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INC CLUDES PERSPEC CTIVES FROM: Kofi fi Annan | Muhamm madu Buhari | David d Cameron | Ch hristiana a Figueress Uh huru Kenya atta | Ma arie-Louise Coleiro o Preca | HRH The e Prince of Wales Malco olm Turnb bull | Nkosazana Dla amini Zuma | Ja acob Zum ma

The publishers wish to thank all the individuals and organisations that have contributed to the publication, especially Carolyn Jack, Elizabeth van der Valk and Helen Jones at the Royal Commonwealth Society.

Chairman: Nigel Barklem Publisher: Deep Marwa Assistant Publisher: Alex Halpin Editor: Jane Nethersole Assistant Editor: John Saunders Designer: Daniel Harland Brown Printed by: Gutenberg Press Ltd. ISBN: 978-0-9928020-4-2

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Text and volume copyright: Henley Media Group Ltd, or as otherwise stated. Reproduction in whole or part of any contents of this publication (either in print form or electronically) without prior permission is strictly prohibited. The information contained in this publication has been published in good faith and the opinions herein are those of the authors and not of Henley Media Group Ltd. The Publisher can not accept responsibility for any error or misinterpretation based on this information and neither do they endorse any of the products advertised herein.

CHOGM 2015 Report


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Queen Elizabeth II, Head of the Commonwealth




Foreword Michael Lake, Director of the Royal Commonwealth Society


A strong and united Commonwealth David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom



The Sustainable Development Goals: a shared vision and action plan for humanity Amina Mohammed, the former UN Special Adviser on Post- 2015 Development Planning


Choosing the next Commonwealth Secretary-General Interviews with Mmasekgoa Masire Mwamba, Ronald Sanders and Patricia Scotland

Touching lives Zouera Youssoufou, CEO of the Dangote Foundation


Advancing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in the Commonwealth Josephine Ojiambo, Deputy Secretary-General of the Commonwealth Secretariat


Financing the future of development Wu Hongbo, United Nations Under-SecretaryGeneral for Economic and Social Affairs

A reform agenda for renewing the Commonwealth Matthew Neuhaus


The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development

The Commonwealth in a post-2015 World Helen Clark, Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme



The modern Commonwealth David Howell, President of the Royal Commonwealth Society




Civil society’s role in the implementation of the SDGs Dhananjayan Sriskandarajah, Secretary General of CIVICUS

CHOGM 2015 Report




Common values, shared challenges Malcolm Turnbull, Prime Minister of Australia



Muhammad Yunus, Chairman of Yunus Centre and Founder of Grameen Bank 98

Are elections giving democracy a bad name? Pursuing stability, security and development in Nigeria

Is a truly entrepreneurial driven African economy within our reach? Tabitha Karanja, CEO of Keroche Breweries


Building a new civilisation


Muhammadu Buhari, President of Nigeria 71

Special feature by Plateau State, Nigeria


Governor Simon Lalong and John Wade 75


Let us move Africa forward

Christiana Figueres, Executive Secretary of UNFCCC

Akinwumi Adesina, President of the African Development Bank Group


The common wealth of oceans His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales

Special feature by Osun State, Nigeria


The blue economy

Governor Ogbeni Rauf Aregbesola and Charles ‘Diji Akinola 82

Democracy and development from the grass roots Carl Wright, Secretary-General of the Commonwealth Local Government Forum


James Michel, President of the Republic of Seychelles 110

Calibrating a Commonwealth-wide response to terrorism


Reimagining Civil Paths to Peace in the Commonwealth Amjad Saleem, International Alert

Malawi’s story of water and economic development Peter Mutharika, President of Malawi


Raffaello Pantucci and Sasha Jesperson of the Royal United Services Institute 91

Tackling the world’s water scarcity problem Barbara Frost, Chief Executive of WaterAid

Gro Harlem Brundtland, Deputy Chair of The Elders 88

Climate action, common weal and Paris

On the path to sustainable consumption and production Achim Steiner, Executive Director of the UN Environment Programme


Mobile money meets the needs of the unbanked Ericsson AB


Facilitating trade and investment in sustainable technologies Michael Sippitt, Chairman of the Commonwealth Environmental Investment Platform


CHOGM 2015 Report






Trade and business at the heart of the Commonwealth Hugo Swire, Minister of State at the UK Foreign CPF%QOOQPYGCNVJ1HƒEG


Making trade work for development


Roberto Azevêdo, Director-General of the World Trade Organization 131

An interview with Pamela Coke Hamilton Executive Director of the Caribbean Export Development Agency


A transformative trade agenda Amina Mohamed, Cabinet Secretary of Kenya’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Trade


The Continental Free Trade Area: towards one African market



The National Agricultural Investment Programme of Côte d’Ivoire Mamadou Sangafowa Coulibaly, Minister of Agriculture

Saved by the bell Tim Hewish, Executive Director of the Commonwealth Exchange


Education is the key to the future Perry Christie, Prime Minister of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas


Technical education in Mozambique Jorge Nhambiu, Minister of Science, Technology and Education


Saara Kuugongelwa-Amadhila, Prime Minister of Namibia 145

Young people shape the future of the Commonwealth Portia Simpson Miller, Prime Minister of Jamaica

Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma, Chairperson of the African Union Commission 

Youth development in the Commonwealth Helen Jones, Director of Youth Affairs and Education Programmes at the Royal Commonwealth Society

How can we ensure access to quality education post-2015? Julia Gillard, Chair of the Global Partnership for Education


The shape of global health David E. Bloom, Alyssa Lubet and Elizabeth Mitgang, the Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health

CHOGM 2015 Report




Health in the Commonwealth


Joanna Nurse, Head of Health and Education for the Commonwealth Secretariat 182

Achieving health for all through primary health care

Tony Tyler, Director General and CEO of the International Air Transport Association 214

Dana Hovig, Tim Evans and Edward Kelley 188

Towards Universal Health Coverage in the Commonwealth Robert Yates and Mbololwa Mbikusita-Lewanika


Gender and equality in the Commonwealth Marie-Louise Coleiro Preca, President of Malta



Using transport infrastructure to drive social and economic growth John Dramani Mahama, President of the Republic of Ghana


The power and promise of infrastructure Uhuru Kenyatta, President of the Republic of Kenya


Realising women’s rights in the Commonwealth

Seizing Africa’s energy and climate opportunities Olusegun Obasanjo, member of the Africa Progress Panel

Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka, UN Under-SecretaryGeneral and Executive Director of UN Women


Building a Commonwealth approach to LGBT rights


Overcoming the energy challenge in South Africa Jacob Zuma, President of South Africa

Lewis Brooks, Royal Commonwealth Society


Aviation: the next infrastructure growth frontier for Africa

A smart Commonwealth – our moral obligation Shola Taylor, Secretary-General of the Commonwealth Telecommunications Organisation


Broadband in Nigeria – the new digital frontier Nigerian Communications Commission


Making urban development work for sustainable growth and prosperity Joan Clos, UN Under-Secretary-General and Executive Director of UN-Habitat


Accelerating digital innovation for social impact Houlin Zhao, Secretary-General of the International Telecommunications Union


A Smart Mauritius Anerood Jugnauth, Prime Minister of Mauritius


CHOGM 2015 Report

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I am grateful to the many individuals, organisations CPFǡEQTRQTCVKQPU YJQUWRRQTVQWT vision for the modern Commonwealth.


The modern Commonwealth comprises a network of 53 members and over 2.2 billion people representing all aspects of global diversity. This is a community of common interests that has a tangible influence on the prevailing challenges of our times: sustainable growth, the threat of violent extremism and intolerance, and management of the environment. The bi-annual Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting (CHOGM), together with the associated forums and intermingling of governments and civil society, provides a regular opportunity to take stock of progress and to set agendas for the succeeding period. The 2015 meeting has particular relevance for the Commonwealth. Malta becomes Chair in Office for two years, and during this tenure will also become Chair of the European Union, providing an extraordinary moment to strengthen connections between these two political associations. This opportunity illustrates the important mindset of the Commonwealth, as an extrovert organisation with global relevance, that many observers feel can be developed imaginatively in the years to come. The meeting also marks an important moment in the international calendar with agreement established for the Sustainable Development Goals that will set a framework for governments for the next 15 years. The Commonwealth, with the CHOGM theme of ‘Adding Global Value’, will bring practical influence to bear on these goals by adopting common policies; by a process of steady, determined and incremental improvement across the member states; by sharing experience and resources where appropriate; and by demonstrating to neighbouring states and organisations the potential for mature and imaginative co-operation. A crucial factor, so evident in the Commonwealth, is the new nature of politics and international engagement. The internet and fast progression of social media bring increasing influence to the hands of individual citizens, and this is especially true in the case of the younger generation. The Royal Commonwealth Society, through the Associate Fellows initiative, the Queen’s Commonwealth Essay Competition and its partnership with the Queen’s Young Leaders programme, places great emphasis on the capacity that the coming generation has to change the world. The family of the Commonwealth provides a setting ideal for them to do so. In a similar vein, the many civil society and professional bodies that characterise the Commonwealth so vividly demonstrate its real strength and its capacity to effect change. The Malta meeting also marks a moment of great significance with the anticipated appointment of a Secretary-General, potentially for an eight-year tenure, to relieve His Excellency Kamalesh Sharma. It is a weighty responsibility for the leaders to make an appointment to match both the interests of individual states and the great expectations for the Commonwealth as a global influence. The bi-annual Heads of Government Meeting gives emphasis to the strength of the Commonwealth, that every member country is equal and has an equal voice through decisions made by consensus. It is through collaboration that the Commonwealth can achieve its great potential, and this will be shaped and driven by the willingness of leaders to make the Commonwealth an abiding factor in their national policies. It is evident that Malta has already demonstrated a determination to nurture the modern Commonwealth and a willingness to take the lead over the next two years. The Royal Commonwealth Society looks forward to supporting Malta and the Commonwealth in this endeavour. I am pleased to have worked with Henley Media Group to produce the CHOGM 2015 Reference Book, the latest in a sequence of such publications. In this edition you will find articles from highly respected and knowledgeable commentators that are thought-provoking and inspiring. They point to the great value of the modern Commonwealth and to the shared values upon which it is based. I would like to thank them for their contributions. I am grateful to Henley Media Group and to the many individuals, organisations and corporations who support our vision for the modern Commonwealth for making it possible to produce this publication. Michael Lake CBE, Director, The Royal Commonwealth Society


Katrina is one in 7 billion. But to us she’s everything. Creating ‘Better health for a better world.’ That’s what inspires Mylan to provide quality healthcare to the world’s 7 billion people, one person at a time.

Mylan is one of the world’s leading global pharmaceutical companies.


ur mission is to set new standards in healthcare. Working together around the world to provide 7 billion people access to high quality medicine, we innovate to satisfy unmet needs; make reliability and service excellence a habit; do what’s right, not what’s easy; and impact the future through passionate global leadership. We offer a growing portfolio of approximately 1,400 generic pharmaceuticals and several brand medications. We market our products in approximately 145 countries and territories. In 2014 our revenues totaled nearly $8 billion. Our manufacturing footprint includes about 40 facilities in 10 countries. We have capacity today to produce 58 billion oral solid doses, 500 million injectable units, 260 million patches and 15 million semisolid units annually. We also are one of the

world’s largest producers of active pharmaceutical ingredients, or APIs. Being vertically integrated gives us substantial control over the cost and quality of our products, allowing us to provide affordable medicine people can trust. Our R&D capabilities include an extensive range of dosage forms and delivery systems, including oral solid doses, transdermal patches, injectables, respiratory inhalants, topicals, soft gel capsules, nasal sprays, solutions, suspensions, ophthalmics, antiretrovirals (ARV) and APIs. We have more than 3,400 new product submissions pending regulatory approval around the world. Additionally, Mylan is widely recognized for focusing on products that are difficult to formulate or manufacture. And we lend our ingenuity to help those who might otherwise have nowhere else to turn.

At Mylan, we believe we have a responsibility to help make the world a better place. It’s not always easy. There are resources to mobilize. Opinions to inform. Obstacles to overcome. Conditions that change. So for more than 50 years, we have remained focused on meeting unmet needs by thinking big, challenging the status quo, rolling up our sleeves to find innovative solutions and doing what’s right, no matter what. And we put people and patients first, trusting that profits will follow. This philosophy, which we call Doing good and doing well, reflects our belief that Mylan is not just a company, we’re a cause. Today we express that cause as delivering ‘Better health for a better world.’ Specifically, we aim to set new standards in healthcare and provide the world’s 7 billion people access to high quality person at a time (7B:1). It’s an important, worthwhile ambition that we hope will make a lasting, positive impact for generations to come. As such, we weigh every decision we make with the utmost care, asking ourselves how it might affect all of our stakeholders, including patients, customers, employees, communities, vendors, creditors and investors. Although our scope today is international, less than 10 years ago we served just one market – the U.S. But the industry was changing – and standing still wasn’t an option. So in 2007 we redoubled our efforts and undertook two transformational acquisitions that allowed us to create, virtually overnight, a one-of-a-kind operating platform and a commercial footprint. In the years since, we have focused relentlessly on leveraging these assets. In addition, we have been tireless advocates for changes in public policy nationally and internationally to help people everywhere access affordable, high quality healthcare. We have led initiatives, for instance, to help alleviate some of the most severe public health crises of our time. Moreover, we have assembled, nurtured and rewarded a passionate global workforce, whose members have distinguished themselves through their dedication to integrity, service and reliability. We have enriched our communities both by building strong businesses and by giving back. Our corporate social responsibility efforts are exciting work that we know will help us deliver on our committment to inspire, engage in and foster ‘Better health for a better world.’

STEMMING THE TIDE OF HIV/AIDS Mylan is proud to be at the forefront of the global fight against HIV/AIDS, an epidemic that has caused an estimated 39 million deaths and devastated countless lives and communities. We currently supply ARV medicines to an estimated 6.4 million men, women and children living with the disease in more than 100 countries. Our comprehensive ARV portfolio includes 14 APIs and 50 finished dosage forms. The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS estimates that expanding ARV treatment to all people living with HIV could avert 21 million AIDS-related deaths and 28 million new HIV infections by 2030. Over the past decade we have made significant investments to increase ARV production and help stem the tide of HIV/AIDS. For instance, approximately 50% of our API production capacity is dedicated to ARVs and we are adding capacity to help increase the number of patients on therapy. As a result of our investments, nearly 50% of people receiving treatment today for HIV/AIDS in the developing world depend on one of our products.

CHOGM 2015 & The Commonwealth

The modern Commonwealth – adding global value David Howell (Lord Howell of Guildford), President of the Royal Commonwealth Society, reminds readers how the Commonwealth is the ideal network, with links enhanced by modern technical advances, jointly promoting security and prosperity for its members.


t is difficult to be a global optimist these days, around the mid-point in the second decade of the 21st century. After the fall of the Soviet Union almost quarter of a century ago, idealism and hope ran high. Liberty would revive the former vassal nations of the old Soviet Empire, both in Eastern Europe and in Central Asia. Democracy would spread its wings and there would be a new era of peace, stability, transparency and trust. Then, after the so-called Arab Spring – the same optimism. Tyrants, it was believed, would be overthrown, people-power enhanced, with the old killer ideologies of the 20th century – Communism and Fascism (which in their most oppressive forms amounted to the same thing) – banished for ever, except perhaps in China where a veneer of Communist doctrine would still be preserved as a tool for centralised government power. Little of this came about. Instead the world, although less divided in the old Cold War sense, has become infi nitely more fragmented. Terror and anarchy stalk many regions. The world now has more refugees and dispossessed peoples fleeing mayhem and slaughter than at any time since the Second World War. Islam is divided against itself and against the wider world. Democracy fails to breach the wall of a newly aggressive Kremlin. The bonds of international trust and amity which seemed to be growing in the latter half of the 20th century have all but melted away, and the global institutions on which they rested have grown confused and directionless. In particular the United Nations has remained largely unreformed, seriously hindering its capacity to address effectively the world’s many grievances and confl icts.


CHOGM 2015 Report

The world now has more refugees and dispossessed peoples fleeing mayhem and slaughter than at any time since the Second World War. Networking for tomorrow Yet there is one big area of hope, surprisingly bucking the trends towards ferment and disintegration that fi ll the daily world headlines. This is the modern Commonwealth network. Somehow, against all the stresses and tensions pulling countries and societies apart, and against many negative predictions, this extraordinary family of nations, spanning the continents and embracing just under onethird of humankind, has adapted to new world conditions and emerged not as a leftover of the past but as model for future international togetherness. Viewed at purely government level, and through the official lens, this transformation has not been obvious. The ‘family’ has had its differences, its quarrels and its deviants. These are gleefully reported by the media. But it is the ongoing information revolution, and the

CHOGM 2015 & The Commonwealth

Softer and subtler forms of power and diplomacy have replaced the old language of force and coercion. stunningly pervasive connectivity it brings to every kind of relationship, personal, professional and organisational, that is the key to understanding what is really going on within this 53-nation Commonwealth network. As with an iceberg, the vast bulk of modern Commonwealth activity tends to be below the eye of the casual or superficial observer. The same revolutionary communications technologies and systems that have weakened central authorities everywhere and placed power in non-state hands, sometimes with frightening consequences, have also put a premium on international relations on voluntary and grass-roots linkages of every kind. Civil society and non-governmental organisations operating internationally have multiplied a hundredfold. Softer and subtler forms of power and diplomacy have replaced the old language of force and coercion. All these are precisely the kind of relationships and connections that are nourished by common language (mostly English) and by all the shared attitudes and values that are embedded in a common tongue and in the evolving Commonwealth network. Thus in almost every professional field – from law to accountancy, from health administration to scientific research, from local government methods to parliamentary practice, from journalism to professional sports, from land management to environmental and conservation techniques, from schooling right from the youngest level to university administration, from museum design to every kind of creative art and to every conceivable form of training – an extraordinary and dense weave of live, instant and continuous intra-Commonwealth relationships has now emerged. A new kind of business How does all this connectivity help the future stability and prosperity of Commonwealth member states, or indeed the countries around them? It is true that the Commonwealth is not a natural trade bloc when viewed in conventional economic terms. But here is the fascinating twist which all these commonalities bring to the forefront. Modern trade is vastly more knowledge-laden and information-intensive than even a few years ago. The picture of export and import being solely a matter of giant container ships, manufactures and raw materials now has to be revised. Services of every kind and digitalised information now form a larger part of international business than ever before. International trade links and supply chains have grown infinitely and rapidly more complex, outdating and invalidating the 20th century pattern of trade blocs and protected areas. Tariffs play a diminishing part in this changed world. Recently, for example, global trade in high-

CHOGM 2015 Report


CHOGM 2015 & The Commonwealth

tech products, including advanced microchips, telecom products and GPS navigation, has seen all import duties removed. Exchanges in these products alone, at some US$1.3 trillion a year, surpass total world trade in textiles, iron and steel combined. The remaining barriers to surmount lie far more in poor understanding, different cultural approaches and practices. To all of this the modern Commonwealth network is ideally suited, not by any imposed design but by evolution and adaptation. And it is of course the common language, understanding and sheer affinity of outlook between Commonwealth countries that links Commonwealth markets and significantly eases barriers to the conduct of this new kind of business, to the handling of investment projects and the arrangement of complex multi-sided deals. Intra-Commonwealth trade, which shrank steadily from the 1950s to the 1990s, is now rising, and there are strong grounds for expecting it to continue rapidly in these completely transformed world business conditions. It has to be remembered, too, that today’s Commonwealth, while it includes many smaller and still struggling states, also embraces some of the fastest growing economies and most lucrative new consumer markets on earth. India, Australia, Canada, Malaysia, Singapore, Nigeria and South Africa are the new trade giants. In turn they form gateways to the other rising markets of Asia (notably China), and of Africa and the Indian and Pacific oceans – the new economic centre zones of a post-Atlantic world. For Britain the importance of these new patterns cannot be over-emphasised. The Head of the Commonwealth of course sits on the British throne, and exerts a strong personal and unifying influence from that position. But the Commonwealth is no longer Anglo-centric in the old sense. For the British, the Commonwealth connection becomes the crucial link between the past and the future. The British Prime Minister has been urging exporters to look beyond Europe and find new markets in the Commonwealth. His advisers, despite all their understandable preoccupation with EU renegotiation, have understood that the big prizes now lie elsewhere. It is beginning to be realised that success in the vast

Intra-Commonwealth trade is now rising, and there are strong grounds for expecting it to continue rapidly. David Howell, the Rt Hon. Lord Howell of Guildford, is President of the Royal Commonwealth Society. He is a former UK Secretary of State for Energy, and former Minister of 5VCVGCVVJG(QTGKIPCPF%QOOQPYGCNVJ1HƒEGYKVJURGEKCN responsibilities for the Commonwealth and international energy issues. The Royal Commonwealth Society, founded in 1868, is a network of individuals and organisations committed to


CHOGM 2015 Report

For the British, the Commonwealth connection becomes the crucial link between the past and the future. new emerging consumer markets of Asia, Africa and Latin America and success in building up all aspects of the great Commonwealth network and family are all parts of one and the same story – a story that now needs to carried forward with the utmost vigour and brio on every front. Security in the 21st century It is not just on the trade front that new priorities are pushing themselves forward. The whole Commonwealth’s security interests are beginning to take a new shape as a 20th century geo-political order centred round the Atlantic begins to be compounded, if not replaced, by a 21st century pattern that has the Indian ocean more at its centre. The two strands of security and prosperity are, of course, closely interwoven; and it is here that connections between Commonwealth member states enter the scene with renewed significance. The security dimension of Commonwealth cooperation has not been totally neglected in recent years. The Five Power South East Asian Defence Pact (between the UK, Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia and Singapore – all Commonwealth members) remains in place, although little discussed in British public debate. But as vital and rich new trade routes and supply chains open up, both maritime and snaking across the East and central Asian landmass, their protection, and the stability and friendliness of the regions they cross’ suddenly leap up the scale of importance for the security and defence dispositions of many Commonwealth states. Interoperability, intelligence sharing, anti-terrorism cooperation, humanitarian and disaster relief, anti-piracy and military training, are all finding their way onto the new Commonwealth network agenda. For almost all of the 53 member states, Britain included, the linkage mechanism which the Commonwealth offers in the digital age, with all its advantages and underpinnings, is becoming not just a matter of opportunities. It is becoming a matter of survival. „

improving the lives and prospects of Commonwealth citizens across the world. Through youth empowerment, education and advocacy, the Royal Commonwealth Society promotes the value and the values of the Commonwealth. The Society champions human rights, democracy and sustainable development across the 53 member states which are intrinsically linked through their common history and shared values. Website:

CHOGM 2015 & The Commonwealth

Having history as our sole bond is clearly not enough in today’s world. In order to be relevant, the Commonwealth should be about people rather than diplomats. It should be about economic growth rather than bureaucracy. It should be about the future rather than the past. The Malta CHOGM will be about the Commonwealth, Adding Global Value. Joseph Muscat,

Prime Minister of Malta

CHOGM 2015 & The Commonwealth

As we come together in Malta we must demonstrate our unique ability to convene and ニ単FEQOOQP purpose.

CHOGM 2015 & The Commonwealth

A strong and united Commonwealth The Rt Hon David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, welcomes the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) in Malta, and highlights the role of the Commonwealth in supporting the direction of global development, climate and trade agendas for the next decade.


am honoured once again to be invited to provide a message for the CHOGM 2015 Report. I would first like to pay tribute to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, who became the UK’s longest serving monarch in September and has been assiduous in her support of the Commonwealth; to Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma, who has led our organisation through a period of remarkable global change; and to the Maltese Government for hosting this year’s meeting. CHOGM in Malta is one of a series of key international summits this autumn. The new Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were adopted in New York in September. We hope to reach a historic climate change agreement at COP21 in Paris immediately after CHOGM in November, and the world’s eyes will be on Nairobi in December for the 10th World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference. Taken together, these will set the direction of the global development, climate and trade agendas for the next decade or more. The Commonwealth has an important role to play in support of each. To make our impact felt I urge us to make the most of our strengths. As we come together in Malta we must demonstrate our unique ability to convene and find common purpose across North and South, small and large, and speak with a united voice at a moment when the world faces unprecedented challenges.

There is a unique opportunity for the Commonwealth to promote the golden thread of good governance, transparency and rule of law .

The Rt Hon David Cameron has served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom since 2010, as leader of the Conservative Party since 2005 and a Member of Parliament since 2001. Before he became an MP, he was Special Adviser to the Chancellor of the

Exchequer and then to the Home Secretary. He took a break to work in media for seven years before standing for election in 2001.

We should use CHOGM to commit to implementing the SDGs at home and to secure a mandate for Commonwealth institutions to champion progress. There is a unique opportunity for the Commonwealth to promote the golden thread of good governance, transparency and rule of law which underpins security, stability and economic growth. I also look forward to lively discussions that I hope will see us agree a robust statement of principles on climate change, firm cooperation to tackle the causes of radicalisation, initiatives in support of small island developing states, and, finally, a strong mandate for Commonwealth renewal. „


CHOGM 2015 Report

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CHOGM 2015 & The Commonwealth

The Commonwealth in a Post-2015 World Helen Clark, Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and former Prime Minister of New Zealand, asserts that youth, innovation and sustainable development should be at the heart of the Commonwealth post-2015.


he Commonwealth, like the United Nations, spans every region of the world. It constitutes nearly a third of the global population – some 2.2 billion people, and a quarter of our planet’s land area. But it has not relied on its size and geographical reach alone in making its mark in a world of many multi-country organisations. The Commonwealth’s unique value has been its commitment to development, democracy, and diversity. At 66 years of age, the Commonwealth is just four years younger than the United Nations, which celebrates its 70th anniversary in 2015. To be relevant to our times, both must continually reinvent themselves in a world of many pressing challenges – and in a very youthful world. The global population under the age of 30 numbers more than half the total of over seven billion. Three in every five Commonwealth citizens are under the age of 30. That fully justifies the choice of 2015’s Commonwealth theme: ‘A Young Commonwealth’. And one cannot fail to be impressed by the major focus of the Commonwealth on developing youth potential through its programmes and forums. The Commonwealth Youth Index is an innovative tool that can support governments in designing effective youth policy. I especially welcome the 2013 Declaration of Commonwealth Leaders in which they committed “unequivocally to investing in young people and placing them at the centre of sustainable and

inclusive development, thus harnessing their creativity, leadership, and social capital towards the progress and resilience of Commonwealth countries and a more prosperous and democratic Commonwealth.” With youth comes energy, vibrancy, and optimism – if there is a supportive environment and opportunity. That lays the ground for major positive contributions and a demographic dividend from the largest youth population the world has ever known. Yet a failure to invest in opportunity for youth can quickly lead to the opposite – to alienation, and to energy turned in destructive rather than constructive directions. That is a future we invite at our peril. So, what kind of future is currently on offer for today’s children and young people? How could the current global offer be improved through commitment to a transformational, post-2015 sustainable development agenda consistent with the vision and values of the Commonwealth? What role can innovation play in engaging citizens and driving development? Poverty and inequality Tremendous progress has been made on lifting people out of abject poverty in the last 30 years. Growth in emerging economies has been driving a process of convergence between what was traditionally regarded as a poor and

With youth comes energy, vibrancy, and optimism – if there is a supportive environment and opportunity. 20

CHOGM 2015 Report

CHOGM 2015 & The Commonwealth

CHOGM 2015 & The Commonwealth

developing South and a rich and developed North – although clearly very signiďŹ cant gaps still remain. The MDGs set targets for progress on a range of basic development indicators, using 1990 data as a baseline. Against those targets, we have seen these outcomes: • Extreme income poverty has halved between 1990 and 2010. To a signiďŹ cant extent, this was driven by the spectacular decline in poverty in China • Over the same period the likelihood of a child dying before their ďŹ fth birthday was nearly cut in half • Now nine out of 10 children in developing countries are enrolled in primary schooling (net enrolment rate), with roughly equal numbers of boys and girls • Many more women are being elected to the parliaments of their countries; but progress in lifting the numbers falls well short of the targeted 30 per cent ďŹ gure. But despite these and other areas of progress on MDG targets, many inequalities have become starker: • Eight per cent of the world’s population now earns 50 per cent of the world’s income • The richest one per cent owns 48 per cent of the world’s assets • In some developing regions, children in towns and cities are up to 30 per cent more likely to complete primary school than are those in rural areas • Gender inequality remains pervasive in the 21st century, and is upheld variously by law, culture or custom. Sexual and gender-based violence blights every nation on earth. By not tackling these issues decisively, nations are limiting their potential. Pursuing gender equality and women’s empowerment is not just the right thing to do, it is also the smart thing to do, as Hilary Clinton has aptly observed • Countries in conict or facing signiďŹ cant insecurity have been unable to reduce poverty because of the disruption they suffer to the course of human life and to their infrastructure and institutions. They fall behind as the world develops around them and without them. Overall, inequalities have grown in the majority of the world’s countries, with very few exceptions. Wealth, opportunity, and ultimately power are increasingly concentrated in the hands of the few. High levels of inequality limit the political will to address poverty, and they tear at the very fabric of our societies. Political exclusion, and a lack of hope for young people, has contributed to the rise of sectarianism and violence. &RQ̨LFWLQVHFXULW\DQGVKRFNV The seeming magnet in the self-styled Islamic State (ISIS), which is attracting young men and women from countries rich and poor, threatens to destabilise parts of our world for years to come. Alas, ISIS is far from unique as an extremist group –Commonwealth countries have experienced horriďŹ c massacres carried out by terrorist groups, and in many corners of the world such organisations are destroying lives and prospects. The crimes being committed by members of these groups are at a level of depravity that can only be described as grotesque. Whether born from greed, grievance or ideology, conict can dissolve human development in an instant. Conict and protracted insecurity reverses decades of progress, stranding generations of young people without education and the


CHOGM 2015 Report

Political exclusion, and a lack of hope for young people, has contributed to the rise of sectarianism and violence. opportunities of decent jobs and livelihoods. The impact on women and girls is typically abhorrent. Often ‘conict’ is put in a separate box from ‘development’ but that makes little sense in the real world. Take the example of the Syrian crisis which has seen nearly four million refugees dispersed largely across ďŹ ve countries in the neighbourhood, and over seven million people internally displaced within Syria itself. This is not only a very serious humanitarian crisis: it is a development crisis for Syria and its neighbours. Many children are out of school; people have lost jobs and livelihoods; essential services are under huge pressure; homes have been destroyed – the list goes on. One story: in 2014 I visited an informal campsite where Syrians had taken refuge in Lebanon’s Beqaa Valley. Our group sat in a makeshift shelter with a family. Mum, Dad, and all but one child were present. That one child was a twelve-year old girl. She was out at work in the ďŹ elds as the only family member who could ďŹ nd a job. I have no doubt that countless thousands of Syrian children are in such situations – and worse if they are trafďŹ cked or sexually exploited. Then there is the impact of natural disasters wherever disaster risk reduction has not been undertaken – or has not been sufďŹ cient in the face of new challenges like climate change, and like rapid urbanisation which is placing more people in vulnerable locations. Severe oods, droughts, cyclones, earthquakes and tsunamis still cause great loss of life, livelihoods and infrastructure. Big investments are needed to make communities more secure from such threats. Other shocks also ow from under-development. Take the Ebola outbreak in West Africa – where one of the three epicentre countries, Sierra Leone, is a Commonwealth country. A functioning health system could have stopped the disease at the outset. But there wasn’t one, and nor was there an adequate, early international response. The outcome is now measured in thousands of lives lost, thousands of children orphaned, many more widow-headed households, economies struggling, jobs and livelihoods lost, months of missed schooling, and the collapse of basic services. &OLPDWHFKDQJHDQGHQYLURQPHQWDOGHJUDGDWLRQ The number of extreme weather events is increasing dramatically around the world. Sea level rises will lead to displacement of people, and to increasing stress on land, water, and food. Changing rainfall patterns will affect agriculture and livelihoods. Tropical diseases will become more persistent. Climate impacts will increasingly challenge development, and threaten to erase past, present, and future development gains in all countries, and especially for the poorest.

CHOGM 2015 & The Commonwealth

&RQWLQXLQJVWDNHKROGHUHQJDJHPHQW In national consultations across 88 countries, and in major thematic discussions online and offline, citizens across all regions of the world have made it clear that they do not want their engagement with the new global agenda to be limited to providing input at the outset. They expect to be informed participants in development, and to be able to monitor progress and hold governments and other actors accountable for the commitments they make. We must enable youth to be fully part of this action.

Our current patterns of consumption are generating levels of pollution with which our planet cannot cope. Our overuse of the world’s resources for ‘wants’ rather than ‘needs’ is threatening ecosystems and will affect our very way of life. This is particularly evident with climate change. As Mahatma Gandhi said, “Earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s needs, but not every man’s greed.” In the consultations on the post-2015 development agenda led by the UN development system, people have called for strong leadership from governments, business and the UN to change course before it is too late. That course correction has been a long time coming, which leads me to my fourth and last point about challenges. *ODFLDOPXOWLODWHUDOLVP The challenges of poverty and inequality, environmental degradation and human insecurity are sadly not new, but effective responses to many challenges, old and new alike, have been slow in coming. The architecture of key multilateral institutions from the UN Security Council to the International Monetary Fund is frozen in time. Yet my sense is that we do not have a lot of time. The scientific consensus is that there is no time for delay in tackling climate change. The economic evidence in heavyweight reports such as that of Lord Stern, prepared for the British Government in 2006, is that the longer action is delayed, the more costly it will be to try to avert catastrophic and irreversible climate change impacts. With high rates of criminal violence in many countries; with nations from the Sahel to the Horn of Africa and from the Maghreb to Iraq and Yemen blighted by conflict; with youth – and the not-so-youthful too – rallying to join terrorist groups; one could paraphrase an old proverb and ask: are we reaping what we have sown? Have too many people been too marginalised and too excluded for too long from the economies, societies, and politics of their nations? And isn’t the biggest development challenge our world faces the need to address the root causes of all these problems? So, I ask: • How can our world utilise its great global knowledge, technology, and wealth to build a better, fairer future? • How can we engage youth as agents of development, innovation, and change – building on good principles like those in the Commonwealth Declaration on Investing in Young People? • How can we fulfil our destiny of being the first generation able to eradicate extreme poverty and the last generation able to prevent catastrophic climate change?

This call for engagement is one of the reasons why a data revolution must go hand in hand with the new agenda. Progress must be measured; data must be available, be of good quality, and be easily accessed. Capacities to analyse it are needed for good policymaking and for effective monitoring by parliaments, citizens and media. Building national statistical capacity and all these associated capacities is a development function too.

)RUWKHͤUVWWLPH explicitly, the new global agenda declares that development requires peaceful and inclusive societies, justice for all, and effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels. This is an agenda for justice. A year of opportunity The good news is that 2015 offers opportunities to reset the compass that occur only once in a generation. This is a year for development, with four major global processes and summits related to development taking place. Their outcomes are setting priorities for the next generation. Ambition needs to be high, given the magnitude of the challenges. The first of these events, the Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction, took place in Sendai, Japan, in March. UNDP’s tagline for that conference was that “if it’s not risk-informed, it’s not sustainable development.” So often we see gains that have been painfully made literally swept away by floods, cyclones and landslides, or destroyed by severe droughts, earthquakes or tsunami. There are development solutions to these challenges. We can build greater resilience to these shocks and reduce risk. The last of the four 2015 events will be the vital UN climate change conference in Paris in December (COP21), where a new global agreement is due to be reached – and must be reached if there is to be any credible chance of stopping the worst impacts of climate change. In between Sendai and Paris were the Third International Conference on Financing for Development in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, in July, and the Special Summit on Sustainable Development in New York in September.

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The September Summit was called to finalise the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the post-2015 successor framework to the Millennium Development Goals, building on the MDG experience. The focus and funding driven by the MDGs has undoubtedly played a role in the increased school enrolment and decreased mortality among children to which I referred earlier. Action on MDG targets has also played a role in improving access to drinkable water, reducing maternal mortality, and tackling HIV, malaria, and TB. Around the world, the MDGs have guided budget decisions and legislative priorities. The post-2015 development agenda therefore has large shoes to fill. The SDGs provide a universal, sustainable development agenda, requiring commitment from all countries, developed and developing, to build a better shared future. Poverty, inequalities and environmental challenges exist in rich and poor countries alike. Poverty eradication, lifting human development overall, and environmental sustainability are at the heart of the new agenda. The Commonwealth, its associated organisations and its member states, continue to be engaged in the discourse about the new agenda, as they have long been with the MDG agenda and with all major development-related processes. The Commonwealth plays a unique role in the strength of its advocacy for small island developing states (SIDS). Its voice is loud and clear on the need for fair and equitable outcomes to world trade negotiations. The Commonwealth Local Government Forum has been a strong advocate for taking the MDGs to the local level, and is a key partner in ensuring that the new SDGs are localised. And the Commonwealth’s deep commitment to democratic governance is a constant reminder of the importance of that as a driver of the sustainable development agenda. Governments alone cannot build such an agenda. The participation of citizens, their organisations, and civil society is needed, along with the input of science and academia and the dynamism of the private sector. Post2015 is an agenda for partnerships. For the first time explicitly, the new global agenda declares that development requires peaceful and inclusive societies, justice for all, and effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels. This is an agenda for justice, covered in Goal Sixteen. But such agendas remain mere words on paper unless they can be implemented. Capacities need to be built. Governance needs to be improved. Citizens need to be engaged. And, while money is not everything, it certainly helps.

We are already tapping directly into the insights of youth, communities, and small entrepreneurs to KHOSGHͤQHFKDOOHQJHVDQG implement solutions. 24

CHOGM 2015 Report

On finance, official development assistance will remain vital for low-income countries, and can play a catalytic role in middle-income countries too. Achieving sustainable development as envisaged in the SDGs, however, is estimated by UNCTAD to require investments of US$3.3 to US$4.5 trillion dollars per annum – vastly more than the current US$135 billion per annum available in official development assistance. Developing countries will need to grow their tax revenues, be bankable, and be able to attract significant private sector investment. Enabling environments for those qualities need to be built more broadly. Beyond finance, achieving sustainable development also requires significant policy, legislative, and regulatory change. It requires changes in the way we live, work, produce, consume, generate our energy, transport ourselves, and design our cities. This is an all-of-society endeavour in which governments, citizens, civil society, the private sector, and academia and research institutions must all play their part. Does this agenda seem too big, too bold, and too broad to be implemented? Yes – often it does. It will require vision; it will require finance; it will require access to new technologies; and it will require innovative approaches to development that engage citizens. Already there has been wide outreach to the global public – more than seven million people voted on their priorities for the post-2015 agenda in the UN-sponsored MY World survey. Sixty per cent of the respondents were from Commonwealth countries, and over 80 per cent of them were aged 30 or younger. The top four priorities consistently registered were education, healthcare, jobs, and having an honest and responsive government. These are huge priorities for young people, who are disproportionately numbered among the unemployed, often lack access to quality and affordable education and other services, often face barriers in exercising their sexual and reproductive health choices and rights – and often are excluded from meaningful participation in the decision-making which impacts on their lives. Simply put, young people deserve a better deal, and have everything to play for in the post-2015 development agenda. 7KHUROHRILQQRYDWLRQ Innovative approaches to development using a wide range of new technologies and media to engage citizens and improve services are increasingly being used in the UN development system, and will play a big role in implementing the broad sustainable development agenda. We are already tapping directly into the insights of youth, communities, and small entrepreneurs to help define challenges and implement solutions. UNAIDS has used crowdsourcing to get wide input into the development of its youth strategy. In Rwanda, UNDP in partnership with the government has created an online platform, YouthConnekt. It uses Google hangout technology together with other social media and text messaging to link young Rwandans to role models, resources, knowledge, skills, internships and jobs. The participants can showcase their innovative ideas and projects through the platform to potential partners.

CHOGM 2015 & The Commonwealth

The Commonwealth, home to one-third of the world’s people, combines the strength of its youth, its values of democracy and diversity, and a deep commitment to development.

CHOGM 2015 & The Commonwealth

In Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, UNDP and UNICEF are supporting social venture incubators that have been conceived and designed by and are now led by young people. The Social Innovation (Kolba) Lab in Armenia is helping young social innovators become social entrepreneurs through the provision of training, mentoring and specialist advice. It aims to nurture homegrown solutions to pressing social challenges. In addition, there is the role of ‘big data’, generated by mobile and online communications in helping to design responses to crises and reduce the risk of disasters and conict. The UN’s Global Pulse initiative has been a leader in conceptualising the use of big data, and UN organisations are already making use of big data in their work. In Mexico, for example, the World Food Programme worked with the government and a major mobile provider to see whether analysis of mobile phone trafďŹ c patterns could provide insights into how people communicate before and after ooding, and then to use those insights to guide response planning. Correlations were found which helped direct relief to where it was needed. Especially inuential is the ‘Ushahidi’ platform, developed as an early warning system in Kenya to support efforts to defuse outbreaks of violence after the 2007 elections. In effect the innovators behind it encouraged live reporting of incidents by text messaging or other means, and then were able to map what was happening and where help was needed. Ushahidi’s open source software is now being applied to other settings and circumstances around the world, including tracking violence against immigrants, violence associated with elections, and pharmacy stock-outs. In Afghanistan, the platform has been used to develop Watertracker, a community-based, crowdsourced tool which empowers citizens to monitor the functioning of wells and other water points. An estimated 30-50 per cent of all water points in Afghanistan are no longer functional after two years, so the potential of this new technology to improve service delivery is huge. 2SSRUWXQLWLHVRQFHLQDJHQHUDWLRQ The last two decades have seen remarkable social and economic progress. Within a generation, hundreds of millions of people have risen out of extreme poverty, and many developing countries have seen rapid economic growth. And yet inequality has been on the rise,

Helen Clark has been Administrator of the United Nations &GXGNQROGPV2TQITCOOGUKPEG#RTKNCPFKUVJGĆ&#x2019;TUV woman to lead the organisation. She is also the Chair of the United Nations Development Group. Prior to her appointment with UNDP, Helen Clark served for nine years as Prime Minister of New Zealand. Under her leadership, New <GCNCPFCEJKGXGFUKIPKĆ&#x2019;ECPVGEQPQOKEITQYVJNQYNGXGNUQH unemployment, and high levels of investment in education, health and well-being. She and her government prioritised reconciliation and the settlement of historical grievances with New Zealandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s indigenous people and the development of an inclusive multicultural and multi-faith society. Helen


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including within rapidly growing developing countries, and through a set of very poor and/or conďŹ&#x201A;ict-stricken countries being left behind other fast developing countries. We are living in turbulent times where volatility has become the new normal. The challenge of the SDGs will be to lift all people in extreme poverty out of it within a generation, and keep them out of it. It will be to turn the tide on rising inequality and to tackle entrenched marginalisation and exclusion. Environmental degradation must be addressed decisively, including by acting now on climate change. Better and more inclusive governance is needed too, together with the rule of law and effective conďŹ&#x201A;ict resolution leading to peace and stability. Broad coalitions committed to transformational change are needed. Tackling these huge challenges is what the post-2015 agenda is all about. It is an agenda for current and future generations. Young people have been engaged in the design of the new development agenda. And it is young people, the leaders of the future, who will see it through. The Commonwealth, home to one-third of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s people, combines the strength of its youth, its values of democracy and diversity, and a deep commitment to development. Over the past 66 years, the Commonwealth has shown a capacity to reinvent itself continually. It would have been all too easy for a voluntary association of nations drawn from where the same imperial ďŹ&#x201A;ag once ďŹ&#x201A;ew to lose its relevance. The triumph of the Commonwealth is that it has not. It has developed a shared vision and set of values which aim to shape our common future The Commonwealth is exceptionally well positioned to support the implementation of the post-2015 agenda, as it has supported its design. For the agenda to succeed, it must seize the imagination of peoples, governments, civil society, and business, and big partnerships must be built around its vision and goals. The UN and the Commonwealth are both institutions that can nurture citizensâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; aspirations for peace, progress, prosperity and justice â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and catalyse collective action. In this â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;once in a generationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; year, we are using the opportunity to put global development on an inclusive, sustainable course. The UN and the Commonwealth are essential allies in making that happen. This article was based on Helen Clarkâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 2015 Commonwealth Lecture, Youth, Innovation, Sustainable Development and the Commonwealth in a Post-2015 World, the Guildhall, London, 9 April 2015. Â&#x201E;

Clark is a strong advocate for New Zealandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s comprehensive programme on sustainability and for tackling the problems of climate change. The8QLWHG1DWLRQV'HYHORSPHQW3URJUDPPH 81'3 works in more than 170 countries and territories, helping to achieve the eradication of poverty, and the reduction of inequalities and exclusion. We help countries to develop policies, leadership skills, partnering abilities and institutional capabilities, and to build resilience in order to sustain development results. :HEVLWHXQGSRUJ

CHOGM 2015 & The Commonwealth

A reform agenda for renewing the Commonwealth Australian diplomat, Matthew Neuhaus, makes some cogent suggestions for a reform agenda for the new Commonwealth Secretary-General.


t this Heads of Government Meeting, Commonwealth leaders have a special duty – to elect a new Secretary-General. He – or perhaps at last she – will be the sixth Secretary-General, or SG, in the 50-year history of the Secretariat. The election of a new SecretaryGeneral provides the opportunity for further change and reform in the organisation to fit it for the future and ensure its continuing relevance to its members and the wider world. It is important that Heads of Government choose the best person for the job of new Secretary-General. However, one person cannot be expected to achieve such an important task alone. In fact it is its member nations, and its associated organisations and civil society, who will really determine the future of the Commonwealth. Only if they are prepared to take the decisions to make it fit for purpose in the 21st century, and provide a new SG with the necessary resources, staff and guidance, will this


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historic international organisation continue to exist, and provide useful service to its membership and the world. A realistic approach In approaching the Commonwealth and its future we need to be realistic about what it is. The Commonwealth itself may indeed have 53 member nations of 2.2 billion people and include 80-plus organisations – but the Secretariat has a budget of just less than £50 million per annum ( just over US$75 million), including for its development and democracy work, and a staff of around 250 – fewer than the numbers who run the UN staff canteen in New York, or the 15-member Caricom Secretariat in the Caribbean. In contrast, the total annual UN budget, including for peacekeeping, is some US$11 billion, or £8 billion.

CHOGM 2015 & The Commonwealth

The Commonwealth’s development budget of around £25 million is considerably less than that of the aid budgets of western Embassies in many developing nations. The Commonwealth’s development budget of around £25 million is considerably less than that of the aid budgets of western Embassies in many developing nations. With such limited resources it can necessarily only play a modest role internationally. But as a past SecretaryGeneral Sir Shridath Ramphal was fond of saying, conscious of the organisation’s global reach and diversity, “The Commonwealth cannot negotiate for the world, but it can help the world to negotiate.” Enduring values It is now two decades since the Commonwealth played a key role in the successful international pressure to bring an end to apartheid in South Africa. New issues need to bind the Commonwealth to action now. Finding a new shared vision among its very diverse members must be a key objective at this CHOGM. Central to the Commonwealth – indeed to any organisation – must be its purpose and values. For the Commonwealth, this is its Charter. The Charter is an outcome of the Report of the Eminent Persons Group (EPG) in 2011 entitled A Commonwealth of the People – Time for Urgent Reform, as well as decades of preceding Declarations, of which the Harare Declaration of 1991 is perhaps the most important. The Charter was further developed and adopted by member nations over 2012. Its drafting is less than elegant, but its substance is important. It clearly commits the Commonwealth to the values of democracy; human rights; international peace and security; tolerance, respect and understanding; freedom of expression; separation of powers; rule of law; good governance; sustainable development; protection of the environment; access to health, education, food and shelter; gender equality; empowering young people; recognition of the needs of small and vulnerable states; and finally the role of civil society. The Charter commitments should be a rich source of action for the future, as indeed is the EPG report itself, which remains an important starting point for any new Secretary-General. Building democracy Central to the role of the Commonwealth, guided by its Charter, is its work in building democracy and development in its members. Important here is the Commonwealth’s work in ‘good offices’, which has significantly declined in recent years. Yet crises and

tensions abound which need to be addressed – from Maldives to Swaziland. Sri Lanka, Fiji, Kenya and others need continued support to rebuild their societies as they return to peace and stability after periods of conflict. Zimbabwe and the Gambia, which have left the Commonwealth, need to be re-engaged. The interplay of good offices activities with the Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group (CMAG) – a standing Committee of nine Foreign Ministers charged to be guardians of Commonwealth values – needs to be further developed. CMAG, which has the power to suspend members for violations of Commonwealth values, should be reframed as a support mechanism. A more active and supportive good offices programme could help. This should be carried forward by Special Envoys and supported by an ambassador-level Special Adviser and professional team in the Secretary-General’s office. It also needs to be more closely linked to the Commonwealth’s successful work on election observing, institution building and democratic development, supporting the implementation of the recommendations of observer groups with national governments. Broadening development The Commonwealth Fund for Technical Cooperation (CFTC) is now over 40 years old. While it still provides valuable technical assistance and advisory services, some of it at the cutting edge, as in debt management and IT-based knowledge sharing, it needs a radical overhaul to retain the confidence of donors and beneficiaries, ensuring it is fit for purpose in a very different world from when it was conceived. CFTC also needs to engage in supporting developing members in maximising their engagement on issues on the international agenda from climate change to world trade. The present Secretary-General has done much to build partnerships with other international and regional organisations, and that needs to be strengthened. We also need to see more concrete expression in joint projects and programmes, with more profile for the Commonwealth. Quiet diplomacy has its place, but without publicity the Commonwealth will die from ignorance of its work. We need a new Secretary-General who is media-friendly rather than media-shy, who projects an image of energy and modernity and responds quickly and deftly in the world of Twitter, Facebook and Hardtalk. Countering violent extremism The Commonwealth also needs again to find a big cause to project itself internationally and make a substantial impact, as in the days of the anti-apartheid movement. Such a cause is at hand – the issue of radicalisation or violent extremism. Nearly a decade ago, in response to the rise of terrorism and the failure of the Iraq intervention, the former SecretaryGeneral Don McKinnon convened under the chairmanship Professor Amartya Sen, a winner of the Nobel prize, the Commonwealth Commission on Respect and Understanding with participants from across member nations. It produced a report entitled Civil Paths to Peace, which looked in depth at issues that feed radicalisation – identity, grievance, humiliation and conflict – and provided ways forward. The report was adopted by Heads of Government

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CHOGM 2015 & The Commonwealth

in November 2007 in Kampala, but not much has come of it. In 2011 the Report was re-issued in book form with a fresh preface by Professor Sen on ‘Violence and Civil Society’, and plans for extensive activities. Little has been done to carry this forward but it is encouraging that the Secretary-General has now brought it to the top of the agenda for the 2015 CHOGM. Leaders should focus discussion on this issue in a productive way, and make it a priority for a new Secretary-General. Violent extremism is one of the most pressing issues of our time. The Commonwealth, which embraces all religions and communities but lacks great power tensions, is a relatively safe space to discuss this issue and so assist the wider world. It should be bold – as the Queen as Head of the Commonwealth urged it to be at the 2011 Perth CHOGM – and begin urgent work on this issue which is central to the implementation of its values. It is not the only issue – climate change, migration (on which the Commonwealth has done good work), being a voice for small states (it has 31 small state members), human rights – all come to mind and should also be a focus of discussions at CHOGM. But addressing violent extremism is perhaps the most urgent. In doing so, the Commonwealth can utilise and mobilise its extensive network of associated organisations, such as the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association and Commonwealth Local Government Forum, and its myriad of civil society organisations which are supported through the Commonwealth Foundation. This is a project they all have a stake in. Above all, addressing extremism should be a priority for the youth programme, as youth are the group whose lives and futures are being most damaged by radicalisation. Membership It is also time for the Commonwealth to reconsider its approach to membership. In 2007 the door was opened for members who were prepared to ascribe to Commonwealth norms and values, but who had not previously been part of the British Empire. Rwanda took advantage of this important modernising step to join in 2011. But there are two other areas the Commonwealth could do more on, and which would be in line with other international organisations – to allow greater engagement by its partner organisations and to allow observer and associate members. That of itself would enhance its profile and international engagement, and help spread its values. Rebranding CHOGM the Commonwealth Summit A new Secretary-General, whom leaders will no doubt insist on continuing to select personally at their Retreat from the nominated candidates, will need to be alert to their needs. Thus the issues to be addressed in the Retreat

Matthew Neuhaus is an Australian Diplomat. He has served in Kenya, Papua New Guinea, the Australian Mission to the UN, New York, and as High Commissioner to Nigeria and Ghana. He was Director, Political Affairs Division at the Commonwealth Secretariat from 2002-2008 and Australian Ambassador to Zimbabwe from 2011-2015.


