wat hom moes vergesel. In my geval was dit ook nie anders nie.

Troufoto van die bloedjong Ben (23) en Corrie (20) in 1959

As jonggetroude lid, sonder kinders, moes my eggenote, for better or for worse, maar saam na die onbekende en afgeleë Knapdaar polisiestasie gaan. Hierdie gehuggie is sowat 25 myl vanaf Burgersdorp in die Noordoos-Kaap geleë. Hier is vier van ons vyf seuns gebore.

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Ek was die ‘hoofman’ oor twee, een wit- en een swart konstabel. As ek ‘n arrestasie in die distrik gemaak het, ry ek direk Burgersdorp toe. Dis die “A-klas” polisiestasie waar die prisonier aangehou en aangekla word. Knapdaar, synde ‘n “C-klas” stasie, het nie ‘n RAA (Register vir aanklagtes aangeneem) gehad nie en alle sake, hoe gering ook al, selfs ‘n aanklag van Trapfiets sonder ‘n rooi reflektor, moes by my stasie in die ROM (Register van Ondersoek van Misdade) geregistreer word. Dan word die ROM van my stasie by Burgersdorp in die RAA oorgedra. (Sien, die aanklag word daar aangeneem.) Dan skakel ek my goeie eggenoot, Corrie, vanaf Burgersdorp-polisiestasie se telefoon. (Geen selfone daardie jare nie). Sy beantwoord die telefoon in die polisiekantoor, wat ‘n kamer in ons woonhuis is en ek vra haar: “Bokkie, kyk in die rak bokant die staaltrommel, daar staan ‘n ry boeke langs mekaar. Die een wat met bruinpapier oorgetrek en op die rugkant ROM gemerk is, kry dit asseblief uit.” “Wag”, sê sy, “een van die seuns skree vreeslik, ek wil gaan kyk wat aangaan. Hou aan asseblief.” Sy kom na ‘n rukkie terug en sê, “Ag, dit was sommer niks, wat moet ek met hierdie boek maak?” Ek sê vir haar: “Kyk nou waar die laaste inskrywing is.” “Ja, ek het dit, wat nou?” “Wat is die nommer wat in die eerste kolom op die linkerblad is.” Sy verstrek die nommer en ek sê: “Skryf nou die nommer wat op daardie een volg in die eerste kolom, na die vorige inskrywing.” “Ja, dis 15”.“Goed sit nou ‘n papiertjie daar en skryf daarop: ‘Ben se arrestasie, Aanranding ernstig’ en maak die boek toe en bêre dit weer.” “Goed, ek maak só”. “Dankie meisiekind, Ek lief jou, Ta-ta”. Ons het hierdie prosedure gevolg, want as die swart konstabel van fietspatrollie uit die distrik kom, terwyl ek en die ander konstabel nie daar is nie; en hy wil ‘n klagte teen iemand registreer wat hy op sy rondtes teëgekom het, dan moet hy nommer 16 neem vir sy saak, nadat hy genoeg spasie gelos het vir my saak wat nog ingeskryf moet word. (Nou staan daar in die argiewe dat die eerste dames wat as polisiebeamptes aangestel is, 1972 is! Dis ‘n fout, my dame was sedert 1959 reeds ‘n polisiedame, net nie ‘n gesalarieerde een nie. Haar diensvoorwaardes se voordeel was dat sy by die stasiebevelvoerder kon slaap. Ha, ha!) Hierdie stukkie geskiedenis is maar ‘n kort aanloop van my bydrae waar ek eintlik medaljes vir hierdie liefdevolle eggenote, minnares, moeder, sieketrooster en tugmeesteres wil oorhandig. In ons huwelik van bykans 60 jaar, waarvan sy 33 jaar as dienende polisieman se eggenoot, deur dik en dun by hom moes staan, het sy baie ontberings en ervarings gehad. Ja, sy het dit gedoen sonder ‘n gemor of weiering, want sy sê dat haar liefde vir haar eggenoot en haar kinders dit verdien het. Kortliks, sonder verdere omslagtige beskrywings word daar net ‘n paar van die gevalle gelys waar sy ontberings, op die platteland en ook as ‘n offisier se eggenote in groter sentra, moes hanteer: Ek word aangeval deur twee inbrekers wat ek na die polisiestasie vervoer en word redelik ernstig beseer – sy moes, as ‘n jong dame van 21 en na ‘n huwelik van 3 weke, haar polisieman-eggenoot versorg en verpleeg. (Sy het darem vroeg in haar lewe die geleentheid gehad om haar man te kon bad! Ha ha!) Om met koolstoof, primusstofie, yster-strykysters, lampe en kerse in haar huis klaar te kom na die gerief van elektriese krag wat sy by haar ma en pa se huis gehad het;

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As jong getroude met siek kindertjies op ‘n afgeleë plek geworstel het terwyl haar man daagliks in die distrik sy werk gedoen het en hy soms laat in die nag uitgeroep is na plaaswerkers wat diens verlaat, steel óf onderling met mekaar baklei; Tydens die Nasionale Noodtoestand in die sestigerjare saans in ‘n donker polisiestasie alleen moes agterbly as die drie polisiebeamptes kwespunte in die distrik moet gaan besoek; Waar hy ‘n week of meer weg is om eksamens te gaan skryf op plekke weg van sy polisiestasie af; Ondersoekwerk hom weggeneem het vir dae sonder dat sy weet waar hy hom bevind en kinders wat heen en weer gekarwei moet word en selfs gehospitaliseer is terwyl hy weg was op diens Kursusse moes bywoon vir bevordering; Om opleiding te gaan gee in die voormalige Selfregerende Nasionale- en Onafhanklike State: Op grensdiens moes gaan, of om speurderkursusse en kandidaat-offisierskursusse in die Kaap te gaan aanbied. Vyf seuns wat op skool almal aan sport deelgeneem het, toe die een se tong losgeruk is en die ander een sy pols gebreek het in rugby, ‘n ander een sy skeenbeen gekraak het tydens ‘n krieketwedstryd; en hulle vele meer ongevalle gehad en sy hulle na ‘n hospitaal of distriksgeneesheer moes neem. Hoekom? Want pa was weer weg met werk iewers ver van huis en haard. Tydens my sekondering aan Bophuthatswana, moes sy noodgedwonge by daardie polisiemag se ofisiersdamesklub aansluit en soms, met groot frustrasie, die leiding neem. Ek volstaan met hierdie paar ontberings, maar ek wil tog meld dat sy as spesiale matrone by die Humansdorp polisiestasie moes optree en met al die onaangename omstandighede wat daarmee gepaard gaan, tevrede moes wees. Lees gerus hierdie komiese situasie wat Corrie as spesiale matrone op Humansdorp ervaar het: Ek en ‘n konstabel, ek noem hom Willem, hoor op ‘n Sondagmiddag daar staan ‘n motor op die N2, net buitekant Humansdorp. Dit is nie behoorlik van die ryvlak afgetrek nie en daar sit twee blanke vroue in die motor. Ons vind die motor, ‘n Hillman Minx, sowat twee kilometer buite die dorp. Daar is twee jong vroue, ek skat hulle so 20-23jr oud wat besig is om wyn uit ‘n bottel te drink. Ons gaan na die motor en beveel hulle om uit te klim, sodat ons die motor van die pad kan aftrek. Toe die twee uit die motor is, sien ons dat hulle heelwat onder die prop gehad het en al waggelend met ons wil argumenteer. Ons stoot eers die motor uit die pad en toe bepaal ons ons by die twee vroue. Ons arresteer hulle en sê dat ons hulle arresteer vir ‘Drank gebruik in die openbaar’. Nou baklei hulle, skop en krap, maar ons sleep-dra hulle een vir een na die patrolliewa en maak die agterdeur toe. Hulle raas, baklei, skree en vloek aller leliks. Konstabel Willem bestuur die motor polisiestasie toe en ek gaan met die patrolliewa en twee vroue terug dorp toe. Die twee is behoorlik aan die baklei met mekaar agter in die patrolliewa. Hulle skree soos maer varke wanneer hulle mekaar se hare trek en mekaar se gesigte met hulle naels krap. Kort-kort val hulle teen die sif afskorting tussen die bak en die bestuurder se kajuit. By die polisiestasie kry ons hulle effe onder beheer deur hulle van mekaar te skei. Toe hoor ons dat hulle van die blanke meisies is wat by Patensie kom lemoene pak het. Daardie jare het blanke meisies vanaf Zebediela, die lemoen wêreld in die Noorde van Transvaal, gekom om lemoene in die Kaapprovinsie te kom pak. Eers by Addo by Hermitage waar die Sondagsrivier se Sitrus koöperasie is en dan kom hulle na Patensie toe om lemoene by die Gamtoos koöperasie te kom verpak. Daarna vertrek hulle na Joubertina in die Langkloof, vandaar 63


na Grabouw en Elgin in die Wes-Kaap om appels te gaan pak. Hierdie twee dames was juis twee van daardie twee spanne wat soos trekvoëls deur die land getrek het om lemoene en appels te pak. Corrie word geroep om hulle te kom visenteer. Hulle is moederlooslik dronk en baie aggressief. In die Navraekantoor, net langs my kantoor, word alle vroulike prisoniers gevisenteer, want daar is hortjies voor die venster sodat daar privaatheid is. Hier takel die twee toe weer mekaar. Corrie sê dat sy hulle gaan visenteer. Die een sê vir die ander: “Ek vermoor jou!” Die ander een weet nie met wie gepraat word nie, en skree sommer op Corrie: “Ja, ek vermoor jou ook.” Ek en konstabel Willem staan by die toe deur en Corrie sê net: “Bokkie kom help.” Ons maak die deur oop. Gelukkig is Corrie nog nie aangeval nie en nou gooi ons twee mans alle ordentlikheid, kuisheid, menseverhoudings, empatie en al die ander byvoeglike naamwoorde, en Staande Orders wat jy moet gebruik wanneer mans met vroulike gearresteerdes werk, oorboord. Ek en die konstabel gryp elkeen een vas en Corrie begin hulle visenteer. Ek sê dat hulle moet ophou met hulle nonsies. Hulle word na die selle toe geneem nadat hulle deur die “boeke gesit” is. Hulle hare staan soos Daisy de Melcker s’n, die moordenares wat in die Polisiemuseum afgebeeld is. Hulle klere, daardie tyd dra baie vrouens nog rokke, is omtrent geskeur en hulle gesigte het rooi kraphale oor die wange soos hulle mekaar toegetakel het. ‘n Polisiesel en alleenopsluiting, is die beste plek waar ‘n dronk mens tot verhaal en stilte kom. Maandag kom hulle voor die hof, nadat hulle hulle meer respektabel probeer maak het. Hulle word met ‘n paar Rand beboet weens ‘Drank gebruik in die openbaar’. Hulle het darem ‘n paar Rand in die motor gehad en hulle verkas nadat hulle hulle boete betaal het. Joubertina, hier kom ons twee vriendinne, wees gewaarsku! Hulle sal daar seker ook gaan “appels gooi.” Wie sou nou nie met my saamstem dat Corrie, soos baie ander polisiemanne se eggenotes, eintlik die medaljes verdien wat aan die polisieman toegeken is nie.

Ben en Corrie - met Corrie se 80ste verjaardag op 17/9/2018

Dankie vroulief vir die wonderlike jare wat jy getrou en lojaal aan my sy gestaan het en die vyf seuns wat God aan ons geskenk het, soos ‘n ware moeder versorg en grootgemaak het. Dankie is maar slegs ‘n klein woordjie, maar tog spreek dit boekdele. Ek salueer jou, daarom

gaan my medaljes aan jou!

Aan jou, Corrie! 13 13

Die berig het oorspronklik in Die Generaal verskyn en word met vergunning van genl. Johan Ferreira geplaas. Dankie – HBH.

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2019: Onrus en onluste op ons universiteitskampusse Ek kan nie die onrus op ons universiteite begryp nie. My tandarts vertel een van sy pasiënte is ‘n lektor. Die lektor vertel hom die studente staak en moet Junie-maand eksamen skryf. Waarom by ‘n universiteit inskryf en dan alles ontwrig? Die studiefooie by universiteite is gratis - ek hoor hul kla oor die voedsel wat gratis voorsien word. Leon Lemmer (hieronder) ontleed die situasie vanuit sy perspektief – HBH.

• Adam Habib: ‘n Gladdejantjie oor die studente-onrus: Leon Lemmer Sedert 2015 is daar studente-onrus in Suid-Afrika. Dit is deel van die onverkwiklike, gewelddadige werklikheid wat as die nuwe Suid-Afrika bekend staan. Die studente-onrus het in Maart 2015 begin met die RhodesMustFall-beweging [RMF]. Max du Preez het die eis vir die verwydering van Cecil John Rhodes se standbeeld op die kampus van die Universiteit Kaapstad goedgepraat met die naïewe opmerking dat hy nog nooit van Rhodes gehou het nie. In Oktober 2015 is die onrus met hernude ywer voortgesit in die FeesMustFall-beweging [FMF]. Met Susan Booysen as redaktrise is die volgende boek gepubliseer: Fees must fall: Student revolt, decolonisation and governance in South Africa (Johannesburg: Wits University Press, 2016, 350p, R350). Die boek handel oor die beginmaande van die onrus (Oktober 2015 tot Junie 2016). Die skade aan universiteitseiendom het toe reeds R460 miljoen beloop (p 37). Maar die departement hoër onderwys “calculated the total cost of the damage to the infrastructure of South African universities in 2015 to be R1 billion” (Adam Habib, bron hier onder, Kindle 1060). ‘n Goeie opsomming van die aanloop tot en verloop van die onrus word in Booysen se boek verskaf (318-327). Soos uit die boektitel blyk, het dekolonisering14 die wagwoord in die plek van transformasie geword. Volgens Andile Mngxitama beteken dekolonisering “burn down the university” (146). “Oppression outweighs property damage much of the time” (299). Soos die benamings RMF en FMF aandui, is daar nie ‘n begeerte om konstruktief/opbouend te wees nie. Fallisme is op afbreking/vernietiging ingestel. “The emphasis is on physical violence (largely in the form of burning material campus symbols and infra-structure) in response to the brutalisation wrought by structural violence” (10). Strukturele/sistemiese geweld duur glo voort weens onder meer “the incomplete and compromised 1994 transition” (16). In FMF-geledere is geweld gedefinieer as “an experience of structural oppression” en as “a defence against dehumanisation” (329). FMF het van die begin af ‘n reeks protesaksies omvat, “ranging from the boycotting of classes, to the barricading of entrances and exits, to the hostage taking of council members, to the expression of slogans such as ‘kill all whites’, to the production of a film and the erection of a symbolic shack, to the marches on major sites of political power, to the throwing of petrol bombs at buildings and buses, to the burning of books, tyres, artworks, buildings and cars, to the spread of human faeces on a statue and in lecture halls, to the blocking of traffic on roads outside university campuses and the throwing of bricks at motorists, and to the threats to shut down polls during municipal elections” (294). Kortom, die ANC se onbeskaafde, gewelddadige handelinge tydens die “bevrydingstryd” dien as voorbeeld vir FMF-aksies en word tot op hede voortgesit. Dit is wesenlik ‘n pro-swart- en antiblanke veldtog. “#FMF was a black-led struggle for radicalism” (26).

“Decolonisation was seen as distinct from transformation, which was deemed a reformist programme reflective of the politics of the ‘rainbow nation’. By contrast, decolonisation … represents a much deeper notion of change – one that forces universities to delink themselves from their apartheid and colonial moorings and re-establish themselves in the postcolonial moment” (Habib 1964) – Leon Lemmer. 14

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FMF is deur die ANC-regering veroorsaak. In reële terme is die owerheidsubsidie aan universiteite elke jaar verminder. Dit het aanleiding gegee tot jaarlikse verhogings in studie-onkoste wat hoër as die inflasiekoers was. Universitêre studie het onbetaalbaar duur geword, gevolglik is studente gemobiliseer om teen die hoë studiegeld te betoog; aanvanklik vir ‘n laer, inflasieverwante verhoging, daarna vir geen verhoging nie en mettertyd vir gratis tersiêre onderwys. ‘n Ander opsig waarin die ANC-regering FMF veroorsaak het, is dat hy die indruk wek dat (feitlik) enigeen die reg op tersiêre onderwys het; dus dat bv iedere universiteit jaarliks al hoe meer studente moet toelaat. Dít ten spyte van die feit dat meer as die helfte van die studente nie hulle studie suksesvol voltooi nie. Die universiteite het op hulle beurt fouteer deur ANC-gedienstig hulle toelatingsvereistes te verlaag en boonop dosente op nie-akademiese gronde (bv ras en geslag) aan te stel en te bevorder. Dit is in reaksie op ‘n FMF-eis soos: “We require alternatives to structures which mainly benefit straight white middle-class men” (55). “There is an ideological and political coherence between much of the #FeesMustFall movement and African National Congress (ANC) government” (8; ook 26). Booysen se boek word oorheers deur die menings van studente en ander linkse elemente, bv dosente. Dit is ‘n geval van “scholarly secondary voices and activist primary voices” (vii). Akademiese oorwegings word deur politieke voorkeure oorheers. Asof dit ‘n mensereg is, word die belange van swartes sonder meer ten koste van dié van blankes bevorder. “Athabile Nonxuba defines Fallism as ‘an oath of allegiance that everything to do with oppression and conquest of black people by white power must fall and be destroyed'” (4). Die universiteit word as uitgangspunt gebruik: “Students are re-imagining the functioning of a university” (54-55). Dit gaan egter nie net om die herdefiniëring (bv dekolonisering) van universiteite nie, maar om die revolusionêre verandering van die hele (plaaslike) samelewing. “The fight is to free our education completely, permanently and ultimately free society” (111). Marxisme speel ongetwyfeld ‘n deurslaggewende rol. Die marxis, Louis Althusser (1918-1990), het “universities as extensions of the state apparatuses” beskou (28), vandaar die FMF-strategie om anargie op universiteitskampusse te saai ten einde die regering te dwing om aan die studente se eise toe te gee. Dit is in ooreenstemming met Frantz Fanon15 (1925-1961) se idee van dekolonisering: “a program of complete disorder” (58). Booysen skryf: “It was a modest but reasoned step to move from nonracialism and cross-class unity to the identity politics of black consciousness, African nationalism, intersectionality, assertive feminism and post-patriarchy” (6-7). Hierdie boek is ‘n klassieke voorbeeld van “activist-scholarship” (viii). Rebels and rage Die geskiedenis van die FMF-beweging is onlangs tot 2018 aangevul in Adam Habib (gebore in 1965) se boek, Rebels and rage: Reflecting on #FeesMustFall (Jeppestown: Jonathan Ball, 2019, 238p, R250; Amazon Kindle $16,09). Habib is sedert 2013 die rektor van die Universiteit van die Witwatersrand (Wits). Voor dit was hy ‘n dosent aan die Universiteit Durban-Westville en later verbonde aan die Raad vir Geesteswetenskaplike Navorsing. Hierna was hy ‘n vise-rektor van die Universiteit Johannesburg. Na verstryking van sy eerste termyn as Wits-rektor is ‘n semester studieverlof aan Habib toegestaan. Met die finansiële ondersteuning van die Ford Foundation16* het hy in 2018 ses maande lank aan die Hutchins Center for African and African-American Research, Harvard University, deurgebring en hierdie boek geskryf (Kindle 194).

U kan gerus meer lees oor hierdie “interessante” karakter, hy was veral aktief in die Algerynse bevrydingstryd – HBH. Dit is ironies dat ‘n filantropiese fonds wat sy stigter, die polities regsgesinde Henry Ford (1863-1947), se van dra, ontaard het in ‘n uiters linksgesinde instansie; dermate dat Henry Ford II (1917-1987) in 1976 as trustee bedank het omdat hierdie stigting te anti-kapitalisties geword het – Leon Lemmer. 15 16

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Aan Wits is Habib die opvolger van Loyiso Nongxa (1768). Vir ‘n Indiër en daarby ‘n Moslem (2367) om ‘n swarte se plek as Wits-rektor in te neem, verg ‘n sterk struggle-getuigskrif. Volgens eie erkenning is sy denke deur veral Karl Marx (1818-1883) en Leon Trotsky (1879-1940) beïnvloed. Habib verwys na die rol wat ‘n boek van Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924) in sy “political past” gespeel het, naamlik Left-wing communism: an infantile disorder, “a polemical text in which the leader of Bolsheviks lays into ultra-left traditions in the communist movement for their failure to appreciate the importance of tactics and strategies and the necessity of compromise in the struggle to advance the revolution” (944). Dat Habib radikaal linksgesind is, blyk uit die feit dat hy van 2006 tot 2010 weens die vermoede van aandadigheid aan terrorisme toegang tot Amerika geweier is (Wikipedia). Vroeër het Habib ‘n doktorsgraad aan die City University in New York verwerf. Politieke wetenskap is sy spesialiteitsgebied. Sy vorige boek is South Africa’s suspended revolution: Hopes and prospects (Wits University Press, 2013). Sy marxistiese oriëntasie, in die Lenin/Trotsky-idioom, blyk reeds duidelik uit die boektitel. Hy begeer verdere revolusionêre verandering: “breaking out of our structural impasse and achieving progressive outcomes” (127). Fatima is Adam se Eva. As studente was albei United Democratic Front- (UDF-) aktiviste. Habib is ‘n uitgeslape kalant wat vinnig op sy voete kan dink terwyl hy ‘n saak in mooi klinkende voue lê; ‘n gladdejantjie (“smoothie”). Habib begin sy boek op ‘n marxisties-globalistiese noot: “We recognise that things can and must change … our collective commitment to addressing inequality within the global academy. If we truly believe in an egalitarian world, then we need to work towards a global academy of commons … Universities can only successfully contribute to addressing inequality if … they enable access for students from poor communities” (93). Marxiste erken nie ras- en etniese verskille nie; slegs klasverskille. Dwarsdeur sy boek gee Habib voorkeur aan armes en gemarginaliseerdes pleks van aan akademies bekwame studente. “The overall goal in our student recruitment was to achieve a strategic balance between demographic representation and cosmopolitan orientation” (136). Marxisme/kommunisme is ‘n sodanige wêreldwye verskynsel. Habib stel “an alternative future” in die vooruitsig (2094). Habib loof die marxis, Neville Alexander (1936-2012), se boek, One Azania, one nation (1979), waarin Alexander onder die skuilnaam No Sizwe hom onder meer oor Afrikanernasionalisme uitlaat (118). In sy intreerede as Wits-rektor het Habib na “great activists and organic intellectuals” soos Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937) en Steve Biko (1946-1977) verwys (127). Habib is uiters linksgesind en eenogig, bv “I am particularly supportive of the Palestinian struggle, given the atrocities that the Israeli state has been party to” (424). Nelson Mandela word Suid-Afrika se “most illustrious son” genoem (703). Habib verwys ook na “one of the ANC’s most beloved elder couples, Walter and Albertina Sisulu” (893). “In the late 1990s … the University of Transkei [UT] effectively embarked on a strategy to address its historical infrastructure disparaties by deliberately pursuing a financial deficit” (109). Hy noem die UT “one of the country’s strongest historically black universities,” terwyl die UT dit nooit was nie.17 Implisiet is ‘n verwyt gerig aan die “apartheidsregime”. Die waarheid is dat die blanke politieke bewind die UT uit die grond opgebou het. Soos in die geval van al die ander universiteite vir nieblankes is ‘n spesiale jaarlikse vestigingsubsidie deur die blanke politieke bewind aan die UT betaal. Om bekwame blanke dosente na swart plattelandse universiteite te trek, is ‘n spesiale gebiedstoelae maandeliks aan iedere sodanige dosent betaal. Die latere finansiële ondergang van die UT is deur wanbestuur veroorsaak. Toe blankes in beheer van die UT was, was dit finansieel gesond. Nadat swartes beheer oorgeneem het, is finansiële dissipline oorboord gegooi. Studenteskuld het toegeneem en geen daadwerklike pogings is aangewend om die skuld in te vorder nie. Anders as 17

Wat van Fort Hare? - HBH

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die tradisioneel blanke universiteite is die tradisioneel swart universiteite vir inkomste grootliks van klasgeld en owerheidsubsidie afhanklik. Hulle doen nie genoeg moeite om ander inkomstebronne te ontgin nie. Anders as by die eens blanke universiteite is daar by die swart universiteite geen noemenswaardige vrywillige finansiële ondersteuning uit die gemeenskap nie, onder meer omdat daardie universiteite in veel groter mate as die tradisioneel blanke universiteite ‘n swak naam verwerf het omdat hulle bedrywighede te dikwels deur bv boikotte en onrus lamgelê word. Wat die falliste gemeen het, is “all questioned the identity of the university and what it meant to be an African institution in the 21st century” (144). Die Europees-Westerse wortels van Wits en van die universiteitswese as sodanig word agterweë gelaat. Wits en die ander tradisioneel blanke universiteite moet teen wil en dank verander word. “It was unacceptable for black students not to feel at home at South Africa’s public universities” (152). En blanke studente? Nêrens breek Habib ‘n lansie vir hulle nie. Weens verswelging deur swartes voel blankes al hoe meer ontuis aan die eens blanke universiteite. Aan die tradisioneel swart universiteite kon blankes nog nooit tuis voel nie. “The #FeesMustFall movement began at Wits” (152). Dít is ‘n bron van trots vir Habib omdat hy dit as “a legitimate social struggle” beskou (686). Solomon Mahlangu (1956-1979) is weens sy militante MK-bedrywighede ter dood veroordeel. Habib noem MK-terrorisme “a noble cause” (225). Mahlangu “became the mythological mascot of South Africa’s #FeesMustFall protest” (225). Die groot mate waarmee Wits hom amptelik met MK-terrorisme en FMF vereenselwig, blyk uit die feit dat die gebou wat as Senate House bekend gestaan het tot Solomon Mahlangu House hernoem is (274). Daar is ook die Robert Sobukwe Building (1191), die Umthombo Building (1306) en die Steve Biko Centre for Bioethics (1298). “13 new buildings and other sites have been renamed” (2054). Dít moet noodwendig minstens sommige blankes vervreem maar Habib bekommer hom eerder oor die swartes en kla oor die blankes se “failure to understand the alienation that black staff and students experience” (2136). Daar is ‘n Black Students Society (3481) en heel moontlik ‘n personeelvereniging vir swartes, maar sulke eksklusiewe organisasies ter beskerming van blankes se belange is seker(lik) ontoelaatbaar. ‘n Opsig waarin Habib as rektor deesdae met die historiese ANC/MK verskil, is dat hy kampusgeweld afkeur (383). Hy verwys na die Sanlam-ouditorium van die Universiteit Johannesburg wat afgebrand is. “It is this blasé attitude towards violence that has come to haunt both the #FeesMustFall movement and the universities, and it is perhaps the single greatest curse afflicting South Africa’s contemporary political system” (1084). Die ANC is ongetwyfeld die vader van die voortgesette politieke geweld in Suid-Afrika, met Nelson Mandela as die ANC-lid wat eerste die geweldsopsie bepleit en toegepas het ten einde die politieke doelwit van swart oorheersing te bereik. Soos die ANC redeneer Habib dat geweld in die blankbeheerde ou Suid-Afrika geregverdig kan word maar nie in die nuwe demokratiese Suid-Afrika waarin swartes beheer uitoefen nie. “Fanon and Biko wrote about revolutionary violence in the crucible of the colonial struggle. Is it legitimate to transpose these ideas onto a democratic era, which … provides the space not only for protest, but also the right to vote out the political elite?” (3564). Terwyl Habib die Wits-rektor is, sal hy teen geweld op die kampus wees. Habib karakteriseer die ideale universiteit tereg as “a safe and free space for ideas” (160) maar dit is deesdae nie naasteby die geval nie. Anders as voorheen het dit op die kampusse te gevaarlik geword om saans klasse aan te bied of toetse en eksamens te skryf. ‘n Vrye vloei van linkse idees vind sonder beperkings plaas maar standpunte regs van die middel word nie geduld nie. Aan Wits is daar ‘n “Israel Apartheid week” (424), maar daar sal nie ‘n pro-Israel-week wees nie; nog minder ‘n pro-Afrikaner- of pro-Afrikaansdag, al was iemand soos bv NP van Wyk Louw (1906-1970) jare lank (1958-1970) ‘n Wits-dosent. Die Afrikaansdepartement is gesluit. Daar is nie ‘n Van Wyk Louw68


gebou nie. Die “intellectually vibrant and humane university that we collectively envisioned” (168) is wat Afrikaners en Afrikaans betref ‘n verbeeldingsvlug. Dit grief des te meer omdat Wits se buuruniversiteit, die Randse Afrikaanse Universiteit, in ‘n oorwegend swart Engelsmedium University of Johannesburg ontaard het. Wanneer ‘n mens die boek lees, is dit kwalik voorstelbaar dat Wits om akademiese redes bestaan; dus dat onderrig aangebied en navorsing gedoen word. Politieke bedrywighede oorheers. “Almost all of the student leaders’ academic performance was poorer than it should have been” (457). Die opstandige studente wil hê dat hulle tydens (massa)samekomste volgens die meerderheidsmening universitêre besluite neem (936). Dít terwyl seker die meeste van hulle nie eerstehandse ondervinding van ‘n ordentlik funksionerende skool het nie; om van ‘n universiteit, wat ‘n andersoortige opvoedkundige inrigting is, nie te praat nie. Desnieteenstaande word dit telkens toegelaat dat ‘n student die voorsitter is by byeenkomste waar daar van Habib of ander bestuurslede verwag word om op te tree (bv 1314). In die sug na demokratisering word die studente toegelaat om in ‘n te groot mate beheer oor sake uit te oefen. “Some students are particularly rude in the classroom” (2103) en “some students [are] manipulating race to bypass assessment processes” (3153). Vir FMF het dit om veel meer as akademiese sake gegaan. “There were calls for the termination of all legal contracts with service providers, the immediate insourcing of all employees working in outsourced service companies, the dissolution of the Senate and Council, and the reimagining of the university so that all substantive decisions were made in an assembly with all stakeholders, including the students” (962). In 2000 het Wits tereg die bestuur en administrasie van werkers aan kommersiële maatskappye uitgekontrakteer. Dit is bekend dat private ondernemings meer doeltreffend en ekonomies as openbare ondernemings funksioneer. Universiteite bespaar dus koste met uitkontraktering en word in staat gestel om op hulle kernfunksies, onderrig en navorsing, te konsentreer. Dit is heeltemal verkeerd dat toegelaat is dat die werkers en die studente teen die universiteit saamspan deur die inkontraktering van werkers te eis. Dit is ‘n nie-akademiese saak wat niks met studente as studente te make het nie, maar wel met studente as aktiviste. Habib is ten gunste van inkontraktering. Let op die mooi voue waarin hierdie gladdejantjie die saak lê: “A progressive pragmatism began to dominate Senate deliberations – one in which achieving socially just outcomes was still important, but in which these outcomes were to be achieved in a way that preserved the essence of what it meant to be a university and recognised that we operate in the world that exists, rather than one we wish existed” (970). Die werkers, sowat 1 500, wat by inkontraktering betrokke was, sluit talle groepe in: “cleaning, catering, grounds, waste, security … [and] maintenance” (1541). Wat was die resultate van die inkontraktering? Sekerlik nie hoër produktiwiteit en ‘n verbetering in die gehalte van die werk wat gelewer word nie. “The quality of the services had declined” (1674). Dít en aansienlik hoër uitgawes is weens die inkontraktering van werkers genoodsaak terwyl die studente vir laer studiegeld betoog, asof dit nie teenstrydig is nie. “Their remuneration tripled in under two years” (1681). Wat inkontraktering betref “government … refused to provide financial support” (3456). Aan bv die Universiteit Kaapstad het inkontraktering veroorsaak dat talle professore uit diens gestel is. In ruil daarvoor het werkers kollegas met siektefonds- en pensioenvoordele geword wie se kinders voortaan op vrystelling van studiegeld geregtig is. Hiermee het universiteite aan “sosiale verantwoordelik/geregtigheid” gewen maar akademies is groot verliese gely. Die vergoeding van Wits se uitvoerende bestuurslede het ook onder die soeklig gekom en is as buitensporig bestempel (1624). Die teenargument is dat hulle vergoeding mededingend moet wees. 69


Soos Jonathan Jansen roem Habib daarop dat hy behoeftige studente uit sy eie sak met studiegeld ondersteun (1640). Dit in sigself kan daarop dui dat hy te veel geld “verdien” (eintlik: ontvang). Die kernfunksies van die universiteit is onderrig en navorsing. In hierdie opset is die professore dus die kernelemente. ‘n Rektor ontvang ongeveer dubbel die vergoeding van ‘n professor. Dit kan nie geregverdig word nie. In 2014, dus op die vooraand van die studente-onrus, het Habib ‘n jaarlikse salaris van R3.353 miljoen ontvang. Wat nodig is, is dat die rektor se vergoeding aan dié van dosente gekoppel moet word. Hy moet nie meer as 50% meer as ‘n professor ontvang nie. Daar is deesdae ook talle ander poste, bv dié van vise-rektore en direkteure, waaraan salarisse gekoppel is wat hoër as dié van ‘n professor is. Baie geld kan bespaar word deur sulke poste, sowel as die vergoeding daaraan verbonde, te verminder. Die spandabele Jacob Zuma het net een adjunk gehad, maar ‘n rektor kan die luukse van bykans ‘n halfdosyn adjunkte, elk met allerhande byvoordele, hê. Die plaaslike universiteite is nie meer wat hulle eens was nie. Voorheen was daar blanke en swart universiteite, asook Afrikaanse en Engelse universiteite. Ook oorwegend behoudende/regse en progressiewe/linkse universiteite. Dus gesonde diversiteit. Deesdae is hulle almal in oorheersende mate gehomogeniseer tot linkse swart universiteite met Engels as onderrigtaal. “The university system expanded from about 420 000 students in 1994 to about 1.1 million in 2014” (489). “Because 55 per cent of university students did not graduate, the sector was not providing sufficient returns on investment” (761). Hoe meer studente jaarliks toegelaat word, hoe hoër styg die druipsyfer, tensy akademiese standaarde, soos die toelatingsvereistes, verder verlaag word. Wat nodig is, is strenger keuring van studente op akademiese gronde, bv bewese akademiese prestasie, en die handhawing of verkieslik verhoging van akademiese standaarde in die toetse en eksaminering. Universiteite behoort elitistiese inrigtings te wees, waar die room van die samelewing versamel word en nie die gepeupel op grond van bv velkleur, geslag of armoede nie. Habib, daarenteen, gee voorkeur aan ‘n universiteit as deel van “a global academy of commons” (93). In die praktyk vaar rasgroepe akademies nie almal ewe goed nie maar dit word aan die skoolstelsel toegeskryf. “White and Indian students, who often perform better in these tests as a result of better schooling systems” (1777). In bv Amerika vaar dieselfde twee rasgroepe beter as die ander groepe. Wat doen Wits hieromtrent? Hy diskrimineer teen presterende blanke en Indiërstudente. “[They] are required to achieve a higher point score to gain entrance than African and Coloured students” (1785). “Forty per cent of seats in the MBChB programme are now determined simply on the basis of academic results”18 (1785). Ook hier word toegelaat dat “sosiale verantwoordelik/geregtigheid” swaarder as akademiese oorwegings weeg. Maar daardie 40% wat op akademiese gronde tot MBChB-studie aan Wits toegelaat word, is hoër as by bv die fakulteit geneeskunde van die Universiteit Stellenbosch. Die US se ANC-gedienstigheid het skynbaar geen perke nie. Aan Wits is daar sowat 36 000 studente (2580). Wits is nie meer die universiteit wat hy eens was nie. Dit het bv ‘n oorwegend swart universiteit geword. In 1994 was 35% van die studente swart. In 2018 was dit 82%. “Blacks comprise 90 per cent and Africans 79 per cent of professional and administrative staff … Black staff comprise 49 per cent and Africans 32 per cent of academics … Much still needs to be done. More needs to happen on the academic staffing front and in the senior management cohort” (1711). Waarmee Wits besig is, is “accelerating transformation” (1947) en “approaching our demographic targets” (1719). Wat hier bepleit word, is dat Wits al hoe meer ontwit moet word. Die “wit” moet as’t ware uit Wits gehaal word. Onderliggend is die uitgangspunt van gelykheid/eendersheid; dus dat die personeel in al die afdelings en op alle vlakke veral die swart

18

Kan u dink watter tipe mediese dokters gaan hierdie program oplewer? - HBH.

