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NONGQAI : VOLUME 10 NO 1 A ETHIOPIA AND SOUTH AFRICA

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Contents ETHIOPIA AND SOUTH AFRICA ..................................................................... 2 ADMINISTRATION | ADMINISTRASIE ..................................................................... 5 Publisher | Uitgewer ......................................................................................... 5 Contact Details | Kontakbesonderhede ................................................................... 5 Aim | Doel ..................................................................................................... 5 Policy | Beleid ................................................................................................ 5 Welcome | Welkom .......................................................................................... 6 Ethiopia and South Africa: Foreword by Dr Len Els, SC ............................................. 6 Introduction: Hennie Heymans .......................................................................... 7 2013: My visit to Ethiopia ............................................................................... 10 Apolitical ................................................................................................... 10 Important task ............................................................................................ 10 World War 2: South Africans in Ethiopia ............................................................... 13 •

General Dan Pienaar................................................................................ 13

No.1 South African Motorcycle Company (Police) .............................................. 13

Photographs: No.1 South African Motorcycle Company (Police) ................................. 13 Mogadishu to Addis Ababa ......................................................................... 16 •

Mickey Dillon’s photographs: On the way to Addis Ababa .................................... 16

6 April 1941: Addis Ababa liberated ................................................................... 18 •

Summary.............................................................................................. 18

Policing Duties: Addis Ababa ........................................................................... 19 •

No 1 Motor Cycle Company (Police): Addis Ababa............................................. 20

Some of the SAP-characters involved that served in Ethiopia .................................... 20 •

Capt. RD Jenkins, DSO ............................................................................ 20

No 10212 (M) Detective Head Constable WB Joyner .......................................... 21

Mickey Dillon: Addis Ababa ........................................................................ 22

Mickey Dillon: WW2 Photos of Addis Ababa .................................................... 24

Italian Postcard cont. ................................................................................ 29

Who is Mickey Dillon ................................................................................ 29

1960: South West Africa: Ethiopia and Liberia vs RSA .............................................. 31 •

South African rule in SWA.......................................................................... 31

Ethiopia and Liberia ................................................................................. 31

UN mandate terminated ............................................................................ 31 3


1962: Mr Mandela’s visit to Ethiopia ..................................................................... 32 1962: Mr Mandela’s arrest .............................................................................. 32 2013: My visit to Ethiopia ............................................................................ 33 Addis Ababa .............................................................................................. 33 Kolfe Police Barracks ................................................................................. 34 Meeting with Gen Tadessa’s daughter ......................................................... 41 Gen Tadesse Birru [Taddäsä Bérru] .................................................................. 41 Early life ................................................................................................... 42 Military career ............................................................................................. 42 Fetno-Derash (Rapid Force)............................................................................ 42 Mecha and Tuluma Self-Help Association............................................................ 42 Opposition to Government .............................................................................. 43 Death ...................................................................................................... 43 Legacy ..................................................................................................... 43 Meeting Col Fekadu ..................................................................................... 44 Col Fekadu Wakene (known as Col Fakadu) ........................................................ 44 Col Fekadu Wakene: The man who taught Mandela to be a soldier ................... 45 Meeting: Mr Tesfaye Abebe .......................................................................... 46 The Man who saved Mr Mandela .................................................................. 47 Capt. Dinka: The Man who saved Mr Mandela ...................................................... 47 Conspiracy: Taitu Hotel ............................................................................. 51 •

Taitu Hotel .......................................................................................... 51

The “Arrest” of Capt. Dinka, Abraham and the Black Spy ................................ 56 What did I do?.......................................................................................... 57 Mr Mandela’s version of his training at Kolfe Barracks ................................. 58 The countryside ........................................................................................ 62 Duty and Responsibility: Brig Heymans ....................................................... 64 End Word: Dr Rodney Warwick .................................................................... 64 Bibliography................................................................................................... 65 •

Books .................................................................................................. 65

Internet Book in pfd. format ........................................................................ 65

Internet ................................................................................................ 66

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ADMINISTRATION | ADMINISTRASIE

Publisher | Uitgewer The Nongqai is compiled by Hennie Heymans (HBH) a retired Brigadier of the late South African Police Force and this e-magazine is published on ISSUU. Hennie lives in Pretoria, ZA. He is passionate about our police-, military- and national security history and holds a MA-degree in National Strategic Studies. Any opinions expressed by him, are entirely his own. Die Nongqai word saamgestel deur Hennie Heymans (HBH), 'n afgetrede brigadier van die voormalige Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiemag en hierdie e-tydskrif word op ISSUU gepubliseer. Hennie woon in Pretoria, ZA. Hy is passievol oor ons polisie-, militĂŞre- en nasionale veiligheidsgeskiedenis en het 'n MA-graad in Nasionale Strategiese Studies verwerf. Enige menings wat hy uitspreek, is uitsluitlik sy eie. Contact Details | Kontakbesonderhede

Aim | Doel Our goal is to collect and record our national security history for publication in the Nongqai for future generations. Ons doel is om die nasionale veiligheidsgeskiedenis in die Nongqai aan te teken en so vir die nageslagte bewaar. Policy | Beleid We publish the articles and stories as we receive them from our correspondents; we only correct the spelling mistakes. It's important to publish the stories in the form and context as we receive them from our correspondents. Policemen and defence personnel have their own language. We are not a scientific or literary journal. We only work with historical building blocks.

Onthou, skryf u storie, soms kan ons net op u geskrewe weergawe terugval want dit is al wat daar is! Deel u SAP- en SAW-foto’s

met ons! Ons gebruik die artikels en stories soos ons dit van ons korrespondente ontvang; ons maak slegs die spelfoute reg. Dis belangrik om die stories te bewaar in die vorm en in die konteks soos ons dit ontvang. Lede 5


van die veiligheidsmagte het hul eie taal en ons moet dit ook so aanteken. Ons is nie ‘n letterkundige of wetenskaplike joernaal nie. Ons werk slegs met die boustene van geskiedenis. Welcome | Welkom Welcome to this special edition focussing on the relationship between South Africa and Ethiopia – the irony of history never ceases to amaze us. Ethiopia and South Africa: Foreword by Dr Len Els, SC The role of the SAP in establishing a police force in Ethiopia during World War Two, cannot be underestimated. Ironically, years later, Hailie Selassie invited Nelson Mandela to undergo military training in Ethiopia. This was indeed the starting point of the Bush War. Ex Africa semper aliquid novi - Out of Africa, always something new. The training camp in Kolfe should be restored as a heritage site. Dr Len Els, SC Len Els is an acting high court judge, senior advocate and Reserve Force military judge with rank of Colonel. He is also a Godan (5th Dan) karateka and run two clubs, inter alia for the disabled, both physically and mentally - Editor.

Entrance to the Holy Trinity Cathedral in Addis Ababa 6


Introduction: Brig Hennie Heymans Since childhood I have been fascinated with Ethiopia and as the years progressed my interest in that part of Africa grew because of various interests I had in the country and its people, religion, history and politics. My first encounter was as a young child I read a story in the Afrikaans Children’s Bible1 about Ethiopia. I quote from the English Bible on the internet: “And he rose and went. And there was an Ethiopian, a eunuch, a court official of Candace, queen of the Ethiopians, who was in charge of all her treasure. He had come to Jerusalem to worship and was returning, seated in his chariot, and he was reading the prophet Isaiah. And the Spirit said to Philip, “Go over and join this chariot.” So, Philip ran to him and heard him reading Isaiah the prophet and asked, “Do you understand what you are reading?” And he said, “How can I, unless someone guides me?” And he invited Philip to come up and sit with him. ...2 If I hear the name Ethiopia, I think about this story in the Children’s Bible I encountered many years ago. Being interested in Africana and Strategic Studies I once attended a religious lecture about the Bible and South Africa’s spiritual future. With specific reference to South Africa the preacher quoted Zephaniah 3: 10, which I marked in my Bible3: “From beyond the rivers of Cush my worshippers, the daughter of my dispersed ones, shall bring my offering.” He explained that Cush was Ethiopia and that South Africa was “beyond the rivers of Cush.” I felt that he was bringing the Word of God to us and I was happy with his explanation and interpretation.

A friendly orthodox churchman who spoke to me and gave me a blessing in the street. (Photo: Hennie Heymans)

1 2 3

Conradie c1955, pages 466 – 467. Acts 8: 27 – 39 (Open Bible). Afrikaans Bible (1958): 994.

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A statute of our Lord Jesus Christ in front of the Holy Trinity Cathedral (Photo: Hennie Heymans).