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format need to matter to them. We have to accept that a day and a half is the maximum leaders can now spend together, unlike the week-long meetings of the past, but that should be enough time if well planned. A useful new name might be the Commonwealth Summit, rather than the inelegant and old-fashioned acronym CHOGM. It should ditch its time-consuming, lengthy and fraught Communiqué (now at some 100 paragraphs). This not only causes angst to officials and ministers in its negotiation, but also annoyance to leaders when presented to them for sorting out, as wasting their limited time. Instead it should restrict itself to one outcome document – a Declaration which emerges directly from heads in their Retreat, and deals only with the issues of importance to them which they actually have discussed and spoken on. Finally, it is important to keep strictly to the rule that no officials can participate in the Retreat, so it is truly a leaders’ event. Head of the Commonwealth A pleasant duty for Heads will be to attend the banquet given by the Head of the Commonwealth, Queen Elizabeth II, who will celebrate becoming the longestreigning British monarch. She has been a devoted and unifying Head, engaged in helpful quiet diplomacy to support Commonwealth values, on issues such as Rhodesia and South Africa. Her heir, Prince Charles, has demonstrated his keen interest in and concern for the Commonwealth and its issues, and travelled to most of its member nations. It would a tribute to the Queen, and the unifying and historic role the Monarch plays, if there was now a general understanding that he is best placed to succeed her in the Commonwealth Headship, as she did her father. The new Secretary-General So a new Secretary-General will have a challenging job, but one filled with potential. He - or she - will need to be an expert and experienced diplomat and skilled consensus builder. There is no requirement for the candidate to come from any regional group – which, in contrast to the UN, do not formally exist in the Commonwealth. What matters most is the character and commitment of the candidate. Above all we need a new Secretary-General who is deeply ingrained in the Commonwealth values and determined to working energetically with member nations and leaders for their implementation – an individual committed to creating a united, effective and responsive organisation taking a Team Commonwealth approach. With such leadership the Commonwealth can look forward to a great future and play a positive international role. „

While the author is a serving member of the Australian Foreign Service, this article is written in an entirely personal capacity while on study leave, and does not necessarily reflect the views of the Australian Government.

CHOGM 2015 & The Commonwealth

Choosing the next Commonwealth Secretary-General At this Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in Malta, Commonwealth leaders will elect a new Secretary-General. He or she will be the sixth SecretaryGeneral in the 50-year history of the Commonwealth Secretariat. The Secretary-General is responsible for representing the Commonwealth publicly, CPFKUVJG%JKGH'ZGEWVKXG1HĆ&#x2019;EGTQHVJG5GETGVCTKCVYJKEJUWRRQTVUFKCNQIWGCPF collaboration between member governments at the intergovernmental level. There is a general consensus that the new Secretary-General should be someone who KUDQNFGPGTIGVKEFKRNQOCVKECDNGVQNKHVVJG%QOOQPYGCNVJŨURTQĆ&#x2019;NGKPVGTPCVKQPCNN[ and help the nations develop a shared vision, whilst being fully committed to promoting the values ingrained within the Commonwealth Charter. There is an ongoing and lively discussion concerning the appointment and the process by which a new Secretary-General is selected. At the time of going to press there are three declared candidates: Mmasekgoa Masire Mwamba, Sir Ronald Sanders and Baroness Scotland. We have talked to each ECPFKFCVGVQĆ&#x2019;PFQWVOQTGCDQWVVJGOYJCVVJGKTXKUKQPHQTVJG%QOOQPYGCNVJKU and why they think they should be the next Commonwealth Secretary-General.

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An interview with

Mmaskegoa Masire-Mwamba Your vision for the Commonwealth Our Commonwealth â&#x20AC;&#x201C; vibrant and relevant, giving voice, energy and action to drive growth and prosperity. We will seek to reinvigorate our Commonwealth, to better serve its family, nurturing a vibrant and relevant group of nations, led by a nimble Secretariat. A responsive association that embraces collaboration, as it seeks capacity building for resilience and an effective response to emerging issues, particularly within the small states and vulnerable communities of the Commonwealth â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a Commonwealth that embodies equity and inclusiveness at the centre of decision-making. What do you believe is the role of the Commonwealth in the 21st century, and where does its future lie?

What are three key global challenges that you believe the Commonwealth should prioritise? The challenges facing the global community are numerous, and for every one that is identiďŹ ed, there are a number of inter-related sub-priority areas. I believe that the Commonwealth should, as a starting point, prioritise: Governance, Resilience and Shared Values. These three areas, each separately and all collectively, form the underlying but constant threads that, when addressed, will facilitate more progressive movements towards shared development, safety, and human dignity goals. Governance points to committed and accountable leadership, particularly in the areas of gender equality and youth empowerment.


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(c) Pittsburgh University.

The Commonwealth, through the Secretariat, needs to align itself to keep abreast of current times and position itself to remain relevant to the future. Rapid technological turnover cycles, climate change, terrorism, all represent threats that could undermine the gains achieved to date. There is an opportunity to work with our member states and respond to the call for greater democracy, human dignity, and the global development agenda. One such common focus area that will be key moving forward is the youth dividend, which in some of the member states represents upward of 70 per cent. The Commonwealth must embrace innovation, entrepreneurship and global leadership through leveraging technology, enhancing open communication and creating a networked community for good. Inaugural Pittsburgh Distinguished Alumnae Lecture, 2015

There is an opportunity to work with our member states and respond to the call for greater democracy, human dignity, and the global development agenda.


CHOGM 2015 & The Commonwealth

Commonwealth Day 2015 Celebration, Gaborone (Front row) Mmasekgoa Masire-Mwamba, Former Foreign Minister Dr. Gaositwe Chiepe and Botswana’s 2nd President, Sir Ketumile Masire

Resilience is the concerted efforts to identify and nullify issues of vulnerability, to strengthen systems that withstand internal and external shocks to our economies, adapting to the demands that threats from climate change bring, safeguarding against terrorism and working towards global inclusiveness. Human dignity goals are centred around the acknowledgement of and respect for our shared values; and in so doing we seek to promote human dignity, secure human rights and advocate for non-discrimination. Sixty per cent of the Commonwealth’s 2.2 billion citizens are under the age of 30. How will you address this ‘Young Commonwealth’? Our Young Commonwealth deserves our commitment to a continuous and meaningful interaction. This starts with a recognition of the need to include our young people as a part of the solution – developing strong and enduring links based on cultural understanding, intellectual exchange, and the promotion of the core principles embodied by the Commonwealth. I advocate leveraging technology and social media to interact more directly, foster entrepreneurship and sustain networks. Furthermore, I see more meaningful engagement being facilitated through more youth representation at executive committee level, and the establishment of a model board to impart skills and association beyond our own member states. The Youth Development Index, developed within the Commonwealth, is a useful tool and indicator on how our member states are giving effect to the youth voice and the youth agenda. We need to develop this index further and re-launch it to ensure its value and effectiveness are better realised throughout the Commonwealth. What are the major challenges of the Commonwealth as an organisation? How would you tackle them? A key challenge facing the Commonwealth is how best to optimise the diversity of the member states, and its commitment to the ideals of shared values to build a leading

soft power forum in both domestic and global issues. A cornerstone to realising this will be to reinvigorate the dialogue between the Secretariat and member states, and among member states themselves. This will best be facilitated by positioning the Secretariat as a trusted platform acting as a hub to interweave dialogue, share skills and collective efforts to jointly improve the association. What is your perspective on the Secretary-General’s role? The role of Secretary-General is demanding and multifaceted, requiring the office-bearer to lead and manage the day-to-day operations of the organisation internally; to give support and guidance to the membership at Head of State level, and other authorities delegated by member states; and to champion and promote the organisation and its values to external audiences, specifically: The Face and Voice of the Commonwealth. As the principal of the Commonwealth, the Secretary-General must be unfailing in advocacy for the Commonwealth. The Secretary-General will have to engage with various Commonwealth stakeholders including Heads of Government, multilateral agencies, civil society, youth and the media, among others. The Chief Executive. The Secretary-General is to ensure the smooth and efficient running of the organisation. The Leader. The Secretary-General should spell out a vision and lead the organisation towards it. The Champion of Commonwealth Values. The SecretaryGeneral will serve as the champion and advocate of Commonwealth values. The Change Agent. The Secretary-General is a change agent responsible for safeguarding values; engaging the membership on commitments and application; and offering relevant support.

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CHOGM 2015 & The Commonwealth

About you Full name, and how you like to be referred to Mmaskegoa Masire-Mwamba Nationality Botswana Age 55 What are your career highlights? Deputy Secretary-General of the Commonwealth. As Deputy Secretary-General I was responsible for issues of political affairs, human rights, legal and youth development. Some of my highlights â&#x20AC;&#x201C; among these core responsibility areas â&#x20AC;&#x201C; included the successful revitalisation of the youth programme, and enhancing greater accountability for human rights at a local level through national human rights institutions. I achieved tangible and concrete outcomes in development of the tools and model policies for capacity building and technical support. &KLHI([HFXWLYH2IͧFHURIWKH%RWVZDQD([SRUW'HYHORSPHQW DQG,QYHVWPHQW$XWKRULW\+YCUVJGĆ&#x2019;TUVYQOCPVQNGCF the nationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s foreign investment promotion agency. As CEO, I managed the development and promotion of the 0CVKQPCN$TCPFCPFCNUQFGXGNQRGFOQTGGHĆ&#x2019;EKGPVRNCVHQTOU to promote and accelerate private and public sector partnerships. :KDW̧YHZRUGVZRXOG\RXXVHWRGHVFULEH\RXUVHOI" â&#x20AC;˘ Dynamic â&#x20AC;&#x201C; A hands-on and solutions-oriented approach to challenges â&#x20AC;˘ (  QEWUGFŤ&GĆ&#x2019;PKPICPFEQOOKVVKPIVQUKORNGENGCTCPF concise vision and strategy â&#x20AC;˘ Personable â&#x20AC;&#x201C; I am consistently people-centred, approachable and consultative â&#x20AC;˘ $  QNFŤ2TKPEKRNGFCPFPQVCFXGTUGVQCFFTGUUKPIFKHĆ&#x2019;EWNV issues on the front line â&#x20AC;˘ Facilitatory â&#x20AC;&#x201C; I appreciate buy-in and support as a vehicle for delivery. Who do you most admire, and why Dr Gaositwe Chiepe. Apart from my own parents who have served their people with profound humility and dedication, who through their example brought me up to recognise and honour my call to duty and service, I have numerous role models. Dr Gaositwe Chiepe, as an example, was Botswanaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Ć&#x2019;TUVHGOCNGECDKPGVOKPKUVGT5JGCNUQUGTXGFCUCFKRNQOCV&T Chiepe is remarkably active, and though well into retirement she continues to be accessible to young and old for counsel and participation, and is an invaluable resource on pertinent issues. I draw inspiration from Dr Chiepe, since she is resolute in her principles and authentic â&#x20AC;&#x201C; qualities that I deem to be very important. Where is your favourite place in the world, and why? My favourite place in the world happens also to be my home village and place of birth, Kanye in Botswana. I enjoy returning to Kanye to re-connect with family and elders, relishing the calmer pace. In Kanye, I recharge while receiving renewed encouragement and wisdom.


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Why are you suited to the role of Commonwealth Secretary-General? )LUVWKDQGH[SHULHQFHRIWKH&RPPRQZHDOWKIURPZLWKLQWKH Commonwealth. I have a passion and commitment to the Commonwealth; having served as Deputy Secretary-General at the Secretariat, I have in-depth understanding and appreciation of the association. In my capacity as Deputy Secretary-General, I have travelled extensively throughout our member states. Through in-country working visits, I have engaged with leaders, UGPKQTIQXGTPOGPVQHĆ&#x2019;EKCNUCPFXCTKQWUMG[UVCMGJQNFGTU such as the youth. Focused dialogue and interaction have CNNQYGFOGĆ&#x2019;TUVJCPFKPUKIJVKPVQCEEQORNKUJOGPVU opportunities and challenges nationally, regionally and across the Commonwealth. I feel strongly that having been privy to the inner workings of the Commonwealth, I understand how the pieces can connect, leveraging our strengths to minimise our challenges, to ensure a globally relevant and resilient Commonwealth that responds to the needs and aspirations of our member states in the 21st century. 3URYHQRUJDQLVDWLRQDOOHDGHUVKLSWKDWVXFFHVVIXOO\LPSDFWHG HFRQRPLFGLYHUVLͧFDWLRQ. I am positioned to champion the establishment of key partnerships and responses to the critical challenges facing the Secretariat, through VJGFGXGNQROGPVQHUVTWEVWTCNGHĆ&#x2019;EKGPE[EJCORKQPKPI RCTVPGTUJKRUCPFVJGRTQĆ&#x2019;NGQHVJG%QOOQPYGCNVJ #UVJG%JKGH'ZGEWVKXG1HĆ&#x2019;EGTQHVJG$QVUYCPC'ZRQTV Development and Investment Agency (BEDIA), I was tasked with responding to the pressing need to diversify Botswanaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s economy. I spearheaded the development of strategic initiatives and supporting structures to advance and accelerate this transformation. Through international JKIJNGXGNVTCFGOKUUKQPU+TCKUGFVJGRTQĆ&#x2019;NGQH$QVUYCPC as an investment destination, simultaneously facilitating VJGGHĆ&#x2019;EKGPVHNQYQHGZRGTVKUGCPFIQQFU&TCYKPIQPVJKU experiencing as a CEO of a nationally-mandated intervening agency, I will bring proven leadership to drive internal QTICPKUCVKQPCNGHĆ&#x2019;EKGPE[VQTGURQPFCPFFGNKXGTQPVJGETKVKECN challenges facing the Secretariat. 8QLTXHVNLOOVHWLQDSSURDFKLQJFRPSOH[SUREOHPV. I bring a unique combination of skills in science, business, law and diplomacy. Leveraging these disciplines, I address issues with a multilayered approach which gives rise to more holistic and robust solutions. The needs and challenges of our member states cannot be viewed generally nor approached generically. We exist in a network of uncertainty and complex global challenges. Our approach should therefore reflect this reality. I COEQPĆ&#x2019;FGPVVJCV+ECPKPUVKNCF[PCOKEYQTMKPIEWNVWTG

We exist in a network of uncertainty and complex global challenges. Our approach should therefore reflect this reality.

CHOGM 2015 & The Commonwealth

An interview with

Ronald Sanders Your vision for the Commonwealth What do you believe is the role of the Commonwealth in the 21st century, and where does its future lie? The Commonwealth represents over two billion people, a quarter of the United Nations’ membership, and consists of nations from every continent. It includes every major racial and religious group in the world and is uniquely placed to develop initiatives for solving global problems. The Commonwealth provides to every government an outreach at the highest level in an atmosphere of intimacy that is invaluable. Consensus reached in Commonwealth councils on global matters and on issues of particular interest to the well-being of member states – individually, regionally and globally – can be taken into each of the regional and multilateral organisations of which Commonwealth countries are members, and into the UN and its agencies, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organisation. In this regard, the Commonwealth is a gift to its member states and to the world – and one which none of its member states should squander. The Commonwealth will never be a conventionally powerful organisation and it should not aim to be – it is not a military or economic grouping. However, it can be an association of considerable influence for good in its countries, individually and collectively, as well as for the international community. Commonwealth members will not always agree, but there will be substantial consensus on key issues, related to economic and social development as well as international political issues, for the Commonwealth to advance a common agenda within its member countries and in the broader global community. Its role in the future should be mutual support for its member states to meet the challenges that confront them as well as acting together to help solve the major issues in the world. What are three key global challenges that you believe the Commonwealth should prioritise? The global community is faced with many challenges. Three of the most pressing are: • Terrorism and conflict, always resulting in victimising those who have the least in society • Extreme inequality within and between nations, resulting in continuing poverty and debt, unemployment, intolerance and the exploitation of women, young people and minorities

• Climate change, in particular the plight of small economies vulnerable to natural events from desertification to catastrophic storms, and to the imminent rising of the mean sea level. There are no simple answers to these challenges. However, significant progress can be achieved through establishing and enhancing democratic institutions, good governance and transparency; setting up and promoting systems of fair and just trade; the reform of the relevant fi nancial and development mechanisms; and the continuing development of mitigation, adaptation and fi nancing machinery to combat climate change. Sixty per cent of the Commonwealth’s 2.2 billion citizens are under the age of 30. How will you address this ‘Young Commonwealth’? The Commonwealth association provides a wonderful opportunity for young people to experience and learn from its different levels of political, social and economic development. Our young people should be given structured opportunities to travel to, and work in, Commonwealth countries through study and work programmes,

CHOGM 2015 Report


CHOGM 2015 & The Commonwealth

Presenting the Eminent Persons Group’s report: A Commonwealth of the People: Time for Urgent Reform to the media in Australia, 2011.

The Commonwealth association provides a wonderful opportunity for young people to experience and learn from its different levels of political, social and economic development. organised by Commonwealth Universities and other organisations, that the Commonwealth Secretariat and the Commonwealth Foundation jointly support. Youth unemployment is high in the Commonwealth as a whole. There is no one set of reasons that account for this; each country is different. But, appropriate education and training are necessary throughout the Commonwealth, particularly with the growing rise of automation. The Secretary-General cannot make policies for individual countries or for the Commonwealth. Ministers responsible for Youth and Heads of Government would determine Commonwealth policies and work programmes. The Secretary-General should make sure that, through informed and expert studies, ministers and Heads of Government are aware of technological and other developments that could provide platforms for appropriate training and education; entrepreneurial development including financing; and job creation. The Commonwealth should be seen to mean something to the young who are not only its future, but also its present.


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What are the major challenges of the Commonwealth as an organisation? How would you tackle them? The Commonwealth faces two major, interrelated problems. The first is a lack of financial resources. The second is a recent North-South divisiveness that weakens the association whose great strength has been its capacity to mould diversity into consensus – to be flexible in the pursuit of common and vital goals. Both issues have to be tackled. More resources have to be mobilised on the basis of beneficial performance that can be measured, and the emphasis must be placed on meeting development challenges within a framework of democracy and political stability that encourages investment and trade. The machinery of the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings has lost its effectiveness and attraction. Fewer Heads of Government are attending Summit meetings and the ‘retreat’ – the mechanism in which they alone talked freely and frankly with each other on a range of crucial issues – has been weakened. A new and different approach has to be taken to encounters of Heads of Government. I would unfold ideas and initiatives at the appropriate time to reinvigorate interest and participation in such encounters and to make them meaningful. What is your perspective on the Secretary-General’s role? I have a unique breadth of senior experience of the Commonwealth, and a strong vision of it being more relevant and effective for its member states and an influence for progress in the global community. The essential tasks at hand are healing rifts, rebuilding confidence and consensus, restructuring machinery and lifting the profile of the Commonwealth, if the association is to continue to play a dynamic role in the development of

CHOGM 2015 & The Commonwealth

its member states and to contribute to solving shared global problems. These tasks require experience of the operations of the Commonwealth Secretariat, knowledge of the statecraft that has made the voluntary association work in the past, and the capacity to re-enthuse all member states to make it work effectively again. I would strengthen the Commonwealthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s proďŹ le both within the Commonwealth family and outside it. Therefore, I would consult as often as practicable with Commonwealth inter-governmental and nongovernmental organisations on ways to boost the Commonwealth as an organisation. I would also encourage cooperation and partnerships with kindred organisations such as La Francophonie and the Organisation of American States to establish areas of cooperation and partnerships that would boost joint activity and reduce costs while maintaining Commonwealth visibility.

Sir Ron with Charles, Prince of Wales and the then Commonwealth Secretary-General, Sir Don McKinnon.

About you Full name, and how you like to be referred to Sir Ronald Sanders, KCMG, KCN Sir Ron Nationality Citizen of Antigua and Barbuda What are your career highlights? I have served for two periods on the Board of Governors of the Commonwealth Secretariat, and on the Board of Governors of the Commonwealth Foundation. I worked as an active member of the Commonwealth Committee on Southern Africa, and was one of three High Commissioners elected by my peers to liaise with the UN Committee against Apartheid. I served as a special adviser to the Commonwealth Secretariat and the World Bank on small states, and worked as a member and the Rapporteur of the Commonwealth Eminent Persons Group (EPG) commissioned by Heads of Government to report on reform of the Commonwealth. I drafted the report of the Group which formed the basis for the restructuring of the Commonwealth and its current strategic plan. As a diplomat, I have served as an ambassador with cabinet rank, and chief negotiator for numerous treaties and agreements. I have been an elected member of the governing Board of UNESCO, and ambassador and negotiator at the World Trade Organization for small and vulnerable economies. I am the only ambassador of a small state to lead successfully a trade dispute at the WTO against any country (in this case, the USA). I am currently Ambassador to the United States of America and the Organisation of American States. I have been Chairman of the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force, and I have worked with the Financial Action Task Force and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. I have been Deputy Permanent Representative to the United Nations and non-resident Ambassador to the Commission of the European Union. In business, I have been a general manager, a chief negotiator and a company director of telecommunications organisations in Guyana, Barbados, Belize and the United 5VCVGUĆ&#x2019;PCPEKCNKPUVKVWVKQPUKP#PVKIWCCPF$CTDWFCCPF Geneva; a sustainable forestry company in Guyana; and

consultant on public-private sector partnerships to a leading NGICNĆ&#x2019;TOKP%CPCFC As an academic, I have been a Senior Fellow at the Institute of Commonwealth Studies, University of London, and also a Senior Fellow at Massey College, University of Toronto. My published works on the Commonwealth in books, journals and newspapers are widely cited throughout the Commonwealth. This was recognised by the award of an honorary Doctor of Letters (D.Litt) by the University of the West Indies. :KDW̧YHZRUGVZRXOG\RXXVHWRGHVFULEH\RXUVHOI" Good listener, deep thinker, decisive. Who do you most admire, and why? Four people embody what I most admire in the human spirit â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mother Teresa, Dr Martin Luther King Jr, Nelson Mandela and Mahatma Gandhi. They all combined endurance and tolerance, selflessness and forgiveness with political acumen and determination. Where is your favourite place in the world, and why? I come from a multi-cultural and multi-racial background. I am comfortable anywhere in the world and enjoy different human interactions and cultures. Why are you suited to the role of Commonwealth SecretaryGeneral? I have worked with governments at the highest level. I understand the challenges that governments face. My practical experience of the Commonwealth, as well as my scholarship on its evolution and its work, give me informed insight into the challenges and opportunities before it. I also have a deep appreciation of the aspirations of civil society within the Commonwealth family and the strengths they can bring to a collective agenda for improving the lives of Commonwealth people. My experience, knowledge and determination to make the Commonwealth relevant and meaningful are a platform for building consensus in the organisation and for helping to ETGCVGCRTQITCOOGQHYQTMVJCVYKNNFGNKXGTDGPGĆ&#x2019;VUVJCVCTG measurable and recognisable.

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CHOGM 2015 & The Commonwealth

An interview with

Patricia Scotland Your vision for the Commonwealth What do you believe is the role of the Commonwealth in the 21st century, and where does its future lie? The Commonwealth, rejuvenated and made fit for purpose, has a powerful transformational role to play in the 21st century – a role derived from its uniqueness as a family of nations where diversity is strength, understanding builds tolerance and respect, and partnerships create platforms for all our citizens to prosper. I see a Commonwealth advocating on behalf of all of its members, but particularly those who have historically had little or no political voice or economic clout; a Commonwealth that provides the platform for partnerships from which all of its members, large and small, developed and developing, will benefit; a Commonwealth that is a catalyst for the development of its members; a Commonwealth that commands respect from the international community for the stand it takes on global issues, and those of particular importance to its members; finally, a Commonwealth which has the power to bring together resources – human, intellectual and financial – for the benefit of all its members. What are three key global challenges that you believe the Commonwealth should prioritise? We live in a troubled and troubling world. Over the last 21 months, I have had the privilege of speaking and listening to a broad cross-section of political, diplomatic and civil society representatives of Commonwealth member states so as to better identify those issues which are capable of forming the basis of joint action. It is clear to me that the Commonwealth has the ability to provide a platform for beneficial change for its citizens if we the member states choose to work in partnership and focus upon deliverable outcomes. The Commonwealth has the opportunity to be the advocate, partner, convenor and facilitator for innovative collaboration among its membership and with external actors, crafting solutions to common problems. In these discussions, three principal themes have emerged: Climate change is the greatest challenge facing all of us, and existential for some of us. The most recent examples of the devastation caused in the Pacific and in the Caribbean demonstrate the vulnerability of most of our countries to extreme events. As an organisation, the Commonwealth must bring our actions together to provide a common response and to play an important advocacy role as a


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voice for its members. It is in carrying the fight to the political front for change and for the provision of adequate fi nancing, as well as bringing technical expertise to bear on the measures for adaptation and mitigation, that the Commonwealth can make its greatest contribution. Empowerment of women and young people: taking action on this is a great passion of mine and has been a key part of my life’s work. It has therefore been inspiring that the issue has become an urgent priority for governments across the Commonwealth, which are addressing it as a way to increase security in their communities, reduce cost to government and drive potential capacity in the economy. Empowering women is not only a moral imperative, it is an economic and developmental necessity if we are to have secure families, well-nurtured children and vibrant sustainable economies.

I see a Commonwealth advocating on behalf of all of its members, but particularly those who have historically had little or no political voice or economic clout.


CHOGM 2015 & The Commonwealth

Baroness Scotland with the Hon Roosevelt Skerrit, Prime Minister of Dominica, and the Hon Francine Baron, Foreign Minister of Dominica.

Enhancing legal systems: the rule of law and the capacity of a country’s legal system impact every area of its society. In a time of such rapid global changes, new legal questions are constantly arising, such as in matters of international trade, financial services, maritime delimitation, energy or mineral extraction. For small countries to hold their own and succeed in this environment, when other actors have such resources, is exceptionally challenging. Our shared legal heritage gives us great scope to develop common law Commonwealth models of best practice which can then be tailored to a specific country or region enabling them to make better informed decisions. Models of best practice can also be developed to deal with issues such as gender equality, violence against women, corruption and asset recovery. Sixty per cent of the Commonwealth’s 2.2 billion citizens are under the age of 30. How will you address this ‘Young Commonwealth’? I have always been passionate about young people. As a mother of two sons, I always want to make sure young people can look to the future with hope and have every chance to explore the outer reaches of their potential. Given the demographics of the Commonwealth, it is critical that we make proper provision for this change in generational dynamics now. I would like to see a programme for young people that focuses on four strands: • Ensuring young people’s health, which has such a determining influence on their future • Enhancing education systems, for example through the provision of greater access to online platforms to facilitate distance learning and share Commonwealth experiences across regions • Enabling school-to-work transition by creating access to work-related skills development which will enhance their ability to take advantage of their innate creativity and entrepreneurial skills

• Increasing connections among the Commonwealth’s young people to promote mutual understanding, by exploring opportunities to bring groups from different regions together to share genuine Commonwealth experiences which will meld a sharpened sense of Commonwealth identity. What are the major challenges of the Commonwealth as an organisation? How would you tackle them? The Commonwealth’s challenges are well known, be it the tapering of fi nancial resources, the lessening engagement of member states and the crowded international schedule. For the most part, these are consequences of its struggle to fi nd a unique role in the world and to therefore deliver distinct value to its members. A fi rst step is to create, through consultation, a shared vision that can be embraced by all 53 members, of what the Commonwealth is, and what our success will entail. The next step is the transformation of the Secretariat so that a dynamic, transparent and consultative environment is forged – with fair assessment processes and leadership development – that can attract the best and brightest talent from across the Commonwealth. I bring to the table the successful experiences I have had in reforming large-scale organisations and systems; and I am confident that reform is achievable if members choose to work together in partnership Current challenges and tensions within the Commonwealth, which manifest themselves in the sharp North-South divide over policy priorities and over the comparative management of the human rights and development mandates, are soluble. The most pressing task for the next Secretary-General, therefore, will be to help rebuild trust, to assist in the restoration of the frank and collegial dialogue which was once the hallmark of the Heads’ retreat, and to give new purpose and direction to the relationship with Commonwealth

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CHOGM 2015 & The Commonwealth

High Commissioners. As I hail from a small island developing state, and have worked in the government of one of the larger countries in the Commonwealth, I understand both sides of this relationship and have a keen appreciation not only of the tensions but also the sources and catalysts for partnership, which I believe should be our starting point for greater comity. What is your perspective on the Secretary-Generalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s role? This is a pivotal moment for change. Effective leadership will be critical. To achieve real change the next SecretaryGeneral must have the ability to: â&#x20AC;˘ Use the convening power of the Secretary-General to bring countries together to identify and deliver beneďŹ ts to all member states â&#x20AC;˘ Reform the Commonwealthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s institutions to ensure they have the capacity to deliver â&#x20AC;˘ Champion the Commonwealth and project its values â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and its value â&#x20AC;&#x201C; to the world â&#x20AC;˘ Do so in a cost-effective, transparent and balanced manner.

The Secretary-General must be someone who can engage and collaborate effectively with Heads of Government, and their principal representatives; someone who knows how to listen, to ďŹ nd common ground for meaningful action, to motivate the team, and to implement. The role of the Secretary-General therefore requires a people-centric approach and experience of delivery. Â&#x201E;

About you Full name, and how you like to be referred to Full name: Patricia Janet Scotland Refer to as: The Rt Hon. Patricia Scotland QC

:KDW̧YHZRUGVZRXOG\RXXVHWRGHVFULEH\RXUVHOI" Mother and wife; Catholic; passionate; change-maker; teamplayer.

Nationality Dominican by birth, Antiguan by descent and British by operation of law

Who do you most admire, and why Nelson Mandela, for his humility, his spirituality, his passion for the cause of not only his country but of mankind, and, above all, for the example of humanity that he has set for the rest of the world. He had a dramatic and lasting impact upon me as a child from the age of six, and this inspiration continues.

Age 60 years. What are your career highlights? â&#x20AC;˘ $  GKPIVJG[QWPIGUVCPFĆ&#x2019;TUVDNCEMYQOCPVQDGCRRQKPVGF Bencher of the Middle Temple â&#x20AC;˘ Becoming the youngest QC since William Pitt the Younger â&#x20AC;˘ $  GEQOKPIVJGĆ&#x2019;TUVDNCEMCPFVJGĆ&#x2019;TUVHGOCNG#VVQTPG[ General since 1315 â&#x20AC;˘ $  GKPIVJGĆ&#x2019;TUVDNCEMYQOCPVQDGCRRQKPVGF*KIJ%QWTV Judge â&#x20AC;˘ $  GKPIVJGĆ&#x2019;TUVHGOCNG%Q2TGUKFGPVQH%JCVJCO*QWUG â&#x20AC;˘ Reducing domestic violence in the UK by 64 per cent while CVVJG7-*QOG1HĆ&#x2019;EG â&#x20AC;˘ Creating the Corporate Alliance Against Domestic Violence in 2005 and the Global Foundation for the Elimination of Domestic Violence in 2011 â&#x20AC;˘ Being able to contribute to the Caribbean directly but also as an advocate and supporter in policy matters concerning that region â&#x20AC;˘ Becoming Chair of HMG Advisory Group in 1997 which led to the creation of the UKâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;Caribbean Forum in 1998 â&#x20AC;˘ The conferment of an Honorary Doctorate of Laws by the University of the West Indies in 2008, in recognition of my contribution to the Caribbean â&#x20AC;˘ Winning the Caribbean World Award in 2008 â&#x20AC;˘ Having the honour of being nominated by the government of Dominica for the post of Commonwealth SecretaryGeneral.


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Where is your favourite place in the world, and why? My Caribbean â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a multi-faceted diamond. This region is not only welcoming from a tourism point of view, but with its multi-ethnic, multi-cultural and multi-religious heritage has a story to tell to the rest of the world of living together in peace and with tolerance and respect for each other. Why are you suited to the role of Commonwealth Secretary-General? +RQUUGUUVJGHQNNQYKPISWCNKVKGUCPFSWCNKĆ&#x2019;ECVKQPUYJKEJ among other things, would be an asset to the Commonwealth: â&#x20AC;˘ My experience of and contribution to the developing world of the Caribbean as well as the developed world of the UK, and my work in the rest of the Commonwealth which equip me to be a bridge-builder â&#x20AC;˘ My proven ability to transform institutions through leadership, transparency and consultation â&#x20AC;˘ My experience as a Minister of Cabinet rank and with responsibility for thousands of employees and billion RQWPFDWFIGVUYJKEJGSWKRUOGVQOCPCIGYKVJĆ&#x2019;UECN responsibility â&#x20AC;˘ My international and global experience within government, the private sector and civil society gained over the years.

Building a brighter future for the most vulnerable people in the Commonwealth: An opportunity that cannot be missed by Joel Spicer President, Micronutrient Initiative United by a shared set of values that include the promotion of democracy, human rights, good governance and with an aim to ‘bequeath to our young a life of liberty, dignity and prosperity, Commonwealth Heads of Government have a tremendous opportunity in front of them as they meet in Malta. These leaders of 53 diverse countries are coming together under the theme ‘Adding Global Value’, and examining how to

That issue is malnutrition. While the Commonwealth is home to more than 2.3 billion people and is worth over $10 trillion in global GDP, more than half of the world’s child deaths happen in its member countries every year. In almost half of those 3.5 million deaths, undernutrition is the underlying cause. In addition, more than 103 million children XQGHU¿YH\HDUVRIDJHLQ&RPPRQZHDOWK

By coming together on this issue, Commonwealth leaders can literally change the lives of millions and accelerate progress toward a malnutrition-free world. strengthen the Commonwealth and LQFUHDVHLWVSRVLWLYHLQÀXHQFHLQWKHZRUOG I believe the strongest measure of their commitment to those shared values and the most compelling example they can set for the rest of the world will be their collective action to transform the lives of their most vulnerable people.

nations suffer from stunted growth. That’s a staggering number of children who are not only short for their age, but face threats to their future health and wellbeing that aren’t as visible. Stunted children may never learn, or earn, as much as they could have if they had been properly nourished early in life.

Commonwealth nations have the collective power to save and improve millions of lives. To achieve that, they must directly address a fundamental issue that is robbing so many of their children of their full potential and in turn, inhibiting the growth and future of the Commonwealth.

Commonwealth countries have the power to change this grim reality and while many are taking action, there is much more to be done. Positive signs of progress are coming from donor countries like the UK, Canada and Australia as they increasingly put nutrition at the forefront

of development efforts. G20 leaders such as India and other countries like Tanzania are also realizing that when they prioritize and invest in nutrition as a critical step in breaking the cycle of poverty, the positive knock-on effects to productivity, education, and the economy build a solid foundation for growth. By coming together on this issue, Commonwealth leaders can literally change the lives of millions and accelerate progress toward a malnutrition-free world. All it takes is the leadership to transform the Commonwealth’s values into meaningful collective action, and commit to investing where it matters most. When the whole is greater than the sum of its parts – that’s when the strength of the Commonwealth shines on the entire world; and the world could use more light. The Micronutrient Initiative is a Canadian-based, international notIRUSUR¿WRUJDQL]DWLRQGHGLFDWHGWR HQVXULQJWKHZRUOG¶VPRVWYXOQHUDEOH ²HVSHFLDOO\ZRPHQDQGFKLOGUHQ²LQ GHYHORSLQJFRXQWULHVJHWWKHYLWDPLQV DQGPLQHUDOVWKH\QHHGWRVXUYLYHDQG WKULYH0,UHDFKHVPLOOLRQSHRSOH every year in 70 countries.

Together we can end hidden hunger

The New Sustainable Development Agenda

Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development 1PVJGVJ5GRVGODGT70OGODGTUVCVGUTCVKÆ&#x2019;GFVJGINQDCNIQCNU



CHOGM 2015 Report

The New Sustainable Development Agenda



CHOGM 2015 Report

43 43

The New Sustainable Development Agenda



n Friday 25 September, world leaders at the UN adopted the new 2013 Agenda for Sustainable Development, including the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This is a historic moment for all of us, but in particular a watershed moment for the young generation who will realise and shape the future. These 17 goals present a shared vision for humanity, and set the course of the world for the next 15 years, so that all will have a life of dignity by ending poverty, addressing inequalities and bending the curve on climate change. The SDGs set an action plan for change that delivers on ďŹ ve integrated key areas: people, planet, prosperity, peace and partnership. These goals bridge the gap between what the world is and what it should be. The SDGs vs the MDGs The Millennium Development Goals are the greatest and most successful anti-poverty campaign in history. They have improved the lives of the poorest in developing countries. But poverty and inequalities exist in every corner, both within and between countries. The new Sustainable Development Goals will build on the

The New Sustainable Development Agenda

success of the previous Millennium Development Goals because they are: â&#x20AC;˘ Universal â&#x20AC;&#x201C; they work to improve the lives of everyone, everywhere, and to leave no one behind. Thus, they require all countries to look within themselves and act. For instance: this is as much about people across the river in South Bronx, to other places across the USA, Latin America, Europe, Africa, Asia, everywhere. â&#x20AC;˘ Integrated â&#x20AC;&#x201C; they tackle social, economic and environmental challenges to address root causes, not just symptoms. For instance: women and girls suffering discrimination at the nexus of food, energy and water. â&#x20AC;˘ Transformative â&#x20AC;&#x201C; they require a new way of doing business, in particular partnerships. For instance: holding all nations and partners accountable for making progress and taking actions. Outcomes of the Agenda and SDGs The SDGs represent the means to our vision of a world where rights for all are honoured; where people live in dignity; where our common home is protected; where we share prosperity with strengthened universal peace in a world free from fear and violence; and where we work together in partnership to end all poverty and inequality. In short, a world on a sustainable path, where all people thrive regardless of their age, race, sex, opinion, sexual orientation, income status or disability. What will it take to achieve this world? The sustainable development agenda marks a paradigm shift in how we approach global development. It is not about averages any more â&#x20AC;&#x201C; because we will leave no one behind. This means a global agenda that delivers local results. This agenda will not be prescriptive, with developed nations directing where funds should go in developing countries. Now we need all stakeholders, at all levels, across sectors, industries, platforms, in genuine partnerships â&#x20AC;&#x201C; partnerships between government, business, entrepreneurs, civil society, people â&#x20AC;&#x201C; including young people.


The SDGs were four years in the making between 193 countries with open, transparent and inclusive consultations with civil society, business and people around the world. We now need the same open, transparent and inclusive dialogue between all stakeholders, country by country, on how to implement the SDGs. Other key factors in realising the SDGs include: â&#x20AC;˘ Money â&#x20AC;&#x201C; all resources, public, private, national and international, need to be mobilised and unlocked. â&#x20AC;˘ Innovation and technology â&#x20AC;&#x201C; we must make use of the assets today, and share them so that all can beneďŹ t. For instance: we must integrate them into our current approaches â&#x20AC;&#x201C; including big data and disaggregated data â&#x20AC;&#x201C; to see the impact on women and children migrants to make their challenges visible for evidence-based decision-making and actions. Communications and media profoundly shape and impact our lives in multifaceted ways. Modern communications have become part of our culture and will shape the SDGs in an unprecedented way. We need the goals at the forefront of our consciousness. A call to action The SDGs will transform our world but we must act now. The SDGs belong to all of us, and to achieve them we need everyone to take action. Young people are the torchbearers of this agenda, grounded in an intergenerational partnership with current leaders to build a legacy of shared prosperity, social justice and respect for the planet. It will take the actions of brave and determined young people, who have the courage to speak truth to power, ďŹ ght for the world as it should be and be the torchbearers of sustainable development. I call on people of all generations to keep engaging, keep being determined, and help to turn the world we want into a reality. Because this is the story you and I are shaping together. We must leave no one behind. Â&#x201E;


CHOGM 2015 Report



This is the problem that the Dangote Foundation is focused on solving.

HISTORY In 1994, Aliko Dangote formally registered the Dangote Foundation as a charitable foundation, with the aim of bringing relief and support to the poorest people in Nigeria. Each year around 300,000 deaths are attributable to undernutrition, with a further ten million children experiencing stunted growth. These

Ă&#x20AC;JXUHVHTXDOQHDUO\SHUFHQWRI FKLOGUHQXQGHUWKHDJHRIĂ&#x20AC;YH8QGHU nourished children are more likely to die of diseases such as diarrhea and malaria, are less likely to succeed in school and are less likely to be SURGXFWLYHDGXOWVDVDUHVXOW 6XFKDODUJHVFDOHSUREOHPLV an important impediment to the GHYHORSPHQWRIDQDWLRQ3URSHU nutrition is an issue that cuts across the areas of health, education and economic empowerment. It is for these reasons that Dangote Foundationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mandate is to tackle this problem, and to operate programmes DQGSURYLGHJUDQWVWRRUJDQLVDWLRQV ZKLFKLPSOHPHQWLQLWLDWLYHV VXSSRUWLQJWKLVYLVLRQDQGVWUDWHJ\RI the Foundation.

OPERATIONS 2YHUWKHSDVWWKUHH\HDUVWKH'DQJRWH )RXQGDWLRQKDVEHHQLQYROYHGLQ SURYLGLQJUHOLHIDQGVXSSRUWZRUWK more than 20 Billion Naira and has grown to extend its reach past Nigeria to other countries in Africa,

and beyond. The Foundation has also been able to maximise its impact through strategic partnerships with *RYHUQPHQWVDQGRWKHUVWDNHKROGHUV One such partnership is in collaboration with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Health, Sanitation and Nutrition â&#x20AC;˘ Ebola Support: Established a response centre, deployed detection scanners at airports and GRQDWHGWRWKH$IULFDQ8QLRQ (ERODUHVSRQVHHIIRUWVWRWDO N906m â&#x20AC;˘ Polio Eradication: 3DUWQHUHGZLWKWKH*DWHV Foundation to strengthen routine immunisation of FKLOGUHQZLWKDYLHZWR eradicate polio (N1.3bn) â&#x20AC;˘ Measles Control: 'RQDWHG1PWR81,&() to support the response to a measles outbreak in 614 LGAs

,QRUGHUWRVXSSRUWWKHYLFWLPVRI natural disasters across the world, the Foundation expanded its mandate to include humanitarian relief. So far VXSSRUWKDVEHHQSURYLGHGDIWHUWKH HDUWKTXDNHLQ3DNLVWDQWRWKH $IULFDQ8QLRQWKURXJKRXWWKH(EROD

Education â&#x20AC;˘ School Construction: 6XSSRUWWRYDULRXVSURMHFWV including: N640m for Bayero 8QLYHUVLW\.DQR1P IRU2WXRNH8QLYHUVLW\ %D\HOVDDQGFRQVWUXFWLRQ of two dormitories in Wama, Tanzania â&#x20AC;˘ Scholarships: Various scholarships to LQGLYLGXDOVDQGRUJDQLVDWLRQV including: N19m to the Sultan 'HYHORSPHQW,QLWLDWLYH1P WRVWXGHQWVRI-DPHV+RSH &ROOHJH$JERU'HOWD6WDWH and N234m to Gordon and Sarah Brownâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s GBC

â&#x20AC;˘ Private Sector Health Alliance of Nigera (PSHAN): )RXQGLQJ3DWURQDQG)XQGHU (N130m)

epidemic, towards easing the refugee crisis in the Republic of Niger and to 1HSDODIWHUWKHGHYDVWDWLQJHDUWKTXDNH this year. 2WKHUVHOHFWHGLQWHUYHQWLRQVRIWKH Foundation include:

Women and Youth Empowerment

Disaster Relief

â&#x20AC;˘ Dangote Micro Grants: 3URYLGLQJ1FDVK transfer to poor women in all 774 LGAs

Select donations include:

â&#x20AC;˘ Dangote-BOI Job Creation Programme: Established a jobs fund with the Bank of Industry to lend to manufacturing sector 60(VZLWKDYLHZWRFUHDWH million jobs

â&#x20AC;˘ N364m to support SRVWHOHFWLRQYLROHQFH rehabilitation efforts

â&#x20AC;˘ WEF Young Global Leaders African Fellowship Programme: Established a fellowship programme to support Africans selected to the YGL ZKRZRUNLQWKHQRQSURĂ&#x20AC;W sector



ENDOWMENT In March 2014, Aliko Dangote donated $1.25bn to the Foundation. This is the single largest philanthropic endowment by an African to date, and makes the 'DQJRWH)RXQGDWLRQWKHODUJHVWSULYDWH Foundation in Africa. %XVLQHVVHVZLWKLQWKHRYHUDOO'DQJRWH *URXSOHYHUDJHWKH)RXQGDWLRQWR execute their planned CSR programmes, ZKLFKDUHEDVHGRQWKHLURZQREMHFWLYHV DQGSURYLGHWKHLURZQVHSDUDWH funding for the implementation of WKHVHSURJUDPPHV+RZHYHUDV\RX would expect, such sectoral CSR focus for the Groupâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s businesses does not VLJQLĂ&#x20AC;FDQWO\GLIIHUHQWIURPWKDWRIWKH Foundation, and which is why Dangote business units partner with the Foundation for support in designing and implementing their CSR programmes.

The Dangote Foundation Board. Standing (l-r): Aigboje Aig-Imoukhuede, Sani Dangote, Yvonne Ike, A.B. Mahmoud, Olakunle Alake. Seated (l-r): Zouera Youssoufou (MD/CEO), Halima Dangote, Aliko Dangote (Chairman), Erelu Adebayo, Hajara Adeola.

The New Sustainable Development Agenda

Advancing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in the Commonwealth Dr Josephine Ojiambo, Deputy Secretary-General (Political) at the Commonwealth Secretariat, details the synergies and linkages between Commonwealth initiatives and innovations and the recently-agreed Sustainable Development Goals, JKIJNKIJVKPICTGCUKPYJKEJOGODGTUVCVGUECPDGPGƒVHTQO the Commonwealth’s unique advantages.


he Commonwealth has taken an active role in the preparation of the 2030 Agenda. In the run up to this landmark, Commonwealth leaders came together, more than a year ago, in New York and issued a Commonwealth Statement on the post2015 Development Agenda. The perspectives of the leaders reflected in the statement were based on the shared values and principles of the Commonwealth. The leaders’ statement recognised poverty eradication as the overarching focus of the post-2015 Development Agenda and reaffirmed their commitment to sustainable development. Commonwealth leaders noted: “The new agenda must tackle the causes of poverty, exclusion and inequality. We acknowledge the importance of sustainable development for all individuals, and have committed ourselves to eliminate disparities and make growth more inclusive for all, including women and girls, youth, vulnerable groups and people with disabilities.