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demografie moet weerspieël. Dít sou polities korrek wees, maar sekerlik nie akademies korrek nie. Habib verwys egter goedkeurend na “transformation and its gains” (1727). “The African and Coloured staff … expressed much concern about the low numbers of African academic staff and the dominance of whites among the professoriate. There were some expressions of concern that academics from the rest of the continent were prioritised in appointments … There was even the suggestion that there should be a moratorium on the appointment of white staff” (1907). Dit kom neer op anti-blanke rassisme. Hierdie nie-blanke personeel wil op grond van ras bevoordeel word en in die proses blankes benadeel. Talle swart dosente uit die res van Afrika is sedert 1994 aan die plaaslike universiteite aangestel, dikwels omdat in die naam van transformasie voorkeur aan hulle bo plaaslike blanke kandidate gegee word. Die res van Afrika word deurlopend van sy karige voorraad gekwalifiseerde akademici ontneem. In hierdie opsig word daar nie sorg gedra dat “sosiale verantwoordelikheid/geregtigheid” teenoor ander Afrika-lande geskied nie. Ras speel ‘n groot, soms deurslaggende, rol by Wits en in die res van die nuwe “nie-rassige” SuidAfrika. Wanneer swartes onsuksesvol by bevorderings is, “[they] simply assumed that the outcome was due to racism. In one particular case, the staff member repeatedly challenged the outcome on racial grounds, even though the entire promotions committee comprised black staff. In addition, in multiple cases staff who had been dismissed or were being disciplined for corruption, sexual harassment or other serious violations cynically resorted to playing the race card as their first defence. It has also become common for parents of all races to challenge our admission decisions by alleging racism when their child is not admitted” (2171). Soos dit ‘n politieke aktivis sedert die apartheidsera betaam, hou Habib nie van polisieteenwoordigheid op die kampus nie, al is die polisiediens nie meer ‘n skaduwee van die doeltreffende organisasie wat dit eens was nie. “Our police force is neither appropriately organised nor adequately trained for a democratic society” (3606). Tydens onrus is by voorkeur private sekuriteitspersoneel op die Wits-kampus ontplooi, wat volgens Habib se opdragte moes optree. Die polisie handel egter volgens eie goeddunke en laat hulle nie deur Habib en andere voorskryf nie. Wanneer onrus ernstige afmetings aangeneem het, is die polisie ontbied. Dit het die gewenste uitwerking gehad: “The presence of police and private security deterred any violence” (986). “Clearly, the police and private security had stabilised matters” (1002). Oor polisie-optrede is Habib kwaai gekritiseer, onder andere deur verlinkse Wits-personeel. Tydens studente-onrus was Habib ampshalwe verplig om Wits se belange bo sy eie politieke voorkeure te stel. Hy was dikwels oorhoops met verlinkse personeel, bv dosente, wat die studente-onrus opgestook het. Wits se Centre for Applied Legal Studies het gearresteerde studente bygestaan. Habib skryf: “We were comfortable with their doing this” (1068). Dit is ‘n verskynsel wat hom ook aan die ander universiteite voorgedoen het; dat sommige personeellede die misdadige studente simpatiek gesind was en hulle waar moontlik gehelp het, maak nie saak hoeveel skade hulle aangerig het nie. Wits wou bv hê dat een van die belhamels in die studente-onrus uit polisie-aanhouding vrygelaat word. “We had even contemplated housing him at my official residence … In the end, we made arrangements with the Jesuit Institute to provide housing for him in the city centre” (2758). Daar is dus agteroor geleun om hierdie voorbok goed te behandel, asof hy iets goeds vir Wits en die samelewing gedoen het. “We would not stand in the way of student leaders being released” (2909). Habib is voorwaardelik ten gunste van amnestie vir misdadige studente. “I could only support the call for amnesty if it were qualified and the protesters acknowledge that violence and arson are not legitimate strategies for protest in universities and democracies” (3639). Dit is om misdadigers wat miljoene rande te skade aangerig het heeltemal te lig daarvan te laat afkom. My standpunt is dat 71


hulle, indien nodig, lewenslank dwangarbeid moet verrig, dus totdat hulle arbeid verrig het wat die ekwivalent is van die skade wat hulle aangerig het. Dosente in veral sosiologie en sosiale/kulturele antropologie het uitgemunt in hulle sabotering van universitêre gesag en dissipline. Dit geld ook ander dosente in die humaniora en sosiale wetenskappe. Veral in hierdie geledere is leerplanne gedekoloniseer (1972). “The Humanities faculty … often prided itself on having the most politicised and socially conscious academy in not only the institution, but also the country” (1379). In uitsonderlike gevalle is studente geskors, maar dit is gewoonlik kort daarna opgehef (1076). ‘n Mens sou eerder dink ‘n universiteit is ‘n opvoedkundige inrigting en dat alles moontlik gedoen sou word om misdadigers swaar te straf. Hulle vernietig eiendom en skend immers die regte van studente wat ongehinderd wil studeer. Die aanleiding vir FMF was oënskynlik hoë studiegeld. Maar baie studente betaal nie die studiegeld wat hulle skuld nie en kom weg daarmee omdat groot bedrae telkens afgeskryf word. In daardie sin geniet die nie-betalers reeds gratis universitêre onderrig. Studielenings word in baie gevalle nie terugbetaal nie. Teen die einde van 2015 “the total historical debt had already crossed the R100 million threshold – the financial burden of clearing this debt would be unsustainable for the institution … The protesters believed that, if there was to be no free education, there should be no education at all” (1174). Daarom is gepoog om die kampusse in die ANC-idioom onregeerbaar te maak. Habib en Wits “support the idea of free education and highlight the inclusive benefits that society could derive from it” (1403). Gratis studie moet onderrig-, akkommodasie- en onderhoudskoste insluit (1412). Soos tydens slawerny moet alles aan die (arm/swart) student voorsien word. Jacob Zuma het na aanleiding van die studente-protes in 2015 aangekondig dat studiegeld nie in 2016 verhoog sou word nie. Die staat sou die universiteite vir hierdie verlies vergoed. Op 16 Desember 2017, kort voor die ANC se verkiesing van die volgende president, het Jacob Zuma onverwags aangekondig: “Free education for all students in universities and technical vocational education and training (TVET) colleges with family income of less than R350 000 per annum. The plan was to be implemented over five years and would commence with new first-year students in the 2018 academic year” (3080). Hoekom het Jacob Zuma dit gedoen? “To tilt the scales at the [ANC] conference in favour of his preferred candidate, Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma” (3080). Maar Cyril Ramaphosa is tot president verkies. Sowat 40% van die studente sal mettertyd by gratis studie baat, maar die finansieringsprobleme van studente uit huishoudings met ‘n inkomste van minder as R600 000 per jaar, die sogenaamde “missing middle” – “the vast majority of students at universities like Wits and UCT” (3088) – word nie hiermee aangespreek nie. Die gevolge van hierdie besluit van Jacob Zuma is ingrypend. Swartes het weer bewys dat geweld ‘n doeltreffende manier is om die verlangde resultate te behaal. “Violence had become an ‘addictive reality’ for many Fallists” (3555). “It is incontestable … that … there was an almost infantile romanticising of violence” (3555). Maar let op hoe gladdejantjie Habib dit elders vertolk: “It must be said that, at least at the rhetorical level, most of the leaders of #FeesMustFall professed a commitment to peaceful action. Peaceful mobilisation also seemed to be the substantive intent of the vast majority of its supporters” (3473). ‘n Ander gevolg van die Zuma-besluit is die toenemende verswelging van universiteite deur studente wat akademies swak toegerus is. “The EFF and Julius Malema in particular called on students to flood the universities and claim their place” (3115). Verder, deurdat die ANC-regering eensydig besluite oor universiteitsake neem, is die outonomie van hierdie inrigtings verder weggekalwe. Die finansiële welsyn van universiteite is al hoe meer uitgelewer aan die regering se beloftes dat hulle vir verliese vergoed sal word, dus dat hulle subsidiëring verhoog sal word. Maar dit veroorsaak dat 72


universiteite vir hulle voortbestaan al hoe meer van die regering afhanklik word, wat tot die verdere erodering van hulle outonomie lei. Habib voer aan dat ‘n politieke oplossing nodig is om universiteite se probleme op te los (3139). Maar dit moet die besef insluit dat universiteitstudie nie ‘n reg is nie en vir die meerderheid skoolverlaters nie beskore is nie. Die kolleges (TVET’s) behoort baie meer studente as die universiteite te akkommodeer (3209). Die kollege-sektor sal hergestruktureer en heropgebou en uitgebou moet word. Myns insiens met die herinsluiting van die eertydse technikons, wat verkeerdelik as universiteite geklassifiseer is. Veralgemenend: By universiteite gaan dit om opvoeding, onderrig, teoretiese begronding en beroepsvoorbereiding. Kolleges, daarenteen, is op afrigting vir beroepsbeoefening ingestel, met (heelwat) minder teoretiese begronding. Die onderwyskolleges sal ook moet herlewe. Sonder genoeg bekwame, professionele onderwysers sal die gehalte van skoolonderwys nie verbeter nie en sal die uitsaksyfer aan universiteite en kolleges nie verlaag word nie. Verder sal die ANC en veral swartes tot hierdie besef moet kom: “There is no such thing as free education. Someone always has to pay” (3158). Insgelyks is daar nie so iets soos bv gratis water, vullisverwydering, elektrisiteit, televisie, mediese sorg en skoolonderrig nie. Die grootskaalse manier waarop daar op inkomstebelasting- en dienstebetalers geparasiteer word, is nie volhoubaar nie en is ook immoreel; eintlik misdadig. Daar is diegene wat die koste van die aangekondigde gratis tersiêre onderwys met bv ekstra belasting op die superrykes wil bestry (3167). Maar die gevolgtrekking waartoe Habib kom, is: “South Africa simply does not have sufficient resources in state coffers to implement comprehensive, free higher education for both universities and TVET colleges” (3192). Nog minder sou gratis skoolonderrig deur die staat bekostig kon word. Gratis hoër onderwys is in elk geval absurd as daar nie ook gratis skoolonderwys is nie. Die onkoste van “gratis” universitêre onderwys kan deels verhaal word “by a graduate tax structured through the payroll” (3250). Baie studente sou kon baat by ‘n stelsel van “bank-funded but government-guaranteed loan[s]” (3284). Daar is ‘n wesenlike probleem wat glad nie deur Habib aangespreek word nie; waarskynlik omdat hy bang is om swartes aanstoot te gee. In die naam van transformasie werf universiteite deesdae by voorkeur swart kandidate met studiebeurse. Die matrikulant word voor hierdie keuse gestel: Kom studeer aan bv die Universiteit Stellenbosch of bly tuis en hoogs waarskynlik werkloos en krepeer saam met jou familie. So ‘n student kan moontlik na die kampus kom primêr om verblyf en kos te ontvang en nie noodwendig om (ernstig/toegewyd) te studeer nie. Van die studiegeld wat hy ontvang, word nie vir studie (bv die aankoop van boeke) aangewend nie, maar aan sy kreperende (uitgebreide) familie gestuur. Weens sy persoonlike omstandighede saboteer hy dus self sy studie. Ingeskrewe studente wat nie studeer nie, is by uitstek diegene wat onrus stook. Hulle behoort so gou moontlik verwyder te word. Andersins is daar, soos duidelik uit Habib se boek blyk, oud-studente en nie-studente wat die kampus betree om kwaad te stook. Hulle moet toegang tot die kampus verbied word en oortreders moet swaar gestraf word. Maar by mense soos Habib weeg “sosiale verantwoordelikheid/geregtigheid” swaarder as akademiese oorwegings, gevolglik word antiakademiese elemente sagkens behandel en staan dit hulle in te groot mate vry om met hulle ontwrigtende gedrag voort te gaan. Habib bly ingestel op voortgesette revolusie: “I see myself as a progressive who is committed to the goals of social justice and an alternative political and socioeconomic order” (3407). “Mass action and social mobilisation are an essential component of the strategic arsenal required for changing our world” (3415). Habib is sekerlik diep bewus van die ongedurigheid in die verhouding van Indiërs en swartes; nie net plaaslik nie maar ook in Oos-Afrika, bv Uganda en Kenia. Nogtans het Indiërs en swartes in die 73


“bevrydingstryd” saamgewerk. Sedert 1994 word die belange van swartes egter geprioritiseer, wat Habib as rektor in ‘n ongemaklike posisie aan die oorwegend swart Wits plaas. Hy is op sy pasoppens vir swartes, soos blyk uit die volgende twee voorbeelde. “Some senior black academics who profess to be committed to the transformation agenda … are almost completely divorced from day-to-day interactions about how to transform institutions. I stress that this does not apply to all black staff” (2128). Die Mellon Foundation is versoek om meer beurse vir studie aan bv Harvard en Oxford beskikbaar te stel. Oor sodanige bevoordeling is die swartes in hulle noppies, al is daar by daardie universiteite geen sprake van gedekolonialiseerde leerplanne en kampusse waar hulle tuis sal voel nie. “Officials of the Mellon Foundation … remained silent even though they recognised the contradiction; reluctantly [!], I stood up and pointed it out” (2162). Een van Habib se skemas is “competencies to be developed in indigenous languages among staff and students” (1932). ‘n Nuwe taalbeleid is aanvaar. “Given the limited institutional resources available, the first step in this plan was to change all letterheads, business cards and signage to reflect three languages: English, isiZulu and Sesotho. Language courses specialising in conversational isiZulu and Sesotho have also been established” (2070). Wat dwarsdeur die boek afwesig is, is enige verwysing na Afrikaans. Habib is moontlik nie eens Afrikaans (behoorlik) magtig nie. Hy verwys uitsluitlik na Engelse inligtingsbronne. Die soort meertaligheid wat Wits beoefen, behoort ‘n wekroep te wees vir Afrikaansinstansies, soos die Afrikaanse Taalraad en die ATKV, wat hulle dikwels meer entoesiasties vir meertaligheid as vir die bevordering van Afrikaans beywer. Wanneer in die nuwe Suid-Afrika na inheemse tale verwys word, word daar meesal aan swart tale gedink en nie aan Afrikaans nie. Insgelyks word meertaligheid, naas Engels, al hoe meer met swart tale geassosieer. Vir Afrikaans is dit ‘n verloorsituasie. Max Price, die rektor van die Universiteit Kaapstad (2008-2018), was eerste om aan die eise vir die inkontraktering van werkers toe te gee. Dit het tot ‘n kettingreaksie aan die ander universteite gelei. Habib toon ook aan dat Price selfs in groter mate as hy afkerig van sekuriteitsmaatreëls en veral polisie-teenwoordigheid op die kampus was. Die Universiteit Johannesburg, daarenteen, was veel meer geredelik op voorkomende beveiliging ingestel en is gevolglik minder deur die onrus ontwrig. Price verdedig sy besluite teen Habib se vertolking in ‘n artikel (Daily Maverick, 12.03.2019). Price noem dat hy besig is om ‘n boek oor die studente-onrus te skryf. Verwag dus verdere selfregverdiging.19 http://praag.co.za/?p=46374&utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed %3A+praag+%28Pro-Afrikaanse+Aksiegroep%29 •

Inderdaad ‘n interessante siening oor wat op ons kampusse aangaan – HBH.

“I weep for my country” – Dr Mangosuthu Buthelezi

“I weep for my country” – Dr Mangosuthu Buthelezi For further details see Politicsweb: https://www.politicsweb.co.za/documents/i-weep-for-mycountry--mangosuthu-buthelezi

Soos u weet maak ons gebruik van ‘n verskeidenheid van bronne gebruik om te verstaan wat werklik in die land aangaan – HBH. 19

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1979: Prof Van Jaarsveld geteer en veer Op 28 Maart 1979, 40 jaar gelede, is prof FA van Jaarsveld, destyds hoogleraar in geskiedenis aan die Universiteit van Pretoria (UP) tydens ‘n konferensie van teoloë en geskiedkundiges by die Universiteit van Suid-Afrika (UNISA) geteer en veer. Die Afrikaner het destyds onder die opskrif “Afrikaner-woede teen professor” berig dat ‘n groep jong manne vir prof Van Jaarsveld aan die begin van sy lesing geteer en veer het soos wat Danie Theron onder andere vir Moneypenny, redakteur van The Star, op Vrydag, 21 April 1899 in sy kantoor ‘n afgedankste loesing gegee het oor sy artikels teen die Boere. Prof Van Jaarsveld se toespraak sou gaan oor die voortgesette viering van Geloftedag. Reeds voor die simposium is groot publisiteit aan die toespraak gegee. Van Jaarsveld het die voortgesette viering van Geloftedag bevraagteken, veral in die lig van Suid-Afrika se veelrassige bevolking. Sy standpunt was dat Geloftedag as openbare vakansiedag moes bly, maar dat dit nie as ‘n Sondag gevier moes word nie. Daar was toe reeds ‘n kommissie onder voorsitterskap van ds. Kosie Gericke benoem om ondersoek in te stel na Suid-Afrika se openbare vakansiedae. In Beeld van 23 Maart 2019 skryf prof Van Jaarsveld se seun Albert: “My pa se voorspellings het waar geword. Sy pleidooie om 16 Desember as vakansiedag te behou het vrugte afgewerp. Geloftedag in die vorm van Versoeningsdag vir alle Suid-Afrikaners bestaan steeds”. Die jongmanne wat in 1979 teen Van Jaarsveld opgetree het, het toe in ‘n verklaring gesê dat “hulle moeg daarvoor is dat die geestesgoedere en alles wat vir die Afrikaner heilig is, verneder word deur liberale politici en verloopte akademici”. Hulle het Van Jaarsveld daarvan beskuldig dat hy met sy toespraak die heiligdom van die Afrikaner in sy diepste wese aantas. Na die teer en veer-aksie het mnr Eugene Terre’Blanche namens die AWB verantwoordelikheid vir die aksie aanvaar.20 Eugene Terre’Blanche Met sy swart hings agter – afgeneem op Kerkplein, Pretoria op 16 Des 2001521

20 21

Die Afrikaner, Nr. 2110, 29 Maart 2019, p. 5 – Elektroniese weergawe – HBH. Foto van AWB-leier Eugene N Terre’Blanche deur HBH – HBH.

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Wyle Mev Annatjie Geldenhuys Inleiding: HBH Genl Johan van der Merwe het vir my genooi om saam met hom na Nigel te ry om die begrafnis van mev. Annatjie Geldenhuys by te woon. Ons het natuurlik by vorige geleenthede ook die pad gery. Die vorige keer was na die begrafnis van genl. Mike Geldenhuys. Ander kere was die reise meer kollegiaal en kon ons lekker smul aan Annatjie se gebak of etes. Dit was lekker om kol. en mev Choppie Cronjé wat al die pad van Oudtshoorn gekom het, weer te sien. Ook het ek vinnig met kol. Gideon Serfontein hande geskud. Die ander polisiemanne teenwoordig was van ‘n jonger geslag. Anna Sophia Geldenhuys gebore 12 April 1945 en oorlede 21 Maart 2019 te Nigel. My persoonlike dank aan me. Hanlie van Straten wat so mooi na oom Mike en Annatjie in Nigel omgesien het. Enige staaltjies oor Annatjie? Stuur asb. na Nongqai vir deursending na Hanlie wat ‘n boek skryf en sy wil graag staaltjies oor Annatjie daarin vervat. Hier volg haar huldeblyk: Ons pad deur die lewe Elkeen van ons loop ʼn pad deur die lewe Soms teen ʼn gemaklike pas Ons vind ʼn rusplekkie langs die pad En kyk in die mooiste rose vas Maar soms kom ʼn rots van beproewing En donker word ons horison En ons bloei van seerkry En ons vra: “Waarom?” En tog is Vader Tyd ʼn geneesheer Met elke sekondetik van tyd En voor ons las te swaar word Maak God weer ons pad gelyk

Annatjie Geldenhuys: Eggenote van ‘n voormalige Kommissaris Van Polisie, Genl. Mike Geldenhuys Vandat klein Arnold gebore is, moes Annatjie Geldenhuys (voorheen Prinsloo), ten spyte van haar voldag betrokkenheid by ‘n groot Hoëveldse boerdery maatskappy, hoofsaaklik die rol van albei ouers vertolk, aangesien haar eggenoot bitter min tuis was. Niks het dus vreeslik verander in haar en haar seun se lewens toe haar huwelik beëindig is nie. Arnold was toe ongeveer ses jaar oud en sy skoolloopbaan het pas begin. Tog het die feit dat haar en haar eggenoot se paaie geskei het, ‘n seerplek gelaat en sy het net outomaties voortgegaan met haar rol as enkelouer en beroepsvrou, maar ses jaar later sou Annatjie se lewe ingrypend verander en sy sou nooit kon raai dat sy in Augustus 1979 saam met die grootbaas van die SuidAfrikaanse polisie voor die kansel sou staan nie. Sy was ‘n groentjie onder die generaalsvroue, maar sy het haar ding op haar manier gedoen. Die minister van polisie se eggenote, mev. Jessie la Grange het dadelik van Annatjie gehou en ‘n mooi vriendskap is deur die jare tussen hulle opgebou. 76


As voorste vrou in polisie geledere is Annatjie deur verskeie klubs genooi om vroue toe te spreek en sy het haar op natuurlike wyse sonder dat sy enigiemand vir raad genader het, skitterend van haar taak gekwyt. Sy het ook gereeld jong polisiemanne op die grens besoek en geïnspireer. Kerstye het sy netso hard soos die dames van die Suiderkruisfonds gewerk om kerspakkies by die manne op die grens te kry. Nog ‘n dame met wie Annatjie ‘n vriendskap opgebou het, was wyle mev. Elize Botha, eggenote van die Staatspresident, mnr. P.W. Botha. Annatjie het baie gemaklik in haar geselskap gevoel. Veral nadat genl. Mike en sy manne die skuldiges wat vir ‘n inbraak by die Botha’s se dogter verantwoordelik was, so spoedig aangekeer het, het die twee dames meermale met mekaar gekommunikeer. Elize Botha het Annatjie byvoorbeeld die dag nadat die skuldiges aangekeer is, gebel en haar waardering uitgespreek vir die flinke wyse waarop genl. Mike die saak afgehandel het. Na haar man se aftrede het hulle hulle in Krugersdorp gevestig, maar ‘n kleindogter met ‘n flinke brein wat boonop groot potensiaal op sportgebied getoon het, het oupa en ouman stilweg oorreed om hul skrede na die Oos-Rand te wend. Arnold en sy vrou Yolanda is albei in die polisie en as lede van die Onluste eenheid, was dit maar moeilik om Maryna na sportbyeenkomste te vergesel, of te sorg dat sy by oefenprogramme uitkom. Vandag is Annatjie en Mike nie spyt dat hulle die skuif gemaak het nie. Maryna is ‘n ligstraaltjie in albei se lewens. Die jaar 2007 – en Annatjie Geldenhuys ontvang die verpletterende nuus dat sy borskanker het. Haar eerste reaksie was skok en vrees, maar sy het net vir haarself gesê: “Ruk jouself reg. Jy het nie noodwendig ‘n doodvonnis ontvang nie. Buitendien alles lyk en voel net soos gister toe jy nog nie geweet het nie. Gaan dus voort met jou lewe asof niks gebeur het nie.” Gelukkig vir Annatjie was die kankergewas nie gevorderd nie en in stede van chemoterapie het sy medikasie ontvang wat sy vir vyf jaar deurlopend moet gebruik. Die newe -effekte van die medikasie is egter steeds ‘n riller met warmgloede, haar suikervlakke word ook opgestoot en sy word dikwels met ‘n geweldige naarheid oorval. Dit werk ook nadelig op haar eetlus in. Annatjie het op ‘n plaas grootgeword en gewerk en daar is niks wat vir haar twee hande verkeerd staan nie. Sy is ‘n uithaler kok en bakster. Sy kook die heerlikste konfyte en is ‘n uitstekende gasvrou wat al die fynere puntjies van onthaal ken. Sy is ook een van die trustees van die SuidAfrikaanse Polisie se liefdadigheidsfonds en reg deur die jaar kook sy konfyte, maak heerlike mosterd en ander lekkernye, wat dan verkoop word op die fonds se liefdadigheidsbyeenkomste . Annatjie Geldenhuys lyk altyd vars. Sy trek deftig aan en is altyd kunstig gegrimeer. Sy is steeds baie bedrywig met Maryna se skoolloopbaan, nie net op sportgebied nie, maar ook wat die akademie betref. Ja Annatjie Geldenhuys is ‘n sterk vrou wat eenvoudig net nie bereid is om boedel oor te gee nie en sy het beslis dryfkrag wat van haar ‘n waardige voorbeeld maak.

• Uittreksel uit Van Kaalvoetseun tot Kommissaris: Deur Hanlie Van Straaten en Hennie Heymans. My man, die Generaal. Annatjie Prinsloo, ʼn enkelouer, het die administrasie van ʼn groot en uitgebreide boerdery belang aan die Oos-Rand behartig toe haar werkgewer brig. Mike Geldenhuys van die Republikeinse Intelligensiediens, nader oor ʼn aangeleentheid wat in die Joodse gemeenskap kommer gewek het. Die aanvallige vrou met die besondere groen oë, sou egter nooit kon raai dat die aangename senior polisie offisier eendag, nie so ver in die toekoms nie, die hoofrolspeler in haar lewe sou word nie. Annatjie sou Mike Geldenhuys by verskeie geleenthede raakloop. 77


Soos haar werkgewer was Annatjie nie verbaas toe die nuus bekend word dat genl. Mike Geldenhuys die hoogste sport in die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisie bereik het nie. Kort nadat genl. Geldenhuys kommissaris van die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisie geword het, sterf sy eggenote. ‘n Paar maande later kontak hy Annatjie tot haar verbasing, om ʼn funksie saam met hom by te woon. Dit was die begin van ʼn mooi vriendskap wat sy weg kansel toe gevind het en Mike en Annatjie Geldenhuys is in Augustus 1979 getroud. In hierdie stadium was Mike se drie seuns alreeds geruime tyd uit die huis en het hy as’t ware weer “pa geword” vir die 12-jarige Arnold. Hierdie nuwe rol het Mike soos ʼn handskoen gepas. Hy was besonder lief vir kinders en dat die jong Arnold ook ‘n ywerige rugbyspelertjie was, was vir hom ʼn heerlike bonus. Rugby was nog altyd vir Mike Geldenhuys ʼn passie en dwarsdeur sy loopbaan het hy baie vir sport en in besonder hierdie sportsoort gedoen. Mike Geldenhuys neem nie impulsief besluite nie, maar as hy ʼn besluit geneem het, bly hy daarby, al sou dit kritiek meebring. Hy gaan nooit terug op sy woord nie en soos Annatjie dit uitdruk: “Sy ja bly sy ja en sy nee bly nee. ”Hy is ʼn goeie luisteraar en het nog altyd mense wat van hom verskil het se standpunte respekteer.” Nog ʼn kenmerk van Mike Geldenhuys is sy deeglikheid en sy geduld. Sommige van die sake waaraan hy gewerk het, het maande se ondervraging geverg, maar soos ʼn goeie visserman geduldig moet wag vir die regte vis om te byt, moes Mike Geldenhuys geduldig die tou uithou vir die wetsoortreder om dit te neem... Annatjie sê Mike het nooit sy werk huis toe gebring nie. Maak nie saak hoe moeilik ʼn saak was of hoe sterk die druk op die polisiediens was nie, wanneer Mike tuis was, het hy kwaliteit tyd aan sy gesin spandeer. Sy onthou die eerste parlementsitting wat sy moes bywoon as eggenote van die kommissaris van polisie. Dit was 1980. Mike het pas die woonstel wat deur die kommissaris tydens parlementsittings bewoon is, oopgesluit. Die hele plek het nog vol kratte en houers gestaan en die nuwe mev. Geldenhuys het die groot taak voor haar gehad om alles in plek te kry vir ʼn huislike atmosfeer. Die telefoon het gelui en dit was minister Louis la Grange. Hy wou Mike dringend spreek. Mike Geldenhuys moes dadelik terugvlieg Pretoria toe as gevolg van die sogenaamde Silvertonbankbeleg. En hier sit Annatjie stoksielalleen in ʼn woonstel met leë koskaste! Die volgende middag met Mike se terugkeer het die bankies op die strand, oorkant hul woonstel, vol gesit van joernaliste wat elkeen op die kommissaris se aandag aanspraak gemaak het. Annatjie het Mike twee keer op amptelike oorsese besoeke vergesel. Ek het Annatjie gevra oor haar rol as vrou van die kommissaris van polisie. Wat was die aard van die ondersteunende rol wat sy in sy loopbaan gespeel het? Annatjie was veral baie betrokke by die polisiemanne en hul gades op die grens en natuurlik hul kinders. Sy kon nie altyd probleme oplos of raad gee nie, maar sy kon luister en sy kon verstaan. As gevolg van haar man se posisie in die samelewing is sy dikwels genooi om as spreker by klubs en damestee byeenkomste op te tree. So het sy ʼn positiewe beeld uitgedra en ook die beeld van die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisie bevorder. 78


“Dink jy Arnold het polisieman geword om in pa Mike se voetspore te volg?” vra ek. Die vraag sal ek egter aan Arnold self moet stel. Hy en sy vrou, Yolanda is albei lede van die polisiediens. Die volgende middag met Mike se terugkeer het die bankies op die strand, oorkant hul woonstel, vol gesit van joernaliste wat elkeen op die Kommissaris se aandag aanspraak gemaak het. Annatjie het Mike twee keer op amptelike oorsese besoeke vergesel. Ek het Annatjie gevra oor haar rol as vrou van die Kommissaris van Polisie. Wat was die aard van die ondersteunende rol wat sy in sy loopbaan gespeel het? Annatjie was veral baie betrokke by die polisiemanne en hul gades op die grens en natuurlik hul kinders. Sy kon nie altyd probleme oplos of raad gee nie, maar sy kon luister en sy kon verstaan. As gevolg van haar man se posisie in die samelewing is sy dikwels genooi om as spreker by klubs en dames tee byeenkomste op te tree. So het sy ʼn positiewe beeld uitgedra en ook die beeld van die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisie bevorder.

Die eggenote van die Staatspresident, mev. Elize Botha, 3de van links verskyn hier saam met die vroue van departementshoofde in die Staatsdiens. Annatjie verskyn in die middel van die tweede ry. 79


Die verslae oor wyle Annatjie was geskrywe toe sy nog in die lewe was.

Annatjie (links) verskyn hier saam met mev. Jesse la Grange (middel) eggenote van minister Louis la Grange en mev Engelbrecht, (regs) eggenote van die kwartiermeester van die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisie

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Oor die Nongqai se drumpel Die volgende Nongqai-korrespondente het kom inloer:

• Luit. Charl Steyn (VSA)

• Luit. Barry Taylor (Potchefstroom)

(Thailand)

en

Brig

Louis

Sauer

Wat ‘n wonderlike ding, is kameraadskap! 81


POLMED RAAD VAN TRUSTEE’S

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SA RAILWAYS POLICE | SA SPOORWEGPOLISIE

Die ongeluk by die vierde agteruitrit (Fourth Reverse): So het ons geëet: Oud-speurdersersant C.C. Collin (No. 1199) Gedurende die Iaat vyftigerjare het 'n ernstige trein-ontsporing plaasgevind by die 4de "Reverse" op die AliwaI-Noord — Barkly-Oos trajek. Etlike amptenare en passasiers was ernstig beseer. Die sogenaamde "reverses" waaroor daar 'n klein beskrywing geplaas is in 'n onlangse uitgawe van ESPRIT DE CORPS, is deur ingenieurs so ontwerp om die trein gedeeltelik oor die berg te Iaat loop in plaas van dat dit 'n geweldige lang afstand om die berg moet ry. Die trein loop tot by 'n sekere punt waar die wissels dan gedraai word. Die trein stoot dan opwaarts terug tot by 'n sekere punt. So word die proses herhaal totdat dit weer normaal vorentoe kan beweeg. Gewese speurdersersant Chris du Plooy van Burgersdorp en ek was belas met die ondersoek van die ongeluk. Dit het meegebring dat planne van die ongelukstoneel geteken moes word — volgens skaal. Ook moes verklarings geneem word van getuies en beseerdes en so meer. Inderdaad 'n taak wat dae lank geduur het! Ons moes maar oornag in rytuie, of elders waar ons herberg kon vind. Ons ou speurders het elkeen ook sy kosblik gehad wat die vroue soms inderhaas moes pak en waar so 'n ondersoek lank geduur het, het die kosblikke later leeg begin raak. Een aand nadat ons die voorlopige ondersoek feitlik afgehandel het, het Chris en ek ons in AliwaINoord bevind .Ons het na die spoorwegruskamers gegaan om darem weer 'n nag in 'n ordentlike bed deur te bring. Teen daardie tyd was ons kosblikke reeds so leeg dat ons nie eens 'n koppie koffie kon maak nie, om nie eens te dink aan eet nie. Die sakgeldjies was gedaan, maar 'n honger man maak 'n plan! Ek doen toe aan die hand dat ons na 'n sekere kafee in die hoofstraat gaan om te gaan eet. Chris het my aangestaar asof ek van my sinne beroof was, maar ek sê aan hom: ''Kyk ou maat, laat dit nou maar gerus aan my oor, kom wat wil ons gaan In die kafee het ons by 'n tafel gaan sit. Die bediening was destyds nog waargeneem deur blanke dames wat algemeen bekend gestaan het as "kéffiekatte". Hulle was ook baie goeie beriggewers! Aan die een wat na ons tafel kom om ons bestelling te neem het ek gevra dat sy net 'n rukkie moet wag, aangesien ons eers 'n dringende sakie wil bespreek.

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By 'n vorige geleentheid was ek ook in daardie kafee en het toe opgemerk dat daar 'n klavier in een hoek staan. Na 'n rukkie sê ek aan Chris: "Laat die res nou aan my oor!" en stap na die klavier toe. Ek begin tokkel op die klawers en speel 'n paar deuntjies. Mense het van buite begin instap en ek trek daar los en begin sing. Na 'n ruk loer ek oor my skouer en merk op dat mense die tafels begin inneem. Die "keffiekatte" moes net bontstaan om almal te bedien. Die eienaar van die kafee kom later na my en klap my op die skouer. Hy sê toe dat dit nou "jollie" gaan vra of my maat en ek altemit iets sal geniet. "Hmm... ja die keel word 'n bietjie droog van al die sing! " sê ek. Hy raak toe daar weg. Later keer hy terug met twee glase met elk so 'n paar "vinger" brandewyn daarin. Een van die dames het in opdrag van die eienaar by Chris gaan verneem wat ons graag sou wil eet en het hy die bestelling geplaas. 'n paar van my liedjies moes ek al teen hierdie tyd herhaal aangesien my repertoire uitgeput was, en ek natuurlik ook! Wel, toe ek opstaan en na ons tafel terug gaan was daar vir ons elkeen nog 'n glasie brandewyn en 'n allemintige allegaartjie neergesit. Nadat ons lekker geëet het was dit omtrent tyd om die kafee te sluit. 22

Ongelukstoneel: Foto’s en kommentaar: Mnr Les Pivnic (Australië) Oom Les Pivnic voormalige adjunk-kurator van die spoorwegmuseum skryf vanuit Australië: Op die 9de April 1966 het ek in die kondukteurswa van 'n goedere trein tussen Aliwal-Noord en Motkop gery. Die lokomotief was 'n klas GB Garratt No.2161. Die aangehegte foto's wys:

076: 'n Rangeerbeweging op 4de "Reverse" waar die ongeluk plaasgevind het.

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Die Lourierkrans: Vol 2, No 6, 1ste Kwartaal 1986. 84


070: 'n Algemene toneel van die gebied met die treinbrug oor die Karingmelkspruit en in die agtergrond, 4de "Reverse". As u kyk na foto 076 met die trein, u sal op die berg in die middel agtergrond, die tonnel se ingang sien wat daar destyds gebou was maar nooit in gebruik geneem nie. Dit was voornemend gebou om die omkeerstasies uit te skakel, maar die nuwe lyn het 'n brug vereis om die kloof te oorbrug. Stories het opgekom dat die brug verlore ter see verlore geraak tydens die oorlog en vyand-aksie maar dit was nooit bevestig nie. Ek hoop dat hierdie twee foto's sal wees wat u nodig het, Hennie.

Kaart van Terrein: John & Jacque Wepener: Welkom

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Dis met groot dank dat ons die bydrae van Oom Les Pivnic erken en in die verband is hy bygestaan deur J & J Wepener van Riebeeckstad buite Welkom. Die Wepeners bedryf ‘n privaat spoorweg museum. Alles om ons spoorwegkultuur en historiese erfnis te bewaar. Ook aan ons ou vriend (voorheen van Pietermaritzburg) vir sy uitstekende kaarte van die gebied waar die ongeluk plaas gevind het. Sonder die bydrae van ons vriende sou ons ook nie die volle verhaal kon vertel nie. Nou kan ons sien hoe speurdersersant CC Colin gesukkel het. Hy kon ook nie om die hoek stap om ‘n “pie en Coke” te koop nie!

Kaarte ongelukstoneel: Bruno Martin (Tasmanië)

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Die Zoeloedans: Kol. DJ Smit In die vyftigerjare terwyl ek as sersant in beheer van die destydse Mobiele-eenheid te Orlando was, het die volgende voorval plaasgevind. Daardie jare het 'n voorstedelike trein, ongeveer 19h00 vanaf Faraday se stasie na Soweto vertrek. Hierdie trein het meestal Zoeloebediendes gedurende Vrydae-aande na hulle tuistes vervoer. Die "Tsotsies" was baie bedrywig op hierdie trein en misdade soos ernstige aanranding, roof, diefstal deur sakkerol en moord was aan die orde van die dag. Om hierdie euwel die hoof te bied het die mobiele-eenheid gedurende Vrydae, spesiale aandag aan die trein gegee. Een Vrydagaand was dit weer sulke tyd en 'n groep swart konstabels het die aand weer spesiale aandag daaraan gegee. As gevolg van drukte van werk op kantoor, het ek byna die trein na Faraday verpas en moes ek inderhaas gekleed in privaatklere en gewapen net met 'n knuppel, die trein bestyg. Op Faradaystasie het ek in die kondukteurswa vertoef, terwyl die konstabels posisie ingeneem het in verskillende rytuie. Die reëling was dat hulle stil in die rytuie sou sit. Na vertrek vanaf Booyzenstasie sou ek die kondukteurswa verlaat en by hulle aansluit, waarna ons dan as 'n groep saam die trein sal patrolleer. Na vertrek vanaf Booyzenstasie het ek na die eerste rytuig gegaan, waar vier van die Swart lede by my aangesluit het. Hulle het voor geloop, terwyl ek gevolg het. Soos dit 'n bang sersant betaam, het ek darem altyd gesorg dat my rug gedek was deur een lid kort op my hakke te Iaat volg. Toe ek ongeveer in die middel van die derde of vierde rytuig was en die meeste konstabels al by my aangesluit het en hulle alreeds besig was om na die volgende rytuig te beweeg, spring daar skielik 'n groep van tien of twaalf Zoeloes op. Elkeen was gewapen met 'n knopkierie. Binne 'n oogwink was ek omsingel en weet ek nie her- of derwaarts nie. Daar staan ek tussen die klomp gewapende Zoeloes wat intussen begin voete stamp en al singende hul knopkieries bokant hulle kop geswaai het. Ek moét byvoeg dat hulle vir my taamlik aggressief voorgekom het. Nou weet ek nie of dit 'n koel-kop of vrees was nie, maar toe ek my weer kon kry het ek my knuppel in die hand en swaai dit bokant my kop, terwyl ek saam met die Zoeloes dans en skree. Na 'n rukkie het die Zoeloes stil geraak en een van hulle, seker die leier van die groep met 'n paar boomstompe in sy ore, het na my toe gekom, my hand geneem, met die ander hand op my skouer geklop en iets in Zoeloe gesê wat die ander lekker laat lag het. Al wat ek kon doen was om saam met die groep te lag, darem net om vir hulle te wys ek is nog daar. Die swart konstabel wat my rugkant moes beskerm het, het na die episode na my toe gekom en gesê dat ek die regte houding ingeslaan het, anders kon ek dalk seergekry het. 23

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Die Lourierkrans: Vol 2, No 6, 1ste Kwartaal 1986.