Holy Trinity Cathedral, known in Amharic as Kidist Selassie, is the highest ranking Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo cathedral in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. It was built to commemorate Ethiopia's liberation from Italian occupation and is the second most important place of worship in 8


Ethiopia, after the Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion in Axum.4 It is also known as the Medhane Alem Cathedral.5 Photo: Hennie Heymans. Africa, the Mediterranean and the Near East were often mentioned in the Bible. I felt quite proud of this fact as a child – America, England and Europe were not mentioned. I thought that we in Africa were honoured that even Moses and Jesus Christ lived in Egypt.

The Lion of Judah in the Addis Ababa Museum - (Photo: Hennie Heymans) The Lion of Judah is a Jewish national and cultural symbol, traditionally regarded as the symbol of the Israelite tribe of Judah. According to the Torah, the tribe consists of the descendants of Judah, the fourth son of Jacob. The association between Judah and the lion can first be found in the blessing given by Jacob to his son Judah in the Book of Genesis. The Lion of Judah is also mentioned in the Book of Revelation, as a term representing Jesus, according to Christian theology. The lion of Judah was also one of the titles of the Solomonic Emperors of Ethiopia. It was depicted on a map of the Upper Nile published in 1683 by the Italian Jobi Ludolfi describing the Lion of Judah symbol as the Royal Insignia of the Ethiopian empire. The Solomonic dynasty of Ethiopia lasted three thousand years according and has its patrilineal origin in the Israelite Royal House of Judah. The Lion of Judah served as the hereditary title of the Solomonic Ethiopian emperors including Menelik and Haile Selassie and was depicted on the flag of Ethiopia from 1897 to 1974. Due to its association with Haile Selassie, it continues to be an important symbol among members of the Rastafari movement.6

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holy_Trinity_Cathedral_(Addis_Ababa) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medhane_Alem_Cathedral,_Addis_Ababa https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lion_of_Judah

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Later I started reading military history, how South African troops, including members of the SA Police, during the second world war played an important part in driving the Italians out of Somaliland and Ethiopia – then known as Abyssinia. I read about the exploits of Maj-Gen. Dan Pienaar in the south and the equally famous Gen. Orde Wingate who came from the north with his troops. South Africa played a role to reinstate emperor Haile Selassie. I read and heard about exploits of South African Policemen in Ethiopia. During 1970 I went on a ‘security course’ in order to qualify as a member of the Security Branch and once again the role of Ethiopia came up. Maybe one should look at the various sections in which Ethiopia came to the fore. 2013: My visit to Ethiopia: Hennie Heymans A film entitled Mandela’s Gun was filmed in Africa – I was fortunate to be involved in the shooting of the film in Johannesburg, Soweto, Lanseria, Botha’s Hill (Durban) and in Ethiopia. Apolitical The first requirement of the study about Police History is: One must be apolitical. The second requirement is: “Eyewitness accounts” of great events in which police took place; are primary evidence. Also, photographic evidence, videos of events and tape recordings of witnesses. One has to seek primary sources. We are interested in facts and then in the proverbial “what, when, where, why and who and how. “Invented” history (i.e. propaganda) and hear-say history (evidence) is meaningless to the historian; in my view the only evidence admissible to the historian is sworn statements from eyewitnesses i.e. those who were present at the scene of events; photographs taken at and during the event, videos and sound recordings made at the event and off course written instructions by policy makers and Commanding Officers. Such things like photographs and videos are meaningless if not interpreted. Reconstruction of the event is just as important. Where e.g. did the witness stand, how could he hear or not hear, or see or not see? In the same category are annual reports of the commissioner of police and studies by scholars and commissions of enquiry. They help to complete the picture. We are remembered of "Just So Stories" (1902) by Rudyard Kipling in which a poem accompanying the tale of "The Elephant's Child" opens with: I keep six honest serving-men (They taught me all I knew); Their names are What and Why and When And How and Where and Who. Our secondary evidence comes from books, media reports and the like. Stories one heard from one’s father or colleagues who were there, are not necessarily true because we accepted all the facts without any cross examination. These stories and anecdotes are the stuff which forms the basis of mythology. Important task Police have such an important task; their views, insights and descriptions of events are valuable to the historian. The sounds, smells and other cognitive incidents during the historical event are important. And also: Why did the police (or defence force) act in the fashion that they indeed acted? The police have to furnish the reasons why they acted as they did. One has to remember that the truth is like a lion: Once he has been set free, he can fend for himself. Only the truth can stand the 10


test of time. You might lie now, but you will be shown up as a liar in generations to come. A final word on history; we have to see the event from all angles. Having being a functional policeman, I have decided that the role of a real policeman is not known to the public. Nobody ever did the trouble “to hear the other side”. The public at large do not know about our fears, about our disappointments, of the danger we face, about the dull routine of police work, waiting in wind and rain, snow and hail, on sea and in the desert. We had to be everywhere to combat crime. It is easy to attack a policeman if he is attacked when he is off-guard. He has to be wary; he may never attack first to save his life. It is easy to attack a policeman and after the event and to invent “history”. Always remember it’s easy to be wise after the event. Hindsight is the most exact science. On this movie I had the fortune to work with world-class people; people that are at the top of their league. I was initially brought to the set as a police advisor. I helped with the police uniforms and how the Security Branch conducted themselves in practice. Later I got more involved in the movie, Mandela’s Gun, as I knew most of the history intimately and I knew the people involved. I had spent 20 years of my nearly 30 years in the former Security Branch and in the former Secretariat of the State Security Council. Colleagues have testified in the 1956 Treason Trail, colleagues who knew Mr Albert Luthuli and the other actors intimately. Over the years I have spoken to them and listened to their stories and anecdotes and in some cases made digital recordings. The offices of the African Union in Addis Ababa:

Photo credit: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AU_Conference_Center_and_Office_Complex

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World War 2: South Africans in Ethiopia •

General Dan Pienaar

The First South African Division which operated in north-east Africa under the command of Gen. Dan Pienaar who drove the Italians from Somaliland and Abyssinia. The first South Africans, all volunteers, arrived in Kenya on the 24th of July 1940. The number of South African troops in the East African theatre escalated to 43730 - until they were finally withdrawn for service in the Western Desert. 7 • No.1 South African Motorcycle Company (Police) Photographs: No.1 South African Motorcycle Company (Police)

General JC Smuts inspecting No 1 SA Motor Cycle Company (Police). 8 96 newly-ordered BSA motorcycles for No 1 SA Motor Cycle Company (Police) with side-cars arrived in July 1940 at Voortrekkerhoogte for training purposes. After strenuous training, No. 1 SA Motor Cycle Company (Police), were ready to leave for the frontline. However, spare parts for the second-hand motor cycles posed a problem. Some units of the South African Police had also been supplied to augment No 1 SA Motor Cycle Company (Police). 9 No 1 SA Motorcycle Company (Police) under Captain RD Jenkins, DSO, (SAP) was part of the South African Tank Corps and accompanied the armoured car companies to the East African theatre in September 1940. 10 7

http://www.army.mil.za/aboutus/history.htm Photograph from Mr. G Prinsloo, SANDF Archive – HBH. 9 Mendel, Egon: BRITISH MOTORCYCLES IN KHAKI 10 Note from Mr. G Prinsloo, SANDF Archives 8

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No 1 SA Motor Cycle Company (Police) travelled from Pretoria to Durban by train, from Durban by ship bound for Mombasa in East Africa. From Mombasa they then travelled by train to Gil Gil (also spelt Gilgil). Here they remained for a month doing further training, going on long rides and practicing manoeuvres. In September 1941 they departed from Gil Gil via Nanyuki to Marsabit. It was described as a terrible journey, there were no roads and deep sand and rock had to be overcome. 11

No 1 SA Motor Cycle Company (Police) on parade12 Arriving in Mombasa they began patrolling the northern frontier and became the first South Africans involved in ground action of the second world war. On 16 October 1940 two sidecar combinations accompanied four Marmon Herrington armoured cars on a patrol near Liboi. The South Africans attacked an Italian Banda patrol but they were then attacked in turn by another force consisting of Italian Colonial infantry and Banda. The Italians were driven off and a wounded sidecar passenger was placed in 1 of the armoured cars (possibly Van der Vyver or Forster). 13

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Mendel, Egon: BRITISH MOTORCYCLES IN KHAKI Photograph from Mr. G Prinsloo, SANDF Archive – HBH. 13 Note from Mr. G Prinsloo, SANDF Archives 12