CHOGM 2015 Report

“The post-2015 Development Agenda should address the importance of peaceful and stable societies, and effective and accountable institutions at all levels, for poverty eradication and sustainable development. “We call for a strong and inclusive global partnership to support the means of implementation of the Post-2015 Development Agenda, which optimises the mobilisation of all forms of development finance and ensures their effective use for sustainable development.” The launch of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development represents an event that we, at the Commonwealth Secretariat, have been preparing for, especially in the road ahead for the member states. The agreement on the 2030 Agenda is particularly timely given the fact that, just two months after its adoption, Commonwealth Heads are meeting in Malta. This is followed immediately by the 2015 Paris Climate Conference (COP21), a seminal conference aimed at achieving a universal agreement on climate. The

The New Sustainable Development Agenda


impact of climate change is a major issue for us at the Commonwealth Secretariat, and is a prominent agenda item for Commonwealth Heads. We, at the Secretariat, continually seek to add value to the global discourse. The 2030 Agenda provides an opportunity to play an important global leadership and policy role based on our shared values. The 2030 Agenda provides the appropriate framework for the Commonwealth Secretariat to advance the sustainable development of our member countries in the political, economic, social and environmental spheres, using our niche policy work, expert placement, convening power and research capacity. Much global progress has been made as a result of the adoption of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs); however, there is still much unďŹ nished business to attend to, particularly for women and girls. Additionally, the rising levels of inequality add to the challenges posed by climate change. The Secretariat pays close attention to this situation, particularly in regard to small and vulnerable

The 2030 Agenda provides the appropriate framework for the Commonwealth Secretariat to advance the sustainable development of our member countries. member states. Because the MDGs did not effectively address the factors that underpin gender inequality, the SDG framework provides a strong and explicit commitment to gender equality that will seek to transform outcomes for women and girls.

CHOGM 2015 Report


The New Sustainable Development Agenda

Financing the necessary climate action is an issue that is currently challenging all developing countries. Enlarging the Commonwealth space The ambitious and holistic nature of the 2030 Agenda, cross-cutting social, environmental and governance issues, has created space for the Commonwealth to play a more prominent, role in the development of its 53 member countries, especially its 31 ‘small state’ members. There are strong linkages between the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the strategic priorities of the Commonwealth Secretariat’s Strategic Plan 2013/2014– 2016/2017. These links are in the areas of gender equality, the rule of law, in oceans governance and in the need for strong and capable institutions. The Strategic Plan’s goal on ‘strengthening democracy, rule of law, promotion and protection of human rights and respect for diversity’ is directly linked to two of the plan’s strategic outcomes: • Democracy – which is greater adherence to Commonwealth political values and principles – and • Public institutions – which translates into more effective, efficient and equitable public governance. There is synergy between these outcomes and SDG16, which calls for the promotion of “peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development”, the provision of “access to justice for all”, and the building of “effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels”. Financing climate change actions To achieve sustainable development, small and vulnerable countries need financing to implement actions to move towards low-carbon, climate resilient economies. Yet, financing the necessary climate action is an issue that is currently challenging all developing countries. The international community has acknowledged this and has pledged to mobilise up to US$100 billion annually by the year 2020 for climate adaptation and mitigation. In 2013, the Commonwealth Expert Group on Climate Finance found that small island developing states (SIDS), least developed countries (LDCs) and other countries in Africa are among the most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. In light of this, the Commonwealth is supporting the establishment of a mechanism that will help unlock access to climate finance. This will take the form of a Climate Finance Access Hub, which will enable access to resources for urgent adaptation and mitigation actions in the most vulnerable states, by adding critical strategic capacity at the national and regional level. In addition, the Commonwealth has long recognised that traditional financing cannot generate the resources to meet the needs of our member states. Commonwealth Finance Ministers have indicated the importance of innovative financing for development and have pledged


CHOGM 2015 Report

their commitment to support a number of new financing initiatives. Consequently, the Commonwealth has proposed the pioneering Multilateral Debt for Climate Swaps initiative, which also aims to unlock funds to finance climate change adaptation and mitigation projects. It is anticipated that this will assist Commonwealth small states to safeguard themselves against climate change while simultaneously reducing their debt burdens. With regard to debt, it is important to recognise that there should be a facility which allows small vulnerable countries the ability to suspend debt payments when facing adverse economic shocks or natural disasters. Further, such counter-cyclical loans take into consideration the realities of small and vulnerable states. Promoting the rule of law (SDG 16) The Secretariat works within Commonwealth countries to promote the rule of law at national and international levels, and ensure equal access to justice for all, public access to information and the protection of fundamental freedoms, in accordance with national legislations and international agreements. The Secretariat supports its member states to undertake a number of programmes to achieve these outcomes, and has developed manuals, model legislation and toolkits to assist in the implementation of international obligations, and strengthen regimes against transnational crimes. These tools have been made available online and through the Criminal Law Resources web page. The Commonwealth Secretariat also undertakes activities aimed at strengthening the institutional capacity of departments of law and justice in a number of countries at both organisational and individual levels. At the individual level, this is done through the training of lawyers and other legal officers and through mentoring. This mentoring scheme is practice-oriented and demand-driven. It involves the placement of criminal justice officials of a member country lacking capacity in a specified thematic area, in the office of their equivalents in the jurisdiction of a member state with that capacity. The scheme aims to enable the exchange of ideas in the administration of criminal justice and share challenges and best practices both in the foundational aspects of running an effective criminal justice system as well as the specialist skills needed to tackle complex crime. At the organisational level, assistance is usually aimed at

Within the context of the rule of law, the Commonwealth is advancing approaches aimed at countering violence and radicalisation through the promotion of ‘Civil Paths to Peace’.

The New Sustainable Development Agenda


strengthening processes, practices and procedures within the judicial and legal system. More recent innovative areas of focus are those of cybercrime and ending radicalisation. The Commonwealth Cybercrime Initiative (CCI) was launched early in 2015; in this the Secretariat acts as a convener for 40 members comprising international organisations, corporate entities, professional organisations, academic institutions and civil society organisations, to coordinate anti-cybercrime efforts in Commonwealth states. Within the context of the rule of law, the Commonwealth is advancing approaches aimed at countering violence and radicalisation through the promotion of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Civil Paths to Peaceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. Based on the narrative in the Civil Paths to Peace initiative the Commonwealth is advancing three practical responses to contemporary violence: â&#x20AC;˘ The development of alternative narratives as a response to processes of violence, including in particular violent extremism â&#x20AC;˘ Criminal justice measures, and â&#x20AC;˘ Democratisation, development and platforms for dialogue. No one of these responses is more important than the others; they are each part of the necessary recognition that different aspects of violence prevention require different solutions, with each component contributing to a cohesive response. Leaving no one behind â&#x20AC;&#x201C; gender inequalities and empowerment To reiterate the Commonwealth intervention at the United Nations General Assembly on SDGs, â&#x20AC;&#x153;We believe that gender equality is essential to the new development

agenda. Womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s leadership is central to achieving the SDGs â&#x20AC;&#x201C; women must have equal access to social and economic resources, and a voice in governance and political development.â&#x20AC;? An inaugural Womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Forum is being held in Malta at this yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Heads of Government meeting. The forum aims to raise the awareness on womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s issues in the Commonwealth, and to showcase how the contribution of the one billion women in the Commonwealth can have a positive impact politically, economically and socially on sustainable development. In support of this aim, the Womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Forum has been aptly themed â&#x20AC;&#x153;Women Ahead: Be All That You Can Beâ&#x20AC;?. The continued advocacy for gender equality and empowerment of women and girls in the SDG agenda will advance the Commonwealth goal to address inequality, discrimination against women and violence against women and girls. It will drive the momentum as we at the Secretariat advance womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s economic and political participation through practical solutions in, for example, the reform of electoral systems, strategic partnerships with National Womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Machineries, and development partners to achieve effective development results. The Secretariatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Human Rights Unit (HRU) works to support and strengthen National Human Rights Institutions (NHRI) in compliance with the Paris Principles. Our work contributes signiďŹ cantly to gender mainstreaming, advancing gender equality and the promotion and protection of the rights of women and girls. HRU has supported the establishment of NHRI in Barbados and Jamaica, and their strengthening in Seychelles, Swaziland and Sri Lanka. Strengthening of these NHRI also includes facilitating exchanges of good practice and networking through the Commonwealth Forum of National Human Rights Institutions (CFNHRI).

CHOGM 2015 Report


The New Sustainable Development Agenda


The Kigali Declaration sets out 17 practical actions for national human rights institutions to take forward and strengthen their efforts to prevent and eliminate CEFM in their respective countries’. In May 2015, under the auspices of CFNHRI, HRU convened a working session on child, early and forced marriage (CEFM) in Kigali, Rwanda. The session was aimed at sharing experiences and good practice examples of efforts to end CEFM, and to identify roles individual NHRI could play in preventing and eradicating CEFM. The session adopted the Kigali Declaration. The Kigali Declaration sets out 17 practical actions for national human rights institutions to take forward and strengthen their efforts to prevent and eliminate CEFM in their respective countries. In supporting member states in designing, implementing and evaluating human rights education (HRE) initiatives HRU has highlighted the gender equality component intrinsic to HRE as a process, ensuring that equal numbers of women and girls benefit from HRE initiatives.


CHOGM 2015 Report

Migration Another concern of the Secretariat is that of migration in the context of human rights. “Migration is an economic, political, humanitarian, demographic and moral issue. It is a public policy area of growing interest and concern.” The scope of migration is vast and touches on all areas of the workings of the Commonwealth, across the priorities of the Secretariat. A large number of accredited organisations, and most fundamentally the citizens of its 53 member states, are affected by the current migration dynamics and debates. Indeed, migration is so broad and multi-faceted as a dynamic that the term ‘migrant’, depending upon the context, may refer among others to “those seeking refugee status and asylum, those who are internally displaced by conflict, those who are displaced due to environmental degradation, those who move abroad for educational opportunities, victims of trafficking, or those who work or are seeking work outside their families” (Migration and the Commonwealth, HRU, 2015). To date, Commonwealth countries have not adopted a unified approach for engaging with global migration and its impacts. However, the Secretariat is preparing for discussions on this contemporary issue at CHOGM. Currently the Secretariat proposes to provide a space for discussion on public policy issues and to provide support to existing initiatives such as the Nansen Initiative. “The Secretariat acknowledges that given the expertise of other migration-focused bodies such as the IOM or UNHCR, deeper engagement should be balanced carefully against a consideration of the value addition the Commonwealth can bring.”

The New Sustainable Development Agenda

There is space for the Commonwealth to expand its role and operations in the oceans arena, and for us to continue being at the cutting edge of this development issue. Inclusive growth and sustainable development The Commonwealth is home to 2.2 billion citizens, a third of the world’s population, representing a diverse family of member states from both the developed and developing world. Sixty per cent of our 2.2 billion population is below the age of 30 years, and two-thirds of our member countries are small states. The Commonwealth grouping comprises some of the most dynamic countries and regions that are influencing the changes in the global development architecture. Asian Commonwealth developing countries are projected to witness their combined GDP rise from US$3.3 trillion to US$9 trillion, thus accounting for more than 41 per cent of Commonwealth GDP emanating from Asian Commonwealth nations by 2030. Five of our member countries are part of the G20, a group that plays a prominent role in deciding on global economic and financial issues. The BRICS grouping, which plays a prominent role in emerging economies, includes two of our member countries, India and South Africa. Trade development In specific areas of Commonwealth comparative advantage, such as trade, the SDGs assume a much stronger role than the Millennium Development Goals. The SDGs call for the conclusion of the Doha Round of trade negotiations in order to promote an open, nondiscriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system. The conclusion of these talks is a central focus for the trade initiatives of the Commonwealth. The talks call for the timely implementation of duty-free and quota-free market access on a lasting basis, including transparent and simple preferential rules of origin applicable to imports from LDCs. In an effort to boost economic growth through trade, the SDGs like the LDC-driven Istanbul Programme of Action (IPOA) also appeal for an increase in Aid for Trade support to developing countries, including through the Enhanced Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance. Other similarities between the SDGs and IPOA include the goal of doubling the share of LDCs’ exports in global exports by 2020, diversifying exports and reducing commodity dependence. In so doing, the SDGs have provided a new window of opportunity for donors and traders to better align their trade and development policies in view of global coherence. Our interventions supporting member

countries as they prepare for the 10th WTO Ministerial Conference (15-18 December 2015, in Nairobi, Kenya) will provide us with a platform to drive this agenda towards finding an effective and realistic approach to ensure that the SDG goals are translated into practical action by WTO members within the existing framework of multilateral trade rules. Oceans and natural resource management The global ocean market is estimated to be valued at approximately US$1,345 billion per annum, contributing about 2 per cent to world GDP. Approximately 350 million jobs globally are linked to the use of ocean space and resources through fishing, aquaculture, coastal and marine tourism, shipping and research activity. There has been an increasing global emphasis on the oceans in a maritime environment, and SDG 14 speaks to the recognition of the economic benefits, particularly to our small island states. There is space for the Commonwealth to expand its role and operations in the oceans arena, and for us to continue being at the cutting edge of this development issue. The Secretariat’s ocean and long-standing maritime boundary delimitation and continental shelf work programme have been delivering pioneering work. Our experts have supported member countries to settle at least 11 outstanding maritime boundary disputes, and lodge claims with the United Nations to secure rights to extensive areas of the continental shelf totalling more than 2 million sq km. We are also proud of our achievement in helping our small island states of Mauritius and Seychelles to establish the world’s largest offshore joint management zone covering an area of over 400,000 sq km. This work is set to continue, complemented by our increasing expertise and know-how in the natural resource management area. Within our mandate on natural resources, we have delivered, and will continue to deliver, advice on renewable energy to a number of member countries in Africa and the Caribbean, relevant to the achievement of SDG 7. Debt management Complementing these key areas in the 2030 Agenda, we will accelerate our assistance to member countries, and in particular small states, who are faced with debt sustainability challenges. The average debt burden of Commonwealth small states at the end of 2014 was 59 per cent of GDP, compared with the average of 41 per

We will accelerate our assistance to member countries, and in particular small states, who are faced with debt sustainability challenges. CHOGM 2015 Report


The New Sustainable Development Agenda

cent for emerging market and developing countries. Commonwealth small states are also spending a high proportion of their revenue on interest payments. The average interest to revenue ratio for Commonwealth small states in 2012 was 11 per cent, compared with the average for low to middle income countries of 5.3 per cent. Strengthening debt management capacity will provide debt managers with the requisite skills to manage each countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s debt portfolio. This, along with linking debt management to a clear macroeconomic framework, whereby policy-makers seek to ensure that the rate of growth of debt is consistent with ďŹ scal and monetary targets, is critical to achieving debt sustainability. Debt sustainability will provide ďŹ scal space for policymakers to invest resources in key economic sectors such as agriculture, education, health and infrastructure. Investing in these key areas will facilitate growth thereby, improving the social and economic outcomes for the citizens of member countries and assisting them to achieve the SDGs. Strengthening resilience The Commonwealth has long been recognised as a champion of small states. With the SDGs, we will continue to draw international attention to the inherent vulnerabilities of small states, advocating and promoting vigorously researched evidence-based policies and programmes to enable our small states to strengthen their resilience. Working strategically with our development partners, we will utilise our internationally accepted resilience framework to guide national policies and development priorities. As we strengthen the resilience of our small states, we will also ensure there is consensus on innovative ďŹ nancing approaches, taking account of the resilience needs and indebtedness of small states, through augmenting both developed and developing country traditional mobilisation efforts. The integration of youth into political and development processes With more than 60 per cent of the population of the Commonwealth being under the age of 30, the focus on youth development will remain critical for us. The Commonwealth has been at the forefront of international efforts to promote youth development for several decades.



CHOGM 2015 Report

We will continue to draw international attention to the inherent vulnerabilities of small. Since the establishment of the Commonwealth Youth Programme in 1973, the Commonwealth has used its good ofďŹ ces, technical expertise, extensive networks and convening power to promote youth development. We believe that young people represent an unprecedented opportunity. If young people are to fulďŹ l their aspirations and make their full contribution to the development of their communities and countries, they must have better access to education, health, technology, employment and skills development opportunities; they must be empowered and engaged to participate more substantially in governance, peace-building and decisionmaking at the local, regional and national levels; and there must be an end to discrimination and marginalisation on the basis of gender, race, income, disability, culture or faith. The beneďŹ ts that countries can reap by investing in their young people range from increased productivity, lower health costs, enhanced social capital, and greater resilience to cope with risks and shocks. The SDGs pave the way for further impetus from us to invest in our leaders of tomorrow, and as a Commonwealth we are committed to do so. SDGs â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the way forward for the Commonwealth The common values and principles envisaged in our Commonwealth Charter are the foundation of the value added by the Commonwealth as the global community progresses towards achieving the 2030 Agenda. Shared traditions of democracy, common law and public administration, with an equal emphasis on development, position the Commonwealth as a strong ally in working with its membership and other partners in taking this agenda forward. As a Commonwealth, we are committed to leaving no stone unturned to make this world a better place through the achievement of the 2030 Agenda. Â&#x201E;

public, private, and non-governmental sectors at national and multilateral levels. The Commonwealth Secretariat provides guidance on policy making, technical assistance and advisory services to Commonwealth member countries. We support governments to help achieve sustainable, inclusive and equitable FGXGNQROGPV1WTYQTMRTQOQVGUFGOQETCE[TWNGQHNCY human rights, good governance and social and economic FGXGNQROGPV9GCTGCXQKEGHQTUOCNNUVCVGUCPFCEJCORKQP HQT[QWVJGORQYGTOGPV Website:

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Over 60 per cent of Africa is arable land, but hunger and poverty still persist.â&#x20AC;?

Spurring an African Green Revolution Nine years ago, heads of state from throughout Africa met in the capital city of Nigeria to sign the 2006 Abuja Declaration on Fertilizers, which called on African leaders to facilitate the increased use of fertilizer by smallholder farmers across the continent. At the time, average fertilizer use by those smallholdings was just 8kg per hectare. In 2014, the African leaders and heads of state met again in Equatorial Guinea to sign the Malabo Declaration and reiterate their commitment to an increased fertilizer usage in the continent and to trigger a green revolution which would reduce hunger and poverty, and increase income yields. As a result of these two Declarations, fertilizer use has been increasing steadily. Recent studies reveal that smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, excluding South Africa, are now using an average of 12kg of fertilizer per hectare, a 50 per cent increase from 2006. This is still a far cry from the commitments of the Abuja Fertilizer Summit, although this movement towards an increased use of fertilizer provides hope. Challenges still remain in getting the fertilizer, along with other inputs such as seed, feed and equipment, to smallholder farmers. However, new approaches and successful models for reaching smallholder farmers are emerging, but these need to achieve scale throughout the continent to have a broader impact. A continued JKPFTCPEGVQKPETGCUKPIHGTVKNK\GTCFQRVKQPTCVGUKURQQTCEEGUUVQĆ&#x2019;PCPEGHQTHCTOKPIKPRWVURCTVKEWNCTN[COQPIUOCNNJQNFGTU9JKNGVJGRWDNKEUGEVQTJCUOCFG many contributions towards alleviating hunger and poverty, experience has demonstrated that it is the contributions of the private sector which will be invaluable for UVTGPIVJGPKPIVJGCITKEWNVWTGUGEVQTCPFGPUWTKPIVJCVUOCNNJQNFGTHCTOGTUTGCRVJGHWNNDGPGĆ&#x2019;VUQHCITKEWNVWTCNKPPQXCVKQPU

Linking the Public and Private Sectors It is here that the African Fertilizer and Agribusiness Partnership (AFAP)GPVGTUVJGĆ&#x2019;GNFCUCEQPFWKVDGVYGGPRWDNKECPFRTKXCVGUGEVQTGHHQTVUVQYCTFU strengthening the fertilizer industry. AFAP believes that, by uniting the dedication and expertise within both sectors, we can strengthen the marketplace. This, in turn, will encourage a more consistent and responsible use of fertilizer amongst smallholder farmers. To do this, the AFAP leadership has devised a mechanism called the Agribusiness Partnership Contract (APC). The APC is an agreement that provides the framework for AFAP to assist the eligible local, regional and international agribusinesses as they make inroads into emerging African smallholder markets. Each contract helps to accelerate the input adoption rates of smallholders, in turn reducing poverty and enhancing the spirit of entrepreneurship within rural communities. The AFAP approach builds on Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s entrepreneurial strengths and agricultural resources, while directly addressing the challenges that have been holding back private sector investment and preventing market â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;know-howâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; from serving the smallholder farmers. Furthermore, in AFAPâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s experience, these APC partnerships have been particularly effective vehicles for engaging women and young entrepreneurs and, by providing their assistance directly to the private sector, to also further the public sector goals of increased crop production and rural economic development. AFAP also collaborates with the farming communities and local entrepreneurs to shape development support, a much more effective approach than the traditional top-down model, where development partners set the agenda without consulting the local recipients, who are expected to accept all of the outcomes. To date, AFAP has partnered with more than 90 agribusinesses in Ghana, Tanzania, Mozambique and Cote dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Ivoire, who between them supply over 740,000 tonnes of fertilizer to more than 7,000,000 smallholder farmers, through a retail network of 3,653 rural agro-dealers. Inroads are also now being made into Kenya, Malawi, 5GPGICNCPF0KIGTKCYJGTGVJG#(#2EQPVKPWGUVQWPKVGRWDNKECPFRTKXCVGUGEVQTQTICPKUCVKQPUCPFDQNUVGTHGTVKNK\GTOCTMGVUHQTVJGDGPGĆ&#x2019;VQHUOCNNJQNFGTHCTOGTU #PF#(#2CVVGPFUPQVLWUVVQVJGHGTVKNK\GTKPFWUVT[CPFKVUUWRRN[EJCKPDWVCNUQRC[UURGEKĆ&#x2019;ECVVGPVKQPVQJQYUOCNNJQNFGTUDGPGĆ&#x2019;VCUEWUVQOGTUHCTOGTUCPF entrepreneurs through a greater access to affordable fertilizer, an increased crop yield and better access to output markets.

The Future For fertilizer deliveries to reach smallholder farmers in the remoter corners of Africa, institutional policy reforms are needed to help create the right enabling environment, including policies which address a number of areas, such as rural infrastructure development, a commitment to investing in soil health research and soil mapping. The private sector will also need to open up and own their space in the development agenda, especially by taking the lead in the procurement and distribution chain to smallholder farmers. The work of AFAP is an important contribution to the African Unionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (or CAADP) goal of enhancing agriculture growth and food security through strengthening the role agriculture markets and private sector participation. The time for African governments to double their investments in agriculture, to grow fertilizer value chains and to pay attention to agricultural public goods is long overdue. Over 60 per cent of Africa is arable land, but hunger and poverty still persist. This paradox of the agrarian experience demands urgent attention as work on developing and reaching the Sustainable Development Goals continues.

SOUTH AFRICAN HEADQUARTERS Edenburg Terraces, Third Floor, Block D 348 Rivonia Boulevard, P.O. Box 53 Rivonia 2128, Johannesburg, SOUTH AFRICA Tel: +27 (0)11 844 7320

)JCPCEQWPVT[QHĆ&#x2019;EG A & C Square, Unit B10, East Legon, Accra, GHANA Tel: +233 20 939 6472

/Q\CODKSWGEQWPVT[QHĆ&#x2019;EG Torres Altas Building, 138 Jose Mateus Road, Ground Floor P.O. Box 1218, Maputo, MOZAMBIQUE Tel: +258 21499576 mozambique@

6CP\CPKCEQWPVT[QHĆ&#x2019;EG Unit No. 1A, 1 Amverton Towers, Plot No. 1127, Chole Road Masaki, Dar-es-salaam, TANZANIA

7PKVGF5VCVGUQHĆ&#x2019;EG Park Place, Suite 1003, Newark, NJ 07102, USA Tel: +1 (973) 679-6870


The New Sustainable Development Agenda

Financing the future of development Wu Hongbo, United Nations Under-Secretary-General HQT'EQPQOKECPF5QEKCN#HHCKTUFKUEWUUGUVJGĆ&#x2019;PCPEKPI requirements to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals and summarises the commitments of the Addis Ababa #EVKQP#IGPFC


n adopting the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, world leaders committed themselves to a set of universal and transformative goals and targets. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set out an ambitious vision of a world free of poverty, hunger, disease and want, with universal access to education and healthcare, water and energy, sustainable growth and decent work for all, and in which humanity lives in harmony with nature. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is applicable to all countries and people. Financing its implementation will be a tremendous challenge. Indeed, the ďŹ nancing requirements to achieve the SDGs are estimated to be in the order of trillions of dollars annually. And yet, meeting them is entirely feasible. Global public and private savings and investment would be sufďŹ cient â&#x20AC;&#x201C; but only if ďŹ nancial resources were invested in and aligned with sustainable development. This requires a comprehensive approach and a new framework. The Addis Ababa Action Agenda, adopted at the Third International Conference on Financing for Development in July 2015, provides a comprehensive framework, along with concrete agreements and actions. Financing sustainable development and developing VXVWDLQDEOḨQDQFH In its comprehensive approach, the Addis Ababa Action Agenda seeks to mobilise public ďŹ nance, set appropriate public policies and regulatory frameworks, unlock the transformative potential of people and the private sector, and incentivise changes in consumption, production and investment patterns in support of sustainable development. It aligns all ďŹ nancing ďŹ&#x201A;ows and policies with economic, social and environmental priorities and ensures that ďŹ nancing is stable and sustainable.


CHOGM 2015 Report

7KHͤQDQFLQJ requirements to achieve the SDGs are estimated to be in the order of trillions of dollars annually. OfďŹ cial development assistance (ODA) remains crucial, particularly for countries most in need. But aid alone will not be sufďŹ cient to ďŹ nance the SDGs; all sources of ďŹ nance will be needed â&#x20AC;&#x201C; public and private, domestic and international. In this regard, the agreement in Addis builds on the legacy of the 2002 Monterrey Consensus on Financing for Development. As in Monterrey, it recognises that ďŹ nance is not just about ďŹ nancing ďŹ&#x201A;ows, but also depends on public policies that strengthen the national and international enabling environments. Each country has the primary responsibility for its own economic and social development, while the international community needs to create an enabling environment for development. At the same time, the Action Agenda goes beyond Monterrey to fully take into account the regulatory and other policy requirements for realising the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. To address larger and more diverse ďŹ nancing needs, the Agenda offers a more nuanced understanding of the beneďŹ ts and the risks associated with different types of ďŹ nance. It emphasises that different combinations of ďŹ nancing modalities are appropriate for different sectors and projects. For example, some investments,

The New Sustainable Development Agenda


1RQͤQDQFLDOPHDQV and international enabling environment

SDG investment focus area (examples)

Trade and Technology, Capacity Building, Systematic Issues

Social Services

Structural Transformation (e.g.Infrastructure)

Jobs (e.g. SMEs)

Protecting ecosystems


including those to meet basic social needs, will remain overwhelmingly public in most countries, while others, such as small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) fi nancing, will be predominantly private, albeit with supportive public policy frameworks (see Figure 1). In some instances, the combination of both public and private funding will be necessary. The Action Agenda puts forward specific public policies and regulatory frameworks to encourage responsible private investments that support the SDGs, for example in infrastructure, and stresses the importance of long-term investment. It also highlights the growing role of development banks. It emphasises that development and dissemination of technology, as well as capacity building, are key means of implementation for the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. A quick start with concrete initiatives and actions The Addis Ababa Action Agenda contains a comprehensive set of policy actions, with a package of over 100 concrete measures. Among them are several cross-cutting commitments – on social protection and essential public services, sustainable infrastructure, and support for the poorest countries – that build on the synergies of the SDGs and will address critical gaps in their delivery. The Agenda

In the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, governments commit to a new social compact and agree to SURYLGHͤVFDOO\VXVWDLQDEOH and nationally appropriate social protection systems.

also emphasises additional concrete initiatives in key areas, such as domestic public resource mobilisation and technology and innovation. These are further complemented by the many initiatives launched in conjunction with the Conference (see Indeed, the Action Agenda serves as a guide for further action by governments, international organisations, the business sector, civil society, and philanthropists. Over 2.4 billion people still lack access to clean water and sanitation, and more than half the world’s population lacks any social security coverage. In the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, governments commit to a new social compact and agree to provide fi scally sustainable and nationally appropriate social protection systems, including social protection floors. They are also encouraged to set nationally appropriate spending targets for quality investments in essential public services for all, including health, education, energy, water and sanitation. Governments also agreed to address the large fi nancing gap for basic infrastructure in developing countries – estimated to be between US$1 trillion and US$1.5 trillion annually. A global infrastructure forum will be launched to this effect, building on and better coordinating existing infrastructure initiatives. The forum will encourage a wider range of voices to be heard, particularly from developing countries. It will identify and address infrastructure and capacity gaps, to ensure that no country or sector is left behind, and that investments are socially and environmentally sustainable. Several announcements related to financing infrastructure and SMEs were also made at the Conference. A group comprising the World Bank and five regional development banks vowed to increase their contribution to sustainable development finance to more than US$400 billion over the next three years. These announcements complemented recent decisions to set up new multilateral development banks and funds, primarily focused on infrastructure. Success of a universal 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development will depend critically on reaching those furthest behind. The Addis Ababa Action Agenda contains

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The New Sustainable Development Agenda

Least Developed Countries

All Developing Countries




8,000 US Dollar, billions (current prices)

US Dollar, billions (current prices)


140 120 100 80 60

7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000




1,000 0

0 2000

2005 DRM





2005 DRM





Countries committed to effective spending aligned with sustainable development, including through rationalising LQHIͤFLHQWIRVVLOIXHO subsidies, while minimising the impact on the poor. an â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;LDC packageâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; to support the poorest countries. While overall ODA had risen in recent years, the share allocated to least developed countries (LDCs) fell by 16 per cent in 2014. As part of the Action Agenda, developed countries have committed to reverse this trend. Seven action areas The Addis Ababa Action Agenda includes agreements and policy recommendations in seven action areas, as well as in a concluding chapter on data, monitoring and follow-up. 1. Domestic public resources. Mobilisation and effective use of domestic public resources are central to the pursuit of sustainable development. They account for the vast majority of public resources available to developing


CHOGM 2015 Report

countries, and have grown signiďŹ cantly in the last decade (see Figure 2). In Addis Ababa, countries committed to improving the fairness, transparency, efďŹ ciency and effectiveness of their tax systems, and to scale up international cooperation, through ODA and capacity building for taxation, as well as by substantially reducing illicit ďŹ nancial ďŹ&#x201A;ows. Countries agreed to support increased participation of developing countries in international tax cooperation. They also committed to effective spending aligned with sustainable development, including through rationalising inefďŹ cient fossil fuel subsidies, while minimising the impact on the poor, and through transparent and gender-responsive budgeting and procurement frameworks. 2. Domestic and international private business and ďŹ nance. The Action Agenda invites businesses to apply their creativity and innovation to solving sustainable development challenges and encourages them to embrace a core business model that accounts for the environmental, social and governance impacts of their activities, including through integrated reporting. At the same time, the Agenda emphasises the importance of strong regulatory and policy frameworks that better align private investment with public goals. Countries further agreed to develop or strengthen long-term bond markets, along with capital market regulations to reduce excess volatility and promote incentives along the investment chain that are aligned with long-term investment and sustainable development. 3. International development cooperation. Developed countries recommitted to their ODA targets, including 0.7 per cent of gross national income (GNI) provided as ODA, with 0.15 to 0.2 per cent allocated to

The New Sustainable Development Agenda

LDCs (see Figure 2). The Action Agenda further encourages donors to increase the target for ODA to the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s poorest nations to 0.2 per cent of their national income, with the European Union promising to do so by 2030. The Action Agenda also calls on multilateral development banks to make optimal use of their resources and balance sheets and calls on them to develop graduation policies that are sequenced and gradual, and to ensure that countries have access to affordable ďŹ nance after graduation. 4. International trade as an engine for development. The Action Agenda calls on WTO members to redouble their efforts to promptly conclude the negotiations on the Doha Development Agenda. It emphasises the importance of policy coherence, and in this context, countries committed to craft appropriate safeguards in trade and investment agreements. It gives special attention to WTO policies to encourage trade expansion by LDCs and other developing countries, and commits to provide technical assistance to landlocked developing countries to support their participation in trade negotiations. 5. Debt sustainability. Expressing concern over the debt sustainability challenges, the Action Agenda recognises that both debtors and creditors share responsibility for debt crises and commits to work towards a global consensus on guidelines for debtor and creditor responsibilities. Considering the need to impede the activities of vulture funds, the Agenda encourages countries to adopt legislative efforts in this regard. 6. Systemic issues. The Action Agenda stresses the importance of coherence and consistency of the international ďŹ nancial, monetary and trading systems in support of sustainable development. To advance international ďŹ nancial stability while promoting growth, countries agreed to strengthen the permanent international ďŹ nancial safety net, and to also address systemic risks, such as those associated with shadow banking. The Agenda calls for further increases in voice and representation of developing countries in global norm setting and decision-making. 7. Science, technology, innovation and capacity building. In a major expansion of the Monterrey Consensus, the Action Agenda stresses the importance of science, technology and innovation, and puts capacity building at the core. To overcome the technology divide, and to help facilitate development, transfer and dissemination of technologies relevant for achieving the SDGs,

The Addis Action Agenda has established an annual Financing for Development Forum with universal participation.



governments agreed to establish a new Technology Facilitation Mechanism. Countries also agreed to adopt or strengthen LDC investment promotion regimes and aim to operationalise the technology bank for the LDCs by 2017. Staying engaged The adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Addis Ababa Action Agenda are only ďŹ rst steps on a long journey towards achieving sustainable development for all. The real test of success will lie in making steady progress over the next 15 years in implementing these agreements. Mechanisms for follow-up and review of progress are vital. All stakeholders must remain engaged in this process, including national authorities, international ďŹ nancial institutions, civil society and the private sector. At the national level, it will be critical that space is created for all stakeholders to jointly ďŹ nd solutions. Such efforts can be complemented by regional mechanisms, which are particularly well placed to share relevant experience and mobilise expertise. At the global level, the Addis Action Agenda has established an annual Financing for Development Forum with universal participation. It will bring together member states and all relevant stakeholders to deliberate on progress in implementation. Together, our efforts will ensure that no country is left behind. With a joint effort by all, the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, along with additional initiatives that were launched in conjunction with Addis and at the September Summit, will facilitate achievement of sustainable development and the SDGs through a revitalised and strengthened global partnership for sustainable development. Â&#x201E;


CHOGM 2015 Report



Introduction Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike (MOUAU) was established by the Federal Government of Nigeria in 1992.The university is located in the Southeastern part of Nigeria.


Colleges & Schools

The vision of the University is to be the foremost institution for producing highly-rated graduates in Agriculture, Science and Technology and to be a vehicle for the attainment of the primary goals of the Nigerian Agricultural Policy of self sufficiency in food and fibre production.

» »

Mission Statement To provide high quality, practical training to students to become professionally competent and confident persons capable of self employment, to develop environment-friendly and people-sensitive technologies and to enhance the well-being of the people through extension and other interventions.

» » » » » » » » » » »

College of Management Sciences College of Agricultural Economics, Rural Sociology and Extension College of Animal Science and Animal Production College of Crop and Soil Sciences College of Engineering and Engineering Technology College of Applied Food Science and Tourism College of Natural Sciences College of Physical and Applied Sciences College of Natural Resources and Environmental Management College of General and Communication Sciences College of Veterinary Medicine College of Agriculture and Science Education Postgraduate School

“Knowledge, Food and Security”. Directorates and Centres

Student and Staff Population

» » » » » » » » » » » »

Currently, MOUAU has approximately15,000 students, over 600 of whom are postgraduates, pursuing different degrees and diplomas on full and part time basis. Total staff strength is in excess of 1,400. MOUAU is a gender sensitive institution with a passion for community development.

Directorate of University and Administration Directorate of University Advancement Directorate of Information and Communication Directorate of Academic Planning Directorate of Veterinary Teaching Hospital Centre for Molecular Biosciences and Biotechnology Directorate of Internal Audit MOUAU Extension Centre Continuing Education Centre Centre for Entrepreneurship Studies Centre for Gender and Child Development Medical Centre

Research and Development At MOUAU priority is given to research. Our research addresses development issues and seeks to produce utilitarian results. In line with our institutional mandate and orientation, our research seeks to address the problems of the rural poor and to add value to their lives. The day-to-day management of research activities in the university, including review of proposals for funding, monitoring and evaluation of funded projects, prospecting for external research funding is vested in the Directorate of Research and Development. Currently, the University has eleven approved trans-disciplinary research programmes covering Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Science, Engineering and Environmental Management. Each programme is headed by a Programme Leader.

Corporate Social Responsibility Through the MOUAU Extension Centre, the University runs youth development programmes that train youths in different technical skills, including crop and animal production, resources management and Information Communication Technology. The University runs free courses for adults in a host community aimed at literacy acquisition at home, business and environmental management. Through our extension mechanism, the results of our research and innovation are carried to communities outside the university, in such a way that, over time, the impact of our engagement with these communities shall be visible through raised standards of living and reduction of poverty.

ICT for Entrepreneurship Development At MOUAU there is a modern ICT Centre for educational and technological advancement. The ICT Centre facilitates the management, planning, execution and monitoring of initiatives that target the promotion of technology and facilitation of innovation and entrepreneurship, with a view to providing incubation assistance for start-ups and entrepreneurs that would support achievement of Nigerian ICT national initiatives and programmes. The Centre facilitates active involvement from targeted business institutions and ensures that employees are empowered with the skills, knowledge, and theresources required in facilitating business growth.

Professor Hilary Odo Edeoga Vice-Chancellor Umudike LGA, Umuahia Abia State, Nigeria. Tel: +234 808 761 1594 E-mail:

The New Sustainable Development Agenda

Civil society’s role in the implementation of the SDGs Dr Dhananjayan Sriskandarajah, Secretary General of CIVICUS, discusses what we in civil society should be doing over the coming years to help implement the new Sustainable Development Goals.


etween us we have spent an incredible amount of time and money on trying to shape the post-2015 agenda. Arguably it has been the most open and inclusive intergovernmental decision-making process. Although this is positive, it has meant that the new Goals are not quite as ambitious as hoped. But now we must move beyond the text and – whether we’re happy with the wording and the commitments or not – we have to start thinking about the implementation agenda. Civil society will be playing a key role in implementing the SDGs. We therefore need to get into conversation with decision-makers about the national level strategies for implementing the SDG agenda. When I talk to our members around the world, there are differing levels of awareness of the need to do this. On the positive side, in Colombia civil society representatives are already deeply integrated into conversations about the implementation agenda. As another example, in India we are working with Wada Na Todo, which has convened a workshop about implementing Goal 16; and we are starting conversations in Argentina and Tanzania. However, in many parts of the world civil society still seems too focused on whether their favourite word is in the document, rather than thinking about the implementation agenda. In the end, though, especially as governments are running out of resources, it will come back to civil society to be the driver of the sort of changes called for by the SDGs. Despite all the rhetoric about the private sector coming in to save us with its massive store of resources, I am sure that it will still be civil society’s job to drive that change, and also to hold other players – including the private sector – to account for the commitments that they have made.


CHOGM 2015 Report

In the end, though, especially as governments are running out of resources, it will come back to civil society to be the driver of the sort of changes called for by the SDGs. The morning after One element of the SDG agenda that deserves careful discussion is what happens the morning after. From 2016 onwards, how do we in civil society work together to take advantage of the positive energy that has already been built? Through mechanisms like Beyond 2015, action2015 or the Global Climate Adaptation Partnership (GCAP) we have taken the opportunity to work together in more collaborative and inclusive ways than ever before. It would be a great shame if next year we lose that momentum. There have been many conversations about how civil society should organise itself from 2016 onwards; to make sure that we do not lose sight of the 15-year commitment to the SDG framework, there are three main components on which we need to concentrate.

The New Sustainable Development Agenda

The SDGs can become another tool in the citizens’ toolbox to promote their rights and achieve accountability in their countries. One is awareness. We really need to make an effort to make sure that more people in more parts of the world are aware of the SDGs, especially in the global South. The SDGs can become another tool in the citizens’ toolbox to promote their rights and achieve accountability in their countries. This is not simply making sure everyone has a copy of the final agreement; it is more meaningful than that. Popular awareness about the SDGs needs to be engaged, followed by civic mobilisation over the next 15 years, so that the political price that our leaders have to pay if they fail to deliver is much higher than it was with the MDGs. The second aspect on which we need to continue to concentrate is advocacy. I think the wonderful work that the Beyond 2015 coalition has done to coalesce civil society input into the post-2015 process needs to be built on, so that over the next 15 years when there are occasions such as the High Level Political Forum in New York, or when some big issue hits the news, we in civil society are ready with an efficient mechanism to respond to those advocacy and campaigning opportunities. The third issue is accountability. If we are to believe what our leaders are telling us then we should hold them to those promises. The SDG document must not be regarded as just another piece of paper; we need to come up with new and creative ways of pursuing the

Dr Dhananjayan (Danny) Sriskandarajah has been Secretary General and CEO of CIVICUS: World Alliance for Citizen Participation since January 2013. His previous posts include Director of the Royal Commonwealth Society, Interim Director of the Commonwealth Foundation, and Deputy Director of the Institute for Public Policy Research. Danny is the author of numerous reports and academic articles on international migration and economic development, and writes and appears regularly in the media on a range of topics. He sits on several boards, including those of the Baring Foundation, International Alert and Ockenden International, and has been a consultant to several international organisations. He holds a degree from the University of Sydney, and an MPhil and DPhil from the University of Oxford, where he was a Rhodes Scholar. In 2012, he was honoured by the World Economic Forum as a Young Global Leader.

accountability agenda. One of CIVICUS’ chief concerns is the role of citizens in civil society in monitoring the SDG process. We have been involved in an initiative called the Big Development Data Shift, about building the capacity of citizens and civil society to collect information, or make better use of the information that we already have at our fingertips. With the MDGs we were often using official data to hold government to account; this time, because of the amazing advances in technology, we have a real opportunity to build and invest in a ‘shadow’ monitoring mechanism that gives civil society the chance to tell their side of the story. So awareness, advocacy and accountability should be three pillars of any new mechanism that might be a successor to Beyond 2015 and action2015. At a time when civic space is under so much threat, the role of national platforms, or platforms of NGOs, is going to become even more important. We need to strengthen the scaffolding of civil society so that we can resist incursions on civic space, and cooperate with advocacy efforts at the global and regional level. So if there’s ever a moment for us to work together, it is now. There are new proposals to strengthen platforms; and we are involved in a separate initiative called the Civil Society Innovation Initiative, funded by USAID and (Swedish) Sida, to build six new regional hubs around the world to protect civic space. We have to strengthen and promote mechanisms and platforms that work for all of us, as we ensure that civil society can play its rightful role in the SDG framework. „

We need to strengthen the scaffolding of civil society so that we can resist incursions on civic space. CIVICUS is an international alliance dedicated to strengthening citizen action and civil society around the world. In order to do so, we focus on three priority areas: protecting the rights of civil society; strengthening civil society good practices; and increasing the influence of civil society. CIVICUS undertakes a variety of long and short-term projects in each of these areas. In addition, several of our projects, such as the Civil Society Index and the World Assembly, cut across these areas and provide a platform for further strengthening civil society. In all our projects, CIVICUS works in close partnership with relevant organisations to achieve our joint objectives. Website:

CHOGM 2015 Report


Good Governance, Peace and Security

Common values, shared challenges The Hon Malcolm Turnbull MP, Prime Minister of Australia, urges member countries to respond to change and control conflict by nurturing respect and understanding, right at the very heart of Commonwealth values.


utual respect and understanding of other nations, other cultures, other faiths and races – these are the keys to a harmonious world and indeed to harmonious societies. Mutual respect, of course, can be misconstrued as a sort of good-natured tolerance. But it needs be more than that: it must involve understanding others, a curiosity about other peoples and their ways and a desire to learn from them. My country, Australia, has one of the most diverse communities of any nation. We are a successful multicultural nation with 28 per cent of our population born overseas and 44 per cent with a parent born overseas. Our citizens include the most recent arrivals from every corner of the world as well as our First Australians, the descendants of those who settled in Australia over forty thousand years ago. Australians are enriched by the diverse cultures of their friends and neighbours. And our by and large very harmonious multicultural society is founded on mutual respect and understanding. So we share and practice the values of the Commonwealth. Responding to change The world has been transformed since the Commonwealth evolved from the British Empire. The pace of economic change is unprecedented in human history. China, forty years ago barely participating in the global fi nancial system, is now the world’s largest single national economy. And India will not be far behind. At the same time, technology is triumphing over the tyranny of distance – already three billion people are connected to the internet, and before much longer most people in both the developing and developed world will be. This has all happened in a generation. We have only just begun to understand the potential of an entirely connected world; technology forges ahead, technological imagination is yet to catch up. Economic power is shifting to Asia – the world is no longer dominated by North America and Europe. Often obscured by turmoil, the economic growth of Africa and South America presages a shift of economic power South as well as East. The old order has never changed so rapidly. In times past change of this kind has often brought tension and even war. Nearly 2,500 years ago, writing of the events which


CHOGM 2015 Report

Good Governance, Peace and Security

We have only just begun to understand the potential of an entirely connected world; technology forges ahead, technological imagination is yet to catch up. led up to the war between Athens and Sparta, Thucydides concluded: “The real cause I consider to be the one which was formally most kept out of sight. The growth of the power of Athens, and the alarm which this inspired in Sparta, made war inevitable.” A great challenge for our world, and our Commonwealth, is to do all we can to ensure that while economic and military power may shift, our commitment to respect and understanding does not. The Commonwealth was often criticised because, unlike the UN, it did not include the two super-powers of the Cold War – the United States and the Soviet Union. And today it does not include China. But in many respects this gives the Commonwealth a unique character as a global organisation. It is as diverse as the world itself, but it is not dominated by struggles between giants. If there is less at stake than there may be in other forums, there is more space to speak candidly and listen with an open mind. As the world becomes more connected, we can see that each of us is grappling with many shared challenges. The countries of the Commonwealth have the common ground to address these challenges and, as the Commonwealth Charter explains, the potential to be a compelling force for good. The Commonwealth can be an effective network for cooperation in an era of great uncertainty and change, with enormous opportunities as well as grave threats to peace and security. Sharing the solutions A few days after our Heads of Government meeting, the 21st session of the Conference of Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change will be held in Paris, as nations seek to forge a new consensus to constrain global warming. Across the nations of the Commonwealth, changes in climate and the natural environment pose great threats. Some, like rising sea levels, can be directly attributed to global warming. Others, such as unsustainable depletion of ground and surface water, have more local causes. Australia – the driest inhabited continent – has shared its long experience in water management with many other

Malcolm Turnbull was elected the Leader of the Liberal Party in September 2015, becoming Australia’s 29th Prime Minister. Mr Turnbull entered Parliament in 2004 as the Member for Wentworth and has served as Minister for Environment and Water Resources, Minister for

Commonwealth nations. In every area, however, there is ample scope for Commonwealth nations to help each other with experience and science to better manage the world in which we live, and upon which we depend. Paths to peace and empowerment At the same time, many nations and their leaders struggle to understand the radicalisation of young people – school children one day, terrorists the next. We should increase our dialogue and cooperation in this area of youth radicalisation, sharing our strategies and experiences so that all of us can learn to be more effective in addressing this growing threat. Commonwealth countries have a combined population of more than 2 billion people, of whom more than 60 per cent are under 30 years of age. For over 40 years, the Commonwealth Youth Programme has worked with member governments to engage and empower young people, recognising the value of involving young people in their societies as a preventive measure against crime, alienation and extremism. The Commonwealth’s ongoing work on Civil Paths to Peace looks at the many and varied drivers of violent extremism and identifies areas to focus efforts at prevention. It recognises the potential for the Commonwealth, with its history of dialogue, multilateralism and civil initiatives, to make a significant contribution to global efforts. This work provides a strong basis for further cooperation and dialogue between Commonwealth countries, to share more widely approaches to combating youth radicalisation and violent extremism. I would welcome further discussion of these initiatives at this year’s Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting. Our strength as a Commonwealth is found in our diversity and the shared values that unite us. These are the most exciting times in human history. The pace of change has never been so rapid. The opportunities which a global, connected world presents our peoples have never been so great. And amid those opportunities are also great challenges, but as we work together in respect and understanding, learning from and supporting each other, we will play our part in building a safer, fairer and more prosperous world. „

In every area there is ample scope for Commonwealth nations to help each other with experience and science. Communications, Leader of the Opposition and Shadow Treasurer. Before entering politics he had a successful career in journalism, law and business. Website:

CHOGM 2015 Report


Good Governance, Peace and Security


Good Governance, Peace and Security


ne of the most striking developments of the last quarter of a century is the spread of elections. The end of the Cold War created a historic opportunity for the expression of popular demands for more political freedom and representation, and people around the world seized it. The Commonwealth was both a witness and an agent of this remarkable phenomenon. When the Harare Declaration was adopted in 1991, nine Commonwealth members were under military or one-party rule. By 1999, all had become multi-party democracies, as detailed in Richard Nzeremâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s book Promoting democracy â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the Commonwealthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s contribution. Unfortunately, after an initial period of genuine change, rulers learned that elections did not necessarily have to mean democracy: elections could be gamed to remain in power, sometimes indeďŹ nitely.

If your opponents cannot channel their criticisms and ambitions through the institutional mechanisms provided by elections, they ZLOOͤQGRWKHUPHDQV The result is that, today, some elections are merely the lip service that undemocratic leaders pay to democracy. This deception undermines democracy itself, based as it is on three fundamental misunderstandings: â&#x20AC;˘ First, it confuses legality with legitimacy. Even if an election respects the formal processes laid down by the law, and even if it is certiďŹ ed by a court, if the majority of the population does not believe in its integrity, the election cannot confer any legitimacy on the winner. â&#x20AC;˘ Second, it confuses repression with stability. Bereft of legitimacy, elections cannot afford the peace and stability that usually come with democracy. If your opponents cannot channel their criticisms and ambitions through the institutional mechanisms provided by elections, they will ďŹ nd other means. This usually leads to more repression, but as we have seen in a growing number of countries in Africa and the Middle East, repression does not afford stability in the long run. â&#x20AC;˘ Third, it confuses an electoral mandate with a blank cheque. Some leaders believe that somehow their initial election gives them the authority to close political space, throw their opponents in jail and change their constitutions to extend their reign.