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SA Railways Police: “Bospadda” Resin Model /35 Scale model of “Chris”, the Bospadda armoured car, Chris, used by the South African Railways Police to protect the railway lines in the then South West Africa during the Bush War period. This high-quality model is made by BaxMod, Cape Town, and can be purchased as a kit to self-assemble, or as an assembled model. 1

Link to BaxMod’s website: http://baxmod.co.za/index.php/1-35-models/products/display/bospadda1-35

Description: The Bospadda was an Armoured train developed by the SAR in the late 70's. Only two of the vehicles were ever manufactured. The Bospadda had road as well as rail capability. BaxMod has developed the rail only configuration with plans to later release the road / rail configuration as a conversion set. The resin model comes with interior detail, the rail detail, instructions, decal set for both vehicles and PE set. Contact details Chris Baxter trading as BaxMod. 26 Woodhead Drive, Edgemead, Cape Town, 7441. Phone 0215593094 | Fax 0214148091. chris@baxmod.co.za

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MILITARY HISTORY | KRYGSGESKIEDENIS

Union Defence Force (UDF) | Unie Verdedigingsmag (UVM) • 1939 – 1945: Oos-Afrika

Vroue verbonde aan die UVM op motorfietse is Oos-Afrika tydens WO2. Ons wil meer van hierdie groep dames weet. Ons sweet die SA Polisie het ‘n eenheid bekend gestel as “No 1 Cycle Unit (Police)” vir diens in Oos-Afrika wat saam met die gepantserde eenhede gewerk het. Hierdie groep het tot in Addis-Ababa geveg.

Asleep in the Sand: Captain Andre van Ellinckhuyzen (SAPS) Tobruk is a busy port in north-eastern Libya on the Mediterranean, and it was once the site of Antipyrgos, an ancient Greek agricultural colony. It was also the site of a mighty Roman fortress guarding the frontier of Cyrenaica, and later it became a weigh station on the coastal caravan route. In 1911 the Italians occupied Tobruk, and they used it as a naval and air base. During WWII, Tobruk changed hands several times, and it was the site of some of the most prolonged and fiercest battles during the war. Control of Tobruk was useful to the Allies, as it was the only significant port between Bengasi in Libya, and Alexandria in Egypt. In 1941 the British captured it from the Italians, and then in June 1942 the Germans, under Field Marshall Erwin Rommel, took the city and captured approximately 35 000 Allied troops who, including a large number of South Africans, and with the exception of a hand full who were lucky to escape, were all taken as Prisoners of War. In November of that same year, under General Bernard Montgomery, the Allies fought back and re-captured Tobruk. A destroyed Tobruk was rebuilt in the 1960’s, and the British military base at Al-Adam was eventually evacuated in 1970. 92


Sadly, there are also the many men who never left Tobruk. Their names are engraved on tomb stones and walls at the Commonwealth, French, Knightsbridge and German Cemeteries in Libya. More than 6000 German soldiers were buried at Tobruk, and more than 2000 Allies were also buried there including, ……………

Roger Aiden van Heerden (above) was born at Groenvlei24, near Utrecht on Wednesday the 19th of August 1922, as the 2nd son of Police Sergeant Pieter Willem van Heerden. Pieter Willem was born in 1895 in Vryburg, and he was a member of the S.A.P. who also served in the Union Defence Force during the 1914-1915 German South West Africa Campaign, and with the Natal Scottish Brigade during WW2 in Africa and the Middle East. Pieter Willem also managed the Vryheid Club for a couple of years. Roger’s mother was Emma Alice Tyler who was born at Nquthu. Pieter and Emma met at Helpmekaar, near Dundee, and they were married there on the 4th of October 1917 in the Magistrates Court. Pieter Willem died of cancer in 1947 in their family home at 146 Kommissie Street in Vryheid, and Emma Alice died in 1973 at Dundee. They were both buried in Vryheid. Roger Aiden was the brother of: Mathilda Ann Clifton, born van Heerden, who had served with the South African Womens Auxiliary Air Service during the war. Then there was Louis Alwyn van Heerden, who was known as “Tiekie”. Tiekie was a Constable in the South African Police, and he served with the First Police Battalion during the war. He was captured by the Germans on 21 June 1942 during the Battle of Tobruk, and held as POW at Mersa Matruh on Egypt’s Mediterranean coast. Tiekie, along with other POW’s, was fortunate to be rescued by Allied forces about five months after being captured, and taken to Cairo to recuperate. After the war Tiekie came back to be a Policeman, and was stationed somewhere in Zululand, after which he managed a sugarcane farm at Heatonville, and later a Trading store at Felixton. Then there was Pieter Willem (jnr), who served in the South African Air Force during the war from January 1942. After the war Pieter (jnr) joined the SAR, and was stationed in Vryheid, Walvis Bay and Johannesburg. Eva Tyler van Heerden, who was still at school during the war, was later married to SAAF Captain George Lawrence Coley, who later owned the G.L. Coley and Sons Store, at Blood River, near Vryheid. Captain Coley was a participant in the Warsaw

In the 1970’s I performed detached duty in Northern Natal and we established a base at Groenvlei. It had a police station with 3 policeman and some of the registers were olden than what I was then! There were only a few stock sale pens visible near the police station. Today it is a thriving village! - HBH 24

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relief flights during the war, where the Allies flew into Poland with American Liberator Bombers, to drop much needed supplies to the Polish Resistance. Roger was educated at the Vryheid High School. After war broke out Roger joined the Special Services Battalion (SSB) in January 1940. On the 4th of July 1940 he was transferred to the Umvoti Mounted Rifles (UMR), and with them he went up North in that same month. Roger’s family had at that time already been resident at number 146 Kommissie Street, in Vryheid. “Someone” once said that the ghost of a man is sometimes seen at that address. Might it be a Van Heerden who cannot rest?

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The Vryheid Gazette, dated 29 May 1942, carried this sad news to the community of Vryheid about the death of “Pte ROGER AIDEN VAN HEERDEN of “C” Company of the U.M.R.” Daily News reporting on the death of Roger Aiden Van Heerden

Pvt. Roger Aiden van Heerden was killed in a land mine explosion at Tobruk, in Libya on the 19th of May 1942. He is remembered on the War memorial, and on a bronze plaque at the St. Peters Anglican Church in Vryheid. There is a memorial stone for him, his father, and his brother Tiekie in the Vryheid Cemetery. Tobruk Cemetery There is a place that is hallowed sand, Where silent sleep the great defenders, Men of many a far-flung land. They are the ones, the Dead that renders, Us living, to an immortal debt, Peal out bugles, Roll on, never cease drums, Lest the forward march to victory And the advent of peace and age, numbs The memory of their history, Men, of Tobruk asleep in the sand.

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In a letter home to his mother Emma and sister Eva, Pvt Tiekie van Heerden wrote out the poem and commented: “I think it’s really beautiful, and I have taken a fancy to it, maybe because one of our own blood also lies there “asleep in the sand.”

Tobruk War Cemetery

Lest we forget

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SAW | SADF • SAMIL 20: Luit.kol. William Marshall

• ‘n Parade van ‘n heel ander aard!

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• Jors Troelie se Pampoen: At Spies: SALM (afgetree) Verstaan my nou baie mooi, hierdie was nie Steve Hofmeyr se pampoen nie, ook nie ou Cinderella, van goue die koets faam, se pampoen nie. Dit was my pampoen...... maar ek loop die storie so ietwat vooruit. Die vlug het heel normaal begin. Ons was getaak om die Rooikop Run met ‘n Skymaster (DC-4) te doen. Ons was geskeduleer om Dinsdag oggend om sowat 08:00 vanaf Waterkloof na Rooikop, via Windhoek, te vertrek en dan die Donderdag oggend weer vanaf Rooikop oor die selfde roete terug te keer na Waterkloof toe. 44 Eskader was natuurlik op Swartkop gestasioneer en dus moes ons vroegoggend oor vlieg Waterkloof toe. My ou vriend, Charlie van Wyngaardt, was my medevlieënier op die trippie. Vir ons sou daar meer as genoeg tyd wees om met ‘n Landy25 so ‘n paar Kabeljoutjies en Steenbrassies by Sandvisbaai (ja dit is eintlik die regte naam, nie die Engelse toebroodjie nie soos party mense die plek nou noem nie) te gaan aankeer. Wel, ek, Charlie en Corrie vd Burgh, ons ingenieur, het vroeg oggend al ons visstokke ens. Gelaai daar by Swartkops en toe vinnig oorgesuiker Waterkloof toe vanwaar die vlug eintlik moes begin. Die eerste been tot by Windhoek het sonder enige probleme of erge verwikkelinge verloop, net so ‘n paar passasiers daar afgelaai en twee of drie ander weer opgelaai. Uiteindelik land ons by Rooikop en terwyl die vrag nog afgelaai word stap ek gou oor na die transport-afdeling om vir ons, die crew, daardie gebruiklike visvang Landy te gaan aantree. Shit, egter nie die keer nie. Die klerk daar, sê vir my dat sy bevelvoerder hom uitdruklik beveel het om op ʼn besparings “drive” te gaan. Geen meer voertuie word vir besoekende lugbemanning toegelaat nie.

(Foto via lt.kol. William Marshall) “Shit, jy maak seker ‘n grap” seg ek vir die klerkie maar besef dadelik dat die mannetjie sekerlik onder orders is, dit is nie sy besluit nie. Vanaf die vervoerafdeling, stap ek direk oor na die bevelvoerder se kantoor toe, hy is ‘n gelyke rang wat slegs sowat ‘n week van te vore die pos aanvaar het. “Wat gaan ons vir twee dae lank op hierdie verlate basis van jou aanvang as ons nie kan gaan visvang nie” vra ek so ietwat ontsteld aan die man. “Jammer At, dit was ‘n besluit wat ek geneem het om so ‘n bietjie besparing te weeg te bring. Ek kan nie nou weer terug gaan daarop nie. Losing face en all that, jy weet,” seg die man maar hy lyk nie eintlik baie simpatiek nie.

25

Land Rover – HBH.

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“Nou maar goed Mig, ek sal maar ʼn ander plan maak. Die polisie, die vloot en die brownjobs skuld my al lankal. Tyd vir Payback, kan ek jou foon leen,” vra ek. “Sekerlik maar ek dink nie jy sal veel sukses hê nie.” Seg ou Mig vir my, steeds ietwat onsimpatiek. Die eerste persoon wat ek bel is kommandoor Nugget van Noordwyk, van die vloot. Ek het kort van te vore vir hom en ‘n volle vloot stafkursus vir meer as ‘n week lank in die bos rond gevlieg. Nugget is nou gestasioneer by wat genoem was die Mini-Silvermyn, net buitekant Walvisbaai. “At, vir jou sal ek ‘n plan maak”, seg Nugget na hy hoor van ons dilemma. Die uiteinde van die storie is dat ons in stede van ‘n kleinerige ou Landrovertjie, nou ‘n massiewe Bedford tot ons beskikking het. Ek self is natuurlik hoog in my noppies dat hierdie kontakte van my wel werk. Ons het goed vis gevang, daardie Woensdag, en met al die vissies nou mooi skoon gemaak en veilig verpak in die DC-4 se ruim, onder in die pens, is ons vroeg Donderdag oggend op ons poste, gereed om die terug vlug aan te pak. Daar wag ook goeie nuus op ons, geen vrag of passasiers vir Windhoek nie en ons kan beplan vir ‘n direkte deur vlug na Waterkloof toe. Ou Corrie wat so ietwat rond om die middellyf was het hom al redelik natgesweet met die op en af klimmery deur die luike van die vragruim was nou duidelik verlig maar dit was net daar waar die pampoen deel van die storie begin het. Een van ons passasiers was so ‘n mooierige jong dametjie in ‘n styf gestrykte spierwit uniform, vloot natuurlik. Die dametjie het pragtige helderblou oë gehad en was ook baie goed bedeeld bolangs. Sy het ‘n moerse gedroogde pampoen by haar gehad. Party mense sal dalk sê dit was ‘n kalbas maar ek weet nie of kalbasse so groot word nie, dalk is dit net “semantics”. Ewewel, die ding was groter in omtrek as ‘n Bedford tyre maar ook rond, goudgeel gedroog en geoordeel aan sy gewig, wat bykans niks was nie, moes die skil nou baie na aan papier dun gewees het. Daar was ook so ‘n 6-duim lange gryserige stam aan die ding, net om te wys die ding het eens op ‘n tyd wel gegroei. Die mooie ou meisietjie kom vra my toe of ek nie dalk iewers in die vliegtuig ‘n ou veilige plekkie vir die pampoen van haar het nie. “Die ding is uiters fragiel, maar is hy nie pragtig nie?” verduidelik sy en flikker daardie mooi blou oë van haar. Vir slegs ‘n oomblik dink ek: “Kan natuurlik net ʼn vroumens wees wat mooigeit aan sulke stofgaarders sien” - maar nouja, ek het nog altyd ʼn swakte gehad vir mooi meisies met blou oë, in wit uniforms en nou boonop skuld ek nou die vloot vir die leen van die Bedford ook. “Sekerlik Adelbors” seg ek. Adelbors, soortgelyk aan die lugmag se kandidaat offisier, was die rang wat sy gedra het maar omdat sy vroulik was en so pragtig bedeeld was moes dit dalk eerder edeltieties gewees het. “Gee maar vir my daardie ou pampoentjie aan,” seg ek verder vir haar terwyl ek sukkel om my oë op haar gesig gefokus te hou. Nou ja, die gene wat die Skymaster geken het, sal onthou dat daar reg agter die “bulkhead”, agter die vlieënier se sitplek, ‘n taamlike groot oop spasie was. Dit is dan ook net daar waar ek die ou pampoentjie veilig gaan bêre het, gebruik nogal ook ons eie vliegbaadjies om hom so aan die kante mee te beskerm. Mettertyd is al die vrag en passasiers gelaai en is ons op pad. Daar waar die duine van die Namib ophou en die hoë gebergtes van die Khomashoghland begin, bereik ons kruis hoogte, sowat 11000 vt bo seevlak. Dit is toe wat die ondenkbare gebeur. Daar is een moerse ontploffing, net agter daar waar ons met die stange woel. Ek skrik my gat skoon in ‘n krul in, kyk om, en sien net so ‘n digte bol rook. Op daardie oomblik kan ek kan nie eers iets agter daardie rook sien nie. Vir ‘n oomblik glo ek dat die hele vliegtuig agter my weggeblaas is, maar tog vreemd, sy hanteer nog normaal. “Kan SWAPO werklik so laag wees om hier, so vêr van die operasionele gebied, vir ons wat amper ‘n soort van siviele vlug doen, ‘n hinderlaag te kom opstel?” flits dit deur my brein. Net toe ek begin 99


dink ons het Kimbies nodig, sien ek die “rook” is besig om te verminder. Ek sien ook geen vlamme nie. Daar is net so ‘n nare muwwerige reuk wat oor ons hang. Sekondes later, deur die ligter wordende “rook” newels, sien ek ook nou so ‘n paar grootoog passasiers wat na ons staar, o.a. Edeltieties, ook maar haar uniformpie is nou nie meer so spierwit nie. Ander van die dames aan boord, die wat babas gehad het sou daardie aand maar noodgedwonge moes bottel voed, ek dink almal het hulle melk heeltemal weg geskrik. Nou wat het eintlik gebeur? Nouja, die wat iets weet van vlieg, behalwe natuurlik Tjopper-pilots, hulle vlieg nooit so hoog nie, sal besef dat op 11000 vt is die lug-druk in die kajuit heelwat minder as 70% van wat dit is op seevlak. Volgens ʼn Middeleeuse wetenskaplike, ek dink sy naam was Boyle, beteken dit dan dat die volume van die lug nou ook met sowat ongeveer 30 % uitsit. Tot op daardie stadium het die binnekant van die ou pampoentjie nog seevlak gehandhaaf maar, shit shame, daardie papier dun skilletjie van die ou pampoentjie, plus natuurlik die on-elastisiteit van genoemde skilletjie, was net nie in staat om maar daardie hoë druk verskil hanteer nie. Resultaat, die pampoen het bykans kataklismies ontplof. Behalwe vir die steel, glo ek nie ons het van die ding ʼn stukkie groter as ʼn outydse pennie opgetel nie. Maande later het daar nog steeds van tyd tot tyd stukkies gedroogte pampoenbinnestes oral in klein hoekies van die vliegtuig hul verskyning gemaak. Elke slag wanneer dit gebeur het, het my baas, kommandante Kallie Minnaar, my ingeroep na sy kantoor en gesê: “At hier is nog ‘n stuk van jou donnerse f#@@$n pampoen.” Nou weet julle hoekom ek sê dit was my f#@@n pampoen. My baas het vir my so gesê! Ons vliegbaadjies het self ook lank gevat om weer normaal te ruik. Ek glo Edeltieties het my ook van haar “Christmas card list” gescratch. As iemand maar net daaraan gedink het om een of twee klein gaatjies in daardie dop te boor maar nou ja....die gesegde sê mos: As is verbrande hout of is dit dalk gedroogde pampoen. Jors Troelie.

1. Bewerings: Genl. Magnus Malan: Genl.maj. Gert Opperman Geagte Vriende Graag word die volgende verdere dokumente wat op Netwerk24 verskyn het, onder u vriendelike aandag gebring Kliek asb. op die betrokke skakel om toegang tot die artikels te verkry: a. Afskrif van Wouter de Swardt se twee forensiese verslae in Engels. b. Onderhoud wat deur joernalis Jana Marx met afgetrede brigadier-genaraal Rodney Penhall gevoer is oor die valse bewerings dat kinders met lugmaghelikopters na Bird Eiland vervoer is. c. Voorblad van die Burger van 15 Maart 2019. Die berig het op p.4 verskyn. d. Barnard Beukman se kommentaar van 15 Maart 2019 (Barnard is die Redakteur van Beeld) Vriendelike groete Gert Opperman

2. Bewerings: Genl. Magnus Malan: Genl.maj. Gert Opperman Geagte Vriende, Graag word die volgende artikels wat op Netwerk24 verskyn het, onder u vriendelike aandag gebring Dit word vertrou dat die media wat aanvanklik by die verspreiding van die lasterlike en ongegronde 100


bewerings wat in die boek The Lost Boys of Bird Island verskyn het, dieselfde publisiteit aan die weerlegging van die bewerings sal gee. Kliek asb. op die skakel om direk na Netwerk24 se webblad te gaan en toegang tot die artikels te verkry: a. Ondersoekverslag word gelek. b. Oud-minister Barend du Plessis se reaksie. c. Die Familie van wyle genl Magnus malan se familie se reaksie As u nie 'n intekenaar van Netwerk24 is nie, kan u net op die webwerf inteken op die 30 dae gratis pakket sonder enige verdere verpligtinge om die artikels te kan lees. Vriendelike groete Gert Opperman

3. Malan-saak: Polisie-Ondersoek Soos Nongqai verstaan is die ondersoek deur SAPS na die saak afgehandel. Die ondersoekbeampte was brigadier Sonja Harri, sy is die hoof van die Wes-Kaapse eenheid vir gesinsgeweld. Sy word tans allerweĂŤ bestempel as een van die mees ervare polisiebeamptes in die land.

4. Malan-saak: Genl. Gert Opperman Geagte Vriende Graag word die berig wat in die afgelope Sondag se Rapport verskyn het, vir u insae deurgestuur.(Kliek hier). Dit blyk daaruit dat die mede-skrywer van die boek Die Seuns van Birdeiland, Christa Barlow-Steyn, ten spyte van die feit dat die boek deur 'n onafhanklike forensiese ondersoek as totaal ongeloofwaardig gediskrediteer is, onverpoosd voortgaan met haar uiters onverantwoordelike swartsmeerdery en verdagmakery, sonder om enige nuwe feite op die tafel te plaas. Dit is interessant dat daar vanuit van die bekendste swaargewigte uit die joernalistieke- en uitgewersbedryf stemme opgaan oor wat "waarskynlik die laagtepunt in die Suid-Afrikaanse (Afrikaanse) uitgewersbedryf" verteenwoordig. 'n Inset wat in hierdie verband deur die hoogs-gerespekteerde oud-redakteur en kommentator , Hennie van Deventer, op Facebook geplaas is, spreek boekdele. Dit word gerieflikheidshalwe soos volg aangehaal: "In sy rubriek oor die "Bird Island"-boek skryf die swaargewig-redakteur van Beeld, Barnard Beukman, op Saterdag 16 Maart: "Die boek verteenwoordig waarskynlik 'n laagtepunt in die SuidAfrikaanse (Afrikaanse) uitgewersbedryf". Dit is 'n sterk sentiment waarmee die uwe en, wil ek waag om te beweer, ALMAL van die redaksionele leierskader by koerante in die jare 80 en vroeg 90's hulle van harte sal vereenselwig. "Per abuis" (waarskynlik weens tegniese redes) was die betekenisvolle paragraaf met slaankrag egter onder 'n deel van die rubriek wat gesneuwel het toe dit op Netwerk24 gelaai is. Lesers van Netwerk24 sou hierdie eerste so 'n skerp veroordeling van die gewraakte boek uit Media24-geledere dus nie onder oĂŤ gehad het nie. Vandag word die rubriek volledig op Netwerk24 geplaas. 'n Mens hoop in die besluitnemersgange van Media24 word kennis geneem. Ek wonder ook wat die leidsliede van die uitgewer Tafelberg so in die stilligheid dink oor hul kollega Barnard Beukman se berispende woorde." Vriendelike groete Gert Opperman

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CCB | BSB Parole approved for Ferdi Barnard News24 | 07 March 2019 Minister has satisfied himself that David Webster's killer had met all requirements for parole

• Parole approved for apartheid hitman Ferdi Barnard 7 March 2019 Justice and Correctional Services Minister Michael Masutha has approved the placement on full parole of Ferdinand Barnard with effect from April 2, 2019, the Ministry of Justice and Correctional Services announced on Thursday. Barnard was sentenced to life imprisonment in June 1998 after being convicted on numerous charges including, murder, attempted murder, defeating the ends of justice and unlawful possession of firearms. He has served more than 20 years of his sentence. One of the two murder charges was in connection with the killing of anti-apartheid activist and Wits University academic Dr David Webster in 1989. Webster was shot and killed at the behest of the apartheid police’s security branch, the Civil Co-operation Bureau (CCB). In reaching the decision, Masutha had satisfied himself that Barnard had met all requirements for parole, the department said. "As part of the consultations prior to finalising his decision, Minister Masutha personally engaged with Ms Maggie Friedman, Dr Webster's partner. After raising her concerns with Minister Masutha, Ms Friedman indicated that she had no objection to the placement of Mr Barnard on parole." According to Masutha's spokesperson Max Mpuzana: "The CCB misinformed Mr Barnard and told him that Dr Webster, a pacifist, was involved in terrorist activities." 34 charges The SA Press Association reported in 1998 that Barnard had pleaded not guilty to 34 charges ranging from murder and attempted murder to fraud and intimidation. The charges also included the attempted murder of the late justice minister Dullah Omar in 1989.Webster was shot dead on May 1, 1989 outside his house in Troyeville, Johannesburg, which he shared with his partner Maggie Friedman. His shooting in broad daylight shocked and horrified the human rights and anti-apartheid community. An anthropologist by qualification, Webster had also been studying the effects of torture on detainees during apartheid as part of his broader studies. Masutha said this decision does not mean the end of Barnard's life sentence. The Community Corrections Office will supervise and monitor him as he serves the remainder of his sentence in the community for the rest of his natural life. News24 https://www.politicsweb.co.za/news-andanalysis/parole-approved-for-apartheid-hitman-ferdi-barnard

SANDF • How MK members "gagged their own mouths" Paul Trewhela | 01 March 2019 Paul Trewhela reviews Teboho Tommy Molotsi's book "The 'Unfinished' Revolution: Memoirs of an MK Combatant", Harona, 2017.

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If there is one book that shows why South Africa is in the mess it's in today, it's The 'Unfinished’ Revolution: Memoirs of an MK Combatant, the autobiography of Teboho Tommy Molotsi,26 published by Harona in 2017. No other book until now by a survivor of Quatro prison camp conveys so vividly the horrors of that experience, and suggests why South Africa fell so easily into the hands of the Guptas and state capture. Molotsi (MK name Thami Khaya) was a former detective sergeant in the apartheid police before he resigned in disgust at his role, a prisoner on Robben Island and later prisoner in the worst hell-hole of all, the ANC's Quatro prison in northern Angola, after joining Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK) in exile. His autobiography conveys like nothing one else the powerlessness of black people in MK in exile. All power was in the hands of a tiny number of top commanders, exercised on their behalf by unaccountable security officials with power of life or death over anyone with an independent opinion. It shows how the absence of civil society for black people under apartheid - exclusion from political decision-making, serf-like conditions in the mines, prohibition on free movement of labour, subjection to an unaccountable police regime, segregation from the ordinary means of selfadvancement in a developed capitalist economy - resulted in a reign of terror by black on black within the ANC, which replicated the worst of apartheid. Molotsi dedicates his book to the members of the Committee of Ten who were freely elected to represent the MK troops at Viana camp near Luanda in February 1984, and were brutally crushed for standing up for the troops who elected them. Again and again the book gives details of repression as an everyday normality exercised by Mbhokodo ("the grindstone", MK's secret police) against Mkatashinga (meaning those MK troops who called for MK to be sent back to fight in South Africa rather than fight in the civil war in Angola, and protested at repression and corruption), resulting in that word coming to refer to any ANC member who expressed a critical opinion, causing that person to be termed mdlwembe (enemy agent, provocateur, traitor) - with ferocious consequences. As Molotsi writes, "The effect and psychosis of the horrific experience some had seen in exile will remain for many years if not permanently in the minds of many. The 'fear' was not only 'psychic' but wisely manipulated to last for a long period or permanently with the strong belief that victims or their next-of-kin would gradually fade away from the minds of the many." (p.186) Molotsi here approaches the political philosophy of Steve Biko, who emphasised again and again that the real problem for black people under apartheid was not so much the armed power of the state but its hold on black peoples' minds. As Molotsi writes, "Mbhokodo had preference and choice of the best above everybody. Members of the administration were not susceptible to doing chores. They neither fetched their own drinking water, clean their rooms, polish their boots nor wash their clothes. Ordinary soldiers were tasked with these tasks. "Everyone knew that members of Mbhokodo were above everyone in all ANC establshments. Should you die while being detained by them, it would be reported that you had either deserted or shot while trying to escape and no one knows how, as no one would ever account for the death." He argues that this is why no one has "given answers to parents" about those who went missing in the camps. "This is because even ordinary members who knew something chose to remain mum forever, since they understood the repercussion." (pp.185-86) What happened in exile was that ANC members "gagged their own mouths." (p.2) He shows how a condition of "elitism" developed within ANC in exile, leading to an "umbrella of mafia-type of leaders" who began "living and behaving as the owners of the revolution and were treated as an upper class in their secluded environment called tulo (or the place of those in the high echelon)". It was this "type of unsurpassed arrogance of 'Stalinism' that led to mutinies within the ANC because of discontentment within the rank-and-file."

26

He was a Captain in the SA Navy – HBH.

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The book is important for several reasons, above all because it is the first to show the connection between this "mafia-type" rule in exile and the climate of "'mysterious' fear", in which ANC members would "refrain from airing their own views even on issues they strongly believed in because of the fear of being dubbed enemy agents or counter-revolutionists." (pp.2,4) His analysis of this "fear to tell" (p.9), combined with the enormous temptation to self-enrichment under ANC government since 1994, provides the first analysis linking South Africa's current political, economic and social crisis to the radical malaise of unaccountability in the ANC in exile. While Molotsi cites a reference to Chris Hani's "treacherous role" in "suppressing the mutiny" (p.232), he is open-hearted and generous in his tributes to those who stood up against the current of eltism and fear, none more so than Gertrude Shope, "one of the outstanding ANC women leaders" and member of its National Executive Committee, who stopped the ANC's executions of its own members at Pango camp in northern Angola in May 1984. He describes her as "an Angel of God in the form of Mama Gertrude Shope". (p.238) Happily, Mama Shope is still with us. Having served for 14 years in the SANDF, Molotsi has serious criticism to make of SANDF today. He is very clear how the regime of political discrimination in MK in exile has continued under ANC government up to today. He writes how, during integration of MK into the SANDF, there was a "serious mix-matching of positions of responsibility and ranking", in which frequently "best cadres and individuals who performed exceptionally in camps were side-lined and given very junior ranks and undeserving ones were 'thrown' with high ranks...". Senior commanders "would deliberately oppose the allotting of a rank to an individual comrade", leading to "frustrations throughout their entire individual careers." Others were "fortunate to receive very senior ranks ... as a result of being political appointees." As Molotsi explains, this "favouritism and nepotism" from exile have "negatively affected the whole organisation and the country," depriving the SANDF of "quality service" and leading to "material as well as financial losses due to bad management." (p.266) He refers specifically to two members of MK in Angola - one who was saved from execution by Gertrude Shope and another imprisoned at Quatro - who "have received harsh treatment from authorities with the SANDF for the whole period" of their service, "as a result of their past actions." (p.238) There are criticisms to make of the book. There is a question whether so much space in the early chapters should have been given to the early history of South Africa, the index is very faulty and all sources are not adequately referenced. But no other book by an MK veteran points so directly to how the ANC command system in exile, with its lack of accountability of leaders to members, led to the mass robbing of the state under Jacob Zuma, former director of counter-intelligence in Mbhokodo. The open highway to massive corruption, the Guptas and Bosasa begins here. This is the issue of the "unfinished" revolution in the book's title. Molotsi makes a very strong case. https://www.politicsweb.co.za/opinion/how-mk-members-gagged-their-own-mouths

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Wild Geese: Col Mike Hoare • Mike Hoare turns 100 years old (for Nongqai, end March 2019) Introduction ‘Mad Mike’ Hoare believed you get more out of life by living dangerously. And yet about 35 family and friends gathered in Durban on 17 March 2019, St Patrick’s Day, to celebrate with Mike as he turned 100 years old. It was an afternoon of birthday cake and speeches, of respect and honouring. Biography Mike’s son Chris, a journalist, has written a biography on Mike’s life. It is available in bookshops throughout South Africa and boasts 89 photographs, an index and 200 references. It tells the story behind the story and reveals the man behind the myth. Of the book, Frederick Forsyth, author of 'The Day of the Jackal' said, "I found this book a cracking read and recommend it to those who want to miss a night's sleep."

Mike Hoare 100 Wild Geese Among the guests were five of the Wild Geese who fought with Mike Hoare in the Congo in the 1960s to crush a communist rebellion, rescue 2000 nuns and priests from barbarity, and defeat Che Guevara. Several had travelled a long way to celebrate with Mike. They are, from left, Eric Bridge, Hugh Gurnell, Dave Burgess, Derek Yates and Laurie Kaplan. 105


Col Hoare and Brad Owens One of the guests was Brad Owens who served 25 years in the US Army and more years in Africa as a private military contractor. Owens created a Facebook page for Mike’s 5 Commando, and travelled from Uganda to be at the celebration. Said Brad, “I hope that you know that out here, among the men, you are known, respected and seen as the Grandfather of all modern professional private military companies.”

Two legends in one photograph. Among the guests were Eeben Barlow, founder of Executive Outcomes and now of STTEP. Barlow described Mike as one of his boyhood heroes and said he felt honoured to be at the party.

All photos by Roy Reed (Hennie, please publish the photo credit above.) 106


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POLICE & THE PRESS | POLISIE EN DIE PERS

Mainly of interest to former members of the Security Branch

Putting the boot in Jeremy Gordin | 06 March 2019 Jeremy Gordin on the latest frenetic attempts by the Human Rights crowd to see Joao Rodrigues, 79, prosecuted

• The three-ring circus is back in town, alas The last time Politicsweb covered the State versus Joao “Jan” Anastacia Rodrigues, 79, was on January 29, at which time the salient points were these. First, Rodrigues’ murder trial, for the 1971 death of activist Ahmed Timol, had been set down provisionally for April 8. Second, his application for a permanent stay of prosecution had been set down for March 28 before a full bench of the Gauteng high court. Third, on 19 December, Timol’s family, represented by nephew Imtiaz Cajee, and the family of Hoosen Haffejee, represented by Haffejee’s sister, Sarah Lall, applied to be admitted as intervening parties in Rodrigues’ application. The Haffejee family sought to intervene based on information that activist Haffejee “died in similar circumstances” to Timol. Rodrigues did not oppose the applications. However, Judge Ramarumo Monama, while granting permission to the Timol family, denied it to the Haffejee family. Now a group of six former commissioners of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) – Yasmin Sooka, Dumisa Ntsebeza, Mary Burton, Wendy Orr, Glenda Wildschut and Fazel Randera – and the South African Litigation Centre (SALC) have applied to be amici curiae in Rodrigues’ application for a stay of prosecution. Sooka, deposing on behalf of the former commissioners, noted that Rodrigues’ application “will likely ... serve as a test case for the appropriate treatment of other unresolved crimes from the apartheid era” [my emphasis]. Sooka summarised the commissioners’ five main submissions as follows. First, although it was “shameful” that the NPA had failed to prosecute perpetrators of apartheid-era crimes not granted amnesty, “the NPA appears now to be alive to the need to prosecute such crimes” – and this should be “encouraged”. She noted that it “came as a shock to learn in 2015 ... that Vusi Pikoli had been 108


subjected to executive instructions not to prosecute or investigate [TRC] matters”. Similarly, she also learned in February 2019, from an affidavit deposed by the NDPP’s Chris Macadam, that “all investigations into the TRC cases were stopped in 2003”. But now that the NPA seemed ready to get its act together, the Court “should be slow to stand in the way of the NPA doing so” [sic]. Second, the commissioners argued that “granting a permanent stay of prosecution” in Rodrigues’ case “would have dire implications for the rule of law, accountability and reconciliation in South Africa” (my emphases). Granting Rodrigues, a stay “threatens a double-breach of the rule of law”. The first breach, Sooka said, resulted from “the obdurate failure by the NPA to prosecute such crimes over the last 20 years”. The second breach flows from using the [NPA] failure as a basis to prevent future prosecutions from occurring. “The prosecution of Mr Rodrigues, and others like him [sic], is critical in order to uphold the rule of law.” Third, Rodrigues’ contention that “on the probabilities, he was likely granted amnesty, are without any basis”. She was referring to Rodrigues’ submission that “[i]t appears that there was indeed amnesty granted” by the “State President”. Sooka suggests that Rodrigues is referring to an attempt “made in 2007, when President Mbeki announced a special dispensation to deal with the ‘unfinished business’ of the TRC”. But Sooka says [Mbeki’s attempt] was effectively struck down in 2010 by the Constitutional Court. Fourth, said Sooka, the commissioners could demonstrate, in terms of domestic and comparative law, “that old age and infirmity are not obstacles to prosecution” – that such factors could be considered regarding sentencing but not as reasons for precluding prosecution. Sooka then refers inter alia to the case of one Oskar Gröning, a SS Unterscharführer, stationed at Auschwitz until about the end of 1943, and convicted at the age of 93 of being an accessory to the murder of at least 300 000 [sic] Jews. Gröning appealed against jail time (four years) based on his age but was turned down by the German Federal Constitutional Court. He died in hospital aged 96. Fifth, SA’s “international law obligations” weigh against the granting of a permanent stay of prosecution in a case such as that of Rodrigues. The SALC argues that “the killing of Mr Timol [should not be characterized as] murder as a common law crime, but rather murder as a crime against humanity of apartheid [sic]”. The SALC said it would “advance legal argument that the killing of Mr Timol constituted the [sic] crime against humanity of apartheid” and that the court “has the inherent power” to change the charge to a “crime against humanity”. Rodrigues’ legal team will decide by Friday, March 9 whether to oppose the two applications. What to make of all this? Let’s start by considering the reference made by former TRC commissioner Sooka to Oskar Gröning, the SS Unterscharführer convicted at the age of 93 of being an accessory to the murder of at least 300 000 Jews at Auschwitz27. In fairness to Sooka, she referred to this by way of pointing out that age does not necessarily exclude someone from doing jail time. But hold the phone. Gröning was convicted of being an accessory to the murder of 300 000 people. 300 000. Read it and weep. Rodrigues has been charged with the murder of one person – and it’s by no means clear that this charge holds any legal validity, which is why he’s applied for a stay of prosecution. And not only has Rodrigues been likened to a mass murderer but, according to the SALC, he is also allegedly guilty of a crime against humanity. (Might he be extradited to the International Criminal Court in The Hague?) Isn’t the hyperbole, exaggeration and lack of perspective getting a little out of hand here? Why is there this driving need to turn the findings of the second inquest into the death of Timol – and the subsequent decision to prosecute Rodrigues – into a three-ring circus? Let’s return to the “facts” for a moment. Rodrigues was an admin clerk who went to (then) John Vorster Square police station carrying salary slips or cheques on October 27, 1971. Rodrigues 27

According to Dr Wikipedia, by the way, “Gröning decided to make his activities at Auschwitz public after learning about Holocaust denial. He openly criticised those who denied the events that he had witnessed, and the ideology to which he had subscribed. The recorded accounts he provided to the BBC in 2005 contributed to the decision and ability to prosecute him. His record as an activist against Holocaust deniers since 1985 was not taken into consideration”.

