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Constable CW “Billy: Eagle

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NONGQAI: VOLUME 10 NO 6B Constable CW Eagle: NWMP, Canadian Mounted Rifles, SA Constabulary & Transvaal Police Table of Contents Contents ADMINISTRATION | ADMINISTRASIE............................................................................................ 4 Publisher | Uitgewer .................................................................................................................. 4 Contact Details | Kontakbesonderhede..................................................................................... 5 Aim | Doel ................................................................................................................................. 5 Policy | Beleid ........................................................................................................................... 5 Welcome | Welkom: Meet Constable CW “Billy: Eagle .................................................................... 5 Meet Constable CW “Billy: Eagle .............................................................................................. 6 The Anglo Boer War ........................................................................................................................ 6 Canadian Mounted Rifles during the Second Boer War, 1900.................................................. 7 .................................................................................................................................................. 8 Honours of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police ...................................................................... 9 The Fighting Police (and something about Canada) ........................................................................ 9 ................................................................................................................................................ 11 Rooihuid-Polisieman van die Transvaal: Moira Vorster (Servamus 1986:03:26) .................... 12 Eagle’s Country is Lion Country by Hennie Heymans .................................................................... 13 •

A 2007 Book Review: … of a lion and Eagle .................................................................... 13 2


Constable CW “Billy: Eagle •

Colt Rifle ........................................................................................................................... 14

The Book: … of a lion and Eagle - The story of Constable Charles William Eagle .......... 14

Louis Trichardt Local History: Bushveld Carbineers ......................................................... 14

2007: Tour of Eagle’s Country: Fort Edward ..................................................................... 15

Zoutpansberg Skirmishes Route ....................................................................................... 17

Fort Edward: Base of Bushveld Carbineers ...................................................................... 17

Sweetwaters Hotel ............................................................................................................ 18

Commandant AF Schiel’s residence ................................................................................. 19

Comment made during 2007 ............................................................................................ 21

Fort Hendrina: Zetef du Plessis...................................................................................................... 22 Const CW Eagle ............................................................................................................................ 25 •

Attestation Papers............................................................................................................. 25

Death Notice in his Police Personnel File ......................................................................... 26

Some papers of Charles William Eagle proving his Canadian connections ................................... 27 •

Charles William Eagle: Beaver Lake, Cariboo, British Colombia ...................................... 29

Ashcroft Court House........................................................................................................ 31

Fort Hendrina / Fort Edward by a friend. ........................................................................................ 33 The story of the Zoutpansberg’s last three forts ............................................................................. 35 More photos from Anton van Zyl ............................................................................................. 39 •

Fort Hendrina .................................................................................................................... 39

Fort Schutte: Anton van Zyl .................................................................................................... 40 •

Australians: ‘Breaker’ Morant and Peter Handcock: Bushveldt Carbineers ...................... 40

Facebook Article: Charles Leach ................................................................................................... 43 1917: SA Police: Fort Edward | SAPS Waterval: HBH ................................................................... 47 Fort Edward: WhatsApp update: 6 May 2019: Charles Leach ................................................ 48 Our appeal for Funds on Facebook to look after the Fort Edward Grave Yard .............................. 53 Generaal JV van der Merwe laaste kommissaris van die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisie ......................... 54 General JV van der Merwe last Commissioner of the South African Police ................................... 54 Kol (dr) Len Els, SC en soms waarnemende regter skryf .............................................................. 55 Col (Dr) Len Els, SC and sometimes acting Judge writes .............................................................. 55 Mr JP Botha ................................................................................................................................... 55 Correspondence ............................................................................................................................ 55 Anton van Zyl: Zoutpansberger ............................................................................................... 56 English translation .................................................................................................................. 56 An e-mail from Mr Charles Leach: Louis Trichardt .................................................................. 56 3


Constable CW “Billy: Eagle Another e-mail from Mr Charles Leach ................................................................................... 57 Some archival references i.r.o. Fort Edward .................................................................................. 58 Map Zoutpansberg & Fort Edward: Charles Leach ........................................................................ 63 A Plea to International Donors ....................................................................................................... 66 Const Eagle’s family in Canada .............................................................................................. 66 INDEMNITY & © | VRYWARING & © ............................................................................................ 66 End | Slot ................................................................................................................................ 66

ACCOUNT PARTICULARS • JP BOTHA REKENMEESTERS TRUST • STANDARD BANK • BRANCH: MONTANA • ACCOUNT NO: 030 556 392 • BRANCH CODE 015945. • SWIFT: SBZA ZA JJ • REF: "GRAVE CONST. CW EAGLE"

Please follow-up with an e-mail to: jpbotha@botharek.co.za and a copy to heymanshb@gmail.com

ADMINISTRATION | ADMINISTRASIE

Publisher | Uitgewer The Nongqai is compiled by Hennie Heymans (HBH) a retired Brigadier of the late South African Police Force and this e-magazine is published on ISSUU. Hennie lives in Pretoria, ZA. He is passionate about our police-, military- and national security history and holds a MA-degree in National Strategic Studies. Any opinions expressed by him, are entirely his own. Die Nongqai word saamgestel deur Hennie Heymans (HBH), 'n afgetrede brigadier van die voormalige Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiemag en hierdie e-tydskrif word op ISSUU gepubliseer. Hennie woon in Pretoria, ZA. Hy is passievol oor ons polisie-, militêre- en nasionale veiligheidsgeskiedenis en het 'n MA-graad in Nasionale Strategiese Studies verwerf. Enige menings wat hy uitspreek, is uitsluitlik sy eie.

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Contact Details | Kontakbesonderhede

Aim | Doel Our goal is to collect and record our national security history for publication in the Nongqai for future generations.

Onthou, skryf u storie, soms kan ons net op u geskrewe weergawe terugval want dit is al wat daar is. Deel u SAP- en SAW-foto’s met ons!

Ons doel is om die nasionale veiligheidsgeskiedenis in die Nongqai aan te teken en so vir die nageslagte bewaar.

Policy | Beleid We publish the articles and stories as we receive them from our correspondents; we only correct the spelling mistakes. It's important to publish the stories in the form and context as we receive them from our correspondents. Policemen and defence personnel have their own language. We are not a scientific or literary journal. We only work with historical building blocks. Ons gebruik die artikels en stories soos ons dit van ons korrespondente ontvang; ons maak slegs die spelfoute reg. Dis belangrik om die stories te bewaar in die vorm en in die konteks soos ons dit ontvang. Lede van die veiligheidsmagte het hul eie taal en ons moet dit ook so aanteken. Ons is nie ‘n letterkundige of wetenskaplike joernaal nie. Ons werk slegs met die boustene van geskiedenis.

Welcome | Welkom: Meet Constable CW “Billy: Eagle Welcome to this special edition with the focus on a remarkable Canadian policeman and soldier who later became a policeman in South Africa, Constable Charles William “Billy” Eagle. He was a ‘First Nation Canadian’ or as we know them: a ‘Red Indian’. He came to Southern Africa to fight my people; my people were called the Boers. Constable Eagle – a member of the North West Mounted Police1,2 - arrived here during 1902 with the Canadian Mounted Rifles. When they reached Durban by ship, the Anglo Boer War was over. Eagle joined General Baden Powell’s newly established South African Constabulary (SAC). The SAC policed the Transvaal Colony, the Orange River Colony and Swaziland. During 1908 the SAC ceased to exist and three separate forces, one for each colony, were established. The Transvaal got the Transvaal Police (TP) and he served in it. He was quite a character, so much so, that we even remember him to-day! For many years I have an interest in this interesting historical character who deserves to be remembered with pride and dignity! We have a duty to keep his memorial and the historic site where he was buried, in good order. His grave does not fall under the ambit of the Commonwealth War 1 2

Servamus 1986:03:26. Although I am not too sure of this – HBH.