But democracy is not just about one day every four or ďŹ ve years when elections are held, but a system of government that respects the separation of powers, fundamental freedoms like the freedom of thought, religion, expression, association and assembly and the rule of law. Any regime that rides roughshod on these principles loses its democratic legitimacy, regardless of whether it initially won an election. <RXWKKDVLWVVD\ The spectacular growth in the developing worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s youth population is adding new urgency to the need to deepen and extend democratic practice. The Commonwealthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s population, 60 per cent of whom is below the age of 30, is a good example. Youth is different. Youth is impulsive, impatient and, most importantly, it has little to lose. It is therefore willing to take risks that older generations would avoid. From Tunisia to Egypt to Burkina Faso, we have seen that young people are no longer asking for more rights and freedoms the system confers â&#x20AC;&#x201C; they question the system itself. With the advent of social media, they have unprecedented ability to organise, mobilise and bypass the security states that oppress them. So governments ignore their democratic aspirations at their peril. At the end of the day, all healthy societies rest on three pillars: peace and security; sustainable development; and human rights and the rule of law. Many states today believe they can have the ďŹ rst two without the third, which includes elections with integrity. They are wrong. The challenge before us today is therefore no longer just to ensure that Commonwealth members hold regular multi-party elections, but to deepen democracy by making sure those elections are credible and legitimate. That is not just what the people of the Commonwealth, and particular its youth, demand: it is the sine qua non for lasting peace and development. Â&#x201E;

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CHOGM 2015 Report


Good Governance, Peace and Security

Pursuing stability, security and development in Nigeria H E Muhammadu Buhari, President of Nigeria, addresses how he is mobilising Nigeria to face the challenges of stability, security CPFǥFGXGNQROGPVCPFQWVNKPGUJKUUVTCVGI[HQTVJGEQWPVT[VQEQPVKPWG VJGKTǥNGCFGTUJKRTQNGKP#HTKECŨUUQEKQGEQPQOKEFGXGNQROGPV


very diverse society faces the challenge of uniting its entities. Nigeria is no exception. Despite our pluralism with well over 200 ethnic groups and many languages, we have been able to overcome the threats to our continued existence. Evidentially, the challenges over the years have ranged from civil war, conďŹ&#x201A; ict over ethnicity, instability, religious violence and intolerance, slow-paced development and more recently, terrorism and insecurity. In the midst of all these, Nigeria with its peculiar ďŹ ghting spirit has been able to weather the storms, tackling insecurity to maintain a united Nigeria. Nigeria emerged from a three-year Civil War (196770) to experience economic prosperity during the oil boom of the 1970s. She has twice experienced economic downturns in her history but was able to bounce back despite those challenges. Our countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s foreign policy is dedicated not only to development and prosperity of her people but to the progress and success of Africa, and indeed, the entire black people of the diaspora. It was for that reason that Nigeria pursued decolonisation and apartheid with zeal, as the ďŹ rst step, with the belief that political freedom must provide an enabling environment to usher in economic development and prosperity. This is what informed the generous brotherly approach of Nigeriaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s foreign policy, which was genuinely altruistic and designed to assist fellow Africansâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; political and economic progress. This explains why Nigeria spent several billions of dollars for the liberalisation of Angola, Zimbabwe, Mozambique,


CHOGM 2015 Report

Good Governance, Peace and Security

Namibia and South Africa. Many African and black nations have benefited from Nigeria’s generosity, including many in our sub-region, either to finance development projects or supplement their budget. The peace enforcement, peace building and peacekeeping efforts of Nigeria in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Mali, Somalia, the two Guineas and Burkina Faso attest to Nigeria’s commitment to political stability and economic development and trade in Africa. More recently, in the battle with Ebola, Nigeria assisted the three West African States of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone fi nancially, materially and with medical personnel. This underscores why Nigeria is committed to maintaining peace and harmony with her immediate neighbours, and with the rest of Africa, as well as global peace and security. Nigeria readily relinquished part of her territory to Cameroon in compliance with a ruling of the International Court of Justice. Furthermore, our country is a participant in UN Peace Missions and regularly contributes troops, even while battling with internal insurgency. Nigeria has pursued socio-economic development of Africa bilaterally and multilaterally. Some of the instruments employed are:

• The Technical Aid Corps to build contacts and friendly relations with African and black nations. • Bilateral trade agreements, as well as the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and African Union (AU) regional groups. Nigeria was a founding member of ECOWAS and the Organization of African Unity, the forerunner of the AU. The dynamic leadership of Nigeria in those organisations is well known. Nigeria has on many occasions buoyed up ailing economies of some African or black nations to keep them afloat, often with cash donations or with the supply of crude oil which they could sell to raise the cash required for developmental projects. More recently, economic relations have been enhanced between Nigeria and the rest of Africa. Responding to challenges It is important to examine some of the factors responsible or contributing to Nigeria’s challenges over the years, and suggest relevant countermeasures; and explain how

CHOGM 2015 Report


Good Governance, Peace and Security

We are strengthening the existing institutional framework for effective implementation of national adaptation and mitigation policies on climate change. we intend to continue our leadership role in Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s socio-economic development. Some of the factors posing challenges to stability, security and development include: â&#x20AC;˘ ArtiďŹ cially delineated colonial boundaries which separate or divide communities, causing constant strife among communities. â&#x20AC;˘ Poverty. The growing gap between the poor and rich has over the years been responsible for instability and insecurity in Nigeria. It is a well-known fact that poverty poses danger and insecurity to both individuals and the wider society. The various forms of instability and insecurity in Nigeria could partly be attributed to our peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s poverty. â&#x20AC;˘ Marginalisation/uneven development. This is also a factor that has affected the unity and stability of Nigeria in her striving towards development. Marginalisation leads to restiveness of aggrieved groups, as in the Niger Delta militancy in the recent past, and indeed with Boko Haram. â&#x20AC;˘ Terrorism/religious intolerance and violence are other dangerous factors responsible for instability and insecurity, as demonstrated in several religious riots, and currently the threat from Boko Haram. â&#x20AC;˘ Corruption is often viewed as a political leadership problem; and yet, both government and the citizenry may be involved. Nigeria has been pursuing an ongoing ďŹ ght against corruption; the governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ability to provide sustainable development in the country has been affected by gross corruption in recent years. In order to address these ills and ensure social cohesion, stability and security for Nigeria to forge ahead, my administration is prepared to do the following in order to provide the enabling environment: â&#x20AC;˘ Pursue the fundamentals of good governance which include participatory and inclusive democracy, accountability, transparency, responsiveness, efďŹ ciency of rule of law and respect for human rights.



CHOGM 2015 Report

â&#x20AC;˘ Vigorously ďŹ ght corruption until it is curbed to a minimum, and use recovered funds for development programmes, including education, health, roads, agriculture, water supply and housing. â&#x20AC;˘ Undertake public service reform to include training for capacity building and empowerment, to enhance the quality and efďŹ ciency of public service delivery. â&#x20AC;˘ Embark on policies and actions that will generate employment for the young, and eradicate poverty. To this end, we will ensure that formal and informal education is provided so as to give a sense of relevance to the citizenry, and to curb restiveness and violence. â&#x20AC;˘ Diversify the economy and embark on massive agricultural production, and encourage youth participation at all levels, including states and local governments, through provision of incentives and empowerment. â&#x20AC;˘ Continue to improve on the infrastructure to enhance and expand capacity and reach, as well as increasing foreign direct investment for development and industrialisation. â&#x20AC;˘ Encourage more intra- and inter-African trade and investment within the ECOWAS sub-region and the rest of Africa. â&#x20AC;˘ Cooperate with neighbouring states, regional and international counter-terrorism groups on measures against terrorism and violent extremism. Climate-resilient actions On the issue of climate change, Nigeria is focusing on championing and promoting sustainable development through the promotion of green growth and climateresilient development programmes nationally and regionally, including the Great Green Wall among others. Furthermore, we are promoting the renewable energy industry through public-private partnerships as well as encouraging the commercialisation of indigenous climate-friendly technologies from the Ozone and Climate Village. We are also strengthening the existing institutional framework for effective implementation of national adaptation and mitigation policies on climate change, and ensuring the enforcement of compliance of industries to government policies on reduction of emission of greenhouse gases. In conclusion, my administration is determined to maintain the vigour with which we have always tackled issues that concern Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s socio-economic development. We will facilitate joint commissions and bi-national commissions with fellow Africans, as well as supporting the less developed African countries as we have done in the past. Â&#x201E;


INVEST IN PLATEAU STATE, NIGERIA A wealth of resources, a wealth of opportunities

Amongst all of Nigeria’s 36 states, Plateau State is uniquely known for its beautiful landscape, semi-temperate climate and clement weather, the features which have earned the state the popular mantra of “The home of peace and tourism” It is indeed a State with tremendous human and natural resources that, along with its geographical surroundings, natural origins, the cultural affinity of its population, a unanimity of purpose to stay together as a State and, above all, an abundant economic viability, makes Plateau State capable of adding CHOGM’s ‘Global Value’ to a Commonwealth of institutional links with good governance, attractive investments and a desire to join the inclusive global development for sustainable growth. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND In the formative years of colonial rule in Nigeria, much of Plateau State formed part of the Bauchi Province. This seemed an attempt by the British to create a provincial area capable of protecting the railway line being constructed at that time to support the local tin and columbite mines, which had started in 1902. Modern day Plateau State is the product of a century of boundary changes since then. In May 1967, Benue and Plateau Provinces were merged to form Benue-Plateau State. However, in 1976 Benue-Plateau State was split in two again and became Benue and Plateau States respectively. That remained the case until 1996, when the present Nasarawa State was created from within Plateau State as well. In essence then, the original Plateau Province has given birth to Plateau, Benue, Nasarawa and Kogi and Taraba States.



Plateau State is governed from the administrative capital city of Jos by an elected Executive Governor. Thereafter, the State is divided into 17 further Local Government Areas, governed in turn by an elected Executive Chairman:

Although situated within the tropics, the high, mountainous altitudes mean that Plateau State enjoys a near temperate climate, with temperatures averaging from 18°C to 22°C. The warmest temperatures, of between 25°C and 30°C, usually occur in the dry season months of March and April. The onset of the rainy season begins in May and contributes to a mean annual rainfall varying from 130cm (or 52”) in the south of the State, to around 145cm (57”) up on the Plateau. The rainy season peaks in July and August, whilst the Harmattan winds cause the coldest weather to fall between December and February

Bassa Barkin Bokkos Jos East Jos North Jos South Kanam Kanke Langtang North

Langtang South Ladi Mangu Mikang Pankshin Qua’an-Pan Riyom Shendam Wase


The Local Government Areas can be broadly banded into three distinct parts, which each crystallise and define the politics, culture and language of each of the areas’ inhabitants. However, beyond this, people across the State as a whole share a much deeper cultural and linguistic homogeneity that drives their desire to bind together.

In line with the current Federal Government policies for Nigeria, the Plateau State Government is itself currently making considerable efforts to diversify the State’s economy through the exploitation of its mineral resources and agricultural potential. Areas of strategic economic and natural resource development currently include:


Water resources - Rivers and lakes run across the length and breadth of the State, providing significant irrigation for the agricultural opportunities and for hydro-electrical power developments.

Plateau State is located between latitude 80°24’N and longitudes 80°32’ and 100°38’E and derives its name from the popular and picturesque mountainous terrain containing captivating rock formations and the Jos Plateau. It is the twelfth largest of the 36 Nigerian states and located centrally within the Middle Belt region of the country. The landscape contains formations of bare rock, which are scattered across the grasslands of the Jos Plateau. The State covers an area of approximately 27,000 km², providing a home for an estimated population of over three million people. It shares common boundaries with Nasarawa, Kaduna, Taraba, Bauchi and Gombe States and, in altitude, ranges from 1,200m (approx 4,000ft) above sea level to a peak of 1,829m (6,097 ft) in the Pankshin and Shere Hills ranges near to Jos city. The height of the Jos Plateau and its terrain make it the source of many rivers in northern Nigeria, including the Kaduna, the Gongola, the Hadejia and the Yobe.

Agriculture and Agro-allied industries A wide variety plants are cultivated across the State, including sugar, potatoes, yam and cassava, supported by their processing industries. Moringa and other medicinal plants are also processed, with agro-forestry, textile and fish industries present within the State as well. Solid mineral deposits – The State is endowed with plentiful reserves of solid minerals such as tin, columbite, lead, zinc, kaoline, limestone and glass sand, and also provides great potential for the ceramic industry. Hydrocarbons are abundant within the Benue Trough, which underlies the Kanam-Wase-Langtang-Shendam axis of the central and southern regions of Plateau State.

TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY INDUSTRIES Plateau State, with its receptive and hospitable communities, is blessed with such potential for tourism that, if properly harnessed, has the capacity to attract significant numbers of visitors and foreign currency. The State contains sites with the requisite attributes to join the UNESCO World Heritage list. Amongst the unique mountain ranges, rock formations, isolated hills and secluded valleys are the stunning extinct Kerang Volcanoes. These natural formations rise into the skies creating a scene of beauty and awe around themselves, their lush slopes and incredible craters drawing in anyone passing by. The volcanic cones and springs are also the source of the Spring Water of Nigeria (SWAN), the first bottled water to be sold in Nigeria and exported worldwide.

Rock Formations A typical scene around Plateau State

The Shere Hills contain of the Plateau’s highest peaks. Popular with both climbers and hill walkers, the scenic range offers a stunning view of Jos city below.

The Wase Rock is a striking dome-shaped inselberg that surges out of the ground to an incredible height of 450 metres and is one of the only five breeding sites for the White pelican throughout the whole of Africa.

Shere Hills Typical of Plateau State’s terrain

The Wase Rock Trachyte-Phonolite Plug

The Assop Falls is, perhaps, the most remarkable of Nigeria’s many waterfalls, as it tumbles through the steep rocky terrain and flows through the deep river valley. Plus, there are the Kurra Falls, site of the State’s first hydroelectric power station and a beautiful area of rocks hills and lakes, ideal for boating, camping and climbing.

The Riyom Rock is a natural formation and a tourist magnet that has stood the test of time and weathering.

Assop Falls

Riyom Rock

Other classic cultural heritages on the Plateau are the wide range of music and traditional dances, which showcase African choreography and energetic warrior dance sequences needing an incredible sense of balance. Members of the State Cultural Troupe have travelled worldwide and much acclaimed for their performances.

A traditional Jarawa Dance Troupe

The first six months was both exciting and tasking. Exciting in the sense that one has found himself in this elevated position as the number two citizen in the State and, coming from the classroom, interacting with virtually the whole state and putting into practice my political theories. It was tasking in the sense that the expectations and demands were overwhelming, given the state of the economy and treasury we found on assumption of duty. We thank God that we are still doing our best to satisfy the expectations of the people, given the goodwill and understanding of the people.

The Rt. Hon. Barr. Simon Bako Lalong Governor of Plateau State, Nigeria Governor Lalong, how have you found your first six months as Governor of Plateau State?

Very challenging but interesting, given the enormous and competing demands for service delivery in the face of limited resources. We dissipated much energy in confidence building and reassurance that the much needed desire for change and positive development can be attained through good governance, commitment and trust. What would you say are the principal challenges you will face during your first term in office?

The challenges include ensuring justice and equity in the governance structure, as well as ensuring balance in resource allocation and infrastructure development. In the coming years, we shall pursue aggressive rural development policies to address the challenges of food security, poverty alleviation, job creation and rural-urban migration. Above all, we shall strive to entrench a legacy of sustainability through rational planning for sustainable development. And what policies and initiatives would you like to put in place to overcome these?

These are attainable through a nexus of appropriate institutional framework of participatory governance and fiscal discipline. Do you have any specific message you would like to put across to our Commonwealth audience in terms of engaging with Plateau State?

Our doors will remain open for genuine collaboration and partnership, both locally and internationally for peace building, empowerment and development. This is even more auspicious in the post-2015 agenda of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals that are closely tied to the indices of peace building and empowerment of our state administration. Finally, what are the key targets you would like to have achieved for the State by the time of the next CHOGM in 2017?

Besides the medium and long term investment in education and youth development, concerted efforts would be made towards development of the agriculture, mining and tourism industries. This is to guarantee that future generations of Plateau citizens inherit a proud legacy of fairness, justice, accountability and transparency in the management and distribution of our common wealth.

The policy thrusts of the government are anchored on our Five-Point Agenda, namely: • Sustainable Peace, Security and Good Governance • Human Capital Development and Social Welfare (in terms of education, health and youth development) • Agriculture and Rural Development • Industrialisation, Entrepreneurship and Wealth Creation • Physical Infrastructure and the Environment. The Initiatives put in place are anchored on our Three E-Dimensional Strategy, namely: • Employment (in civil service and private sector placements) • Empowerment (via skill acquisition and startup capital) • Engagement (in talents and career development).

Professor Sonni Gwanle Tyoden Deputy Governor Professor Tyoden, how have you found your first six months as Deputy Governor of Plateau State?

Noting your extensive experience and expertise within education, how would you like to best harness the potential of the youth population of Plateau State?

Harnessing the potential of the youth population goes beyond the realm of education. Of course, as an educationist, I am concerned about enhancing the knowledge capacity of the youths, especially as we live in a globalised village that is increasingly highly competitive and where knowledge is the key instrument or element for progression. As a government, we have tried to tackle critical issues that affect our educational system. These include addressing the governance structure and financial support, which unfortunately the last government relegated to the background. We intend to put in place skill acquisition programmes and other empowerment strategies that will enable the youths to play their rightful roles within the government and society. With your deep knowledge of international politics too, and having been a Commonwealth representative for Nigeria many times, how could the Commonwealth relationship be utilised for the benefit of Plateau State?

The Commonwealth brings together over fifty countries in the world with the same colonial background and experience. We may have some differences, but we are able to look at international issues from a particular perspective that will enhance our collective interest as a group. Plateau State stands to benefit from the critical role in international politics and relations, particularly in our quest for peace, security, good governance, as well as developments in agriculture, mining and tourism.

THE ECONOMY, OUR STRATEGIC POLICY THRUSTS and BILATERAL PARTNERSHIPS The economy of the State is currently predominantly agrarian, but our doors are open for collaboration and partnership with other governments and organisations globally in our five areas of policy thrust and core values: • Security and Good Governance • Education, Youth and Human Capital Development • Healthcare • Agriculture and Rural Development • Industrialisation and Wealth Creation. These are expected to promote peace, food security, entrepreneurship and physical infrastructure development. Bilateral agreements between the United Kingdom and Nigeria, as well as between Nigeria and other Commonwealth countries, have been in place for several decades now and still provide a significant return for Foreign Direct Investment in the mining, agriculture and engineering sectors What we consider as attractive to such investments are the priority areas of the State, which are peace and good governance, our strategic policy implementations for the economy, the potential of further bilateral agreements and our links and collaborations with other institutions. We strongly believe and invite other Commonwealth countries to assist us in our ongoing mission to improve the economic stability, security and wellbeing of Plateau State, as we strengthen our democratic institutions, improve our transparency and accountability and progress towards ensuring our sustainable development.

PRIORITY AREAS FOR DEVELOPMENT For the short and medium term, the State Government is seeking to attract support and partnership in the key areas of peace and good governance, agriculture and food security, mining and tourism. PEACE AND GOOD GOVERNANCE Peace and peaceful coexistence, as well as adherence to law, are panacea for good governance. Our State Government has started addressing the challenges of peace and security head-on, in the knowledge that no meaningful and sustainable development can take place in an insecure or unstable environment. Consequently, we have set in motion and established an institutional framework of dialogue that will continue to drive both formal and informal programmes, aimed at the promotion of peaceful coexistence amongst our citizens. AGRICULTURE, MINING AND TOURISM The State is largely known for agriculture, tourism and mining. However, these three sectors alone are not sufficient enough to support wealth creation and alleviate poverty across the entire population. The scenic beauty and clement weather are the greatest assets of the State, especially for investment into the production of tropical and temperate crops. Agriculture can be a great stimulant for the development of the agro-allied industries. Presently, Jos Airport has been designated as the sole airport in Nigeria for transporting agricultural produce internationally. The tourism potential of the State, as already outlined, remains vast but unfulfilled, and the large and varied solid mineral deposits have mainly been mined through artisanal methods to date. Finally, we are poised to face challenges of government by maintaining a strong fiscal discipline and minimising waste. We are striving to promote investment interest in order to build confidence, alleviate poverty and provide for the basic needs of our people.

“Taking into account our array of natural endowments and potential, our invitation for you to visit Plateau State is borne out of the interest and desire to further explore our vast human and material resources and economic viability, and to utilise them for the sustainable growth and development of our people and Nigeria in general. We have, hopefully, provided suff icient plausibility and justif ication for our commitments to the extent that, within the ambits of our institutional and legal framework, we can stand as a new State and further contribute to an egalitarian society and, most importantly, consolidate on our nationhood and cohesiveness. We are desirous of ensuring peace and averting systemic failure in governance, while exploring various workable funding options. These initiatives can entrench the much needed synergy and groundbreaking solutions towards solving our developmental challenges and deepening our international cooperation.”

Rt. Hon. Barr. Simon B. Lalong Executive Governor, Plateau State


Good Governance, Peace and Security

Let us move Africa forward Akinwumi Adesina, the new President of the African Development Bank Group, dedicates himself to expanding opportunities and unlocking potentials for Africa, to unleash a new wave of growth and development shared by all.


hen I assumed my role as President of the African Development Bank in September, I pledged to dedicate myself to expanding opportunities and unlocking potentials – potentials for countries, for women, for the youth, for the private sector, for the continent. As we unlock these potentials we will unleash a new wave of growth and development shared by all. While Africa’s economies are growing, inequality is increasing all over our continent. The sparkle in the eyes of the fortunate few is drowned by the sense of exclusion by the majority. Hundreds of millions of people are left behind.

Most of them are women and our young people. They do not feel the impact of economic growth in their lives. Our collective challenge is to drive inclusive growth – growth that will lift millions out of poverty. Africa can no longer be content with simply managing poverty. For our future and the future of our children, we must eliminate it. An integrated Africa We must integrate Africa – grow together, develop together. Our collective destiny is tied to breaking down the barriers separating us. From large to small nations, from countries on the coast to those far inland, from the island states that depend on the blue economy, to states coming out of confl icts with resilience and determination, our aspirations are the same – to deliver quality growth and development and to see all Africans prosper. As we open up Africa with high quality regional infrastructure – especially rail, transnational highways, information and communications, air and maritime transport – Africa will witness a phenomenal boost in intra- Africa and global trade and the entrepreneurial spirit of small businesses, large businesses, and millions of our young people, will be unleashed. By strengthening regional approaches to development and delivery of our programs, including fi nancing and advisory services, the Bank will reduce inequalities between regions and countries. Through partnerships with regional economic communities and the African Union we will make progress toward our shared goal of truly integrating Africa.

Good Governance, Peace and Security

build Africa’s confidence in itself – the confidence to solve some of its greatest challenges. Powering Africa We must light up and power Africa. Energy is the engine that powers economies. The more energy economies have, the more prosperous are their peoples. We must do more to power Africa, from our homes, businesses, industries, to our schools and hospitals. To do so, we must take bold steps, think differently and act with a greater sense of urgency. Africa cannot stand by with such massive resources for both conventional and renewable energy and yet be known for the darkness, not the brightness, of its cities and rural areas. Factories lie idle for lack of power. The lack of energy has put the brakes on Africa’s industrialisation. Hundreds of thousands, especially women and children, die every year from the effects of smoke from biomass and fuel wood, simply trying to cook meals for their families. Much wealth is tied down and potential wasted on our streets as small businesses, welders, barbers, food processors, electricians, all hard working Africans, are underemployed and spend most of their hardearned incomes paying for energy. Africa is blessed with limitless potential for solar, wind, hydropower and geothermal energy resources. We must unlock Africa’s energy potential – both conventional and renewable. Our bright sunshine should not only nourish our crops, it must power our homes. Our vast water resources should do more than provide us much needed drinking water: they must power our industries. Unlocking the huge energy potential of Africa, for Africa, will be a major focus of the Bank. The Bank will be a leader on this critical issue, for nothing is more important for Africa’s economic growth and development. We will be bold, creative, build strategic partnerships on energy for Africa and harness resources from public and the private sectors. We will work closely with our political leaders and support African countries to power their economies. As a Bank, we will launch a New Deal on Energy for Africa. The private sector Building resilience We must build more resilient economies and reduce fragility risks. A one size fits all model to financing development should give way to customised support to fragile states and countries coming out of conflicts. They need our understanding and they deserve our support – and confidence. Our confidence in their ability to build stronger political, economic and social institutions. Our confidence that they can – if well supported – foster inclusive growth, by effectively managing their resources for the development of their peoples. The resilience and doggedness shown by Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea in the face of the Ebola crisis and the success of Nigeria in tackling the pandemic clearly demonstrate that political will is the currency of development. The Bank will work in new ways to address root causes of economic fragility, support diversification of economies, strengthen institutions for transparency, accountability and good governance, and support countries to get more out of their own domestic resources. We will


CHOGM 2015 Report

We must build the African private sector to create wealth. By developing financial markets and leveraging private capital markets, businesses will be able to access long term financing crucial to invest in needed machinery, equipments and working capital. By unlocking the potential of small, medium and large businesses, Africa will fast track industrial growth and development. Like the skyline of a city, we will create space for the small, medium and large businesses. As businesses pay taxes, domestic resource mobilisation will grow to support national and regional development from within Africa. The Bank will prioritise the development of the private sector to drive the industrialisation of Africa. The rural poor Africa’s rural areas need economic ladders out of deepening poverty. Africa’s growing wealth is highly concentrated in the urban areas, while millions of people in Africa’s rural areas remain in poverty – bypassed by the pace of growth. Disconnected due to poor road

Good Governance, Peace and Security

networks, lack of access to water, energy and underserved by information and communication technologies, they remain at the periphery of the booming growth across the continent. Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rural poor do not need handouts. They need opportunities to unlock their wealth potential. Revamping rural infrastructure, expanding rural energy, mobile telephony and access to ďŹ nance will speed up income growth, employment, ďŹ nancial inclusion, and education and boost quality of life all across our rural areas. The Bank will prioritize rural economic development to help lift millions out of poverty. Agriculture and food security Africa must feed itself. It is inconceivable that a continent with abundant arable land, water, diverse agro-ecological richness and sunshine is a net food- importing region. And Africa has 65 per cent of all the arable land left in the world to meet the food needs of 9 billion people on the planet by 2050. This is a huge untapped potential and Africa cannot eat potential. Only by rapidly transforming the agriculture sector can Africa meet the growing food needs of its urban population, while boosting incomes for millions of its farmers â&#x20AC;&#x201C; majority of whom are women â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and creating much needed jobs. We must think differently: grow agriculture as a business, to become a wealth-creating sector, not one for managing poverty. This will excite the youths to see agriculture as a viable business. By moving away from exporting primary commodities, to developing agro-allied industrial zones in rural areas, Africa will expand its ability to export processed cocoa not cocoa beans, processed coffee not coffee beans, textile instead of cotton. Africa will add value to all its staple foods. Africa will move up the value chain of wealth, diversify its economies, expand foreign exchange earnings, and reduce food import bills, boosting ďŹ scal and macroeconomic stability of countries. Africa will ďŹ nally take full advantage of its soil wealth, not just oil or mineral wealth. The Bank will prioritize agriculture and food security for the regional member countries. Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s youth The future belongs to Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s youth. We must boldly address the high youth unemployment in Africa. Africa is today the youngest continent, with an estimated 60 per cent of its population between the ages of 15 and 24. By some estimates, more than half of Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s youth are unemployed, underemployed, or inactive. This serves as a stark reminder that Africa is rapidly losing its future growth by underinvesting in education and quality job creation for its young people. Unemployment and underemployment among the youth is a smoldering ďŹ re that risks unraveling all the economic gains in Africa.

Akinwumi Ayodeji Adesina CUUWOGFQHĆ&#x2019;EGCUVJGVJ2TGUKFGPV of the African Development Bank Group on September 1, 2015. He is a distinguished development economist and agricultural GZRGTVYKVJ[GCTUQHKPVGTPCVKQPCNGZRGTKGPEGCPFVJGĆ&#x2019;TUV Nigerian to serve as President of the Bank Group.

The youth are Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s biggest asset. We must invest in them to build skills and encourage entrepreneurship while providing access to the ďŹ nancial resources necessary to unlock their creativity and unleash the power of their business enterprises. The Bank will build Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s human capital and strengthen universities and vocational schools to meet the needs of employers. We will embark on innovative programs and ďŹ nancing approaches to accelerate job creation for the youths in Africa, and unlock economic prosperity from Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s demographic asset. The Bankâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s priorities Five priorities will shape our work at the Bank under my Presidency as we advance the implementation of the Bankâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Ten Year Strategy: â&#x20AC;˘ Light up and Power Africa â&#x20AC;˘ Feed Africa â&#x20AC;˘ Integrate Africa â&#x20AC;˘ Industrialize Africa â&#x20AC;˘ Improve quality of life for the people of Africa. Our Bank staff, processes and systems will be shaped to deliver on these critical imperatives. We will become sharply focused on measuring the results of our lending operations on the lives of people. No longer will we judge ourselves simply based on the size of our lending portfolio but on the strength of Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s growth and development and the quality of improvements in the lives of the African people. We will be more than a lending institution. We will build a highly competitive, world-class knowledge-driven Bank, to provide top-notch policy and advisory services to countries and the private sector. We will become a true development institution with measurable impacts on the lives of Africans. The Bank cannot achieve these goals alone. The task to deliver inclusive growth for Africa is signiďŹ cant â&#x20AC;&#x201C; but not insurmountable. To succeed going forward, this institution will continue to need strong support. We will build stronger partnerships for impact â&#x20AC;&#x201C; from private sector, civil society and academic institutions, multilateral and bilateral development agencies. We will advance Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s priorities. We will be a strong voice for Africa, positioning and building support for Africa in the global environment. We need all of Africa to succeed, so let us rededicate ourselves to a greater Africa. An Africa with prosperous, sustainable and inclusive growth - one that is peaceful, secure and united, regionally integrated and globally competitive. A continent ďŹ lled with hope, opportunities, liberties and freedom, with shared prosperity for all. An Africa that is open to the world, one that Africans are proud to call home. This article is based on the Inaugural Speech made by President Adesina on September 1, 2015. Â&#x201E;

The African Development Bank Group (AfDB) is a multilateral FGXGNQROGPVĆ&#x2019;PCPEGKPUVKVWVKQPGUVCDNKUJGFVQEQPVTKDWVGVQVJG economic development and social progress of African countries. Website:

CHOGM 2015 Report


Special feature by


GEOGRAPHY and CLIMATE The State of Osun sits in south-west Nigeria, bordered by Kwara State to the north, Ekiti and Ondo States to the east, Ogun State in the south and Oyo State in the west. Its capital city is Osogbo, although there are around 200 other major towns spread across a total of 14,875km². In the two decades since Osogbo was established as the capital, the city has seen significant growth, particularly in the past five years as a result of a concerted effort by Governor Rauf Aregbesola’s administration to provide better infrastructure and a secure environment. The State has two major ecological zones, with rainforest in the south and savannah in the north. There are many rivers and lakes supporting a number of dams. The climate is very suitable for the production of many cash and food crops, and benefits from annual rainfall of between 1,000mm and 1,500mm. Daily temperatures range between 28°C and 32°C, with a dry season that runs from November to April and wet season from April to November. DEMOGRAPHICS The last national census in 2006 recorded a total population of 3,400,000, making Osun the 19th most-populous State in Nigeria. At that time 865,000 people lived in Osogbo, a number projected to increase to more than two million by 2035. Other major population centres within the State include Ife, Ede, Ilesa, Ejigbo, Iwo, Ikire, Ila-Orangun and Ikirun. Overall, the gender split is broadly equal, at around 51 per cent male and 49

per cent female and, as is the case with many emerging markets, the population of Osun State is young, with 60 per cent of people under the age of 25. The State’s largest ethnic community is Yoruba, although it is also home to other groups, including Hausas, Igbos, Urhobos, Fulanis, Tivs and Nupes. English is the widely spoken business language, while residents also speak a range of local dialects, such as Yoruba, Oyo, Ife, Ijesa and Igbomina. As far as religion is concerned the State of Osun is similar to the rest of Nigeria and has large populations of Christians, Muslims and adherents of the traditional religions although, as in many parts of West Africa, there is a certain degree of syncretism. THE STATE GOVERNMENT and THE DEVELOPMENT AGENDA As Governor of the State of Osun, Ogbeni Rauf Aregbesola heads the Executive Council, comprising his Commissioners and Special Advisers, who are responsible for policy formulation and implementation, as well as the security of the State’s population. The policy thrust of Governor Aregebsola’s administration is clearly set out within the Six Point Integral Action Plan, which aims to banish poverty and hunger, create work and wealth, restore healthy living, provide functional education and ensure communal peace and progress. The objectives of the agenda are challenging and will require significant efforts if they are to be realised. As a result, the government is committed to channeling resources into several schemes that it

hopes will yield results in these key areas. The labour-intensive sectors of manufacturing and tourism are being targeted, with support also provided for development of the cooperatives, microbusinesses and SMEs. Similarly, given that agriculture remains the largest employer and contributor to State output, the government is encouraging the expansion of farm estates, supporting individual smallholder farmers and cooperatives and seeking to attract new private operators. THE ECONOMY As mentioned above, the State’s economic activity is primarily driven by agriculture, which employs about 70 per cent of the population. Key crops include cassava, yam, maize, cocoa, plantain and palm oil. Traditionally, the people have produced food and cash crops both for domestic consumption and for export via the agro-allied industries. Osun is one of the largest producers and exporters of cocoa within Nigeria and, for forestry, ranks fifth in the country. Extensive poultry and livestock schemes are also in place to enhance these value chains. A reasonable proportion of the populace also functions as traders and artisans. As is the case elsewhere in Nigeria, manufacturing still only provides a modest contribution to output, but efforts are ongoing at State and National levels to revive the sector. NATURAL RESOURCES The State’s equatorial climate makes it fertile ground for both crop cultivation and animal husbandry, while sizeable

water resources provide suitable sites for fisheries and hydroelectric power generation. The establishment of a number of plantations across the State has expanded the size of Osun’s forestry reserves to more 90,000 hectares. As in much of Nigeria, solid minerals remain largely unexplored, although the Osun government recently confirmed deposits of over one million ounces of gold, with sizeable quantities also of talc and feldspar.


investors. A maximum 60 day wait for obtaining land titles is already guaranteed, with efforts ongoing to reduce that time even further. LABOUR There is good availability of both skilled and non-skilled labour with much cheaper wages compared to the other south-western States of Nigeria. MANAGERIAL SKILLS Osun is home to eight universities, eight polytechnics, three colleges of education and nine government technical colleges which develop managerial competence and carry out research in science, agriculture, technology and the humanities.

POWER SUPPLY Electricity is regularly cited as the country’s biggest obstacle to growth. However, the state capital of Osogbo is home to the National Control Centre of the Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN), and therefore has one of the most stable power supplies in Nigeria. ROAD NETWORK There is a good road network system in the State, making Osun a conduit for the easy movement of goods and services between the hinterlands of Nigeria and the business capital, Lagos, and also between the south-western and the northern zones of the country. RAIL Nigeria’s rail network has received little investment since independence and there are only limited passenger services between a handful of cities and two north-south trunk lines that operate between Lagos and Kano, which serve the central and western parts of Nigeria. This is expected to improve under the Federal Government’s rail revival programme, which potentially includes the privatisation of the Nigerian Railway Corporation. The Federal Government also recently signed a $12bn deal with the China Railway Construction Corporation to expand the connections along the coast of Nigeria. Sitting along the primary Lagos-Kano line, Osun State is expected to benefit from these planned network improvements, which will help strengthen trade links with the other States. ACCESS TO LAND and LAND TITLES Osun State has vast expanses of land that can be leased to potential

HE Ogbeni Rauf Aregbesola, Governor of the State of Osun

LAW The administration of Ogbeni Rauf Aregbesola is carrying out a comprehensive reform of the judicial system and the promotion of alternative dispute resolution methods. SECURITY Osun is one of the most peaceful states in Nigeria, as is evidenced by the low crime rate throughout the State. POLITICAL WILL and GOVERNMENT COMMITMENT The administration of Ogbeni Rauf Aregbesola continues to demonstrate the highest level of commitment to industrialisation through the creation of a business-friendly environment.

export competitiveness of the State of Osun. The Agro Industrial Park would feature agricultural production, storage facilities and warehousing, product conditioning and cold storage facilities, processing and packaging industries, inspection, grading and quality control centres, logistic centres, fertilizer blending, chemical manufacturing industries and laboratories.

Governor Aregbesola leads a construction site inspection.

INVESTMENT INCENTIVES in OSUN STATE The investment incentive system in Osun is one of the best in Nigeria. The State Government is increasingly committed to providing an enabling environment for both existing and potential investors. The State offers a variety of investment opportunities that cut across the different economic sectors and provides the right climate for investment within agriculture, commerce and industry, tourism and sanitation. These incentives include the provision of land and the timely processing of land titles, a support infrastructure of water and electricity, farm equipment at subsidised rates, favourable tax incentives and holidays, established industrial estates and a Free Trade Zone. The Office of Economic Development and Partnerships (OEDP) has also been established as a ‘one-stop-shop’ that facilitates trade and investment, and helps to cut bureaucracy and red tape for investment partnerships in Osun.

INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES in OSUN STATE LARGE SCALE AGRICULTURAL FARMS The Government of Osun welcomes large scale agricultural investments into the State, with partnership opportunities available in arable crop and livestock production, especially for maize, cassava, rice, cocoa, plantain and vegetables, as well as poultry, cattle, sheep and fish. These crops and livestock have been selected because of their varied utility, the

existing consumer demands of the Lagos and south-western regional markets, and the comparative advantage already possessed by Osun farmers through the agro-ecological benefits of the State. BEEF CHAIN DEVELOPMENT The Osun Beef Chain Development Project is an initiative with a target to supply 10 per cent of the Lagos beef market, estimated at 3,000 cattle per day, thereby stimulating the creation of about 27,500 jobs directly around beef chain enterprises. To achieve this, the State Government has set aside 500 hectares of land for availability to investors into cattle ranch enterprises. The objective is to stimulate development all along the beef production stages, and to encourage private sector investment, both domestic and international, into cattle breeding, farming, processing and marketing.

SEED COMPANIES There is a shortage of availability and the adoption of high yielding seed varieties within the agricultural sector in the State of Osun. Currently, the public sector is the major buyer of seeds from commissioned growers, with these seeds then sold on to local farmers. The opportunity therefore exists for seed companies to serve, as well as deepen, this local demand directly while targeting the West African market at the same time. Target crops include maize, rice and vegetable seeds, as well as cassava stem cuttings. AGRO-INDUSTRIAL PARKS The State is open to establishing a Special Economic Zone that would improve agricultural standards and productivity, attract investments and increase the

AGRICULTURAL INPUTS This project is to encourage private sector investors to take lead positions in the State’s agriculture sector, as opposed to the current public sector controlled market. While the public sector will continue to play its statutory role of stimulating and regulating the market, the private sector will be encouraged to improve the efficiency of the agricultural markets through investments in land clearing and preparation services, and the production and distribution of inputs such as seeds, agro-chemicals and fertilizers. EQUIPMENT LEASING The Equipment Leasing Company project is an initiative to achieve a better use, more efficiency and greater income from State-owned assets that are currently in the custody of the ministries, departments and agencies. The plan is to roll all governmental equipment into a number of leasing companies, in partnership with private sector investors. One part of the government’s equity in the company would be the value of the contributed equipment. In this respect, a database of all State Government construction, agricultural, mining and waste management equipment has been compiled, including their current operational status and estimated current market values. AQUACULTURE The State of Osun is traversed by many rivers and large streams, which make fresh water aquaculture a viable investment area. A project is in place to provide concessions at 12 fresh water sources to private sector investors for fresh fish farming. The State Government of Osun therefore welcomes investments in this regard. THE O-HUB The vision to establish the O-HUB Mid Regional Market in Osogbo was borne out of Ogbeni Rauf Aregbesola’s administration in depth appreciation of the economic potential of the good people of the State of Osun, particularly within commerce and agriculture. Up until early 1970s, the State capital was

the commercial hub of the Western Region of Nigeria and where virtually all people from that region, and many from the Middle Belt and Eastern Region came to buy all locally or internationally manufactured goods. The objective of the O-HUB Project, then, is to restore Osogbo back to its acclaimed status as the commercial hub of the south west, and its restoration as the regional centre of commerce will create cost effective business opportunities and greater market links for manufacturers, farm producers and consumers. The O-HUB combines the flexibility logistical bulk warehousing, a wholesale hypermarket and semi-retail megastores, set within the ambience of a recreation and entertainment arena. The Hub will allow consumers to fully satisfy their routine wholesale and bulk retail shopping needs in one trip In addition, there will be dedicated rail services to carry farm produce from the Osun hinterland to Lagos, returning to Osun with both locally manufactured and imported goods. For the project, 200 hectares of land have already been acquired for beside the Dagbolu railway station at Dagbolu, which is also a few miles drive from Osogbo. Collaboration is required for the logistical management of the O-HUB Project. It is expected that the warehouses would be constructed and managed by private developers, under PPP arrangements. The State Government will facilitate the project by providing an enabling environment for it to thrive. Specifically, Osun will provide land, construct access roads and subsidise the rail haulage. Private investors, on the other hand, shall build, operate and maintain the facilities within the market. INLAND PORT In a bid to ease congestion at the Lagos ports and foster a broader-based

development outside of Lagos State, the Federal Government embarked on ports reforms initiative within Nigeria and States desiring a dry port, with the supporting infrastructure to so do, were asked to apply. The State of Osun has since been granted a license to house a dry port within the State at Dagbolu and collaboration in the development and management of the Osun Dry Port is invited. FREE TRADE ZONE In order to encourage multinational corporations into the State to assist the production for export markets, the State Government of Osun has established a Free Trade Zone at Abere in Ede. Half of the 1,600 hectares site is intended as an Industrial Park and the rest dedicated to Free Trade Zone. Asphalt roads, street lights and water are already in place within the office buildings, but collaboration is requested from competent organisations with the financial and technical capacity to develop and operate the site further. Similarly, the State Government established two further Industrial Estates in Osogbo (28ha) and Ilesa (49ha). Again, there are road networks, electricity and water for industrial use and investors are hereby encouraged to invest in Osun to take advantage of these facilities. Efforts are also ongoing to establish an additional estate in each of the six major cities of Ede, Ila Orangun, Gbongan, Ile-Ife, Iwo and Ikirun, to promote a greater geographical spread of the Stateâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s industrial development and to reduce congestion in the State capital of Osogbo. SOLID MINERALS The principal minerals found in Osun include gold, talc, feldspar, cassiterite, columbite, granite, mica, kaolin, tourmaline and aquamarine, and Public Private Partnerships are available within

the operations of the existing licenses of the State-owned mining company. POWER Electricity is critical to the industrialisation objectives of the State of Osun. Therefore, economic cooperation is welcomed for the construction and management of captive power plants, of varying capacities, which will be used to supply electricity to industrial estates and agro-industrial clusters. MKO ABIOLA INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT The airport, located in Ido, shares a boundary with the Osun Free Trade Zone. About a third of the planned construction has been achieved to date. The State Government is therefore looking to concession the airport to investors or partners that would help complete the construction and management of the airport. It is envisaged that, once completed, the airport will offer passenger services handling, international wet and dry cargo handling, aircraft maintenance and a logistics support hub. TERTIARY HEALTHCARE Investment opportunities are available for state-of-the-art diagnostic laboratories, specialist hospitals and pharmaceutical companies. HOUSING The State has a housing policy in place focusing on the Public Private Partnership model for estate development and financing with significant incentives in place. The policy objective is to ease the challenges of affordable housing within the major cities of the State and, therefore, would-be investors in the housing sector are particularly encouraged to talk to us in Osun.

CONTACT US For further enquiries and information, please contact: Dr. Charles â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Diji Akinola Director General Office of Economic Development and Partnerships (OEDP) Office of the Governor State of Osun Nigeria Tel: +234 803403 4419 Email:

The RLG mobile phone assembly plant, Ilesa.

Good Governance, Peace and Security

Democracy and development from the grass roots Carl Wright, Secretary-General of the Commonwealth Local Government Forum (CLGF), details the Gaborone Declaration and the vision for how local government can play a full part in the multi-level, multi-stakeholder approach to development and tackling poverty.


015 is CLGF’s 20th anniversary. Founded in 1995 as a focus for local democracy, it has gone from strength to strength in its influence and impact, helping to shape decentralisation policies and build local government capacity to deliver, as well as promoting the importance of local government’s role in development. As a recognised associated organisation of the Commonwealth, CLGF is the voice of local government in the Commonwealth and beyond and has received endorsement for its work at successive CHOGMs. CLGF’s network is further strengthened by key partners who are supporting its work – such as the UK Department for International Development, New Zealand Aid Programme, the European Union and UNDP – to bring technical support to members on decentralisation and strengthening local government institutions, policies and practices. A key role in sustainable development

2015 is an important year in the global calendar: the sustainable development goals (SDGs) have been agreed by the UN, Commonwealth Heads of Government are meeting in Malta in November, the stage is set for a universal climate change agreement at the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP21), and planning for next year’s Habitat III is well under way towards defining a new urban agenda. Local government has played a key role in delivering the global development agenda and will be a partner in the implementation to 2030 and beyond. This will be a key strand of CLGF’s work for the future in supporting our members to do this.


CHOGM 2015 Report

Having made the case to development partners and other stakeholders that local government should have had a bigger role in the MDGs – being responsible for many of the basic services that drive development and improve people’s quality of life – more recently CLGF, with key international partners, has played a direct role in shaping the new Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the implementation of the post-2015 agenda, including developing the concepts of localising the SDGs and localising resources. The Global Task Force of Regional and Local Governments, in which CLGF is a leading partner, has been engaged throughout the UN consultations which have been pivotal in ensuring that local government’s voice is heard. The result is that it has been accepted that all levels of government – including local – must be included in implementing the SDGs as part of a multilevel government approach, and local governments must be ready to take up the challenge. The Commonwealth Local Government Conference 2015 in Gaborone, Botswana, took place at a very opportune time to debate this issue, and agreed a ‘Vision 2030’ for how local government should play a full part in the multi-level, multi-stakeholder approach to development and tackling poverty. A vision for local government 2030 Commonwealth Local Government Conferences are high level forums for discussing issues around local governance and decentralisation, for setting policy directions and for sharing knowledge and experience. The Gaborone

Good Governance, Peace and Security

Decentralisation processes and effective local governance EQPVTKDWVGUKIPKƒECPVN[ to deepening democracy and local empowerment, which is critical for the successful implementation of the post-2015 development agenda. Dr Joseph Muscat, Prime Minister of Malta speaking at the 2015 Commonwealth Local Government Conference, June 2015

conference, opened by HE President Khama of Botswana, was a highly successful event with some 600 delegates attending from more than 40 countries. It debated local government’s role in the 2030 agenda for sustainable development – looking at local democracy and good governance, economic growth and local development, and creating sustainable cities and local governments. Speakers included Malta’s Prime Minister Hon Dr Joseph Muscat and UNDP Administrator Rt Hon Helen Clark, as well as Southern African Development Community (SADC) Executive Secretary Dr Lawrence Tax and Commonwealth Deputy Secretary-General Dr Josephine Ojambo. HRH the Prince of Wales, Prince Charles, addressed delegates in a video message where he emphasised the importance of a holistic approach to urban and rural planning and development. Delegates concluded that for local government to play its full role in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030, it needs to be empowered, capacities need to be reinforced, governance strengthened and citizens should be more engaged in the democratic process. Most importantly there need to be strong fi nancing mechanisms and support for infrastructure as well as service delivery; with more equitable fi scal decentralisation, reduction of unfunded mandates, and improved access and mobilisation for own source revenue, as well as better access to international funds such as those for climate change and development. Delegates called on CLGF to develop a 15year strategy for local government focusing on supporting its members in developing and implementing modalities to localise the SDGs.

The outcome of the conference is an important policy statement, The Gaborone Declaration – Local Government Vision 2030. This also highlights the impact of rapid urbanisation on local governance, planning, service delivery, infrastructure development, the growth of informal settlements, urban sprawl and the effect that these have on the quality of life of citizens, issues which will need to be addressed fully at Habitat III in 2016. The Gaborone Declaration emphasises the urgent need for holistic national urban policies to provide for effective planning which recognises the importance of reducing urban sprawl and strengthening urban-rural linkages. And it points out the growing need to reinforce relationships between local government and national planning and budgeting systems for effective localisation of the SDGs. It calls on Habitat III in 2016 to address these issues and the effect these have on the quality of life of citizens. Delivering the vision The Local Government Vision 2030 agreed in Gaborone will be taken forward by CLGF for endorsement by Commonwealth Heads of Government in Malta, and to help set its work priorities for the next 15 years. Most importantly, members of CLGF use the Local Government Vision 2030 at local and national levels to help develop their own plans and ensure that local government’s voice is heard and that local government plays a full role in the development agenda in their countries. CLGF continues to remain engaged with the process, including being part of the Commonwealth delegation that

CHOGM 2015 Report


Good Governance, Peace and Security

Delegates at the Commonwealth Local Government Conference 2015.

attended the UN conference on Financing for Development in Addis Ababa in July, which resulted in a signiďŹ cant recognition of the importance of ensuring proper ďŹ nancing provision for local government â&#x20AC;&#x201C; localising resources in parallel with the 2030 agenda for sustainable development. Vision 2030 pointed out that local governments everywhere will continue to face many unexpected and short-term challenges such as natural disasters, the impact of climate change, conďŹ&#x201A;ict and insurgency as well as those arising from global economic uncertainties and major human tragedies such as the current refugee crisis. These have a big effect on many countries, particularly small states, and local governments are under ever greater pressure to respond to these opportunities and challenges at local level. With better educated populations and increasing access to information, local people have much greater expectations of their local governments, putting ever more pressure on policy-makers and service providers to respond to changing needs and expectations. For the next decade, the task is to deliver the ambitious

Carl Wright is Secretary-General of the Commonwealth Local Government Forum (CLGF). He has been head of CLGF since it was founded in 1994/5 and has helped to negotiate strategic partnerships with important international agencies such as DFID, UNDP and the EU, and has been responsible for initiating key local government initiatives. These include the 2005 Aberdeen Principles on Local Democracy and Good Governance, which form part of the 2013 Commonwealth Charter. Carl previously held the diplomatic post of Assistant Director at the Commonwealth Secretariat (1988-94). From 1980 to 1988 he was the founding Director of the Commonwealth Trade Union Council, having previously worked as Secretary of the International Confederation of (TGG6TCFG7PKQPU  *GYCUCOQPIVJGĆ&#x2019;TUV7- nationals employed at the European Commission (1973-74). He currently participates in the Global Task Force of Local and Regional Governments for post-2015 and Habitat III. In 2013 he was awarded an honorary Doctorate of Public #FOKPKUVTCVKQPD[VJG7PKXGTUKV[QH-YC<WNW0CVCN&WTDCP South Africa.