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claims he was left alone with Timol in room 1026 when, according to Rodrigues, Timol propelled himself out of the window. This version (Timol committed suicide) was reversed in October 2017 by Judge Billy Mothle who ruled instead that Timol had been murdered. Mothle wrote: “(d) Timol’s death was brought about by an act of having being [sic] pushed from the 10th floor or roof of the John Vorster Square Building ... There is prima facie evidence implicating [Captains Johannes Zacharias van Niekerk and Johannes Hendrik Gloy, both now dead] ... [Joao] Rodrigues, on his own version, participated in the cover-up to conceal the crime of murder as an accessary [sic] after the fact, and went on to commit perjury by presenting contradictory evidence before the 1972 and 2017 inquests. He should accordingly be investigated with a view to his prosecution.” In short, Rodrigues allegedly told lies about what happened. Yet the NPA has charged him with murder. Rodrigues has responded as follows: “It is inherently unfair and infringes my fundamental rights to a fair trial to charge me on a count of murder ... under circumstances where a High Court, after a very detailed investigation ... of all the relevant evidence in this regard [the second inquest], found that I [the accused] was not involved in or even present at the time of the murder of the deceased.” What then is this about? Chapter and verse have recently emerged that prosecutions into the crimes of those not granted amnesty by the TRC were shut down. These prosecutions were curtailed by the ANC administration, probably for a variety of reasons: an unwillingness for more dirt to emerge, an “understanding” with the security “people” of the evil regime (who had their own collection of dirt stored away), and because the ANC qua group was also denied amnesty. Now it seems the NPA is ready to roll again. And a lot is riding on Rodrigues case. As Sooka noted in her application, the outcome of Rodrigues’ application for a stay of prosecution “will likely also serve as a test case for the appropriate treatment of other unresolved crimes from the apartheid era”. (Well, yes and no: maybe the next trial regarding an unresolved apartheid-era crime will have more hard evidence.). In Leviticus 16, two male goats were designated to be sacrificed to Yahweh and of those two, one was selected by lot to be cast out into the desert (“to be sent to Azazel”) as part of the Day of Atonement. The trouble – the tragedy, if you prefer – is that the NPA, the Timol family, and those who want to resuscitate quashed prosecutions and vindicate the memories of murdered activists have simply chosen the wrong goat. https://www.politicsweb.co.za/news-and-analysis/paroleapproved-for-apartheid-hitman-ferdi-barnard

How the apartheid regime burnt books – in their tens of thousands Archie Dick South Africa has a history of burning books, and there is every reason to believe it can happen again. On the advice of the State Librarian one fine day in the 1970s, a truck transported thousands of books and magazines from Pretoria’s Central Police Station to a dark hall at the Iscor state steel company, just outside the South African capital. A large mechanical shovel scooped up and dropped them into a 20-metre-high oven, causing it to spew flames and smoke. This was another truckload of material that had been banned for political reasons and was routinely burned in furnaces across South Africa from the 1950s to the 1970s. Historical examples show that books are banned and destroyed because they offend the politics, morals, or religion of the day. Information science academic Rebecca Knuth wrote in Burning Books and Leveling Libraries that if a regime is racist, it destroys the books of groups deemed inferior; if nationalistic, the books of competing nations and cultures; and if religiously extremist, all texts contradicting sacred doctrines.

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The Railway Depot furnace at Kaserne, Johannesburg in 1971. Banned and confiscated books and magazines were burnt weekly. Wits Student Sometimes these forces combine. Recent examples include the destruction of Muslim books and libraries in Bosnia in the 1990s by Serbian nationalist forces. In 2013 there was the burning by Islamist insurgents of the Timbuktu library and the next year the same happened in Lebanon to Tripoli’s historic Al Sa’eh Library. The apartheid era – from the middle of the 20th century – had its own variation on the theme. Thousands of books were banned, ranging from Russian novelist Fyodor Dostoyevsky’s The Insulted and Humiliated to popular Westerns writer Louis L’Amour’s Hopalong Cassidy series. The fact that books were burnt underscored the state’s desire to make sure the printed word was utterly destroyed. The practice also revealed a darker side of the library profession that connived in the book burning. Between 1955 and 1971 most librarians didn’t protest when thousands of books and other reading material were taken from libraries and burned at municipal incinerators and furnaces. Some even joined in. The rise of authoritarianism State-sanctioned book burnings were common as authoritarianism accompanied a growing Afrikanerisation of South African society as the dominant, ruling Afrikaner elite started to impose its culture on all spheres of society. Members of the elite did this first by unifying Afrikaner cultural and church organisations. This took the form of a declaration on behalf of “Volksorganisasies” (Afrikaner people’s organisations) that was signed in 1941 and pledged support for conservative Christian national ideology. This sometimes involved the burning of books as a symbol of purification. One of the more worrying aspects was the solid support from ordinary South African librarians for these treacherous acts. 111


Even when books were burnt by public libraries, the profession meekly accepted the situation. This signified support and agreement with what was happening, and reflected the dominant authoritarian mood and spirit in South Africa and the library community at that time. In October 1955, the city librarian of Johannesburg exclaimed: All copies are brought in to me and I destroy them personally. In the same month, a Cape Town newspaper reported that a couple of hundred books had been burned. Two years later, the deputy city librarian of Cape Town announced the fate of banned books returned from branch libraries to his Central Library: We will have a big bonfire and burn them. All-out attack on free speech What started as the burning largely of imported pornographic books became an all-out attack on free speech after the findings of a commission of inquiry into “undesirable publications” were made public in October 1957. The inquiry gave the Nationalist government the excuse to destroy books and pamphlets critical of its policies, and of dramatic developments in the country. Each new issue of the Government Gazette included the latest additions to the list of banned books. Books on communism and those that criticised apartheid dogma were targeted. In 1954 banned titles included the Pravda and Daily Worker newspapers, and Vladimir Lenin’s Two Tactics of Social-Democracy in the Democratic Revolution. Books on innocuous topics about communist countries, such as China’s “Railways and Labour Insurance Regulations of the People’s Republic of China”, were also deemed subversive and added to the list. Even Ray Bradbury’s dystopian novel Fahrenheit 451 (which, not coincidentally, is the temperature at which book paper starts burning) was burnt. From the town of Brakpan in the north to Durban in the east and Cape Town in the south, several thousands of books were removed from library shelves and burnt. In July 1964 Cape Town City library services announced that more than 800 books had been burnt. By this time the list of banned publications had swelled to a total of 12,000 titles. In June 1968, a newspaper reported that 5,375 books of the Natal Provincial libraries had been withdrawn from circulation and burned. By April 1971 books were still steadily being burnt in Cape Town – at the rate of two per day. It was only in the late 1980s that successful appeals from a few brave librarians to the state censors saw restricted books unbanned and saved from apartheid’s furnaces. In the early 1990s as South Africa moved towards becoming a democracy, hundreds of archival documents and public records were shredded and burnt by the apartheid state’s security establishment – once again in the furnaces of Iscor. Could book burning happen again in contemporary South Africa? Given a similar set of circumstances, there is every reason to believe that it can. South Africans should remain diligent and alert to threats to freedom of expression. The ashes of burnt books tell of the barbarism to which a society can descend. Archie Dick, Head of Department and Professor of Information Science, University of Pretoria. This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons licence. Read the original article. https://citizen.co.za/talking-point/2028104/how-the-apartheid-regime-burntbooks-in-their-tens-of-thousands/

• Boeke verbrand: Kommentaar deur brig. HB Heymans Die veiligheidstak het ‘n biblioteek gehad. Hulle het onder andere met ongewenste lektuur gewerk. Die biblioteek het ook ‘n lys van verbode publikasies gehad. Die lys van ongewenste was destyds versprei onder die naam: “Jacobson’s” – dit was hoofsaaklik uittreksels van die staatskoerant van verbode publikasies. Alle verbode publikasies wat die polisie gevind het, is na die veiligheidstak se biblioteek te hoofkantoor gestuur. Baie veiligheidstakke het ook oor hul eie biblioteke gehad. Baie verbode publikasies was natuurlik ook bewysstukke. Veiligheidshoofkantoor se biblioteek het ook die voorleggings van sekere publikasies aan die publikasieraad gemaak. (Hoofsaaklik kommunistiese lektuur). 112


Ek was die eienaar van ‘n groot biblioteek en het ministeriële toestemming verkry om ongewenste en verbode boeke te besit bv. kommunistiese boeke en ANC-lektuur. Ek was ‘n student wat sulke lektuur nodig gehad het vir my studies en my taak as polisieman. ‘n Polisieman kon nie eintlik op kantoor sit en boek lees nie! Destyds lees ek in die koerant dat Frederick Forsyth se boek The Odessa File verbode verklaar is. Die boek was in my besit en ek het kaptein Pieter Scholtz (later brigadier) wat saam met brigadier Neels du Plooy oor die biblioteek bevel gevoer het gaan spreek. Ek is meegedeel daar is ‘n resep in die boek van hoe om ‘n bom te maak, verskyn. Ek het daarop gewys dat dit belaglik is – bomme kan gemaak word om slegs ‘n wetenskapboek of ‘n ensiklopedie te raadpleeg. Die boek is ingehandig en het selfs ‘n draai by die minister gemaak. Die boek is toe later “gewens” verklaar. Op ‘n vlug tussen Salisbury en Jan Smuts-lughawe gedurende 1974 het ek die boek “Hold my Hand I am Dying” deur John Gordon Davis28 in my bagasie gehad op ‘n vlug tussen Salisbury en Jan Smuts-lughawe. Ek was nog besig om die boek oor die Rhodesiese-bosoorlog te lees maar het die boek aan SA Doane by aankoms verklaar – tot my verligting was die verbod op die boek intussen opgehef. Die boek het ‘n gedeelte in gehad oor ‘n hofsaak in Karoi wat vreeslik humoristies geskryf was! (Resensie van boek: “The great heart of Africa is dying. Joseph Mahoney, the last colonial commissioner in the spectacular Kariba Gorge, is there to witness the death throes. Somehow, he must also ease the birth pangs of the new Africa that will take its place. His companions are Samson, his Matabele servant, and Suzie, the girl he loves. But Mahoney and Suzie are drifting apart, and now Samson has been accused of murder. And all too quickly, it seems, the country is heading towrds a bloodbath of revenge. Hold My Hand I'm Dying - a compelling story of freedom, friendship and love in the face of hatred, violence and death.”) As iemand wat lief vir geskiedenis is, was ek vreeslik teleurgesteld toe ons leggers van papier na mikrofilm verander is. Die werk was eenvoudig nie meer dieselfde nie. Gelukkig is ek verplaas na ‘n veldeenheid en later na die sekretariaat van die staatsveiligheidsraad. Die legger vir my, was altyd soos ‘n boek – die mikrofilms op die skerm het my seesiek gemaak! Later is al ons leggers en geheime verslae na bewering vernietig. Dit was seker die grootste fout wat die veiligheidspolisie ooit in sy ganse bestaan gemaak het! Dit is ‘n skande dat sulke historiese dokumente vernietig kon word. Vandag sou dit baie probleme kon oplos. Ek sou, as ek die minister was, die kommissaris gelas het om al die dokumente in houers te plaas en te verskeep na ‘n plek waar ons dit vir 30 jaar kon bewaar vir die nageslag. (Natuurlik sou ons NOOIT ons bronne, beriggewers en geheime agente bekend gemaak het of ontbloot het nie!) Dit moet onthou word, dat die nuwe regering ook baie leggers in die staatsargief gefynkam het. Enige inligting wat hulle laat slegs lyk het, is vernietig. Dit is wat sekere historici aan my meegedeel het wat bv. navorsing na MK doen. Die slegste van alles was as die staat Scope verban het! Scope een van vele tydskrifte deur Hint Hyman van Republikeinse Pers. Scope was ‘n wenner tydskrif – ja daar was mooi meisies in; maar ook uiters goeie verhale en artikels van goed waarin mans belang gestel het bv. die grensoorlog, die Rhodesiese bosoorlog en geweld op treine is van die artikels wat aangebied was. Leon Mellet en Mark Condor het in die fotoverhaalboekies gespeel.

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John Gordon Davis was born and grew up in Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). He had a degree in Political Science and an LLB. He served on the bar in Southern Rhodesia, before UDI in that country. He became a full-time writer after the success of his first book Hold my hand I'm dying. He ran a course in fiction writing from Andalusia in Spain. He passed away in November 2014… - https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/2596022-hold-my-hand-i-mdying

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Playboy was uit en uit verban en ‘n kriminele oortreding om een te besit! Ek was as polisieman gekant teen sensuur! Mens moet jou eie sensuur skep en lees wat jy wil. Kommunistiese lektuur is so droog mens val aan die slaap as jy die goed lees. Kommunistiese lektuur moes vrylik beskikbaar gewees het sodat die publiek hul eie gedagtes kon opmaak! Wie vandag koop en lees nou eintlik kommunistiese lektuur?

• Crime intelligence 'affected, but not captured' – Sitole on SSA report 2019-03-13 14:31 | Jan Gerber The police's Crime Intelligence unit has been "affected" by revelations in the hard-hitting high-level review panel report on the State Security Agency (SSA) but is "not captured", the national police commissioner has said. Lieutenant General Khehla Sitole made this assertion to the Portfolio Committee on Police on Wednesday after reference was made to the high-level report which the Presidency, in an unusual move, made public over the weekend. "It is important that we get an assurance that there are consequence management and adherence to the Constitution and legislation [at Crime Intelligence]," committee chairperson Francois Beukman said. "Is our Crime Intelligence also part of the capture?" EFF MP Philip Mhlongo asked. Mhlongo said President Cyril Ramaphosa did the "honourable thing" by releasing the report. "Some findings of that report affect how intelligence should operate in the police," Sitole responded. "Generally, chair, I can say the findings of that commission are aligned to our strategy." "We are affected," Sitole said. "But we are not captured." He said there would be an "immediate impact" on Crime Intelligence should the SSA not be functioning as it should. Major General Peter Jacobs, head of Crime Intelligence, said the panel didn't cover the unit's work, but he was called before the panel and provided his input. Disciplinary proceedings "Last year, we did a full, robust review of Crime Intelligence," he said. "It was fairly intense, the issues we identified." He said the unit was dealing with instances where there had been overreach, including several cases in which officials were charged in disciplinary proceedings. "That process is ongoing." He said disciplinary proceedings were slow and explained that while the sheer volume of charges against officials might leave some with the impression that certain people were being targeted, the sole reason was to turn the organisation around. He said Crime Intelligence was working with the Zondo commission of inquiry into state capture with regards to the security around the proceedings. He said when allegations crop up at the commission, the unit "tackles" them. The committee was generally positive about developments at Crime Intelligence since Jacobs's appointment last year. "I'm most heartened by the work of General Jacobs," said DA MP Dianne Kohler Barnard. She said he had inherited a deeply damaged organisation but seemed to be "working miracles". Beukman said it was "quite clear" that good progress had been made since the appointments of Jacobs and Sitole. https://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/crime-intelligence-affected-but-not-captured-sitole-onssa-report-20190313

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The Rodrigues prosecution: The LSSA jumps in Jeremy Gordin | 25 March 2019 • Jeremy Gordin asks why the Law Society is trying to intervene as an amicus in this case It has come to light that the Law Society of South Africa (LSSA) has “apparently” made an application to be an amicus curiae in the court application of Joao “Jan” Rodrigues, 79 – due to apply on March 28 before a full bench of the Gauteng high court for a permanent stay of prosecution for his alleged murder of activist Ahmed Timol in October 1971, 47 years ago. One must write “apparently” because, although the LSSA sent (what are known as) “heads of argument” on 27 February to the office of Dunstan Mlambo, Gauteng Judge President (GJP), the LSSA did not lodge an actual application to be an amicus29. For someone or an organisation to be admitted as an amicus, he, she or it must formally apply. This is how it works. There’s a second difficulty. Although, in a “directive” dated February 8, the GJP invited “interested parties” to apply to be amici in the Rodrigues case (the LSSA was apparently responding to this), the GJP failed to set a date on which such applications could be considered by the court. Even if a person or organisation makes an unopposed application to be an amicus (and Rodrigues has not opposed any amici applications), the court must still consider whether the application is relevant. Thus, the applications made by (i) a group of six former Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) commissioners, (ii) the South African Litigation Centre (SALC), and now possibly (iii) the LSSA, have still to be weighed by the court. At the time of writing this, Thursday 28 March is less than a week away and only two court days have been scheduled for Rodrigues’ application. So, when will the judges hear the amici applications? Or is Rodrigues’ application for a stay going to end up being postponed until a full bench can again be put together? Remember that although this matter has been in abeyance for 47 years, the high court is extremely busy and individual judges have full diaries. There is another potential spanner in the works. It is not yet known whether Judge Ramarumo Monama will be one of the judges dealing with the Rodrigues application. The significance of whether Monama will be (or not) is that on December 19 he refused in no uncertain terms the request of activist Hoosen Haffejee’s family, represented by his sister, Sarah Lall, to be an amicus 30. If the TRC commissioners and LSLC and perhaps even the LSSA are admitted as amici, how will the Haffajee family react? Will it not bring an application to have its admittance re-considered? For now, however, let’s leave these “technical” and scheduling lacunae aside. Perhaps the LSSA’s failure to apply properly was simply the result of load shedding or some such thing – and will be condoned by the court. And hopefully the GJP will sort out the other problems early this week. Let’s rather turn our attention to the “heads” sent in by the Law Society of South Africa. According to its website, the LSSA has since 1998 “represented the attorneys’ professions. The LSSA brings together the Black Lawyers Association, the National Association of Democratic Lawyers and provincial attorneys’ associations.” The website also notes a plethora of duties and initiatives undertaken by the society including inter alia “protecting and promoting the independence of the judiciary and of the legal profession”. In other words, it’s a general society, to which probably all attorneys in SA belong (including Rodrigues’ attorney), and which probably exists because most professions like to have an umbrella body representing them and protecting their independence, etc.

Telephone calls on March 22 to the attorneys of record on the “heads,” Mkhonto & Ngwenya, Pretoria, were not answered; and attempts to find someone aware of the matter and willing to discuss it, at the LSSA, also on March 22, were similarly unsuccessful - Jeremy Gordin. 30 The family contended that Haffejee died in similar circumstances to Timol and therefore that its involvement was appropriate - Jeremy Gordin. 29

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But why in heaven’s name has such an organisation involved itself, albeit incorrectly, in a murder trial in a way that clearly tries to sway the court against Rodrigues’ application? Should the LSSA be doing this sort of thing? An amicus curiae is defined as follows: “...someone who is not a party to a case and may or may not have been solicited by a party and who assists a court by offering information, expertise, or insight that has a bearing on the issues in the case ...” [my emphasis]. In its heads, as examples of its expertise and insight, the LSSA offers five reasons why Rodrigues’ application for a stay should be dismissed. First: that murder does not prescribe. Second: that the murder of Timol was “a political act carried out by the police of the Apartheid State”. Third: that it would be “unconscionable to allow a man implicated in a murder of a political nature, who did not obtain amnesty [in terms of the applicable legislation at the time], to remain at large when his prima facie culpability has been so thoroughly exposed as in the re-opened inquest”. Fourth: that if Rodrigues’ prosecution is permanently stayed, “unhealthy cynicism ...would be further engendered ... in light [sic] of all the surrounding circumstances of contemporaneous South Africa, like the State Capture Commission and various other Commissions ...” Fifth: that there do exist persuasive and cogent reasons for the long delay in bringing charges against Rodrigues and, moreover, that Rodrigues cannot argue that he has suffered “irreparable trial prejudice” due to the 47-year-delay, because “he attended the re-opened inquest [where he] heard all [my emphasis] the evidence ...concerning the cause of death of Mr Timol ... [therefore, Rodrigues] has a unique insight into the strengths and weaknesses of the State case against him for murder”. There is much one could say about the LSSA heads of argument; that, for examples, Rodrigues never argued anywhere that murder prescribes; nor was his “prima facie culpability exposed at the re-opened inquest” – au contraire; and that it seems a bit of a stretch to hold the possibility that Rodrigues might not be prosecuted responsible for exacerbating the “contemporaneous” situation in the country. But there are two more important points that require underlining. The first is that nowhere – nowhere – in the heads does the author take note that Rodrigues’ chief argument in favour of a permanent stay is that “a High Court, after a detailed investigation and evaluation of all relevant evidence ... found that I was not involved in or even present at the time of the murder of the deceased”. It’s as though, for the LSSA, this argument simply doesn’t exist. This leads us to a second important point. Look again at the fifth reason offered by the LSSA for why Rodrigues’ application should be dismissed. Rodrigues, says the LSSA, can’t argue that he suffered “irreparable trial prejudice” due to an almost five-decade delay because “he attended the re-opened inquest [where he] heard all the evidence”. This is important because it serves to reminds us that after Rodrigues was charged, his defence team requested “further particulars” from the state. Remember that the reopened inquest found (as just noted) that Rodrigues was not involved in or even present at the time of the murder of the deceased. In other words, without wishing to exaggerate, Rodrigues’ defence team was somewhat gobsmacked that the state, despite the findings made at the reopened inquest, was proceeding primarily with a murder charge against Rodrigues. Was there some new (damning) evidence that hadn’t been presented at the reopened inquest? The state replied that it had presented all it had to present; i.e., Rodrigues had indeed heard “all the evidence”. This must seem, to a rational and dispassionate observer, to be a serious and worrisome matter. At the re-opened inquest, Judge SP “Billy” Mothle found this: “The court’s prima facie finding is that members of the Security Branch who were interrogating Timol on the day he died, through an act of commission or omission, murdered Timol. This they committed through dolus eventualis as the form of intent” (p. 125 of reopened inquest finding, October 12, 2017). 116


The judge then continued: “Rodrigues placed himself on the scene [my emphasis] as a party to the cover up to conceal truth. He thereby prima facie, by his conduct became an accessory after the fact of murder” (p 125). The judge also noted in his findings that “Rodrigues, on his own version [sic], participated in the cover up to conceal the crime as an accessary [sic] after the fact ...He should accordingly be investigated with a view to his prosecution” (p 126). The significance of the phrase “Rodrigues placed himself on the scene” is that Judge Mothle did not accept any of Rodrigues’ testimony and moreover decided to accept evidence from three witnesses (46 years’ later) that the time of Timol’s fall to the ground had been in the morning not the afternoon, and despite then district surgeon Vernon Kemp having declared Timol dead at 16h00. In other words, to put it bluntly, Judge Mothle appears to have been of the view that Rodrigues made up everything. Other important findings made by Judge Mothle are similarly questionable – such as, for example and most importantly, his unquestioning acceptance of the “revised” forensic evidence, on which he based his view that Timol was so badly injured he could not possibly have physically propelled himself out of the window. The problem here, is that the two forensic pathologists who gave evidence at the second inquest not only contradicted each other on certain key points, but their claims of severe pre-fall injuries stood completely at odds with the concessions made by the family’s own expert witness and legal team at the first inquest. This was just one example of the way in which dubious and sometimes completely false claims made their way, undigested, through the second inquest process. The central reason for this was that there was no strenuous cross-examination or testing of such evidence the second time around. Faced now by a much more experienced legal team, headed by Jaap Cilliers SC, things could be very different for the state. At any rate, the question is this: Why, if the state’s case is predicated on the findings of the reopened inquest, is the state involving itself, by way of a murder charge, in an apparent attempt to squeeze Rodrigues into (possibly) admitting perjury, or having a perjury charge proved against him? This smacks of bullying. And, although one feels unhappy about accusing the NPA and eminent prosecutor JT “Torie” Pretorius SC of such a thing, it also suggests the state is proceeding to court with what seems like a male fide (bad faith) or “fraudulent” case. https://www.politicsweb.co.za/opinion/the-rodrigues-prosecution-the-lssa-jumps-in

Joao Rodrigues Heads to Court March 28, 2019 Lowly apartheid clerk with heavy weight on his shoulders When former security policeman Joao Rodrigues appeared before Judge Billy Mothle in 2017 at the re-opened inquest into the death in detention of anti-apartheid activist Ahmed Timol, he presented himself as a naïve and insignificant administrative clerk who happened to be in the wrong place at the wrong time when he witnessed Timol’s suicide. Roderigues was dismissed as a liar by Judge Mothle, who overturned the 1972 suicide finding of the presiding apartheid magistrate and replaced it with one of murder. When Rodrigues approaches a full bench of the South Gauteng High Court in Johannesburg, on 28th and 29th March 2019 for a permanent stay of prosecution for murdering Timol, the lowly security police clerk will be carrying on his shoulders the hopes and fears of hundreds, perhaps thousands, of surviving policemen, soldiers and politicians who have until now avoided being held accountable for ghastly crimes. http://www.ahmedtimol.co.za/joao-roderigues-heads-to-court

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Timol murder accused says he should benefit from amnesty for pre1994 crimes Fighting to clear his name, former Security Police clerk Joao Jan Rodrigues says he should benefit from amnesty former president Nelson Mandela granted, or an agreement reached at the highest level of government, that politically motivated crimes preceding 1994 would not be prosecuted. This was the submission his lawyer made in the Gauteng High Court in Johannesburg on Thursday in an application for a permanent stay of prosecution for his alleged involvement in the killing of antiapartheid activist Ahmed Timol. But the state believes that Rodrigues should rather try to clear his name in a trial. Rodrigues faces charges of murder and defeating the ends of justice. His advocate, Jaap Cilliers, SC, also submitted that prosecution would infringe his constitutional right to a fair trial and his right to dignity because he would be tried at the age of 80 for an incident which occurred almost 50 years ago. Cilliers argued that the trial had been unreasonably delayed and that his client had not been properly informed of the charges. Timol was arrested in 1971 at the age of 29. The police in the interrogation room at the time, including Rodrigues, said the young teacher and activist from Roodepoort threw himself out of a window from the 10th floor of John Vorster Square, now known as the Johannesburg police station. His family refused to believe this and in 2017, the National Prosecuting Authority held another inquest, which overturned the 1972 finding that he had died by suicide. Cilliers submitted: "The objective facts in this case are of course that [the] applicant has only been charged more than 47 years after the death of the deceased." "There was enormous delay by the [State] to proceed with the prosecution against the applicant of more than 47 years." Cilliers added that there may have been political "pressure" on the Director of Public Prosecutions to delay the matter after the conclusion of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRT) proceedings. "These proceedings were finalised during the later 1990s, and the [State] waited for 18 years before submitting the request for the re-opening of the inquest in the Timol matter," said Cilliers. He said he found it interesting that the re-opening of the inquest was the first of its kind by "a High Court and presided by a judge of the court". However, the State's Kennedy Tsatsawane, SC, says a permanent stay of prosecution will not help anything. "The applicant himself can only clear his name through a trial and not by a stay of prosecution," Tsatsawane said. He disputed that a trial would infringe Rodrigues' rights and said "a criminal court is also responsible for ensuring that accused people have a fair trial in exactly the same manner promised in the Constitution". Tsatsawane added that unless it was properly established, with admissible evidence, that a fair criminal trial would be impossible to achieve, there can be no basis to accede to the claim for a permanent stay of prosecution. Rodrigues' application, which began on Thursday, is set down for 2 days. The order of the full Bench is expected on April 8. The families of former ANC president Chief Albert Luthuli and Black Consciousness Movement founder and anti-apartheid activist Steve Biko watched closely from the gallery. Biko died in a prison cell in Pretoria, while "Inkosi" Albert Luthuli was hit by a train near his Groutville31 home. The families of both activists previously made it known that they want more answers around their loved ones' questionable deaths. Timol and Biko are just some of 73 antiapartheid activists who died in detention between 1963 and 1990. News24 The case was investigated by the SAR Police – accounts of investigating officers were published in the Nongqai. It was a railway accident pure and simple – HBH. 31

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https://www.politicsweb.co.za/news-and-analysis/jan-rodrigues-defence-argues-for-stay-ofprosecuti

Apartheid Criminals must be Prosecuted, Court Hears in Ahmed Timol Case By Yanga Sibembe 29 March 2019 The family of slain anti-apartheid activist Ahmed Timol and the NPA want the prosecution of murder accused Joao Rodrigues to continue as the former security branch officer is in court to have the charges dropped. The South Gauteng High Court heard arguments on Thursday and Friday from various parties with a vested interest in former apartheid cop Joao Rodrigues’s request for a permanent stay of prosecution for the 1971 murder of anti-apartheid activist Ahmed Timol. Rodrigues was charged with murder in July 2018 after an inquest found Timol was thrown to his death from the 10th floor of Johannesburg Central Police Station. Rodrigues’s defence, led by Advocate Jaap Cilliers, argued that because of the period of time that has lapsed it would be unconstitutional for the state to proceed with prosecuting him. Cilliers put it to the full bench, including Judges Seun Dimpheletse Moshidi, Jody Kollapen and Ingrid Opperman, and a packed court room that “this case is unique because of the enormous timeline” and that Rodrigues “did not try to evade justice”, instead he was just never charged by the National Prosecuting Authority (NPA). http://www.ahmedtimol.co.za/apartheid-criminals-must-be-prosecuted-court-hears-in-ahmed-timolcase

1899 – 1902: Pietermaritzburg Borough Police

A picture says it all! Thank you Elne Watson – HBH.

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MILITARY AND THE MEDIA | MILITĂŠR EN DIE MEDIA

Nyanda fired after refusing repeated invitations to go meet Guptas News24 | 01 March 2019 Minister says he always insisted that those who wanted to see him privately, do so in his office

State capture: Nyanda fired after refusing repeated invitations to meet Guptas Former communications minister Siphiwe Nyanda told the commission of inquiry into state capture that he was fired after refusing to honour invitations to meet with the Gupta family. Nyanda, who was chief of staff of the ANC's liberation army uMkhonto weSizwe, was the second witness to testify about the appointment and removal of ministers on Thursday. He told commission chairperson, Deputy Chief Justice Raymond Zondo, that he once met with the Gupta brothers at his office and they were accompanied by former president Jacob Zuma's son Duduzane. The family has been accused of using its close relationship with the former president to loot from the state and to control some of his decisions, including the appointment of members of his executive and operations at state-owned enterprises. Nyanda told the commission that following his first encounter with the Guptas, he would receive messages from "emissaries" requesting that he meets with the family. "I found it a bit strange when they made the appointment to see me. I afforded them the respect to see me. They did, through my office. I didn't understand why other people who were not part of my office would want me to see them," said Nyanda. Although he refused to name those peddling messages to him from the Guptas, Nyanda said he understood that the family knew he was close to those specific people and trusted them to communicate their wishes to the former minister. "I didn't suspect anything because there were many people who wanted to see me privately, but I always insisted that it be in my office," he explained. Nyanda, who only served as a minister for 18 months, was removed during an October 2010 Cabinet reshuffle. He also told the commission that he received a call from someone in the Presidency while on a trip in Durban asking him to meet with Zuma, which was subsequently followed by a call from the then president telling him that the ANC's officials had decided to redeploy him to Germany. Nyanda said after refusing to do so and opting to be a backbencher in Parliament, he tried to find out from the ANC's officials what he had done wrong. "I'd heard rumours that I would be removed but did not believe them as there was general stability in the portfolios under my watch," said Nyanda. Earlier, he confirmed former finance minister Trevor Manuel's testimony that former minister and now ANC head of elections Fikile Mbalula was upset after finding out that he was going to be appointed a minister by the Gupta family. "What was remarkable to me was that Mbalula made this outstanding revelation. It was actually a criticism of the way in which he had been informed about his impending appointment. He was, in other words, disturbed by it," Nyanda said. News24 120


https://www.politicsweb.co.za/news-and-analysis/nyanda-fired-after-refusing-repeated-invitations-t

David Mabuza’s hair-raising jet landing Erika Gibson2019-03-10 14:45 Deputy President David Mabuza endured a hair-raising landing this week at the hands of the SA Air Force, when both tyres on the left side of the VIP jet he was travelling in burst during a landing at Cape Town International Airport. The crippled Falcon 900, the air force’s number two aircraft in its VIP fleet, then spent hours on one of the airport’s taxiways, waiting for a crew with new tyres to be flown in from Pretoria. Mabuza was travelling to Cape Town to attend the parliamentary question-and-answer session with President Cyril Ramaphosa, who flew on the presidential jet Inkwazi. Thami Ngwenya, Mabuza’s spokesperson, said the deputy president was unharmed, but declined to comment further on the matter. According to air force sources, the same senior pilot involved in Thursday’s incident also ended up in hot water when he accidentally landed on the military runway of Entebbe International Airport in Uganda in 2015. At the time, Ramaphosa – serving as deputy president – was on board. The secondary runway that the pilot landed on during the 2015 incident was reserved solely for military fighter jets. No flights were scheduled for that night, averting a possible disaster. The Ugandan aviation authority subsequently laid a complaint against the crew and, at the time, the air force said that the necessary corrective action was taken. The situation that occurred at Cape Town airport on Thursday will be investigated by the air force’s flight safety division. Those in the know speculate that the incident could have been caused by one of two things. It was raining in Cape Town at the time of the incident, and the runway was wet. The Falcon 900 has an anti-skid mechanism, which is put into operation to prevent the aircraft from skidding. If this system had not been activated, or if it was not working properly, the pilot would have had to break sharply to prevent the aeroplane from skidding, thereby bursting the tyres. But instead of immediately bringing the plane with its flat tyres to a stop, the crew apparently moved it closer to the airport building, further damaging the rims. Technicians and two replacement tyres were then loaded on to a Falcon 50 and flown to Cape Town from Waterkloof Air Force Base. The Falcon 900 was put into use again late last year, after being grounded for a year while the air force set up its own maintenance division with the assistance of SAA. https://city-press.news24.com/News/david-mabuzas-hair-raising-jet-landing-20190310 “WE

WILL REMEMBER THEM”: CAPT. CHARLES ROSS (SAN – RTD.)

South Africans Commonwealth War Casualties Buried Across the World: Part 14: Captain (SAN) Charles Ross (SA Navy Retired) South Africans participated in almost every theatre of war during both the First and Second World Wars. According to the Commonwealth War Graves Commission Casualty Data Base 7 290 (includes 607 unknown) First World War casualties and 9 986 (includes 84 unknown) Second World 121


War casualties are buried in 1 207 cemeteries while 2 959 First World War and 2 005 Second World War casualties are commemorated on 48 memorials. This does not include the 1 750 members of the South African Native Labour Corps and the 306 from the South African Book of Remembrance whose names are in the process of being added to the Commonwealth War Graves Commission’s Casualty Data Base. With South Africans having served far and wide it is not surprising that you would find single or small group graves in cemeteries across the world. Here are some of those cemeteries where one or a very small group of South Africans are buried.

• Massicualt War Cemetery - Tunisia In May 1943, the war in North Africa came to an end in Tunisia with the defeat of the Axis powers by a combined Allied force. The campaign began on 8 November 1942, when Commonwealth and American troops made a series of landings in Algeria and Morocco. The Germans responded immediately by sending a force from Sicily to northern Tunisia, which checked the Allied advance east in early December. Meanwhile, in the south, the Axis forces defeated at El Alamein were withdrawing into Tunisia along the coast through Libya, pursued by the Allied Eighth Army. By mid-April 1943, the combined Axis force was hemmed into a small corner of north-eastern Tunisia and the Allies were grouped for their final offensive. Many of those buried at Massicault War Cemetery died in the preparation for the final drive to Tunis in April 1943 and in that advance at the beginning of May. The three South Africans buried in this cemetery are Lieutenant E. Le R Aitchison, South African Air Force, who died on 16 January 1944, Air Sergeant A. R. Harmer, South African Air Force, who died on 25 May 1944 and Corporal H. J. Adams, Cape Corps, who died on 02 June 1943. 122


The cemetery contains 1,576 Commonwealth burials of the Second World War, 130 of them unidentified. Story for the South African Legion of Military Veterans by Lgr Charles Ross based on information from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission’s Casualty Data Base and photos by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission.

• Aeroplane Cemetery - Belgium From October 1914 to the summer of 1918, Ypres (now Ieper) was the centre of a salient held by Commonwealth (and for some months also by French) forces. The site of the cemetery was in No Man's Land before 31 July 1917 when the 15th (Scottish) Division, with the 55th (West Lancashire) Division on their left, took nearby Verlorenhoek and Frezenberg. The cemetery was begun the following month (under the name of the New Cemetery, Frezenberg) by the 15th and the 16th (Irish) Divisions, but by October it had acquired its present name from the wreck of an aeroplane which lay near the present position of the Cross of Sacrifice. It was used by fighting units until March 1918, and again, after a period of occupation by the Germans, in September 1918. Plots II to VIII, and part of Plot I, were formed after the Armistice when graves were brought in from small burial grounds and the surrounding battlefields. Only South African buried in the cemetery is Private H. A. Brickhill, 3rd Regiment, South African Infantry Brigade who died on 18 September 1917. The only considerable burial grounds concentrated into Aeroplane Cemetery were the following: Bedford House Cemetery (Enclosure No. 5), Zillebeke, a little East of the Ypres-Wytschaete Road. This enclosure, which was separate from the others now forming Bedford House Cemetery, contained the graves of 14 men of the 1st Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry and six of the 1st Devons who fell in April, 1915. Lock 8 Cemetery, Voormezeele, in a field about 200 metres North of Lock 8 on the Ypres-Comines Canal. It contained the graves of 19 soldiers from the United Kingdom and two from Australia and two German prisoners, who fell in July-September, 1917. There are now 1,105 Commonwealth servicemen of the First World War buried or commemorated in this cemetery. 636 of the burials are unidentified but special memorials commemorate eight casualties known or believed to be buried among them. The cemetery was designed by Sir Reginald Blomfield. 123


•

Bard Cottage Cemetery – Belgium

For much of the First World war, the village of Boesinghe (now Boezinge) directly faced the German line across the Yser canal. Bard Cottage was a house a little set back from the line, close to a bridge called Bard's Causeway, and the cemetery was made nearby in a sheltered position under a high bank. Burials were made between June 1915 and October 1918 and they reflect the presence of the 49th (West Riding), the 38th (Welsh) and other infantry divisions in the northern sectors of the Ypres Salient, as well as the advance of artillery to the area in the autumn of 1917. After the Armistice, 46 graves were brought in to Plot VI, Row C, from the immediate area, including 32 from MARENGO FARM CEMETERY (this was located a few hundred metres to the south of Bard Cottage, on the same side of the road. It was used from June 1915 to August 1916). There are now 1,639 Commonwealth casualties of the First World War buried or commemorated in this cemetery. 39 of the burials are unidentified but special memorials commemorate three casualties known to be buried among them. The cemetery was designed by Sir Reginald Blomfield. Two South Africans are buried in the cemetery. Gunner J. W. Francke, 75th Siege Battery, South African Heavy Artillery and Gunner W. A. B. Prins, South African Heavy Artillery both died on 23 September 1917.

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• Belgrade Cemetery: Belgium Namur was attacked by the Germans on 20 August 1914; the forts were destroyed by heavy artillery, and at midnight on 23-24 the garrison was evacuated. The town then remained in German hands until the end of the war.

Belgrade Cemetery contains 249 Commonwealth burials of the First World War, most of them dating from the ten months when casualty clearing stations were then posted to Namur after the Armistice. There is also one burial of the Second World War. Two South Africans buried in the cemetery are Privates M. R. Bass, 4th Regiment South African Infantry, who died on 28 December 1918 and M. P. Zara, 1st Regiment South African Infantry, who died on 15 November 1918.