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Constable CW “Billy: Eagle Graves Commission. It is therefore our moral duty to be our brother’s keeper and to look after his grave and the rest of the grave yard. We will inter alia touch briefly on the following subjects: • • • • • • • •

The Anglo Boer War; Fighting Police Book Review Fort Hendrina; Fort Edward; Spelonken Area and then devote special attention to: Const Eagle; and Fund Raising

Meet Constable CW “Billy: Eagle

The Anglo Boer War We have a long history going back from 1652 with the establishment of a refreshment station at the Cape by Commander Jan van Riebeeck of the Dutch East India Company (VOC). I will try to sketch our history with a few broad-brush strokes. Wars in Europe had an influence at the Cape. Ultimately the Cape became a British possession and later a British Colony. Some people of Dutch descent stayed on in the Cape and were known as the Cape Dutch, while we had others who trekked. They were known as “Trek Boers” (pastoral farmers). Other Dutch Boers settled in the Eastern Cape and from 1838 we had the Great Trek. Slavery was abolished. There were various reasons for the Great Trek. The Voortrekkers were leaving the British Colony (without permission) and some settled in Natal (Republic of Natalia) and they later relocated to what later became the two Boer Republics to the north of the Vaal River. The whole of South Africa as we knew it then, was an agricultural country, the main activities farming, producing good wines and brandy, ostrich feathers, ivory, hides, skins, wool, fruit, meat and vegetables. No worthwhile industry except the building of buildings, houses, wagons and scotch carts. The roads were terrible. The military was mainly mounted. 6


Constable CW “Billy: Eagle Diamonds were discovered in Kimberley during 1860’s. There was a border dispute between the Free State and the Cape Colony. Kimberley with the diamond fields was allocated to the Cape Colony. Mr. Cecil John Rhodes and others like Barney Barnato had a vested interest in the diamond mines and international finance. At that stage we found the richest private individuals in the world living in Kimberley – it was before the days of oil wells. Mr. Rhodes had his ideal of painting Africa red! He wanted British Colonies from Cape to Cairo. (He was the founder of the two Rhodesias.) The ZAR unfortunately had a lot of gold! Countries do not have friends they only have interests! (In this case: Read Gold.) If the Witwatersrand was a maize and pumpkin patch there would not have been a war, believe me. We had the ill-fated Jameson Raid of 1895/6. After failed discussions the Anglo Boer War was declared on 11th of October 1899 and lasted for about 32 months, right up to 31st of May 1902. On the one side was the Boers from the ZuidAfrikaansche Republiek (ZAR) (Transvaal) with President SJP “Paul” Kruger as leader and the Oranje Vrijstaat (Orange Free State) with President MT Steyn as leader. My people were at that stage regarded as the best frontier’s men the world had known. Our two Boer republics fought the British as well as soldiers from their Empire right up to the Bitter End. The Empire was the scattered over the globe – the greatest Empire the world had known! Nearly a half a million British soldiers fought against a few Boers. Billy Eagle was also a frontier’s man; a man hoping to fight and do his bit! The British did not do so very well in the war especially after the conventional phase. Lord Strathcona recommended that policemen from the North West Mounted Police (NWMP) from Canada be brought in to help fight the Boers.3 The NWMP were absorbed into the Canadian Mounted Rifles and Strathcona’s Horse. Many Canadians and Australians later joined the SA Constabulary

Canadian Mounted Rifles during the Second Boer War, 1900

Photographer unknown - This file has been provided by the British Library from its digital collections. It is also made available on a British Library website. Catalogue entry: HS85/10/11351, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=54486366 4

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The mounted police sent volunteers to fight in the Second Boer War, and in recognition were retitled the Royal North-West Mounted Police in 1904 see: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North-West_Mounted_Police 4 Photo: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North-West_Mounted_Police

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Constable CW “Billy: Eagle When the Anglo Boer War broke out in 1899, many members of the mounted police wanted to volunteer to serve in South Africa, motivated by sympathy for the British imperial cause and the strong military tradition within the force. /…/ Although there was public enthusiasm for a Canadian military response, at first it appeared that only a minimal deployment would be needed, and it was only after several British defeats that an offer of a more substantive force was welcomed by London. The Canadian government turned to the mounted police as their main source for experienced mounted soldiers, and members were given leave from the force for the duration of their service.5 Combined with the pressures of maintaining the commitments in the Yukon, this reduced the number of the police in the remaining territories to only 682 men by 1900. Herchmer recruited and commanded a group of 144 mounted police volunteers, who made up almost half of the new 2nd Battalion of the Canadian Mounted Rifles; many of the other volunteers in the battalion were also ex-policemen. /…/ The mounted police influenced the creation of other imperial units during the conflict. Lord Strathcona, the Canadian High Commissioner in London, raised a unit of mounted infantry modelled on the force, believing this would be particularly suitable for taking on Boer scouting parties. Thirtythree serving members of the police joined the unit, including Superintendent Samuel Steel6, who became their commanding officer. The Strathconas wore the mounted police's Stetson hat as part of their uniform, while in turn their distinctive boots were adopted by the police as their official footwear in 1901. The South African Constabulary was created in October 1900 to police the recaptured territories; it mirrored the mounted police, with its members again wearing the force's Stetson hat; it incorporated forty-two members of the mounted police and one of its divisions was commanded by Steele. The mounted police volunteers suffered seven casualties during the conflict. Sergeant Arthur Richardson, a member of the Strathconas, won the Victoria Cross for rescuing a Canadian soldier under heavy fire at Wolve Spruit. In 1904, the Crown renamed the force the Royal North-West Mounted Police to honour its contributions in the Anglo Boer War (1899 – 1902).7

Attention! We need your support please!

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It is unclear why the NW Mounted Police were not allowed to form their own independent mounted police unit in the South African campaign. The decision may have been due to pressure from the Canadian military leadership, or because creating a special unit for the campaign would have made it harder to ultimately close down the force, which at the time remained the government's intent – see note K and footnotes 191 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North-West_Mounted_Police 6 7

Col Sam Steele became an important police officer in the Transvaal. He rose to General’s rank in WW1 - HBH. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North-West_Mounted_Police

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Honours of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police The Royal Canadian Mounted Police were accorded the status of a regiment of dragoons in 1921. As a cavalry regiment, the RCMP was entitled to wear battle honours for its war service as well as carry a guidon, with its first guidon presented in 1935. Battle honours North West Canada 1885; South Africa 1900 – 1902; The Great War: France and Flanders 1918; Siberia 1918 - 1919; The Second World War: Europe, 1939 - 19458

They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old: Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn. At the going down of the sun and in the morning,

We will remember them!

The Fighting Police (and something about Canada) Our more serious readers might want to read the article EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP IN COUNTERINSURGENCY: THE NORTH-WEST MOUNTED POLICE IN SOUTH AFRICA, 1899-1902 by Kenneth Grad9. I personally learnt a lot from this article. The following is an article written by HBH which appeared in the book: KOEVOET - The Men Speak by Jonathan Pittaway. 8 9

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Canadian_Mounted_Police See: http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo9/no2/08-grad-eng.asp

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Rooihuid-Polisieman van die Transvaal: Moira Vorster (Servamus 1986:03:26)

[Earle should read Eagle]

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Eagle’s Country is Lion Country by Hennie Heymans • A 2007 Book Review: … of a lion and Eagle Constable Charles William Eagle, formerly of the South African Constabulary (SAC) and of the then newly formed Transvaal Police, lives on today in a new book by Charles R Leach. The launch of the book, … of a lion and Eagle, took place on the 31st March 2007 at the Lalapanzi Hotel on the N1 near Louis Trichardt in Eagle Country. 10 Constable CW Eagle born at Cariboo, British Columbia, in Canada. He was classified as a good rider and shot. He enlisted as a member of the 5th Regiment of Canadian Mounted Rifles (CMR) on 24 April 1902. When their ship, The Corinthian, departed from Halifax on 23 May 1902 the war was virtually over, peace was declared a mere seven days later on 31 May 1902. The officers and men of the CMR disembarked in Durban on 22 June 1902 when peace was already declared. Soldiers had done their duty for King and Country. Now policemen were needed for law and order duties. The SAC, established during 1900, under command of General RSS Baden Powell, were already operating in the two former Boer Republics and Swaziland. The former Boer republics were then known as the Transvaal Colony and Orange River Colony. Eagle and 28 other Privates of the 5th CMR were eager to join the SAC. Drama. At first Eagle as turned down because of his dark colour and his 28 comrades then refused to serve in the SAC. The recruitment officer reversed his decision and the 29 Canadians happily joined the police. They were after all good riders and goods shots – after all what more does any police want in a turbulent society? Where did SAC Trooper and later Constable “Billy” Eagle of the Transvaal Police serve? We find him stationed at Proclamation Hill (Pretoria West), Pietersburg, Blaauberg, Mara and at Pontdrift. Did red tape exist in days of old? It’s all there in the old SAC files for everybody to see. Handling the ancient SAC files smelling of old paper, moth balls and gum in the archive one reads many things about our predecessors in the police. We learn that Constable Eagle and his colleagues were evaluated every six months. He did well in these bi-annual evaluations! In the old SAC files there are attestation forms, commendations, defaults, applications of members and even a file on treasure hunting. The SAC had to present when adventurous people hunted for treasure after the Anglo-Boer War. In the national archive we found that the newly established Transvaal Police (1908 - 1913) were informed that Constable Eagle has died after his fight with a lion. A simple one-liner, on his attestation papers: Died at Elim Hospital from the effects of lion bite. Opsomming Die enigste Kanadese Rooihuid waarvan ons weet wat ‘n lid van die polisie in Suid-Afrika was, is konstabel CW Eagle. Hy het met die Canadian Mounted Rifles (CMR) na Suid-Afrika gekom. Met hul aankoms in Suid-Afrika was die Anglo-Boere Oorlog reeds verby. Eagle en ander lede van die CMR het by die SA Constabulary aangesluit. Hy is toe van Proklamasie Heuwel in Pretoria na die