CHOGM 2015 Report

vision for local governments that delegates agreed at the 2015 conference, including for CLGFâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s own work for the period 2015-2030 in supporting our members in national, regional and local governments, empowering them and boosting their capacity to deliver development locally, to improve services, and deliver a better quality of life for the two billion people who live in the Commonwealth. Â&#x201E;

With better educated populations and increasing access to information, local people have much greater expectations of their local governments. The Commonwealth Local Government Forum (CLGF) aims to promote and strengthen democratic local government. It has pioneered principles in local democracy, local leadership, local economic development and been at the forefront of thinking on developmental local government, localising the SDGs and the 2030 agenda for sustainable development. With some 200 members in most of the 53 countries of the Commonwealth CLGF is unique in having central ministries responsible for local government, metropolitan, urban and rural councils, and local government associations as its members. This helps to promote local-central dialogue to facilitate a multi-level government approach, to delivering policies and programmes for decentralisation and development. CLGF works closely with the Commonwealth Secretariat and other Commonwealth governmental and civil society partners, including the Royal Commonwealth Society, to add global value to the work of the Commonwealth. Website: Follow CLGF on twitter @CLGF_News

Good Governance, Peace and Security

Thierry Boccon-Gibod/The Elders



Gro Harlem Brundtland, Deputy Chair of The Elders and former Prime Minister of Norway, calls for fundamental changes to the UN to make it more effective in its mission of preventing and addressing armed conflict in the 21st Century.

he Commonwealth brings together 53 countries (more than a quarter of the member states of the United Nations), spread across six continents. Its leaders’ shared cultural, linguistic and political heritage enables them to communicate their concerns to each other, and sometimes to agree on joint enterprises, despite the differences between their countries in size, population and per capita income. That kind of understanding is valuable for the world in general, and for the United Nations in particular. When Commonwealth countries think alike, and work together in the UN, they can greatly increase the chances of the world as a whole achieving a sense of common purpose, and of decisions being taken in the UN that

benefit humankind. That is why I, as former leader of a non-Commonwealth country and former head of one of the UN’s most important agencies, am particularly grateful for the chance to contribute this article. The stateswomen and men attending the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting are collectively very well placed to influence debate in the UN, and thus help it to become more effective in maintaining international peace and security – the task above all others for which the peoples of the world look to it, and too often in the last few years have looked in vain. Four Commonwealth countries – Malaysia, New Zealand, Nigeria and the United Kingdom, a permanent member – currently serve on the Security Council.

Good Governance, Peace and Security

The United Nations was founded in 1945 â&#x20AC;&#x153;to save succeeding generations from the scourge of warâ&#x20AC;?. Yet 70 years later far too many people in this world have to endure grief and suffering caused by conďŹ&#x201A;ict and deliberate violence. Many of these conďŹ&#x201A;icts start within the borders of a state, driven by ethnic or religious differences, but they seldom respect those borders. More and more often they spread into neighbouring countries, drawing in regional and global powers, displacing whole populations, and driving men, women and children to seek a safer life elsewhere. No country is immune from their effects. In short, human beings today are far from being safe from the scourge of war, despite the UNâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s best efforts. Yet the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s peoples yearn for a fairer, more peaceful world, where new generations can grow up in conďŹ dence. They do not want to see the UN wither into irrelevance, as the League of Nations did in the 1930s. And that is why I and my fellow Elders â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a group of independent individuals founded eight years ago by Nelson Mandela to promote the shared interests of humanity â&#x20AC;&#x201C; have put forward some ideas for improving the UNâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s performance. Changing circumstances All institutions must adapt to cope with new circumstances â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s circumstances are very different from those of 1945. There have been profound shifts of power and wealth in the world since then. Of the 193 member states of the United Nations today, nearly three-quarters were not members in 1945 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; in a few cases because they had been on the wrong side in World War Two, but the great majority because at that time they did not yet exist as independent states. Many are former British colonies who are now proud members of the Commonwealth. Yet the Security Council, which has primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, is still dominated by the same ďŹ ve permanent members that were designated all those years ago â&#x20AC;&#x201C; namely the ďŹ ve great powers that had just won the war. The governments of those ďŹ ve powers have become so used to their exalted status, which is protected by their ability to veto any change in the Charter, that they think of it almost as their natural right, sometimes forgetting that it is above all a responsibility. They assume that the world will continue to respect their authority, and perhaps fail to notice that, year by year, that authority is being eroded. The peoples of the global South, especially, do not see themselves adequately represented in the Security Council. They are therefore more and more inclined to question its authority, and the legitimacy of its decisions. And therefore we, the Elders, have called on governments to listen to their peoples, and on peoples to insist that their governments make more far-sighted decisions. Four proposals We call both on the existing permanent members of the Security Council and on the rest of the UNâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s membership to accept the urgency of strengthening the organisation, and therefore to accept the compromises â&#x20AC;&#x201C; sometimes painful ones â&#x20AC;&#x201C; that are needed to make that possible. And we have put forward four speciďŹ c proposals: First, a new category of members. In principle, the existing permanent members of the Security Council claim to be ready to welcome new ones. But their sincerity


CHOGM 2015 Report

7KHZRUOGĚľVSHRSOHV \HDUQIRUDIDLUHUPRUH SHDFHIXOZRUOGZKHUHQHZ JHQHUDWLRQVFDQJURZXSLQ FRQͤGHQFH has not been tested, because the rest of the membership cannot agree on essential points: which countries, and how many, should be new permanent members? And should they, like the existing ones, be given a veto over the Councilâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s substantive divisions? In the view of many states, the use or abuse of the veto is responsible for some of the Councilâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most conspicuous failures, when it does not intervene in time, or with sufďŹ cient force, to protect the victims of genocide and other comparable crimes. Those states are understandably reluctant to give yet more powers the right of veto. We therefore propose a compromise. Let the states which aspire to permanent membership accept instead, at least for the time being, election to a new category of membership, which would give them a much longer term than the two years currently served by non-permanent members, and to which they could be immediately reelected when that term expires. This would enable them to become de facto permanent members, but in a more democratic way, since their permanence would depend on continuing to enjoy the conďŹ dence of other states. The Elders believe that by making the Council more democratic, this change would increase its legitimacy in the eyes of the world, thereby enhancing its authority and so also making it more effective. This compromise will not be easy for states which aspire to full permanent membership to accept. But we urge them, for the greater good, to set aside for now their larger ambition. If they do, we believe that other member states will be willing to accord them this special status, whereas their chances of achieving full permanent membership in the near or even medium term still seem remote. The alternative is to continue the present stalemate, at an unacceptable cost in innocent human lives. Even so, such a change requires amendment of the Charter, which necessitates a two-thirds majority in the General Assembly and then ratiďŹ cation by two-thirds of all UN members, including all ďŹ ve permanent members of the Security Council. This can be done, but it will inevitably take some time. All the more reason, then, for starting a debate on the merits of this proposal without further delay. The CHOGM summit in Malta provides an excellent opportunity to kick it off. Meanwhile, we propose three other changes, which do not require Charter amendment. We believe all three are urgently needed, to make the UN more effective, more authoritative and more efďŹ cient in its work of maintaining peace. They should not wait until this ďŹ rst one has been completed. Our second proposal is a pledge to be given by the existing permanent members. As already noted, on too many issues the Security Council is deadlocked by its failure to agree on a course of action, with the result that

Good Governance, Peace and Security

millions of people are left to suffer while great powers score debating points off each other. As the UNâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s founders understood, without the united support of the permanent members, both material and moral, the Council cannot act. None of us has forgotten the Holocaust, Rwanda, Srebrenica, Saddam Husseinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s campaign against Iraqâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Kurds, or the killing ďŹ elds of Cambodia. No part of the world has been spared these horrors. So the political will must be summoned to prevent, or at least limit, their repetition. We therefore call on the ďŹ ve existing permanent members to pledge themselves to greater, more persistent efforts to ďŹ nd common ground, especially in crises where populations are being subjected to, or threatened with, genocide or other mass atrocities. States making this pledge will undertake not to use, or threaten to use, their veto in such crises without explaining, clearly and in public, what alternative course of action they propose, as a credible and efďŹ cient way to protect the endangered populations. This explanation must refer to international peace and security, and not to the national interest of the state casting the veto, since any state casting a veto simply to protect its national interests is abusing the privilege of permanent membership. And when one or more permanent members do feel obliged to cast a veto, and do provide such an explanation, the others must undertake not to abandon the search for common ground. On the contrary, they must make even greater efforts to agree on an effective course of action. My fellow Elders and I intend to raise these proposals with leaders when we visit the capitals of the permanent members of the Security Council. Thirdly, we demand a stronger voice for those affected by the Councilâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s decisions. When they can agree, the permanent members too often deliberate behind closed doors, without listening to those most directly concerned by their decisions, and present their elected colleagues with ready-made resolutions leaving little room for debate. To remedy this, we call on all members of the Security Council to make more regular and systematic use of the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Arria formulaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; (under which, in the last two decades, Security Council members have had meetings with a wide variety of concerned civil society organisations), to give groups representing people in zones of conďŹ&#x201A;ict the greatest possible opportunity to inform and inďŹ&#x201A;uence Council decisions. At present, meetings under this formula are too often attended only by junior ofďŹ cials, whose reports can easily be

ignored. In future, we call on the heads of the delegations of all countries serving on the Security Council, including the permanent members, to attend all such meetings in person. They must use them to ensure that their decisions are informed by full and clear knowledge of the conditions in the country or region concerned, and of the views of those most directly affected. Finally, we advocate a new process for choosing the Secretary-General. At the United Nations, it is the Secretary-General who has to uphold the interests and aspirations of all the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s peoples. This role requires leadership of the highest calibre. Yet for 70 years the holder of this post has effectively been chosen by the ďŹ ve permanent members of the Security Council, who negotiate among themselves in almost total secrecy. The rest of the world is told little about the process by which candidates are identiďŹ ed, let alone the criteria by which they are judged. This barely follows the letter, and certainly not the spirit, of the UN Charter, which says the Secretary-General should be appointed by the General Assembly, and only on the recommendation of the Security Council. To remedy this, we call on the General Assembly to insist that the Security Council recommend more than one person for the Assemblyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s consideration, after a timely, equitable and transparent search for the best qualiďŹ ed candidates, irrespective of gender or regional origin. We also believe it important that the next Secretary-General be appointed for a single, non-renewable term of seven years, in order to strengthen his or her independence and avoid the perception that he or she is guided by electoral concerns. She or he must not be under pressure, either before or after being appointed, to give posts in the Secretariat to people of any particular nationality in return for political support, since this is clearly contrary to the spirit of the Charter. This new process should be adopted without delay, so that the United Nations can make full use of it next year, to choose the best person to assume the post in January 2017. The Elders believe that, for the UN to recover its authority and effectiveness in maintaining world peace and security, these changes are an essential starting point. We also believe that they are achievable, with a minimum of good will and effort on the part of member states. We therefore call on all governments to take the necessary action, and on the citizens of all states to press them to do so. There is no time to lose. Â&#x201E;

Gro Harlem Brundtland is Deputy Chair of The Elders. A OGFKECNFQEVQTUJGYCU0QTYC[ŨUĆ&#x2019;TUVYQOCP2TKOG/KPKUVGT serving a total of ten years as head of government between 1981 and 1996. She chaired the World Commission on Environment and Development â&#x20AC;&#x201C; known as the Brundtland Commission â&#x20AC;&#x201C; which articulated the principle of sustainable FGXGNQROGPVHQTVJGĆ&#x2019;TUVVKOGCVCINQDCNNGXGN5JGYCU Director-General of the World Health Organization from 1998 to 2003, UN Special Envoy for Climate Change from 2007 to 2010 and, from 2011 to 2012, was a member of the United Nations Secretary-Generalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Global Sustainability Panel.

The Elders%JCKTGFD[-QĆ&#x2019;#PPCPKUCPKPFGRGPFGPVITQWR of global leaders who work together for peace and human rights. They were brought together in 2007 by Nelson Mandela. The Elders represent an independent voice, not bound by the interests of any nation, government or institution. They are committed to promoting the shared interests of humanity, and the universal human rights we all share. They believe that in any conflict, it is important to listen to everyone â&#x20AC;&#x201C; no matter how unpalatable or unpopular this may be. They aim to act boldly, URGCMKPIFKHĆ&#x2019;EWNVVTWVJUCPFVCEMNKPIVCDQQU6JG[FQPQVENCKO to have all the answers, and stress that every individual can make a difference and create positive change in their society. Website:

CHOGM 2015 Report


Good Governance, Peace and Security

Calibrating a Commonwealth-wide response to terrorism Raffaello Pantucci and Dr Sasha Jesperson of the Royal United Services Institute (RUSI) discuss terrorism and extreme violence in the Commonwealth, in particular the growth of ISIL, but urge us to keep calm and not to overreact.


errorism is a menace that resonates across the Commonwealth. From resident domestic violent extremist groups such as Boko Haram in Nigeria or the LTTE in Sri Lanka, to groups launching cross-border attacks from neighbouring countries like Al Shabaab’s attacks in Kenya or Uganda, to lone actor attacks in Canada and Australia, terrorism can be found in some shape in most countries. Yet the reality is that when one looks at the cumulative numbers in comparison with other threats to human life, casualty counts are relatively low. This is not to dismiss the danger from terrorism, but given the current hyperventilation around ISIL (so-called Islamic State or ISIS) in particular, it is important to make sure that this is borne in mind; and furthermore, that care is taken to ensure that the expressions of violence which purport to be linked to ISIL are properly understood within their respective contexts. Fears around terrorism are of course not baseless. Many West African countries have watched the growth of Al Qaeda in the Maghreb (AQIM) with concern, and there has been evidence of AQIM networks having particular influence over parts of Boko Haram. After the attacks of 11 September 2001, the threat of terrorism in the West spiked – and later materialised in the form of the attacks in Bali 2002 and London in 2005, to name just two. Yet the influence of Al Qaeda, the group behind much of these fears, has not been as significant as initially feared. The group has managed a number of attacks and continues to attempt to launch plots. It has further managed to help grow off-shoots in various countries,


CHOGM 2015 Report

including Commonwealth countries, highlighting the dangers of such pernicious ideologies. But it has failed to transform and take over the world in the manner which it claimed to be attempting to do. A new set of fears ISIL appears to present a new set of fears. The group has a public relations strategy that makes Al Qaeda appear archaic and detached, fi nding innovative ways of engaging with social media to spread their messages, recruit and radicalise new members from as far as the UK, Canada and Australia, as well as the Western Balkans and West Africa. The increase in foreign fighters travelling to join ISIL from around the world has prompted many governments to act, implementing new legislation in an attempt to stop people leaving their country of origin and punish those returning. Concerns have also been raised

The increase in foreign ͤJKWHUVWUDYHOOLQJWRMRLQ ISIL from around the world has prompted many JRYHUQPHQWVWRDFW

Good Governance, Peace and Security

that the current surge of people displaced by the conflict in Syria is potentially being used as a cover by the group to send its people around the globe. But the greatest fear arises from ISIL’s state-building aspirations and the growth of its self-declared caliphate, and all the trappings of statehood and success that accompany this. Boko Haram’s recent pledge of allegiance to ISIL, and the adoption of the new name ‘Islamic State in West Africa’, has led to increased fears across West Africa about what this means for the group’s activity and impact in the region. This is only heightened by the ISIL’s claims of expanding their caliphate into West Africa. Yet, it is unclear the degree to which there has been much back and forth between the two groups – ISIL and Boko Haram – beyond rhetoric or some exchange of tips and capability in terms of developing a more professional media output. Since the formal pledge of bayat (allegiance) by Boko Haram to ISIL, there has been a noticeable improvement in the video output by the West African group. But beyond this, there has not been much more tangible evidence of fighters or money flowing between the two groups in a widely organised fashion. The West African dimension In many ways, therefore, the link between Boko Haram and ISIL is an extension of Nigeria’s existing problem with violent extremism, rather than something new. A politically-minded terrorist organisation seeking to attract attention to itself, Boko Haram saw the advantage

of adopting the ISIL name to bring the bright light of publicity and attention to their cause. Nevertheless, it represents a worrying trend for other Commonwealth nations in the region. While the problem may be largely an extension of an existing issue, the decision by Boko Haram to adopt the ISIL brand reflects both an eagerness to attract more attention and a consequent push towards an even more extremely divisive brand of violent rhetoric. This aspect is something that has worrying ramifications for countries across the Commonwealth, and particularly in West Africa. Ghana offers a particular case study within this context. Geographically close to Nigeria, it is therefore close to the expanding local ‘caliphate’. Ghana has a sizeable Muslim population (though accurate numbers are hard to find, with reports estimating it is somewhere between 18 and 45 per cent). Throughout history Muslims and Christians in Ghana have had a good relationship, but the spread of ISIL into West Africa is raising fears of domestic radicalisation. In early October, Ghana’s Deputy Education Minister, Samuel Okudzeto Ablakwa, addressed Muslims in Accra about ISIL agents at Ghanaian universities seeking to recruit fighters. Two students have already been identified as joining ISIL and there are concerns among some in the international community based in Ghana that many more have been recruited in the north of the country. While these findings suggest that the fear of government ministers of ISIL infiltration is justified, there is a risk of over-reaction and polarisation. Northern Ghana, where the majority of Ghana’s Muslim population resides,

CHOGM 2015 Report


Good Governance, Peace and Security

has experienced violent clashes sparked by ethnicity, land disputes and chieftancy rights for over 20 years, as detailed by Emmanuel K Anekunabe in Modern Ghana (30 November 2009). Although this has historically not been centred on religion or a Muslim-Christian antipathy, there is a risk that fears of ISIL radicalisation may marginalise Muslim communities and create a divide, in turn driving more people into the hands of ISIL. As the brand is perceived to be more present in neighbouring countries like Nigeria, there will be a growing tendency for security forces to look for the problem; and in some extreme cases, this might have a self-fulfilling effect. This phenomenon is most recently illustrated by Tom Parker, from the UN Counter Terrorism Centre, who highlights the strategy of terrorist groups in provoking an overreaction from affected governments, which then strengthens the cause of the terrorist group and increases support for their activities (‘It’s a Trap’, The RUSI Journal, 160(3), 2015) . Although the fear of ISIL penetration has not resulted in the draconian state responses described by Parker, there is potential for it to single out certain groups, putting them at greater risk of marginalisation. As Parker points out, “provoking an overreaction by the authorities helps to accelerate the polarisation of society by alienating potential security partners – such as moderate members of a minority community – and providing powerful support to terrorist narratives of victimhood and injustice.” Underlying grievances Such a response links to the debate over the role of economic, political and social marginalisation. These forms of marginalisation have been linked to violent extremism, in many cases identified as a ‘push’ factor for radicalisation. Weiss and Hassan argue in their book on ISIL’s roots that the persistent marginalisation of the Sunni Arab majority in Iraq pushed large numbers into violent extremism (ISIS: Inside the Army of Terror, 2015). Other cases in which substantial socio-economic grievances feature include northern Nigeria (where the Hausaspeaking Muslim north has tended to experience political marginalisation and economic deprivation), Somalia (where Al Shabaab has been especially successful at recruiting from minority clans), and, in previous decades, Sri Lanka (where the Tamil population endured decades of marginalisation). Whether marginalisation is a necessary

Raffaello Pantucci is Director of International Security Studies at the Royal United Services Institute (RUSI). He has worked at think tanks in Washington, DC, Shanghai and London, CPFJCUYTKVVGPVJGƒTUVEQORNGVGJKUVQT[QHLKJCFKUOKPVJG UK, called We Love Death As You Love Life: Britain’s Suburban Terrorists (Hurst, 2015). His writing on terrorism has been featured in the academic and public press, including the Financial Times, New York Times, Times and Guardian. Sasha Jesperson is a Research Analyst with the National Security and Resilience Studies programme at RUSI, where she is leading research on organised crime. Sasha holds a PhD from the London School of Economics. She previously worked with Amnesty International, focused on human rights


CHOGM 2015 Report

or sufficient factor for involvement in violent extremism is widely debated. Gupta argues that it is not a sufficient factor, that grievances need to be instrumentalised by charismatic individuals or ‘political entrepreneurs’, and social and psychological factors need to align as well (ILSA Journal of International Comparative Law, 11(3), 2005). With the case of ISIL, the use of social media and other methods to recruit members may fill that role. This lesson is one that is not only salient in an African context. In the West, government’s choice of language has in some cases served to further strengthen the ‘clash of civilisations’ narrative that radical groups feed off to draw people to themselves. By talking of ISIL as an ‘existential threat’ or a ‘nihilistic death cult’, the government rhetoric is elevating the group in importance, but also speaking in terms that are not dissimilar to those deployed by the group. Taken adjacent to language that suggests that governments need to engage in countering not only the violent extremists who help recruit people into ISIL, but also non-violent extremist groups as well, there is a danger that a large section of society is being purposely marginalised. The danger is again of a self-fulfilling prophecy where the casting of the ISIL threat as part of a wider community of extremists means a broader community feel isolated – and consequently closer to ISIL. The lesson is a simple one. Although the threat posed by ISIL is generating concern and fear across the globe, it is essential that governments do not overreact. While ISIL does appear to present a much more far-reaching threat than their predecessors through the use of social media and ability to engage with individuals that previously appeared out of reach, to date the expansion of the caliphate is more a product of local grievances expressing themselves through the adoption of the ISIL brand (and therefore the rejection of an old order that was perceived as a failure) rather than a strong and direct connection. This is not to say that it will not expand further (and has already made worrying inroads in various places around the globe), or that it is not a substantial problem that will pose a major headache for security officials for the next decade; but rather, that governments need to be sure that in addressing the problem they are focusing on the right issues. Finally, attention needs to be paid to overreaction, something that in many cases will only make the fundamental problem worse. „

in conflict and post-conflict contexts. She currently teaches on the LLM and Masters in Development Management programmes at the Open University. The Royal United Services Institute (RUSI) is an independent think tank engaged in cutting edge defence and security research. A unique institution, founded in 1831 by the Duke of Wellington, RUSI embodies nearly two centuries of forward thinking, free discussion and careful reflection on defence and security matters. The authors of this article are writing in a personal capacity rather than reflecting any views of the Institute as a whole. Website:

Good Governance, Peace and Security



cursory glance at the 2015 Global Peace Index (GPI, visionof makes for very interesting reading. Out of the top 20 most peaceful nations, only three out of the 53 members of the Commonwealth make the cut â&#x20AC;&#x201C; New Zealand, Canada and Australia â&#x20AC;&#x201C; although not all the smaller member states are included in the index. Out of the 50 most peaceful nations in the world, a further six members are added â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Singapore, Mauritius, Malaysia, Botswana, United Kingdom and Namibia. What the GPI shows is that the world has become generally less peaceful since 2008, a situation largely attributable to the rise of conďŹ&#x201A; icts within states, the rise of terrorism and increasing levels of criminality. The number of displaced people and refugees is the highest since the end of the Second World War. Although the long-term trend in peacefulness is positive (there has been a marked and persistent downturn in levels of violence and conďŹ&#x201A; ict since the end of the Second World War), the number and intensity of high-proďŹ le conďŹ&#x201A; icts and atrocities in the short term have increased. While the ďŹ rst half of the 20th century was a major period of inter-state warfare and wars of decolonisation, the second half gave way to an era of predominantly civil conďŹ&#x201A; icts. A little over 20 per cent of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s population live in countries under the threat of large-scale, organised violence, according to the World Bankâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 2011 World Development Report. Experiences over the last decade in many part of the world illustrate the challenges that the changing nature of armed conďŹ&#x201A; ict poses for peace as the landscape and nature of conďŹ&#x201A; ict is changing. Challenges to the established order in different places around the world are arising linked to diverse causes â&#x20AC;&#x201C; political change,

regional and national autonomy, urbanisation, climate change, faith and cultural identity, or securing the basic conditions of life. Many conďŹ&#x201A; icts (including within the Commonwealth region) may be chaotic, multi-sided, not necessarily openly political and, in many cases, a confusing amalgam of crime, politics and business. Crime, violence and the wider social and political instability thus produced will threaten human security, raising the prospects for new forms of conďŹ&#x201A; ict. While each conďŹ&#x201A; ict will be different from the others there are three common factors: â&#x20AC;˘ ConďŹ&#x201A; icts will contest how, by whom and for what ends power is held and used â&#x20AC;˘ Whether they escalate will depend on whether systemic vulnerabilities have eroded societyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s capacity to manage conďŹ&#x201A; icts peacefully â&#x20AC;˘ If they escalate, ordinary people will suffer. The new forms of violent conďŹ&#x201A; ict within societies cannot be packed away out of sight â&#x20AC;&#x201C; they would not remain there. This must be of concern for Commonwealth member states for the future. &DXVHVIRUFRQ̨LFW Underlying some of the causes for current conďŹ&#x201A; icts are some cross-cutting characteristics, including the rise of violent non-state actors and the prevalence of civil wars; deep socio-political and ethno-religious cleavages; huge levels of mistrust and intolerance; constantly changing alliances, loyalties and relationships; changing frontlines and territorial control; destruction of social infrastructures and services; and links to natural resources. In many cases where

CHOGM 2015 Report


Credit: A Saleem 2015

Good Governance, Peace and Security


In many cases where there has been a cessation of violence and hostilities, peace agreements and the accompanying international apparatus to support their implementation have suppressed the violence but not addressed the causes of conflict. there has been a cessation of violence and hostilities, peace agreements and the accompanying international apparatus to support their implementation have suppressed the violence but not addressed the causes of conflict. Accordingly, the risk of a re-eruption remains. One of the best indicators of where there is risk of future violent conflict is simply identifying where there was violent conflict before. While politics, faith, identity and rights are often the foreground factors for any conflict (i.e. these are the issues that people fight for and against), it is important to pay


CHOGM 2015 Report

attention to the long-term systemic issues that increase conflict. In a nutshell, identified in International Alert’s Strategic Perspective 2015-2019, there are three strategic issues that will affect long-term conflict dynamics, all of which have direct relevance and impact to Commonwealth nations. These are, first, people, cities and resources; second, inequality; and third, climate change and nature. People, cities and resources The world’s population passed the one billion mark in 1810, doubled in the next hundred years, and by 2010 was about seven billion. The projection for 2030 is nine billion. But the issue here is not pure numbers – it is resources. When the global total reached one billion, just three per cent, 30 million people, lived in cities. Today the world is 50 per cent urbanised – that is, 3.5 billion people live in cities. Projections put the percentage in 2030 at between 60 and 70 per cent, over five billion. Urbanisation is by no means bad in itself. Cities have many problems, but their emergence and growth is strongly and directly associated with growing literacy, a deepening culture, increased cooperation and social mobilisation for progress on political rights. However, growing urbanisation is also associated with increased output: economically, urban concentration is much more efficiently productive than rural decentralisation, which means increased consumption of natural resources. In addition, growing urbanisation provides a different set of issues with regard to conflict. Because of its changing face, much of today’s violence takes place in middle income countries that are not the traditional stomping ground

Good Governance, Peace and Security

of the peacebuilding sector (Mexico and Jamaica, for example). The Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014 (WHO/UNDP/UNODC) shows that within low and middle income countries, the highest estimated rates of homicide occur in the Americas (28.5 per 100,000), followed by Africa (10.9 per 100,000). The lowest estimated rate of homicide is in the low and middle income countries of the Western Pacific (2.1 per 100,000). For many Commonwealth countries experiencing rapid development and urbanisation, areas of concern include the prospect of ‘shadow’ economies, the connections between the violence driven by politics with the relentless drive for money and the status that comes through criminal gang violence leading to violent conflict. With weak state institutions, the violence becomes cyclical and relentless as criminal violence is traditionally met with the violence of law enforcement – violence on violence. +PGSWCNKV[ Extreme poverty is conventionally defined as living on less than US$1.25 a day (in 2005 prices). According to the World Bank, 1.22 billion people were living below that line in 2010, down from 1.9 billion in 1990 – a major improvement, especially since the world’s total population had increased in the meantime. But 2.6 billion people live on less than US$2 a day and a total of 3.5 billion – half the world’s population – on less than US$3 a day. Thus, while natural resources are consumed in abundance, half the world has very little. The problem is not just economic inequality but the unequal opportunities and access to what should be common goods, such as education, health services, clean water and safety, which flow from the economic facts. Further, the problem is not just inequality in all its dimensions, but the fact that today’s information and communications technologies make relative wealth, status and prestige highly visible to those at or near the bottom of the pile. This is where the seeds of resentment lie that create fertile grounds for conflict entrepreneurs of all kinds. Countries where inequality is sharpest are often countries where inequality both fuels and is fuelled by the root and branch corruption of the governing system. Inequality is not a natural accident; it is a system of wealth and privilege that has been constructed, and is actively defended. For rapidly developing countries within the Commonwealth this is a trap that needs to be avoided. Climate change and nature For the past 20 years there has been a consensus that global policy on climate change should aim to keep the increase in average global temperature to less than 2°C above pre-industrial temperatures. Today, the 2°C world seems a fading dream and even if the world economy is decarbonised at an impossible rate, the consequences of previous greenhouse gas emissions will keep unfolding for decades to come. The consequent changes in our natural environment will have social, economic and, in many places, political effects. Meanwhile the interaction of the changing climate with other features of the socio-economic and political landscape offers new challenges to human security. Climate change is bringing more slow-onset pressures such as droughts, shifts in the timing of the monsoon in parts of

Economically, urban concentration is much PRUHHIͤFLHQWO\SURGXFWLYH than rural decentralisation, which means increased consumption of natural resources. south and south-east Asia, and hotter summers and wetter winters in temperate zones. There will also probably be an increasing frequency and severity of sudden shocks – the extreme weather events such as hurricanes, typhoons and cyclones. These will put pressure on four strategic systems that are essential for the way we live: • Water supply • Food security • Energy supply • Natural resource supply chains. These systems are also under pressure from other human-impelled changes in nature, such as the loss of biodiversity and the effects of different kinds of pollution. These changes combine to create many unknowns in the natural environment; in the long term, economic progress is pushing up against the planetary boundaries of sustainability. It is not that life will become impossible, although some habitats will become functionally uninhabitable. Rather, these four strategic systems will become more vulnerable, more costly and more complex with conflict as one of the consequences. In particular, for the Commonwealth group of nations which comprises of a majority of small island states and agriculture-based economies, climate change is the stark reality. As the threat increases to the very existence of nations and communities, so too do the issues about conflict and community relations. Civil Paths to Peace The analysis outlined above suggests that human progress is at risk of being undermined by a combination of many changes coming at once – some willed and some forced upon society – and the consequent stress. For example, this would be the case where the impact of climate change on water supply and food interacts with the aftermath of violent conflict, poor governance and huge inequality. Often in this kind of scenario, the stress is articulated in terms of politics, faith and identity. It is hard to manage stressful change without adequate institutions and systems for doing so, which are lacking or deficient in many countries including in the Commonwealth. The combined impact of demographic, economic and natural changes, moreover, will occur at every level, from the village and the street to the global system. Deficiencies in resilience are likewise to be found at every level. Local, national and international

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arrangements and institutions that may have functioned reasonably well to date now face challenges they were not designed nor equipped to face. Furthermore, this is happening against the background of political change and instability in countries and globally. However, at the same time as these economic, social and natural problems mount, there is increasing pressure in many places against exactly those organisations and agencies that want to describe the problems and do something about them. The space for civil society is getting narrower in many countries, especially where the problems are sharpest. This inhibits open debate, which in turn constricts the flow of new ideas and creativity for generating new solutions. Understanding how the different elements of risk interact with each other is fundamental to conflict analysis, and to understanding what can be done to build peace in any particular context. The capacity to respond to challenges is necessary but not enough; and relying on crisis response is truly inadequate. It is essential to meet emerging problems upstream. A seminal piece of work commissioned by the Commonwealth in 2007 actually addressed this dilemma, suggesting ways of building mutual communication and understanding among communities in the Commonwealth. The report, Civil Paths to Peace (CPP) by the Commonwealth Commission on Respect and Understanding, suggested a framework for all stakeholders (government, media, civil society, business and so on) to understand the complexities around violent behaviour and its causes, without prejudging what these might be. CPP addresses the narrowing space for civil society and asks for its mobilisation to confront violence as well as engage in the process of democracy. It encourages the removal of gross economic inequalities, social humiliations and political disenfranchisement which can contribute to generating confrontation and hostility. In effect, it calls for an integrated approach to dealing with all economic, social and cultural issues that are related to conflict. It recognises that cultural and social factors as well as features of political economy are all important in understanding violence. CPP puts forward the premise that there is a need for greater respect and understanding of diversity, to counter disquiet, disaffection and violence: “If the cultivation of respect and understanding is both important in itself and consequential in reducing violence and terrorism in the world, the link between the two lies in understanding that cultivated violence is generated

It is the recognition of this plurality and the searching for commonalities within this pluralism that will lead to greater respect and ultimately understanding and acceptance. 94

CHOGM 2015 Report

through fomenting disrespect and fostering confrontational misunderstandings.” (Civil Paths to Peace, 2007). The concept of developing respect and understanding is further cemented by Nobel Laureate Professor Amartya Sen’s premise in his book Identity and Violence, that the key to good citizenship and social cohesion is the encouragement and retention of multiple identities. People have several enriching identities: nationality, gender, age and parental background, religious or professional affiliation. They identify with different ethnic groups and races, towns or villages they call home, sometimes football teams; they speak different languages, which they hope their children will retain, and love different parts of their countries. It is the recognition of this plurality and the searching for commonalities within this pluralism that will lead to greater respect and ultimately understanding and acceptance. Thus these new solutions will have to challenge people to accept diversity and create equal opportunities for diverse communities, ethnicities, traditions, cultures and faiths. The new solutions will also have to take into account the existence of multiple identities which add a richness and variety to diversity and pluralism as part of a common wealth that needs to be celebrated in the global civil society and integrated into life as a positive force for development. In Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers, Kwame Anthony Appiah writes eloquently of the urgent need for “ideas and institutions that will allow us to live together as the global tribe we have become”. Addressing this, the Commission argues for much more dialogue and discussion on the richness of human identities and the counterproductive nature of placing people in rigidly separated identity boxes, linked with religion or community. )DFLQJXSWRFKDOOHQJHV Civil Paths to Peace very much speaks to the concept of upstream peacebuilding as envisaged by International Alert in their Strategic Perspective for 2015-2019, referred to and quoted here. In this age of growing long-term risk, the international community as a whole needs to be better at risk management. In order to be able to meet problems upstream, there need to be strong advocates for creative dialogue, and diplomacy that understands the context and addresses civic empowerment. Peace in societies is best defined as when people can pursue conflicts without violence and harm to themselves or others. In other words, it is not conflict that is the problem, but violence. Indeed, conflict is often a necessary condition for making social progress, and the ability to manage conflicts without violence is an important skill by which we do so. Peace is recognisable not exclusively or even primarily by evidence that people are resolving conflicts and differences peacefully, but also by the presence of a number of ‘peace factors’. These are the conditions that encourage people to handle conflicts peacefully and prevent serious problems from emerging, as well as offering many other shared goods. These factors draw on the idea of human security and ‘positive peace’ (a peace that is more than just the absence of violence). They express both what needs to be aimed for and how one assesses whether a society is indeed moving in a peaceful direction. The peace factors concentrate on:

Good Governance, Peace and Security

â&#x20AC;˘ Whether power is organised and leadership is used for the common good, and what degree of voice and accountability ordinary citizens have â&#x20AC;˘ How safe and secure people are, i.e. the degree of human security â&#x20AC;˘ Whether ordinary citizens have access to a reasonable degree of prosperity â&#x20AC;˘ Whether ordinary citizens have access to a fair system of justice based on laws that meet the common interest, and â&#x20AC;˘ How well and fairly peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s well-being is looked after. Running through these ďŹ ve peace factors are values of equity, fairness, inclusion and respect for human dignity, and with that the importance of human relationships that are fulďŹ lling and functional for peace. These lead to the view that conďŹ&#x201A;icts can and should be resolved peacefully as much as is humanly possible, i.e. that every effort should be bent to that end. Where and when that proves impossible, every effort must be devoted to returning to a situation in which violence does not threaten every personâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s safety and well-being, and in which conďŹ&#x201A;icts can be handled by dialogue, discussion, the law and settlement. These peace factors are all about the long term. While political leadersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; decisions are required to make these unfold positively, to sustain or protect them, they do not come about at the ďŹ&#x201A;ick of a leaderâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s switch. Similarly, while peace is most likely and strongest when many individuals gear their actions toward peacebuilding, the effects of activism are not necessarily either quick or linear. Rather, change is indirect, incremental and cumulatively transformative. 5HYLVLWLQJWKHSULQFLSOHV At the 2007 Commonwealth Peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Forum in Kampala, civil society leaders called for â&#x20AC;&#x153;the creation of an enabling environment to foster: unity in diversity, where there would be respectful and meaningful dialogue and collaboration between people with different identities and values; and practical grassroots action and community linking partnerships to build peace, prosperity and wellbeing for all Commonwealth citizensâ&#x20AC;?. This was very


While peace is most likely and strongest when many individuals gear their actions toward peacebuilding, the effects of activism are not necessarily either quick or linear. much in keeping with the Civil Paths to Peace mandate for an engaged process towards respect and understanding. The 2015 CHOGM process offers an opportunity to revisit these principles and this concept. Given the fact that a large part of the Commonwealth falls within the lower end of the GPI spectrum, it is perhaps important to reafďŹ rm its own commitments towards working for peace with dignity. This, of course, cannot be done in isolation but needs to be done in partnerships. The story of Tau Sen, the master musician at the court of the Mogul Emperor Akbar, is an example of partnerships. He had some ďŹ fteen musical instruments in the Emperorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s chamber, which he had tuned to one frequency. Upon playing just one instrumentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s musical note, the other fourteen started to resonate, to the astonishment and delight of the audience. Ideally this story can serve well as a metaphor for how communities can work in harmony to achieve an enlightened result. This paper provides a framework for exploring the future of conďŹ&#x201A;ict based on the Commonwealthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Civil Paths to Peace work undertaken in 2007, and the work of International Alert. It draws substantially on, and quotes whole passages from, International Alertâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Strategic Perspective 2015-19, authored by Dan Smith, and Civil Paths to Peace, published by the Commonwealth Secretariat in 2007. Â&#x201E;


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e have in front of us an unprecedented opportunity, a historic chance to make the paradigm shift that humanity desperately needs. We need it because science tells us we do, because our consciences tell us we cannot do without it. This year of 2015 has already demonstrated a continuous building up of momentum towards something big: a historic conference on climate change that has the potential to redeďŹ ne humanityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s destiny. Earlier in 2015, following on from Davos, many global businesses came together to call on governments to agree to a net zero carbon goal by 2050. Investors are being more proactive in disclosing the carbon footprint of their portfolios, choosing to decarbonise their investments, and some are going as far as publicly announcing that they are divesting from fossil fuels. During their last meeting, the G7 sent an unmistakable message of commitment, to decarbonise the economy by the end of the century. But this is not all. People of all faiths have loudly and clearly welcomed the strong message coming from the Papal


CHOGM 2015 Report

Encyclical on ecology in June, calling on world leadership to urgently take action on climate change. We cannot ask for any clearer sign that the time is ready, that the time is now. The paradigm shift that we are needing is a radical change that requires us to move away from the excessive and selďŹ sh lifestyle we have been led to believe is the most satisfying one, but that is in reality based on egoistic and unjust exploitation of resources and of human capital, to a lifestyle based on selďŹ&#x201A;essness, of fair and just opportunities, that can lead us to what I have been calling a global destination. We know that continuing with business as usual is not an option any more. It is as unfair as it is unjust, and left unchecked will take us to an irreversible process of selfdestruction. But it is not too late. We have the opportunity to act; and many businesses are already demonstrating their willingness to do so. Additionally, each one of us can make a difference in our daily lives, knowing that, taken together, many small actions make a big difference. And, collectively, we can ask our representatives to take a bold stand in December 2015 when they meet to decide on a crucial agreement that can take us on track to transition to a low carbon economy. In particular, this agreement must be both long-term in its aspiration of setting a decarbonisation â&#x20AC;&#x201C; or net zero â&#x20AC;&#x201C; goal; as well as having regular short-term review cycles to ensure that progress is on track. The agreement must also underpin the just transition to a low carbon economy and green jobs creation by being grounded in sound equity principles. Achieving this net zero goal is the only just, rational, and humane way forward.

Good Governance, Peace and Security

It is sensible because it will reverse the trend of coupling economic development and investment with carbon emissions; it will present an opportunity to allow for local entrepreneurship to ďŹ&#x201A;ourish, by stimulating creative transformative initiatives that will provide the ground for a sustainable and just development. Present exclusively proďŹ t-focused, job-oriented, planet threatening, incomewealth gap-widening civilisation has to come to an end, and the seeds of a new civilisation must be sown now. We shall have to put up the signposts to take us to that civilisation. The three zeros In order to mark the direction of travel, I am proposing a comprehensive global destination in terms of three zeros. These three zeros are to be achieved by 2050: zero poverty, zero unemployment, and zero net carbon emission. All global activities should be framed around achieving these three goals. Each global player needs to publish a report on each country each year, charting the progress made on getting closer to achieving each zero. This will set the transition process in motion to the new civilisation. These zeros can be reached with four basic strategies. They are: â&#x20AC;˘ First, unleashing the creative power and commitment of the youth. Todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s youth has the power to bring dramatic changes in the world, if we encourage them and facilitate their initiatives to play their role. The present generation of young people is the forerunner of the most powerful generation in human history, because of the potential of the technology in their hands. We have to get young people engaged in creating the world they wish to live in, and pass it on to the next generation.


â&#x20AC;˘ The second strategy would be to focus on technological innovations to solve human problems. Combining the force of youth with the force of technology can become unbeatable. But unfortunately technology has always remained under the command of money-makers and war-makers. We need to bring in a new class of players on the ďŹ eld of technology who will create new technology exclusively for solving social problems and adapt the existing technology for the same purpose, without any thought of making personal money out of this. The sooner the socially committed players take charge of technology, the faster the world will reach the three zeros. â&#x20AC;˘ This brings us to the third strategy, building up social businesses by mobilising creative power to solve long-standing complicated social, economic, and environmental problems in sustainable ways. Social business is a new variety of business that delinks itself from any desire to make personal proďŹ t. It is missiondriven, involving non-dividend companies exclusively devoted to solving human problems. I have been creating and promoting this type of business around the world with great results. â&#x20AC;˘ The fourth strategy is to ensure good governance in government, global governance, business world, and civil society; and uphold human rights all along the way, without fail. It is about creating a healthier society, built on the recognition of a moral obligation to let selďŹ&#x201A;essness come into full play, and restrain selďŹ shness and â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;business as usualâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, to initiate a process of transformational change. We are the generation that is responsible for putting into motion this trans-generational change. It is our moral responsibility to act. We must act because we care. Â&#x201E;



THE LESSON OF KEROCHE On the surface this is a rags to riches story. It is the story of a woman who has established herself as one of Kenya’s leading entrepreneurs, a remarkable trailblazer and an example of a woman made good against all the odds. Her inspirational story is one of a woman who started small in business but dreamed big and, because of her determination and perseverance, emerged as one of the most successful women entrepreneurs in Kenya and a true force to be reckoned with throughout the brewing industry in Africa. Tabitha Karanja, the CEO of Keroche Breweries, chose to venture where none before her had dared. She took on East African Breweries, a Diageo affiliate and business monopoly of 87 years and entered an industry with a deeply entrenched male stereotyping. Tabitha broke the mould to become Kenya’s first home-grown beer and alcoholic drink manufacturer. Today, her company’s stateof-the-art production facility is targeting a 20 per cent share of the Kenyan market. Once you rake the surface, it is also the story of a company that did not exactly follow a commonly tried and tested script in its peculiar path to become an industry giant. There was a time when it was impossible to imagine that beer could be brewed by anyone in Kenya other than East African Breweries. They were Kenya’s designated brewers, and no-one dared to tussle with them. Then a new kid bearing the name Keroche crashed the party, but with a twist. Keroche did not launch with a beer.

troop to the once sleepy Kenya town of Naivasha, situated in the Rift Valley Province, to observe the towering structure that is the Keroche Breweries plant. To take pictures of its flamboyant and celebrated female CEO, Tabitha Karanja, and get her to pose with the dozens of awards collected across the 18 years of Keroche Breweries existence, the latest being the 2014 CNBC Africa Business Woman of Year award.

Mrs Tabitha Karanja Founder and CEO of Keroche Breweries In 1997, fortified wines were priced for the lower end of the market, a segment that had been largely ignored to that point. Fortified wines were not as appealing as regular wines, nor a staple like beer. So it was no surprise that the industry big boys were turning their noses up. Who needs cheap liquor, when you can sell expensive beers and whiskies? Well, apparently the consumers did. And that is how Keroche Breweries, from its humble beginnings, now bestrides the market as Kenya’s second largest brewer and boasts unrivalled 21st century brewing technology.

Yet, from the 1997 launch of Keroche with a workforce of seven, this is a story of challenges and triumphs, fights and tears, expansion, innovations and awards. Despite presumptions of a difficult relationship with Kenya’s political classes, President Mwai Kibaki awarded the Keroche CEO the prestigious Moran of the Burning Spear in 2009, for enhancing the cause of local industrialisation. Four years later, Mrs Karanja received the Golden Jubilee Award from newly elected President Uhuru Kenyatta, for exceptional service to the Republic of Kenya.

Summit Lager, launched in 1998 and now the company’s ‘Naturally Brewed, Sugar Free’ flagship brand continues the upstart story. Its tagline “Truly Kenyan” draws knowing smiles from industry observers and consumers alike, who understand the intended positioning.

The commissioning this year of a one million hectolitre brewing facility confirmed what everyone knew about the upstart enterprise. The courage of indigenous Kenyans to play alongside the century-old multinationals had been tested and the promise was clear. Local Africans had the capacity and imagination to be part of the continent’s economic transformation, which is critically required to create employment opportunities.