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VIP’s / BBP’s

Inleiding Van oudsher af bewaak die polisie in ons voormalige Boere-republieke en kolonies die regeringshoofde soos bv. die president, goewerneurs-generaal, luitenant-goewerneurs-generaal en eerste ministers. Die Zarp’s het bv. president SJP Kruger bewaak. Ek het bv. die dogter van mnr. Cecil John Rhodes se lyfwag geken. Haar vader was sersant in die Kaapse Polisie en mnr. Rhodes se persoonlike lyfwag. Hy het mnr. Rhodes dood aangetref in sy strandhuis te Muizenberg gedurende 1902 en die nodige individue verwittig. Die bekendste lyfwag in Suid-Afrika was seker kol. Carel Richter. Hy het baie oor sy wedervaringe geskryf terwyl hy eerste ministers opgepas het. In verskeie boeke skryf bekende polisiemanne van die BBP’s wat hulle opgepas het. Speurderhoofkonstabel Bill Joyner skryf in sy boek Murder Squad oor genl. JC Smuts en so ook skryf Lennox van Onselen in sy boek, Rhapsody in Blue, ook oor genl. Smuts se swak bestuursvermoë t.o.v. motorvoertuie en hoe hy as lyfwag bv. sukkel om Tafelberg saam met genl. Smuts uit te klim. Ek het die artikel deur Leon Lemmer in Praag gelees en het dadelik gedink dit is ‘n interessante onderwerp en ons lesers kan gerus vir ons staaltjies stuur oor ons BBP’s. Tydens offisierskursus in 1971 vertel ‘n kollega, K/O van Taak, vir my: Hy besoek sy stasie, Seepunt. Tydens sy besoek noem een van die manne dat hulle op pad is om, ek dink om mnr. Dönges32, te

32 Net om u geheue te verfris: Na die sluipmoord op dr. Verwoerd op 6 September 1966, het dr Dönges’n ruk lank as waarnemende eerste minister opgetree. Ná die uittrede van staatspresident C.R. Swart is dr Dönges deur die NP-koukus as kandidaat vir dié amp aangewys en op 23 Februarie 1967 het die parlementêre kieskollege hom as die staatshoof gekies. Hy kon egter nie op 31 Mei 1967 ingehuldig word nie omdat hy op 11 Mei 1967 breinbloeding opgedoen het en in ’n koma verval het. Op 10 Junie 1967 is ’n delikate breinoperasie op hom uitgevoer waarna sy toestand beter geword het. Op 3 Oktober 1967 het dr Dönges egter ’n beroerte gekry en was so swak daarna dat sy regsverteenwoordiger in Desember namens hom sy bedanking as aangewese staatspresident moes indien. https://af.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eben_D%C3%B6nges 126


gaan besoek wat in ‘n woonstel in Seepunt gewoon het. So ry die wyksersant, sy bemanning (‘n jong konstabel) en AO Van Taak na die aangewese woonstelblok. By die woonstel aangekom sê die konstabel hy sal gou gaan kyk of alles reg is. Hulle sit in die patrolliewa en wag vir ‘n vreeslike lang tyd. Uitasem kom die konstabel by die patrolliewa aan en gee toe die verduideliking wat hom so lank besig gehou het. Hy vertel hy kom in die voorportaal en wag vir die hysbak. ‘n Vriendelike Omie groet hom en vra wat hy daar maak? Die outjie is nie links nie en antwoord: “Ou Dönges bly hierbo en ek moet net gaan kyk of alles reg is.” Die mannetjie vaar toe uit oor hoe hy nou moet opoffer om “Ou Dönges” op te pas. Die hysbak kom aan en hulle klim in. Soos die toeval dit wil hê gaan albei na, ek dink, die agtste verdieping. Toe die deur oopgaan se die vriendelike Omie: “Ek is ‘ou Dönges’ kom in en drink eers ‘n koppie tee.” Hy moes toe teen wil en dank eers hoflik wees en tee drink. Die volgende dag toe kom daar ‘n pak foto’s by die stasie aan met ‘ou Dönges’ se gesig daarop. Elke lid moes ‘n foto kry en die informasieboek teken. Ek het onlangs ‘n boek deur lede van die VSA se Secret Service wat die Amerikaanse presidente bewaak het, gelees van al die kaperjolle in Washington, DC. (Ons SAP(V-tak-lede) lede het baie saam met die Amerikaanse Secret Service gewerk.) So is dit dan ook interessant om al die ou staaltjies van Suid-Afrika neer te pen vir die nageslag!

Leon Lemmer: ‘Die eggenotes agter Afrikaner politieke leiers’ Terwyl ‘n uitvoerende staatshoof in sy amp is, ontvang hy heelwat publisiteit en word hy ‘n bekende persoon. Sy eggenote weerkaats in ‘n mate hierdie bekendheid omdat sy bv. soms saam met hom afgeneem word of hier en daar ‘n toespraak lewer. Wanneer ‘n staatshoof of oudstaatshoof sterf, ontvang die gebeure gewoonlik heelwat publisiteit. In opvallende mate geld dit nie sy eggenote nie. Ten spyte van haar (eertydse) bekendheid, ontlok haar oorlye, dikwels lank na dié van haar man, min indien enige publisiteit. Maar daar was tog ‘n tyd toe sy direk of indirek (groot) invloed op haar eggenoot as staatshoof en dus die land uitgeoefen het. Die eerste paragraaf wek die indruk dat die staatshoof ‘n man en sy eggenote ‘n vrou is. Deesdae is dit nie noodwendig meer die geval nie. ‘n Vrou kan ‘n staatshoof wees. ‘n Staatshoof en sy/haar lewensmaat kan selfs van dieselfde geslag wees. Van ons word verwag om dit as normaal te beskou. Daar word geredeneer: Solank hulle mekaar liefhet en ondersteun, is alles in orde. Maar so ‘n egpaar kan nie eie kinders hê nie. Daarteen word opgewerp: Daar is egpare bestaande uit twee verskillende geslagte wat ook nie eie kinders het nie. Die uitsondering is blykbaar net so geldig soos die reël, ens. Ockert Geyser se boek, Die eggenotes agter die Afrikaner politieke leiers: Ongeskrewe hoofstuk in die Suid-Afrikaanse geskiedenis (Naledi, 2019, 301p, R275), weerspieël die tradisionele toedrag van sake: ‘n man as staatshoof en ‘n vrou as sy eggenote. ‘n Verdere knieknik vir die tradisionele opset is dat al hierdie egpare blank is. Blankheid in daardie hoë geledere is iets wat sedert die 1994transformasie plaaslik onbekend geword het en weens die nuwe “nie-rassige” benadering vorentoe seker onbekend sal bly. Die outeur was ‘n geskiedenisdosent en direkteur van die Instituut vir Eietydse Geskiedenis (INEG) aan die Universiteit Vrystaat. Sy jongste boek is eerder ‘n populêre as ‘n akademiese werk. Die hele tydperk vanaf Uniewording in 1910 (Louis Botha se vrou) tot by die politieke afgrond van 1994 (FW de Klerk se eerste vrou) word gedek. Die outeur handhaaf ‘n goeie balans tussen wat hy oor die vroue (sy eintlike onderwerp) en hulle mans (die staatshoofde) skryf. Ek skryf oor hierdie vroue in dieselfde volgorde as in die boek. Die lewensloop van 13 vroue word in kort hoofstukke 127


belig, gevolglik verskaf ek normaalweg net by aanhalings bladsyverwysings. Soos in die boek skryf ek in meer besonderhede oor die ouer garde omdat inligting oor hulle moontlik minder bekend is as oor die vroue wat later op die voorgrond getree het. • Annie Botha Louis Botha (1862-1919, eerste minister 1910-1919) se vrou, Annie (1864-1937), die oudste kind van ‘n boer van Swellendam, was van Ierse afkoms en Engelssprekend. Hulle is in 1886 getroud. Annie het “volkome Boere-gesind geword … Na alle waarskynlikheid het sy vir Louis Engels geleer sover hy dié taal magtig was. Aangesien hy selde Engels gepraat het, het hy en Annie tuis in Afrikaans gekommunikeer” (p 24). Tydens die Anglo-Boereoorlog (ABO, 1899-1902) het sy ‘n lidmaat van die NG Kerk geword. In 1904 was sy die mede-stigter van die Suid-Afrikaanse Vrouefederasie, wat hulpdienste aan Afrikaners gelewer het. Ná haar man se dood het sy geskryf: “I shall never get accustomed to his absence” (47). • Isie Smuts Jan Smuts (1870-1950, eerste minister 1919-1924 en 1939-1948) se vrou, Isie (1870-1954), was ‘n kind van die Kriges van Dorpstraat in Stellenbosch, wat daarvoor bekend was dat hulle “geen liefde vir die Engelse gehad het nie. Isie het vir jare lank, selfs lank ná die Anglo-Boereoorlog, hierdie antagonisme teenoor die Engelse gekoester” (51-52). Isie, afgelei van Sybella en Engels uitgespreek (dus nie Issie nie), was soos Jan ‘n student aan die Victoria College, die voorloper van die Universiteit Stellenbosch. “Albei was ietwat teruggetrokke en skalks gereserveerd; albei was bo en behalwe hul belangstelling in die plantkunde en filosofie ook intens geïnteresseerd in die letterkunde – Smuts in die Engelse en Isie in die Duitse letterkunde” (53). Isie kon klavier speel en mooi sing. Hulle “korrespondensie [het] by voorkeur eers in Engels geskied, daarna in Hollands en later in Afrikaans” (54). Hulle is in 1897 getroud. “Isie se voortgesette antagonisme …. teenoor die Engelse was in die Smuts-gesin ‘n onverkwiklike situasie … Louis Botha het later vertel dat toe hy ná die Anglo-Boereoorlog op ‘n keer met Isie gepraat het, hy ontdek het hoedat haar voortgesette voorkeur en entoesiasme vir ‘n republikeinse staatsvorm en haar renons vir [in] die Engelse toe selfs nog meer intens was as ooit tevore. Haar weersin in die Engelse was van só ‘n aard dat haar ses kinders [behalwe drie babas wat nie hulle 2de jaar oorleef het nie] met uitsondering van die laaste … gebore is in Isie se bed waarop ‘n landsvlag van die ZAR [Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek] gedrapeer was” (64). Van 1903 tot 1912 wou sy letterlik nie onder die Britse vlag geboorte skenk nie. Die Smuts-egpaar het ook ‘n aangenome dogter gehad. Isie is beskryf as Jan se “delightful eccentric wife” (28). Annie Botha het Isie “a dear, sweet, understanding friend” genoem (46). Soos Annie het Isie ‘n prominente rol in die Suid-Afrikaanse Vrouefederasie gespeel. Sedert 1909 het Jan en Isie in Doornkloof in Irene, by Pretoria, gewoon. Isie het selde in Pretoria en Kaapstad in die premierswoning gebly. Sy word intelligent genoem maar “sy het niks van seremonie en status gehou nie” (72). Die Britte wou haar met die die titel CBE (Commander of the British Empire) vereer, maar sy het dit van die hand gewys. “Ofskoon sommige Isie as ietwat eksentriek ervaar het as gevolg van haar eiesoortige gebruike en gewoontes, was dit altyd haar ongekunstelde en ongedwonge lewenslustige lewenswyse wat mense bygebly het” (78). Sy word ‘n “uitmuntende gasvrou” genoem (78), maar iemand wat die opset in die Doornkloof-huis geken het, het aan my vertel dat selfs wanneer belangrike gaste opgedaag het, Isie bv ‘n blikkie vis vir aandete sou oopmaak. As daar kritiek op haar was, het haar man gesê: “Los vir Isie.” In 1942 het sy ‘n ligte hartaanval gehad en veral sedert 1944 het haar gesondheid agteruit gegaan. Sy het nie haar man se begrafnis bygewoon nie maar na die radiouitsending van die diens geluister. • Mynie Hertzog Barry Hertzog (1866-1942, eerste minister 1924-1939) en sy vrou, Mynie (1864-1942), het, soos die Smuts-egpaar, mekaar as studente aan die Victoria College ontmoet. Mynie was ouer as Barry maar hy is sowat sewe maande ná haar oorlede. Mynie en Isie het hulle vriendskap, wat uit hulle jeug in Stellenbosch dateer, lewenslank voortgesit, ten spyte van die latere politieke verskille by hulle mans. Mynie is later beskryf as “daardie sagte, moederlike mev Hertzog” (96). Soos Isie was Mynie “stil, gereserveerd en beskeie van geaardheid” (85).”Net soos Isie Smuts het ook Mynie nie die kollig, 128


wat haar man se posisie later in die samelewing gebied het, uitgebuit nie” (86). Isie word “klein van postuur” genoem (51), maar uit ‘n foto (95) kan afgelei word dat Mynie selfs kleiner as Isie was. Isie was minder godsdienstig as haar man. In teenstelling daarmee was Mynie uiters godsdienstig. “Alhoewel Hertzog en Mynie eintlik nie goeie kerkmense was nie, kan daar uit hul algemene optrede en lewensfilosofie afgelei word dat hulle albei toegewyde Christene was” (98). Hulle het aan verskillende kerkgenootskappe behoort. “Hy was lid van die NG Kerk en sy het aan die Apostoliese Kerk behoort” (98). “Die NG Kerk [was] vir haar ‘te doods en te oninspirerend'” (99). Die Hertzogegpaar is in 1894 getroud. Die dood aan verstikking van hulle eersteling, ‘n dogterjie, het meegebring “dat Mynie haarself aan sosiale verpligtinge onttrek het” (88). Van 1899 tot 1905 is hulle drie seuns gebore. Tydens die ABO is Mynie in Port Elizabeth in ‘n konsentrasiekamp aangehou en daarna in die Meerbank-kamp by Durban. “Hier in Meerbank het Mynie se gesondheid met verloop van tyd ‘n ernstige knou gekry, wat tot gevolg gehad het dat sy feitlik vir die res van haar lewe ‘n semi-invalide was” (89-90). Anders as Isie was Mynie “nooit bitter teenoor die Engelse nie” (90). “Mynie het glad nie geglo in die voorgeskrewe medisyne wat deur geneeshere voorgeskryf is nie. Sy het hoofsaaklik aan homeopatiese middels geglo … Sy het veral geglo aan natuurlike middels en onder meer aan nat lappe en veral kasterolie” (99). Toe dit in 1924 lyk asof Barry die eerste minister sou word, het Mynie gesê: “Ek wil regtig tog nie die eerste minister se vrou wees nie” (94). Mynie het toe aan haar seuns gesê “dat sy elke aand bid dat die Here haar liewer moet wegneem” (94). “Mynie is baie selde in die openbaar aan die sy van die Generaal [Hertzog] gesien” (94). Isie het altyd verkies om liewer so onsigbaar moontlik in die agtergrond te bly; as’t ware soos die pous se vrou. Maar dit geld in selfs groter mate vir Mynie. “Mynie het Hertzog nooit op enige buitelandse besoek vergesel nie” (95). Sy was geen goeie gasvrou vir die staatsman Hertzog nie, al word sy beskryf as “‘n kok sonder weerga” (92). “Dit was nie soseer omdat sy onwillig was nie, maar dit was nie in haar aard om sosiale kontak te maak en in die openbaar op te tree nie” (87). Aan huis in Bloemfontein was die Hertzog-egpaar egter bekend vir hulle gasvryheid. “Toe daar aan die begin van die dertigerjare tekens van toenadering tussen die twee politieke strydrosse, Hertzog en Smuts, was, het dit sonder twyfel vir Mynie veel vreugde besorg” (95). Die grofste fout in die boek is dat hoofstuk 3 met “Albert Hertzog” begin (83) en die leser dalk eers later agterkom dat James Barry Munnik Hertzog bedoel word (85). Albert (1899-1982) was die Hertzogs se oudste seun en ‘n NP-minister (1954-1968). In 1969 het hy van die NP weggebreek en is die Herstigte Nasionale Party onder sy leiding gevorm. Hy was vanweë sy verkramptheid bekend. Wat minder bekend is, is dat sy eerste vrou, Katie Whitely, Engelssprekend was. • Maria Malan DF Malan (1874-1959, eerste minister 1948-1954) se tweede vrou, Maria (1905-1973) was die NPorganiseerder vir Calvinia, met Malan as die Volksraadslid (1918-1938). “Dit is nogal ironies dat doktor Malan aanvanklik by herhaling aan Maria Louw voorgestel moes word voordat hy haar onthou het” (102). Dit herinner aan ‘n NP-politikus wat ‘n lang pad per motor saam met Malan gereis en deurlopend gesprek met hom gevoer het; hy in ‘n agterste en Malan in die voorste passasiersitplek. Toe hulle uiteindelik arriveer by die byeenkoms, maak die politikus vir Malan die motordeur oop, met Malan wat verbaas was om hom daar aan te tref. Malan was bekend vir sy “skugterheid en teruggetrokkenheid” (105). In 1937 toe hy met Maria getrou het, was Malan “‘n man van drie-ensestig en sy ‘n vrou van twee-en-dertig” (106). Malan se weduwee-stiefma, Esther, was sedert 1908 sy huishoudster. In 1926 het hy op 52-jarige ouderdom met Mattie, wat 23 jaar jonger as hy was, getrou. In 1927 is sy seun Danie en in 1929 is Hannes gebore. In 1930 het Mattie gesterf. Daarna was Esther se suster, Nettie Fourie, sewe jaar lank Malan se huishoudster. Sy het ‘n uitstekende verhouding met die twee seuns gehad. Sy was moontlik op Malan verlief en het dalk gedink dat sy die tweede mevrou Malan sou word. Die kernprobleem met Maria was dat sy bykans ‘n oujongnooi en baie jonger as Malan was en sy die stiefmoeder van Malan se twee seuns geword het. ‘n Potensiële voordeel van sy tweede huwelik was dat sowel Malan as Maria baie in die politiek belanggestel het, ‘n “besondere saambindingsfaktor [wat] bykans” heeltemal “in sy eerste huwelik afwesig was” (105). 129


Maria het geleer om motor te bestuur omdat Malan so ‘n swak bestuurder was. Sy sig was swak. “Daarby was hy so ingedagte dat hy nie daartoe in staat was om sy aandag by die pad te bepaal nie. Selfs in die huis het hy nie altyd geweet wat om hom aangaan nie” (110). Hulle huis in Seepunt is vergroot sodat Nettie na die nuwe kamer verskuif kon word. Dit het nie die probleme opgelos nie. “Dit het spoedig duidelik geword dat Maria en Nettie net nie in een huis sou kon saamleef nie” (110). Die twee seuns was aan Nettie geheg en wou Maria nie aanvaar nie. By die meeste lede van Malan se familie was daar “nie ‘n gevoel van spontane hartlikheid teenoor Maria nie” (111). Nettie is spoedig na ‘n woonstel in die nabyheid van die Malan-woning verskuif. In 1942 het die Malans na Môrewag, ‘n woning in Stellenbosch, verhuis. Nettie is in 1943 oorlede. Ná miskrame het die Malans in 1948 ‘n Duitse weeskind, Marietjie (gebore in 1944), aangeneem. Maria het gemeen dat Nettie die seuns “heeltemal te veel toegelaat” het (112); “dat gebalanseerde opvoeding sterker dissipline vereis” (113). Sy wou “haar gesag as [stief]moeder behoorlik … laat geld … Hulle mag nie meer strokiesprente gelees het nie aangesien Maria gemeen het dat dit hul aanleer van Engels sou ondermyn. Verder is hul besoeke aan die bioskoop drasties ingekort. Somtyds was sy amper raadop met Hannes se humeur en woedebuie en Danie se tafelmaniere wat veel te wense oorgelaat het. Om hierdie probleme aan te spreek, besluit Maria toe om ‘n puntetoekenning in te stel vir die beoordeling van swak maniere deur die week” (113), waarvoor ‘n prys of straf uitgedeel is. Malan “het hom onvoorwaardelik vereenselwig met sy vrou se besluite en optredes” (114). “Oor die algemeen was Maria Malan nie ‘n maklike mens nie … In die omgang, buite en binne die party, was sy nie gewild nie … sy [het] op baie se tone getrap … sy [was Malan se] klankbord en selfaangestelde nie-amptelike raadgewer. Sy was vas van plan om haar binne die party as invloedryk en onvervangbaar, veral vir Doktor, te vestig” (114). NP-politici, soos FC Erasmus en PW Botha, later albei ministers, het “met die hulp van Maria periodiek sekere sake onder doktor Malan se aandag [ge]bring” (114). “Dit was veral tydens doktor Malan se ampstermyn [as eerste minister] dat mevrou Malan se inmenging agter die skerms in besluitneming steeds groeiende kommer tot gevolg gehad het” (119). In 1954 het Maria hartprobleme ondervind en het Malan besluit om uit die politiek te tree. “Hy was in alle opsigte volkome afhanklik van haar bystand en ondersteuning” (122). PW Botha het Malan as sy mentor beskou, maar Maria het hom ná Malan se dood “totaal geïgnoreer en uitgeskuif” (125). Ek het die Malan-egpaar in 1948 gesien toe hulle ná die verkiesing per trein van Kaapstad na Pretoria gereis het. Die trein het op al die groterige stasies gestop sodat Malan vir die kiesers kon bedank vir die vertroue wat hulle in die Nasionale Party gestel het. • Mabel Jansen EG Jansen (1881-1959, goewerneur-generaal 1951-1959) het in 1912 met Mabel (1889-1979) getrou. Jansen was ‘n volgeling van Barry Hertzog terwyl Mabel vir DF Malan gesteun en deurgaans koersvas die belange van die Nasionale Party bevorder het. Toe Jan Smuts met die uitbreek van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog hom by Brittanje geskaar het, het Jansen besluit om hom by Malan te skaar. Mabel was ‘n merkwaardige vrou met ‘n sterk persoonlikheid wat met doelgerigte vasberadenheid die Afrikanersaak op talle terreine, veral van kulturele aard, bevorder het, soos ‘n mens van ‘n Pellisier (haar nooiensvan) kan verwag. Sy het baie daarvan gehou om die eggenote van die goewerneur-generaal te wees. ‘n Dienspligtige wat wag by die Jansens se ampswoning in Kaapstad gestaan het, het vertel dat hulle geen probleem met Jansen gehad het nie maar doodbang vir Mabel was. “In haar persoonlike hoedanigheid was Mabel Jansen nie geliefd nie” (142). Daar is aan my vertel dat toe Mabel na haar man se dood uit Kaapstad op die spoorwegstasie by haar huis in Irene aangekom het, daar niemand was om haar te ontmoet nie. Sy het iemand oorreed en gehuur om haar bagasie met ‘n kruiwa tot by haar huis te stoot. Sy het sekerlik beter as dit verdien. • Susan Strijdom JG (Hans) Strijdom (1893-1958, eerste minister 1954-1958) se tweede vrou was Susan (19101999), met wie hy in 1931 getrou het. Sy is beskryf as ‘n “aanvallige, verfynde vrou” (143) wat nederig en pretensieloos en glad nie polities ingestel was nie. Dit is in skrille teenstelling met Maria 130


Malan. DF Malan wou Strijdom nie as sy opvolger gehad het nie, ten minste deels omdat Maria nie van Strijdom gehou het nie. Susan was die suster van Jan de Klerk, die pa van Willem/Wimpie en FW. Strijdom het Jan as ‘n minister in sy kabinet aangestel, al was Jan nie ‘n politikus nie. Hierdie aanstelling is destyds as nepotisme wyd veroordeel, maar dit het aan die De Klerks ‘n voet in die politieke deur laat kry, met mettertyd katastrofiese gevolge. FW de Klerk het mandaadloos aan swart mag oorgegee en daarmee die Afrikanervolk ondergeploeg; iets wat heeltemal teen die grein van Strijdom sou ingaan. Met die Anglo-Boereoorlog kon selfs die Britte nie die voortbestaan van die Afrikaners in dieselfde mate as De Klerk ondermyn nie. Die outeur noem dat die aktrise, Margaretha van Hulsteyn (1896-1970), Strijdom se eerste vrou was. Hy verwys egter glad nie na David Bloomberg se interessante boek oor haar nie (Praag 24.12.2017), terwyl hy wel kennis geneem het van Martie Retief-Meiring se boek (2008) oor FW de Klerk se tweede vrou, Elita. • Betsie Verwoerd Hendrik Verwoerd (1901-1966, eerste minister 1958-1966) en Betsie (1901-2000) het in 1927 getrou. Sy word ‘n “minsame maar sprankelende mensie” genoem (167). “Betsie Verwoerd was klein en tenger van bou, selfs ietwat broos van voorkoms, waar dr Verwoerd self ‘n kolos van ‘n man van oor die ses voet was” (162-163). Albei was intellektueel hoogs begaafd. Sy het onselfsugtig vir hom gelewe en bv bykomende leeswerk namens hom gedoen wanneer hy te besig was. By die Verwoerds het werk voorkeur geniet, gevolglik het hulle nie dikwels onthale aangebied nie. Daar word genoem dat Betsie in toeristeklas na Europa gevlieg het. Vergelyk dit met die talle politici en hulle aanhangsels van veel mindere gehalte wat deesdae dikwels op staatskoste oorvloediglik in die mees luukse klas vlieg. Betsie het myns insiens gefouteer deur in 1995 saam met Nelson Mandela in haar huis in Orania tee te drink. Dit was immers deel van Mandela se Afrikaner-paaiery. Daar word verwys na die dagboek wat Betsie bygehou het. Hoewel sy uiters omsigtig te werk gegaan het om moontlike latere misbruik van die inhoud te voorkom, is dit presies waaraan haar een kleinseun, Wilhelm, hom skuldig gemaak het (Praag 28.07.2018). Ek het Betsie as weduwee ‘n enkele keer gesien toe sy saam met haar skoonseun, Carel Boshoff, en ander familielede die botaniese tuin in Bettysbaai besoek het. • Nellie Swart CR Swart (1894-1982, goewerneur-generaal 1959-1961, staatspresident 1961-1967) se vrou, Nellie (1903-1986), word onthou vir haar sjarme, grasie en minsaamheid. Sy was ‘n uitmuntende kok. Hulle het in 1924 getrou. Sy het geen belangstelling in die aktiewe politiek gehad nie. Lettie Fouché Jim Fouché (1898-1980, staatspresident 1968-1975) het in 1920 met Lettie (1900-1993) getrou. Jim het gesê dat Lettie “grootliks die kweekbodem help vorm [het] waaruit ek in die openbare lewe ontplooi het” (192). Ná sy aftrede het hulle hulle in hulle huis in die Strand gevestig. Ná Jim se dood is sy in die Altena-ouetehuis in die Strand versorg. Terwyl Jim die staatspresident was, het my ouers op ‘n bank op ‘n stasieperron gesit toe ‘n trein met Jim daarin stadig deur die stasie beweeg het. Jim het my ouers vriendelik gegroet. My ouers was hoogs beïndruk met Jim se nederige meelewendheid. • Margo Diederichs Nico Diederichs (1903-1978, staatspresident 1975-1978) het in 1932 met Margo (1907-1998) in die huwelik getree. Sy het ‘n hooghartige indruk gewek en was nie so geliefd soos haar voorgangers, Nellie Swart en Lettie Fouché, nie. In Julie 1995 het Nelson Mandela 19 dames, “die weduwees en eggenotes van voormalige vryheidsvegters, eerste ministers en presidente/staatspresidente van Suid-Afrika” in die presidensiële ampswoning in Pretoria onthaal (14). Dit is die soort veelrassige byeenkoms wat in Mandela se kraal gepas het. Betsie Verwoerd, Tini Vorster en Elize Botha het die onthaal bygewoon en ook Margo. Die idee vir die byeenkoms het van Margo gekom. “Volgens die president [Mandela] was mevrou Diederichs ook die eerste vrou wat hom met sy inhuldiging as president gelukgewens het” (15). Dit lyk asof Margo deeglik getransformeer het, veral as in ag geneem word dat haar man as ‘n Nazi-gesinde beskou is. 131


• Tini Vorster John Vorster (1915-1983, eerste minister 1966-1978, staatspresident 1978-1979) se vrou, Tini (1917-2000) was die dogter van PA Malan, ‘n prokureur van Worcester wat besonder invloedryk in Afrikanerledere was, bv in die direksie van Nasionale Pers en Sanlam. “Tini Malan was skrander, skerp, prakties, positief en sterk polities georiënteer” (215), maar sy het nie in John se politieke bedrywighede ingemeng nie. As student het sy die lesings in maatskaplike werk aan die Universiteit Stellenbosch bygewoon wat deur Hendrik Verwoerd uit die vuis, dus sonder notas, aangebied is. John en Tini het in 1941 getrou. Kort daarna is John vanweë sy Ossewa Brandwag-aktiwiteite in Koffiefontein geïnterneer (1942-1944). Die Vorster-egpaar was tot die ontbinding in 1951 lede van die Afrikanerparty. Sy het as huisvrou en met kos uitgemunt. “Ek sien om na hom [John] en sy klere” (233). Van John het Tini gesê: “Hy is die maklikste mens om mee saam te leef, want hy sleep jou nooit in by iets waarby jy nie ingesleep wil wees nie” (234). Ná John se dood het sy in die Serenitasaftree-oord in die Strand gewoon. • Elize Botha PW Botha (1916-2006, eerste minister 1978-1984, staatspresident 1984-1989) se eerste eggenote was Elize (1922-1997). Hulle het in 1943 getrou, Die enigste keer wat ek PW eerstehands gesien en gehoor het, was toe hy ‘n NP-organiseerder was, dus voordat hy ‘n parlementslid geword het. Hy het hom by DF Malan geskaar en teen Hans Strijdom. Elize is beskryf as “a gracious and homely person” (257). “PW en Elize het mekaar ongelooflik goed aangevul. Hy, ietwat voortvarend, aggressief van geaardheid, by tye uiters moeilik en Elize weer op haar beurt rustig, vriendelik en uitsonderlik diplomaties” (249). Sy was versot op haar eie verjaardag. Dit het PW laat sê: “Jou verjaardag is soos ‘n Swazi-begrafnis: dit hou ‘n week aan” (250). Elize was “daarop ingestel om nooit misbruik te maak van haar voorregte as eggenote van mnr Botha as minister en later as premier en staatspresident nie. Sy het haar man nooit op amptelike buitelandse besoeke vergesel as sy nie normaalweg ampshalwe op uitnodiging by só ‘n besoek ingesluit is nie” (255). • Marike de Klerk FW de Klerk (gebore in 1936, staatspresident 1989-1994) se eerste vrou was Marike (1937-2001). Hulle het in 1959 getrou. Hulle het drie aangenome kinders gehad. Marike is as konserwatief beskou, met Tini Vorster en Eleanor Roosevelt as haar rolmodelle. Eleanor het te make gehad met Franklin Roosevelt se buite-egtelike verhouding met Lucy Mercer, soortgelyk aan FW se buiteegtelike verhouding met Elita Georgiadis. Marike het “met verloop van tyd die prooi van bykans vernietigende spanning geword” (280). “Vir Elita het Marike geen goeie woord gehad nie” (285) en “Elita was by tye erg verbitterd teenoor Marike” (286). Marike “did not hesitate to criticise FW in public” (272). “Hoe dieper FW in die kalklig in beweeg [het] hoe eensamer [het] Marike” geword (276-277). By haar was daar ‘n gevoel van persoonlike onsekerheid. “In haar rol as die eggenoot van die staatshoof het Marike aanvanklik vreemd, onseker en selfs onwaardig gevoel. Gedurig het daar by haar die vraag ontstaan of sy waardig genoeg is om so ‘n posisie te beklee en of sy werklik enigsins bevoeg is en selfs of sy bekwaam genoeg is daarvoor” (278). FW word beskryf as “the relaxed smoker” (272). FW en Marike het in 1998 geskei. FW en Elita het in 1999 getrou. In 2001 is Marike deur ‘n sekuriteitswag vermoor. http://praag.co.za/?p=46329&utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed %3A+praag+%28Pro-Afrikaanse+Aksiegroep%29

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ANGLO BOER WAR | ANGLO BOERE-OORLOG

Die Fort van Vredefort: Deel 2: Philip Malherbe (Onder melde inligting is bekom vanaf Marie Cloete, ‘n vryskutjoernalis wat op Stellenbosch woon).

Dit is minder bekend dat Vredefort die laaste rusplek is van ‘n enigmatiese boer A. P. Hendricks met die bynaam Majaraposo (vrylik vertaal “die man wat die possak dra”) weens sy boggelrug. Nieteenstaande sy gebrek was hy volgens oorlewing ‘n mooi man met ‘n welige weglê-snor. Daar is nie veel bekend van sy jeugjare nie, behalwe dat hy en sy ouer broer as jong manne hul ouerhuis verlaat het om hul eie potjie te gaan krap. Hulle het uitgewyk na die Spergebied, die verbode woestynkus van die destydse Suidwes-Afrika. Stories van diamante wat op die strand opgetel kon word, het heel moontlik ook hul ore bereik. Hulle het die onherbergsame gebied aangedurf met ‘n donkiekar, waar hul byna omgekom het. Vier maande later het hulle as ryk manne teruggekeer. Andries het ‘n plaas in die distrik Vredefort gekoop. As hy skatte vergader het hy nie daaroor gepraat nie. Weens sy fisiese gebrek was hy ‘n eenkant-mens met min vriende. Tog het hy in die huwelik getree waaruit ‘n dogter gebore is, dié 133


verbintenis was egter van korte duur. Blykbaar het sy suinigheid sy vrou genoop om hom te verlaat. Sy moes glo water met ‘n emmer na die huis aandra en Andries het geweier om die kragopwekker saans te laat loop sodat sy radio kon luister. Die enkele mense wat met hom bevriend was, het erken dat hy hardvogtig, suinig, skuins beneuk en selfs liefdeloos kon wees. Hy was ook openlik rassisties en het aan sy familie gesê dat as hy eendag in die hemel kom en anderskleuriges daar aantref, hy net daar sou omdraai. Hy het ook voorspel dat hy deur anderskleuriges om die lewe gebring sou word. Nogtans het hy ‘n swart vrou as huishulp in diens geneem. Mense wat hom nie geken het nie, was onder die indruk dat Andries brandarm was. Hy is deur dorpenaars opgemerk waar hy ysterpale en ander benodighede met groot moeite agterop ‘n fiets na sy plaas vervoer het. Diegene wat hom geken het, het aangevoer dat hy te suinig was om brandstof vir sy bakkie te koop. Desnieteenstaande was hy bekend as ‘n hardwerkende man, maar het algaande meer eksentriek geword en ‘n kluisenaarsbestaan gevoer. In sy sestigerjare wou hy vir hom ‘n verskansing bou wat beskerming sou bied indien hy aangeval sou word. Dit het by hom ‘n obsessie geraak. Hy het sy plaas verkoop op voorwaarde dat hy tyd gegun sou word om dié skansplek klaar te bou voordat hy die plaas ontruim. Hy het slegs ‘n smal strook serwituut (saaklike reg wat op die goed van ‘n ander rus en aan die reghebbende sekere genotsregte daarop verleen) vir die doel behou. Ná registrasie was dit ook bekend as die kleinste opgemete plasie in die Vrystaat. Die “fort”, soos dit later bekend sou staan, het sy naam gestand gedoen: ‘n Onaansienlike balkon wat as uitkykpos sou dien. Die mense wat Andries besoek het, se verhale was dikwels weersprekend. Almal was dit egter eens dat hy ‘n opgaarder van formaat was. Kook-, bak-, en vries-toestelle wat met elektrisiteit, gas, steenkool of paraffien gewerk het, het oral teen mure gestaan. Die meeste daarvan is nooit gebruik nie. Groot hoeveelhede blikkies- en ander nie-bederfbare kos is opgegaar sodat hy selfversorgend sou wees wanneer hy aangeval sou word. In sy spens was ook ‘n yslike kragopwekker wat hy van ‘n hospitaal gekry het. Hy het dikwels gespog dat dit groot genoeg was om die hele Vredefort van krag te voorsien. Andries het banke met agterdog bejeën en sy geld, asook muntversameling, oraloor weggesteek en toegesluit, vandaar die groot bos sleutels. Gerugte het ook die rondte gedoen dat hy kiste, wat goue ponde bevat het, onder sy bed gehou en ander waardevolle artikels in die mure ingemessel het. Hy het vir water geboor en toe eiehandig ‘n rioolput buite gebou. Dié put sou later ‘n makabere opbergplek word. Andries het naamlik besluit om ‘n kamer agter sy fort te laat bou vir sy huishulp wat vir meer as 30 jaar vir hom gewerk het. Sy is gevra om ‘n paar werkers te kry om met die bou- en messelwerk te help. Wat daarna gebeur het, sal net Andries en sy aanvallers weet. Sy huishulp het haar twee seuns na die fort gebring om met die bouwerk van die kamer te help. Daarna wou hulle ‘n byl by hom leen om hout vir ‘n vuur te kap. Andries het vir hulle ‘n byl gegee, maar is vermoedelik met die omdraai slag daarmee aangeval. Sy lyk is later in die rioolput gegooi. Die volgende paar dae het mense sy bakkie oral opgemerk waar dit op plaaspaaie in die omgewing beweeg het, maar niemand het hom self 134


gesien nie. Teen dié tyd was sy aanvallers reeds besig om om die plek te stroop en sy besittings te verkoop. Een oggend het ‘n vriend by die fort opgedaag, net betyds om Andries se bakkie te sien wegry. Die slot was nie aan die buitedeur nie en hy het ‘n sak eenkant sien lê. Binne-in was Andries se bloedbevlekte hoed. Andries het dus gesterf soos hy voorspel het. Sy lyk het vermoedelik bykans ‘n week lank in die put gelê saam met ‘n yslike, swart slang wat dit as sy slaapplek uitgesoek het. Sy huishulp en haar seuns is aangekeer. Hulle is verhoor en al drie is later ter dood veroordeel. Andries se muntversameling was ongeskonde, ‘n vriend het die plek opgespoor waar hy dit versteek het. Sy dogter, toe nog ‘n klein meisietjie, onthou hoe hulle ‘n tafeldoek gebruik het om die geld bymekaar te skraap en na Andries se prokureur te neem. Andries se bepalings van sy testament was ondubbelsinnig: sy besittings moes verkoop word en ál die geld vir sy grafsteen gebruik word. Die grafskrif en uitleg is ook bepaal. Net genoeg geld moes uitgehou word om weekliks blomme op sy graf te plaas. ‘n Vendusie is gehou wat volgens gerugte deur die hele Vredefort bygewoon is. Die fort is eerste verkoop, waarna al sy ander besittings opgeveil is. Los goedere is in bondels verkoop. Iemand het vensterrame en hout gekoop en later is beweer dat hy ‘n geweer tussen die bondels hout gekry het. Sy bed en matras is aan ‘n vrou verkoop wat later vertel het dat sy baie geld in die matras gevind het.