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This article is based on a book review that I sent to Servamus during 2007 – HBH.

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Constable CW “Billy: Eagle verre Noord-Transvaal verplaas. Soos die bekende generaal Johan Viktor altyd van die VerreNoorde gesê het: “regte struikrower-wêreld”. Eagle se wêreld is die van Pontdrift, Louis Trichardt, Pietersburg en Elim Hospitaal. ‘n Wilde en ongetemde wêreld met swak transportpaaie en baie leeus. Eagle is by Fort Edward – voorheen Fort Hendrina – begrawe. Vandag is daar nie meer ‘n polisiestasie nie. Eagle was polisieman in murg en been. Sy offisiere het hom hoog aangeslaan, veral m.b.t. veldkuns. Hy het sy lewe gelaat in ‘n geveg met ‘n leeu. Die leeu is op die toneel dood terwyl Konstabel Eagle ‘n paar dae later in die Elim Hospitaal beswyk het a.g.v. bloedvergiftiging. Die boek bevat ook inligting oor ‘n seldsame Colt geweer wat moontlik aan Eagle kon behoort het. Eagle was ‘n geliefde kameraad. Sy imposante graf getuig daarvan. So is die lewe; Eagle is in die ysvlaktes van Cariboo in Kanada gebore en kom aan sy einde in die warm Bosveld naby die Steenbokskeerkring. Polisiewerk is nog altyd riskant. Saam met konstabel Eagle is konstabel JG Kroch begrawe wat beswyk het aan swartwaterkoors terwyl die konstabel J Hammil aan diens verdrink het. ‘n Polisieman se klein dogtertjie, Elsie Lourens (3jr) , is ook daar begrawe. Vier eensame grafte in die veld. ‘n Entjie verder ‘n paar tipiese Britse soldate grafte. Wanneer u noordwaarts ry in die rigting van Louis Trichardt besoek gerus die Lalapanzi Hotel en besoek die klein museum.

• Colt Rifle One other interesting but enigmatic issue is a unique Colt Rifle. A local medical doctor owns this very special rifle, a rifle that most probably belonged to Constable Eagle. The rifle was originally bought on a police sale many years ago and bequeathed to the doctor by a patient. American records show that this particular rifle was given to an Indian in British Colombia, Canada, whose son was going to fight for the Empire in South Africa.

• The Book: … of a lion and Eagle - The story of Constable Charles William Eagle Charles R Leach has written a lovely book and it is a book that should be on the bookshelf of every serious police historian. There are many unsolved historical puzzles. Buy the book! You won’t regret it. The book is an ideal gift, especially for foreign policemen who are visiting South Africa, particularly to the northern province of Limpopo. The full title of the book is … of a lion and Eagle - The story of Constable Charles William Eagle by Charles R Leach. It is printed and published by Leach Printers and Signs. The ISNB is 9780620381598. The book is in full colour and is printed on very good paper. The cost of the book is R90-00, excluding postage and packaging.

• Louis Trichardt Local History: Bushveld Carbineers With your permission I would like to digress for a moment. At the Lalapanzi Hotel is a small local history museum. It is worthwhile visiting this particular museum. During the Anglo-Boer War (1899 – 1902) there was another high international drama when Australian soldiers, all members of the Bushveldt Carbineers were charged with murder of Boers and other local inhabitants. Australia, Britain and South Africa were involved. The Australian officers involved in the murders were Lieutenants ‘Breaker’ Morant, Handcock and Witton. They were sentenced to death for murder. Their defence was that orders were given that no 14


Constable CW “Billy: Eagle Boer prisoners were to be taken. Lord Kitchener commuted Witton’s sentence to one of life imprisonment. A successful international film Scapegoats of the Empire was made. It was a well-known fact that Boers who wore khaki were shot. A German missionary, Rev Heese, and some local Africans were also shot by the British. Only after the Kaiser of Germany complained to the British monarchy the matter was fully investigated. The officers’ defence was that they received instructions that no Boer prisoners were to be taken. However, Morant and Handcock were shot and Witton was reprieved.

• 2007: Tour of Eagle’s Country: Fort Edward I was very fortunate when former policeman Mr Cobus Holtzkampf, then of Louis Trichardt, took me to visit the lonely police graves at the former Fort Edward police station. Fort Edward was formerly known as Fort Hendrina.

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Note: A tall blue gum tree fell on the fence

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• Zoutpansberg Skirmishes Route

• Fort Edward: Base of Bushveld Carbineers

At Fort Edward Mr Charles Leach and his committee also erected a granite plaque in four languages – Afrikaans, English, Shangaan and Venda. This is to commemorate the Zoutpansberg Skirmish 17


Constable CW “Billy: Eagle Route of Anglo-Boer War (ABW). It is most probably the only place in South Africa where four languages appear on a plaque commemorating the ABW. Mr Leach has fixed up the graves of soldiers and the separate police graveyard. Unfortunately, a Bluegum tree fell on the imported cast iron fence around the police graveyard. The fence and police graves need attention.11

• Sweetwaters Hotel

We visited the old Sweetwaters Hotel, which is nearby, but stands vacant and is a silent witness to our past. Here Commandant CF Beyers12 played the piano while the Tommies were approaching. Joshia Naudè was then his secretary and father of Rev CF Beyers Naudè.

During the 1914-1915 Rebellion Commandant-General Beyers (born 23-09-1869) was with General Koos de la Rey when they failed to stop their car at a police roadblock. The police were looking for the Foster Gang. Unfortunately, General Koos de la Rey was shot and killed by police in Langlaagte. General Beyers later died in the Vaal River during the Rebellion on 8-12-1914. His name is given to one of the rooms. Capt AJ ‘Bulala’ Taylor also has a room named after him. Captain AJ ‘Bulala’ Taylor He was notorious in certain circles for his activities before and during the ABW.

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This was written in 2007 – HBH. The ANC-activist Rev CF Beyers Naudè was named after Commandant CF Beyers.

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• Commandant AF Schiel’s residence

On the escarpment we visited the fortified house of Commandant AF Schiel (19-12-1858 – 8-81903) with beautiful large cycads around the house and outbuildings. (Above the stables) The cycads are higher than the house. All cycads have microchips implanted to prevent theft. The house has a beautiful view over the escarpment. A gun was staged on the veranda. When the Boers left Schiel’s house, the Bushveld Carbineers used the outbuildings as stables.

Giant Cycads & Schiel’s stoep 19


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Mr Cobus Holtzkampf showing how high the cycads grow 20


Constable CW “Billy: Eagle

After visiting Eagle’s Country, I left for Pretoria thinking about our colourful past and the significant role played by the police in our history.