From London through New York to Australia, business news writers now

But the question remains — is the Keroche story a one off success story

or does it inform of a trend to be encouraged and supported? Indirectly, this question also touches on how the legacies of colonialism and the transition to majority African rule have affected entrepreneurship and postcolonial economic development in Africa. Using one-year growth rates in employment as a measure, the African Development Bank showed that about 15 per cent of SMEs in Africa are high-growth firms, meaning that their one-year payroll increase was greater than 20 per cent. Moreover, according to Ernst & Young’s most recent survey, entrepreneurs in Sub-Saharan Africa are the second most confident group when it comes to anticipating their workforce growth. Over the past decade, stories of the nascent tech industry in Kenya have gone global, propelled by ‘rockstar’ entrepreneurs, such as those behind M-PESA, the money transfer system which bypassed the traditional banking infrastructure and cultural payment habits and provided access to financial services for millions of people. Other successful start-ups saw entrepreneurship perceived as a viable route to success. However, where there is enthusiasm there is also caution, caused by the lack support extended to the new players. To understand this, one needs to go back to the very beginning – the economic transition between colonialism and the newly independent African entities. Transitional divestures resulted in the newly

“If we support one another, we Kenyans, we Africans, we will be able to do even bigger than what the multinationals can do. But we need to create a level playing field.” Tabitha Karanja

created African elites taking stakes in the existing multinationals. However, the new elites also formed the political class it, so a perfect cover was provided for creation of monopolies backed by officialdom. While this ensured partial local ownership, it stifled the growth of homegrown enterprises, whose fate would solely depend on market forces and not political patronage. Yet, liberalisation throughout the 1990s and 2000s has now created brand new market driven enterprises, but also a new battleground between the newcomers and the old favourites. In order for Kenya and the Sub-Saharan region to grow and provide jobs,

economies will need a new wave of entrepreneurship. The most recent Global Entrepreneurship Monitor report finds optimism and ambition rising in Africa, but declining in Europe. Innovation generates jobs and African economies showed the highest ability to perceive and pursue entrepreneurial opportunities, fearless of failure. Sustaining this optimism wholly relies on keeping this fear of failure low and even reducing it further. It relies on ensuring that the new spirit is unfettered and innovation is allowed to challenge the established ways. The story of Keroche Breweries provides one of the most fascinating Kenyan entrepreneurial success stories of our time. To Keroche, and to many who have followed its growth, its challenges and the fight for a level playing ground in taking on the established multinationals, this is a test case of the new Africa, the new African enthusiasm, representing hundreds of new homegrown African business ideas, that will only thrive within regimes that allow for fair and just trade laws affecting local innovators. The system should not be rigged against local manufacturers through unpredictable tax revenues, trade agreements and established bureaucratic ideology. Kenya and Africa need to innovate. Africa needs to produce. And Africa needs political systems that will midwife the birth of a new Africa and the emerging African entrepreneurial spirit

Climate Change & Natural Resource Management

Climate action, common weal and Paris Christiana Figueres, Executive Secretary, UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, urges nations to seize the moment and support a ‘no regrets’ agreement in Paris to achieve international climate action.


he original meaning of Common Weal, or Commonwealth, is the happiness, health and safety of all of the people of a community or nation. In Paris, nations of the world will emerge with a universal climate change agreement that offers a new chance for all countries to live under a common weal. In essence, the agreement represents a turning point in the way countries cooperate and support each other based on the increasingly obvious revelation that the only sustainable future for all is founded on the production and use of clean, efficient energy; and on societies and economies that are resilient and quick to recover from setbacks. That fact was recognised most clearly when members of the United Nations also agreed a new set of Sustainable Development Goals in September to end extreme poverty, fight inequality and injustice and fi x climate change. These are completely inter-meshed goals. And because the challenge is a seamless one, the policies, incentives and actions that governments take to achieve these objectives must also be seamless. The correct response will deliver solutions that are universally beneficial and create progress across all three essential goals. A prime example is the promotion, development and deployment of clean and efficient energy. Benefits which spring immediately to mind include lower government costs in fossil fuel imports, subsidies and spending on energy security; lower healthcare bills, relief for stressed national medical systems, and more productive citizens; new employment opportunities and skills in new industries; new technology, local manufacturing and services for grids and components; lower energy costs for citizens and often their first access to a secure power source. There are more. This kind of climate policy no doubt requires careful consideration in terms of the detailed timing and speed

Climate Change & Natural Resource Management

of implementation to ensure an orderly yet rapid enough transition to meet the immediate and longer-term climate goals. But the ultimate impact and results provide so many and varied beneďŹ ts to state, city, business and citizen that climate action offers the broadest, no-regret set of policy choices ever presented to achieve a transformational goal. The world is already rapidly approaching this turning point. Ahead of Paris, an unprecedented number of countries from the developed and the developing world have submitted their climate action plans as their intended contributions to the new, universal agreement. The aggregate impact of these plans will not yet keep the global average temperature rise below 2°C, the internationally-agreed defence line against the worst impacts of climate change. But the response reďŹ&#x201A;ects the increasing recognition that there are so many new and multiple beneďŹ ts from achieving low-emission, sustainable development at national level. In a paradigm shift, countries facing many diverse circumstances, from poorest to richest, from largest to smallest, have presented intended nationally determined contributions which are truly national in scope and many with an increased focus on quantiďŹ able objectives. Many of the plans also take a long-term vision of climate action, underlining a growing understanding that unlocking the opportunities from ambitious climate action will require the transformation of how power is produced and consumed and how environments are managed â&#x20AC;&#x201C; now, and over decades to come. Many developing countries from all continents, including some of the poorest and most vulnerable to climate change, have presented plans that also include necessary action to adapt to climate impacts. Stakeholder involvement It is quite apparent that governments will succeed only with the informed, willing and concrete action of all major stakeholders who have the power, resources and incentive to work together to take climate action. This includes above all cities, state and regional governments, business and investors. In each of these areas, the groundswell of pledges and commitments to take climate action is reaching a proportion that has become globally signiďŹ cant. Two big picture examples bring this into sharp perspective. First, a recent study by the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) estimated that known plans by nonstate actors to cut greenhouse gas emissions are becoming very signiďŹ cant in ďŹ ghting climate change, and could bring accumulated savings of close to 1.8 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2020.

Christiana Figueres has been the Executive Secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate %JCPIG 70(%%% UKPEG,WN[5JGJCUFKTGEVGFĆ&#x2019;XG consecutive successful Conferences of the Parties, and is now charged with the intergovernmental process to deliver the 2015 Paris agreement on climate change. She has a long VTCLGEVQT[KPVJGĆ&#x2019;GNFQHINQDCNENKOCVGEJCPIGJCXKPIDGGP a member of the Costa Rican negotiating team 1995- 2009, and having played a number of key roles in the governance of the UNFCCC before formally joining the secretariat.

Second, the latest assessment from the Divest-Invest movement calculates that investment institutions and high net worth individuals controlling US$2.6 trillion worth of funds are now looking to make an orderly capital shift from fossil fuels into sustainable investments. International cooperation But national plans alone and the rising groundswell of business and investor action, no matter how ambitious, will not be implemented most effectively without an equally robust international agreement in Paris. This is where the aspirations of international, cooperative behaviour captured in the Commonwealth Charter are also absolutely relevant. The Charter recognises that in an era of deep change, the values of diversity and respect, concern for the vulnerable, consultation and sharing of experience, practical cooperation and recognition of the contribution of professional sectors and civil society are essential to success. This could be a top list of what the Paris agreement seeks to achieve in the area of cooperative, international climate action. Concretely, a consensus among leaders is emerging that at international level, countries will need to pursue three common and broad objectives that would be reďŹ&#x201A;ected in the Paris agreement. The agreement will need to articulate a comprehensive and long-term vision of a world freed of poverty through the social and economic opportunities created by the transition to a low-emission and climate resilient future. This must be the turning point that sends a loud and clear signal to citizens and the private sector that the transformation of the global economy is inevitable, beneďŹ cial, and already under way. It needs to stimulate greater, immediate, concrete and cooperative actions to turn this long-term vision into a reality. This includes, most importantly, an adequate and transparent ďŹ&#x201A;ow of accessible ďŹ nance for climate action to the poorest and most vulnerable, that is not encumbered with unaffordable and burdensome debt responsibilities. Such an agreement requires two important characteristics. It must demonstrate the equal political and practical importance of mitigation and adaptation to climate change. And it must be balanced, durable and dynamic, leading to a process that periodically takes stock of progress made towards reaching agreed long-term goals and progressively increasing ambition over time. The world is ready for Paris. The common weal is in our grasp. Let every nation seize it. Â&#x201E;

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) sets an overall framework for intergovernmental efforts to tackle the challenge posed by climate change. With 196 Parties, it has near universal membership and is the parent treaty of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. The ultimate objective of both treaties is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that will prevent dangerous human interference with the climate system. Websites: and

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The common wealth of oceans His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales points out the vital importance of the oceans to all life on earth, and urges Commonwealth countries to play a positive role in ensuring that worthy commitments are turned into practical action.


©Hugo Burnand

or quite some time I have been increasingly concerned about the marine environment and the plight of the global oceans. To say that healthy oceans are of critical importance to humanity is selfevident; we cannot survive without them, and nor should we try. The marine environment is of vast importance due to its role in food security, in coastal employment and livelihoods, global biodiversity and, of course, in the regulation of the global climate. At its most fundamental, our oceans are inextricably linked to the very air we breathe, and to the sustenance of the earth’s increasingly and unsustainably burgeoning population. Eighty per cent of all life on Earth lives in the ocean and over half of the world’s oxygen is produced by ocean-borne phytoplankton. However, whether in the decline of wild fisheries around the world, the death of the albatross and so many other iconic species, the pollution of the seas or ocean acidification, the evidence of the deterioration of our treasured marine world is all too abundant. The science is irrefutably clear that our natural capital, in the form of marine resources and biodiversity, is dwindling as a result of over-exploitation of wild fisheries and destructive or illegal fishing practices, not to mention coastal development in critical habitats and, of course, increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and in the ocean itself. As a result, ninety per cent of fish stocks are over or fully exploited; half of the world’s coral reefs are under threat of collapse and pollution from land – including 8 million tonnes of plastic every year – is entering the oceans at an unprecedented rate. On this last point, if we don’t stem the flow of plastic then recent research shows that there will be one tonne of plastic in the ocean for every three tonnes of fish by 2025!

© Out of the Blue/ Stella Freund

Climate Change & Natural Resource Management

Unless the many issues that are affecting the oceans are resolved, the broad sweep of the 5WUVCKPCDNGǡ&GXGNQROGPV Goals’ laudable objectives will be unattainable.

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We hear these types of statistics and depressing data with numbing regularity these days, but how often do we ask ourselves what sort of future these trends hold, for economies and for people, if we do not do everything possible to address them? At least in the short to medium term the inevitable outcome appears to be a profound and increased vulnerability. I suspect this may resonate in particular with the people and governments of small island developing states, where a narrow resource base, combined with high levels of debt and exposure to natural disasters (which are on the increase due to climate change) could, I fear, push them to the very brink of existence. The fact that relocation of entire national populations is even being considered as a policy response should put the magnitude of these issues into sharp and immediate relief. The ‘blue economy’ In relative terms, it is clear that ocean and marine issues have largely been ignored by the international community. Indeed, this was one of the principal reasons for setting up my International Sustainability Unit in 2010 in order to try and do something to address these issues and to build consensus across all the different groups and sectors which have a stake in the future of the oceans and the marine environment. I have been heartened to note that the tide has recently seemed to be turning, if I may coin a phrase. There has been a plethora of recent high-level commitments, strong political leadership from a number of the key countries and, happily, prominent recognition of the issue in the newly agreed UN Sustainable Development Goals, with a whole goal, Goal 14, dedicated to the oceans and the marine environment. In addition, the concept of the ‘blue economy’, as a development paradigm with particular resonance for small island states – or, rather, large ocean economies, as they should be called – seems to be gaining ground. Indeed, at the Rio Earth Summit in 2012, small island developing states were right to make the point that a sustainable development pathway that did not include the oceans (which, after all, cover over 70 per cent of our planet) would be effectively meaningless to those countries whose territory and resource base are predominantly blue, not green. It was clear at that meeting that the sustainable and resilient development of ‘blue economies’ around the world would require concerted thought and finance including, of course, for those roughly half of Commonwealth countries that are small island states, and for the half of the world’s exclusive economic zones which fall under the jurisdiction of Commonwealth countries.

Eighty per cent of all life on Earth lives in the ocean and over half of the world’s oxygen is produced by ocean-borne phytoplankton. 104 CHOGM 2015 Report

Given its makeup, the Commonwealth is an important group of countries in terms of its ability to show global leadership in effecting the transition to a sustainable blue economy. Given its makeup, the Commonwealth is an important group of countries in terms of its ability to show global leadership in effecting the transition to a sustainable blue economy while maintaining ocean health and ecological functionality as the foundation of growth and prosperity. A proposal for a development framework There is so much to do on protection and restoration; on ocean governance, sustainable management, waste management, pollution control, planning and development regulation, to name but a few. And there are examples of success stories all around the world from which to draw experience and expertise. However, it seems that a comprehensive understanding of how these pieces fit together and what the economic, social and environmental trade-offs of different decisions and development pathways are has not yet crystallised in a cogent and usable form. In light of such a complex set of overlapping challenges – that even in isolation require significant political will, collaboration and resources to overcome – this is surely what is required. And perhaps, most importantly, a business-as-usual approach will not suffice. The Blue Economy requires investment; that is clear. But investment must be predicated on a coherent strategy to ensure long-term ecological resilience which, in turn, has the ability to ensure future economic resilience in more uncertain and volatile times. It seems to me, therefore, that there might be considerable value in the creation of a Blue Economy Development Framework, which would provide an overview of the requirements, constraints and opportunities for financing across the breadth of blue economy activities, including marine protection, fisheries restoration and coastal development. The latter is perhaps critically important to focus on, for if, as it appears, US$90 trillion dollars is to be spent on infrastructure during the next 20 years, a considerable amount of this will occur on our coasts. Given that 65 per cent of the world’s cities with a population of over 2.5 million are coastal, the environmental and climate change impact of such an enormous amount of investment could be catastrophic, unless great care is taken. Strong political will, an engaged private sector and innovative financing mechanisms will be required to achieve a beneficial outcome, which is of particular importance for the Commonwealth.

Š Out of the Blue/ Shane Gross

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Strong political will, an engaged private sector DQGLQQRYDWLYHͤQDQFLQJ mechanisms will be required to achieve a EHQHͤFLDORXWFRPH His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales has been an environmental leader for over 40 years, working with businesses, charities, governments and other organisations to help promote sustainable ways of living and working. The Prince of Wales continues to address many of todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s OQUVUKIPKĆ&#x2019;ECPVGPXKTQPOGPVCNEJCNNGPIGUKPENWFKPIENKOCVG EJCPIGUWUVCKPCDNGCITKEWNVWTGĆ&#x2019;UJGTKGUCPFFGRNGVKQPQH natural capital, through the work of various initiatives and projects. This is often in partnership with governments, the private sector and non-governmental organisations.

The agreement on the Sustainable Development Goals, including Goal 14 on the oceans, in September this year represents a critical milestone in the journey to build a truly equitable and resilient future. The oceans play an absolutely vital part in that future. Indeed, I believe that unless the many issues that are affecting the oceans are resolved, the broad sweep of the Sustainable Development Goalsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; laudable objectives will be unattainable. The Commonwealth will, and must, play an essential part in forging the will and harnessing our collective ingenuity to ensure that these worthy commitments are turned into the practical actions that will save our oceans, together with our successorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; future security and survival. Â&#x201E;

The Prince of Wales established The Princeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s International Sustainability Unit (ISU) to facilitate consensus on how to resolve some of the key environmental challenges facing the world â&#x20AC;&#x201C; such as food security, ecosystem resilience and the depletion of natural capital. In 2015 the ISU launched â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Out of the Blue: The Prince of Walesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Environmental Photography Awardsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. Website:

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The blue economy

Seychelles’ vision for sustainable development in the Indian Ocean

James Michel, President of the Republic of Seychelles, calls for the development of a ‘blue economy’ in the Indian Ocean, which emphasises the economic potential of the seas while protecting maritime resources.


t the launch of the 2015 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting for Malta in November 2014, The Commonwealth Secretary-General, Mr Kamalesh Sharma, noted: “The fact that a country is small does not mean that it cannot add global value”. Seychelles has indeed illustrated this point on a number of occasions, not least through its efforts in advocating for more decisive action on the mitigation of climate change. It has consistently championed the principles of sustainable development and the protection of biodiversity since the launching of Agenda 21 at the Earth Summit of 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, the 1994 Barbados Programme of Action (BPOA), the Johannesburg 2002 Plan of Implementation, the 2005 Mauritius Strategy, and more recently at the Rio+20 Conference on Sustainable Development.

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For over two decades, small island developing states (SIDS), including Seychelles, have underscored the urgency for global efforts to address the issue of climate change. This was further reiterated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007 when it was confirmed that anthropogenic factors were largely responsible for the increasing levels of global warming and that SIDS would be among the worst affected by this. Consequently we called for urgent action at the UN SIDS Conference in Samoa in September 2014, and in the same month at the UN Climate Summit in New York we once again appealed for world leaders to take decisive action. While acknowledging that we all share responsibility – in one way or another – in bringing about climate change, we are also all victims of its effects. It is therefore

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imperative that we find the means of adding global value to the assets we still have. This is why SIDS are taking up the challenge of consolidating their resilience and finding more innovative ways to tackle this uncertain situation. As well as preserving our small land-based natural resources, we believe, as large ocean states, that we have to maximise the full potential of our oceanic territories by applying the Blue Economy concept as the foundation for economic diversification and sustainable growth. Over the past few years the emerging concept of the Blue Economy has been embraced by many SIDS as a mechanism to realise sustainable growth based around an ocean economy. The term was first coined by SIDS and other coastal countries during the 2012 Rio+20 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, in recognition of the need to enhance marine-based economic development that brings about improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities. Since then, the Blue Economy has become a key component of the new global dialogue about the role of seas and oceans in sustainable development. Goal 14 – looking after the oceans We are happy to note that Goal 14 of the new global Sustainable Development Goals ensures the conservation and sustainable use of the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development. Ten targets, focusing mainly on conservation and damage mitigation, point towards expected actions to be taken under this goal, including one specific to SIDS. The government of Seychelles is pleased that the United Nations has accepted ocean development and the concept of the Blue Economy as part of its development goals. The Blue Economy does not only represent the aspirations of small island states but also those of the coastal states of all continents. It has a massive potential for the whole of Africa, for the islands of its coastal states – Kenya, Somalia, Mozambique, Tanzania and South Africa, our nearest neighbours. Together we can harness its potential in a sustainable way, so that we can develop our resources. We also note that today the Blue Economy has become an important component of debate and action at various levels of the international agenda, including the economic agenda of the Indian Ocean Commission and the Indian Ocean Rim Association, and is an integral component of the African Union’s Agenda 2063, as well as the organisation’s Integrated Maritime Strategy. The Blue Economy – adding global value The Blue Economy offers an alternative economic approach that conceptualises oceans as ‘development spaces’ and incorporates the real value of natural (blue) capital into all aspects of economic activity – be it tourism, fisheries, energy, trade and transportation. Fundamental to this approach is the principle of equity, which ensures that coastal communities optimise the benefits received from the oceans that surround them while they also have the responsibility for protecting them. By harmonising ecosystems-related economic values into economic modelling, the Blue Economy has the potential to pioneer a transformation towards a new paradigm of sustainable development that acknowledges oceanic ecosystem services and products as drivers of development, rather than commodities to be exhaustively exploited.

While there is as yet no universally accepted definition for the Blue Economy, for Seychelles the notion of the Blue Economy refers to those economic activities that directly or indirectly take place in the ocean and coastal areas, use outputs from the ocean, and place ‘goods and services’ into ocean activities, and the contribution of those activities to economic growth, social, cultural and environmental well-being. The scope of the Blue Economy therefore includes activities that: • Explore and develop ocean resources • Use ocean and coastal space • Protect the coastal and ocean environment • Use ocean products as a main input • Provide goods and services to support ocean activities. Central to this concept is an integrated approach to the sustainable use of the ocean, with clear commitments to ocean conservation and restoration. Consequently the core principle encompassed within the Seychelles Blue Economy is the idea that all components must come together to support the ultimate goal of sustainable development for the Seychellois people and future generations. By conceptualising the ocean as a development space where spatial planning integrates conservation, sustainable use, resource extraction, sustainable energy production and transport, the Blue Economy offers an alternative economic approach that is guided by environmental principles. It challenges the status quo where oceans have been viewed as a means of free resources and an unlimited sink for the disposal of waste; it shifts the focus to where ocean values and services are included in economic modelling and decision-making, and where the benefits are shared more equitably among all Seychellois. The concept of the ‘Blue Economy’ is, however, not new to Seychelles. We have benefited from our ocean resources for more than 200 years, since the islands became inhabited in 1770. The growing population lived in close proximity to the sea and largely depended on the ocean for food, trade, travel and communication with the rest of the world. Over time we have drawn considerable benefits from our ocean resources, with the development of fisheries, tourism, trade, international and domestic shipping to support trade. At the same time, we have established ourselves as a global leader in marine conservation, having consistently maintained that healthy oceans and seas are essential to a sustainable future for all, and not only for small island developing states. Actions undertaken so far At local and international levels the Government of Seychelles has engaged in dialogue with a wide range of stakeholders and development partners. A number of actions have been taken to spearhead the country’s move towards embracing the Blue Economy paradigm, including the following: The Government of Seychelles and the Government of the United Arab Emirates co-hosted the first ‘Blue Economy Summit’ during the Abu Dhabi Sustainability Week (ABSW) of January 2014, to explore ways in which the Blue Economy concept could be utilised as a tool to enable the transition of development models for island and coastal states towards sustainable development,

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Exclusive economic zone As part of the process of ascertaining the resources of the oceans and ensuring their protection, a full marine spatial plan of Seychellesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is nearing completion. Such an exercise should provide innovative ways to help the country better manage its oceanic and coastal assets. It is also linked to the ďŹ nancial mechanism known as the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;debt-foradaptation swapâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; where a commitment to protect substantial areas of the EEZ will enable the government to buy back almost US$30 million of the national debt with the Paris Club of creditors. Should we be successful in raising funds through this mechanism to manage the protected area network and our marine resources, Seychelles will fulďŹ l its obligation announced in 2012 to place 30 per cent of our Exclusive Economic Zone as Marine Protected Areas (MPA) by the end of 2015 year, with 15 per cent as â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;no-takeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; zones.

building on the Rio+20 consensus. A second summit will be held in Abu Dhabi in January 2016, with the hope of following on the successes of the 21st Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP21) to be held in Paris after the CHOGM meeting. Seychelles contributed to the Samoa Pathway through its contributions to debates and partnership dialogues on sustainable economic development and climate change in particular. We reafďŹ rmed our position concerning debt restructuring, affordable ďŹ nancing for SIDS, the promotion of renewable energy and energy efďŹ ciency, and better representation of SIDS in international partnerships. We also called for the development and application of a Vulnerability Index for SIDS and for the review of the use of gross domestic product (GDP) as the sole measure of wealth. As a ďŹ rst step in obtaining the input of local stakeholders involved in oceans and sea-based activities, the Government of Seychelles organised a National Stakeholders Consultation Forum on the Blue Economy in December 2014, with a view to building an inclusive process for the integration of the Blue Economy concept into existing policies and strategic frameworks. It brought together representatives from all coastal and marine related sectors, and provided a platform for open debate on existing and emerging issues related to the Blue Economy. A second platform is planned for December 2015, in the spirit of bringing around 200 participants from a wide range of public and private organisations and

President James Alix Michel is serving his third term in QHĆ&#x2019;EGCU2TGUKFGPVQH5G[EJGNNGUCHVGTYKPPKPIVJG/C[ RTGUKFGPVKCNGNGEVKQP*GKUEQPEWTTGPVN[/KPKUVGTHQT Defence, Legal Affairs, Information and Hydrocarbons. ,COGU/KEJGNYCUTGURQPUKDNGHQTVJGFGOQETCVKUCVKQPQHVJG islandsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; education system in the early 1980s, and created the 7PKXGTUKV[QH5G[EJGNNGUKP+P,CPWCT[/T/KEJGN was presented the Sustainable Development Leadership

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agencies, non-government organisations and Government ministries to discuss â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Investment Opportunities in the Blue Economyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. The government will further consolidate gains from the two main pillars of our economy â&#x20AC;&#x201C; tourism and ďŹ sheries â&#x20AC;&#x201C; in the light of the Blue Economy concept we have adopted. Both of these industries are wholly dependent on the ocean, thus linking the livelihoods of Seychellois people and our future to the coastal and marine environment ever more strongly. As of February 2015, a new department dedicated to the Blue Economy was created under the newly established Ministry of Finance, Trade and Blue Economy. The main role of the Department is to provide a high-level focal point that will ensure a more effective co-ordination of oceans and marine related initiatives. It will help Seychelles in promoting the sustainable use and conservation of its vast ocean territory (of 1.37 million square km), through complementing and better co-ordinating the work being done by other departments and agencies. The Blue Economy Department is already undertaking a number of projects and programmes, many of them linked to the development of a strategy for mainstreaming the Blue Economy into existing and future planning and development frameworks. With the assistance of the Commonwealth Secretariatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Oceans and Natural Resources Advisory Division, the Department is working on a road map for the Blue Economy. The Blue Economy Department is taking a leading role in a number of local and international oceanrelated activities, including the organisation of an investment forum in the margins of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Le Festival de la Merâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; being organised in Seychelles in December 2015; negotiations with the Mauritius Government over the joint management of the shared section of the Mascarene Plateau; the setting up of a Blue Economy Think Tank and further stakeholder consultations, to enhance participation and enrich the ongoing dialogue on the Blue Economy. As an island nation, we are deďŹ ned by the ocean that surrounds us. While we may be somewhat isolated, we are also deeply connected through the bountiful and boundless resources of the oceans available to the global community. This is also the reason why we have to establish strong partnerships in ensuring comprehensive law enforcement and maritime security. The Commonwealth has been at the forefront in support of SIDS in this transitional pathway and Seychelles has been able to progress signiďŹ cantly with the assistance of the Commonwealth in a number of our national and international activities. The Commonwealth has indeed demonstrated how it helps each member state to progress and add global value. Â&#x201E;

Award 2013 at the Delhi Sustainable Development Summit, for his visionary and strong leadership in the implementation of sustainable environmental programmes. He co-chairs the Global Island Partnership (GLISPA) and has mobilised political support for the Blue Economy and marine protected areas within island regions of the world. Website:

Climate Change & Natural Resource Management

WaterAid/Georgie Scott

Tackling the world’s water scarcity problem Barbara Frost, Chief Executive of WaterAid, argues that water scarcity – which is at the heart of today’s global water crisis - is rooted in power, poverty, inequality and management. Political will and inspirational leadership are key to providing access to safe water and sanitation.


he recent adoption of the new Sustainable Development Goals aimed at eradicating extreme poverty by 2030, and the proposed climate change agreements expected to be reached in Paris in December, present a vision that could transform our world. Goal 6 sets out to achieve universal access to safe water and sanitation. The achievement of this will require increased political will, new ways of working, and a large injection of suitable fi nancing backed up with the systems to deliver these basic services. However, this investment has the potential to change lives, improve health and prosperity while protecting our planet. Climate change, drought, water scarcity and floods all pose dilemmas alongside rapid urbanisation, growing inequality and rising populations. Tackling the issue of water scarcity in all its forms is fundamental to both meeting Goal 6 and ensuring that the human right to water and sanitation is realised. One in ten of the world’s population – 650 million people – currently lives without clean water. Many live in drought conditions and in water-scarce areas where lack of access to safe water to drink is a major crisis. Furthermore, water is often contaminated due to poor sanitation, leading to disease and environmental contamination. The water scarcity at the heart of today’s global water crisis is more than lack of this precious commodity. It is rooted in power, poverty, inequality and mismanagement – a problem of socio-economic origin. In fact, in nearly all of the poorest countries in the world where WaterAid works, water is there but the means by which to access it is, for many, absent. With global weather patterns becoming increasingly erratic due to climate change, both a physical lack of water and increasing floods are predicted and it is inevitably the poorest and most marginalised people who will suffer most. Adaptation to these changing weather patterns and

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In many areas of the world where people struggle to get enough water, there is VXIͤFLHQWDQQXDOUDLQIDOOEXW too little management of that water. to increasing demands from multiple users will need to be taken into account if access to affordable, accessible and adequate supplies of water are to be realised by 2030. Services that reach all consumers and that are sustainable and well managed over the long term. Management is the key As I write, London, where WaterAid has its UK office, has just experienced another public holiday marked by steady, unrelenting rain. If you asked any Londoner whether the United Kingdom has a problem with water scarcity, the question would be met with incredulity. Ask the same question in many parts of semi-arid Karamoja in Northern Uganda and the answer will be very different. Women will tell you about the many hours they spend fetching water and how that task becomes much more difficult during the dry season. What’s more, the water they are collecting is often far from safe to drink. Farmers share tales of failed crops and low harvests due to too little rain for their crops.

WaterAid/Benedicte Desrus

Climate Change & Natural Resource Management

A child carries water through the slum of Kifumbira in Kampala, Uganda.

Yet London and parts of Karamoja both have an average rainfall of around 800mm a year. So what makes the difference? Managing water scarcity requires good governance of water resources. In many areas of the world where people struggle to get enough water, there is sufficient annual rainfall but too little management of that water. Rainwater

Water table management In India, landowners hold an unrestricted right to extract water from their land. Excessive extraction leads to the water table dropping, leaving it more difficult for households to get sufficient water for drinking and washing. However, by working with the whole community and increasing understanding of how drawing water in one area can impact on the availability of supply in another, WaterAid and our local partners have found that a more equitable solution can be reached. In Madhya Pradesh, we have worked with farmers and communities to ensure that there is always enough water for domestic use – washing and drinking – by reserving some sources and by engaging farmers in monitoring the availability of water and adjusting their choice of crops accordingly. By observing and recording the monsoon rains, farmers are able to predict potential water scarcity issues. If the rainfalls are below average, then they plant crops that require less water, such as pulses or lentils, thus helping to ensure that the wider community is not put at greater risk of running short of water.

often comes in heavy downpours that just wash away, failing to seep into the ground where it fell and replenish the water tables. Swollen rivers sweep through the landscape during the rainy season only to fade to murky puddles in the dry season. Fierce heat from the sun can later evaporate much of the surface water that collects in ponds. The water thus escapes from an area before it is able to be used for human consumption or agriculture. In the Stockholm World Water Week, August 2015, the 2015 Water Laureate Rajendra Singh spoke about his lifetime quest to rejuvenate dry river beds and help communities get access to life giving water. Named the ‘water man of India’, he described the simple process of ensuring the aquifer is properly replenished and showed striking images of before and after – from dry desertlike river beds to flourishing verdant fields. Even rainfall patterns have changed as a result. While too much hot sunshine is not a problem with which London has to contend, 150 years ago the stench from the Thames due to untreated sewage forced the politicians to leave the Houses of Parliament and to invest in infrastructure designed to capture and protect water. This infrastructure has served the city ever since. The cholera outbreaks that had plagued London for three decades were linked, in part, to the drawing of water from the tidal areas of the River Thames. A law was passed banning the water companies from taking their supplies from this part of the river, which was in effect an open-air sewer running right outside the windows of an increasingly smelly House of Commons. As a result of that legislation, dotted around the outskirts of London are a series of reservoirs, some of which date back to that time, that capture river water and prevent it from washing away. The capital also opened its modern sewer system, helping to ensure that the water sources did not become contaminated.

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While the technological solutions needed for a semi-arid area like Karamoja in North Uganda are different from what works for London, the trigger for action to tackle the problem is the same: political will, ďŹ nances and good management systems. Fortunately in Uganda the government is working hard to increase access to water. However, they lack the scale of ďŹ nancial resource that enabled the swift transformation of Londonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s water and sewage system. In 2012 the funding deďŹ cit globally was estimated to be six times the level of overseas aid allocated to water and sanitation work, and the levels of domestic investment have been sadly lacking. National governments are needing to look beyond aid to ďŹ nance the provision of basic services and are considering how best to maximise revenue from tariffs and tax. WaterAid and its partners are encouraging development partners to support this work and double the share of overseas aid allocated to water and sanitation by 2020. Across sub-Saharan Africa, between 3 and 5 per cent of water is managed, while in the United States that ďŹ gure is over 80 per cent. The lack of infrastructure to ensure that everyone has sufďŹ cient water for their basic needs is a real challenge to overcome. Uneven progress While the Millennium Development Goal on halving the proportion of people without access to water was met, progress has been uneven globally, with the poorest countries and communities lagging behind. For those living in informal settlements, the situation is often stark. Children can be seen playing around large pipes that take clean water straight through their communities to more prosperous areas without releasing a drop for them to drink. Authorities are often loath to bring water and sanitation services into slum areas due to the lack of land title. However, this is an issue that will not go away â&#x20AC;&#x201C; up to half of Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s urban population currently lives in an informal settlement or slum and the average annual urban population growth in Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cities is 3.4 per cent. As domestic per capita water consumption is higher in urban areas than rural ones, this population shift will make it increasingly difďŹ cult to meet demand. Proper planning and investment in infrastructure is essential to increase water storage capacity and delivery. Growing populations place increased pressure on land, agriculture and water resources to meet food needs. Allowing farmers to draw unrestricted and unmonitored amounts of water for their crops and animals can leave households struggling to get enough water for domestic use. As people become wealthier they typically eat more

Barbara Frost has been Chief Executive of WaterAid since 2005. Before joining WaterAid, she was Chief Executive of Action on Disability and Development.

foods that require more water, thus putting an additional strain on resources. According to recent scarcity assessments, at least 2.7 billion people live in areas where water scarcity is severe for at least one month a year. In India, ofďŹ cial statistics classify one-sixth of the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s groundwater as overexploited. The Indus River basin â&#x20AC;&#x201C; home to at least 300 million people â&#x20AC;&#x201C; experiences severe water scarcity for eight months each year; and in the north-western states of Punjab, Rajasthan and Haryana, groundwater is steadily being depleted. Balancing the needs of the people Trying to get consensus on fair water use between a community, farmers and industry can be challenging because few win-win arrangements are available and what works in one area may have a negative impact on another. Water-saving policies in urban areas, such as leak reduction programmes, rainwater harvesting and reduced demand, may result in reduced downstream ďŹ&#x201A;ows, causing problems for communities living downstream. Potentially politically attractive projects will only be successful if these are designed based on complete hydrological knowledge, with a through impact assessment to ensure that for instance building large irrigation systems that will increase water consumption will not be to the detriment of others. There has been much media speculation over recent years over the prospect that increasing pressure on water supplies may lead to countries going to war. By postulating over future conďŹ&#x201A;ict between nations, there is a danger that we lose sight of the realities of the everyday localised violence and struggle endured by the 650 million people without access to water and the 2.5 billion without a toilet. Supporting formal and informal structures and processes that can lead to enhanced community cohesion and cooperation over shared water resources has to be the way forward. The future challenges presented by water scarcity due to both socio-economic reasons and physical lack of water can be daunting but are not insurmountable. As water scarcity grows so does the need to increase the focus on the way water is allocated, regulated and managed, with greater engagement in how water policy is made and implemented. Most crucial of all, though, is the political will to succeed â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and inspirational leadership at international, national and local levels to help ensure progress is made towards the historic moment when everyone on our planet has access to water and sanitation and water poverty becomes a distant memory. Â&#x201E;

WaterAid is an international development agency with the vision of a world where everyone has access to safe water, sanitation and hygiene. The agency works in 37 countries CETQUU#HTKEC#UKC%GPVTCN#OGTKECCPFVJG2CEKĆ&#x2019;E4GIKQP Website:

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Malawi’s story of water and economic development President Peter Mutharika of Malawi expounds the paradoxes of Malawi’s water situation and outlines the country’s opportunities for water management and development.


alawi is magnificent land. It is the land of opportunities of Africa – and water management and development is part of that story. Known as ‘the warm heart of Africa’, you can easily fi nd it on the globe, with its lakes and rivers converging along the Great African Rift Valley. This country announces its presence even more assertively with the beautiful mountains on the edge of the Rift Valley. The springs of the many rivers are in these mountains. The warm and friendly people make Malawi the land of smiles too. But Malawians live the paradox of abundance and want at the same time. There is plenty of water, and yet this is a country where many of the people cannot fi nd water that’s safe to drink. One-third of Malawi is covered with water. The opportunities and wealth of the land are endless, and yet its people are defi ned among the poorest on earth. A wide range of challenges The lakes and rivers can revive our rain-fed agriculture, and yet there are years when drought and hunger haunt us. With proper water management and development, Malawi can make potable water available to all, end the story of hunger, improve the lives of many smallholder farmers and reduce poverty significantly. Potable water is a great necessity for Africa because only healthy people can be described as developed. We have many water sources in the country. But we also have many challenges. Accessing potable water is a particularly difficult challenge to most of our people who live in rural communities where water technology is not adequately developed. There are communities that still drink from traditional sources of water, which are often unhygienic.

Abundant and yet endangered One of our problems is that most of the water sources are drying. If not dry, then they have been polluted, and the water is not fit for human consumption. Some of our rivers have for some time been used for dumping rubbish and waste. This is particularly the case where urban lowincome communities live in high density. Our industries are also responsible for part of the problem. There is a sense in which water is an endangered natural resource. The occurrence of drying water sources comes from the fast pace of deforestation in the country. We have been cutting down trees faster than we replace them. As a result destructive floods follow, because there is little vegetation, and the river banks cannot control the angry waters – as though the rivers are rebelling against human activities. Sometimes the vicious cycle of poverty aggravates the water management problem. Most of our people resort to cheap fuel such as charcoal, sourced by cutting down more trees. The reason is simple: these people cannot afford environmentally friendly fuel such as electricity. As the population grows, some parts of the country are confronted with land shortage. This forces some people to encroach on water catchment areas and try to grow crops for a living. This takes us back to problems of drying water sources and siltation. Given that much of the country and its industries run on hydropower generated on the Shire River, the problem of siltation also directly interferes with electricity supply. Obviously, power supply is essential to development. Unlocking Malawi’s resources The hydropower challenges underline the necessity of water management and development as one of the immediate keys for unlocking the country’s prosperity.

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Climate Change & Natural Resource Management

Climate Change & Natural Resource Management

Malawi needs adequate power supplies in order to engage in mining of various minerals. Malawi has high potential for oil and gas, and potential to exploit base metals such as copper and nickel. But we have also confirmed the presence of uranium, phosphates, bauxite, limestone and heavy mineral sands. We have gemstones of outstanding quality. Malawi has one of the world’s largest deposits of graphite. And we have worldclass deposits of tantalum, which is useful for cellphone technology. We have some of the earth’s largest deposits of rare earth minerals, which are strategically important for modern hi-tech industries. But power supply for the mining industry is our major challenge at the moment. Thus, the government has intensified its efforts in water development on the Shire River to upgrade hydropower supply for Malawi’s industrialisation. We are also developing, together with the Government of Mozambique, a transmission line that will tap power from Zambezi River. It must however be noted that we are also diversifying power generation away from solely relying on water sources. We are turning to coal power generation through a major project to be implemented by Chinese investors. It is an enormous investment, which also demonstrates that our water problems have challenged us to find alternatives for sustainable socio-economic development. Our challenges have made us explore more investment opportunities: indeed, where other people may see challenges, we see countless opportunities. This may serve as a signal of invitation to investors to come to Malawi – because our challenges can never derail the robust investment programme we have begun. There are alternatives and solutions at all times in human existence, and we only need to move to find them. 3RWDEOHZDWHUWKḨUVWSULRULW\ In spite of the challenges, the Government of Malawi is making strides in water management and development. Through the Ministry of Agriculture Irrigation and Water Development, we are making sure that provision of potable water is given first priority. Through the assistance from the World Bank and other development partners, the government is implementing several projects in the water sector. Most of these programmes have reached an advanced stage. It is also pleasing to note that publicity campaigns on water, sanitation and hygiene are taken with utmost seriousness in the country. Government and various experts are taking intensive measures to ensure that Malawians take up the agenda of preserving and managing water appropriately. Malawi commemorated World Water Day with the rest of the world in March 2015. We do so every year because we realise the importance of joining the rest of the world in tackling water challenges. In the run-up to the March 2015 commemoration of World Water Day in Malawi, there were three successive conferences, all concentrating

Peter Mutharika became President of Malawi in 2014. He is emeritus Charles Nagel Professor of International & Comparative Law, having worked in international justice, economic law, and comparative constitutional law. He has taught in leading institutions including Washington

on water, sanitation and hygiene. Consequent to such sensitisation campaigns, Malawi has fully embraced the water agenda. On the one hand, we are inwardly driven by the need to improve the lives of our people. On the other, we urge ourselves to achieve internationally set goals because this is how our progress will be measured on the international scene. The Green Belt Initiative Locally, Malawi is poised to use its waters as the surest way to reduce poverty and hunger. In 2009, we established the Green Belt Initiative. The main objective of this is to use Malawi’s available water resources to increase agricultural production, productivity, incomes and food security at both household and national levels. The further goal is to spur economic growth and development through the development of small and large-scale irrigation. The Green Belt Initiative project demonstrates the commitment of the Malawi government to offer local and international investors a vast irrigation space of about 1 million hectares. The plan is to offer land within 20 km of the country’s three lakes and 13 perennial rivers for irrigation. Given the present climatic challenges and unpredictability of rains, we firmly believe that investing in irrigation agriculture will eradicate hunger and reduce poverty for many Malawians. Water development in the Green Belt Initiative is targeting large scale production of sugar cane, rice and mangoes, among other produce. Malawi is thus scaling up the agro-processing industry by harnessing the available sources of water. Therefore, water development is at the core of Malawi’s vision – to become a predominantly producing and exporting nation of Africa. Not only will the irrigation project boost Malawi’s food security, but also create jobs and wealth for economic growth. Malawi is set to take off towards new heights of economic growth. Water management and development is one route to our deserved destiny. This is why we invite investors into the water sector so that, together, we can be part of that success story of an African country. „

We urge ourselves to achieve internationally set goals because this is how our progress will be measured on the international scene. University and Rutgers University. He is also the author of books on international law and foreign investment security. Website:

CHOGM 2015 Report 115

Climate Change & Natural Resource Management

On the path to sustainable consumption and production Achim Steiner, Executive Director of the UN Environment Programme (UNEP), tackles the challenge of worldwide resource use and conservation, and points out the great ICKPUVJCVECPDGOCFGVJTQWIJGHƒEKGPE[QHRTQFWEVKQP and consumption.


he need for responsible management of the planet’s natural resources has never been more apparent, urgent or within reach. Policy-makers, including those within the Commonwealth, have a unique opportunity to catalyse changes in consumption and production patterns that can bring in a new era of a more equitable and sustainable development. Our relationship with natural resources has changed dramatically over the past century. Between 1900 and 2009, the extraction of resources climbed from 7 billion tonnes to 68 billion tonnes. Now it is set to double in just one-third of that time, with predictions it will reach 140 billion tonnes by 2050. Already, much of this consumption is highly inefficient and wasteful, causing severe environmental and economic impacts. Research by the International Resource Panel and others has shown that resources are diminishing and prices are rising. If we continue along the same path, how much longer can our planet sustain this way of life? The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) believes there is still time to harness the remarkable ingenuity that has enabled global development to make such rapid progress. We can transform the challenges of dwindling and finite resources into opportunities that will promote prosperous, inclusive economies and a healthy planet for generations to come.

116 CHOGM 2015 Report

We can transform the challenges of dwindling DQGͤQLWHUHVRXUFHVLQWR opportunities that will promote prosperous, inclusive economies and a healthy planet. The approval of the 17 goals of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development points us in a positive new direction and, while there are many tracks to address the connections between our environmental, societal and economic challenges, a population heading to nine billion people makes sustainable consumption and production a good place to start. That is why, in addition to having a specific goal for this issue, 13 others refer to the need to sustainably manage natural resources in their associated targets.

Credit: Moises Saman/Magnu Photos for UNEP

Climate Change & Natural Resource Management


Approaching the tipping point Unsustainable consumption and production patterns have generated tremendous environmental, economic and social consequences. For example, some of the natural resources driving economic development, from 2000 to 2012 the price of metals rose by 176 per cent, signalling a potentially crippling trend of increasing costs and a shortage of some key metals that could be felt in the next 50 years. Looking at the resources behind stable supplies of food and water, the situation is even more serious. Up to onequarter of the world’s food production may be lost by 2050 due to climate change, water scarcity, infestations and land degradation, with over 20 per cent of all cultivated land, 30 per cent of forests and 10 per cent of grasslands already being degraded. What’s more, as much as 1.4 billion hectares of increasingly scarce land is used to produce the 1.3 billion tonnes of food that is wasted each year, according to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. This highlights the fact that resource efficiency is not just an environmental conservation issue; it is a global security issue, with natural resources linked to at least 40 per cent of intra-state conflicts in the last 60 years; and the slow-developing, low-income countries dependent on them are ten times more likely to experience civil war.

As much as 1.4 billion hectares of increasingly scarce land is used to produce the 1.3 billion tonnes of food that is wasted each year. (QKDQFLQJH̩FLHQF\ However, resource efficiency also offers enormous opportunities for driving socio-economic development, scaling up innovation and fighting climate change. According to the International Resource Panel (IRP), based on original research by the McKinsey Global Institute, combining existing technology with policies to increase resource productivity could save up to US$3.7 trillion globally each year and insulate future economic growth from the harmful effects of resource scarcity,

CHOGM 2015 Report 117

Dominic Nahr/Magnum Photos for UNEP

Climate Change & Natural Resource Management

Improved cooking stoves in Burkina Faso.

price volatility and environmental impacts. In fact the benefits that could be delivered through existing technology are extremely impressive. While electricity used for lighting accounts for approximately 15 per cent of global power consumption and 5 per cent of greenhouse gas emissions, the en.lighten initiative shows that efficiency gains could save more than US$140 billion and reduce CO2 emissions by 580 million tonnes every year. Electrical and electronic equipment waste can amount to up to 50 million tonnes, or up to 7 kg per person per year. However, less than one-third of some 60 metals studied by the IRP have an end-of-life recycling rate above 50 per cent and 34 elements are below 1 per cent. As the latter includes speciality metals used in many modern IT and renewable energy technologies, this represents huge potential for improvement. Rebalancing our priorities Therefore, with both developed and developing economies wasting so many natural resources due to inefficiency and a lack of recycling, and with progress constrained by a resource and carbon intensive economic system, this is the time for policy-makers to get firmly behind the 2030 Agenda and the consumption and production levels necessary to keep the planet within safe operating limits. This momentum is already building. At Rio+20 in 2012, heads of state recognised that the scale of the problem called for the protection and management of the natural resource base for economic and social development. They understood that the degrading of natural capital and ecosystem services has global impacts that disproportionately harm poorer communities.

118 CHOGM 2015 Report

At Rio+20 in 2012, heads of state recognised that the scale of the problem called for the protection and management of the natural resource base. Then, early last year, at the UN Open Working Group on the sustainable development goals, member states acknowledged the need to decouple resource use from economic growth as a central requirement for the shift towards more sustainable consumption and production patterns. And Commonwealth countries are already taking action to promote sustainable consumption and production on many levels. In Ghana, the labelling and standards programme for electrical appliances could save around US$64 million annually and 2.8 million tonnes of CO2 over 30 years for air conditioning alone. In India, Ricoh marked World Environment Day 2015 by becoming the first to register its imaging equipment products with the country’s new EPEAT system, part of a global environment rating scheme to help buyers identify eco-friendly computers and other electronic products. And in Nigeria, imports of highly polluting two-stroke motorbikes have been banned – an issue also being tackled

Climate Change & Natural Resource Management

by Uganda and Kenya, where studies are under way to look at affordable electric replacements. 5HWKLQNLQJ̧QDQFH As with the rest of the 2030 Agenda, the transition to a more inclusive, green economy is critical to delivering sustainable consumption and production. Of course, this is a two-way street, because no proďŹ t-making organisation can afford to ignore waste, snub efďŹ ciency gains or disregard market demand. For example, the International Energy Agency has shown that the uptake of more economically viable energy efďŹ ciency investments could boost cumulative economic output by US$18 trillion in the next 20 years: more than the combined economic output of the US, Canada and Mexico. That is why resource efďŹ ciency must become a routine part of ďŹ nancial decision-making. To facilitate this, UNEP has been working with over 200 ďŹ nancial institutions over the last 20 years to improve understanding of the links between environmental, social and ďŹ nancial performance, and to encourage progress in market innovation, public ďŹ nance and policy and regulation. This includes collective initiatives such as the US$45 trillion in assets that support the UN-backed Principles for Responsible Investment, which opens up creative possibilities, and the UNEP Inquiry, which has identiďŹ ed many innovations to promote a more sustainable and stable ďŹ nancial system. Again, this is already delivering concrete results within Commonwealth nations. Bangladesh, for example, has demonstrated the potential of green credit risk management and reporting requirements that offer ďŹ scal incentives and consider variations in capital weightings to account for mispriced environmental risks and broader policy needs. Looking ahead If this kind of determination can be replicated across all 53 member nations, the Commonwealth can continue to play a signiďŹ cant role in guiding the world towards more sustainable consumption and production. As Queen Elizabeth highlighted in her message to the Commonwealth this year: â&#x20AC;&#x153;One simple lesson from history

Achim Steiner is UNEP Executive Director and Under5GETGVCT[)GPGTCNQHVJG7PKVGF0CVKQPU(TQO/CTEJ VQ/C[JGYCUCNUQ&KTGEVQT)GPGTCNQHVJG7PKVGF 0CVKQPU1HĆ&#x2019;EGCV0CKTQDK 7010 $GHQTGLQKPKPI70'2/T 5VGKPGTUGTXGFCU&KTGEVQT)GPGTCNQHVJG+PVGTPCVKQPCN7PKQP HQT%QPUGTXCVKQPQH0CVWTG +7%0 HTQOVQCPF RTKQTVQVJCVCU5GETGVCT[)GPGTCNQHVJG9QTNF%QOOKUUKQP on Dams. His professional career has included assignments with governmental, non-governmental and international organisations in different parts of the world. He has worked both at grassroots level as well as at the highest levels of KPVGTPCVKQPCNRQNKE[OCMKPIVQCFFTGUUVJGKPVGTHCEGDGVYGGP GPXKTQPOGPVCNUWUVCKPCDKNKV[UQEKCNGSWKV[CPFGEQPQOKE FGXGNQROGPV/T5VGKPGTUGTXGUQPCPWODGTQHCFXKUQT[ councils and boards, and his work has been recognised for a number of awards.

If this kind of determination can be replicated across all 53 member nations, the Commonwealth can continue to play a VLJQLͤFDQWUROHLQJXLGLQJ the world towards more sustainable consumption and production. is that when people come together to talk, to exchange ideas and to develop common goals, wonderful things can happen. So many of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s greatest technological and industrial achievements have begun as partnerships between families, countries and even continents.â&#x20AC;? Since its creation, the true power of the Commonwealth has been its ability to work together to deliver meaningful collective change for the better. With membership based on free and equal voluntary co-operation, member states are well placed to drive progress on the 17 goals of the 2030 Agenda through good governance, sound policy and astute ďŹ nancial investments. In so doing, they can also lay the foundation for the private sector and civil society to take action on sustainable consumption and production, and on the transition to the green economy to support them. With such a strong track record and over 60 per cent of its 2.2 billion citizens under the age of 30, the Commonwealth promises to be a springboard of innovation and creative ideas to deliver a better future far beyond its own borders. I for one look forward to seeing that potential delivered. Â&#x201E;

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) KUVJGNGCFKPIINQDCNGPXKTQPOGPVCNCWVJQTKV[VJCVUGVU the global environmental agenda, promotes the coherent implementation of the environmental dimension of sustainable FGXGNQROGPVYKVJKPVJG7PKVGF0CVKQPUU[UVGOCPFUGTXGUCU an authoritative advocate for the global environment. UNEP work encompasses assessing global, regional and national environmental conditions and trends; developing international and national environmental instruments; and strengthening institutions for the wise management of the environment. Its mission is to provide leadership and encourage partnership in ECTKPIHQTVJGGPXKTQPOGPVD[KPURKTKPIKPHQTOKPICPFGPCDNKPI PCVKQPUCPFRGQRNGUVQKORTQXGVJGKTSWCNKV[QHNKHGYKVJQWV compromising that of future generations. Website:

CHOGM 2015 Report 119

Mobile financial services are creating a new financial ecosystem to address the needs of the world’s unbanked population, creating unprecedented opportunities for inclusion.

commercial institutions to secure interoperability.

and available in the Peruvian market in 2015.