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Die opbrengs van sy boedel was van so ‘n aard dat van die beste marmer uit Italië ingevoer is vir sy grafsteen. ‘n Lewensgrootte figuur met ‘n papierrol en lammetjie op sy een arm het op ‘n hoë basis gestaan. ‘n Halfsirkel van ses pilare het dit omring. ‘n Metaalplaat het die beeld se voetstuk omring waarop die volgende in reliëfwerk uitgebeeld is: 3-10-1910 Andries Petrus Hendricks 12-5-1981. Gone and forgotten – nes hy dit in sy testament bepaal het. In 2009 het vandale die graf van Majaraposo geskend. Die beeld se kop en een hand is afgekap en van die kleiner beelde is gebreek en rondgestrooi. Die graf was reeds lank sonder enige blomme, waarskynlik omdat die geld daarvoor opgebruik was. Drie wit seuns is vir grafskending gevonnis. Mens wonder wat sou Andries daarvan sou sê. Andries se grafbeeld, asook ander beskadigde grafte in die omgewing, is later deur ‘n vrou op Vredefort en ‘n grafsteenmaker herstel. Die begraafplaas en sy graf is ook later omhein. Bronne: • • •

https://www2.lib.uct.ac.za/mss/bccd/Histories/Vredefort_Road/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orange_Free_State Cloete, Marie. Die Huis op die Serwituut. (haar bron: Malan, Riaan. My traitor’s heart.)

Commandant Gerard Mari Johan van Dam (ZARP & SAP): Leon Bezuidenhout

Leon Bezuidenhout (left) Gerard Mari Johan van Dam (centre) and Johannesburg Zarp’s (right) Gerard Mari Johan van Dam - Een van my heroes! Born 9 Oct 1855 in Delftshaven, Netherland. He died 12 January 1940 in Pretoria. In September 1888 he became the commandant of the police on Klerksdorp goldfields, and from there he went to Johannesburg. There he became the commandant of the Police on the Witwatersrand goldfields in November 1896. With the outbreak of the Anglo Boer War Van Dam was asked to lead 400 ZAR-policemen to Natal. He also led the ZARP in battle at, Stormberg and Colesberg. Later he fought in the ZAR at Sesmylspruit but in September 1900 he was badly wounded. On 19 April 1901 he was wounded again near Swaziland, at which time he was also captured. He was 136


subsequently sent to Ladysmith and then to Durban, Natal. Till 1902 he was held as a prisoner at the Greenpoint Concentration Camp near Cape Town. After the war he sailed to the USA, where for a period of six months he performed in Ben Viljoen's Boer circus at St. Louis. In 1906 he joined the Krugersdorp detective branch, and in 1908 he became Inspector of Police for Transvaal. Later he served as Commandant of Police at Potchefstroom and Rustenburg. He retired on 30 June 1919 as a major. Die Boere-offisiere 1899 - 1902, pp. 137, 138.

Zarp’e: Pretoria Twee ZARP’e gestasioneer in Pretoria: Louis van Wyk en Andries Pretorius

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THE OBSERVATION POST: PETER DICKENS

https://samilhistory.com

The Great Escape … was led by a South African! Those watching ‘The Great Escape’ re-run on British television this long Christmas weekend33 – thinking it was an all American and British affair, here’s some more back of the Chappie gum wrapper trivia – the mastermind behind it was a South African, and the escape had very little to do with Americans. Here is another great South African (seen here at Stalag Luft III). Squadron Leader Roger Joyce Bushell RAF – AAF (30 August 1910 – 29 March 1944) was an Auxiliary Air Force pilot who organised and led the famous escape from the German prisoner of war camp, and also victim of the Stalag Luft III murders when participants in the famous escape were executed by the German Gestapo. The escape was used as the basis for the film The Great Escape. The character played by Richard Attenborough, Roger Bartlett, is modelled on Roger Bushell. The story about the “Great Escape” was one of the most famous escape stories during WW2. The Great Escape movie is now an institution in The United Kingdom and the United States. Made famous by the swagger of Steve McQueen and his fictional attempted escape attempts culminating in a cross-country motorbike chase (McQueen’s preferred sport) with Nazi Germans in pursuit. The backdrop of the movie is however a true story and it involves a South African as its leader and not a plucky Briton. The Real Story of The Great Escape In the spring of 1943, Roger Bushell masterminded a plot for a major escape of Prisoners of War from Stalag Luft III. Being held in the north compound where British airmen were housed, Bushell as commander of the escape committee channelled the escape effort into probing for weaknesses and looking for opportunities. Falling back on his legal background to represent his scheme, Bushell This is a reprinted article from The Observation Post and is published in Nongqai to commemorate the event – HBH. 33

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called a meeting of the escape committee in the camp and not only shocked those present with its scope, but injected into every man a passionate determination to put every energy into the escape. He declared, “Everyone here in this room is living on borrowed time. By rights we should all be dead! The only reason that God allowed us this extra ration of life is so we can make life hell for the Hun… In North Compound we are concentrating our efforts on completing and escaping through one master tunnel. No private-enterprise tunnels allowed. Three bloody deep, bloody long tunnels will be dug – Tom, Dick and Harry. One will succeed!” The simultaneous digging of these tunnels would become an advantage if any one of them were discovered by the Germans, because the guards would scarcely imagine that another two could be well under way. The most radical aspect of the plan was not merely the scale of the construction, but also the sheer number of men that Bushell intended to pass through these tunnels. Previous attempts had involved the escape of anything up to a dozen or twenty men, but Bushell was proposing to get over 200 out, all of whom would be wearing civilian clothes and possessing a complete range of forged papers and escape equipment. It was an unprecedented undertaking and would require unparalleled organisation. As the mastermind of the Great Escape, Bushell inherited the codename of “Big X”. The tunnel “Tom” began in a darkened corner of a hall in one of the buildings. “Harry”’s entrance was carefully hidden under a Stove. The entrance to “Dick” had a very well concealed entrance in a drainage sump. More than 600 prisoners were involved in their construction. Bushell also organised another mass break out, which occurred on 12 June 1943. This became known as the Delousing Break, when 26 officers escaped by leaving the camp under escort with two fake guards (POWs disguised as guards) supposedly to go to the showers for delousing in the neighbouring compound. All but two were later recaptured and returned to the camp, with the remaining two officers being sent to Oflag IV-C at Colditz for attempting to steal an aircraft. After the discovery of Tom, construction on Harry was halted, but it resumed in January 1944. On the evening of 24 March, after months of preparation, 200 officers prepared to escape. But things did not go as planned, with only 76 officers managed to get clear of the camp. Among those left behind was 21-year-old RAF Flight Lieutenant Alan Bryett, who refers to Bushell as “the bravest man I ever knew”. Roger and his partner Bernard Scheidhauer, among the first few to leave the tunnel, successfully boarded a train at Sagan railway station. They were caught the next day at Saarbrücken railway station, waiting for a train to Alsace, which had been annexed from France by Germany. Bushell and Scheidhauer were murdered three days later by members of the Gestapo. This was a breach of the Geneva Convention and so constituted a war crime. The perpetrators were later tried and executed by the Allies. Fifty of the 76 escapees were killed in the Stalag Luft III murders on Hitler’s direct orders. In an ironic twist Bushell’s executioner was himself executed at the end of the war for his crime (see this story on the Observation Post “As they like to say in the military “Karma is a Bitch!”). It unfortunately was not just Roger Bushell as a South African to suffer this fate, three more South Africans participated and escaped with Roger Bushell in The Great Escape. • Lieutenants Gouws, • Stevens and • McGarr (all South African Air Force) were also recaptured and executed illegally by the Gestapo. Bushell was posthumously mentioned in Despatches on 8 June 1944 for his services as a POW. This award was recorded in the London Gazette dated 13 June 1946. His name also appears on the war memorial in Hermanus, South Africa, where his parents spent their last years and where they were buried.

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Roger Bushell was born in Springs South Africa on the 30th November 1910. He was first schooled in Johannesburg at Park Town School but later moved to England, and in 1929 he spent his first year at Cambridge University where he studied law. His talents however extended far beyond a career in law, as an athlete he had the honour of representing the University, both as a skier and rugby player. He excelled at skiing and during the early 1930’s he was declared the fastest Briton in the downhill category. In South Africa the memory of Roger Bushell lives on in Hermanus. His name is among those on the War Memorial above the Old Harbour, Roger’s parents were living in Hermanus at the time of his death and his parents also made a presentation to the Hermanus High School, in remembrance of their son who (incidentally) could speak nine languages. The two coveted Roger Bushell prizes for character are still awarded annually at the prize-giving of the school. One prize is awarded annually to the student who has shown the most exemplary signs of character during the year and second one is for the school boy chosen by his fellow students as the best leader.

Roger Bushell’s memorial plaque on the War Memorial in Hermanus, South Africa. • Researched by Peter Dickens, with reference and help from Buskruit Burger and Sandy Evan Hanes.

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RSA INTELLIGENCE | RSA INLIGTING

World War 2: Operation Felix Dear Hennie, Your name was given to me by my good friend Walter Volker with the suggestion that you might find the article I have had just had published along with a colleague in Pretoria. It tells the story of the wartime Nazi spy active in South Africa who was known as FELIX. He was, in fact, Lothar Sittig and was never captured even though he transmitted coded radio messages, initially to the German consulate in Lourenco Marques and then, eventually, direct to Berlin. British Intelligence (MI5 and the SIS, as well as the Royal Navy's monitoring and DF stations around the country) were monitoring those transmissions continuously but their efforts to apprehend him were always thwarted by the political situation prevailing in South Africa at the time. As you will know, the Ossewabrandwag was a serious threat to the Smuts government and to South Africa's war effort. The article has just appeared in the latest issue of WattNow, the members' magazine of the South African Institute of Electrical Engineers. Here is the link; it begins on p44. https://issuu.com/saiee0/docs/wattnow_february_2019_issue Walter thought you might want to republish it in e-Nongqai given that the SAP played their own part in this saga, as you will see. Should you wish to do so, the person to contact is the editor of WattNow and her email address is minx@saiee.org.za If I can be of further assistance don't hesitate to contact me. Regards, Brian Austin West Kirby UK. The following article is republished with permission from Dr Brain Austin and Ms Minx Avrabos. The information is the same but the layout differs.

Felix’s Transmitter The story of the Nazi spy in South Africa: Dr Brian Austin & Vincent Harrison Lothar Sittig was trained as a diplomat, but he never served as one. Instead, in 1942, he became notorious as the Nazi spy, codenamed FELIX, in South Africa. Sittig left Germany in 1922, soon after he completed his academic studies intended to equip him for life in the world of international affairs but, as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, Germany had lost all her colonies, and so he turned to farming soon after arriving in Portuguese West Africa, the Angola of today. In 1925 he went to South Africa where he spent most of his time managing a farm near the Vaal River. By Dr Brian Austin & Vincent Harrison 141


Lothar Sittig Soon after South Africa declared war on Germany in September 1939 Sittig, who was still a German national, was interned along with many of his [Grab your reader’s attention with a great quote from the document or use this space to emphasize a key point. To place this text box anywhere on the page, just drag it.] fellow countrymen. He was sent to the internment camp in Leeukop prison near Johannesburg. There he encountered the Ossewabrandwag (OB), the ultra-nationalist movement formed earlier that year, initially as a cultural organisation to represent those Afrikaners whose intentions were to sever all ties with Britain and turn South Africa into a republic. At that time South Africa was a selfgoverning British Dominion with a similar status to Australia, Canada and New Zealand. However, the OB rapidly evolved from a social body into a hard-line pro-German organisation intent on bringing about a change of government, even by force, if needs be. Their version of the SS, the ‘Stormjaers’ were itching for a fight. Lothar Sittig

Dr JFJ “Hans” van Rensburg The OB’s new leader was the charismatic Dr Hans van Rensburg, a former Secretary of Justice under Jan Smuts and the former Administrator of the Orange Free State. He had also been a senior officer in one of Pretoria’s oldest regiments. With the active connivance of some of the guards at Leeukop whose sympathies lay squarely with the OB, Sittig and a fellow German by the name of Nils Paasch managed to escape and, after some months being sheltered by various OB sympathisers around the country, they made their way to Lourenco Marques and specifically to the German consulate there. Portuguese East Africa was neutral territory but the German consul, Paul Trompke and particularly his vice-consul, Luitpold 142


Werz, were actively supporting the Nazi cause by encouraging and assisting the flow of German agents across the border with South Africa. The intention was that they would make contact with the OB and so lend support to those Afrikaners who were seeking to overthrow the Smuts government and, ultimately, to remove South Africa from what they saw as the stranglehold of British domination in ‘their’ country. The OB, using the services of well-placed individuals, would observe shipping moving in and out of South Africa’s ports and then report these to the Kriegsmarine, Hitler’s navy, so that the German submarines – the U-boats – could attack them. To do this, there had to be some effective means of communication between the OB and the German consulate in LM. That meant wireless, and Sittig soon became FELIX, his codename for the rest of the war. The intention was that he would return to South Africa, obtain a radio transmitter and then communicate, initially, with Werz in Lourenco Marques but ultimately, so they hoped, directly with Berlin. The critical link in the OB–Nazi chain was another individual who had escaped from detention and had been smuggled across the border by willing members of the ‘Stormjaers’. His name was Olaf Andresen, a musician and composer who would subsequently be remembered as the composer of Afrikaans ‘liedjies’, most notably ‘My hart verlang na die Boland’ but he also wrote what would become the anthem of the Ossewabrandwag, called ‘Opsaal Boere’. It would subsequently play an essential part in the process of communicating with Berlin, as we will see. Moreover, there were others too. The very first Nazi agent to become active in South Africa was Hans Rooseboom, an irascible character who soon fell out with everyone he was supposed to collaborate with. Eventually, van Rensburg cast him out, and it was even suggested that his name was placed on an OB assassination list. However, after lying low for some time, he reappeared and made contact with a German radio engineer named Herbert Wild, whose electronics business in Johannesburg still exists today. Wild had a transmitter which Rooseboom was to use to contact Berlin. There is no evidence he ever did. Since all communications would be in code, Sittig received training in this black art, and though the Enigma machine had become the Nazi’s tool of choice throughout the war, FELIX used a far simpler method based on a commercially available numerical code. He was to transmit using Morse code, another skill he did not yet possess. However, he was a resourceful man and, besides, he was driven by a great urge to serve the Fuhrer despite being a very long way from the war that was raging in Europe. Early in 1942, his attempt to re-enter South Africa was foiled, and he was arrested and interned once again. However, three months later he’d escaped again and headed for Pretoria and the headquarters of the OB on van Rensburg’s farm to the east of the city. There he came under the wing of van Rensburg’s adjutant, a former officer in the Union Defence Force (UDF) by the name of Heimer Anderson. It was Anderson who had been instructed by van Rensburg to take charge of the OB’s radio communications. His first task was to gather in the various transmitters that had been constructed in a veritable cottage industry around Pretoria and Johannesburg with the intention of providing wireless communications between the OB’s many commandos wherever they happened to be. All in all, Anderson accumulated between five and fifteen transmitters (depending on which source you believe), some built by radio amateurs and at least one by a senior engineer at the SABC by the name of CL Olën. The Johannesburg suburb of Sydenham housed one of these transmitter factories. It was owned by OB stalwart ‘Kowie’ Marais who, after the war, became a judge of the 143


Supreme Court and then, in the 1970s, following a complete change of political direction, he joined the Progressive Federal Party and became an outspoken critic of apartheid. None of those transmitters produced much output power, perhaps 10 to 20 W at most. The primary reason was the difficulty of obtaining suitable high-frequency thermionic valves. Any attempt to purchase such things (as well as the quartz crystals needed to determine the transmit frequency) from the various suppliers of amateur radio components was viewed with suspicion and would assuredly lead to a visit from the police because amateur radio had been closed down by government decree soon after the beginning of the war. Sittig, now operating in the guise of FELIX, made his first radio transmission in May 1942 more in hope than expectation. Its purpose was to test the communication link between Pretoria and Lourenco Marques, but the optimists among them thought that Berlin might also receive his signal. No one did. The German consulate was ill-prepared in every way: they only had a domestic radio receiver and no skilled radio operators among their consular staff. It was the Italian consul, Umberto Campini, who stepped in to assist his Axis allies by ordering the radio operators aboard an Italian vessel stranded in the harbour to use their much more sophisticated receiver to listen out for FELIX’s signals. The agreed schedule of transmissions was to be every Sunday, Tuesday and Thursday at 2315 SAST and on every occasion FELIX would transmit ‘blind’, in other words, there would be no reply from LM because the Portuguese were monitoring the activities of the warring countries that they had the privilege of hosting on their neutral shores. Such transmissions would’ve violated international agreements, and the consulate concerned would’ve faced immediate closure. So, this is where Olaf Andresen’s music played a significant role. On receipt of a message from FELIX, Luitpold Werz would decipher it in LM and then re-encipher it in the diplomatic code used between his consulate and the German Foreign Office in Berlin. The message would then be sent to Germany via the regular landline diplomatic telegraphic service. Along with all other landlines from the Portuguese territory that line went through Johannesburg before making its way to Cape Town and onward to Europe by undersea cable. The Germans would then acknowledge receipt of the message in Berlin by using the regular Afrikaans transmission from Radio Zeesen, the high-power shortwave transmitter near Berlin, to play ‘Opsaal Boere’. So, this is also where the British Intelligence agencies joined the fray. All radio transmissions emanating from South Africa were being monitored by the Royal Navy’s Wireless intercept stations, known as the ‘Y Service’, situated in all South Africa’s major ports. Also, the two British security services, MI5 and MI6 (more accurately known as the SIS), which had direct responsibility for security within all the British Dominions, had ‘tapped’ the line from Lourenco Marques in Johannesburg’s Central Telephone Exchange. Everything transmitted by FELIX ended up, ultimately, in Bletchley Park where the codebreakers there attended to it as a routine matter. The simple codes used presented a few problems, and so British Intelligence was able to follow FELIX’s every move. It would not be until May 1943 that FELIX’s transmissions were received directly in Berlin without any intervention by Werz in LM. This only happened after FELIX began using a transmitter of considerably greater power (see photo below). It was designed and built for him by another OB member, a Post Office technician by the name of Reijer Groeneveld, a Hollander who had expressed no desire to become a South African citizen as long as that required his allegiance to the King of

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England. Again, it was Heimer Anderson who was instrumental in setting Groeneveld up on the farm of a prominent OB supporter near Pretoria. There Groeneveld, assisted by his Post Office colleague Hans Thomas, built the transmitter. Its considerably increased output was made possible by the removal (‘hy het voete gekry’), from the hospital in Bloemfontein, of a diathermy machine which Groeneveld himself had installed some while before for his previous employer, a supplier in Cape Town. The transmitter itself was housed in a steel box, and its power source was a 1 horsepower (746 W) petroldriven alternator that produced 110V AC. Both the transmitter and its power supply were placed in a hole in the ground some 2,5 metres on a side. This was done to make them as inconspicuous as possible even though, by this time all FELIX’s transmissions took place well away from any habitation on Hans van Rensburg’s other farm near Vryburg in the western Transvaal. The two 60-foot antenna masts, assembled in three sections, came down during daylight hours and were covered by vegetation. Then, at around midnight on the scheduled days, they were re-erected, the antenna pulled up, and FELIX’s transmissions commenced and continued until around 3 am. Signalling direct to Berlin carried on, very sporadically, for about a year. The messages enciphered by Sittig and Paasche, who had now joined his colleague, were mostly transmitted by Hans Thomas, a trained telegraphist. Berlin had expressed, again via the consulate in LM, their unqualified congratulations to FELIX on his achievement and, presumably spurred on by this, they agreed to reply to his messages by direct transmissions themselves. Sittig was quick to ask that all those messages be sent slowly because of the limited Morse code skills of Paasche and himself when Thomas was not around. The content of FELIX’s messages was, in the main, very mundane. They consisted of extracts from fiery speeches by van Rensburg or shipping information, gleaned at the major ports, which was usually highly inaccurate and always out-of-date by the time it reached Vryburg, having been sent by post to van Rensburg in Pretoria for his approval before onward transmission to Berlin.34 Once again, the energy and initiative of Lothar Sittig came to the fore. Fully aware of the tardiness of the OB’s Intelligence, he suggested to Berlin that he should be allowed to transmit directly to the U-boats when they surfaced at night to charge their batteries and communicate with their HQ. Unsurprisingly the Kriegsmarine gave this idea short shrift, but it was followed shortly after that by another one from Sittig. This time FELIX requested that a U-boat should enter St Francis Bay, near Port Elizabeth, where it would be met by an OB shore party who would take delivery of arms, 34

It should be borne in mind that General JC Smuts never took action against Dr JFJ van Rensburg during the war. They knew each other very well. OB Generals like Mr. Nel and Adv. Vorster were interned. During WW1 and the Rebellion Dr JFJ van Rensburg was a member of the loyal forces, i.e. he wore khaki during WW1. I have read much on the subject and I feel that the OB was, in a way, “controlled” by General JC Smuts. Much work has to be done on this matter in the archives in London. Dr EG Malherbe (after the war head of Natal University) was his head of Military Intelligence – HBH.

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ammunition as well as powerful radio transmitters. Moreover, then Sittig himself would return to Germany on the U-boat to brief the Abwehr on OB matters in South Africa. This suggestion caused the Germans to at least give it some serious consideration before deciding it was too risky. Of particular interest is that Sittig had warned Berlin that there existed around South Africa’s coastline a means of detecting a surfaced submarine by its reflection of ‘electric waves’. That, of course, was the network of radar stations operated by the Special Signals Service (SSS) of the army. Unsurprisingly, the Royal Navy’s Y Service had monitored all this radio traffic, and between them, the Navy, MI5 and SIS had been preparing, with the selective assistance of the UDF, a ‘welcoming party’ for the U-boat and its cargo had they ever arrived. Remarkably, despite his numerous radio transmissions, FELIX was never apprehended even though the Royal Navy’s radio direction finding (DF) stations had obtained many accurate bearings on his transmitter near Vryburg. The main reason for this was the South African Police, who would have been responsible for carrying out the raids to arrest Sittig and his co-conspirators,35 were severely compromised by the degree of infiltration of their ranks by the Ossewabrandwag. The second-in-command of the SAP, one Colonel ‘Bill’ (sic) Coetzee, was a known OB collaborator who harboured strongly-held anti-British views.36 Also, this degree of mistrust between the government of General Jan Smuts and his security forces even included sections of his military, the UDF. Fig. 4

This nest of vipers so close to the heart of government caused Smuts to request his scientific adviser, Dr H J van der Bijl, to commission the design of a radio directionfinding system that would remain completely independent of the SAP and UDF. The body that fulfilled this task became known as the Price-Milne Organisation after the two senior engineers from the Electricity Supply Commission and the Post Office who supervised their staff in the design and construction of highly secret fixed and mobile DF equipment for service across the country. (Fig 4) In 1943 the South African equipment came under the control of the Royal Navy in Simon’s Town.

There is no doubt that Reijer Groeneveld’s transmitter which enabled FELIX to communicate directly with Berlin was a remarkable achievement. As such it deserves some special attention. The output power it produced can be estimated from the available power source: a 1HP petrol-fuelled motor and generator. After allowing for the primary power consumption of the five valves that made up the There was a very dedicated and efficient Police Special Branch who detained many OB’s including policemen. The Police even sent a brigade “Up North”. One problem that faced Brig. Baston, Commissioner of Police, was he could not allow the police to act over zealously. Balance was ever important – HBH. 36 The opposite is true, he was very British-orientated, had a son in the army and his son-in-law was Det. Sgt. DA Bester – later a general and chief of the CID and advocate. We have investigated the “allegations” against Col. Bull Coetzee and they are completely false and have become a myth. Col. Coetzee was head of the Special Branch and he and Det. Sgt. Bester had arrested many OB’s. I have spoken to his children and grandson. We have written on Col. Coetzee before in the Nongqai. I could find no evidence that Col. Coetzee was member of the Afrikaner Broederbond. - HBH 35

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transmitter, and the efficiency of the Class C power amplifier stage, we estimate that the available output power was about 230 W (Fig 5). That final amplifier used the two Amperex P-150 triodes, obtained from the diathermy machine removed from the Bloemfontein hospital. From their specification, it is clear that the motor-generator set was the limiting factor and not the valves themselves: two HF-100s in push-pull were capable of 340W output from just 12 W of driving power from the CW exciter. The transmitter output is connected to the two insulated screw terminals visible on the left of the upper shelf. Two torch bulbs indicated the power output to the open-wire feedline to the dipole antenna.

The circuit diagram shows the link-coupled input-output configuration that Groeneveld used. It’s of conventional design with cross-neutralisation to prevent the amplifier from going into self-oscillation. The two neutralising capacitors (C5 and C6), one immediately behind the other in the photograph, are worthy of attention because of the high voltage breakdown requirement they had to meet. Given the difficulty these OB renegades in South Africa would’ve ghad in obtaining components through the usual channels, Groeneveld resorted to an ingenious solution by constructing two capacitors from everyday items (see Fig 3). He used the cylindrical metal containers intended for shaving soap (manufactured by Colgate) as the outer conductors of a pair of coaxial capacitors. The smaller, inner conductors were mounted on threaded shafts each of which screwed into a porcelain stand-off insulator. Removing the crocodile clip allowed the capacitance to be changed by merely screwing the inner cylinder in or out until neutralisation was obtained as indicated, in the usual way, by observing the meter monitoring the grids of the two valves. The small tuned circuit connected directly to the valve’s anode terminal is one of two parasitic suppressors shown in the circuit diagram. The CW exciter (Fig 6) was also conventional. It consisted of a crystal-controlled oscillator, using a 6L6 tetrode, driving a pair of 6L6s in push-pull. The output tuned-circuit is made up of the large inductor on the right of the PA valves with its associated variable capacitor (and calibrated scale) on the panel below. If needs be the oscillator and the two push-pull 6L6s could operate as frequency doublers thereby allowing a single third-overtone crystal to produce output on three different frequencies. Though FELIX only worked on one frequency (7.2 MHz), his transmitter allowed for some frequency agility if suitable crystals were to hand. From the available transcripts of the radio traffic between himself and Germany it is clear that he requested Berlin to use a U-Boat to smuggle 147


suitable crystals to him but, as we have seen, none of those ventures ever took place. The success of his long-haul links between Vryburg and Berlin were always at the mercy of the ionosphere.

During the period of two years, from mid-1942 when FELIX was active, the sunspot cycle was in decline, reaching its nadir around January 1944. As a result, the critical frequency of the F region – the most important one for long-haul circuits – was very low and this necessitated the careful selection of frequencies to establish and maintain contact over the nearly 9000 km path between Vryburg and Berlin. Given the need for absolute secrecy, FELIX never transmitted during daylight when his two 18m poles supporting the antenna would’ve been far too visible. As described above, those two poles, plus the centre-fed dipole between them, only went aloft after midnight on the three days of the week when he was at his transmitter, and they came down again before sunrise. His use of the 41.6m wavelength, a figure frequently mentioned in numerous FELIX-related files in the files at The National Archives in London, was reasonably close to the FOT (the optimum traffic frequency) for that path over some of that period. Analysis of the propagation using a sophisticated piece of software, known as VOACAP, (Fig 7) enabled us to assess the reliability of CW communication from Vryburg to Berlin. From the VOACAP predictions, it is clear that, for a limited signal-to-noise ratio of 30 dBHz for CW communications, the mean value of the reliability of the propagation path, expressed as time availability, was around 44%. In other words, if FELIX transmitted, typically, on twelve days per month, he was likely to have been received in Germany on around five of them. A similarly dedicated (though less numerically accurate) examination of the detailed MI5/MI6 records in the London archives suggests that this is probably not too wide of the mark. At best FELIX’s success rate could be described as marginal; his radio communications were sporadic. However, none of that diminishes the achievement which was remarkable.

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Fig. 7

Acknowledgements We gratefully acknowledge the assistance we received from Dr Evert Kleynhans, late of the OB archive at NWU in Potchefstroom; Mrs Riana Mulder, archivist at the Voortrekker Monument in Pretoria; the British National Archives at Kew, Mr Dirk Vermeulen and the SAIEE for permission to quote from relevant documents and to use photographs from their collections and publications. Bibliography •

Sittig, Band nrs. 95-96, OB-argief, Noordwes-Universiteit, Potchefstroom. R.Groeneveld, Band nrs.31, 68, ibid.

• KV2/758; KV2/760; KV2/907; KV2/939; KV2/941; KV3/10: all related to German Espionage in South Africa, 1939-1945. The National Archives, Kew, London. •

A.Blake, ‘Wit Terroriste: Afrikaner-Saboteurs in die Ossewabrandwag’, Tafelberg (2018).

• D.J. Vermeulen, ‘A History of Electrical Engineering in South Africa’ vols.1 & 2, publ. by the SAIEE, 2018. •

VOACAP (Voice of America Coverage Analysis Program), 16.1207W, 2016.

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Post 1994 Spy Wars Zuma manipulated intelligence agency, finds shocking report 2019-03-09 19:38: Kyle Cowan During the years of Jacob Zuma’s presidency, elements of the State Security Agency were repurposed and used to fight factional ANC political battles, a high-level panel review on the country’s intelligence service has found. Former state security ministers Siyabonga Cwele as well as David Mahlobo and the former head of special operations at the SSA, Thulani Dlomo, were complicit in what the panel describes as “executive overspill in the last decade or so”. The report also mentions the Gupta family, who top SSA investigators had warned Cwele in 2011 posed a serious threat to national security due to their relationship with Zuma. Their warnings were ignored and instead, both were axed. The panel report finds that the then executive, Cwele, failed in his duty to heed the warnings. It does state however that this was not a failure of intelligence capability. Their actions constitute “a serious breach of the Constitution and law for which there must be consequences”. The panel, headed by Dr Sydney Mufamadi, was established by President Cyril Ramaphosa in June last year and finalised its report to the president in December. The Presidency released a redacted version of the report on Saturday. In a statement accompanying the publication of the report it reveals that Ramaphosa had given the leadership and staff of the SSA an undertaking he would release the report “for the benefit of all South Africans”. According to the statement, the panel was tasked with identifying all material factors that contributed to current challenges in the SSA so that appropriate measures could be instituted to prevent a recurrence. The report does not name Zuma, Cwele, Mahlobo or Dlomo. However, it mentions the positions held by the men and by cross-referencing the timing of events, News24 was able to verify the identity of the individuals mentioned. Dlomo, who until recently was serving as South Africa’s ambassador to Japan, was appointed to head up the Special Operations Unit of the SSA in 2012, and at the time told colleagues he reported directly to Zuma. At the time he was shrouded in a cloud of controversy amid allegations that he accepted R1-million in kickbacks in exchange for the awarding of a R45-million contract to the Kwa-Zulu Natal department of social development, where he was the head of security. He resigned and was never prosecuted. Earlier this year, Ramaphosa recalled Dlomo from his diplomatic post to which he was appointed by Zuma in April 2017. The ministry of international relations confirmed that Dloma has returned following the recall and he awaits further instructions. Dlomo is described as “the most recalcitrant and evasive ‘witness’” the panel encountered in all its interviews. “He invoked the ‘need to know principle’ to withhold information – particularly with regard to his interaction with the Executive – from the panel,” the report reads. The 127-page report makes various findings but arguably the most crucial are the findings surrounding former president Zuma. “The manipulation of the SSA for factional purposes has emerged from the top – the Presidency – through the Minister of State Security and into the management and staff of the SSA,” a finding in the report states. “The activities of the SSA and attempts at social engineering, through its Special Operations arm, and the involvement of the President and Minister in these constitute a serious breach of the constitution and law for which there must be serious consequences.”

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The report also found that “the then Minister” [Cwele held the position from 2009 to 2014 and David Mahlobo succeeded him between 2014 and 2017] directly participated in intelligence operations in breach of constitutional and legal prescripts. The attempts to influence the trade union movement and civil society organisations in the country through surveillance, was an improper use of public resources and violated the SSA’s constitutional mandate to remain politically impartial. Under Dlomo, Special Operations was "a law unto itself and directly served the political interests of the Executive [Zuma]" the report reveals. Special Operation also undertook intelligence operations which were "clearly unconstitutional and illegal". Some of these operations include: - Training of undercover agents in VIP protection, assigning some to protect Zuma, as well as others that were not entitled to such protection, including former South African Airways chair Dudu Myeni, former National Director of Public Prosecutions, the ANC Youth League President and the former acting head of the Hawks. - Infiltrating and influencing the media in order, apparently, to counter bad publicity for the country, the then President and the SSA. - Intervention in the #FeesMustFall protests to influence the director of the student movement - Counter operations to impede the distribution of CR17 [Ramaphosa’s presidential campaign] regalia and impede transportation systems used by dissident groups of Ramaphosa supporters during the 2016 ANC January 8 event in Rustenburg The report recommends a splitting of the SSA into two agencies, with separate domestic and foreign mandates, which Ramaphosa first revealed in his State of the Nation Address. It also recommends that legislation provisions on the role of the Minister of State Security be reviewed and that the appointment of the head of the SSA should follow a similar process as that of the NDPP. It further recommends that its findings and the findings of the Inspector General of Intelligence probe into the Special Operations result in criminal prosecution and/or disciplinary action. Dlomo, the panel recommends, should be recalled, a recommendation Ramaphosa has already acted on. https://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/breaking-zuma-manipulated-intelligence-agencyfinds-shocking-report-20190309

Spy Wars: How Jacob Zuma established his own network of spooks 2019-03-10 09:08: Kyle Cowan Former president Jacob Zuma oversaw the creation of parallel structures within the intelligence service to serve his personal and factional ANC party political interests, breaching the Constitution in the process. This, according to the findings of a high-level review panel report on the State Security Agency (SSA), which revealed that not only was the SSA repurposed to serve Zuma's interests, but was created irregularly in terms of the Constitution, which requires intelligence structures to be set up through legislative changes and not presidential proclamations. By amalgamating the National Intelligence Agency and South African Secret Service, Zuma also effectively decimated the efficient functioning of their successor, the SSA. The bombshell report, published by President Cyril Ramaphosa's office on Saturday afternoon, is a damning indictment on how factions within the ANC, led by Zuma, subjugated the intelligence capabilities of the state since 2005, a key year in Zuma's rise to power. Under Zuma, the SSA spied on unions and civil society organisations such as Right2Know and the Council for the Advancement of the South African Constitution (Casac). It also influenced the media, established fake unions in Marikana, abused funds and conducted illegal intelligence gathering operations. The report recommends: - A forensic investigation into the finances of the SSA to make a full determination of abuse of secret funds to establish basis for disciplinary charges and/or criminal prosecution; 151


- Changes to financial controls, including giving wider access to finances to the Auditor General and chief financial officers and alternative methods of payment to cut down on cash uses; - Sweeping legislative reforms to seek a clearer mandate for envisaged return to two separate agencies focused on foreign and domestic intelligence and stricter controls on governance of agencies; - The legislative changes should include decentralisation of decision-making powers held by the director general and minister, and suggests a change in the appointment processes of spy bosses; - Disciplinary action and/or criminal prosecution for Zuma, ministers, SSA bosses and staff who wilfully violated laws in issuing and executing illegal orders; - Giving the Inspector General of Intelligence independence, to enable the office of the IG to conduct its work without interference; - And the establishment of a task team and restructuring team to deal with the proposed restructuring into two agencies and to undertake an extensive review of current legislation, with an eye on implementation. The panel, which was led by Sydney Mufamadi, handed its report to Ramaphosa in December, and a redacted version was released on Saturday. Rise to power "From about 2005, with the emergence of the divisions in the ANC, there has been a growing politicisation and factionalisation of the civilian intelligence community based on the factions in the ANC. This has been partly aggravated by the fact that many of the leadership and management of the intelligence services have come from an ANC and liberation struggle background and have seemingly, in some cases, not been able to separate their professional responsibilities from their political inclinations", the report concludes. "This became progressively worse during the administration of the former president, with parallel structures being created that directly served the personal and political interests of the president and, in some cases, the relevant ministers. All this was in complete breach of the Constitution, the White Paper, the legislation and other prescripts." The year 2005 was a seminal year in Zuma's rise to political power. He was fired from his position of deputy president by then-head of party and state Thabo Mbeki, shortly after his friend Schabir Shaik was convicted of fraud and corruption relating to the multi-billion rand "arms deal" saga. Months after his 2005 axing, the ANC's National General Conference expressed overwhelming support for Zuma, eventually leading to his election as ANC president at the party's now infamous 2007 National Elective Conference, held in Polokwane. By the time of his election, Zuma had already turned to the National Intelligence Agency, whose then-deputy boss Arthur Fraser had already allegedly handed over the so-called "spy tapes" to Zuma's lawyers. The tapes, which included intercepted phone conversations between former NPA head Bulelani Ngcuka and then-Scorpions boss Leonard McCarthy, were the main reason behind the NPA withdrawing corruption charges against Zuma. This paved the way for Zuma to stand for election, while Fraser was later appointed as the director general of the SSA. He is accused of operating the Principle Agent Network (PAN). PAN, abolished in 2011, is described as another parallel intelligence structure that allegedly spirited away nearly R1bn in state funds over three years, and diverted the intelligence mechanisms of the state to Fraser. https://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/spy-wars-how-jacob-zuma-established-his-ownnetwork-20190310

Spy Wars: Report reveals how Zuma's man at SSA helped build parallel network 2019-03-10 12:30: Kyle Cowan Former president Jacob Zuma's key man in the abuse of the State Security Agency (SSA), over and above ministers Siyabonga Cwele and David Mahlobo, as well as former DG Arthur Fraser, was Thulani Dlomo, the former head of Special Operations at the agency.