• Comment made during 2007 The SA Constabulary and Transvaal Police graves at Fort Edward are of immense historical importance. Could the Governments of South African and Canada not restore their graves to their former glory? This is part of the local tourism route. Mr Charles Leach has erected a granite plaque in four languages to stimulate interest in the local history. It is hoped that some state institution could formally adopt these graves at Fort Edward. Australians, Canadians, British and South African tourists regularly visit these sites. Members of the Australian Bushveld Carbineers and other British regiments died at Fort Edward. Their mortal remains have been removed during the 1960’s and have been interned in Polokwane. But the British cast steel headstones “For King & Empire” with the names of the fallen soldiers remain silent witness to their death. Commandant Schiel’s house and outbuildings are part of our history. Within a few years these buildings will be totally wrecked. 13Illegal immigrants have left their mark. Could buildings like these not be restored to their former glory and used for e.g. as a crèche or something useful in the community and then remain standing for generations to come? 13

Cmdt. Schiel’s homestead has been wrecked – see e-mail from Mr Leach – HBH.

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Fort Hendrina: Zetef du Plessis Photos by Zetef du Plessis

ZARP & SAZAR - Zarp's and State Artillery at Fort Hendrina. 2nd photo Zarps at Ft Hendrina

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A Zarp at Fort Hendrina 23


Constable CW “Billy: Eagle Zarp Uniform

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Const CW Eagle • Attestation Papers

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• Death Notice in his Police Personnel File

An antique tin model of a Royal Canadian Mounted Policeman in my collection. The RCMP penknife was given to me by my grandmother when I was a small boy – I have always treasured these items – HBH. 26


Constable CW “Billy: Eagle

Some papers of Charles William Eagle proving his Canadian connections

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• Charles William Eagle: Beaver Lake, Cariboo, British Colombia

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• Ashcroft Court House

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Fort Hendrina / Fort Edward by a friend.

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Members of the SA Constabulary out fishing. For all we know Const. Eagle could be on this photo! A friend who knew I was interested in this subject sent me the three photos. The last two came from E-Bay and she cannot find the reference or the seller/buyer.

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Constable CW “Billy: Eagle

One of the forts (probably Hendrina) at Klipdam, the farm of the Native Commissioner, Oscar Dahl. The photo was taken by HF Gros in around 1888.

The story of the Zoutpansberg’s last three forts Date: 29 September 2017 By: Anton van Zyl Viewed: 886

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Constable CW “Billy: Eagle The steel fort next to the Makhado Library is a well-known landmark. Since 1971, it has also been one of our country’s national monuments. This year, the fort celebrates its 130th birthday, but many questions are still to be answered, especially as to what had happened to its two “siblings”. The origin of the steel collapsible forts may very well lie in Austria, the birthplace of Adolph Zbořil (pronounced “Sbor-shil”). Adolph and his brother, Josef, arrived in South Africa to seek greener pastures in the late 1870s. In 1886, he applied for the vacant position of captain of the Transvaal artillery and in July 1886 he was provisionally appointed as “administrateur en Adjutant van het Rijdende Artillerie en Politiekorps der Zuid-Afrikaanschen Republiek”. Zbořil quickly realised that the Transvaal artillery and the police corps were in desperate need of modern weaponry and resources. The republic had about a dozen guns which apparently would have served well in an army museum at that stage. With the assistance of the then newly appointed Lt Adolf Schiel, pressure was put on Commandant-General Piet Joubert to acquire new weaponry. One of the more interesting contributions Zbořil made, was to design “yzeren forten” (iron forts) that could be dismantled and transported to areas where they were needed. The forts were designed in about 1887 and probably built in Austria or Germany before being shipped to South Africa. The forts were made of heavy armour plates and had eight sides. Each section of the fort had to be light enough for two soldiers to be able to carry it around. Between 20 and 25 soldiers could find refuge in each fort. Whether it was comfortable inside, was debatable. The summer sun baking on the steel and the lack of proper ventilation must have taken its toll on the men. Three of these forts made their way to the north, and in April 1888 the first one was erected on the farm Klipdam, some 30 kilometres north of the then Pietersburg (not far from the well-known “Wawielbrug” next to the N1). This was the farm of Oscar Dahl, the Native Commissioner for the Northern Transvaal. The double-storied house on the farm was fortified by cannon at two of the corners. One may ask why these steel forts were necessary, and why the establishment of an artillery unit in the north was important for the ZAR? The answer probably lies in the perceived threat of the native people, especially the vhaVenda. The ZAR president at the time, Paul Kruger, was the commanding officer who ordered the evacuation of Schoemansdal in 1867, following a guerrilla-type war that Makhado had waged against the settlers. Perhaps Kruger, assisted by Joubert, were putting their “big guns” in strategic places. Just two months before the fort arrived at Klipdam, on 9 February 1888, the ZAR’s “Location Commission” convened at Dahl’s farm to draft new regulations regarding reserves in the Zoutpansberg district. The agenda of the meeting probably included a census of indigenous people, how taxes would be collected and the unwillingness of the vhaVenda king, Makhado, to cooperate. In a dissertation, US professor Lindsay Braun, writes: “The continuing unsettled state of colonial boundaries for the vhaVenda encouraged efforts to hem Makhado in through security. The establishment of forts ever nearer his capital, encroaching on land he had claimed, was openly provocative … To Joubert and the other local commissioners, this was a vital response to unrest in the area that was driving white farmers off land and generating an uptick in complaints of theft and trespass.” Joubert tried to engage Makhado in negotiations, especially to convince him to pay taxes, but the vhaVenda king was reluctant to do this. Joubert also tried to convince neighbouring chiefs to pressurise Makhado to submission and, according to Braun, he “sought therefore not only to beacon all the locations of lesser chiefs first, but also to place a fort as close as possible to Makhado’s capital.” 36


Constable CW “Billy: Eagle Joubert was reined in by the government, who felt that Makhado should not be provoked and a war should be avoided. “…the State Secretary was alarmed enough to send a telegram categorically refusing to allow him (Joubert) to erect the fort or to demonstrate military force even though they felt that both Makhado’s claims and even Joubert’s counter-proposed location were unacceptably vast,” writes Braun. For the next decade, the forts moved around from one area to another. The ZAR’s artillery unit, the Rijdende Grenswag, was sent to the north in 1888 and stationed at five strategic spots between Magoebaskloof and the Spelonken. The steel forts were meant for protection of these troops and to serve as a “base camp” for the Native Commissioner. The period was marked by continuous threats to Makhado’s autonomy, but each time Joubert stopped just short of declaring war. When Makhado died in September 1895, the focus gradually shifted to his son, Mphephu. Based on the inscriptions in the Kampbevelboeke and reports sent through to head office, Fort Hendrina spent the best part of the 1890s on a part of the farm Lovedale Park, not far from the Cooksleys’ store. This was also the regional base for the police corps of the ZAR. Two of the forts remained at Klipdam and were only dismantled around October 1898. It is also very likely that one of the forts was converted into two or three smaller forts. Back in 1888, Zbořil instructed the government’s arms manufacturer, H Groenewald, to do the necessary modifications to one of the forts. When the war against Mphephu seemed inevitable, the commander of the State Artillery, Lt-Col S P E Trichardt, was tasked to build a camp at Rietvlei in a triangular format, with a steel fort on each of the corners. The artillery unit was dispatched to the new site. The forts were constructed amid torrential rainstorms. When exactly the three forts were named, is not certain. The most famous (and only surviving one) was named after Hendrina, the wife of Commandant-General Piet Joubert. The second one was named Fort Botha, but exactly which Botha the name referred to, is not certain. The third fort was referred to as Fort Schutte, and probably named after the Lt Jan Schutte, who was an officer in the unit, somewhere between 1894 and 1898. The three forts (and the Whitworth cannons that accompanied them) must have played a very important role in the battle against Mphephu that officially started on 16 November 1898. This battle lasted for less than 24 hours and saw relatively little blood being shed. Perhaps the presence of the forts and the artillery unit contributed to the relatively few casualties. Several historians make reference to the fact that, after the battle at Luatame, Fort Botha (or parts thereof) was moved up the mountain. This was done to stop the supporters of Mphephu from returning to the area. Where this fort was exactly situated, as well as what eventually happened to the fort, remains a mystery. The other two forts remained in the newly proclaimed town, serving as storage rooms for ammunition and food. The police corps also moved to Rietvlei. Not long after the battle, early in 1899, tragedy struck. Apparently, the burghers tasked with packing the ammunition in Fort Schutte dropped one of the cannon shells. The explosion that followed demolished the fort, killing five of the men. They were later buried with full military honours in the town cemetery. The graves are still visible in the town’s Tree Park, next to the N1. When the Anglo Boer War broke out a few months later, Fort Hendrina was still in the newly promulgated town, Louis Trichardt. For the first part of this war against Britain, the Soutpansberg did not see a lot of action. Most of the burghers who joined the ZAR’s forces did duty in other parts of the country. After the British forces had taken over Pietersburg in May 1901, they made their way further north. When the British invaded Louis Trichardt, they decided to move Fort Hendrina back to the old site 37