The Ericsson M-Commerce solution includes the development of the mobile money platform, systems integration, learning services, managed services and support.

Ericsson’s M-Commerce solutions are already deployed with mobile operator MTN in Uganda, Rwanda, Nigeria, Swaziland and Zambia. Ericsson is working with operator Millicom’s Tigo platform in Senegal.

The World Bank reports that some two billion people are unbanked, the majority in emerging markets and developing countries. And yet more than 70% of the world has access to a mobile phone.

One m-wallet, multiple uses

Studies show that broader participation in the financial system can reduce income inequality, boost job creation and directly help people better manage risks and absorb financial shocks. Mobile financial services can also empower marginalized groups such as rural women by providing the confidentiality and convenience they require. In developing countries 37% of women have access to a bank account compared to 46% of men. Ericsson is driving the next generation of mobile commerce development by connecting banks, operators, money transfer organizations, and payment and loan providers. This industryleading work is creating a more flexible, transparent and open financial ecosystem that helps key stakeholders speed the launch of mobile financial services to drive financial inclusion.

People will be able to use their m-wallets for banking, payments and remittances between banks, shops, employers, government institutions and customers, all carried out on a single, secure platform. Available in indigenous languages as well as Spanish, the service aims for universal inclusion and appeal. The solution is expected to be implemented in phases

Overcoming challenges For m-commerce to gain traction in regions with low financial inclusion, a number of factors must be addressed. These include regulation linking mobile operators and financial institutions, supportive government policy, consumer education and local system capacity.

Intern natio onal Remiittan nces Help the Unba anke ed Se end Mon ney Ho ome International remittances can be a lifeline for loved ones in another country, financing the purchase of essential supplies – or a child’s education. It’s time to dismantle their roadblocks

US$582 billion in 2014. Of that total, US$435 billion went to developing countries, helping to reduce poverty. In fact, the World Bank estimates that international remittance receipts helped lower poverty by nearly 11 percent in Uganda and six percent in Bangladesh.

International remittances represent the largest source of foreign income for many developing countries, with the World Bank estimating their total at

International remittances have also been shown to be resistant to downturns during financial crises.

Partnering with Peru’s ASBANC In 2014, ASBANC, Peru’s National Bank Association, selected Ericsson to design and implement its Mobile Money project, the country’s largest private initiative for financial inclusion. ASBANC estimates that 2.1 million Peruvians will own and benefit from a mobile wallet by 2019. The initiative with ASBANC is significant. In addition to the 13 major banks of Peru, bank agents and mobile operators plan to get connected to the Mobile Wallet Platform to create an m-commerce eco-system in Peru to address the financial needs of the unbanked population. The platform will feature easy-to-use and secure next-generation mobile financial services, capable of hosting all services from different financial and

Mobile financial services enable small-scale entrepreneurs to accept convenient mobile payments.

For example, when migrants have faced economic challenges in their host countries, they have cut expenses rather than trim the money needed so badly back home. For these reasons and more, Ericsson is deeply committed to resolving the issues that negatively impact the international remittance flow. Let’s look at some key issues individually.

High transaction costs The cost of remittance transactions can be high relative to the often low incomes of the senders, the amounts sent, and the income of the recipients. As a result, any reduction in the remittance transfer price would be quite worthwhile. According to the World Bank, if the cost of sending international remittances could be reduced by five percent relative to the value sent, recipients in developing countries would receive over $16 billion dollars more each year than they do now. That’s why we’ve ensured that our M-Commerce Interconnect solution includes a payment and foreign exchange routing feature that speeds routing between countries and services while automating currency exchange complexity and management.

M-commerce based international remittances help unbanked workers send money home.

Fragmented interconnection and interoperability

Our ConsumerLab research is especially important to us as we work to improve the flow of mobile money. It’s often through this in-depth study of consumer needs, habits and attitudes that we obtain important insights into both the opportunities and challenges for m-commerce as a whole, particularly in emerging markets. For example, it’s how we validated that, while many Sub-Saharan Africans use mobile money for long-distance person-to-person transfers, there is still plenty of room for expansion – if operators are diligent in providing face-to-face education initiatives.

Today, there are more than 260 mobile financial services deployed across global emerging markets, according to the GSMA. But in most cases, these services do not interconnect, which makes them of limited value. Connections must be established between individual mobile wallet services in use around the world. That’s why we’ve developed a global money transfer solution, Ericsson M-Commerce Interconnect, which connects mobile financial services worldwide – within countries, among countries and among different financial institutions – and can significantly expand the reach and adoption of mobile wallet services. By accommodating the varied needs of both senders and receivers through our remittance hub, we’re able to help bring mobile wallet services to the broadest possible market.

Process delays It’s not always a straight path when sending a remittance. Operational challenges abound, with a hodgepodge of disparate financial systems in play, forming a patchwork approach which may even include manual intervention. Ericsson has been working towards a new open infrastructure for remittance money to flow, facilitating a faster movement of remittances and removing complexity from the process.

Clear benefits, solutions ready The enormous benefits of enabling m-commerce based international remittances are clear. With the creative vision and technological muscle of Ericsson’s vast resources and experience from massive real-time transactions, we’re proud to drive the

next generation of mobile commerce development by connecting banks, operators, money transfer organizations, and payment and internet service providers. This industry-leading work is creating a more flexible, transparent and open financial ecosystem. One that helps key stakeholders speed the launch of mobile financial services to drive financial inclusion. And Ericsson M-Commerce Interconnect is a key enabler of this work, because we believe that when the industry collaborates to make money open, everyone will benefit. It’s time for money to change, are you a change maker? Contact us at:

Climate Change & Natural Resource Management

The Commonwealth Environmental Investment Platform: facilitating trade and investment in sustainable technologies Michael Sippitt, Chairman of the Commonwealth Environmental Investment Platform (CEIP), explains how the pan-Commonwealth network links entrepreneurs, companies and investors engaged in environmental and sustainable technologies and services.


he CEIP was launched in March 2013 and among other things aims to inform investors and businesses of both key developments in new technologies relevant to the environment and the advantages of the Commonwealth, particularly the fast developing countries of the Commonwealth who are experiencing rapid growth in GDP and economic opportunities. According to the World Bank, 13 Commonwealth countries feature in the top 40 fastest growing economies globally in terms of annual GDP growth rate (see GDP on http://data. Equally, these countries are also challenged by economic volatility, energy poverty, and resource scarcity. Perhaps most importantly, these challenges will be exacerbated by the impacts of climate change in these countries where we are likely to see large-scale climate-related migration in the medium to long term. While we are already witnessing major migration in various world regions driven largely by political or economic factors, this may pale in comparison with future mass migration driven by impacts of climate change in vulnerable countries. In this context the need for low carbon economic growth as the model for the new green industrial revolution has never been more important. The world has never needed technology more, and has never been so well placed to share innovation and enterprise for the common good. To date, the CEIP has established regional hubs in 14 Commonwealth countries including Canada, England, Wales, Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya (and the East African Federation countries), Maldives, Caribbean, South Africa, Sri Lanka, India, Bangladesh, Isle of Man and Malta, with further hubs planned in the near future. Each hub is independently managed to coordinate the needs of local entrepreneurs, businesses and investors,

122 CHOGM 2015 Report

providing a structured network to support business and trade in foreign markets. The CEIP hubs share a common vision of promoting sustainability and reliance across the Commonwealth through better transfer of technologies and expertise to help address some of the major environmental and resource challenges of this century. &RQIHUHQFHVDQGEULḨQJV In London the CEIP has been active in jointly hosting expert brieďŹ ngs to investors and businesses on a wide range of technological developments including topics such as the circular economy waste to energy, energy storage,

While we are already witnessing major migration in various world regions driven largely by political or economic factors, this may pale in comparison with future mass migration driven by impacts of climate change in vulnerable countries.

Climate Change & Natural Resource Management

transport, and smart cities. These are always well attended and are recorded on video to enable such expertise to be part of the CEIP knowledge bank, and to be shared across the Commonwealth hubs. In the UK the CEIP has already also hosted two signiďŹ cant conferences on the theme of smart cities, as part of an initiative to generate more knowledge sharing and innovation relevant to the huge needs of cities needing to manage substantial growth of urban populations, which along with migration looks set to be one of the major challenges of coming decades. Even where the CEIP is not directly involved in a transaction or project, it is very pleased to help where it can with introductions and collaborations relevant to its areas of interest across the Commonwealth, both for Commonwealth organisations and for businesses. At the CEIP we see that international collaboration is absolutely vital to addressing world environmental and resource issues, in which it is plain that the Commonwealth is very well placed to demonstrate the beneďŹ ts of such collaboration based on its extraordinary long-established networks and bonds. CEIP projects to date The CEIP has mandates from a number of well established businesses to introduce sustainable trade and investment opportunities across the Commonwealth, including environmental consultancies, software developers, solar power providers and energy efďŹ ciency consultancies. Some of the projects with our hubs include: â&#x20AC;˘ Knowledge sharing and training â&#x20AC;&#x201C; for instance, we had a delegation of Malaysian visitors to the UK to learn from commercial organisations in the UK â&#x20AC;˘ Lightweight portable desks for children in developing countries â&#x20AC;˘ Sustainable dry sanitation systems for urban and rural communities â&#x20AC;˘ Solar lantern and solar farm projects. 7KH%DQJODGHVK8.(QYLURQPHQW)RXQGDWLRQ %8()

In April 2015, the CEIP helped facilitate launch of the Bangladesh UK Environment Foundation (BUEF) in Cardiff, Wales, to support projects for environmental beneďŹ t in Bangladesh, to identify and raise awareness of the environmental challenges of Bangladesh, and to

0LFKDHO6LSSLWWis Chairman of the Commonwealth Environmental Investment Platform (CEIP). He has particular interest in the international sharing of innovative technologies and investment opportunities, with special focus on meeting environmental needs in developing Commonwealth countries. Concurrently, Michael is Chairman of Clarkslegal LLP, which CUCEQOOGTEKCNNCYĆ&#x2019;TOCNUQJCUUWDUVCPVKCNGZRGTVKUG in environmental, human resources, construction and public procurement services. Michael also chairs Forbury People Limited, Clarkslegalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s associated Human Resources consultancy, which operates in the UK and internationally. 7KH&RPPRQZHDOWK(QYLURQPHQWDO,QYHVWPHQW3ODWIRUP (CEIP) is designed to facilitate trade and investment in sustainable technologies, to improve international awareness

support focused sustainable development for the beneďŹ t of the people of Bangladesh living in economic disadvantage. BUEF is now a registered charity in the UK. Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable and environmentally challenged countries in the world and is signiďŹ cantly at risk from the ill effects of global warming. By linking relevant technical experts and suitable technologies with local environmental needs and opportunities, and by raising funds to support projects and activities for public beneďŹ t, BUEF works towards maximising environmental and socio-economic resilience of Bangladesh. With experienced businessmen and community members among the trustees of BUEF, including the former Deputy Lord Mayor of Cardiff, Councillor Ali Ahmed, and former Managing Director of Dong Energy Sales (UK) Ltd, Michael Hogg, access to sustainable technologies and experts through our CEIP mandates and hubs, and connections in the UK and Bangladesh, BUEF is ideally placed to support and promote environmental beneďŹ ts and sustainable development in Bangladesh. BUEF will do so through initially small-scale, local projects such as solar energy for schools and clean water access and sanitation in rural areas, to prove the model, with intentions to grow the scale of activity within the Foundation over time. We are excited about the contribution BUEF will be able to make in the future, working in conjunction with the CEIP as appropriate, providing a route for the Bangladeshi diaspora in the UK to funnel much needed ďŹ nancial support to suitable community projects, in keeping with BUEF objectives. Â&#x201E;

of developments in green technology and sustainability issues, and to support low carbon economic growth across the Commonwealth, with a strong focus on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The CEIP was developed in alliance between the Royal Commonwealth Society and Forbury Investment Network, which is operated by UK NCYĆ&#x2019;TO%NCTMUNGICN..26JGVGCOKUCEVKXGKPVJGUGCTEJ for and preparation of suitable environmental technology proposals and in building links in the UK and internationally with investors, universities and organisations interested in green technologies. We at the CEIP welcome help and UWRRQTVKPQWTUKIPKĆ&#x2019;ECPVVCUMUTGEQIPKUKPIVJGUECNGQHVJG environmental challenges faced by the world in this century. :HEVLWHWKHFHLSFRP

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TANZANIA INSURANCE REGULATORY AUTHORITY Establishment Tanzania Insurance Regulatory Authority (TIRA) was established in 2009. The Authority runs under the direction of the Commissioner of Insurance, as stipulated in the Insurance Act No. 10 of 2009. The mandate of TIRA also extends to Zanzibar, where the functions of the Authority are under the supervision of Deputy Commissioner of Insurance.

Vision “A World-Class Insurance Regulator” Mr I.L. Kamuzora Commissioner of Insurance


FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS IN 2014 Figures in TZS Million General Insurance Premiums


Life Insurance Premiums


Total Premium


Investment Assets


Total Assets

619,978 30 insurance companies in total

“To develop, promote and maintain an inclusive, efficient, fair, safe and stable insurance market for the benefit and protection of policyholders.”

Core Values Professionalism, Customer Centricity, Team Spirit, Integrity, Accountability and Transparency

Compliance with norms prescribed by the International Association of Insurance Supervisors (IAIS). This remains a priority of TIRA. We have been an active member of the IAIS since 2000, both on the African continent and globally. For More Details Please Contact TIRA HOUSE, Block 33, Plot No. 85/2115, Mtendeni Street, P.O.Box 9892, Dar es Salaam,Tanzania Tel: +255(022)2132537/2116120/2116131, Fax: +255(022)2132539, Email:, Website:

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Economic Growth, Trade & Investment



ogether, we belong to a unique network â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the Commonwealth family. It has global reach and great diversity. But it also has vast, untapped potential. The Commonwealth is a powerful brand that many around the world are proud to be associated with. In Britain, alongside our â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;special relationshipâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; with America, or our membership of the European Union, we see enormous advantages in being an active member of the Commonwealth family â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a unique organisation that has: â&#x20AC;˘ One quarter of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sovereign states â&#x20AC;˘ 20 per cent of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s land mass â&#x20AC;˘ One in three of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s population â&#x20AC;˘ One permanent member of the UN Security Council; two members of the G7; three members of the European Union; and ďŹ ve members of the G20. It is difďŹ cult to think of another organisation that brings together the representatives of 53 diverse, sovereign states from each and every continent and gives each one, large or small, an equal voice in global affairs. Continuous improvement Of course, there is always more we can do to make it even better. We have a duty to ensure the Commonwealth continues to evolve, adapt and stay relevant in the 21st Century. This Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in Malta gives Commonwealth partners the opportunity to discuss the pertinent policy issues of our times and help craft objectives and goals to address the challenges we all face.

Despite the Commonwealthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s unique advantages, only 14 per cent of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s gross domestic product is generated by its members. So, there is clearly huge scope and potential to unlock here. Intra-Commonwealth trade in goods is already worth around ÂŁ300 billion â&#x20AC;&#x201C; built upon our advantages of a common language, shared legal principles and a commitment to inherent values and rights. These are advantages that provide solid foundations for doing business and a platform for trade, investment, development, and in turn prosperity â&#x20AC;&#x201C; creating what we call the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Commonwealth effectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, which some studies suggest is worth between 20 and 50 per cent in trade advantage. UK Trade and Investment helps British companies of all sizes do business across the Commonwealth, providing the assistance required to expand the already deep business links between us all. We have redoubled our efforts to get

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Member countries have a vital role to play in creating opportunities for the 2.4 billion young Commonwealth citizens around the world. small and medium-sized enterprises in the UK to boost exports and rediscover the buccaneering spirit that I know will see British businesses undertake new ventures and forge new markets across the globe. One area where the UK has unrivalled expertise is financial services. The UK creates the best environment for businesses and their employees, customers and communities to prosper. In addition, Britain is the leading exporter of financial and professional services across the world, and a thriving and rapidly expanding hub for Islamic fi nance. Yet, despite the Commonwealth’s unique advantages, only 14 per cent of the world’s gross domestic product is generated by its members. So, there is clearly huge scope and potential to unlock here. We can – and must – be more ambitious. Member states can play a role by reducing barriers to trade, by investing in skills for local people, and by stamping out corruption and ensuring rules and regulations are clear and transparent. But Commonwealth citizens can also play a vital part – by building contacts between members of trades and professions in different member states, by sharing expertise and best practice, and by lobbying member states on new and imaginative projects and opportunities. The Commonwealth Games, in Glasgow in July 2014, provided us with a platform to do just that. Two separate business events – the Commonwealth Games Business Conference and the British Business House – highlighted the tremendous opportunities for Commonwealth states to improve their trade links and for Commonwealth businesses to work together to achieve common goals. The role of young people One important statistic was left out of the earlier list. Sixty per cent of Commonwealth citizens are aged between 15 and 29. I only fell out of that bracket myself just a few years ago… This statistic represents over 1.2 billion young men and women who are – or should be – starting out in the workplace and their careers. For me, trade, business and opportunities for young people go right to the heart of what the Commonwealth is about, and form an essential part of maintaining the organisation’s relevance into the future. Member countries have a vital role to play in creating opportunities for the 2.4 billion young Commonwealth citizens around the world. Many are already making their mark. One exceptional example is Evans Wadongo from Kenya. His example demonstrates the influence and potential of young Commonwealth citizens. At 19 years old, he designed a solar-powered lantern from recycled materials. Thousands of these lanterns are now being used across

Economic Growth, Trade & Investment

Kenya. They are safer then kerosene lamps, more environmentally friendly, and cheaper too. Evans won the Pan-Commonwealth Youth Award for his efforts. We cannot give a prize to every one of the Commonwealthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s billion plus young people, but, by leading industry or driving forward innovative ideas, the new generation is directly contributing to economic momentum, expanding business and new opportunities, and generating jobs and investments in local communities, education and welfare. A stable business environment Forums like CHOGM are vital for increasing trade between Commonwealth countries and promoting the fundamental values that I believe are crucial for emerging economies to fulďŹ l their potential. For Commonwealth trade and prosperity to reach its full economic potential, businesses must operate in an environment where there is rule of law, freedom of speech and human rights. â&#x20AC;˘ Only through the rule of law can we create the security, stability and growth businesses need â&#x20AC;˘ Only through freedom of speech can we encourage imagination and innovation â&#x20AC;˘ Only through human rights can we give entrepreneurs the conďŹ dence to invest and make the leaps of faith that all business men and women must make. And only when these three principles come together can we truly challenge corruption â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the enemy of progress and prosperity. This applies to countries struggling to rise out of poverty, those that have achieved middle income status, and those that aspire to make the transition to high growth and high per capita wealth. And also to established economies like the UK, where we have shaken up the


For Commonwealth trade and prosperity to reach its full economic potential, businesses must operate in an environment where there is rule of law, freedom of speech and human rights. public sector and put a renewed emphasis behind private sector growth. This approach has been central to the UKâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s efforts through the G8 on tax, trade and transparency, as well as at the core of what the UK Prime Minister, David Cameron, has called the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;golden threadâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; of development. He said that we should not just ask whether countries are getting richer; we should ask whether they are getting freer, getting fairer and becoming more open too. Good governance, like good corporate behaviour, helps create jobs; contributes to market sustainability; reassures shareholders; attracts investors; improves reputation and has potential to generate long-term growth. Investors are understandably more cautious about doing business in unstable, repressive states. On the other hand increased transparency, simpler regulation, faster procedures and respect for the rule of law are the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;golden threadâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; factors that can provide the certainties and assurances that businesses require for long-term investment. The Commonwealth is perfectly placed to support development in this way. It does not focus exclusively on helping its member states to become richer. It also focuses on helping its member countries to develop their democratic credentials; to foster the rule of law; to have open, strong and transparent institutions; and to adhere to the Commonwealthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s political values and principles. The Commonwealthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s strength is in its diversity, and that is as true for trade and business as anything else. So, I hope that we can all seize this opportunity to make new contacts and forge new business links from across the Commonwealth Family. Â&#x201E;


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Making trade work for development Roberto AzevĂŞdo, Director-General of the World Trade Organization (WTO) outlines how developing and NGCUVFGXGNQRGFEQWPVTKGUECPOCZKOKUGVJGDGPGĆ&#x2019;VU of increased trade.


n the 20 years since the birth of the World Trade Organization, the world has seen huge changes. New centres of economic growth have emerged. New technologies have proliferated. Communication has been revolutionised. In 1995, less than 0.8 per cent of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s population used the internet, while in 2015 it is around 44 per cent. Trade itself has been transformed over these two decades. Production chains have become increasingly international, offering new opportunities (and challenges) to countries aiming to participate in global trade ďŹ&#x201A;ows. Trade has increasingly been seen an important driver of development. The ďŹ gures tell the story: since 1995, the developing countriesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; share of global merchandise trade has grown from 27 per cent to over 43 per cent. However, it is important to recognise that the gains of increased trade are not automatic. Just providing more trading opportunities is not enough to ensure that people can take part in the trading system and access the potential beneďŹ ts. A great deal of hard work is needed to ensure that the right enabling conditions are there.

Production chains have become increasingly international, offering new opportunities (and challenges) to countries aiming to participate in global trade flows. 128 CHOGM 2015 Report

The WTO has development at its heart â&#x20AC;&#x201C; something we share with the Commonwealth â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and so we want to extend the beneďŹ ts of trade as far and as wide as possible. This means providing people with the skills and the resources that will allow them to compete in global markets. It also means lowering the entry costs which can stop people from trading in the ďŹ rst place. So we have identiďŹ ed some essential steps to make this happen. Capacity building The ďŹ rst step is building capacity. To fully participate in global trade ďŹ&#x201A;ows, people need the right tools and capabilities. Providing this type of assistance is a key part of WTOâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s work. Through a wide range of programmes, we provide practical support for countries to build capacity and trading skills. For instance, the WTOâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Aid for Trade initiative helps developing and least-developed countries to improve their trading ability and tackle constraints such as poor infrastructure. Almost 265 billion dollars has been disbursed for ďŹ nancing Aid for Trade programmes and projects since the initiative was launched in 2006. This has had a big impact on the ground. It used to take a lorry up to 21 days to arrive in Kampala from the Port of Mombasa, due to delays at the port and at border crossings. With targeted support, including an Aid for Trade programme at Ugandan customs, the average time to clear goods at port and transport them to Kampala is now around four days, with total savings for businesses estimated at over 370 million dollars per annum. This illustrates the impact that these programmes can have. Indeed, research has found that one dollar invested in Aid for Trade results in nearly eight dollars of exports from developing countries in general â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and in 20 dollars of exports for the poorest countries. So building capacity to trade is vitally important.

Economic Growth, Trade & Investment

Aid for Trade investment is improving exports for poor and developing countries.

Finance for trade The second step we must take is to ensure that there is adequate financing for trade. At the UN’s Financing for Development Conference in Addis Ababa in July 2015, this was identified as a major issue. Around 80 per cent of global trade is supported by some form of financing or credit insurance – both in developing and developed economies. However, the 2008 financial crisis has had an impact on the finance industry in general – including on the availability of trade finance. While the supply of trade finance has largely returned to normal levels in the major markets, this has not happened everywhere and not for everyone. Some developing economies are still suffering from the after-effects. Under increased regulatory scrutiny some financial institutions have lowered their risk-appetites and are focusing more on their established customers. Some have deliberately decreased their number of clients in a so-called ‘flight to quality’. As the availability of trade finance has become more limited, prices of trade finance instruments have also risen – raising the costs for ordinary businesses. For instance, interest rates on trade loans in 2013 were reaching 49 per cent per annum in Kenya and 78 per cent in Ghana. As a consequence developing regions have faced larger gaps in credit levels. The estimated value of unmet demand for trade finance in Africa is between US$110 billion and US$120 billion. In Asia, the unmet demand for trade finance is estimated at over US$1 trillion. In this environment, it is the lower end of the market that struggles to obtain affordable finance – and it is the smaller companies, in the smaller, less-developed countries that are affected the most. Recent research suggests that half of requests from small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) for trade finance are rejected, compared with only seven per cent for multinational corporations. Moreover, two-

To fully participate in global trade flows, people need the right tools and capabilities. Providing this type of assistance is a key part of WTO’s work. thirds of the companies surveyed reported that they did not seek alternatives for rejected transactions. Therefore, these gaps may be further exacerbated by a lack of awareness and familiarity among companies — particularly smaller ones — about the options that exist. Difficulties in accessing trade finance can strongly inhibit formal SME development. Businesses are deprived the fuel they need to grow. All too often, opportunities for growth and development are missed. This is a real cause for concern, since SMEs are the backbone of many economies. In fact, they constitute the vast majority of companies registered in both developed and developing countries. According to the World Bank, SMEs contribute over 60 per cent of total employment in developed countries and 80 per cent in developing ones. So by bridging this gap we could unlock the trading potential of many thousands of individuals and small businesses across the globe. The Trade Facilitation Agreement The third step we need to take is to redouble our efforts to implement WTO’s Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA),

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SMEs are the backbone of many economies.

reached at the WTO’s 9th Ministerial Conference in Bali in 2013. This is the first multilateral agreement concluded since the WTO was created – and it is a ground-breaking one. The TFA aims to standardise, streamline and speed-up customs processes around the world, helping

Implementing the reforms contained within the TFA can help countries diversify their economies – in terms of both products exported and markets reached. Roberto Carvalho de Azevêdo is the sixth Director-General of the World Trade Organization. Ambassador Azevêdo joined the Brazilian Foreign Service in 1984, and was posted to Washington in 1988. He subsequently served in the Brazilian embassy in Montevideo before being assigned to the Permanent Mission of Brazil in Geneva in 1997. In 2001 Roberto Azevêdo was named head of the Brazilian Foreign Ministry’s Dispute Settlement Unit, where he remained until 2005. During his tenure he acted as chief litigator in many disputes at the WTO and served on WTO dispute settlement panels. From 2006 to 2008 he was Vice-Minister for Economic and Technological Affairs at the Foreign Ministry in Brasília. In that capacity he was Brazil’s chief trade negotiator for the Doha Round and represented Brazil in

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expedite the movement and clearance of goods. All too often, outdated and uncoordinated customs processes slow down the movement of merchandise and raise trade costs to prohibitive levels – especially for developing and least-developed countries. Frequently, these barriers can often mean the difference between being able to compete internationally or not. The TFA seeks to address precisely this problem and in doing so, it will have an important impact in global economy. Its full implementation could reduce the cost of trade by up to 15 per cent, as well as boost global exports by around a trillion dollars per annum. It has also been estimated that it could create 21 million jobs worldwide – 18 million of them in developing countries. The TFA is very pro-development, and it also has a unique architecture – the Agreement provides the flexibility for developing members to tailor their commitments and implementation schedules to their specific needs and capacities. Moreover, it provides for practical support to help countries to implement the Agreement, including through the Trade Facilitation Agreement Facility. And the effects of implementation promise to be quite broad. Implementing the reforms contained within the TFA can help countries diversify their economies – in terms of both products exported and markets reached. The agreement will bring a higher level of predictability to customs processes, making it easier for businesses – especially SMEs – to join global value chains, as SMEs tend to suffer more from administrative burdens than large enterprises. Backing the 10th Ministerial Conference These three steps will be essential, but of course we need to do much more – and there is a major opportunity to do so on the horizon. In December 2015, the WTO is holding its 10th Ministerial Conference in Kenya, the first time this event is being held in Africa. We are working hard to deliver new agreements that will support Africa and developing and least-developed countries around the globe. The backing of all – including the Commonwealth countries – will be vital in this effort. This is an exciting and challenging time in world trade. It has the potential to reach more people and do more good than ever before. A new trade deal in Nairobi would be a major stride forward in our efforts to ensure that the benefits of trade are even more accessible, helping to improve lives now and in the years to come. „

MERCOSUR negotiations. In 2008 he was appointed Permanent Representative of Brazil to the WTO and other International Economic Organisations in Geneva. The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations. At its heart are the WTO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world’s trading PCVKQPUCPFTCVKƒGFKPVJGKTRCTNKCOGPVU6JGIQCNKUVQJGNR producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their business. Website:

Pamela Coke Hamilton, Executive Director of the Caribbean Export Development Agency, outlines the broadening roles of the agency, discusses policy issues and highlights the significant benefits that can be gained through collaboration.

How would you describe the role of the Caribbean Export Development Agency, your vision, mission and values? Well, first of all the role of the agency as originally envisioned was to be the CARIFORUM Export Development Agency within the AfricanCaribbean and Pacific grouping, particularly since it started out as the Caribbean Export Development Project, and which changed to a fully fledged agency in 1996 – so it actually came out of what was a EU-funded project. I would say the role has changed dramatically over the last 20 years, because the international trading arena has changed. When this organisation was first envisioned, the Lomé Convention was still operational; all of our international trading agreements were, for the most, part preferential, or partial-preferential or one-way Free Trade Agreements. And that has changed dramatically. We are now in an environment where we are competing with full reciprocity under the economic partnership agreements. We are also competing in an environment where the Latin American countries also have Free Trade Agreements with the EU, where there is the North American Free Trade Agreement and where they have just reached agreement on the Trans-Pacific Partnership. And so the arena in which Caribbean Export now operates is one which demands that we change how we do what we do, how we engage with firms, how we help them to access markets, old and new, how we enable the firms to navigate our new landscape and also how do they retool themselves to meet the competition that they face across the board. From Asia to Africa to Latin America, there are no longer preferences, so to speak, for Small Island States, like ourselves. So that leads to our vision which is, of course, to be a leading driver for the Caribbean private sector development and, by extension, to enable the private sector in the region to be the drivers for overall economic development and sustainable economic growth. The idea is that we would leverage Caribbean brands, we would leverage the Caribbean name, we would utilise our strengths and play to our strengths, rather than our weaknesses; that we would transform to a more value added framework, rather than primary commodities; that we would seek to utilise technological innovation to promote and to increase our access into these new markets. Our mission is to enhance the competitiveness of the region more widely and to deliver transformative and targeted interventions. It is also to strengthen and

solidify the economic growth and trajectory of the region, because it is one thing to increase competitiveness, it is another thing to ensure that it is long term, that it is sustainable and that it is entrenched in how we do what we do. And I think that is what is critical. To build the capacity of our companies in such a way that it is long term, sustainable and enhances our position in the global trading arena.

“It is one thing to increase competitiveness; it is another thing to ensure that it is long term, that it is sustainable and that it is entrenched in how we do what we do.” And what would you say are the most satisfying achievements of the Caribbean Export Development Agency in the twenty years since being established? I would say our ability to have continued to grow as an organisation and to transform ourselves internally has been a great source of satisfaction, because the truth is it is not just the companies, and the countries, in the region that have had to adjust. It is also the organisation itself which has had to step back, reassess and rebuild, in order to meet the new demands of a completely different international trading arena. And our ability to be nimble enough, to be agile enough and innovative enough to transform, not just how we do our interventions, but also the actual interventions that we undertake, in order to meet the new trading environment. So that in and of itself is a source of satisfaction. The second achievement has been the increased recognition, both regionally and internationally, that the agency has been able to garner by virtue of ensuring that we remain relevant and are a driver of change for the private sector engagement. In addition to which, we have been able to bring onboard new donors outside of the traditional EU construct - such as DFID, USAID, the World Bank, Inter-American Development Bank and GIZ GmbH - who have been actively engaged and who we have been able to partner with to leverage the primary EU funds and widen our reach. We have also added to our portfolio. Besides what was originally just Export Development, we have added Investment Promotion; we are now

the Secretariat for the Caribbean Association of Investment Promotion Agencies and also the Chair of the Taskforce on Financial Services for the region. So, in a way, the expansion of our mandate, while sometimes onerous, is also recognition that export development is not just about traditional exports, but also now looks at the wider issues of financial services which, in some countries in the region, is upwards of 30% of their GDP and therefore an extremely important sector. We are looking at specialised tourism as well - at health, wellness and medical tourism, at sports tourism and culture.

Our expansion into the creative industries in a very significant way is also something that we are proud to have spearheaded, especially in the area of intellectual property rights issues because, while we have engaged for many years on what I would call the traditional aspects of promoting the creative industries, the actual monetisation of the creative industries is a critical component that we really need to move on and that we have begun to explore with the establishment of a Caribbean Creative Industries Management Unit (CCIMU). The theme for the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in 2015 is one of ‘Adding Global Value’. How, in your view, can the CARIFORUM region best contribute to this aim? The Caribbean, as you know, has always been extremely active in the Commonwealth context and we have had the pleasure and the honour of having had a Secretary General for almost 15 years who was from the Caribbean, Sir Shridath Ramphal, so the Caribbean gives a lot of credence and importance to the Commonwealth engagement. One way that I think we can contribute or interpret the concept of ‘Adding Global Value’, is that the Caribbean countries for the most part constitute Small Island Developing States and there is a recognition across the world that SIDS have come under increasing threat, both physically in terms of natural disasters, but also economically in terms of the global financial crisis, and the impact that has had over the last eight years. How we add ‘Global Value’ is by recognising that the Caribbean brings about a particular uniqueness to the dialogue on development and we have done this in a way that probably no other SIDS have been able to do over the years. What we bring to the table is a group of individuals who have continued to display a strength and a resilience, which has not been equalled in terms of transforming our economies, from what were basically plantation-style economies, into fully-fledged, very successful, democratic societies based on international services, which are competitive at the highest levels and a brand name recognition on for the Caribbean which is unparalleled.

In recognising that, there are a few issues that we would want to look at. One is the issue of debt. The debt-to-GDP per capita for the region is unsustainable and needs to be addressed at the level of the Commonwealth, if we’re serious about looking at ‘Adding Global Value’. The issue of looking at our economic resilience as small nation states and redefining what constitutes our ranking, so to speak, in the global economic chain. The utilisation of per capita income is now recognised as something that is no longer the best index to use for small states like ourselves. But also looking at what are the key parameters for development and how, within the context of the Commonwealth, given our engagement with Africa, with countries out of Asia, with our traditional partners in the UK, in India, in Australia, how do we engage in those large market spaces in a way that can enable increased economic development and resilience for our small states.

“The debt to GDP per capita for the region is unsustainable and needs to be addressed at the level of the Commonwealth, if we’re serious about looking at ‘Adding Global Value’.” With the emphasis for Caribbean bean Association of Investment Promotion Agencies on intra-regional nal activities, could you see that style of collaboration broaden den out into the Commonwealth as a whole? The Heads of Government overnment agreed that Caribbean Export would d act as secretariat for CAIPA in 2006, so investment ment promotion and attraction was added to our portfolio as a regional construct. It’s a unique nique construct because there are very few, if any, regional entities that have countries joining together for investment promotion. Generally, it’s an individual engagement by country, because there is a natural tendency to be competitive,

and that is normal. So, to jointly promote the attraction of investment is something that is unique, and I think it has been working very well. How do we expand this to Commonwealth collaboration? I think it has defined those areas that have a commonality, because the collaboration for the Caribbean is a natural one because the synergies are natural, the geographic space is the same and so, if we’re seeking investment from another region or large country, then it’s easy for us to sell as one geographic space and it’s also easier for us to sell because we share a common external space. With respect to broadening it to a Commonwealth construct, it would have to be based on the areas on which we find commonality. Would it be in the context of investment promotion between the UKK and egion, Caribbean companies to another region, say to the United States? Or, for example, ea would if you approach China, the idea nt strategy that be to have an engagement could show how they could invest in the d distribute this across the Commonwealth and Commonwealth space, in a way that benefits the countries individually, while benefitting the wealth also as a whole. Commonwealth ich are the current policy issues Which hat have the most restrictive impact that on the work of Caribbean-Export? And, therefore, what could otherwise be collectively agreed within the Commonwealth to ease this? Well, I already referred to one, which is the debt-to-GDP ratio and how that affects the ability of the countries to invest in their expo own development and support the export a competitiveness of their companies and enable them to meet the increasing increasin demands spa on the international trading space. The second issue would be a lack of fiscal space, which of course is related to the debt issue that many countries are struggling coun with. The first thin thing that is cut when there is a lack of fiscal fisca space is the kind of support to the priva private sector and to developing the environment to do business. There are cuts environm to administrative costs; there are cuts to adm Ministries, to the number of public sector Mi

workers. The fact is, because we are so small,, when that is removed or when that is reduced, duced, the ability of the governments to put in place the mechanisms to create the enabling environment for the private sector to work is also minimised. So how do we address issues of support in the international business environment, how do we address issues in the courts and the traditional systems and all the support mechanisms that t say support financial services that support supp export and ease of doing business? The third issue is the ability of the countries to the trade promote market penetration, utilising util de signed. Much agreements that have been sig h of the Export Promotion this tends to be done by th omotion Agencies in each country. count Many of these countries do not have hav the capacity city to do that export promotion promotio or market penetration netration and activities, so what we have market intelligence intellig had to do as Caribbean Export is begin gin to work the ability of countries to access on increasing incr market intelligence, and market penetration mar ation iinformation at a regional level, so that companies mpanies are more easily able to access and provide exports to those markets, but that’s another area.

There are also the technical barriers to trade, which include issues having to do with things as simple as visas to enter and provide service. Or meeting international standards that continue to change and that are not harmonised, so we have to meet one set of standards for Europe and another set of standards for the US. So, meeting these requirements continues to be an onerous burden on many small and medium sized

thi it is important to economies and, I think ou SMEs are not SMEs by point out, that our international sstandards, they are microenterprises They are extremely small, so for enterprises. them to retool and meet those standards continuously is also onerous. From a policy cont perspective, it would be important to look at p the issues of access, the issues of fiscal space, ac the issues ues of debt and providing access to finance nce for many of these small countries.

mechanism that enables access to finance in a manner that enhances, rather than reduces, their competitiveness is important.

“From a policy perspective, it would be impo important to look at the issues of access, space, the issues of fiscal s and the issues of debt an nance providing access to fina for many of these small countries.” Finally, what are the broad aims and strategies of the Agency going forwards? And how do you see yourselves evolving between now and the next CHOGM in 2017? One of our most satisfying achievements has been een the publication of the Caribbean Export OUTLOOK, TLOOK, and also seeing the companies who are now ow able to meet international standards and increase crease their exports - SMAKS, the 10 Saints brewery, rewery, Baron Foods and Southside Distributors, rs, who increased exports by 30% in one year. Seeing eeing companies actually move and increase theirr market presence and actually increase their overall competitiveness. For broad aimss and strategies, one is to increase the effectiveness of our delivery for stakeholders, including the businesses, the business support organisations and the member states. The second would be to identify new mechanisms for financing for companies. The ‘access to finance’ issue continues to be a major stumbling block for many of the companies, and even countries, so trying to find a new

Also, our ou aim of building strategic business and in-market in-mark intelligence into the export markets. We need more in-market intelligence n flowing, so that companies and countries can also be more targeted in their interventions, in targ respect of what to export and where to export e it. And finally, there is increasing advocacy for our member states and a companies internationally, in the international export inte market, and investment promotion market.

Economic Growth, Trade & Investment

A transformative trade agenda Ambassador Amina Mohamed, Kenya’s Cabinet Secretary for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, details the transformative trade agenda the World Trade Organization (WTO) is pursuing as Kenya looks forward to hosting the 10th WTO Ministerial Conference.


he Commonwealth is a particularly important grouping of nations – the only organisation outside the United Nations system able to bring together rich and poor countries. It represents a quarter of the world’s population and remains a very important forum where issues critical to global trade and development are candidly discussed. Such discourses help to boost mutual understanding and assistance among a third of the world’s population. Indeed, common ties, including a common law and language, can be utilised to bolster trade and reduce the cost of doing business within the Commonwealth. By continuing to pool together and dialogue, the Commonwealth has the potential to become a powerful agent for change especially in the developing world whose members are the majority. World history has demonstrated conclusively that international trade confers immense economic benefits and alleviates poverty. In today’s increasingly globalised world, international trade has become a key vehicle for driving forward global development. We have seen the progressive opening of national economies to trade and factor movements and witnessed a remarkable trend in the integration of regional economies, leading to increased regional trade. There is, however, wide recognition today that international trade and the effective participation of countries in the global economy are constrained by a variety of factors, the most important of which include the level of tariffs and quantitative trade restrictions. Such factors lead to imbalances and distortions in the distribution of trade opportunities. For example, while the emphasis on development in the Doha Round offered opportunities for the advancement of trade and industry in the developing world, most of these countries have not been able to reap significant benefits from trading opportunities in expanding markets. This is

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largely due to tariff barriers, but also to: • The lack of productive capacity needed to ensure necessary quantity and quality of supply • Inability to prove compliance of potential export products with international standards • Problems with integration into the multilateral trading system. It is imperative, therefore, to evaluate global trade policy to establish whether it contributes to global goals such as food security and food sovereignty, sustainable development, environmental conservation, financial stability, expanded access to quality public services, as well as the creation of jobs and the reduction of poverty and inequality. Rules-based multilateralism New dynamics have unfolded and global trade is no longer just a North-South affair. Developing countries have now become producers and also markets for each other. Nations are exchanging goods and services for mutual benefit and generally seeking to establish some commonly agreed rules of commerce. As countries seek to grow trade opportunities at the bilateral, regional and multilateral levels, rules to regulate trade and ensure fairness become a critical necessity. Free trade requires rules that must be enforced by a legitimate legal authority. Without common rules, and without some legal enforcement to back them up, the international system cannot function properly and the global trade arena will become predatory and disorderly. The 10th World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference (MC10) in Nairobi, Kenya, in December 2015 is an ideal opportunity to address these issues. The WTO remains a key global institution in the

Economic Growth, Trade & Investment

It is imperative, to evaluate global trade policy to establish whether it contributes to global goals.

multilateral trading system; and for the developing world, multilateralism is ďŹ rst and last. There is need for the Nairobi Conference to advance multilateralism and strengthen the WTO as the engine of the rules-based multilateral trading system. We want to see the WTO more relevant, stronger and the ďŹ rst point of reference in writing non-discriminatory multilateral trade rules, and for trade opening for recovery and growth in the global economy. The Commonwealth has huge opportunity to establish deeper and more long-lasting relationships in Africa through galvanising support to ensure a successful Nairobi Conference. Revitalising the Doha Agenda The Doha Development Agenda (DDA) provides a golden opportunity to the WTO membership to liberalise markets worldwide and strengthen multilateral rules. This remains of particular beneďŹ t to developing countries, especially members of the Commonwealth. Multilateral liberalisation of trade, foreign direct investment (FDI) and the cross-border movement of workers form essential pillars to support national policies to promote better resource allocation, economic growth and development. There exists a direct relationship between policies that enhance international trade and the ability of trade to create and increase employment. WTO members must ensure that MC10 succeeds and puts the DDA back on track towards a successful conclusion. We need to establish a process that inspires conďŹ dence with the clear understanding that the outcome of MC10 must reďŹ&#x201A;ect pragmatism and realism and not anyoneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wish list. Commonwealth governments

Ambassador Dr Amina C Mohamed, CBS, CAV, has been Cabinet Secretary of Kenyaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Trade since May 2013. Ambassador Aminaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s experience spans over 28 years of public service, both in Kenya and at the international level. She served as Kenyaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Ambassador/Permanent Representative to the UN in Geneva DGVYGGPCPFCPFYCUVJGĆ&#x2019;TUVYQOCPVQEJCKTVJG General Council of the World Trade Organization, as well as VJGĆ&#x2019;TUV#HTKECPCPFĆ&#x2019;TUVYQOCPVQ%JCKTVJG%QWPEKNHQTVJG

have an important role to play. Businesses within the Commonwealth must also lobby governments to engage fully and constructively in the WTO. Our negotiations in trade must focus on the urgent development needs of countries and on global trade rules that facilitate rather than hinder development, including the transformation of existing rules on agriculture, the prioritisation of those that will contribute to a full integration of developing countries into the multilateral trading system and to global supply chains, implementation proposals, and the LDC proposals. The WTO membership should be encouraged to capitalise on any early agreements on which consensus can be reached to leverage trade advantages that are of greater beneďŹ t to all. A successful outcome in Nairobi should include a post-Bali/Nairobi work programme that is realistic and balanced and that modernises the WTO negotiating agenda, putting the WTO back in centre ďŹ eld. The work programme should include agriculture, including an outcome on cotton and an understanding on food security; services; NAMA; trade and environment; ďŹ shery subsidies; an expanded information technology agreement and a package for LDCs. Through the work programme we need to renew WTO â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and we can. In conclusion, it is an honour for Kenya to host the 10th WTO Ministerial Conference. It will be the ďŹ rst time a WTO Ministerial takes place in sub-Saharan Africa. The Conference will present Kenya with an opportunity to demonstrate our hospitality to the international community, as well as to boost the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s image as a destination of choice for tourists and holidaymakers. We look forward to warmly welcoming all participants to Kenya. Â&#x201E;

International Organization for Migration. Her achievements in Kenya include spearheading the passage of crucial reform laws. 5JGOCFGUKIPKĆ&#x2019;ECPVEQPVTKDWVKQPUVQVJGKORNGOGPVCVKQPQH UNEPâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Medium Term Strategy, and has been actively engaged with the implementation of the RIO+20 outcomes. Through her experience in the multilateral arena Ambassador Amina is remembered for her negotiating skills and sound legal advice. Website:

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JOHANNESBURG’S URBAN DEVELOPMENT ZONE TAX INCENTIVE A catalyst for economic development The City of Johannesburg is popularly known as Egoli, the City of Gold, and is South Africa and the African continent’s largest city and economic leader. On its own, it contributes about 16% towards the country’s GDP. Today, the inner city has a highly developed economic infrastructure and is the second most productive of Joburg’s regions, contributing a quarter to the city’s economy - a share larger than some of South Africa’s other metropolitan economies combined.

parts of the City, such as Sandton, and high levels of unexpected migration from the rural areas and the continent. These factors resulted in an urban deterioration which threatened the ‘heartbeat’ of the city.

investors, and has encouraged corporate and private residents to remain and expand their foothold within the CBD. It has helped to drive the mandate to transform the inner city into a vibrant and dynamic economic node that will attract everyone.

However, during the 1980s, Joburg’s inner city had experienced an economic haemorrhage caused by the flight of capital to the northern

To address this, the South African government, at the city’s request, introduced the innovative Urban Development Zone (UDZ) Tax Incentive to assist the municipality revitalise its derelict Central Business District (CBD), and thus reverse that urban decline and create new opportunities for development. For Joburg, the UDZ tax incentive has enhanced its attractiveness for property investment, both for new and existing

To achieve this goal, the City Council has prioritised its efforts and resources to revitalise the inner city by way of aggressively marketing the UDZ to international and domestic investors. These efforts have seen an uptake that has begun to dramatically transform parts of the inner city, where over ZAR13bn of investment has come into the CBD since 2004.

Fox Street


Gandhi Square

First National Bank, Bank City

“This initiative is an important economic tool that has assisted the city to further create an enabling environment for business in the property sector. Hence the visible economic revitalisation that is taking place in the inner city. Through this initiative we hope to encourage a transformation of property ownership patterns that involve large and small investors, black investors as well as women and the youth. We are looking forward to a city that is fundamentally different from the past, a city that embraces non-racialism, a city that embraces all cultures and religions, a cosmopolitan city that will attract not only South Africans, but people from around the world.” Ruby Mathang, Member of Mayoral Committee responsible for Economic Development LIVE, WORK AND PLAY IN THE CITY The idea is to rejuvenate the City of Johannesburg as a city where people can live, work and play by supporting the creation of several mixed-use precincts that attract a diverse range of investors, businesses, visitors and residents. Across the length and breadth of the inner city, young people are buying sectional-title holdings. This is in accordance with the city’s desire to lure young black professionals and women to come and invest in property within the various precincts of the inner city and thus gradually diversify property ownership patterns. Being a dynamic and vibrant city, Johannesburg has historically attracted people seeking opportunities. Areas such as Hillbrow, Bertrams and Troyville are currently underperforming in respect of attracting investment, but this has not deterred the Joburg UDZ from intensifying its efforts on these nodes.

ABSA Bank Towers

“In the near future, we will organise a consultative workshop that will involve relevant role-players including residents, to plan and design the nodes for best fit of the people and environment that currently exist. We will solicit young people’s input on the designs and strategies regarding how we can attract investment into these nodes and radically transform them into “Contemporary Pan-African Districts”. This will additionally create construction related jobs and employment in the businesses that locate in these precincts.” Ravi Naidoo, Executive Director for Economic Development

“In order for the UDZ to be effective, there needs to be a connection that will make economic sense for the city, while transforming the inner city at the same time. On that note, Africa’s tallest and biggest retail complex and commercial node, the Carlton Centre, will soon be undergoing a facelift and reconfiguration which will see the creation of a Film District and the resuscitation of the Carlton Hotel. In this way, it is hoped that the city will become even more dynamic and attractive and add to its new crop of already diversified investors streaming into the inner city.” Lebo Ramoreboli, Deputy Director, UDZ Tax Incentive

small the property is, because there is eligibility for major tax deductions if it is within the UDZ boundaries. In order to qualify, the investor has to restore, refurbish or extend an income generating property within the UDZ, demolish old buildings and build new structures in their place, or purchase new or refurbished buildings or units. Thus, an investor will qualify for a 100% tax deduction over a period of several years, depending on whether the investor has refurbished existing structures or constructed new buildings. This is not the only benefit:

“This incentive enables property owners to increase the value of their properties and improve their earning capacity within the UDZ. Corporate or small investors who own buildings that have degenerated can now restore and renovate them, and recover the money spent. No matter what other sources you may get your income from, one can deduct from their taxable amounts any money spent on building or refurbishing within the UDZ.” Ravi Naidoo

“It should be government’s role to facilitate equitable solutions with regards to sharing space within the City because there will always be a contestation between the rich and the poor and as government we need to mediate and find solutions.” Ruby Mathang

RESTORE, RENOVATE AND RECOVER There are significant financial benefits that accrue to investors as part of the city’s UDZ Tax Incentive scheme. It does not matter how big or

For further clarity please contact: Ms Lebo Ramoreboli Deputy Director, UDZ Tax Incentive Phone: +27 11 358 3437 Email: Park Station

Carlton Centre Film District

Economic Growth, Trade & Investment

The Continental Free Trade Area: towards one African market Dr Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma, Chairperson of the African Union Commission, describes the positive steps now being VCMGPVQKPVGITCVGVJG#HTKECPOCTMGVCPFYGNEQOGUVJGĆ&#x2019;TUV phase of negotiations on the trade in goods and services.


he Continental Free Trade Area (CFTA) negotiations were launched on 15 June 2015, at the 25th Ordinary Session of the Assembly of African Union Heads of State and of Government, which took place in Johannesburg, South Africa. The launch of the CFTA negotiations is indisputably a key milestone in achieving growth and development in Africa. African Heads of State and of Government have taken a courageous step towards further integration of the continent. The CFTA means, among other things, prosperity, job creation for youth, peace and security and agricultural development. Six of the 10 fastest growing economies in

African Union Heads of State at the launch of the CFTA negotiations.