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The Marmon-Herrington armoured car as used by the division in the East Africa and Western Desert Campaigns. Source: Imperial War Museum.14 No 1 SA Motor Cycle Company (Police) moved to Dukana by mid-January 1941. 15 During November 1941 the company relocated to North Horr, some 200 km from Marsabit and then a further 140 km to Dukana. All the travelling was performed on bad roads and in wearisome climatic conditions coupled to extreme heat, winds and terrible dust storms. It was then realised that motorcycles were not suitable for that type of territory but the riders persisted, braving the terrible weather conditions and riding to the best of their ability16 eager for a chance to fight! Many riders suffered from heat exhaustion and other tropical sicknesses. The riders experienced various problems; e.g. inadequate supplies of wholesome food, limited rations and were exposed to occasional rationing of water. Kenya was a tough country indeed! 17 By 1 December 1940 No 1 SA Motor Cycle Company (Police) had moved to Marsabit and fell under 2 SA Brigade. A detachment under Lt F Jackson (Head-Const SAP) was patrolling forward areas around North Horr. 18 Mega was reached during March 1941. This time they had to travel through a morass of mud and six motorcycles had to be abandoned. They continued their journey to Nanyuki and covered 800 km in seven days over difficult terrain. 19

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1st_Infantry_Division_(South_Africa)#/media/File:A_MarmonHerrington_Mk_II_armoured_car_armed_with_an_Italian_Breda_20mm_gun,_near_Tobruk,_Libya,_8_May_1941._E2 872.jpg 15 Information from Mr. G Prinsloo, SANDF Archive – HBH. 16 Many riders were experienced mounted policemen like CSM Joyner and Mickey Dillon. They were used to bad climatic conditions 17 Mendel, Egon: BRITISH MOTORCYCLES IN KHAKI 18 Note from Mr. G Prinsloo, SANDF Archives 19 Mendel, Egon: BRITISH MOTORCYCLES IN KHAKI

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Mogadishu to Addis Ababa Orders for a further 60 motorcycles were placed which had to be transported from Mombasa to Mogadishu. No 1 SA Motor Cycle Company (Police) and the other vehicles completed the 1800 km journey by road from Mogadishu to Addis Ababa. 20 The whole company went on an 1800 km journey from Mogadishu to Addis Ababa via Modun, Tijiga, Harar and Auasc. When they reached the capital in May 1941, it had already been captured from the Italians. 21 • Mickey Dillon’s photographs: On the way to Addis Ababa Nongqai spoke to Mrs. Maureen Blignault (nee Dillon), daughter of the late Mikey Dillon a veteran of East and North Africa, who farmed at Van Reenen and she shared his wartime photographs with Nongqai.

“Pozzo e Moschea – Mogadisic” - (MJ Dillon-Collection).

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Mendel, Egon: BRITISH MOTORCYCLES IN KHAKI Mendel, Egon: BRITISH MOTORCYCLES IN KHAKI

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Somali Transport - (MJ Dillon-Collection).

Road to Harrar above and below Harrar Country. Harrar is 517 km east of Addis Ababa - (MJ DillonCollection). 17


Photo - (MJ Dillon-Collection). 6 April 1941: Addis Ababa liberated On the 16th of December 1940 the Italians were attacked at El Wak (El Wak is about 1, 090 km south from Addis Ababa) and many prisoners were taken. The 1st SA Division advanced into southern Abyssinia and took Mega (a town near the southern border of Ethiopia) on the 19th of February 1941. Thereafter the South African advance was rapid. On the 26th February 1941 Mogadishu (on the coast next to the Indian ocean 1412 km from Addis Ababa) fell, Harar (also Harrar) was captured on the 25th March 1941, on 3rd April 1941 the Awash River was crossed, and Addis Ababa was liberated on the 6th April 1941. In 53 days the 1st South African Brigade had advanced 2 735 km via the Combolcia Pass (not on Google maps) on the 17th April 1941. The Brigade had stormed the pass suffering losses of 10 killed and 28 wounded by the 23rd of April 1941; however, it had succeeded in inflicting 400 casualties on the Italians and had captured 1200 more. On the 11th May 1941 the South African Brigade arrived at Amba Alagi (871 km north of Addis Ababa) defences. Khake Hill was stormed on the 12th May 1941. On the 14th May 1941 the attack on Mount Corarsi, which held the key to the Amba Alagi defences began. They fell to an attack by the South African and Indian troops on the morning of the 15th May 1941. 22 •

Summary

The 1st SA Brigade had in 100 days travelled 4023 km from El Wak to Amba Alagi. South Africans had suffered a total of 270 battle casualties (73 killed). 23 In 1940-1941, during the East African 22 23

http://www.army.mil.za/aboutus/history.htm http://www.army.mil.za/aboutus/history.htm

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Campaign, Gen. Pienaar commanded the 1st SA Infantry Brigade. They fought in the battles of El Wak, The Juba, Combolcia, and Amba Alagi. 24 Policing Duties: Addis Ababa By March 1941 No 1 SA Motor Cycle Company (Police) was withdrawn to the rear and were then sent to Mogadishu. Subsequent to the surrender of Addis Ababa on 5 April 1941 No 1 SA Motor Cycle Company (Police) undertook a 1100-mile road trip to undertake policing duties in Addis from 25 April 1941. 25 They were initially quartered in the Inspector General’s offices and divided the city into halves for patrol purposes, one half under Lt F Jackson and the other under Lt R Harvey. 26 No 1 SA Motor Cycle Company (Police) was quartered in Addis Ababa for four months where they performed normal police duties like patrolling and maintaining law and order. This is a task they performed splendidly. 27 They laid the foundation for the newly formed Ethiopian Police Force28 who subsequently took over from them. No 1 SA Motor Cycle Company completed its police function during August 1941 when they presented their British khaki painted motor cycles to the Civil Police in Addis Ababa. 29 Italian Guzzi motorcycles were refurbished and also utilized by No 1 SA Motor Cycle Company (Police) as additional transport, Italian armoured cars and sedans were also utilised. Types of incidents encountered were curfew breakers, smugglers, escaped POW’s, murder, illegal arms and inebriated soldiery. 30 No 1 SA Motor Cycle Company (Police) received letters of appreciation for their sterling work and the Ethiopian Police Force honoured them by choosing their headdress as their own. No 1 SA Motor Cycle Company (Police) left Addis on 27 August 1941 en route to Asmara. 31 The military success created with the assistance of these motor cycle companies in the border battles in the tough Kenyan northern frontier and in the deserts and mountains of Abyssinia during the first two years of the Second World War were certainly important in the chronicles of the military history of the Union Defence Force. 32 After duty in Ethiopia No 1 SA Motor Cycle Company (Police) then embarked for the Middle East in the last week of August 1941. Once in the Middle East No 1 SA Motor Cycle Company was disbanded. 33

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dan_Pienaar Note from Mr. G Prinsloo, SANDF Archives 26 Note from Mr. G Prinsloo, SANDF Archives 27 Mendel, Egon: BRITISH MOTORCYCLES IN KHAKI 28 Amongst the SA Policemen were very experienced detectives 29 Mendel, Egon: BRITISH MOTORCYCLES IN KHAKI 30 Note from Mr. G Prinsloo, SANDF Archives 31 Note from Mr. G Prinsloo, SANDF Archives 32 Mendel, Egon: BRITISH MOTORCYCLES IN KHAKI 33 Mendel, Egon: BRITISH MOTORCYCLES IN KHAKI 25

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No 1 Motor Cycle Company (Police): Addis Ababa

Photo: Nongqai – date unknown. Some of the SAP-characters involved that served in Ethiopia • Capt. RD Jenkins, DSO

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•

No 10212 (M) Detective Head Constable WB Joyner

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From left to right: Capt. Baseley, Maj Jenkins, Lt Jackson and CSM Joyner34 (Photo: Nongqai) The Nongqai Joyner 1942-03 •

Const. Mickey Dillon: Addis Ababa

A feint photostat of a news report about Const Michael John “Mickey” Dillon leading the entourage of entry of Emperor Haile Selassie’s into Addis Ababa.

According to my mother, the late Mrs JW Heymans, Detective Head Constable Bill Joyner was the “best policeman” (detective) she knew. When she was young Mr Joyner was the local detective in the Kokstad-, Matatiele- and Cedarvillearea. Mr Joyner is the author of a book about the Johannesburg Murder Squad – he was one of the founders of the Johannesburg (later Brixton) Murder & Robbery Squad. 34

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Const. Mickey Dillon: WW2 Photos of Addis Ababa

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Italian Post cards in the Dillon-collection

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Italian Postcard cont. Who is Mickey Dillon?