Constable CW “Billy: Eagle at Lovedale Park, near Elim. The area was renamed Fort Edward, after the British monarch of the time. During the last part of the war, the infamous Bushveld Carbineers used the fort as a base for their operations. Several of the officers of this unit were later charged with war atrocities. The infamous “Breaker” Morant and his sidekick, Peter Handcock, were court-martialled for some of the murders and executed on February 27, 1902. Fort Edward was attacked on a few occasions during the latter part of the war and in one incident the Boer soldiers, under leadership of Cmdt J T Kelly, managed to kill a British soldier and some horses. After the war, Fort Edward was used as a prison for a short while. In 1909, the site where the fort was situated was used by the South African Constabulary and it was decided to alienate the land. Several other buildings, including stables and a jail, were erected. In 1969, the fort was donated to the Municipality of Louis Trichardt by W Menne, grandson of J S Cooksley. The fort was moved to the site in town where it still stands. On 23 April 1971, it was proclaimed as a national heritage site. The future of Fort Hendrina is, however, uncertain. In July this year, the Heritage Monitoring Project called on the public to nominate threatened heritage sites. In response, 37 submissions were received, with Fort Hendrina being one of them. Sources: • • •

A special word of thanks to Pétria De Vaal-Senekal for all the information provided and for making her research available. Pétria Engelbrecht: Fort Hendrina – Skripsie voorgelê ter vervulling van die vereistes vir die graad BA (Hons), 1990 Lindsay Frederick Braun: The cadastre and the colony: Surveying, territory, and legibility in the creation of South Africa, c.1860-1913

https://www.zoutpansberger.co.za/articles/news/44226/2017-09-29/the-story-of-thezoutpansbergas-last-three-forts?fbclid=IwAR3Hjl3Ixd7zRwUhkoL2mZF1JlRlOxcSQGbhDwd2s0GQlZ31fB86Wh-tFY Our personal thanks to Anton van Zyl for permission to quote this article (anton@zoutnet.co.za )

South African Constabulary (1900 – 1908) Transvaal Police (1908 -1913) South African Police (1913-1994) South African Police Service (1994 – onwards)

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More photos from Anton van Zyl • Fort Hendrina

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Fort Schutte: Anton van Zyl

“”””” Not long after the battle, early in 1899, tragedy struck. Apparently, the burghers tasked with packing the ammunition in Fort Schutte dropped one of the cannon shells. The explosion that followed demolished the fort, killing five of the men. They were later buried with full military honours in the town cemetery. The graves are still visible in the town’s Tree Park, next to the N1.”””””””

• Australians: ‘Breaker’ Morant and Peter Handcock: Bushveldt Carbineers Harry "Breaker" Harbord Morant, probably born Edwin Henry Murrant (9 December 1864 – 27 February 1902), was an Anglo-Australian drover, horseman, bush poet and military officer, who was convicted and executed for murder during the Second Anglo-Boer War. While serving with the Bushveldt Carbineers during the Second Anglo-Boer War, Lieutenant Morant was arrested and court-martialled for war crimes – one of the first such prosecutions in British military history. According to military prosecutors, Morant retaliated for the death in combat of his commanding officer with a series of revenge killings against both Boer POWs and many civilian residents of the Northern Transvaal. He was accused of the summary execution of Floris Visser, a wounded prisoner of war and the slaying of four Afrikaners and four Dutch schoolteachers who had been taken prisoner at the Elim Hospital. Morant was found guilty and sentenced to death. 40


Constable CW “Billy: Eagle Lieutenants Morant and Peter Handcock were then court-martialled for the murder of the Rev. Carl August Daniel Heese, a South African-born Minister of the Berlin Missionary Society. Rev. Heese had spiritually counselled the Dutch and Afrikaner victims at Elim Hospital, indignantly vowed to inform Morant's commanding officer, and had been shot to death the same afternoon. Morant and Handcock were acquitted of the Heese murder, but their sentences for murdering Floris Visser and the eight victims at Elim Hospital were implemented by a firing squad from the Cameron Highlanders on 27 February 1902. Morant and Handcock have become folk heroes in modern Australia. Their court-martial and death have been the subject of books, a stage play, and an award-winning Australian New Wave movie by director Bruce Beresford. Upon its release during 1980, Beresford's movie both brought Morant's life story to a worldwide audience and "hoisted the images of the accused officers to the level of Australian icons and martyrs." Many Australians now regard Morant and Handcock as scapegoats or even as the victims of judicial murder. Attempts continue, with wide public support, to obtain a posthumous pardon or even a new trial. According to South African historian Charles Leach, "In the opinion of many South Africans, particularly descendants of victims as well as other involved persons in the far Northern Transvaal, justice was only partially achieved by the trial and the resultant sentences. The feeling still prevails that not all the guilty parties were dealt with – the notorious Captain Taylor being the most obvious one of all." 14,15

ACCOUNT PARTICULARS • JP BOTHA REKENMEESTERS TRUST • STANDARD BANK • BRANCH: MONTANA • ACCOUNT NO: 030 556 392 • BRANCH CODE 015945. • SWIFT: SBZAZAJJ • REF: "GRAVE CONST. CW EAGLE" Please follow-up with an e-mail to: jpbotha@botharek.co.za with a copy to heymanshb@gmail.com

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breaker_Morant See also Charles Leach (2012), The Legend of Breaker Morant is Dead and Buried. A South African Version of the Bushveldt Carbineers in the Zoutpansberg, May 1901-April 1902, Leach Printers & Signs, Louis Trichardt, South Africa. Page xxxii. 15

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Anglo Boer War and South African Railway Historian, Peter Greef, at the grave of Henry H “Breaker” Morant and Peter Hancock – Photo Hennie Heymans.

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Facebook Article: Charles Leach

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All photos in this section by Charles Leach. 46


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1917: SA Police: Fort Edward | SAPS Waterval: HBH

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Fort Edward: WhatsApp update: 6 May 2019: Charles Leach Charles writes: “The old fort is difficult to photograph. It is amongst trees and now behind a security fence. Notice the dark spot where the brass “Heritage” plate was stolen and even the plastic and vinyl board has been vandalised. Notice the “skiet gate”.

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Our appeal for Funds on Facebook to look after the Fort Edward Grave Yard Memorial: Constable CW Eagle (SA Constabulary & Transvaal Police) https://www.facebook.com/groups/553138811876400/

In the old Transvaal Colony, South Africa, we had a First Nation Canadian (a Red Indian) who came out the fight the Boers. When he and his mates of the Canadian Mounted Rifles arrived from Canada, the Anglo Boer War was over! He and some of his friends then joined the Lord Baden Powell's South African Constabulary (SAC). He served at FORT EDWARD in the SAC near the Elim Hospital. The SAC later became three separate forces - he was in the Transvaal so he became a member of the Transvaal Police. In his precinct he died from blood poisoning after an encounter with a lion. We would like to look after his grave and of the graves of others policemen in the vicinity. This was the world of General Coenraad Beyers, the 'Breaker' Morant & Peter Hancock of the "Bushveldt Carbineers" (BVC). We have a Trust Account at Botha Rekenmeesters. See photo section for full particulars. We will spearhead the donations and Charles Leach will see that the place is kept neat and tidy. ACCOUNT PARTICULARS • JP BOTHA REKENMEESTERS TRUST, • STANDARD BANK, • BRANCH: MONTANA. • ACCOUNT NO: 030 556 392, • BRANCH CODE 015945. • SWIFT: SBZAZAJJ • MARK: "GRAVE CONST. CW EAGLE", please then follow up with an e-mail to: jpbotha@botharek.co.za with a copy to heymanshb@gmail.com •