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Until recently, Dlomo served as the ambassador to Japan, a position Zuma handed him in April 2017. President Cyril Ramaphosa recalled Dlomo last month, two months after he received the Mufamadi panel report. The ministry of international relations confirmed to News24 that Dlomo has since returned to South Africa and that he is "awaiting further instructions". Dlomo was appointed to head up Special Operations in 2012, three years into Zuma's devastating presidency, which over nine years oversaw the destruction of capacity at key state institutions, including the South African Revenue Service (Sars), the Directorate for Priority Crime Investigations (Hawks), the National Prosecuting Authority (NPA) and the South African Police Service (SAPS). During his presidency, South Africans were also subjected to a loss of hundreds of billions of rands through state capture, a term used to describe the wholesale looting of state coffers, particularly by the Gupta family, who Zuma counts among his friends. The paths of destruction cross in one example mentioned in the report, when in 2015, R17m was stolen from a safe inside the SSA offices. The perpetrators were caught on camera, but the thenacting head of the Hawks, Berning Ntlemeza, "failed to see the case through to its logical conclusion". 'Monumental blunder' The report comes amid probes by the Zondo commission of inquiry into state capture, the Mokgoro inquiry into the fitness of NPA bosses Nomgcobo Jiba and Lawrence Mrwebi to hold office, the inquiry into the Public Investment Corporation (PIC) and the Nugent inquiry into maladministration at Sars, which have so far revealed varying levels of criminality and machinations behind the destruction of law enforcement capabilities. Of the SSA's Special Operations (SO) under Dlomo – who famously told colleagues he reports directly to Zuma – the panel said: "It is clear from the above information and other information available to the panel that SO had largely become a parallel intelligence structure serving a faction of the ruling party and, in particular, the personal political interests of the sitting president of the party and country. This is in direct breach of the Constitution, the White Paper, the relevant legislation and plain good government intelligence functioning." It also stated that it found a "blatant disregard" and since Zuma came to power in 2009, a "marked and increased disregard of the legislation", policies and prescripts that were intended to govern the SSA. Zuma drove the process to create the SSA, which led to "far more serious problems", the report found. This included the serious disruption of functions, efficiency and operations, the excessive concentration of power inside a top-heavy management structure and a lack of proper focus on foreign intelligence. His push towards a single intelligence agency and the doctrinal shifts that accompanied it, drove the core purpose of the SSA away from the prescripts of the Constitution, white paper and legislation. For this "monumental blunder", Zuma and others must face consequences that include criminal prosecution, the panel said. https://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/spy-wars-report-reveals-how-zumas-man-at-ssahelped-build-parallel-network-20190310

Calls made for those implicated in wrongdoing at the SSA to be punished 2019-03-10 16:50 - Poloko Tau Civil society groups that were outspoken against the Jacob Zuma-led government appear not surprised that they were spied on by the State Security Agency. A damning high-level review panel report on the SSA revealed there was "active monitoring" of the organisations Right2Know, Save South Africa, Council for the Advancement of the South African Constitution (Casac), Green Peace and South Africa First. "Obviously, we're concerned about the clear breach of legislative mandate by SSA but it is not surprising given we were confronting the Zuma-led government. We hope appropriate action will be taken against those responsible," said Casac executive director Lawson Naidoo. 153


Founder of Save South Africa Sipho Pityana was also not shocked. "These revelations confirm what we always suspected, that instead of focusing on real threats to the nation's security, the former president's spies were trying to destabilise legal, law-abiding organisations which respected the Constitution, were totally legitimate and had South Africa's interests at heart," he said. "Special Operations was essentially a rogue intelligence unit that was trying to prop up Zuma at a time when there was a growing societal and political realisation that he himself was the greatest threat to our sovereignty because of his nefarious relationships with the Gupta family and the state capture project." Pityana said they were "conscious at the time of attempts to subvert our activities, whether it was physical attacks on our members, the intimidation of some of the campaign leaders, or attempts to subvert our gatherings," he said. "Now we know who was behind it." He furthered urged for the law to take its course and for the urgent processing of the findings into criminal dockets "starting with Zuma and extending to all political and administrative leaders who are implicated in the panel's report". "The Special Operations agents have been found by a Presidential panel to have committed illegal activities. They must be identified so that they can be pursued through the courts. They should not enjoy any privilege, protection or anonymity. We have a right to know who the spies are as well as their handlers," Pityana said. Meanwhile, the Democratic Alliance (DA) has called for the "immediate suspension from public services of all those implicated". "Criminal charges must also be laid with the SAPS to finally bring to book those who have looted the SSA for the nefarious ends of ex-president Jacob Zuma, the Gupta's and their corrupt cronies." https://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/calls-made-for-those-implicated-in-wrongdoing-at-thessa-to-be-punished-20190310

Zuma says SSA report was written by 'apartheid spies' 2019-03-10 20:00: Alex Mitchley and Kyle Cowan Former president Jacob Zuma has taken to Twitter to seemingly rubbish the panel that compiled a report which revealed that during his presidency elements of the State Security Agency (SSA) were re-purposed and used to fight factional ANC political battles. The high-level panel review report was published by President Cyril Ramaphosa's office on Saturday afternoon, found that Zuma oversaw the creation of parallel structures within the intelligence service to serve his personal and factional ANC party political interests, breaching the Constitution in the process. Zuma tweeted that he had never been asked questions by this committee and that the committee has two well-known apartheid spies. "I've never sold out nor written letters to the SB. I feel nothing when Apartheid spies call me corrupt. I hope people are not opening a can of worms which they might regret," Zuma said in the tweet. According to the findings, the SSA was not only re-purposed to serve Zuma's interests but was created irregularly in terms of the Constitution, which requires intelligence structures to be set up through legislative changes and not presidential proclamations. By amalgamating the National Intelligence Agency and South African Secret Service, Zuma also effectively decimated the efficient functioning of their successor, the SSA. The report also found that under Zuma, the SSA spied on unions and civil society organisations such as Right2Know and the Council for the Advancement of the South African Constitution (Casac). It also influenced the media, established fake unions in Marikana, abused funds and conducted illegal intelligence gathering operations. Former state security ministers Siyabonga Cwele as well as David Mahlobo and the former head of special operations at the SSA, Thulani Dlomo, were complicit in what the panel describes as “executive overspill in the last decade or so�. The report also mentions the Gupta family, who top SSA investigators had warned Cwele in 2011 posed a serious threat to national security due to their relationship with Zuma. Their warnings were ignored and instead, both were axed. 154


The report does not name Zuma, Cwele, Mahlobo or Dlomo. However, it mentions the positions held by the men and by cross-referencing the timing of events, News24 was able to verify the identity of the individuals mentioned. https://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/zuma-says-ssa-report-was-written-by-apartheid-spies20190310

EXPLAINED: Nine things you must know about the bombshell report into spies 2019-03-11 07:01 | Kyle Cowan The office of President Cyril Ramaphosa this weekend published a bombshell report by the highlevel review panel into the State Security Agency, revealing damning evidence of how the SSA was repurposed to serve the political interests of former president Jacob Zuma and his cronies within the ANC. The panel was headed by Dr Sydney Mufamadi and drew on mounds of documents and interviews with former and current ministers, staff and operatives to conduct its review of the SSA. In essence, the panel attempted to answer a simple question: "What the hell happened?" Here are nine things you need to know about the report: 1. Former president Jacob Zuma and ministers he appointed, including Siyabonga Cwele and David Mahlobo, as well as senior staff at the SSA, violated the Constitution by overseeing and allowing the repurposing of the spy agency to serve their own personal and political interests, a process that started in 2005. 2. The core purpose of the SSA was changed by Zuma, Cwele and others as part of their faction within the ANC since 2009 when Zuma became president. This shift was removed from the purpose envisaged in the Constitution and legislation. 3. The report found widespread abuse of funds, in violation of regulations, and has recommended increased access to financial information for the Auditor General and chief financial officer as well as sweeping forensic investigations to determine who should be charged and/or disciplined for the misuse of funds. 4. Recommendations include criminal prosecution for Zuma, Cwele, Mahlobo and SSA staffers for the blatant disregard of legislation that governs the operation of intelligence agencies and the Constitution. 5. The creation of the SSA, through the amalgamation of the National Intelligence Agency and South African Secret Service, was irregular in terms of the Constitution as it was not established through legislation but rather a presidential proclamation signed by Zuma. 6. Operations undertaken by the SSA's Special Operations arm under Zuma ally Thulani Dlomo, including spying on unions and civil society organisations, the creation of a fake union in Marikana, influencing the media and conducting politically motivated projects are to be investigated by a multidisciplinary task team with an eye on criminal prosecutions. 7. The SSA should be split into two agencies, each focused separately and independently on foreign and domestic intelligence, as it was before Zuma's "monumental blunder" in amalgamating the NIA and the SSA. 8. The report recommends changes to outdated legislation governing intelligence agencies to narrow their mandates and effect changes to powers and decision making privileges given to ministers and agency bosses. 9. The SSA relied far too heavily on the application of secrecy to stifle effective accountability and non-compliance which includes "blatant criminality". https://www.news24.com/Analysis/explained-nine-things-you-must-know-about-the-bombshellreport-into-spies-20190311 SSA: Arthur Fraser and implicated Ministers should be suspended - John Steenhuisen John Steenhuisen | 10 March 2019 DA Chief Whip says Review Panel report vindicates his party's claims 155


DA calls for the immediate suspension of Arthur Fraser and implicated Ministers Last year, the Democratic Alliance (DA) formally wrote to President Cyril Ramaphosa requesting that he place former State Security Agency (SSA) boss, Arthur Fraser - who is currently serving as National Commissioner of Correctional Services - on suspension pending the conclusion of the investigation into serious allegations levelled against him. The DA also filed an application in the Gauteng High Court to set aside the appointment of Fraser. These allegations related to Fraser's involvement in the Principal Agent Network initiated by the SSA and his decision to withdraw the security clearance of the Inspector General of Intelligence in order to block the release of information regarding political collusion. In response to mounting evidence supporting the DA’s allegations, President Ramaphosa, like a cat in a corner, was left with no choice other than to initiate a High-Level Review Panel to probe these claims. The report released yesterday by the Review Panel vindicates the DA's claims, with shocking findings including: That from around 2005, the leadership and management of the State Security Agency were unable to separate their professional responsibilities from their political inclinations. This became progressively worse during the administration of President Jacob Zuma, with parallel structures being created that directly served the personal and political interests of the Zuma and, in some cases, the relevant ministers. There has subsequently been a serious politicisation and factionalisation of the intelligence community based on factions in the ANC. Those at the top (Arthur Fraser, Siyabonga Cwele, David Mahlobo and Thulani Dlomo) turned the civilian intelligence community into a private resource to serve the political and personal interests of particular individuals (Jacob Zuma). The politicisation of the Agency resulted in an almost complete disregard for the Constitution, policy, legislation and other prescripts. Due to wide-ranging resource abuse, the SSA became in effect a ‘cash cow’ for many of its members and external stakeholders. Whilst the report does not specifically name those implicated, looking at periods of tenure cited in the report, it is clear that: Former SSA Ministers at the time (Siyabonga Cwele and David Mahlobo) as well as then Head of Special Operations (Thulani Dlomo), were complicit in “executive overspill”. Cwele ignored warnings by investigators that certain family's (the Gupta's) posed a threat to national security. Cwele and Mahlobo participated in intelligence operations which constitute “a serious breach of the Constitution and law for which there must be consequences”. All of this happened under Fraser’s leadership of the Agency. The report recommends an overarching overhaul of the intelligence and security architecture of the country. The Democratic Alliance calls for the immediate suspension from public services of all those implicated. Criminal charges must also be laid with the SAPS to finally bring to book those who have looted the SSA for the nefarious ends of ex-President Jacob Zuma, the Gupta’s and their corrupt cronies. Statement issued by DA Chief Whip, John Steenhuisen, 10 March 2019 https://www.politicsweb.co.za/politics/ssa-arthur-fraser-and-implicated-ministers-should-

Spy Wars: Kasrils says he warned ANC about factions using spooks 2019-03-11 16:45: Sarah Evans Former intelligence minister Ronnie Kasrils says he feels "vindicated" by the report on the high-level review panel on the State Security Agency (SSA). 156


Kasrils, who served as intelligence minister from early 2004 until September 2008, said the report confirmed his warnings at the time that factional battles in the ANC, specifically around former president Jacob Zuma, were crippling the intelligence services. Kasrils became minister just months before former president Thabo Mbeki fired Zuma as his deputy in 2004. Speaking to News24 on Monday, Kasrils said the intelligence services were central to Zuma's "fight back" campaign, and that this began almost immediately after Zuma was sacked. The report, released on Saturday by President Cyril Ramaphosa, details how the intelligence services were used to advance Zuma's interests. It shows how the intelligence services operated outside the bounds of the law to achieve political ends, misusing funds along the way and illegally spying on civil society groups, unions and the media. The genesis of this abuse is "about 2005", according to the report. This was in the infancy of Kasrils’ tenure. Kasrils, as well as Zuma and other former intelligence ministers, are not mentioned by name in the report. But they are alluded to, as they are described by their years in office. The report talks about how the "growing politicisation and factionalisation" of the intelligence services began with the emergence of divisions in the ANC "from about 2005". It also mentions a task team set up by the minister of intelligence in 2005 (Kasrils), to look into "intelligence legislation and other prescripts", the recommendations of which were "unevenly implemented". 'I feel that I’m vindicated by this report' The report says that, had those changes been implemented, the SSA might not be in the state it is in today. But Kasrils says he was stymied at every turn, when he tried to turn things around at the embattled intelligence services. He says a number of legislative changes he had wanted to make, which would have overturned apartheid-era legislation and brought problematic legislation in line with the Constitution, were blocked by a "pro-Zuma" Portfolio Committee on Intelligence in Parliament. Politically, Kasrils says he was seen as someone who was merely trying to defend Mbeki, and was not believed when he sounded alarm bells about the abuse of the intelligence services for factional reasons. "I feel that I’m vindicated by this report… I faced the biggest challenge of my career, from what I saw happening from 2005, and I paid for it dearly, (thanks to) these people assuming I was just there to protect Mbeki. The Zuma crowd totally closed me out… I resigned in principle," he said. Kasrils said it was important to analyse what the pro-Zuma forces were doing from about 2005 to understand what had happened. "Zuma and his forces were fighting back from his dismissal. And the first area they used was the intelligence services. It took me about six months to get on to it… But I wasn’t believed. When I sounded the warnings, the (alliance partners) didn’t want to hear the truth." He said the report contained "outstanding insight and analysis", adding that it reflected the problems he had faced. He congratulated Ramaphosa for making the report public. 'What I saw were very big problems' As far back as 2005, there were allegations that members of the National Intelligence Agency were spying on political opponents, which became known as the hoax email saga, and there were at least two more investigations into problems within the intelligence community. One of these - the Matthews Commission - is mentioned several times in the SSA report. "What I saw were very big problems, like the (hoax) email saga, which led to my axing of members of the National Intelligence Agency. We had a very thorough Inspector General of Intelligence report which I had commissioned, and which was put into public domain in March 2006. Far-reaching recommendations were then taken up (stemming from) the Matthews Commission report. I sought to act against the politicisation of the intelligence community, which I found from the word go, and tried to tighten things up. "I came up against the problems, which then multiplied, and created the basis for the new president (Zuma) and the people he appointed to carry on in the worst possible way." Zuma has responded to the report in a tweet, in which he denied being interviewed by the commission and issued a dark warning about "opening a can of worms". 157


https://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/spy-wars-kasrils-says-he-warned-anc-about-factionsusing-spooks-20190311

No one is going to get away with this - State Security Minister News24 | 11 March 2019 Minister says all documents and the report will be handed over to law enforcement

'No one is going to get away with this' - state security minister on SSA report 11 March 2019 State Security Minister Dipuo Letsatsi-Duba has assured South Africans that nobody implicated in the report on the State Security Agency (SSA) - which reveals gross abuses of power to fight factional battles during former president Jacob Zuma's administration - will "get away" with it. "As the report says, everybody who was involved in wrongdoing must be accountable. We are going to bring all the documents in the report and hand it over to the law enforcement agencies. "I assure you that no one is going to get away with this," Letsatsi-Duba said on the 702-breakfast show on Monday morning. She was responding to the findings of a high-level review panel report on the SSA, which revealed that, not only was the SSA repurposed to serve Zuma's interests, but was also set up irregularly in terms of the Constitution, which requires intelligence structures to be set up through legislative changes and not presidential proclamations, News 24 earlier reported. The panel, which was led by Sydney Mufamadi, handed its report to Ramaphosa in December, and a summarised version was released on Saturday by the Presidency. Although no one is named in the report, these events occurred on the watch of former ministers David Mahlobo and Siyabonga Cwele. Mahlobo still serves as an ANC MP and Cwele is currently the minister of home affairs. "In the report, there are no names mentioned, but if the investigation points in that way, they have to account," Letsatsi-Duba said. The report also implicated recalled ambassador to Japan Thulani Dlomo, who was appointed as the head of Special Operations (SO) at the agency in 2012, and reported directly to Zuma. "It is clear from the above information and other information available to the panel that SO had largely become a parallel intelligence structure serving a faction of the ruling party and, in particular, the personal political interests of the sitting president of the party and country. 'It is not acceptable' "This is in direct breach of the Constitution, the White Paper, the relevant legislation and plain good government intelligence functioning," the panel said. Letsatsi-Duba, in her 702-interview, insisted that the decision to recall Dlomo was at the discretion of the Department of International Relations and Cooperation, and that action would be taken following an investigation and a handing over of documents to law enforcement agencies. "It is not acceptable, and this is an unfortunate situation that people were monitored illegally. "As I indicated, everyone who did illegal interceptions will be held accountable and law enforcement will take it further," she reiterated. Zuma took to Twitter on Sunday night to rubbish members of panel, accusing two members of the committee of being "apartheid spies". "I've never sold out nor written letters to the SB. I feel nothing when Apartheid spies call me corrupt. I hope people are not opening a can of worms which they might regret," Zuma said in the tweet. 158


News24 https://www.politicsweb.co.za/news-and-analysis/no-one-is-going-to-get-away-with-this-state-secur

SAFTU calls on the President Ramaphosa to dismiss Arthur Fraser and Siyabonga Cwele with immediate effect 11 March 2019 The South African Federation of Trade Unions – SAFTU welcomes the report of the panel led by former Minister of Police, Sydney Mufamadi reviewing the Intelligence Services. President Cyril Ramaphosa appointed the panel in 2018. SAFTU even before it came to existence has been a victim of the activities of the South African Intelligence Services that have been turned into being the enforcers of the state capture project. We believe that the independent, democratic and campaigning federation has been one of the worse victims of the shenanigans the report is exposing. In the past we have issued many statements highlighting the following incidents: 1. The officials and leaders of SAFTU and some of her affiliated unions had their homes broken into with such levels of professional thuggery that no doors or windows were broken 2. SAFTU officials and leaders of her affiliated unions have had their laptops and cell phones stolen during these break-ins. 3. Even before SAFTU was formed NUMSA had its offices broken into, stoned with the intent to break windows and destroy property. 4. In the case of the NUMSA Deputy General Secretary, the crooks tied him in his own house. These were not ordinary crooks as they were only interested in his laptops, iPad and cell phones. 5. SAFTU General Secretary and many other prominent South Africans, including the former Public Protector, Thuli Madonsela, former Deputy Chief Justice Dikgang Moseneke, Justice Johan Froneman and others have had special “intelligence reports” circulated painting them as the agents of United States and imperialism. This all in an attempt to discredit and silence them. SAFTU is on record questioning the need for all of the commissions currently underway. These commissions have told us nothing we did not know. SAFTU together with countless civil society formations including some of the opposition parties persistently demanded and campaigned for action to be taken following the many reports of the Public Protector including the report titled “The State of of State Capture’, the SACC’s Betrayal of the dream, The OUTA’ “President Caught in the Act”, the hundreds of Gupta emails, Jacques Pauw’s ‘The President’s Keepers’ and other sources. Holding the culprits accountable is not in the DNA of this government whether led by Jacob Zuma or Cyril Ramaphosa. As examples: the then head of intelligence fingered in the report of the panel, Arthur Fraser was previously exposed that under his watch millions of rands were stolen, in the Jacques Pauw book. The police did not charge him; he was not disciplined even internally, instead he was rewarded with a plum job. This did not happen during the so-called nine wasted years but during the era of the so-called ‘new dawn’ or ‘thuma mina’. He is not alone, the Minister of Intelligence during this era where rogue elements simply took over, Siyabonga Cwele have been promoted to more senior position, the Minister of Home Affairs. The current Minister of Police, Bheki Cele was condemned by the Public Protector in 2012 but promoted to Minister during the era of the so-called new dawn. The people who should be facing charges of corruption have kicked out the likes of Robert McBride seen by the public to be championing the struggle for clean governance. The Absolutely No Consequence - ANC culture is what has demoralised millions of South Africans and drives the culture of impunity. This is the culture is largely behind epidemic levels of corruption throughout the public sector. There is no good example right at the top of our government echelons. The message communicated to the traffic officials, police and other government officials is that there is nothing to fear and there is nothing wrong with asking for a cold drink for doing the work they are paid for. They see people responsible for the loss of billions of rands being walking the streets despite damning findings on their heads. 159


South Africa does not need endless commissions to tell us what we know but the appointment of hardnosed, uncompromised professional prosecutors and police officials in particular at the leadership level to go after all of those implicated in all of the reports. What the country need is a new intelligence that will leave no stone unturned to get all of the known and unknown crooks that are responsible for pillaging that has cost the economy billions of rands that we so desperately need to improve government services, locked up. The biggest thieves in the private sector responsible for bribing and corrupting the public representatives and officials must be the first to be arrested. We call for the immediate arrest of Jacob Zuma, Arthur Fraser, Siyabonga Cwele, David Mahlobo together with all those that assisted them, and charged for defeating the ends of justice including possibly for treason against the people of this country. President Cyril Ramaphosa must choose to serve the country or the ANC, which was famously described by the President of the ANCWL, Bathabile Dlamini as a house where everyone has a skeleton in the closet. Issued by Zwelinzima Vavi, General Secretary, SAFTU, 11 March 2019. https://www.politicsweb.co.za/politics/president-should-dismiss-arthur-fraser-and-siyabon Charges laid against Minister of State Security – Busisiwe Mkhwebane

• Public Protector of South Africa statement 20 March 2019 Adv. Busisiwe Mkhwebane, on March 13, 2019 in Brooklyn, Pretoria, laid criminal charges against the Minister of State Security, Ms. Dipuo Letsatsi-Duba, over what the Public Protector sees as interference with the functioning of her office and contempt for her. The charges have been laid under case number 404/03/19. This follows Minister Letsatsi-Duba's failure to avail to Adv. Mkhwebane a declassified document she requires in connection with an investigation into alleged violation of the Executive Members' Ethics Code by former Minister of Finance and incumbent Minister of Public Enterprises, Pravin Gordhan. In terms of section 7(4)(a) of the Public Protector, read with section 7(5) of the same legislation, the Public Protector has the power to direct any person to submit an affidavit or appear before her to give evidence or produce any document, which has a bearing on a matter under investigation. She may also examine the person. Section 11 of the Act provides that any person who without just cause refuses or fails to comply with a direction of request under section 7(4) referred to above or refuses to answer questions put to them under that section or gives answer which they know to be false shall be guilty of an offense. According to the act, any person convicted of such an offense shall be liable to a fine not exceeding R40000 or imprisonment for a period not exceeding 12 months or both. In addition, section 181 (2) of the Constitution requires the Public Protector to be impartial and to exercise her powers and perform her functions without fear, favour or prejudice while section 181 (4) thereof provides that no person may interfere with the functioning of the Public Protector. "It is my respectful view that the Minister's failure to avail the declassified report as subpoenaed amounts to contempt of the Public Protector and interference with the functioning of my office, and is therefore an offence," Adv. Mkhwebane said. "The Constitution makes it clear that no person or organ of state may interfere with the functioning of independent constitutional institutions such as my office. The Constitutional Court has clarified this further, explaining that, in doing my work, I am not to be inhibited, undermined or sabotaged and that my powers are 'not supposed to bow down to anybody. Issued by the Public Protector South Africa, 20 March 2019 https://www.politicsweb.co.za/politics/charges-laid-against-minister-of-state-security-bu

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INTELLIGENCE: INTERNATIONAL

The Moscow rules From Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia37 The Moscow rules38 are rules-of-thumb said to have been developed during the Cold War to be used by spies and others working in Moscow. The rules are associated with Moscow because the city developed a reputation as being a particularly harsh locale for clandestine operatives who were exposed. The list may never have existed as written. Agent Tony Mendez wrote: Although no one had written them down, they were the precepts we all understood for conducting operations in the most difficult of operating environments: The Soviet capital. By the time they got to Moscow, everyone knew these rules. They were dead simple and full of common sense.[1] In the International Spy Museum in Washington, D.C., the Moscow Rules are given as:[2] Assume nothing. Never go against your gut. Everyone is potentially under opposition control. Do not look back; you are never completely alone. Go with the flow, blend in. Vary your pattern and stay within your cover. Lull them into a sense of complacency. Do not harass the opposition. Pick the time and place for action. Keep your options open. Fictional references Other rules which have been circulated around the Internet and used in fiction include: Murphy is right. (i.e., "What can go wrong, will go wrong, and at the worst possible moment.") Any operation can be aborted. If it feels wrong, it is wrong. Maintain a natural pace. Build in opportunity, but use it sparingly. Float like a butterfly, sting like a bee. (Borrowed from Muhammad Ali.) There is no limit to a human being's ability to rationalize the truth. Technology will always let you down. Once is an accident. Twice is a coincidence. Three times is an enemy action. (Taken from Ian Fleming's novel Goldfinger) Do not attract attention, even by being overly careful. Moscow rules are prominently referenced in John le CarrĂŠ's cold war books including Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy and Smiley's People, as tradecraft, including use of inconspicuous signal markers (drawing pins, chalk marks), the use of dead drops, and the ways to signal the need for a (rare) 37 38

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Moscow_rules Dankie aan my ou kollega, van die voormalige NI, wat hierdie artikel onder ons aandag gebring het – HBH.

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face-to-face meeting. Moscow Rules are important at the beginning of Smiley's People, where the General invokes the rules to request a meeting with Smiley, but he is followed and killed by KGB assassins before it can happen. The applicable rule states that no documents may be carried that cannot be instantly discarded, in this instance a 35mm negative concealed in an empty pack of cigarettes. In Spooks there are references to the Moscow Rules. In particular, in Season 6 Episode 10, Harry Pearce tells someone, "Treat London as enemy territory, keep your head down, find an opportunity, and make a move." In an earlier episode in Season 5, rogue MI6 agent Richard Dempsey is said to be in disguise and following the Moscow Rules, where the idea of treating the place as enemy territory is repeated. In The Middleman, episode 8 (the "Ectoplasmic Pan-Hellenic Investigation"), the Moscow Rules are recited. References ^ Mendez, Antonio; Mendez, Jonna; Henderson, Bruce (2003). Spy Dust: Two Masters of Disguise Reveal the Tools and Operations that Helped Win the Cold War. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 36. ISBN 9780743434584. ^ "Moscow Rules". The Spy Museum. Retrieved 8 July 2017. Further reading Whidden. Glenn H. A Guidebook For Beginning Sweepers. Technical Services Agency ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE | REGSPLEGING

Magistrate Office: Landdros-kantoor Vrede: OFS

Foto verskaf deur Nico Moolman-versameling. Baie dankie Nico! 162


Konflagrasie Met al die brande in die Kaap wonder mens of daar na die misdaad konflagrasie gekyk word?

SAP Tydskrif 1967-04 en De Wet & Swanepoel, 2de uitgawe p 515.

Hof gee NG Kerk Pak So verander dinge, ook die gemenereg. Ons moes in die SAP-kollege die destydse Eerste Bylae van strafproseswet, wet 56 van 1955, uit die kop geken het. Daardie misdaad en ‘n paar ander soos vrugafdrywing bestaan nie meer vandag nie. Ons lewe vandag in ‘n sekulêre staat met die grondwet as hoogste reg.

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Foto: Facebook

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POLICE: INTERNATIONAL

UK • Inspector Joseph Elliot: Durham County Constabulary: A Tie to the RSA Mary Blyth of Pretoria writes: During a discussion about police history with Brig Hennie Heymans (Retd), I told him of my paternal great-grandfather who was a police inspector in England. This piqued my interest, so I subsequently did some research on the subject and sent Hennie some information on my great-grandfather. My great-great grandfather is featured in an article: http://british-policehistory.uk/show_nav.cgi?force=durham_county&tab=1&page=durham_county_officers&nav=alpha Dear Hennie, I contacted the author and they have given their permission for you to reprint the article below on issuu.com. Please be certain to credit the material and images to John Grainger and the British Police History site (http://british-police-history.uk) http://british-policehistory.uk/show_nav.cgi?force=durham_county&tab=1&page=durham_county_officers&nav=alpha Best Regards, Michael British Police History Inspector Joseph Elliot Joseph Elliott was born on the 19th July 1842 at Craghead, he was the son of Ann and John Elliott, a coal miner. He had two elder brothers, John and Thomas, and three sisters, Sarah, Mary Ann and Hannah. He married Margaret Wilson aged 22 years on the 11th January 1868 at the Register Office, Gateshead, they were both living at West Street, Gateshead at this time. Joseph was 24 years of age and his occupation was recorded as a 'sinker of coal mines'. Appointed to Durham County Constabulary 22nd November 1870 as PC 256, and was stationed at West Hartlepool where he lived as a lodger with his wife and son John (b Edmonsley) at Stranton House. While stationed at West Hartlepool they had a daughter Hannah Dowson Elliott. They would have a further seven children, James & Mary Ann born New Brancepeth, Joseph Thomas, Edith A., Ethel, Hilda E., and Norman N., all born Tudhoe Colliery.

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He was appointed 2nd class constable on the 1st February 1871, and 1st class constable in April 1872 while stationed at West Hartlepool. Transferred to Sleetburn by 1873 where he was involved in the prosecution of a young man named Plummer who murdered his girlfriend after paying a visit to her parent’s home at Chester Moor. He also arrested Benny Allison, a noted character, at Hedley Hill for the attempted murder of PC Robinson, Allison was sentenced to five years imprisonment. In 1875 he was appointed Acting Sergeant, and a year later in 1876 he was awarded the Merit Badge. On the 1st January 1878 he was promoted to the rank of Sergeant and stationed at Tudhoe Colliery. Two of the children born at Tudhoe Colliery were Joseph Thomas born 28th August 1879, and Ethel born 19th May 1886. On his son’s birth certificate, he was recorded as, 'Sergeant Rural Police', and on his daughters as 'Sergeant of Police'. He became a member of Tudhoe Methodist Church where he rose to the rank of class leader, a position that he loved, and he was respected by the members for his good counsel and practical Christian sympathy. He remained at Tudhoe Colliery until 1892 when he was promoted to the rank of Inspector supervising Spennymoor and district, he then moved to live in Spennymoor Police Station which was in Oxford Road. It was reported in the Police Review of 20th February 1893 that Inspector Elliott was presented with a marble time piece and vases, subscribed for by the officers and constabulary of the county as a memento of his promotion to the rank of Inspector, and as a mark of their esteem. Presentation was made by Superintendent Burrell, and the worthy Inspector feelingly responded. He continued his association with the Church becoming an active member of Rosa Street Primitive Methodist Church where he became a leader and Sunday School teacher to the boys. He was greatly involved with the harvest festival and decoration of the church, and at Christmas he provided the Christmas tree and organised treats for the children of the church. While stationed at Spennymoor he was involved in a number of prominent cases, one involved James Campbell, an ironworker who attempted to murder his wife and stepdaughter, he was imprisoned for 12 years. Another was the Middlestone Moor murders when Samuel Walton murdered his wife Isabella, his daughter Nora, and mother in law Mrs Young, he was executed at Durham in December 1902. He was also involved in various strikes in the County, and on many occasions succeeded in quelling dangerous riots by means of his tact in dealing with men. In such cases he appealed to the men’s common sense and better nature, and did more good than is generally achieved by resorting to harsher methods. For the nine years preceding his retirement, he was also Inspector of Lodging Houses for the Spennymoor Urban Council, who on many occasions thanked him for his services.

He retired in October 1903 having served 11 years at Spennymoor and was presented with a number of items by members of the force. In November 1903, Superintendent Daly, on behalf of his colleagues, presented him with two vases and a silver mounted umbrella, together with a cruet, sugar basin, and cream jug for Mrs Elliott. On the 23rd December, at the Town Hall, Spennymoor, a presentation took place to mark his retirement. Mr Thomas Raine, chairman of Spennymoor Urban District Council presided over a large representative gathering. Inspector Elliott was presented with a black Chippendale cabinet, a purse of gold, an illuminated address, and a 166


handsome album containing the names of the subscribers. Mrs Elliott received a gold brooch. Almost £70 had been collected. Councillor P. Knox made the presentation of the address which read: We congratulate you on the completion of a long and honourable term of public service on the occasion of your retirement from the responsible post of Inspector in the Durham County Constabulary. A general wish has been expressed that you should be asked to accept this address as a feeble acknowledgement of the many qualities which have endeared you to the whole population. To say that your duties have been properly discharged would be a most inadequate expression from those who have had the opportunity of observing the courtesy and tact with which you have always striven to perform your office. You carry with you into your retirement the respect and admiration of a grateful public, and we sincerely wish that both you and your wife, who has equally excelled in her sphere, may have yet many long and happy years before you. The text was surrounded by water colour views of Tudhoe Church, Croxdale Avenue, Whitworth Church and Sunderland Bridge. On retirement he lived at 18 Beaumont Terrace, Spennymoor with his wife and daughter Ethel, a supply teacher, and son Norman, a butcher. Also living at the house was James Armstrong Wilson, his father in law, aged 84 years. He died on the 11th September 1920, he had been suffering from gangrene to his foot which was caused when he was chopping firewood on a drainpipe, and when the pipe broke a piece fell on his foot. His funeral service took place on the 15th September at Rosa Street Methodist Church followed by internment at Spennymoor Cemetery. On the 21st September 1922 his widow paid the princely sum of £20.16.9d to enclose two ‘spaces’, number 639 & 640 A in Spennymoor cemetery with marble curbs and four Gothic pillars. I visited the plot and found that the marble curbs and pillars are no longer on the grave, and the inscription is difficult to read. The curb stone continues to the left on the grave, and although Margaret was buried in the plot on the 15th December 1934, no inscription giving her details has been recorded on the stone.