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1960: South West Africa: Ethiopia and Liberia vs RSA •

South African rule in SWA

In 1915, during South West Africa Campaign of World War I, South African troops under Gen Louis Botha captured the German colony. After the war, it was declared a League of Nations Class C Mandate territory under the Treaty of Versailles, with the Union of South Africa responsible for the administration of South West Africa. From 1922, this included Walvis Bay, which, under the South West Africa Affairs Act, was governed as if it were part of the mandated territory. South West Africa remained a League of Nations Mandate until World War II with the collapse of the League of Nations. The Mandate was supposed to become a United Nations Trust Territory when League of Nations Mandates were transferred to the United Nations following World War II. The Prime Minister, Jan Smuts, objected to South West Africa coming under UN control and refused to allow the territory's transition to independence, instead seeking to make it South Africa's fifth province in 1946. Although this never occurred, in 1949, the South West Africa Affairs Act was amended to give representation in the Parliament of South Africa to whites in South West Africa, which gave them six seats in the House of Assembly and four in the Senate. This was to the advantage of the National Party, which enjoyed strong support from the predominantly Afrikaner and ethnic German white population in the territory. Between 1950 and 1977, all of South West Africa's parliamentary seats were held by the National Party. An additional consequence of this was the extension of apartheid laws to the territory. This gave rise to several rulings at the International Court of Justice, which in 1950 ruled that South Africa was not obliged to convert South West Africa into a UN trust territory, but was still bound by the League of Nations Mandate with the United Nations General Assembly assuming the supervisory role. The ICJ also clarified that the General Assembly was empowered to receive petitions from the inhabitants of South West Africa and to call for reports from the mandatory nation, South Africa. The General Assembly constituted the Committee on South West Africa to perform the supervisory functions. In another Advisory Opinion issued in 1955, the Court further ruled that the General Assembly was not required to follow League of Nations voting procedures in determining questions concerning South West Africa. In 1956, the Court further ruled that the Committee had the power to grant hearings to petitioners from the mandated territory. 35 •

Ethiopia and Liberia

In 1960, Ethiopia and Liberia filed a case in the International Court of Justice against South Africa alleging that South Africa had not fulfilled its mandatory duties. This case did not succeed, with the Court ruling in 1966 that they were not the proper parties to bring the case. 36,37 •

UN mandate terminated

There was a protracted struggle between South Africa and forces fighting for independence, particularly after the formation of the South West Africa People's Organisation (SWAPO) in 1960. In 1966, the General Assembly passed resolution 2145 (XXI) which declared the Mandate terminated and that the Republic of South Africa had no further right to administer South West Africa. In 1971, acting on a request for an Advisory Opinion from the United Nations Security 35 36 37

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_West_Africa https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_West_Africa See for e.g. https://www.icj-cij.org/en/case/46/summaries

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Council, the ICJ ruled that the continued presence of South Africa in Namibia was illegal and that South Africa was under an obligation to withdraw from Namibia immediately. It also ruled that all member states of the United Nations were under an obligation not to recognise as valid any act performed by South Africa on behalf of Namibia. South West Africa became known as Namibia by the UN when the General Assembly changed the territory's name by Resolution 2372 (XXII) of 12 June 1968. SWAPO was recognised as representative of the Namibian people and gained UN observer status when the territory of South West Africa was already removed from the list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. In 1977, South Africa transferred control of Walvis Bay back to the Cape Province, thereby making Walvis Bay an exclave. The territory became the independent Republic of Namibia on 21 March 1990, although Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands were only incorporated into Namibia in 1994. 38 1962: Mr Mandela’s visit to Ethiopia The ANC decided to send Mr Mandela as a delegate to the February 1962 meeting of the PanAfrican Freedom Movement for East, Central and Southern Africa (PAFMECSA) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Leaving South Africa in secret via Bechuanaland, on his way Mr Mandela visited Tanganyika and met with its president, Mr Julius Nyerere. 39 Arriving in Ethiopia, Mr Mandela met with Emperor Haile Selassie I, and gave his speech after Selassie's at the conference. After the symposium, Mr Mandela travelled to Cairo, Egypt, admiring the political reforms of President Gamal Abdel Nasser, and then went to Tunis, Tunisia, where President Habib Bourguiba gave him £5,000 for weaponry. Mr Mandela proceeded to Morocco, Mali, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Senegal, receiving funds from Liberian President William Tubman and Guinean President Ahmed Sékou Touré. Mr Mandela left Africa for London, England, where he met anti-apartheid activists, reporters, and prominent politicians. 40 Upon returning to Ethiopia, Mr Mandela began a six-month course in guerrilla warfare, but completed only two months before being recalled to South Africa by the ANC's leadership. 41 1962: Mr Mandela’s arrest On 5 August 1962, police captured Mr Mandela along with fellow activist, Mr Cecil Williams near Howick. Many MK members suspected that the authorities had been tipped off with regard to Mandela's whereabouts, although Mr Mandela himself gave these ideas little credence. In later years, Mr Donald Rickard, a former American diplomat revealed that the Central Intelligence Agency, who feared Mr Mandela's associations with communists, had informed the South African Police of his location. Jailed in Johannesburg's Marshall Square prison, Mr Mandela was charged with inciting workers' strikes and leaving the country without permission. Representing himself with Mr Joe Slovo as legal advisor, Mr Mandela intended to use the trial to showcase "the ANC's moral opposition to racism" while supporters demonstrated outside the court. Moved to Pretoria, where Mrs Winnie Mandela could visit him, he began correspondence studies for a Bachelor of Laws (LLB) degree from the University of London International Programmes. His hearing began in October, but he disrupted 38 39 40 41

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_West_Africa https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nelson_Mandela https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nelson_Mandela https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nelson_Mandela

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proceedings by wearing a traditional kaross, refusing to call any witnesses, and turning his plea of mitigation into a political speech. Found guilty, he was sentenced to five years' imprisonment; as he left the courtroom, supporters sang "Nkosi Sikelel’ iAfrika".42

2013: My visit to Ethiopia After we had shot the scenes of Mr Mandela’s arrest on 5th August 1962 near Howick by Sgt Vorster and the “Raid on Rivonia” on 1962, we left for Ethiopia. We flew by Ethiopian Airways – it was a wonderful and new experience. The Ethiopians are very friendly, capable and a proud people! Addis Ababa We arrived in Addis Ababa very late in the night. On arrival I first had to purchase a visa for $25 to enter the country. The airport was not very busy and fortunately our hotel, a four star, was very close to the airport. We stayed in a very comfortable hotel.

The ‘old and the new’ on the road. (Photo: Hennie Heymans.) The first morning I got up early and went outside. I was excited. There were modern cars and ... donkeys. As a South African, I really felt at home. I also saw a red-faced parakeet that flew overhead. What impressed me the first morning standing in the street in front of the hotel was the “live and let live” attitude of the people. Cars, taxis, pedestrians and donkeys mingled in the street and no impatience was shown. It should be remembered what Brussels is to Europe; Addis Ababa is to Africa. Ethiopia was the first country in Africa to be free. After the Italians were driven out, Emperor Haile Selassie was put on the throne. Some members of the former South African Police who were on active duty served in Addis Ababa during the Second World War and were present when he symbolically marched into Addis Ababa.

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nelson_Mandela

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Kolfe Police Barracks The secret armed wing of the African National Congress, best known as MK (Umkhonto we Sizwe) was founded during 1961 and on the 16th of December that year the armed struggle began. Mr Mandela was trained at the Kolfe Police Barracks in Addis Ababa during 1962. As commander in chief of the MK he had to be taught general warfare and in guerrilla tactics. The wonderful opportunity was presented to me to visit the Kolfe Police Barracks where Mr Mandela was trained by General Tadessa and Col. Fekadu. I walked with the British producer, Ms Claire Evans and Commander Makcatè where Mr Mandela slept, trained and where he did target practice. It was here in 1962 that Mr Mandela was presented with a pistol by Gen Tadessa.

Above the room that Mr Mandela used whilst undergoing his training at Kolfe Police Barracks. The building was repainted for the film. (Photo: Hennie Heymans.)

Mr. Mandela’s spacious room above and the parade ground in front. (Photo: Hennie Heymans.) 34


(Photos: Hennie Heymans.)

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An Ethiopian Police liaison officer and a policeman dressed in a period uniform – Photo Hennie Heymans.

The shooting range where Mr Mandela trained – Photo Hennie Heymans. 36


Shots from in and around the Kolfe Barracks

(Photos: Hennie Heymans.)

37


(Photos: Hennie Heymans.)

Ethiopian Police in the old khaki uniforms (Photos: Hennie Heymans.) 38


Police doing PT.

“Mr Mandela” on the obstacle course - Photos: Hennie Heymans. 39


One of the Ethiopian Police in the old khaki uiform.