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Generaal JV van der Merwe laaste kommissaris van die SuidAfrikaanse Polisie Konstabel Charles William (Billy) Eagle was 'n lid van die Kanadese polisie wat gedurende 1902 as lid van die Kanadese berede polisie in Kaapstad aangekom het om teen die boeremagte in die Anglo boere-log te veg. By sy aankoms was die oorlog reeds verby en het hy hom by die pas gestigte polisiemag van generaal Baden Powell aangesluit. Hierdie polisiemag het die kolonies van die Transvaal, die Oranjerivier en Swaziland gepolisieer. Die kolonies asook Swaziland was nog wild en ongetem en konstabel Eagle het as lid van die polisiemag baanbrekerswerk gedoen om die weg te baan vir die Suid-Afrikaanse polisiemag wat sou volg. Polisiëring in Suid-Afrika het vanaf die vroegste tye hoë eise aan die lede van die polisiemag gestel. Geweld was deur die eeue ‘n inherente deel van die samelewing in Suid-Afrika wat vandag nog steeds een van die mees gewelddadige lande in die wêreld is. Konstabel Eagle was een van die lede wat ‘n wesenlike bydrae gelewer het om die karakter van die polisiemag, wat sou volg, te vestig waar die leuse “servamus et servimus” hulle gerig het. Dit is belangrik dat persone soos konstabel Eagle wat baanbrekerswerk gedoen het om die grondslag in Suid-Afrika vir polisiëring te vestig waar die leuse “servamus et servimus” gegeld het, nie in die vergetelheid sal verdwyn nie. Ons is dit aan die geskiedenis verskuldig om sy graf en die begraafplaas waar hy begrawe is in stand te hou om te verseker dat die geskiedenis in ‘n suiwer vorm vir die nageslagte bewaar sal word.

General JV van der Merwe last Commissioner of the South African Police Constable Charles William (Billy) Eagle was a member of the Canadian police who arrived in Cape Town during 1902 as a member of the Canadian Mounted Rifles (CMR) to fight against the Boer forces in the Anglo Boer War. Upon his arrival, the war was over and he joined the newly formed SA Constabulary of General Baden Powell. This police force policed the colonies of the Transvaal, Orange River and Swaziland. The colonies as well as Swaziland were still wild and untamed and Constable Eagle, as a member of the police force, pioneered the way for the South African Police Force to follow. Policing in South Africa has made high demands on members of the police force from the earliest times. Violence has, over the centuries, been an inherent part of society in South Africa which is still one of the most violent countries in the world today. Constable Eagle was one of the members who made a significant contribution to the character of the police force, which would follow, where the motto "Servamus et Servimus" directed them. It is 54


Constable CW “Billy: Eagle important that people like Constable Eagle who did pioneering work to establish the foundation in South Africa for policing where the motto "Servamus et Servimus" applied does not disappear into oblivion. We owe it to history to maintain its grave and the cemetery where it is buried to ensure that history is preserved in a pure form for the descendants.

Kol (dr) Len Els, SC en soms waarnemende regter skryf 'Saluut Brigadier Heymans! Voorwaar 'n prysenswaardige projek. Laat die erwe van ons vaders vir ons kinders erwe bly.'

Col (Dr) Len Els, SC and sometimes acting Judge writes 'Salute Brigadier Heymans! Truly a commendable project. That the heritage of our fathers, for our children heritage remain

Mr JP Botha Our accountant is Mr JP Botha, a man with a - B Acc, and - B Comm (Hons) degrees. He has enrolled for a PhD. He is member of the: - South African Institute of Professional Accountants (SAIPA), - Institute of Charted Accountants of South Africa, - Institute of Professional Accountants of Australia, and - Member of the Institute of Professional Accountants of Samara Region, Russian Federation. - He is also a Commissioner of Oaths, appointed an Appraiser by the Department of Justice and is also a registered Arbiter.

Correspondence

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Anton van Zyl: Zoutpansberger Goeiemôre Julle is meer as welkom om die artikel te gebruik. As julle beter kwaliteit foto’s soek, laat my net weet. Ek sal graag wil skryf oor julle projek om die grafte by Fort Edward te bewaar. Die grafte in Louis Trichardt se Boompark mag dalk ook vir julle interessant wees en kan dalk aansluit by dié projek. As ek reg is, is die soldate wat opgeblaas is toe een van die forte ontplof het, hier begrawe. Die bekende Joao Albasini se graf is ook in die Boompark. Dit is egter tans baie verwaarloos. My nommer is 084-6164997 of by die kantoor 015-5164996/7. Groete (6 Mei 2019)

English translation I would like to write about your project to preserve the graves at Fort Edward. The tombs in Louis Trichardt's Tree Park may also be interesting to you and may be part of this project. If I'm right, the soldiers blown up when one of the forts exploded is buried here. The well-known Joao Albasini's grave is also in the Boompark. However, this is currently very neglected.

An e-mail from Mr Charles Leach: Louis Trichardt Hello Hennie, Pardon my late response, but have been away for several days and only now back in office. Great work you have put into the story of Const. William Eagle! Right at the end of the book I noticed a comment – with a question - that Joao Albasini is(?) buried in the municipal tree park in Louis Trichardt. This is not so. He, and some of his relatives (including my own) is buried on his original farm, Goede Hoop, alongside the Albasini Dam, about 28kms east of Louis Trichardt. The lovely photos you have placed of Col.(?) Adolf Schiel’s homestead are now only of historical value of the man who also built the Johannesburg Fort, what is now Constitution hill! Regrettably – or tragically - the homestead on the farm Rossbach, which became the original historic Lemana School, after the Anglo Boer War, has now been reduced to a pile of rubble! This is despite being visited some years back by Min. Pallo Jordan and a team of ‘decision makers’ who declared the homestead and converted stables – which served as the school – to be a National Heritage Site. It was earmarked for restoration and protection. The successful, land claimant, a local chief, apparently gave permission for – or was simply not able to prevent – the removal of all the Oregon Pine doors, floorboards, ceilings, windows etc., as well as all the brass fittings and plumbing!

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Constable CW “Billy: Eagle The entire roof – wooden beams and imported Birmingham corrugated iron, has all been taken. The final ‘nail in the coffin’ was a chain saw attempt to remove the massive Oregon pine sliding door which converted the school ‘hall’ into two classrooms. Blue gum trees now grow from the bedroom floors high into the air where once there was a roof! For the time being, the magnificent Cycads are still there – beside the monumental Norfolk Pines! I no longer take history tours to Rossbach! I look forward to Vol. 10 - and would like to send a few copies to Eagle’s relatives in Canada. Should a few copies of this iconic volume not also be sent to the Canadian High Commission – or do they have an Embassy? Now that the elections are over, I have requested a meeting asap with SAPS Waterval and with the local Headman, at Fort Edward. Will keep you informed! Regards, Charles Leach 15 May 2019

Another e-mail from Mr Charles Leach Good morning Hennie, Yesterday I spoke to two SAPS guys regarding Fort Edward. One of them, Capt. Maano Sadiki, based at Vleifontein, about five kms from Fort Edward, has recently published a book on SAPS and RSA history in which he quotes from two of my publications. I told he of our plans at F. Edward and he is delighted and has asked me to keep him in the loop. This is a great contact due to his proven interest in SAPS history and heritage. I also spoke to W/O Foster Rambau at Waterval (Elim) SAPS regarding meeting with his Station CO and the local Headman / Chief. There seems to be confusion regarding which chief F. Edward cemetery is on. W/O Foster Rambau’s CO will be back in office next week and our meeting is scheduled for 14h00 next Thursday. Hopefully I will then be able to report back positively on basic issues - as well as a few photos! We have had an issue with our IT network at Leach Printers and I fear that some of my mails are lost. Someone posted archival info regarding ‘original control and /or ownership’ of the old ‘Outspan’ that became known as Fort Edward. I saw something about Dept. of Water Affairs, which makes sense because the outspans always had a watering point. Do you perhaps have it on record, Hennie? I would love to have that info for my meeting with SAPS and the local chief / headman. I have a high-profile tour group this weekend which includes renown historians Roger Webster and Robert Milne together with a guy – I think he is a lawyer or advocate – who has a passion for heritage 57


Constable CW “Billy: Eagle etc and has apparently been instrumental in an impressive number of history / heritage development projects over a number of years. The group will obviously hear ‘first hand’ from me about our development plans at Fort Edward cemetery and monuments. It is the 2nd stop of my tour! 17 May 2019