Thanks, and full credit to the material and images to John Grainger and the British Police History site (http://british-police-history.uk)

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➢ When bobbies were on the beat: Glorious photos from the 1950s show the life of a police constable before CCTV, bodycams and Twitter (but they still had plenty of paperwork) ➢

Photographs taken in 1954 show London's police officers dealing with various offences - and lost children

One set of images shows a thief having his fingerprints taken before he is escorted to a cell

The Met were under pressure at the time as they were 4,000 constables short of their 20,000 target

By Nick Enoch for Mailonline Published: 12:10 GMT, 21 March 2019 | Updated: 12:23 GMT, 21 March 2019 Fascinating vintage photos show overstretched London police officers dealing with a raft of crimes, lost children and misdemeanours in the mid-fifties. The incredible shots depict a policeman attempting to calm down a distraught little boy, a woman who looks worse for wear being led to safety by kindly officers, and a thief being bundled into his cell by a stout warden. In 1954, when the photos were taken, London's Police force was 4,000 constables under strength of its 20,000 target. The famous bobbies had to cope with a maze of problems including traffic duties, dealing with roaring drunks, lost people including children, attempted suicides, violent robbery and murder. Despite the enormous pressures they faced, in 1953 the number of serious crimes reduced by nine per cent. The London copper - rushed off his booted feet and complete with helmet - coped remarkably well but senior staff are aware that policing had to become a more enticing prospect if they were to restore the necessary number of staff. It is a scenario which will be familiar to many of today's modern police forces after budget cuts since 2010 have seen more than 20,000 police officers taken off the streets. London City Hall announced last year that Government cuts to policing have led officer numbers in London to drop to their lowest level per head in 20 years. Wonderful vintage photographs of London's police in 1954 have emerged. Above, two officers help a young woman who is unsteady on her feet. A milestone for women had been reached at the tail-end of the previous decade - when Elizabeth Bather became the first female Chief Superintendent of the Metropolitan Police in 1949

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In 1954, the Met suffered serious understaffing problems with a force of only 16,000. It needed an estimated 4,000 men, mainly police constables. In the Fifties, Met Police cadets were trained at Hendon Police College, in northwest London. (Above, the two officers continue to assist the woman)

A policewoman watches as a thief is searched for incriminating tools. All his possessions are taken from him. Despite the enormous pressures they faced, in 1953 the number of serious crimes had reduced by nine per cent. The spectre of the Second World War still loomed large and meat, butter, cheese, sugar and sweets were all still rationed that year

Below: The thief is placed in a cell, where he will spend the night. According to a shocking poll conducted by the Daily Mail last year, the majority of Britons say the police have now lost control of the streets - 57 per cent of people say officers have surrendered control of our neighbourhoods and criminals have no fear of being caught Not surprisingly, the thief looks depressed by his surroundings. The overstretched bobbies of the time would have also had their work cut out for them with incidents of road fatalities, drunks, domestic disputes, murders and suicides

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The thief has his fingerprints taken. A landmark case in forensic science for the Met Police was in 1905 - when fingerprint evidence was used to help convict brothers Alfred and Albert Stratton of bludgeoning Thomas Farrow, 71, to death during a break-in at his paint suppliers in Deptford, South East London, in February that year. It was the first time British murderers had been convicted using such a method

A police clerk hard at work typing up a report at a newly opened police station in Chelsea. The year 1954 also marked the creation of the Metropolitan Police Drug Squad

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A lost boy calms down when a policeman gives him a truncheon - allowing the nipper to 'take charge' of the station. Young children in the 1950s would have led very different lives to those of today. Most left school early, with many starting work at 14, and far fewer people had the chance to go on to further education

A police officer unwraps a sweet for the child while he waits for the boy to be picked up and taken home. A year later would see the launch of BBC TV series Dixon of Dock Green, which charted daily life at a London police station, and starred Jack Warner It's all in a day's work for the bobbies on the beat, as the boy's mother arrives to pick up her son. Among the copper's tools of the trade at this time would have been a whistle, a truncheon - and the blue police boxes on the streets, for if they needed to make phone calls

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Police dogs are let out for exercising. A dog section was formed in the Met Police in 1946, and proved their worth in tracking and apprehending criminals. In 1954, a New Dog Training establishment opened in West Wickham, south-east London

Among the policeman's many other chores was to make sure that schoolchildren got safely across special road crossings. The School Crossing Patrol Service was introduced for primary schoolchildren in the UK in the 1950s. Initially provided by the police, they are now employed by local councils 172


•

How the Met force changed during the 1950s

1950 The Metropolitan Police Roll of Honour, displaying the names of officers killed in the 1914 - 1918 and 1939 - 1945 wars, was unveiled at Westminster Abbey by the Queen. First women Special Constables recruited. Apr 1 - Uniform: Open neck tunics extended to all Divisions. 1951 Commissioner Harold Scott introduced training of cadets aged 16 - 18 to become police officers. Jun 25 - First batch of Metropolitan Police Cadets started training at Hendon. 1953 Recruitment of Civilian Fingerprint Officers. Superintendent rank re-graded into Grades I and II. Jun 4 - Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II. Women Police were put in charge of 30,000 school children who were given viewing places along Victoria Embankment, for the Coronation. 1954 Serious understaffing problems with the force of only 16,000 and needed an estimated 4,000 men, mainly police constables Uniform: Women police (Sergeants and Constables) change from 'MP' on shoulder to divisional letter (Police Order 26 January 1954). CID attachments and nylon stockings for women introduced. Drug Squad created. 1955 Jul 13 - Ruth Ellis is Last woman executed, at Holloway. 1956 The flying squad made over 1,000 arrests, a record since its formation. 1957 New Information Room opened at New Scotland Yard. 1959 Indictable offences reached over 160,000, the highest recorded to that year. Uniform: Capes withdrawn as part of police uniform (Police Order 1 May 1959). Uniform: Gloves for Sergeants and Constables - black leather. Uniform: Addition of patched waist pockets with three pointed flaps and waist belt for senior officers. Four buttons down front. (Source: metpolicehistory.co.uk) Number of Police Officers in England and Wales Over the Years As at Number of police officers March 31, 1959: 71,692 March 31, 1970: 91,307 March 31, 1997: 125,051 March 31, 2003: 132,509 March 31, 2012: 134,100 (Source for police numbers: Home Office) Share or comment on this article: Police photographs in London from the 1950s https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-6834091/Police-photographs-London-1950s.html

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France • Policewoman is shot dead by colleague in France as the pair played a 'game to see who was fastest on the draw' The 27-year-old and her colleague, 28, were standing guard at the Paris police force's headquarters when they decided to play a game of Wild Wild West-style 'fast draw' with their firearms and she was shot. For more info, click on: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article6794727/Policewoman-shot-dead-playing-fastest-draw-Paris.html

New Zealand • 'I'm no hero': Father, 48, reveals how he grabbed Christchurch killer's assault rifle and smashed his car window forcing him to flee from mosque - bringing an end brutal rampage that left 49 dead

Abdul Aziz, 48, (centre) grabbed one of suspected shooter Brenton Tarrant's guns (right) and chased him with it after he attacked the Linwood mosque yesterday in Christchurch, New Zealand. Mr Aziz, who is originally from Afghanistan before moving to Australia and later New Zealand, forced the terrorist away from the mosque and back to his car. The father ducked behind parked cars outside the mosque to avoid the attacker's bullets and pointed a gun he picked up and pulled the trigger. But the weapon was empty and did not fire. Mr Aziz's four sons stayed inside the mosque and urged him to come back as injured worshippers left the mosque (left). Yet the have-a-go hero forced the gunman back into his car and smashed the window and it is believed police pulled the gunman's car over shortly after he fled the scene. Mr Aziz has been dubbed a hero for preventing any more deaths at the second mosque to be attacked in less than an hour. As many as 41 people were gunned down at the Al Noor mosque at 1.40pm, followed by the attack on Linwood mosque at 2pm where seven people were killed. Another victim later died in hospital. Vigils were held (inset) for the 49 victims across the country. https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-6816537/Fathercaught-Christchurch-mosque-attack-picked-credit-card-machine-threw-terrorist.html (It is now 50 dead – HBH.) 174


DEFENCE INTERNATIONAL

UK • Army veterans involved in Bloody Sunday shootings 'could be charged with murder within weeks' - 47 years after the deaths of 14 protesters in Northern Ireland By Jake Hurfurt For The Daily Mail - March 2nd 2019, 1:03:39 am Seventeen ex-soldiers, the oldest of whom is 77, remain under investigation over the shootings in Londonderry 47 years ago which claimed the lives of 14 un armed civil rights marchers. https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-6762839/Army-veterans-involvedBloody-Sunday-charged-murder-weeks.html

• Former Army head Lord Dannatt blasts ministers for allowing IRA's political wing to 'rewrite history' as minister proposes 10year limit on prosecutions of veterans General Lord Dannatt (pictured) has accused the government of letting Sinn Fein create a narrative that Crown Forces were 'oppressive'. https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-6765889/Former-Army-headblasts-ministers-allowing-IRAs-political-wing-rewrite-history.html

• 'We're going to be sacrificed after 50 years': Veterans tell of fears they'll be next after Bloody Sunday troops probe - Ex-soldiers fear witch-hunt if charges are made against Bloody Sunday troops - The soldiers worry of an investigation into shootings five months earlier in 1972 - Two former paratroopers questioned over Bloody Sunday were also questioned on earlier shooting By Glen Keogh and David Williams for the Daily Mail Published: 01:17 GMT, 9 March 2019 | Updated: 01:17 GMT, 9 March 2019 Former paratroopers fear that if charges are brought against Army veterans involved in Bloody Sunday it will pave the way for another witch-hunt into troops over shootings five months earlier. 17 former soldiers from the 1st Battalion, Parachute Regiment will find out on Thursday whether they will be prosecuted in respect of the Bloody Sunday shootings in Londonderry in 1972. 13 died at the time while another died later from his injuries. The ex-soldiers are being investigated over alleged offences including murder, attempted murder and grievous bodily harm. They face the prospect of life sentences. 175


Former paratroopers fear that if charges are brought against Army veterans involved in Bloody Sunday shootings in Londonderry 1972 it will pave the way for another witch-hunt into troops over shootings five months earlier Now ex-servicemen have told the Daily Mail they fear that if charges are brought, then exparatroopers will ‘undoubtedly face prosecution’ over separate shootings involving the same battalion on the Ballymurphy estate in west Belfast in August 1971. A retired soldier now in his 70s, who served with 1 Para in Ballymurphy, said: ‘There is massive concern that if charges are made against the battalion over Bloody Sunday then they [Northern Ireland’s Public Prosecution Service] will come after those of us who served in Ballymurphy. This witch-hunt is not over. Where is the justice?’ Families of the ten civilians killed in Ballymurphy have long alleged that some soldiers involved went on to take part in Bloody Sunday five months later, on January 30, 1972.

Police began the criminal probe in the wake of the 12-year, £200million inquiry led by Lord Saville, which concluded in 2010 that soldiers from the Parachute Regiment had ‘lost control’ during a civil rights march, causing the ‘unjustified and unjustifiable’ deaths of 14 civilians At least two former paratroopers questioned over Bloody Sunday were asked about their roles in the earlier shooting. An inquest into the Ballymurphy deaths is under way at Belfast Coroner’s Court and will next week hear evidence from former British soldiers involved in the operation. To date, 41 members of the Parachute Regiment have been asked by the coroner to appear at the inquest, where their identities could be revealed. Two former paratroopers called to give evidence say they could be made ‘political scapegoats’ if charges are brought against Bloody Sunday troops. The Mail has long campaigned for an end to the witch-hunt against British troops. Another former paratrooper, now in his 70s, who was on the 176


streets of Ballymurphy, said: ‘We all fear that this is more about politics than justice and if that is the case then the logic says there will be prosecutions for Ballymurphy and men who regularly risked their lives for Queen and country will be sacrificed. ‘It is nearly 50 years. Memories, people argue, are not what they were, but many of us know exactly what happened and why and how we reacted.’ In an incident referred to as ‘Belfast’s Bloody Sunday’, ten people including the local priest and a mother-of-eight who was shot in the face were killed in Ballymurphy over a 36-hour period in August 1971. The Parachute Regiment had been deployed to the area with Troubles violence soaring. Disturbances were triggered after the Northern Ireland government-imposed internment without trial and troops were given the task of detaining suspected Provisional IRA members. John Teggart, whose father Danny was shot 14 times, said families would be keeping ‘a very close eye’ on Thursday’s Bloody Sunday announcement. ‘If the Bloody Sunday families get the result that many people [hope for], it will prove a point to us and many other people that those who were in uniform are not above the law,’ he said. Yesterday it emerged that Northern Ireland Secretary Karen Bradley had asked to meet Mr Teggart and other families to apologise over her comments that Troubles killings by the military and police were ‘not crimes’. But he refused and insisted she should resign. Share or comment on this article: Veterans tell of fears they'll be next after Bloody Sunday troops probe https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-6788855/Veterans-tell-fears-theyll-Bloody-Sunday-troopsprobe.html

• Lance Corporal, 30, who accidentally shot best friend dead with Glock pistol during game of 'quick draw' while they served in Iraq is jailed for three years

Colin Theaker (far left and far right), 30, deliberately pointed the Glock pistol directly at Lance Corporal Scott Hetherington, 22, before pulling the trigger not knowing it was loaded at an Army camp in Iraq. A court heard Lance Corporal Hetherington, nicknamed 'Snowball', said 'no, no don't do that' prior to the shooting at around 4pm on January 2, 2017. The pair, whose relationship was described as 'brotherly', had both been 'playing around' with their service pistols while cleaning them 177


prior to the fatal shooting. https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-6816759/Lance-Corporal-jailedthree-years-shooting-best-friend-game-quick-draw-Iraq.html

• You can shove your medals! Furious Paratroopers threaten to send their honours back to the Queen in protest at 'scapegoating' of only soldier charged with murder over Bloody Sunday Angry veterans also plan to march on Downing Street and to picket the court when their former colleague, now in his 70s, is brought to trial over the killings of two civil-rights marchers 46 years ago. Read more at: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-6818201/Furious-Paratroopersthreaten-send-honours-protest-scapegoating-Soldier-F.html

Germany • “German South West Africa: Camels: For the use of”

Photo: Nico Moolman-Collection

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WANTED KNOWN | OP SOEK NA

• 1966: Die Moord op Dr HF Verwoerd Wie kan die moord op dr HF Verwoerd wat op 6 September 1966 plaas gevind het, onthou? Is daar enige polisiebeamptes wat lyfwagte was, of BBP-beskerming in die parlement gedoen het, daardie dag? Ons wil graag van polisiemanne hoor wat ons meer van die moord op dr Verwoerd daardie dag in die parlement vertel? - Niemand het tot dusver gereageer nie.

• SA Polisie: Veiligheidstak: Plofstofeenheid: Philip Malherbe Foto’s, die geskiedenis en stories van die plofstofeenheid word verlang. Maak asb. kontak met Philip Malherbe of myself (HBH). Ek (HBH) kan onthou toe die siviele afdeling van Handel en Nywerheid se plofstofseksie na die SAP se plofstofeenheid oorgeplaas is – wie kan die name van die twee senior beamptes onthou wat na die polisie oorgeplaas is. (Ek onthou ‘n mnr Cruywagen???) (Wanneer het die stap plaasgevind?) Plofstof – wie het lys van plofstof (handgranate, landmyne ens.) wat deur die ANC-alliansie, die PAC en Swapo aangewend was. Met watter springstof/plofstof het ons in Rhodesië mee te kampe gehad? Spoorwegpolisie se bydrae sal ook welkom wees. Die spoorwegpolisie se plofstofeenheid het nou met die SAP saamgewerk. - Niemand het tot dusver gereageer nie.

• Operasie Vula Enige oudlid van die Mag is welkom om sy herinneringe i.v.m. Operasie Vula met ons te deel. - Niemand het tot dusver gereageer nie.

• Graf: No 47174 Sers. RG Fall My vriend Rodney Fall en ek was saam te SAP King’s Rest gestasioneer. Hy is tydens aktiewediens gedurende 1968 in Rhodesië oorlede. Hy was nooit nie getroud nie. Ek kan nêrens ‘n foto van hom of van sy graf vind nie. Sy naam verskyn wel op die Rhodesian Roll of Honour. Daar is ook nie ‘n foto van sy graf op die webtuiste van die South Africa War Graves Project nie, alhoewel sy besonderhede wel daar verskyn. Hy is vermoedelik in Kaapstad begrawe. Alhoewel hy in Durban gestasioneer was, het sy ouers in Kaapstad gewoon. Hulle was sakelui en het na bewering ook ‘n restaurant in Kirstenbosch gehad. Rodney en sy ouers was mense wat lief vir perdewedrenne was. Kan iemand help met ‘n boskursus- of troepfoto of foto van sy graf, asb.? 179


LETTERS | BRIEWE

• The Nongqai shooting trophy: Mr Jeff Cheg

Hi Atholl Thanks for the visit. This is the shooting trophy I told you about. My Dad was a shotist in his day and won "The Nongqai Shooting Trophy - Rifle" in 1938. I still have the trophy, photo enclosed. I see on the website that the club still exists. May be of interest to Julian and Andrew. I have also copied Hennie Heymans, who I noted on the website, writes their news letter Any comments would be welcome. Cheers, Jeff. Good evening Since the change from SAP to SAPS I have often wondered what happened to our shields, cups and trophies? I'll ask in our magazine! And publish your photo of the cup. Greetings, HBH.

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Jeff Cheg writes: Thanks Hennie I spoke to Jim Findlay last night. An old friend of mine whom you know as well. I was in the Transvaal Scottish from basics in 1962 to 1973. My first rank was a Temporary Assistant Field Cornet (nog al). I was transferred by my company Highveld Steel in 1971 to Witbank. I still live in Witbank. So, no more Jocks for me. I am still a member of the association. Jim joined the Jocks39 in about 1965 and when I met him, he was a Cadet Officer. Later in life he became the Colonel of the Regiment. A great achievement. We chat about every two months and I see him probably once a year at The View. My Dad, AV Chegwidden, who won your trophy 80 years ago, was then a Captain in the Air Force and retired in 1956 as a Major, Chief Technical Officer CFS Dunnottar. Shooting was a great passion of his along with every other sport I would be very interested to know if this was a club shoot or any back ground. Is your shooting club still active and when was it founded? I read your web-site with great interest and it is marvellous to see someone with with a such a passion for military history. Look forward to hearing from you. With kind regards, Jeff. Reply by HBH Dear Jeff The Nongqai was the official news magazine for the SA Forces - see below the banner:

After the war the Defence Force broke away and established Commando - if I remember correctly. In 1961 Minister FC Erasmus had the name changed to Justitia - today after several name changes the magazine is known as Servamus. The Nongqai was established in Natal during 1907 by the Natal Police and in 1913 all the Forces in South Africa voted for The Nongqai and it became the magazine for all the forces. With surplus funds shields, cups etc was donated to the forces to foster the sport of marksmanship. I have only revived The Nongqai magazine in honour of those who lived before us

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Transvaal Scottish

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Above a banner from the Nongqai - the promotion of shooting as a sport So actually, today The Nongqai in cyber space is a one man show! The aim is to preserve our national security history. Salute HBH.

• Wat is ‘n Mamma? Lt.kol. MJJ van Rensburg (SALM – afgetree) Sou ek haar in ‘n leeftyd leer ken? Sy wat soveel vir my beteken. Wanneer ek kla, is Sy daar. Ek sal haar altyd eer want Sy het my gebaar. My Mamma is die reënboog se rug. Ek hoor haar nooit sug. Sy is altyd besig soos ‘n heuning by. As Sy lag , is dit soos ‘n somers reënbui.. My Mamma is net vir die aarde geleen. Sy is ‘n prinses deur die Here geseën. Sy is al die mooi van die lewe En pragtig sewe maal sewe. Haar herkoms is uit die Hemelse tuine. In ons huis is Sy die nag se kers. Sy is ‘n verpleegster en ‘n vertrooster. Sy is ‘n kulkunstenaar met kos. In Haar oë is ‘n uitspansel sterre Maar ook ‘n erdekruik trane. Ek kyk na die kuns in haar hande Ek kyk na die goud in Haar hare En die blou seë in Haar oë. My ekstase raak sommer bewoë. As daar gesing word, is dit my Mamma. Wanneer die harde dag se rug buig Sien ek die pienk skemer aand op haar wange En ek weet haar gedagtes hyg 182


Want Sy kuier by die Mamma fontein. As my lewe troebel is, Mamma het ‘n vrugte boord van vreugde. Vir my bid Sy soms ‘n emmer trane En daarmee , was Sy Jesus se voete Ek hoor haar seer in die nag se stilte En weet Sy praat nou met die Engele. My Mamma kom van die Hemel universiteit. Sy is ‘n boek houer, ‘n huisvrou en ‘n sjef. Sy is ‘n Onnie en ‘n klere-maakster En ‘n taxi diens in jolyt Sy is die Kerk en die winkels, Die bank en die hospitaal. Sy doen die skofte in die lewens saal. Hoe groot is die God wat so ‘n Mamma maak. Het ‘n Mamma ooit vakansie Daar is dertig ure in my Mamma se horlosie Ek het gebid dat Jesus haar plek bespreek In die ‘Hemeltuin’ met ‘n goue bankie. Daar sal ek dankie sê. Ek sal vir haar met ’n pêrel viola speel En haar hande en voete met mirre salf. Ek sal my Mamma altyd eer, Ek wil vir haar ‘n standbeeld hê. MJJ van Rensburg Desember 2018

• ʼn Terugblik: Anoniem ʼn Terugblik op Gister se mooi oomblikke en dan natuurlik was daar ook die swaar en moeilike tye: Is dit nie ironies nie as ons terugdink aan ons verlede. SA Polisie en SAS Polisie: Jou jonger dae tydens Polisie opleiding waar jy vele kursusse moes deurloop en het jy behoorlik "afgechop ". Dan moes jy vasbyt en deurdruk , onder moeilike en tawwe omstandighede. Toe die Polisiemanne en vroue met trots die uniform gedra het. Tye toe speurders nog gespeur het en skelms met hulle speur vernuf kon aankeer en agter tralies kon los. Dossiere nog geïnspekteer was en met trots bygehou was. Waar jy nog die polisieman en vrou op voetpatrollie gesien het. Waar kinders nog respek vir die uniform gehad het. Die uniform was met trots gedra. Al daai "brass" knope wat ge-brasso moes word. Daai wintersuniform wat so na 2 dae se dra moes droogskoonmakers toe ... nee dit was tawwe dae. Waar bevelvoerders nog kon bevel voer. Parades was nog parades, waar jy moes shine van bo tot onder en jy jou dood moes dra aan al die toerusting wat jy op parade moes uitlê. Waar die leuse van die S.A.P. "ONS BESKERM EN ONS DIEN" nog saak gemaak het. En ironies genoeg is dit juis vandag wat jy terug kyk en dink "ja dit was alles tog lekker en die moeite werd ". Dink jy daai SA Polisie- of SAS-Polisie-instrukteur het tog iets van waarde by jou gelos... Verlang jy na die straf PT ... Die dae se om lê en wag in howe om getuienis te lewer net om misdadiger vir jare weg te bere en uit samelewing te verwyder en dan het dit gewoonlik als op jy aftyd of soos ons se jou rusdae geskiet. Dink dieselfde kan gesê word vir die manne wat moes militêrediens gaan verrig het. Dan was diegene wat die Weermag as beroep gekies het. Die opofferings op die grens,weg van jou geliefdes. 183


Jou skooldae, daai jare op skool het soos ʼn ewigheid gevoel maar tog was dit spoedig verby. Dan was die wat verder gaan "swot" het. Waar universiteite nog sonder rassespanning kultuur gebonde kon voortleef. Die arme onderwysers wat ander mense se stout kinders moes leer en "mens" maak en dissipline leer. Op skool het jy onnies "gehaat" oor die baie huiswerk en toetse veral op Maandae. Moes jy take doen en navorsing doen. Maar als het tog van jou ʼn beter mens gemaak. Die verpleegsters wat nog daai mooi uniform en "kopdoeke" moes dra. Waar hulle nog kon omsien na die siekes en die hospitale ge-shine het. Die verkeersbeampte wat sy werk moes doen onder moeilike omstandighede sonder bribes. Gevangenismanne en -vroue wat nog hulle gevangenisse soos tronke bestuur het. Waar die "skollies" nog respek gehad het vir hulle. Die spoorwegmanne wat gesorg het dat hulle "treine" op die spore bly. Niemand op ‘n trein gery het wat nie ‘n kaartjie gehad het nie. Geen mense dit eers op die trein se dak sou waag nie. Die treine was skoon en nie uitgebrand nie. Die natuurbewaarders wat hulle nasionaleparke nog as ‘n vakansielus tuiste vir die publiek kon aanbied. Die justisiemanne en -vroue wat die doel gehad het om geregtigheid te laat seëvier het. Waar dossiere nie weggeraak en landdroste en regters en aanklaers saamgewerk het om misdadigers uit die samelewing te verwyder. Waar gepaste strawwe en vonnisse toegepas was. Die pos en telekommunikasie nog geskitter het met puik diens. Publieke telefone orals jou bron was om met geliefde kontak te maak sou jy nie by die huis ‘n telefoon gehad het nie. Jy nog telegramme moes stuur as ‘n spoedige antwoord, gelukwense en of om medelye te betoon met die sterfte van ‘n bekende. Ja, feitlik dit was toe beroepe wat ʼn blanke kon kies as jou loopbaan keuse en passievol verrig het tot die beste van jou vermoë. Al die beroepe is vandag nie meer vir blankes beskore nie. Die munisipaliteite wat trots was om die dorpe, strate, parke ag sommer alles skoon te hou. Geen papiere en stompies wat in die strate lê nie of lekkende krane en strate met potholes nie. Sypaadjies was skoon en nie besaai met groente en straatverkopers nie. Niemand dit sou waag om die sypaadjie snags as hul slaapplek in te rig nie. Waar jy nog veilig was op Nasionale paaie en nog snags die langpad kon aandurf. ink tog ons het iets om oor te kan gesels en met ander te deel. Goeie memories. Dit was tog ons lekker tye. Want ons kan, ons was mos daar. Sterkte en geniet jou dag en naweek en vertroetel die goeie tye ..... Ons het toe daai tye ons stukkie Hemel op Aarde beleef ..... Cheers vir eers, drink maar daai koffie voor dit te koud word en droom. Dit is tog jou eie drome en niemand kan jou daarvan beroof nie.....40

• Kolonel Dolf Odendal Môre mnr Heymans Ek is oud Kolonel Dolf Odendal se dogter en het per toeval afgekom op die artikel wat in Nongqai Vol 6 No 4 van my pa geskryf was. Hoe gaan ek te werk as ek graag 'n kopie van die tydskrif wil hê? Vriendelike groete Marian Odendal Theron •

40

Afskrif gestuur. Het iemand dalk nog foto’s van kol Dolf Odendal? - HBH

Per sms aan vele vriende gestuur wat dit ook met my gedeel het. Ek het nie die taal redigeer nie – HBH.

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No 3712 Trooper Michael Lawrence Kelly: Natal Police • No 4775 (F) Bandsman ML Kelly: Bandsman: Johannesburg Hennie, Hi, Thanks so much for responding.............. Some time ago I found some group photos of my grandfather in the Natal Police Band. I got so excited that I forgot to make a note of the exact source and when I went back, I couldn't find them again. He enrolled in the Natal Police on December 27th 1905 number 3712. Some years later he moved to the Transvaal Police Band. I never met him as my father did not have a happy childhood and never spoke of him or kept in contact. However, I am interested in my family history and have struggled to find my father's side. I would be very grateful for any info you may have or could steer me to. Thanks so much Roy (Rick) Kelly.

• 1910: Natal Police Band

1910: Duke of Connaught’s Visit: NP Band

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• 1921: SAP Band Johannesburg

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• 1922 SAP Band Johannesburg

• 1926 SAP Band

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• 1927 SAP Band

Source: Nongqai: 1927-06-515. He joined the police on 23 February 1907, most probably the Natal Hennie Heymans-collection Police and he was absorbed into the SAP. SAP force number No 4775(F). He could not speak Dutch. Ref: SAP List 1916: p157 •

Any info on Sgt. Kelly will be appreciated - HBH

• Brig. Willem van Wyk: Lucas Holtzhausen Hallo Hennie Baie dankie vir ‘n baie insiggewende uitgawe van die Nongqai Vol 10 No 3. Ek het die voorreg gehad om onder brig. Willie van Wyk te dien toe hy die ASO was vir Afdeling Natal. Ons het ook saam ‘n trippie gehad Kaap toe om twee verdagtes te gaan arresteer. Dit was seker een van die mees insiggewende trips wat ek gehad het. Sy kennis oor die bevrydingstryd en die persone wat betrokke was, was absoluut verstommend. Die tyd en pad het behoorlik verby gevlieg. Hy het my alles vertel oor die Rivonia verhoor en ook staaltjies oor vele ander kriminele. Hy het ‘n verstommende geheue gehad. Dink hy het aftree getree op Struisbaai. Ons het juis met die trippie Kaap toe ‘n draai daar gaan maak want hy wou ‘n plekkie daar koop. Groetnis, Lucas. 188


Beste Hennie: Ek onthou eendag op Ixopo toe ek waarnemende takbevelvoerder was toe stap Oom Willie van Wyk onverwags by my kantoor in. Ek skrik my boeglam want ons het nie die ASO verwag nie. Hy sê vir my: “Toemaar seun ek kom nie moeilikheid soek nie, bring daai dockets dat ons hulle kan slag!” Ek was verlig want ek self het so 60 dockets gehad en ek moes die ander speurders se dockets inspekteer. Hy was ‘n ware gentleman. Groetnis

• Uitnodiging aan Mnr. Cyril Ramaphosa: Gawie Rousseau (via Fanie Bouwer) Ek het sopas 10 dae in Namibië spandeer en wil graag van die geleentheid gebruik maak om u uit te nooi om in u motor te klim en Namibië via Botswana per pad te besoek. Los sommer u drywer en lyf wagte tuis, dan ervaar u die rit soos ons gewone Suid Afrikaners dit ondervind. Ek gaan u ʼn paar wenke gee vanaf Brits my tuisdorp, tot in Namibië. Gaan kyk gerus die aand voor u vertrek na Madibeng Misdaad Verkeer Forum se Facebook blad of dit veilig is om die N4 na Rustenburg in die nag te ry want u sal 03h00 die volgende oggend in die pad moet val. Die gevaar area is vanaf Majakaleng tot anderkant die Total-vulstasie, rigting Rustenburg, baie bekend vir klipgooi, toi-toi en bande brand in daardie omgewing. As u op die hoofweg ry, verander vinnig bane as u onder die brûe deurgaan, dis baie veiliger as die skobbejakke klippe van die brûe afgooi en so onskuldige motoriste se lewens in gevaar te stel. Verminder ook spoed, dit help as ʼn klip u voertuig tref. Wees versigtig wanneer u Swartruggens binne kom. Die strate is donker weens die straatligte wat nie werk nie. Daar is ook nie meer stop tekens nie, die wat wel nog daar is, is gebuig, of deur die wind en weer verweer of in die verkeerde rigting gedraai. Wees ook versigtig as daar al ander voertuie op die pad is, hulle ignoreer die padreëls heeltemal. As u die tolhek tussen Swartruggens en Zeerust nader gebruik maar die voertuig se toeter om die persoon wat u R175.00 se tolgeld moet ontvang vroegtydig wakker te kry. u Wil nie te lank staties vertoef nie, dit maak u ʼn maklike teiken veral vir die klomp onwettiges wat ons landsgrense so maklik binnekom. ʼn Groot gedeelte van die pad tussen Swartruggens en Zeerust is opgegradeer, daar is egter geen pad merke, waarskuwings tekens, katoë of verf nie, dit is uiters moeilik om die gedeelte te ry veral soos ons dit in die reën moes doen. O ja, nog ʼn ding van die ryery in die nag, as dit lyk of die aankomende verkeer ʼn motorfiets is, want daar is net een lig, dit is nie! Dit is een van die vele onpadwaardige voertuie in Suid Afrika! Hou maar u oë op die pad as u deur Zeerust ry, dit is verskriklik vuil en maak ʼn mens sommer weemoedig om te sien hoe die eens pragtige dorp agteruit gegaan het. Ry verkieslik met ʼn bakkie, die slaggate is baie erg op ʼn sedan voertuig. By Sklipadhek grenspos is dit maar die normale, twee oorgewig persone wat so pas aan diens gekom het, die grenspos maak 06h00 oop, die deure 06h07, dan staan jy nadat jy gegroet het maar en wag dat jy gehelp word. As u klaar is en terug in u voertuig is bêre maar al die dokumente soos die voertuig registrasie, grens brief van u versekering, ens. Die Polisiebeamptes wat die voertuig en dokumente moet nagaan om seker te maak u voertuig is nie gesteel nie, en dat u ook nie onwettige goed uit die land uit neem nie staan nog en gesels kliphard by die immigrasie kantoor. Sal seker begin werk as die son mooi opgekom het. So, ry maar net deur, niemand sal u stop nie. Dan is dit die Pioneer-grenspos aan die Botswana kant. Moenie skrik as die dame eerste groet nie, vinnig die papiertjies oorhandig wat ingevul moet word nie, en dadelik help om u so vinnig as moontlik weer op pad te kry nie. By die polisie beheerpunt word dit vriendelik gegroet, vra waar gaan u heen, enige iets om te verklaar, en dan is u op pad. O ja, nog ʼn ding, dit is baie opvallend dat al die personeel by die Botswana grenspos wel in hul uniforms pas, netjies skoon en klere gestryk, skoene se veters is vas. Dan is dit ʼn lang trek via Jwaneng en Kang tot by Buitepos op Namibië se grens. Stop gerus op Jwaneng, gooi diesel in vir R12,74 ʼn liter. Moenie “worry” nie, ek kon dit ook nie glo nie, die brandstof kom dan uit Suid Afrika uit en dan is dit baie goedkoper as wat ons daarvoor betaal? Maak nie lekker sin nie nè, kyk maar daarna as u weer op kantoor is, moet ʼn fout wees. Maak maar weer vol op Kang, die kaartmasjien by Charles Hill werk nie, hulle sukkel met sein. By Buitepos is dit net so professioneel en vinnig is u op pad Windhoek toe via Gobabis en Witvlei. Baie 189


wild op die pad, gemsbokke, koedoes, vlakvarke, hartbeeste en een kringgat-waterbok gekry. Niemand jag hulle met strikke soos hier in Suid Afrika nie, nee daar is wet en order nog mooi in plek. Hulle is heel mak, ry maar stadiger vir die een of twee wat die pad wil oorsteek. Moet ook nie bekommerd wees oor slaggate nie; daar is niks vir ʼn volle 776km tot op Langstrand nie. Ja ek weet dit klink onwerklik maar dis die reine waarheid. Die gras in die gang is kort gesny en swart vullis sakke met die Gautengers se gemors wat hulle by die voertuie uitgooi is opgetel en wag om weg geneem te word. En dit is tussen niks en nêrens…silwerskoon met net die prag van die natuur wat jou begroet. Tap maar brandstof Windhoek, kos u N$ 13.64, ja ook aansienlik goedkoper, maak ook nie lekker sin nie né. Net soos deur Botswana moet u maar by die spoedgrens hou. Daai polisie manne neem nie “bribes” nie en doen hulle werk soos dit ʼn bekwame polisieman of -vrou betaam. Ek dink die groot rede is omdat hulle kwalifikasies en vereistes wat benodig word vir hul aanstellings in plek is. Nie soos in Suid Afrika waar ʼn groot gros beamptes of ʼn kriminele rekord het, of nie die nodige kwalifikasies het om self te kan funksioneer nie. Stop maar enige plek langs die pad, hulle het nog rusplekkies met ʼn sement tafel en bankies waar u ʼn lekker koppie koffie kan drink. Dit is BAIE veilig! Gooi maar die papiere ens. in die drom wat daar staan, dit is die rede hoekom dit so skoon is. Moenie verbaas wees as u in Swakopmund arriveer en sien hoe skoon dit is nie. Die munisipaliteit se vullis trok is skoon gewas, die manne het almal uniform aan met glim baadjies, tel al wat n papiertjie op as hulle verbykom, daar is ook net drie van hulle, die drywer, ʼn assistent saam voor in die trok en een man wat agter op staan. Nie soos in Brits waar daar sewe manne soos vinke agter op die vuil trok hang nie, die drywer wat ry soos hy wil nie, net die helfte van die vullis wat opgetel word nie. Almal stop by 4 rigting stop strate want net ʼn bietjie verder staan ʼn beampte wat wag vir die wat die verkeersreëls verontagsaam. Die dienslewering is puik, dit sluit al die ketting winkels in. Almal groet, almal wil net help. Al die straat ligte brand in die aand. Visuele polisiëring vind elke dag plaas, nie soos by ons waar jy ʼn polisiebeampte net by Pick & Pay en die drankwinkel sien nie. Die water is skoon, u kan dit maar drink, nie soos by ons waar jy konstant bottel water moet saamneem as jy êrens heen gaan nie. As u gaan visvang neem maar ʼn lisensie by die “Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources” in Swakkop uit. Dit kos maar N$ 14.00 vir 30 dae, die beamptes het my elke dag langs die water besoek om te kyk of ek wel ʼn lisensie het en of dit wat ek gevang het die regte grootte en hoeveelheid is. Ja, dit is hoekom daar nog vis is, die bekwame regering kyk na hulle verskillende bronne om dit wat daar is vir die nageslag te bewaar. Nie soos in Suid Afrika nie, elke Jan Rap en sy maat steel, vat, vernietig dit om hom net om homself te verryk en basta met die res. Die regering is ʼn goeie voorbeeld, maar nou ja, u sal beter weet as ek. Ek wou nog ʼn paar staaltjies met u deel maar ek sien dit is amper tyd vir beurt krag hier by ons, doen u self die guns en gaan ry die roete en besluit dan self wat u gaan maak sodra u terug is in Suid Afrika en sien hoe die eens pragtige land net meer en meer in ʼn hool verval.

Institute of Race Relations (IRR) • IRR launches online platform, the Daily Friend The Institute of Race Relations (IRR) has launched its own online platform, the Daily Friend, to promote classical liberalism - individual rights, free markets, the right to own property, freedom from unnecessary government and bureaucratic interference, tolerance and the right to free expression. Editor-in-chief Sara Gon said: ‘We will bring you the best pro-liberty columnists, daily news we think is particularly interesting, and sensible opinion. ‘Every day you will be able to read some of the best analysis on South Africa - on politics, the economy, and what the future holds for you and your family. ‘This site is an important new tool in the battle of ideas the outcome of which will determine whether South Africa reaches its potential as a free, prosperous, and open society.’ Visit the Daily Friend at www.dailyfriend.co.za 190


Readers are urged to let us know what they think, or what they would like to see on the website, by emailing Gon at sara@irr.org.za

• Countering the hate propagated by Julius Malema is our collective responsibility – IRR The South African public needs to be clear about one thing: Julius Malema propagates and encourages hate. It is directed against minorities. It is dangerous. And it must be condemned. The great risk we run is sliding into a debate about the kind of hate he advocates and its technical or legal character. It is hate and that is what should be of concern. The IRR’s understanding of hate speech is that, to qualify, an idea must threaten imminent harm. In our estimation, Malema’s remarks did not, and thus do not qualify. But that they were hateful, we are in no doubt. And that is the point. By no more than coincidence, we are thus in agreement with the SAHRC’s conclusion. But so categorically wrong-headed was the SAHRC’s logic, in law and principle, it almost makes that point moot. • First, it is based on a rationale fundamentally at odds with the Constitution. We are all equal before the law, and due equal protection from it. To suggest some are more equal than others is anathema to very purpose of the rule of law. • Second, although the IRR holds a different view, the SAHRC, from a strictly legal perspective, seems to have misread the law as established in the recent Velaphi Khumalo judgment. That judgment does not require an imminency threshold. While there is a fight being waged in certain legal quarters to establish a clear set of overarching principles with regard to free speech, after years of confusion and contradiction, the South African public has no clear concept of what free speech means, in principle, in law or in politics. Competing judgments over time, from institutions like the SAHRC, the Equality Court and the courts themselves, augmented by a political and majoritarian impulse to punish nothing more than offence, to ban and to prosecute ideas and prejudices, have produced a moral morass on the subject. Certainly, the idea, in its best sense, is fighting for its life today. It has been systematically eroded. The SAHRC’s reasoning only does more harm to it. Regardless, Malema’s remarks are hateful, and they are dangerous, and that critical point is all that needs to be said on the matter. To lose sight of that, to fail to properly act against it, or to surrender moral judgment to a legal technicality would be to absolve Julius Malema and the threat his hate represents. It must be countered. The freedom to speak that underpins every free society is the fundamental bulwark against dangerous ideas. But it requires public, not merely legal, attention. Ideas can be dangerous, but banning ideas always is. It is for this reason that countering the real threat that nurturing hate in our society poses is a responsibility that falls primarily on the South African public.

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LAST WORD: REV CHARISSE LE ROUX Greatness comes from service, and service comes from humility. God is not interested in how great we are, but rather interested in how great others are as a result of your life. Are we living a life worthy of being called a child of God, or are we trying to impress others by wearing a mask?

INDEMNITY & © | VRYWARING & ©

End | Slot Dear reader Please note that in this quasi-historical magazine we make use of various sources and consequently it is obvious that the document contains various diverse and personal opinions of different people and the author of the Nongqai cannot be held responsible or be liable in his personal capacity. Geagte leser Vir hierdie kwasiehistoriese tydskrif maak ons van verskeie bronne gebruik en bevat die dokument uiteraard uiteenlopende en diverse persoonlike menings van verskillende persone en die opsteller van die Nongqai kan nie in sy persoonlike hoedanigheid daarvoor verantwoordelik of aanspreeklik gehou word nie. Brig. Hennie Heymans: No 43630K (B) © HB Heymans 2019.

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Profile for Hennie Heymans

Nongqai Vol 10 No 4  

South Africa: History of Police, Railways Police, Military, Intelligence and National Security in South Africa

Nongqai Vol 10 No 4  

South Africa: History of Police, Railways Police, Military, Intelligence and National Security in South Africa

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