Mr John Irvine, the director of the movie, gifted a BSAP-jersey. (Photo: Hennie Heymans.) 40


Meeting with Gen Tadessa’s daughter Gen Tadessa had died, however I was fortunate to meet with Gen Tadessa’s daughter and Col Fekadu, Mr Tesfaye Abebe a former musician at the Police Training School and Capt. Dinka. Mrs Heimanot acted as interpreter and I had pleasant chats with all. I made recordings of these conversations in Aramaic and English.43

Mrs Heimanot, the general’s daughter and Hennie Heymans. After being in Ethiopia and acquainted myself with the facts I would describe the then Ethiopian Police as a gendarmerie. Currently there are today different police forces – I saw police vehicles marked as from the “Ethiopian Police Commission”, other police were in blue and marked “Federal Police” while other police were dressed in blue camouflage and were from the Riot Squad or Counter Insurgency. Gen Tadesse Birru [Taddäsä Bérru] The General’s daughter told me she had a long and trusted relationship with her father, the General. (She gave me two photographs of her father). Through her father she met Mr Mandela and she accompanied Mr Mandela to the market to buy scarves and other material. She told me what she knew; I made digital recordings of our conversation. She does not recall an attempt to kill Mr Mandela in Kolfe Barracks at the time her father was in command. Wikipedia and other sources have the following to say about Gen Tadessa as he is known: Tadesse Birru he was born around 1920. He died on 19 March 1975. He held the rank of Colonel General of the Ethiopian Imperial Army. He was an Oromo nationalist.

43

I did not make a recording of my interview with the General’s daughter.

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Initially he was a strong proponent of Ethiopian unity. Eventually during the 1960’s Tadesse became an activist for the empowerment of the Oromo people. His advocacy turned into repeated attempts to overthrow the government through a coup and later through a military rebellion. Eventually captured he was executed by the Derg regime. He is considered to be the father of modern Oromo nationalism. Early life Tadesse was born in Salele, in the Shewa province of the Ethiopian Empire during Emperor Haile Selassie's reign. During the Second Italo-Ethiopian War Tadesse’s father, Birru, was killed in 1936 by poison gas and due to personal grief, his mother died three months later. Military career As an orphan Tadesse joined his uncle, Beka, as a member of the Arbegnoch, a guerrilla army of Ethiopian patriots who fought Italian occupation. He was eventually captured by the Italians. He was sentenced to life in prison in Mogadishu, Somalia with hard labour. He remained in Somalia until 1940 when the British captured Mogadishu. Tadesse was freed and given military training by the British in Mombasa, Kenya. During 1941 he returned to Ethiopia. Subsequently Tadesse was raised to the rank of sergeant and sent back to Ethiopia where he participated in the “War of Liberation”. Tadesse joined Haile Selassie’s newly organized army. In 1942, Tadesse was promoted from sergeant-major to the rank of the second lieutenant after being transferred to Harär province and then to the military academy at Holota. He served in the national military academy at Holota, as an instructor. Two years later he was raised to the rank of deputy commander of the 29th Battalion. After having served for three years as a commander of the 24th Battalion with the rank of Major, he was appointed deputy administrative chief of the Third Division in Ethiopia. Fetno-Derash (Rapid Force) In 1954 he was promoted to lieutenant colonel and he moved from the military to the police force. He was in charge of modernizing the Ethiopian Police. In 1958 he was raised to the rank of colonel and was appointed deputy commander of the Police Force. Tadesse was promoted to Brigadier General by which time he was commander of the FetnoDerash, the deputy commissioner of the National Police Force, the commander of the Territorial Army and the chairman of the National Literacy Campaign. During 1960 he was instrumental in crushing the attempted coup with his specially trained force. He attacked the rebels and occupied Bole airport which enabled the leader of the loyalists, General Märéd Mängäša, to make contact with the Emperor, using the Ethiopian Airline’s civil aviation radio to get reinforcements by air. He also proved the conspirators wrong through his loyalty to the Emperor. It was also as commander of the Rapid Force at Kolfe that he trained Nelson Mandela, the South African anti-apartheid activist, in guerrilla warfare. He gave Mandela his famous pistol which Mandela buried at Liliesleaf. After a thorough search the pistol could not be found. Mecha and Tuluma Self-Help Association Despite initially rejecting the nationalist sentiments that existed among his people, the Oromo, General Tadesse's views were changed after a talk with Prime Minister Aklilu Habtewold. As chairman of the National Literacy Campaign, Tadesse held a meeting with the Prime Minister during which Aklilu, not knowing Tadesse's heritage, suggested that it was unwise to educate or recruit Oromos to the military.

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This is the comment that is believed to have influenced the general's decision to join the Mecha and Tuluma Self-Help Association in early 1963, an Oromo social movement in which he went on to become a prominent figure. His public image helped elevate the association's status and his organizational capacities and leadership qualities transformed the self-help organization into a pan-Oromo movement. Through this organization, Tadesse, advocated the empowerment of Oromos through education and an emphasis on self-reliance. Following his example, many Oromo military officers, civilian officials, professional elites, businessmen and religious leaders joined the association. Many of these people had hidden the fact that they were Oromo before joining the association and joining it was seen as a reaffirmation of identity. Opposition to Government Tadesse's decision to join the association and the elevation of its status had angered the Emperor and his officials. Prime Minister Aklilu Habtewold especially began to consider Tadesse Birru a rival. The prime minister used a bombing in Addis Ababa and a rebellion started by Oromos in the Bale province as a pretext to ban the organization. Many Oromos were arrested, killed, or exiled. Tadesse escaped the worst of repercussions. After three years of house arrest, he escaped. During 1966 he plotted and attempted an unsuccessful coup along with other high-ranking Oromo soldiers. They planned to assassinate the Emperor Haile Selassie. Tadesse was arrested and severely tortured despite his old age, his death sentence was later committed to life in prison while many of his comrades were killed. Tadesse was eventually released from prison and put into house arrest in Gelemso. Tadesse was visited by several prominent Oromo leaders. In June 1974, Ethiopia was in turmoil as the imperial regime began to weaken. Tadesse took this chance and escaped from Gelemso and returned to Addis Ababa. The Derg, which was the military regime that took over the government, asked Tadesse to become Minister of the Interior. He refused the appointment. After a second refusal, the police were sent to detain him. He escaped and in Shewa began to organize an armed Oromo rebellion. He was joined by Colonel Haile Regassa, Major Abebe Gebre Mariam and eventually General Jagama Kello, former military comrades of his. In respect to the defunct Oromo army of the late Elemo Qiltu, Tadesse Birru's forces operated under the name of the Oromo Liberation Army (OLA) [Oromo: Waraanna Bilisummaa Oromoo (ABO).] Death Tadesse Birru led the rebels until he was betrayed by General Jagama Kello and was captured along with Hailu Regassa. They were tried and were sentenced to life in prison but this was changed to execution by the Derg. Tadesse Birru, Hailu Regassa and a host of other Oromo leaders were executed on March 18, 1975. The OLA continued to operate and it became a part of the Oromo Liberation Front in 1976. Legacy Tadesse Birru is considered by many of Oromos to be the father of modern Oromo nationalism. His lectures about Oromo identity and nationhood inspired an entire generation of Oromos and led to the reaffirmation of the Oromo culture, language and identity as well as the development of the Oromo independence movement.�44

44

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadesse_Birru

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Meeting Col Fekadu Col Fekadu Wakene (known as Col Fakadu) It was an honour to meet Col Fekadu. It must be remembered that we represented opposite sides, after all I was from the former Security Branch of the South African Police. I broke the ice by complimenting him on the fine work he did to train Mr Mandela. We were sitting in his lounge when I looked at one of his photos – he was in uniform and sported Israeli “wings” on his chest. I asked him if he was trained in Israel and he confirmed the fact and also that he was entitled to wear the Israeli wings. It then dawned on me, that this Israeli trained officer also trained Mr Mandela. The training he presented to Mr Mandela was quite extensive.

The Colonel as he is to-day sitting in his lounge – Photo Hennie Heymans.

Two former adversaries shaking hands. The long scarfs are part of the Ethiopian dress.

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At the time Col Fekadu expressed his disappointment of not attending Mr Mandela’s funeral. He received a ticket to fly to South Africa and he got his passport within two hours. This did not help him when he went to the South African Embassy to obtain a visa. It is alleged that the lady working in our SA Embassy said she could not help him as he did not have an invitation. He said to her he was Mr Mandela’s trainer and that they were friends and he could not produce an invitation as his friend has died. He left our embassy very disappointed man. During 1962 the Colonel was a fine and healthy young policeman (gendarme), today he has health problems. (It is my secret wish that this fine gentleman and officer could visit South Africa to visit Mr Mandela’s grave and also visit 1 Military Hospital for a full medical check-up.)