Some archival references i.r.o. Fort Edward GRONDBEWARINGSDISTRIKTE FORT EDWARD. Identifier: SAB BB_862_H5100/FOE_1 Start Date: 1964 End Date: 1964 Type and Form of Archive: Correspondence File Repository: National Archives Repository (Public Records of Central Government since 1910) Name of Creators: Departement van Bosbou (1874 - 1971) PERIODICAL COURT: FORT EDWARD. Identifier: TAB LD_1398_AG214/07_1 Start Date: 1907 End Date: 1907 Type and Form of Archive: Correspondence File Repository: National Archives Repository (Public Records of former Transvaal Province and its predecessors as well as of magistrates and local authorities) Name of Creators: Secretary to the Law Department (1900 - 1925) STORES AT FORT EDWARD. Identifier: TAB LD_964_AG111/05_1 Start Date: 1907 End Date: 1907 Type and Form of Archive: Correspondence File Repository: National Archives Repository (Public Records of former Transvaal Province and its predecessors as well as of magistrates and local authorities) Name of Creators: Secretary to the Law Department (1900 - 1925) FORT EDWARD POLICE POST. SITE Identifier: SAB PWD_792_3/2042_1 Start Date: 1909 End Date: 1911 Type and Form of Archive: Correspondence File Repository: National Archives Repository (Public Records of Central Government since 1910) Name of Creators: PWD 58


Constable CW “Billy: Eagle FORT EDWARD POLICE STATION. ERECTION Identifier: SAB PWD_792_4/2042_1 Start Date: 1946 End Date: 1951 Type and Form of Archive: Correspondence File Repository: National Archives Repository (Public Records of Central Government since 1910) Name of Creators: PWD FORT EDWARD POLICE STATION. HIRED ACCOMMODATION Identifier: SAB PWD_793_4/2042_1 Start Date: 1951 End Date: 1952 Type and Form of Archive: Correspondence File Repository: National Archives Repository (Public Records of Central Government since 1910) Name of Creators: PWD PROCLAMATION OF FORT EDWARD SOIL CONSERVATION DISTRICT. Identifier: SAB URU_2585_3995_1 Start Date: 1948 End Date: 1948 Type and Form of Archive: Correspondence File Repository: National Archives Repository (Public Records of Central Government since 1910) Name of Creators: Uitvoerende Raadsbesluite (1910 - 1985) COMMISSIONER SPELONKEN - INVESTMENT OF FORT EDWARD. Identifier: TAB SNA_22_NA743/02_1 Start Date: 1902 End Date: 1902 Type and Form of Archive: Correspondence File Repository: National Archives Repository (Public Records of former Transvaal Province and its predecessors as well as of magistrates and local authorities) Name of Creators: Secretary for Native Affairs (1900 - 1911) ZOUTPANSBERG PRISONS MEDICAL INSPECTION. PIETERSBURG, BLAUWBERG, LOUIS TRICHARDT, HAENERTSBURG, FORT EDWARD. Identifier: TAB CS_863_14925_1 Start Date: 1907 End Date: 1907 Type and Form of Archive: Correspondence File Repository: National Archives Repository (Public Records of former Transvaal Province and its predecessors as well as of magistrates and local authorities) Name of Creators: Colonial Secretary (1900 - 1910) FORT EDWARD POLICE STATION. REPAIRS, REQUIREMENTS AND MINOR WORKS Identifier: SAB PWD_792_2042_1 Start Date: 1922 End Date: 1946 Type and Form of Archive: Correspondence File Repository: National Archives Repository (Public Records of Central Government since 1910) Name of Creators: PWD 59


Constable CW “Billy: Eagle ESTABLISHMENT OF A COURT OF RESIDENT MAGISTRATE AT FORT EDWARD, ZOUTPANSBERG. Identifier: SAB URU_318_1205_1 Start Date: 1917 End Date: 1917 Type and Form of Archive: Correspondence File Repository: National Archives Repository (Public Records of Central Government since 1910) Name of Creators: Uitvoerende Raadsbesluite (1910 - 1985) FORT EDWARD, SOUTPANSBERG DIVISION PROCLAMATION AS A SOIL CONSERVATION DISTRICT. Identifier: SAB GBR_71_SCB247_1 Start Date: 1948 End Date: 1958 Type and Form of Archive: Correspondence File Repository: National Archives Repository (Public Records of Central Government since 1910) Name of Creators: Grondbewaringsraad (1910 - 1963) MOVEABLE CELLS TO THE LOCK-UP AT FORT EDWARD, IN ZOUTSPANSBERG DISTRICT. Identifier: TAB PWD_319_4364/05_1 Start Date: 1905 End Date: 1905 Type and Form of Archive: Correspondence File Repository: National Archives Repository (Public Records of former Transvaal Province and its predecessors as well as of magistrates and local authorities) Name of Creators: PWD MAGISTRATE PIETERSBURG FOR JUSTICE OF THE PEACE, FORT EDWARD. REQUISITION FOR STATIONERY. Identifier: TAB LD_439_AG2361/03_1 Start Date: 19100510 End Date: 19100510 Type and Form of Archive: Correspondence File Repository: National Archives Repository (Public Records of former Transvaal Province and its predecessors as well as of magistrates and local authorities) Name of Creators: Secretary to the Law Department (1900 - 1925) APPOINTMENT OF CLERK - INSPECTOR CS FALL AS RESIDENT JUSTICE FOR PEACE, FORT EDWARD. Identifier: TAB LD_615_AG710/04_1 Start Date: 1910 End Date: 1910 Type and Form of Archive: Correspondence File Repository: National Archives Repository (Public Records of former Transvaal Province and its predecessors as well as of magistrates and local authorities) Name of Creators: Secretary to the Law Department (1900 - 1925) SUPPLY OF SOAP, ETC FOR USE IN GAOL AT FORT EDWARD. Identifier: TAB LD_722_AG2123/04_1 Start Date: 1904 End Date: 1905 60


Constable CW “Billy: Eagle Type and Form of Archive: Correspondence File Repository: National Archives Repository (Public Records of former Transvaal Province and its predecessors as well as of magistrates and local authorities) Name of Creators: Secretary to the Law Department (1900 - 1925) EMPLOYMENT OF A POLICE CONSTABLE TO ACT AS NATIVE PASS ISSUER AT FORT EDWARD. Identifier: TAB LD_1738_AG1243A/09_1 Start Date: 1909 End Date: 1909 Type and Form of Archive: Correspondence File Repository: National Archives Repository (Public Records of former Transvaal Province and its predecessors as well as of magistrates and local authorities) Name of Creators: Secretary to the Law Department (1900 - 1925) INSPECTOR OF PRISONS TRANSPORT REQUIRED FROM PIETERSBURG TO FORT EDWARD ABOUT 17/8/1905. Identifier: TAB PWD_395_RB1631/05_1 Start Date: 1905 End Date: 1905 Type and Form of Archive: Correspondence File Repository: National Archives Repository (Public Records of former Transvaal Province and its predecessors as well as of magistrates and local authorities) Name of Creators: PWD RESIDENT JUSTICE OF THE PEACE, FORT EDWARD. MR. RAWLINSON, NATIVE AFFAIRS DEPARTMENT. Identifier: TAB LD_1517_AG4089/07_1 Start Date: 1907 End Date: 1907 Type and Form of Archive: Correspondence File Repository: National Archives Repository (Public Records of former Transvaal Province and its predecessors as well as of magistrates and local authorities) Name of Creators: Secretary to the Law Department (1900 - 1925) EXPROPRIATION OF POLICE SITE. FORT EDWARD ON FARM VALLEIFONTEIN NO 338 ZOUTPANSBERG. Identifier: TAB LD_1554_AG85/08_1 Start Date: 1909 End Date: 1909 Type and Form of Archive: Correspondence File Repository: National Archives Repository (Public Records of former Transvaal Province and its predecessors as well as of magistrates and local authorities) Name of Creators: Secretary to the Law Department (1900 - 1925) Bemanning van Fort Hendrina afgeneem met Vierkleur by die Ysterfort (ongeveer 1898). Die fort is na die Mpefu-oorlog opgerig en later (gedurende die oorlog 1899 - 1902) verdryf. (Tans bekend as Fort Edward). Identifier: TAB #_#_16086_# Start Date: End Date: 61