Col Fekadu Wakene: The man who taught Mandela to be a soldier In July 1962, Col Fekadu Wakene taught South African political activist Nelson Mandela the tricks of guerrilla warfare - including how to plant explosives before slipping quietly away into the night. "Nelson Mandela was a very strong and resilient student, and he took instruction well and was really very likeable," Col Fekadu said. "You couldn't help but love him." Col Fekadu said Mr Mandela was a good student. Col Fekadu was a corporal when he trained Mr Mandela. He was a member of a specialist police force - the riot battalion - based in the suburbs of Kolfe, in barracks which are still used today. He remembers a "happy, cheerful person" who "concentrated on the task in hand". "He was polite, always happy and you never saw him lose his temper," he said. "He laughed easily and made others laugh as well." Col Fekadu says he was responsible for training Mr Mandela in sabotage and demolitions and how to stage hit-and-run attacks. The day's theory lessons were put into practice during night-time exercises. Mr Mandela was a good student, hardworking and physically strong - but sometimes too robust and too enthusiastic for his own good, the colonel recalls. "Physically he was very strong and well-built. But sometimes during the training he would get ahead of himself. "And while his intentions were good, that could also be dangerous, and sometimes we had to restrain him a bit for safety reasons." Col Fekadu had been told to train Mr Mandela by his commanding officer, General Tadesse Birru. Back in 1962, Col Fekadu did not realise the significance of the South African politician he had been instructed to turn into a soldier. "All we knew was that he was our guest from abroad and that he would spend some time with us," he said. "Everything was kept very secret. We were kept in the dark." Mr Mandela was in Ethiopia at the invitation of the emperor, an ardent supporter of Africa's decolonisation and African unity. At the time, Ethiopia had one of the strongest armed forces on the continent. Its troops were part of the UN peacekeeping operation during the Congo crisis in 1960 and a decade earlier Ethiopian soldiers had fought in the Korean war. And the emperor had invited many other African liberation struggle fighters to be trained on Ethiopian soil. As well as learning how to commit acts of sabotage, Mr Mandela's military training also included briefings on military science, how to run an army and how to use a gun. He was also taken on long treks carrying his knapsack, rifle and ammunition. This was one of Mr Mandela's favourite activities during his military training, and he writes about it with affection in his Long Walk to Freedom autobiography: "During these marches I got a sense of the landscape, which was very beautiful... people used wooden ploughs and lived on a very 45


simple diet supplemented by home-brewed beer. Their existence was similar to the life in rural South Africa." Mr Mandela's presence in Addis Ababa was supposed to be top secret. But physically he stood out. He was much taller and broader than most of the police cadets. And, as well as going on fatigue marches through the countryside, he would exercise out in the open in the grounds of the barracks.45

Meeting: Mr Tesfaye Abebe

(Photo: Hennie Heymans.) The next person on my list to visit was Mr Tesfaye Abebe. Mrs. Heimanot, the translator, and I went to the theatre where he now works. He then took us to his office in another part of town. He was in attached to the police band and theatrical group. He played the piano for Mr Mandela in the Officer’s Club. He met Mr Mandela and they had friendly talks with one another. The information in the following report is similar to what he told me: “He would do squats and jumping jacks. He followed that exercise routine religiously every morning.” One person who took a particular interest in the tall stranger in his midst was Tesfaye Abebe, who was working in Kolfe as the head of the battalion's music and drama department. He recalls Mr Mandela running around a big field in the compound - which today doubles up as a running track and a parade ground.

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https://strugglinginjustice.wordpress.com/2013/12/12/

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"He would do squats and jumping jacks. He followed that exercise routine religiously every morning." A curious Mr Tesfaye snatched conversations with Mr Mandela when he and his trainer came into the canteen for lunch. "Security was quite tight and we weren't really allowed to approach him." But, he says, Mr Mandela was "very friendly and talkative" and explained apartheid to him and how the ANC intended to fight it with guerrilla warfare and political activism. On a couple of occasions, the police band - in which Mr Tesfaye was the pianist - played for Mr Mandela in the officer's club. "He really enjoyed that. He was really happy when we played for him."46

The Man who saved Mr Mandela Capt. Dinka: The Man who saved Mr Mandela

On the left is Capt. Dinka and, on the right, Tumisho Masha, who portrayed Nelson Mandela in the film. (Photo: Hennie Heymans) Finally, I met Capt. Dinka. When I arrived in Ethiopia, he had to leave the following day to attend the funeral of Mr Mandela in Qunu. We had a short chat and then he left for South Africa. When it was time for me to leave, he arrived back and my stay in Addis Ababa was extended. I had two interviews with Capt. Dinka and in both instances, I made digital recordings in his native language / English. He described an interesting event to me. I then, as Commissioner of Oaths, took a statement from him through an interpreter. He then took the statement before signing it, to a sworn translator and after he looked at both the English and Aramaic and he signed both copies. 46

https://strugglinginjustice.wordpress.com/2013/12/12/

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This is a very important part of our South African history and as I could find no substantiation, I decided to obtain a sworn statement for the sake of our history. This is what the Captain declared under oath: Capt. Dinka Some background on Capt. Dinka: He is a long, tall and friendly person. A fine and imposing officer and proud of his association with Mr Mandela. It is the first time after all these years that he has decided to tell his story. He told me he was a musician in the police band. They had a police band and theatrical group in the Kolfe Barracks, Addis Ababa. When asked why he as a bandsman was employed on guarding Mr Mandela in Kolfe he gave two reasons: 1. The band nominated him because he had been trained in “commando style” work. 2. Many men from the Kolfe Barracks were sent away because of troubles between the Sudan and Somalia.47 Brig Heymans has two short sessions with Capt. Dinka and on both occasions the interviews were recorded. The first interview was on the day before he left Ethiopia for South Africa to attend Mr Mandela’s funeral in Qunu. The second interview took place just after he had arrived back. The interpreter had to leave to present a lecture, so a short, sworn statement was taken covering most aspects of the dramatic event. The English statement was translated back to Aramaic by Capt. Dinka’s sworn translators. Capt. Dinka then singed both statements.

I had an interview with Captain Dinka48. This is the story he told me; I had made notes while he was talking, of what the interpreter was declaring. I have a digital recording of the interview in his native language. “It was on a Saturday about 6 pm when we were in the Taitu Hotel. I had a beer with my friend Abraham. (He later states that the planned assassination was planned during 1962.) There were two guys about five meters away from us. They were drinking. One was white and the one was Black – they were both foreigners. We ordered food and when our food came it was the first time that I was eating in the western style, i.e. with knife and fork. It was a difficult and I was making a mess and spilled some of the food on the floor. There were many people present and I left the dining room.

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No trace of a war / disturbances during 1962 between Sudan and Somalia Mr Tamrat, cameraman, acted as interpreter.

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I went to another room and ordered a beer. My colleague was with me while the two foreigners followed us to another room, we were having a beer. My friend then started to make a startling proposition to me. He began by saying we must leave the military (gendarmerie?) for a better life. He made a startling proposition to me: I should kill Mr. Mandela who was at that stage a student at the Kolfe Barracks where we both were stationed. I had to murder Mr. Mandela at 03:00 with a rope. After the murder I should leave through the window. If I agreed I was to receive £2000 in British pounds and a camera. The money was for my family, my friend and I would then be able to choose where we would like to live and we would be taken care off. With the camera I had to take a picture of the corpse and one of his face after I had murdered Mr Mandela. The time 03:00 was chosen because there was no movement in the camp at that time and it was my turn to do duty around Mr Mandela. As I was one of the people guarding Mr Mandela the military police (gendarmerie) won’t suspect me. When I agreed to the proposition the Black foreigner came over to our table and joined us. (I must say I agreed to the proposition because my friend was much stronger and tougher than me, that is why I agreed to the murder.) The Black foreigner showed me how to use the camera and gave me the money. The plan further included that after the murder at 03:00 we meet the diplomat at a prearranged spot. A Landrover would then take us out of the country via Mojale en route to Kenya. This spot was about 500 metres away from the barracks. From Kenya we could choose to go to Europe or the USA and get out of the military life. My friend and I agreed and afterwards we went to St Pauls Church to confirm our promises of loyalty to one another. We left the Taitu Hotel and I took the camera and the money. I went first on foot to the Mercato Market and from there with a horse and cart to the barracks. I left the money with a friend who had a shop. My friend left in the company of the foreigners. I went to the General’s home. I asked to see the General. When the General appeared, I told him about our mission. He was very shocked. I had to repeat the story to him. The General in question was General Tadesse Birru He then put more guards to guard Mr Mandela and issued radios to some men. These men were to watch our activities of the operation. (The whole operation would be carried out so that nobody would suspect anything except that I would not murder Mr Mandela.) (Later Capt. Dinka says that Gen Tadesse gave him back the camera to carry out the fake mission.) The Sunday we took part in the fake operation in order that nobody would suspect Capt. Dinka. At the prearranged time Capt. Dinka appeared at the rendezvous. He and his friend, the Black person and his driver were arrested. They were chained and blindfolded. They were all driven away and then taken to a room, there were two witnesses present. Their blindfolds were taken off. Then two detectives entered. Their faces were masked and the interrogation started regarding the failed mission. 49


I told the whole story. My friend then first lied and then told the truth and confirmed my story. We singed our statements and the witnesses also singed. The Black guy refused to speak, his driver who knew nothing was released. Everybody’s eyes were closed. I was released and my friend went to jail. The Black guy led the investigators to the white guy. Both were then given 24 hrs to leave the country. Capt. Dinka’s friend (Abraham) was then sent to a military jail. Questioned about whom the two foreigners were; he said he does not know. When questioned about the prison where they were detained or questioned his answer through the interpreter was: “It was forbidden to know.” He did not know the make of the camera. He was a young man in 1962 and when asked, he said he had never before seen a pound note. Sworn statement This in the short time available to me, is a sworn statement he made: I am the holder of Ethiopian passport EP 3144926 issued at Addis Abebba (sic) on 9 December 2013. From 14 December to 17 December 2013 I visited South Africa to attend the funeral of the late President Nelson R Mandela also known as Madiba. For historical purposes: My father’s name is: Dinka My mother's name is: Alemithu I come from West Shewa, Ambu River: Guder River Mountain: Golfu I now wish to state as follows: During 1962 I was a policeman (gendarme) stationed at Kolfe Police barracks. This was the time of the emperor. When Mr Nelson Mandela arrived at Kolfe Training centre it was General Tadesse who brought him in from the Royal Palace for military training. I was one of three guards appointed to guard Mr Mandela - I was to guard him from a distance in addition to the other close protection officers. One day I met a friend at the Taitu Hotel after he invited me. His name was Abraham - we had drinks and lunch. My friend proposed at this meeting that I kill Mr Mandela with a rope as I had been trained in commando operations. There was a White and a Black man present in the hotel. The Black joined our company and explained how I must operate the camera. For this mission I received 2 000 British pounds for myself and the camera to take pictures of the assassination. Abraham and I could then leave the country to Europe or any country we chose. I was very shocked and I left and reported fully to general Tadesse. A counter-operation was planned by the General. Later I gave him the money and the camera at his house. My friend and I later went to St Paul's where we affirmed our loyalty to one another. The next day was a Sunday and the counter-operation was set in motion. The result was that I and Abraham were arrested. 50


The "Black Spy" in the Landrover who gave me the money and the camera were also arrested together with his driver where he waited for us to get us away. We were all handcuffed and our faces were covered by a black cloth. We were taken to a secret destination. Here we were interrogated by detectives who covered themselves in black hoods. I was the first to speak and made a full confession. My friend Abraham made a full confession. The driver of the diplomat was released as he knew nothing. The Black man claimed diplomatic immunity. The Black man led the police to the white man; both had to leave the country within 24 hrs. I was promoted to corporal, received a reward of 250 Birr for my work. My friend Abraham was sent to prison for his crime. The secret was kept with me, even Mandela did not know. Do you make this statement freely and voluntary? Yes. Are you sane and sober? Yes. Do you agree that the prescribed oath is binding on your conscience? Yes. Signed: Captain Guta Dinka Debsu

Conspiracy: Taitu Hotel • Taitu Hotel From Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia49 The Itegue Taitu Hotel is a hotel in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The Taitu Hotel was built in 1905 or 1906 (1898 in the Ethiopian calendar) in the middle of the city (Piazza), is the first hotel in Ethiopia. Taitu Betul (1851 – 1918), an Ethiopian Empress and the wife of Emperor Menelik II, established this hotel to provide foreign guests a place to rest and dine. On January 11, 2015 a major fire broke out which caused damage on the historic Taitu Hotel in Addis Ababa. A number of Tour operators can be found within the hotel compound including Venture Ethiopia Tours and Travel, which specializes in responsible tourism.

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taitu_Hotel

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(Photo: Hennie Heymans). Capt. Dinka states: “One day I met a friend at the Taitu Hotel after he invited me. His name was Abraham - we had drinks and lunch. My friend proposed at this meeting that I kill Mr Mandela with a rope as I had been trained in commando operations. There was a White and a Black man present in the hotel. The Black joined our company and explained how I must operate the camera. For this mission I received 2 000 British pounds for myself and the camera to take pictures of the assassination. Abraham and I could then leave the country to Europe or any country we chose.�

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(Photos: Hennie Heymans)

Where the conspiracy was planned. 55


(Photos: Hennie Heymans)

The “Arrest” of Capt. Dinka, Abraham and the Black Spy

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What did I do? With the information at my disposal it is clear that Mr NR Mandela: • • •

although a secret communist; one of the authors of the Freedom Charter; a founder of MK - even if Chief Albert Luthuli (a winner of the Nobel Peace Prize) was against violence, was a British asset.

Mr Mandela had close ties with the British right up to 1994 and thereafter. So, it was not the British who wanted him killed. He even stayed over at Buckingham Palace. I had a feeling that it was not the British who wanted to kill Mr Mandela. Allow me to digress for a moment: “Nelson Mandela enjoyed a “warm friendship” with the Queen, flouting royal custom and addressing her by her first name. The South African leader, who died last year50, was even comfortable enough to comment on Elizabeth II’s weight, according to his former personal assistant Zelda la Grange. In an extract from her memoir Good Morning, Mr Mandela, published in The Sunday Times Magazine, Ms Grange details her relationship with Madiba as she travelled the world by his side. She writes: “On a visit to Britain, I was struck by the warm friendship between Madiba and the Queen. ‘Oh Elizabeth,’ he would say when he greeted her, and she would respond: ‘’Hello, Nelson.’ “I think he was one of the very few people who called her by her first name and she seemed to be amused by it.” And on another occasion, he said rather candidly: “Oh, Elizabeth, you’ve lost weight.”51 Also, I think the two spies could not be South Africans. I knew for a fact that the CIA had furnished the police with information that led to the arrest of Mr Mandela at Howick.52 I thought that it was possible that the American’s could have been behind the plot to assassinate Mr Mandela. The fact that a white man and a black man were involved increased my suspicion. Both allegedly were diplomats. According to Capt. Dinka the pair were declared persona non grata and were given 24 hours to leave the country. With Mrs Heimanot I visited the Department of Foreign Affairs in Addis Ababa. The country went through a revolution and no documents could not be found to support Capt. Dinka’s claim that that the “diplomats” were declared persona non grata. I could find no evidence that their names were placed on a visa stop list or any other black list kept by the Ethiopian Government. All we have a is sworn statement by Capt. Dinka. The General’s daughter does not know of any camera that Capt. Dinka gave to her father.

50

2013 https://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/nelson-mandela-called-the-queen-by-her-first-name-and-had-no-ideawho-brad-pitt-was-9540094.html 52 See for e.g. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-36296551 51

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One will have to speak to Abraham the friend of Capt. Dinka. One must find corroboration that the ‘white and black” diplomat were declared persona non grata. More time must be spent with all the subjects mentioned.

Mr Mandela’s version of his training at Kolfe Barracks After leaving Egypt Mr Nelson Mandela visited a number of other African countries and England. He wrote of this tour and training as follows: That his next stop was Ethiopia where he was going for military training. He wat taken to Kolfe Barracks by Foreign Minister Yefu. He says Kolfe was on a hill situated in the suburbs of Addis Ababa. Kolfe was the HQ of the Riot Battalion which was 800 men strong. The Commanding Officer was Col Tedesse Birru (sic – he was not sure of the spelling) and that he was actually trained by Lieutenant Wondoni Befikadu (sic – he was not sure of the spelling). He described the training as “well arranged” which started at 08:00 until 13:00 and then from 14:0053 until 16:00. Thereafter he took a shower and went for discussions with Colonel Tadesse who was also the Assistant Commissioner of Police in Ethiopia who crushed the December 1961 (?) coup.54 He writes that they used two shooting ranges; one was used by the body guards (not far from Addis Ababa) and the other was used by the army. This range was about 50 miles away and he went shooting with a whole battalion. 55

The other shooting range “about 50 miles” from Kolfe … (Photo: Hennie Heymans.)