Constable CW “Billy: Eagle Repository: National Archives Repository (Public Records of former Transvaal Province and its predecessors as well as of magistrates and local authorities) Register: National Registers of Manuscripts and Photographs (NAREM and NAREF) National Archives' cartographic and library material, microfilms and copies INSPECTION OF POLICE LOCK-UPS AND CELLS AT LOUIS TRICHARDT AND DISTRICT MESSINA, FORT EDWARD, MARA SIBASA BANDOLIERSKOP, ALLDAYS Identifier: SAB JUS_485_1900/29_1 Start Date: 1914 End Date: 1930 Type and Form of Archive: Correspondence File Repository: National Archives Repository (Public Records of Central Government since 1910) Name of Creators: JUS CANCELLATION OF APPOINTMENT OF AF VAN GASS AS RESIDENT JUSTICE OF THE PEACE AT FORT EDWARD, ZOUTPANSBERG. Identifier: SAB URU_51_1692_1 Start Date: 1911 End Date: 1911 Type and Form of Archive: Correspondence File Repository: National Archives Repository (Public Records of Central Government since 1910) Name of Creators: Uitvoerende Raadsbesluite (1910 - 1985) OFFICE FOR SUB NATIVE COMMISSIONER AT SPELONKEN (FORT EDWARD). REQUESTING AUTHORITY FOR PAYMENT OF $5 PER MENSEM FOR ABOVE. Identifier: TAB CS_120_8887/02_1 Start Date: 1902 End Date: 1902 Type and Form of Archive: Correspondence File Repository: National Archives Repository (Public Records of former Transvaal Province and its predecessors as well as of magistrates and local authorities) Name of Creators: Colonial Secretary (1900 - 1910) MR. MCDOWELL AND CATTLE. RE ABOVE WISHING TO PROCEED ON ARRIVAL AT FORT EDWARD ON 17TH AND REQUESTS INSTRUCTIONS. Identifier: TAB CS_131_10268/02_1 Start Date: 1902 End Date: 1902 Type and Form of Archive: Correspondence File Repository: National Archives Repository (Public Records of former Transvaal Province and its predecessors as well as of magistrates and local authorities) Name of Creators: Colonial Secretary (1900 - 1910) APPOINTMENT OF SUB-INSPECTOR KENNEDY AS RESIDENT JUSTICE OF THE PEACE AT FORT EDWARD, LOUIS TRICHARDT, SHEWAAS. Identifier: TAB LD_615_AG710/04_1 Start Date: 1909 End Date: 1909 Type and Form of Archive: Correspondence File Repository: National Archives Repository (Public Records of former Transvaal Province and its predecessors as well as of magistrates and local authorities) 62


Constable CW “Billy: Eagle Name of Creators: Secretary to the Law Department (1900 - 1925) AUDIT INSPECTION REPORT. THE RESIDENT JUSTICE OF THE PEACE AND PASS ISSUER, FORT EDWARD. PERIOD:- 28/6/1908 TO 5/8/1909. Identifier: TAB AGT_174_730/09_1 Start Date: 1908 End Date: 1909 Type and Form of Archive: Correspondence File Repository: National Archives Repository (Public Records of former Transvaal Province and its predecessors as well as of magistrates and local authorities) Name of Creators: Auditor General, Transvaal (1900 - 1910) APPOINTMENT OF SUB-INSPECTOR LEECH, SOUTH AFRICAN CONSTABULARY AS RESIDENT JUSTICE OF THE PEACE, FORT EDWARD AND APPOINTMENT OF SUBINSPECTOR WH BADDY AS JUSTICE OF THE PEACE. Identifier: TAB LD_1597_AG1356/08_1 Start Date: 1908 End Date: 1908 Type and Form of Archive: Correspondence File Repository: National Archives Repository (Public Records of former Transvaal Province and its predecessors as well as of magistrates and local authorities) Name of Creators: Secretary to the Law Department (1900 - 1925) APPOINTMENT OF SUB-INSPECTOR LEECH, SOUTH AFRICAN CONSTABULARY AS RESIDENT JUSTICE OF THE PEACE, FORT EDWARD AND APPOINTMENT OF SUBINSPECTOR WH BADDY AS JUSTICE OF THE PEACE. Identifier: TAB LD_1597_AG1356/08_1 Start Date: 1908 End Date: 1908 Type and Form of Archive: Correspondence File Repository: National Archives Repository (Public Records of former Transvaal Province and its predecessors as well as of magistrates and local authorities) Name of Creators: Secretary to the Law Department (1900 - 1925).

Map Zoutpansberg & Fort Edward: Charles Leach Hi Hennie, Hope this (map) will do. Please let me know. It gives the positions of the town Louis Trichardt, Bandolierkop and Elim (Hospital) – all of which are still on modern maps as well as on Google and any GPS. Note that the road which would later become the N-1 did not pass beyond Louis Trichardt at that stage. On the full-sized map the mountain beyond the town is labeled as; “Range still unexplored.” The distance from Louis Trichardt by road today is about 27 kms which is about the same as from Elim Hospital to Bandolierkop. ‘Albasini’ indicates where he lived and eventually died in 1888. The family cemetery is there. The dam that is named after him was only built in about 1954 so does not show on the map. The “Mill” was the Alexis Thomas Hydro – Electric mill that supplied 110 volts to the community around Elim Hospital for 66 years. 63


Constable CW “Billy: Eagle Louis Trichardt town only acquired a coal – powered power station many years later and Thomas then started buying 220 v power from the municipality, but continued to sell it through his original power lines. Elim Hospital thus had the luxury of 110v during the ABW. The letters ‘…ONKEN’ are cut off from the word SPELONKEN, which the area was known as. It is the beginning of the Lowveld escarpment. Present day Lemana School is near the mill where the name ‘Ramaru’ is printed. There is a monument there that lists all the past Headmasters and prominent scholars. It was unveiled about 20 years ago by the Scandinavian wife of Edwardo Mondlane of Frelimo fame. I attended the ceremony.

This is a portion of the same map that I use on the ‘hand-out pamphlet’ that covers the Soutpansberg Skirmishes Route. Several monuments to the victims of the Bushveldt Carbineers (Lt. ‘Breaker’ Morant et al) are in this area, from Slabbert to Fort Edward then Bristow and Valdezia. Several other places on this portion of the map have strong connections to the deployment of the BVC in the Soutpansberg. Regards, Charles

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Constable CW “Billy: Eagle

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Constable CW “Billy: Eagle

A Plea to International Donors We have established that the graveyard at the old Fort Hendrina, later Fort Edward Police Post, (the metal fort has since been removed to Louis Trichardt) is a historical site and of tremendous historical importance. A plea to historians, serving and retired service men especially in the UK, USA, Canada, Australia and New Zeeland to spare us a small sum i.e. £5 or $10 which will go a far way in South Africa! Please help us! Thank you for reading so far! Help us to pay homage to a frontier policeman of more than a century ago!

Const Eagle’s family in Canada We do hope somebody will pass this magazine on to his family. They must know that we honour his memory.

They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old: Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn. At the going down of the sun and in the morning,

We will remember them!

INDEMNITY & © | VRYWARING & ©

End | Slot Dear reader Please note that in this quasi-historical magazine we make use of various sources and consequently it is obvious that the document contains various diverse and personal opinions of different people and the author of the Nongqai cannot be held responsible or be liable in his personal capacity. Geagte leser Vir hierdie kwasiehistoriese tydskrif maak ons van verskeie bronne gebruik en bevat die dokument uiteraard uiteenlopende en diverse persoonlike menings van verskillende persone en die opsteller van die Nongqai kan nie in sy persoonlike hoedanigheid daarvoor verantwoordelik of aanspreeklik gehou word nie.

Brig. Hennie Heymans: No 43630K (B) © HB Heymans 2019.

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Nongqai Vol10 No 6B (Const Eagle)  

This is a Special Nongqai a Memorial to Constable Charles William Eagle former member of the NW Mounted Police, Canadian Mounted Rifles, Sou...

Nongqai Vol10 No 6B (Const Eagle)  

This is a Special Nongqai a Memorial to Constable Charles William Eagle former member of the NW Mounted Police, Canadian Mounted Rifles, Sou...

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