53

Mandela p. 487 Mandela p. 488 55 Mandela p. 488 54

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Unarmed combat training. (Photo: Hennie Heymans.) 59


Below Mortar practice. (Photo: Hennie Heymans.)

“Mr Mandela� doing mortar training on the outskirts of Addis Ababa. (Photo: Hennie Heymans.) 60


Member of the Ethiopian Defence Force who helped with the mortar explosions. (Photo: Hennie Heymans.).

(Photo: Hennie Heymans.)

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The countryside

(Photos: Hennie Heymans.)

Above from the air. 62


Mr Mandela writes that he saw a country that “… had beautiful forests and highlands”. He writes that he saw the country, it had beautiful forests and highlands. He took part in fatigue marches. He describes the country as “very backward - ploughing with wooden ploughs with just a tip that is of iron. Hand sowing. Peasants like in South Africa - hospitality - give you amasi plus local beer.” 56 His training was to last for six months but after he had trained for two months, he received a telegram “from home that I should return immediately.” 57 “Home arranged for return on a Sunday but I only reached Dar (es Salaam) that Sunday. (Julius) Nyerere gave us a private plane to Mbeya. Reached Botswana on Monday and came through that very night with Cecil. (I was armed - modern pistol plus 200 rounds given as a present by the Battalion)”. 58 He describes his return journey: From Ethiopia via Khartoum to Dar es Salaam where he stayed with Commissioner of Police. Here he met Oliver Tambo and met first group of 32 recruits on the way for training in Ethiopia. Mr Julius Nyerere who wished him good luck. From Dar es Salaam he went with Oliver Tambo to Mbeya, with Fish he travelled from Mbeya to Kanye. (He notes that Kirby was no longer there). Mr Mandela then travelled by car to Lobatse with Joe Modise and Joe Matlou and then with Cecil59 he returned home. 60 (p.487-8). 56

Mandela p. 488 Mandela p. 488 58 Mandela p. 488 59 Cecil Williams 60 Mandela p. 488 57

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Duty and Responsibility: Brig HB Heymans Had I still been a serving police officer, I would have recommended the following to the Minister and Commissioner: 1. I would request our President to decorate, the following four people namely: • • • •

The daughter of Gen Tadessa; Col Fekadu Wakene; Mr Tesfaye Abebe; and Capt. Dinka, all who personally interacted with Mr. Mandela during his stay in Ethiopia.

2. I would also recommend that four persons mentioned above receive a monetary gift. 3. Serious consideration should be given to extend a formal invitation to Col. Fakadu, as a guest of the Government, to visit South Africa. 4. The Kolfe Police Barracks where Mr Mandela was trained and accommodated was in disrepair and was renovated and repainted especially for the shooting of the film. The Kolfe Police Barracks should permanently be kept in good order. The barracks could be kept as a museum for posterity as well as for South Africa and Ethiopia in particular and Africa in general.

Comments by Lt Gen A van H Beukes The movements and travels of Mr Mandala during the 1960’s is not well documented. It is known that Mr Mandela visited various countries in North Africa including Algeria to be exposed to certain aspects of guerrilla warfare. The musketry training in Algeria was suspended because of extreme heat.61 The firearm used during Mr Mandela’s musketry training in Ethiopia was “illegally imported” into South Africa where it was allegedly, unfortunately buried and lost when he lived at Rivonia. For historical purposes it is imperative that his stay in Algeria, Ethiopia and Tanzania be investigated further and proof for certain allegations be gathered and place on record. The historical relevance of Kolfe Police Barracks is fait accompli.

End Word: Dr Rodney Warwick I have read the information on Mandela and the alleged planned assassination – language-wise there is nothing significantly in error. The information is certainly unique; I think one short comment I would like to make is that in the very early 1960s; the Algerian Revolution was just over, at the same time as Mandela was travelling north. The Algerian Revolution was of course a merciless and bloody affair with the vast majority of the French colons ultimately leaving for France (others to Spain and elsewhere). There was absolutely no compromise political solution that survived the bitterness between Colons/French Algerians and the Algerian nationalists – where 61

Pertsonal conversation between Mr Mandela and Gen Beukes - HBH

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moderates from either side attempted, they were murdered or forced out (like Albert Camus – the brilliant French Algerian writer). See Alistair’s Horne’s book on the War in Algeria (1958-62). Mandela received military training from the Algerian nationalists and as far as I know, the SACP and more revolutionary elements of the ANC, thoroughly approved the Algerian methods of revolution as a consideration for SA. Whites who would not accept the new order would be forced out (the suitcase or the coffin – as the Algerian nationalists told the French). As the SA intelligence services (still with Western support) were keeping a watching brief on Mandela and others in 1962, it does not surprise me that some kind of assassination attempt was not conceived. Between Black African nationalism of the time and Afrikaner (increasingly broader SA white) nationalism; there were absolutely no likely political compromises during the 1960s. My own family were strong UP supporters back then and I think De Villiers Graaff would have made a better prime minister than Verwoerd; particularly regarding black/white race relations….but I am not at all convinced the SACP or ANC in those heady years of African nationalism, Uhuru, Pan Africanism and the ideological struggle of the Cold War, would have struck any deal with white South Africa (whether NP, UP or Liberal Party). Mandela was pretty much part of this too back then … he was a different man with different more pragmatic convictions by the early 1990s (after all he knew the ANC would walk any election). Interesting years to reflect on now – hope I can write more on this material once I retire. Excellent book to buy regarding the ANC’s history is Stephen Ellis’s https://www.loot.co.za/product/stephen-ellis-external-mission/hmcl-2272-g400 It changed my thinking (or rather better informed my thinking) on the ANC and SACP… a must buy and read. All the best for the New Year and keep the Nongqai’s coming.

Bibliography • Books Bybel: Britse en Buitelandse Bybelgenootskap, Kaapstad, 1958, p 994. Conradie, WJ: Die Afrikaanse Kinderbybel, Nasionale Boekhandel Bpk., no date, (I received the Bible during 1955). The Nongqai – various editions. Album: MJ Dillon – photographs and post cards. Harrismith Chronicle, 17 July 1992 • Internet Book in pfd. format62 Mandela, NR: Chapter 13 pp 478 – 488 (pdf document) with reference: 62

All internet pages were accessed during December 2018 – HBH.

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https://www.nelsonmandela.org/images/uploads/LWOM.pdf •

Mendel, Egon: BRITISH MOTORCYCLES IN KHAKI - With special reference to their use by the Union Defence Forces in the Second World War with reference http://samilitaryhistory.org/vol106em.html • Internet http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadesse_Birru http://samilitaryhistory.org/vol106em.html http://www.army.mil.za/aboutus/history.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AU_Conference_Center_and_Office_Complex https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dan_Pienaar https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holy_Trinity_Cathedral_(Addis_Ababa) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lion_of_Judah https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medhane_Alem_Cathedral,_Addis_Ababa https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nelson_Mandela https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_West_Africa https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taitu_Hotel https://strugglinginjustice.wordpress.com/2013/12/12/ https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-36296551 https://www.icj-cij.org/en/case/46/summaries https://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/nelson-mandela-called-the-queen-by-her-first-nameand-had-no-idea-who-brad-pitt-was-9540094.html https://www.openbible.info/topics/ethiopia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1st_Infantry_Division_(South_Africa)#/media/File:A_MarmonHerrington_Mk_II_armoured_car_armed_with_an_Italian_Breda_20mm_gun,_near_Tobruk,_Libya ,_8_May_1941._E2872.jpg INDEMNITY & © | VRYWARING & ©

END / SLOT Dear reader Please note that in this quasi-historical document we make use of various sources and consequently it is obvious that the document contains various diverse and personal opinions of different people and the author of the Nongqai cannot be held responsible or be liable in his personal capacity. Geagte leser Vir hierdie kwasiehistoriese dokument maak ons van verskeie bronne gebruik en bevat die dokument uiteraard uiteenlopende en diverse persoonlike menings van verskillende persone en die opsteller van die Nongqai kan nie in sy persoonlike hoedanigheid daarvoor verantwoordelik of aanspreeklik gehou word nie. Hennie Heymans: No 43630K (B) © HB Heymans 2019.

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Profile for Hennie Heymans

Nongqai Vol 10 No 1 A  

National Security History: South Africa & Ethiopia WW2 - SA Police in Addis Ababa 1962 - Mr Mandela trains at Kolfe Police Barracks

Nongqai Vol 10 No 1 A  

National Security History: South Africa & Ethiopia WW2 - SA Police in Addis Ababa 1962 - Mr Mandela trains at Kolfe Police Barracks

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