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We should leverage the CFTA for the industrialisation and structural transformation of our economies, as well as for the creation of decent jobs for our people, our most precious resource. After all, the success of the CFTA lies not in the elimination of trade barriers but in its contribution towards the prosperity of Africans. the world are in Africa, and the CFTA seeks to build a common African market â&#x20AC;&#x201C; in addition to addressing the challenges of youth migration and endemic poverty.

Economic Growth, Trade & Investment

It is unfortunate that Africa is still exporting raw materials to third party countries and, in so doing, depriving herself of the opportunity to create decent jobs for her people. Our integration is aimed at eliminating artiďŹ cial borders, which we inherited from colonial times, and those we created ourselves, which have fragmented the African market. In its 18th Ordinary Session of the Assembly held in January 2012 under the theme â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Boosting Intra-African Tradeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, AU Heads of State and of Government made important decisions to enhance trade integration in Africa. The Assembly endorsed an Action Plan for Boosting Intra-African Trade and agreed on a road map for the establishment of the CFTA to be operationalised by an indicative date of 2017. Subsequently, the CFTA was identiďŹ ed as one of the ďŹ&#x201A;agship projects of Agenda 2063, to be implemented in the First Ten-Year Implementation Plan (2014-2023). AU Ministers of Trade, meeting on 14-15 May 2015 in Addis Ababa, agreed that the scope of the CFTA should cover trade in goods and services, investment, intellectual property rights and competition policy, and that the ďŹ rst phase would cover negotiations around the trade of goods and services. Ministers emphasised that CFTA negotiations should be pursued in the context of a developmental integration strategy. Therefore, the CFTA negotiations will take into account policies aimed at developing the productive capacity and industrial integration among industries of the various regions of the continent.


What can we expect from the CFTA? We should leverage the CFTA for the industrialisation and structural transformation of our economies, as well as for the creation of decent jobs for our people, our most precious resource. After all, the success of the CFTA lies not in the elimination of trade barriers but in its contribution towards the prosperity of Africans. We should talk of a rich continent where its people are equally rich.

Integration of programmes The CFTA should leverage existing programmes such as PIDA, AMV and AIDA on infrastructure development and industrialisation, adopted at the continental level. PIDA: Programme for Infrastructure Development in Africa is a continental initiative based on regional projects and programmes that help address the infrastructure deďŹ cit in order to improve Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s competitiveness in the world market. ( AMV: The Africa Mining Vision sets out how mining can be used to drive continental development. ( AIDA: Action Plan for the Accelerated Industrial Development of Africa, a strategy which aims to mobilise both ďŹ nancial and non-ďŹ nancial resources and increase Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s competitiveness with the rest of the world. (

The negotiations have to produce a comprehensive and mutually beneďŹ cial trade arrangement among AU member states that will boost intra-Africa trade and create a freer market for goods and services. Essentially, we are not starting from scratch. The CFTA will build on trade agreements within the regional economic communities (RECs) and associated commitments, thereby accelerating the establishment of the Continental Customs Union. The CFTA should also, in principle, resolve the challenges inherent in multiple and overlapping memberships, as well as expedite the regional and continental integration processes. The outcome of the CFTA negotiations should accelerate industrial development and promote the development of regional value chains. Industrial development is to be pursued through, inter alia, the Action Plan for Boosting Intra-African Trade (BIAT), AIDA and PIDA (see box) and the CAMI (Conference of African Ministers of Industry) Work Plan. CFTA by 2017 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; ambitious but achievable The negotiations for the CFTA are expected to be completed by 2017. The need for action on the CFTA is urgent. Africa must act now, or risk being left behind. Research by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) shows that the establishment of the CFTA will strategically position the continent vis-Ă -vis the rest of the world. While there are many challenges to overcome, we will achieve this goal. The Tripartite Free Trade Area (TFTA), launched in June 2015 and including 26 African countries and the 15 countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), gives a lot of hope.

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Port of Cotonou, Benin.

RECs, the private sector, civil society and strategic partners all have an important role to play in the CFTA negotiations under the leadership of the AU member states. Africa must trade with itself. African countries must no longer remain those whose biggest trading partners are farther abroad than their neighbours. This must change; for it is not just about trade. It is about our survival and our prosperity. The CFTA will help address many of Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s biggest challenges, namely youth unemployment, skills development, womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s empowerment, industrialisation and infrastructure development.

Dr Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma is Chairperson of the African 7PKQP%QOOKUUKQP #7% 'NGEVGFKP,WN[UJGKUVJGĆ&#x2019;TUV woman to head the continental organisation OAU/AU. Prior to heading the AU, she was, at different times, Minister of Health, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister of Home Affairs in VJG)QXGTPOGPVQH5QWVJ#HTKEC#2CP#HTKECPKUVVQVJGEQTG she champions Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s development and integration agenda, #IGPFCKPYJKEJVJG%QPVKPGPVCN(TGG6TCFG#TGCKUC HNCIUJKRKPVJGĆ&#x2019;TUVVGP[GCTKORNGOGPVCVKQPRNCP The African UnionYCUHQWPFGFKPD[VJG*GCFUQH 5VCVGCPF)QXGTPOGPVQHVJG1TICPKUCVKQPQH#HTKECP7PKV[

140 CHOGM 2015 Report

It will bring together 54 African countries with a combined population of more than one billion and a combined gross domestic product of more than US$3 trillion. It will establish a single continental market for goods and services; assist in transforming 54 fragmented and individual African economies into a larger and more coherent market. The AU Commissionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) and partners are preparing the groundwork for the CFTA negotiations. African Heads of State and of Government are to be applauded for their commitment to establishing the CFTA. The AU Commission is fully supporting member states in the process, wherein the involvement of various stakeholders, particularly the private sector, in both the negotiations and implementation of the CFTA, is paramount. RECs, the private sector, civil society and strategic partners all have an important role to play in the CFTA negotiations under the leadership of the AU member states. I am convinced that through the CFTA we can put trade at the centre and at the service of development, creating economic opportunities and decent employment for our youth. Africa cannot continue losing its young people to the Mediterranean Sea as they attempt to migrate to Europe in search of employment and greener pastures. Â&#x201E;


Economic Growth, Trade & Investment



overty in Namibia can be squarely blamed on Namibiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s colonial apartheid legacies that continue to haunt the country since its independence in 1990. The lasting consequences of apartheid, which because of its systemic bias cannot be wiped out or reversed in a matter of decades, include enormous levels of socio-economic inequality, primarily along racial lines, but also according to gender and class. Apartheid also imposed pauperism on indigenous communities by the creation of reservations, Bantustans, the contract labour system and the denial of proper education. While on the surface poverty is often deďŹ ned as a lack of income or assets, in the day-to-day lives of the very poor, poverty becomes a network of disadvantages, each one exacerbating the others. The result is generation after generation of people who lack access to education, healthcare, adequate housing, proper sanitation and good nutrition. They are the most vulnerable to disasters and powerless to improve their circumstances. These conditions often carry with them dysfunctional family and societal relationships, low self-esteem, perceived lack of hope, and spiritual darkness. Therefore, the eradication of poverty is an alluring challenge. Poverty is as pervasive as it is difďŹ cult to pin down. Its human face is disturbing, yet its presence is seen almost every day. Poverty reduction strategies Even before independence, the members of the Constituent Assembly tasked with the drafting of the Namibian Constitution were faced with the interlinked social problems of poverty, unemployment and inequality, and had to design socio-political and socio-economic approaches on how to tackle these dilemmas.


Namibia decided to follow a pragmatic approach by adopting an economic order based on the principles of a mixed economy with the objective of securing economic growth, prosperity and a life of human dignity for all Namibians. The government reserved the right to enact legislation providing directly or indirectly for the advancement of those within Namibia who have been socially, economically and educationally disadvantaged by past discriminatory laws or practices; to implement policies and programmes aimed at redressing social, economic or educational imbalances in the Namibian society arising out of discriminatory laws or practices; and to enact legislation to enable women to participate fully in all spheres of Namibian society. Instead of developing a long series of poverty-speciďŹ c programmes and projects, the government decided to re-orient line ministries and regional councils to become directly engaged in efforts to reduce poverty in coordination with the Ministry of Poverty Eradication and Social Welfare. This approach has prevented the marginalisation of poverty reduction activities and ensured that all ministries and regions were held accountable in their efforts to reduce poverty in Namibia. The government has, therefore, implemented a number of empowerment schemes,

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including employment equity, a land resettlement scheme, afďŹ rmative action loans for land purchase, access rights to natural resources, the creation of community conservancies, and massive investment in education and training. The array of poverty reduction policies includes the following: â&#x20AC;˘ Making the national budget increasingly more propoor and pro-growth by allocating more resources to interventions that draw the poor into mainstream economic activities, and cushioning the vulnerable members of our population in a ďŹ scally sustainable manner â&#x20AC;˘ Pursuing a broad-based empowerment to bring the previously disadvantaged communities into the economic mainstream, to uplift their standard of living, and to eliminate socio-economic disparities that exist along ethnic, gender and regional lines â&#x20AC;˘ Introducing and improving targeted social safety nets, including old age pensions and social grants for people living with disabilities, as well as for orphans and vulnerable children, as the ďŹ rst line of defence against poverty and vulnerability


â&#x20AC;˘ Dealing with natural disasters, such as drought and ďŹ&#x201A;oods, against which our most vulnerable and our most fragile citizens are unable to insulate themselves â&#x20AC;˘ Supporting the creation of decent jobs and selfemployment opportunities in the private sector through multi-pronged interventions, ranging from small enterprise and private sector support programmes, infrastructure development and increased access to ďŹ nance â&#x20AC;˘ Creating awareness in the area of primary healthcare, providing responses to the ďŹ ghting of HIV/AIDS and participation in immunisation campaigns â&#x20AC;˘ Mobilising the youth in tasks of national reconstruction, and providing opportunities for young people to develop relevant life skills to enable them to become responsible and self-reliant members of the community â&#x20AC;˘ Improving the quality of technical and vocational education and training, not only to increase productivity, but also reduce youth and womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s unemployment, and improve entrepreneurship and business management skills â&#x20AC;˘ Promoting an inclusive ďŹ nancial system in which all Namibians have access to a range of quality ďŹ nancial services and products, provided at affordable prices and with dignity, particularly to the excluded poor and marginalised population â&#x20AC;˘ Reviewing and implementing redistributive tax policies and improving the fairness of sharing the tax burden, while keeping in check the efďŹ ciency and competitiveness of the system and the taxpayerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ability to pay. #HHQTFCDNGJQWUKPITGOCKPUCEJCNNGPIG

Credit: New Era Publication Corporation


Economic Growth, Trade & Investment


Impact of poverty reduction strategies Twenty-ďŹ ve years after independence, we have made signiďŹ cant progress in the ďŹ ght against poverty. However, pockets of poverty persist, and unemployment and inequality are still disturbingly high. According to the 2009/10 Namibia Household Income and Expenditure Survey, there has been a substantial decline in the incidence of poverty from 37.8 per cent of the population in 1993/1994 to 19.5 per cent in 2009/10. However, poverty remains stubbornly high in rural areas (27 per cent) compared with urban areas (nine per cent) and among female-headed households (22 per cent) compared with male-headed households (18 per cent). The unemployment rate was high at 27.4 per cent in 2012, a reďŹ&#x201A;ection of skills mismatches in the labour market and an inefďŹ cient tertiary education. The youth make up the bulk of the unemployed (56 per cent for the 15-19 year and 49 per cent for 20-24 year olds), followed by the unskilled segment of the population (33 per cent for those with only secondary education, and 30 per cent with primary education) and women (32 per cent). Any form of tertiary education substantially reduces the risk of being without a job, with only 4.7 per cent of people in that category being unemployed. Although Namibiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Gini coefďŹ cient (a statistical measure of income inequality) dropped from around 0.70 in 1993/94 to 0.58 in 2009/10, partly owing to generous social safety nets, it still depicts high levels of inequality. High income inequality is linked to the high rate of unemployment, while labour market structural problems, such as inadequate skills and existing skills mismatches, are cited as a major contributor to the high rate of unemployment. Thus, Namibia introduced economic transformation that is inclusive to enable it to create economic opportunities for the majority of the unemployed population. Past investments in education have resulted in some progress in improving primary education enrolment rates and the adult literacy rate. However, although the education sector has received the largest share of the national budget, averaging over 23 per cent between 2010/11 and 2013/14, educational outcomes are poor and there remain signiďŹ cant skill gaps in the workforce, limiting the ability of the country to diversify the economy, while the output of the secondary schools, vocational and technical education fall short of the market requirements both in terms of quality and skills levels. Education has been identiďŹ ed as a distinct enabler that can improve the quality of life and address the

labour market skills mismatch problem. Consequently, the government has prepared the National Human Development Plan 2010-2025, and created the Human Resources Development Council and Productivity Centre to help address the skills shortages across all sectors of the economy. Namibia has made some progress towards the achievement of its Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Gender parity in primary school has been met while gender parity for secondary and tertiary education is likely to be achieved by the end of 2015. The country is on track to achieving the target on the proportion of the population in extreme poverty. It has further made considerable gains in managing biodiversity and protecting the environment. Although progress on key health indicators has been encouraging, with life expectancy increasing to 62.1 years in 2010 from 42 years in 2003, Namibia remains off track in meeting its MDG goals on reducing infant, child and maternal mortality rates (Goals 4 and 5), as well as reducing the infection rates for HIV/ AIDS and other communicable diseases (Goal 6). The country still has a high HIV prevalence rate (estimated at 13.4 per cent in 2011/12). Ongoing and new challenges Despite all the efforts to reduce poverty, income inequalities and unemployment, new challenges emerge that need to be addressed. For example, Namibia is facing an uphill battle with growing urbanisation. The percentage of the population living in urban areas increased from 27 per cent in 1991 to 33 per cent in 2001 and to 43 per cent in 2011. The urban share of the population is projected to grow to 67 per cent by 2041, as urban areas grow and rural areas are gradually reduced and depopulated. Urbanisation is mainly triggered by the prospect or perceived hope of getting a job in town, or moving from regions where unemployment rates are high to regions where it is low, according to Namibiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 2011 census. There is also considerable room for improvement in Namibiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s social safety net offerings. Whilst Namibiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s social safety nets are commendable, the assistance offered is widely dispersed among various government programmes and institutions. We are, therefore, looking at consolidating various social safety net programmes, so as to be able to improve their efďŹ ciency, and also reduce administrative costs and monitoring and evaluation. Our approach should also ďŹ nd a balance between dealing with the symptoms and dealing with the underlying causes of vulnerability. Our success in making good progress can be attributed to the governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s relentless determination to declare war against poverty and to remain focused on sustained poverty


Credit: New Era Publication Corporation

Economic Growth, Trade & Investment


Looking ahead, Namibia has entered into a new spirit of progress against poverty under the competent leadership of the President, Dr Hage G Geingob, who in April 2015 devoted his State of the Nation address almost exclusively to the war against poverty in the New Namibia. A new Ministry of Poverty Eradication and Social Welfare was created that is tasked to coordinate all aspects of social and economic empowerment, and to harness the political will

of government and the goodwill of Namibians as a tool in the eradication of poverty. The pursuit of policies and programmes for successful poverty reduction as a national objective can only be successful with broad and informed public support. While group interests will be affected differently, they must be brought to accept accommodation and compromise in the wider interest of national cohesion and political stability, which itself is a precondition for sustained development. We must, however, acknowledge that deep-seated structural disparities in employment, income and assets in Namibia can only be corrected gradually. And while realities on the ground call for ďŹ&#x201A;exibility and compromise, eventual success depends on ďŹ rmness of resolve and persistence of pressures for change. Empowerment can be made to work, but it requires clarity of objectives and wide acceptance of the need for a national effort in which both the state and the private sector play their part. Â&#x201E;



reduction measures. However, we have to acknowledge that our government was supported materially and otherwise, not only by the Namibian people â&#x20AC;&#x201C; rich or poor â&#x20AC;&#x201C; but also by numerous development partnerships across the globe. As it would be irresponsible to single out any one or more, we would like to express our heartfelt appreciation to all of them who assisted us to go the extra mile. A new spirit of progress

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HE Mamadou SANGAFOWA COULIBALY, Minister of Agriculture of Côte d’Ivoire


In the early sixties, the first President of Côte d’Ivoire, HE Félix Houphouët-Boigny, decided to focus the economy of the country on the agricultural sector. A massive public investment, of between 17 and 26 percent of the national budget, was therefore made into the sector from 1961 to 1975. Nearly 30 percent of all foreign aid received was allocated to agriculture as well. As a result, the agricultural sector in Côte d’Ivoire grew significantly and the country’s GDP grew at an annual rate of at least seven percent until 1980. However, in the early eighties, a global economic recession led to falling export earnings and budgetary restrictions and, by the end of 1990, the proportion of public resources allocated to agriculture had fallen to less than three percent of the Nation’s budget. This undermined the performance of the agricultural sector, and therefore the country’s economy as a whole. The population suffered tremendously from this situation. In 1998, one third of the entire population lived in poverty, increasing to more than four in ten in rural areas. Between 2000 and 2010, the situation worsened still. A review indicated that, during the decade, the agricultural sector was characterised by: • A lack of investment - agriculture’s state budget share was less than 2.8 percent and most development partners cancelled their investment projects

• National poverty levels increased from 33.6 percent to 38.4 percent in 2002 and to 48.9 percent in 2008. Rural areas were particularly affected again in 2008, where over six in ten people lived in poverty. • Two-thirds of the population also lived with food insecurity. • GDP fell by 4.4 percent in 2011.

• Very low agricultural productivity for instance, lowland and irrigated rice yields were just three tonnes per hectare and only 0.8 tonnes per hectare where rain-watered. With such low yields, the country depended heavily on imports for rice • Considerable post-harvest losses due mainly to a lack of adequate rural roads for transporting agricultural products from areas with surplus production to the major market areas • An inadequate use of improved farming techniques • Ageing farmers - more than 60 percent of farmers were over 60 years old. With the country’s economy still reliant on agriculture, the consequences of the decline for the sector were severe:

Despite this crisis, the economy of Côte d’Ivoire relies on the agricultural sector to this day and it still contributes one third to GDP, employs 60 percent of the active population and provides 70 percent of exports earnings. Furthermore, recent studies revealed that the Ivorian agricultural sector has further potential for growth and that it will remain the engine of the economy for the next 15 years at least, thus there was an urgent need to rethink the way of investing in the sector, so as to regain and exceed former performance levels. This is what the Ministry of Agriculture started doing in 2012, basing their investment initiative on the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP). The Ministry founded the new investment paradigm upon the principle of building up domestic and international private sector confidence and increasing agricultural investment significantly, with the overall goal of reducing poverty and ending hunger.


The new framework for investing into the agricultural sector was adopted by the Ivorian Government on 8th August 2012 as the National Agricultural Investment Programme (NAIP). NAIP covers the period 2012-2016 and constitutes a unique framework for investing into the sector, with the total investment needed to implement the Programme estimated at US$4bn. For the period between 2012 and 2016, the goals of NAIP are to:

· Developing the agricultural sector · Improving governance in the sector · Strengthening the capacity of stakeholders · Sustainably managing the fishery resources · Rehabilitating the timber sector.

• Reduce poverty, especially in rural areas

To ensure its success, HE Mamadou SANGAFOWA COULIBALY, the Minister of Agriculture, decided to base the implementation of NAIP on three fundamental principles.

• Create employment for 2.4 million people amongst the young and women by 2016

Firstly, 60 percent of the investment should come from the private sector and from farmers’ organisations. In this

• Renew the agricultural sector with massive investment

• Reduce food insecurity for large sections of the population • Add value to agricultural production by processing at least half of the harvest domestically by 2020. To achieve these goals, NAIP is dependent on six specific programmes: · Improving productivity and the competitiveness of agricultural production

regard, the Ministry of Agriculture has greatly improved the available incentives for private sector investment into agriculture. Steps have been taken to facilitate inclusive access to and productive use of the land, to develop a dynamic domestic seed production and distribution environment, and a collaborative platform between private investors and smallholder farmers has been put in place. Secondly, strong governance bodies for the Programme should be put in place for monitoring and evaluating the realisation of investment goals. To this end, the Ministry of Agriculture provides the human and financial resources needed to foster a dialogue with the private sector, farmers, other stakeholders and development partners. Thirdly, NAIP is to remain the sole guiding framework for all types of investment into the agricultural sector. This principle has allowed a strong coherence between agricultural projects and the implemented programmes. Furthermore, it has encouraged international development partners to align their investment programmes with the national priorities set up within NAIP. Lastly, it enables sound national policies, projects and programmes in the agricultural sector to be established and coordinated.


Three years on from implementing NAIP, important results have been achieved. The sector is no longer characterised by low levels of investment. Indeed, between 2012 and 2014, the total investment mobilised for the agricultural sector amounted to US$2.08bn, representing 52.5 percent of the total investment required for the Programme, with most investment coming from development partners (63.4 percent) and the private sector (26.2 percent).

These huge levels of investment have been used to create agricultural projects and programmes throughout Côte d’Ivoire. Projects are focused on improving productivity through the diffusion of improved seeds and plants for cocoa (for 800,000ha), cassava (180,000ha), rice (147,780ha), cotton (123,000ha), maize (120,500ha) and cashew (100,000ha). Eight dams have been constructed for better irrigated water supplies and farmers trained

for 2,712 cooperatives. The projects also support the construction and rehabilitation of rural roads and, by the end of 2014, 21,000km of road had been repaired and dedicated to transporting agricultural products to the major markets. Within this enabling production and commercial environment, NAIP has produced tangible impacts with a sizeable increase in food and tree crop yields:

Yields before NAIP (t/ha)

Yields with NAIP (t/ha)



Rain-watered rice






Banana (plantain)












Crops Irrigated and lowland rice

Aggregate food crop production has continued to climb in each of the three years since NAIP’s implementation: by 5.3 percent in 2011/12, six percent in 2012/13 and by 21 percent in 2013/14. In particular, rice production has increased from 550,000t before NAIP in 2011, to 984,000t in 2012, 1,218,000t in 2013 and 1,343,000t in 2014. Tree crop production also increased for the same period. For cocoa, production has reached new records levels of 1,746,204t during the 2013/14 growing season. Cotton production grew from 175,000t in 2010/11 to 451,000t in 2014/15, which represents a 157 percent increase. From 2011 to 2014, the production of cashew nuts also increased from 380,000t to 565,000t, with production to date for 2015 already registered at 700,000t. With the rise in production and the increase in the prices for cocoa, coffee, cotton and cashew nuts, producer income rose from US$6bn in 2012 to US$10bn in 2014. Furthermore, a 2015 survey indicates that poverty has fallen in rural areas from 62.5 percent in 2008 to 56.8 percent in 2015 and also shows that 91 percent

of the population now has adequate access to food. Finally, around 1.1 million jobs have been directly created by the projects and programmes of NAIP.

IN CONCLUSION The Ministry of Agriculture has succeeded in achieving the major goals of the NAIP: · The agricultural sector has been renewed through massive investment

· Food and tree crop production has increased · Poverty has decreased in rural areas · Most people now have adequate access to food, thus reducing food insecurity · A large number of jobs have been created for the young and for women. This performance has only been made possible by relying on investment into the agricultural sector by private investors and development partners. Public investment was kept low and mainly directed towards enabling an attractive investment environment for the private sector. For the Minister of Agriculture, this is the most viable approach for creating sustainable growth in the agricultural sector and for stimulting economic development for the next coming years.

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Define tomorrow.

Health, Education, Youth & Gender

Youth development in the Commonwealth: adding global value Helen Jones MBE, Director of Youth Affairs and Education Programmes at the Royal Commonwealth Society, explores the youth development landscape in the Commonwealth and highlights the vital role of young people as partners in development and implementation of the new global development agenda.


he current youth generation is the biggest the world has ever seen. Over 1.2 billion people in the Commonwealth are under 30 years of age, representing 60 per cent of the total population, many of whom live in the least developed countries and small island developing states. The current demographic profile of the Commonwealth, with many countries having a significant ‘youth bulge’, presents a one-time window of opportunity to achieve higher rates of economic growth from educated, healthy and gainfully employed young people – if they can be adequately invested in and empowered as partners in development. However, millions of Commonwealth young people continue to be excluded from access to resources, life opportunities and decision-making. They are disproportionately affected by poverty, inequality and marginalisation and face particular

Millions of Commonwealth young people continue to be excluded from access to resources, life opportunities and decision-making.

risks and vulnerabilities as they grow to adulthood. Youth unemployment remains a major Commonwealth challenge. Urgent Commonwealth action is required given that the long-term costs and consequences of persistent youth poverty and inequality are enormous for peace, prosperity and the resilience of societies. Given that so many of the global youth population live in Commonwealth countries, the Commonwealth can add real global value if it can harness its collective endeavours to more effectively empower young people to drive change and achieve development goals. A landmark year for people and planet As we arrive at the Malta 2015 CHOGM, it is timely to take stock of youth development in the Commonwealth and more globally. Indeed, reviewing the youth development landscape is a necessary part of Commonwealth renewal. Forming a comprehensive and future-oriented vision for youth in the Commonwealth is essential and must recognise the centrality of young people as agents of change for societal transformation, peace and sustainable development. This is in the context of 2015 being a landmark year for people and planet, following the adoption at the September UN Summit of the 17 new Sustainable Development Goals and, immediately following the Malta CHOGM, the upcoming COP21 Paris UN Climate Change Conference, when world leaders aim to achieve a universal agreement on climate.

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Commonwealth Youth Council members launch the #whatnext policy consultation for the Malta Commonwealth Youth Forum.

The question is: what difference are these high level international summits and global agreements making for the vast majority of youth around the Commonwealth, whose situation continues to be so very challenging? Is the quality of youth participation meaningful in the Commonwealth and does it result in any real change in policy and decision-making? Generation 2030 – torchbearers for the SDGs Young people have been active in their engagement with global processes to shape the post-2015 development agenda. They have participated in the High Level Panel meetings, the Major Group for Children and Youth and the UN’s MY World survey, not only to ensure that the

Magampura Commitment to Young People, CHOGM 2013 “We commit unequivocally to investing in young people and placing them at the centre of sustainable and inclusive development, thus harnessing their creativity, leadership and social capital towards the progress and resilience of Commonwealth countries, and a more democratic and prosperous Commonwealth.”

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The Commonwealth Youth Council The Commonwealth Youth Council (CYC) is the official representative voice of the more than 1.2 billion young people in the Commonwealth. The CYC was first established in 2013 with the support of the Commonwealth Secretariat’s Commonwealth Youth Programme. It was endorsed by Commonwealth Heads of Government at their biennial summit in Sri Lanka as an ‘autonomous, youth-led’ organisation. Led by a nine-member executive, the CYC acts as a coalition of national youth councils and other youth-led civil society and private sector bodies from across the 53 member countries of the Commonwealth. It aims to further advance the youth development agenda by integrating young people into the development work of the Commonwealth at national, regional, and Pan-Commonwealth levels. It also provides a sustainable platform for unified engagement with decision makers and youth-led development initiatives. The CYC works to mobilise the voices of young people and advocate within and beyond the Commonwealth for governments to meaningfully engage young people. Source: Commonwealth Secretariat

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evidence-based youth development policies. There has thus been no shortage of convening by the Commonwealth of high level decision-makers, and access given to young people via youth platforms and structures. Participation – questioning the relevance

High-level advocacy work on preventing early child marriage with HE Kamalesh Sharma, Commonwealth SecretaryGeneral, at the Commonwealth Education Ministers’ Meeting in Bahamas, June 2015.

MDG era of leaving youth out of the process was not repeated, but also to have their voices heard and to lead the call for ambitious action. They are, after all, the generation that will be the most affected by the decisions taken today and will be the key beneficiaries. Young people will certainly play a critical role in achieving the SDGs, and have been described as the torchbearers and heavy lifters. The agenda for 2030 risks failure if young people are not put at the heart of development and involved in implementation. A failure to deliver on the ambition will lead to greater poverty and inequality, more uncontrolled migration and conflict. There must be greater investment in youth by all Commonwealth countries. Commonwealth youth institutional developments For over 40 years, the Commonwealth has advanced youth development under the umbrella of its Commonwealth Youth Programme, which is overseen by meetings of Commonwealth Youth Ministers. The Commonwealth Plan of Action for Youth Empowerment 2007-15 (the PAYE) has provided an overarching implementation agenda to create and maintain the enabling conditions for youth development. At its core is a rights-based approach to development that sees young people as a fundamental asset in the development process. More recently, the importance that the Commonwealth attaches to young people has been clear from their inclusion in paragraph 13 of the Commonwealth Charter. Additionally, at the last CHOGM held in Sri Lanka in 2013, Heads of Government indicated the priority they placed on youth development via their Magampura Commitment to Young People (see box). This statement from Heads was the culmination of a process that saw the institution of the new Commonwealth Youth Council (see box) at the parallel Commonwealth Youth Forum (thus implementing the 2011 Eminent Persons’ Group recommendation for a more representative and inclusive structure for young people), and the Youth Dialogue with Heads at the CHOGM. A notable Commonwealth initiative has been the development of the Youth Development Index (YDI), which has been a global first, and is a tool to identify youth needs, measure progress achieved and assist Commonwealth nations in shaping

At first sight, therefore, the Commonwealth appears well placed to address the challenges facing its youth. However, while the Commonwealth has been busy creating the Commonwealth Youth Council, there are growing doubts being voiced in the wider global youth sector that formal institutions established for youth participation can be meaningful or effective in confronting the profound global challenges facing youth (, 2015). In truth, the high expectations surrounding the Commonwealth Youth Council and its General Assembly are unlikely to be met. In keeping with similar youth structures established globally, they may not be able to catalyse the real change needed because they are part of ‘non-committal consultation processes’ and are not contributing sufficiently to a sustainable international youth advocacy movement. Outcome statements merely become wish-lists with no impact on the lives of young people. Policy change is just not happening fast enough. Alongside the huge growth in the number of youth policies, participation structures and global youth events, there are new and more dynamic forms of participation, as seen in young people being very visible as leaders and supporters of rights-based campaigns, or protests on the street, which in some countries has produced civil unrest. The drivers are complex but have included the ideals of social change and human rights, democracy, peace and prosperity as well as frustration at inequalities and the lack of life chances and the slowness of change. However, as a values-based association, the Commonwealth should be able to inspire and engage young people as actors for social change and tap into their desire to ‘be the change’, as long as it can coalesce around a number of crucial global challenges. Young people are organising using social media and other technologies and are by-passing formal structures such as youth councils or youth parliaments. These are often distrusted as too close to the establishment, or seen as ineffective because their legal status often means they cannot challenge the state or mobilise mass youth campaigns. As Alex Farrow of has recently written, the traditional mechanisms of youth participation are facing challenges to their legitimacy, purpose and efficacy; and “when young people will risk their lives for change – what potency does a youth council offer?” In the Commonwealth there is a need to develop even stronger mechanisms for youth engagement, not only via the Commonwealth Youth Council, but also to encourage the growth in networks and alliances to connect more proactively. New approaches for action will need to be developed to identify the areas that need to change for youth, and to campaign more effectively for their implementation. Supporting youth to create change Governments that create clear pathways for the meaningful engagement of their young people will be well placed to achieve the 2030 SDG agenda. Intentional policy and

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Delegates at the Sri Lanka Commonwealth Youth Forum.

As a values-based association, the Commonwealth should be able to inspire and engage young people as actors for social change .

• Young people engage specifically on positive change issues at local or global levels through youth-led initiatives or effective inter-generational partnerships (including support for youth development linked to civic activism, linking local to global action, and the development of networks and coalitions for youth groups and for individual change agents). • Young people have leadership skills to work effectively in different contexts (provision of support using individual and collective models of leadership, including building the capacity of young emerging elites). The contribution of non-state actors

programmatic initiatives that are designed to advance developmental needs will result in positive outcomes for young people. In order to engage young people as responsible social actors and innovators, Collins and Clark (2013) have suggested that national strategies should be developed to achieve the following interlinked outcomes: • Young people participate in formal policy and governance structures (such as youth forums, youth councils, youth parliaments and other participation mechanisms). • Young people are civically engaged and active in their communities or societies on issues of their choice (voter registration, engagement in voluntary effort, social entrepreneurship programmes).

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Partners such as civil society organisations, Commonwealth accredited organisations, youth organisations and youth networks and alliances can collaborate to help create and sustain an enabling environment for youth. They can do this by amplifying their voices, ensuring they are heard and valued as social actors and knowledge holders, building capacity, and reaching the unreached. For its part, the Royal Commonwealth Society sees young people as a vital constituency and has prioritised work with young adults, and on delivering the Commonwealth youth empowerment agenda. The strands of youth-responsive programmes include:

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• Emerging leaders programmes – such as The Queen’s Young Leaders, Nkabom young peace-builders and Diaspora Dialogues peace and reconciliation work • Platforms for youth and youth networks such as the Commonwealth Youth Gender and Equality Network (CYGEN) and associated Forum held in Malta in May 2015

• Policy and research to ensure youth perspectives and participation, including gender equality advocacy programmes • Youth competitions such as the Queen’s Commonwealth Essay Competition, which is a creative vehicle for young people to express their opinions about the wider world. „

Helen Jones, MBE, is Director of Youth Affairs and Education Programmes for the Royal Commonwealth Society. She previously served as Deputy CEO at the Commonwealth Youth Exchange Council (CYEC). Helen has over 25 years’ experience in youth work and non-formal education, and extensive experience of development management with a particular emphasis on young people and development. During her time with CYEC she played an instrumental role in establishing the ƒTUV%QOOQPYGCNVJ;QWVJ(QTWO %;( CVVJGVKOGQHVJG Edinburgh CHOGM in 1997, which has been institutionalised as the main platform for youth at biennial meetings of the Commonwealth Heads of Government. Helen is also a Trustee of the Council for Education in the Commonwealth (CEC). In 2013 Helen was awarded an MBE for services to youth development in the Commonwealth.

The Royal Commonwealth Society (RCS) is an extensive network of self-governing branches and affiliated societies throughout and beyond the Commonwealth. Operating at the forefront of Commonwealth affairs, the Society is committed to improving the prospects of a Commonwealth of the Peoples and showing the relevance to their lives of the modern Commonwealth network. Recognising the demographic importance and potential of young people, the RCS has prioritised work with young adults. Its education and youth outreach programmes seek to make Commonwealth values a real and lived experience for young citizens and to enable young people to mobilise around the global challenges of today. Website:

Health, Education, Youth & Gender

Young people shape the future of the Commonwealth The Most Hon. Portia Simpson Miller ON, MP, Prime Minister of Jamaica, takes the opportunity to throw the spotlight on young people’s organisations in the Commonwealth, and their growing list of achievements.


t is heartening to note the importance that the Commonwealth attaches to young people. By virtue of Article XIII of the Charter, it is recognised that “... The future success of the Commonwealth rests with the continued commitment and contributions of young people in promoting and sustaining the Commonwealth and its values and principles ...”. The Commonwealth must be commended for providing myriad opportunities for young people to realise their potential and fulfi l their dreams. This investment will reap rich dividends as the youth of today will be leaders of the Commonwealth of tomorrow. The Commonwealth Youth Council, which has the singular distinction of being the largest and most democratically elected youth-led organisation in the world, representing the voice of more than 1.2 billion young people in the Commonwealth, aims to further advance the youth development agenda by integrating young people into the development work of the Commonwealth at national, regional, and Pan-Commonwealth levels. It provides a sustainable platform for unified engagement with decision-makers and youth-led development initiatives. This mechanism will undoubtedly prove to be an effective tool in the empowerment of youth. The Commonwealth Students Association (CSA) represents the needs and aspirations of national student councils and other student organisations in the Commonwealth. Launched in 2012 at the 18th Conference of Commonwealth Education Ministers (18CCEM) in Mauritius, the CSA aims “to promote unity among student organisations in Commonwealth countries; to protect the rights of Commonwealth students and to contribute actively to the development of student movements; and

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The Commonwealth must be commended for providing myriad opportunities for young people to realise their SRWHQWLDODQGIXOͤOWKHLU dreams. to create an environment for student unions and student movements to build their respective and collective capacities, to freely express and advocate.” Given the diversity of Commonwealth countries, the CSA provides a unique opportunity for students across the Commonwealth to exchange ideas and experiences, enriching their lives. As Commonwealth countries, in particular small states, struggle to deal with the adverse impacts of climate change, the engagement of youth in this area is critical. Established in 2009 during the Young Commonwealth Climate Summit in London, the Commonwealth Youth Climate Change Network (CYCN) aims to build the capacity of young people in their endeavours to address climate change and other environmental issues. The Network supports actions that empower young people to translate climate change programmes into effective policies that will have a

Health, Education, Youth & Gender

The Commonwealth Youth Awards for Excellence Young people in the Commonwealth have played a pivotal role in various spheres of national development, ranging from poverty alleviation to peace building and the promotion of democracy. Quite appropriately, the Commonwealth Youth Awards for Excellence in Development Work highlight and celebrate the achievements of young people from Asia, the PaciďŹ c, the Caribbean and Americas, Africa and Europe who have made a signiďŹ cant impact on people and communities in their country or region. The efforts of young people to inďŹ&#x201A;uence the development of their peers have not gone unnoticed. The Commonwealth Youth Worker Awards, launched in 2013, highlight these outstanding efforts.

measurable impact on youth well-being. It also links projects implemented by its members across the Commonwealth in order to develop common actions and campaigns. Their continued advocacy within national and local governments, as well as in international agencies and global forums such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, will go a long way in ensuring the preservation and protection of the planet that we share.

As Commonwealth countries, in particular small states, struggle to deal with the adverse impacts of climate change, the engagement of youth in this area is critical. Young people have long demonstrated their capacity to successfully engage in entrepreneurial activities. The Commonwealth Alliance for Youth Entrepreneurs (CAYE) has proved effective in supporting the ambitions of young entrepreneurs in Commonwealth regions and championing the cause of young entrepreneurs at the local, national, regional and international levels, through engagement with governments, the media, the public, and other relevant stakeholders. Through the three regional networks in Asia, East Africa, and the Caribbean and Canada, young entrepreneurs ensure that they have a combined voice and representation

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at forums to inďŹ&#x201A;uence policy development on youth entrepreneurship. As an offshoot of the CAYE, it is hoped that the Commonwealth Alliance of Young Entrepreneursâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;Caribbean & Canada (CAYE-CC), formed in December 2014 and comprising youth entrepreneurship organisations from 13 Commonwealth countries across the Caribbean and including Canada, will among other goals succeed in its proposed mission to empower and nurture young people through access to essential resources including entrepreneurship training, ďŹ nancial and technical support, networking and mentorship opportunities; and advocate for policies conducive to creating a strong entrepreneurial culture and ecosystem. Jamaicaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s involvement For its part, Jamaica has beneďŹ ted from partnership with the Commonwealth Youth Programme (CYP) through: â&#x20AC;˘ Capacity building for the National Youth Council (e.g. ďŹ nancial literacy training and certiďŹ cation) â&#x20AC;˘ Support and capacity building of former Youth Ambassadors and sharing of best practices for Youth Directors, and â&#x20AC;˘ Cultural and international exchange programmes for youth leaders. Two Jamaican nationals were recipients of the Commonwealth Youth Awards in 2013. Jamaica was also honoured to have been selected as one of the focus countries by the Queen Elizabeth Diamond Jubilee Trust, which has identiďŹ ed youth leadership

The Government of Jamaica continues to seek to harness the talents and potential of our youth and ensure meaningful engagement and participation. The Most Hon. Portia Simpson Miller ON, MPĆ&#x2019;TUVDGECOG Jamaicaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s seventh Prime Minister in March 2006 and was conferred with the Order of the Nation in May 2006. She had UGTXGFHQT[GCTUCUC%CDKPGV/KPKUVGT#U2TKOG/KPKUVGT she currently has Ministerial oversight of Information, &GXGNQROGPV5RQTV9QOGPŨU#HHCKTUCPF&GHGPEG/TU Simpson Miller has a distinguished record of service at the regional and international levels. In 2011 Prime Minister 5KORUQP/KNNGTYCUCRRQKPVGFD[VJG705GETGVCT[)GPGTCN VQUGTXGCUCOGODGTQHVJG$QCTFQH6TWUVGGUQHVJG7PKVGF

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The Commonwealth Alliance for Youth Entrepreneurs (CAYE) has proved effective in supporting the ambitions of young entrepreneurs in Commonwealth regions and championing the cause of young entrepreneurs at the local, national, regional and international levels. in the Commonwealth as one of its primary areas of emphasis. The Government of Jamaica shares the Trustâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s commitment to the training and equipping of young people for employment, encouraging enterprise and skills development and helping youth to inďŹ&#x201A;uence policy and decision-making. In keeping with the National Youth Policy 20152030, the Government of Jamaica continues to seek to harness the talents and potential of our youth and ensure meaningful engagement and participation which lays the foundation for the achievement of sustainable development. It is heartening to note that these efforts are being recognised. According to the 2013 Commonwealth Youth Development Index (YDI) Report, Jamaica is ranked in the top ten performing countries as far as civic participation of youth is concerned. Jamaica is ranked seventh in the YDI, making it the highest ranked CARICOM country on the index. If we are to achieve the prosperous future that we envision, the world must reďŹ&#x201A;ect the needs and aspirations of our young people. The Commonwealth has led the way in this regard and must maintain its advocacy in order to ensure that the needs and concerns of its largest constituents are fulďŹ lled. Â&#x201E;


National Institute of Higher Education, Research, Science and Technology - Trinidad and Tobago

For over 30 years, NIHERST has been a leading public institution with a mission to help build Trinidad and Tobago’s human capital and the research and educational infrastructure needed to boost scientific and technological development. The Institute has spearheaded many initiatives, developed in-house or through strategic alliances, to accelerate capacity building in priority areas. This has enabled significant advancement in the popularisation of science and of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (or STEM) education to develop citizens who can support innovation-driven development.

STEM EDUCATION NIHERST was the earliest and, is still today, the single most important contributor to the expansion, in Trinidad and Tobago, of the STEM learning ecosystem outside the formal education system, bringing diversity and greater inclusivity to education in these disciplines, from early childhood through to the tertiary level. Notably, it is also one of the pioneers of non-formal STEAM education, which also includes the Arts, through its popular science music video competition. Since the mid-1980s, the Institute has fought to keep public and policy makers’ attention on the emerging imperative of improving, and increasing the access to, STEM education. In the 1990s, NIHERST pioneered an extensive science popularisation programme, implemented through its National Science Centre, which set the example for others to follow. Since opening, the footprint of the centre and its outreach programmes has risen to over 30 per cent of the current populace. The activities and exhibits provide interactive, multisensory experiences and show “real world” applications. Some of the latest technologies for education are utilised, including simulations and 3D technology, to make complex scientific knowledge and concepts more comprehensible.

Through workshops, clubs, camps and competitions, to programmes such as the Caribbean Youth Science Forum - which mentors 200 pre-university science students annually - NIHERST has now nurtured over 300,000 young people, aged 5 to 18, over the past two decades in basic to advanced STEM literacy. NIHERST has also created programmes that directly support the formal teaching and learning of science in schools, and provides training for educators in new and developing technologies, such as robotics and rapid prototyping, as well as aspects of the primary and secondary curriculum that are challenging to grasp and therefore teach. Examples of new STEM programmes undertaken with key international partners include: • NASA’s international internships for university students to undertake research in frontier science fields to solve practical problems of today and of tomorrow • The EU-funded ‘Improving Innovation Capacities in the Caribbean’ project, aimed at improving teachers’ capacities in science teaching and for implementing an innovation framework in schools • A collaboration with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and its local section, which will give students access to applied STEM programmes and materials that build basic skills in the application of engineering and computing to solve problems. This successful leadership in STEM education has laid the foundation for the establishment of the NIHERST Science City, left, which is currently under construction. Science City is envisioned as a unique catalyst for local STEM education spurring indigenous research and innovation in support of sustainable integral development. As the world presses on from the core Millennium Development Goal of a basic education for all, towards a renewed, post-2015 vision and agenda that emphasises the link between inclusive education and sustainable development, Trinidad and Tobago is well poised to align with this new development thrust. NIHERST aims to continue to keep the country ahead of the curve of developments in science, technology and innovation, and inspire our people to participate fully in the country’s sustainable development process through their creativity and entrepreneurship.

Health, Education, Youth & Gender

Saved by the bell:

Rebooting the Commonwealth connection between young people Tim Hewish, Executive Director, Commonwealth Exchange highlights the lack of young people’s understanding of the Commonwealth and offers recommendations that use modern technology as a remedy.


n September we produced a report, in partnership with the Royal Commonwealth Society, shedding light on how the Commonwealth is taught and understood at primary and secondary levels in Britain. This report, Saved by the Bell, shows clearly that young Britons’ lack of comprehension of the Commonwealth is a cause for concern, and our recommendations offer policy-makers an action plan to reverse the trend. The meaning of the report’s title - rescued by a timely intervention - is urgently required. We anticipate that the report’s fi ndings are not a wholly British experience and we hope that our recommendations will be a catalyst to engage the younger generation not just in the UK but in all Commonwealth nations. CHOGM in Malta gives us cause to reflect. Readers will know that the Commonwealth is a network of 2.3billion people, 60 per cent of which are under the age of 30, spanning all habitable continents, and is united by the common language of English and much more besides. But do its young people know? Even if they did, how do we connect them together in ways that they understand?

said they have not learned about the Commonwealth in school – the highest positive responses were Geography (11 per cent), History (eight per cent), and Citizenship (six per cent); only 23 per cent could correctly select three Commonwealth countries from a list; and seven in 10 did not have a friend in a Commonwealth country. We urge that the same polling is conducted in numerous other Commonwealth nations to build a broader picture on the state of the Commonwealth knowledge. We welcome working with other international partners to deliver on this aim. This matters, because being connected to others with whom we share a latent bond is crucial in a rapidly changing world, and this needs reactivating to further children’s development as global citizens. It is also tied up with identity – and furthermore it is not just learning about the past. I believe that the Commonwealth has DNA-like qualities: it is a collection is our past, our current present, and hopefully our continuing future. We pass bits down, we add bits. It is always changing and reformulating. New contact brings with it new variations.

Identifying the issues

Policy recommendations

One of the report’s main pillars was conducting commercial polling in partnership with the Royal Commonwealth Society, which asked five questions about the Commonwealth to British schoolchildren. The results were mixed to poor. Only 50 per cent of young Britons could correctly identify the Queen as Head of the Commonwealth, while nearly four in 10 weren’t even able to guess. Added to this just seven per cent of young Britons could identify the Commonwealth fl ag; nearly 50 per cent

Despite our Commonwealth ties we are often too unfamiliar with what goes on in Commonwealth nations, what is important to them, and how we might be able to work together. However, technological advancement has made tapping into the Commonwealth network quicker, cheaper, and easier. For this to be realised we take the view that re-establishing the Commonwealth network need not start fi rst in government circles, but in classrooms between its young people.

158 CHOGM 2015 Report

Health, Education, Youth & Gender

Gaining a Commonwealth understanding is not about learning facts and figures in isolation. Creating a digital conversation between young Commonwealth citizens is essential. Offering these children the chance to share their likes and dislikes in sport, music, books, films, food, fashion, and news will make the Commonwealth connection live, interactive and participatory. That is why we set out a number of proposals which although initially for a British audience has an application to all Commonwealth nations. Importantly, a connection works back and forth and the knowledge transfer will not be one way only. The first is to update curriculum resources. It is not simply enough to call for teachers and schools to teach about the Commonwealth. Modern materials that make use of smart boards in classrooms are needed to help teachers as they will not have the time to go researching, nor will pupils welcome another 100-page text book. Resources must also fit easily within subjects and have wide availability. The second is to design a Commonwealth app. Current research has shown that more and more schools are using tablets and apps. Many head-teachers are supportive is this trend. One said: “Using electronic devices in school is second nature to children … it is a natural and necessary step for teachers to embrace the technology.” The third is to introduce a modern Commonwealth pen pal scheme to link young Britons with their counterparts across the Commonwealth through classrooms. This allows young Britons the chance to interact and discover the Commonwealth in their own way. From Birmingham to Bangalore, Nottingham to Nairobi, Cardiff to Cape Town, Wimbledon to Wellington the list of possible connections are extensive. The overarching goal is to increase the number of those with a Commonwealth friend from three in 10; and bring schools together in partnership. Commonwealth pupils should not leave school with an isolated or narrowed view of the world. Learning about the modern Commonwealth and communicating with its young people offers a positive direction and we urge teachers and national leaders to help join us in this exciting plan. We hope that the report will be a catalyst for new and modern Commonwealth school materials that will engage the younger generation not just in the UK but can be used in all Commonwealth nations. That is why we have proposed opportunities for young people to tap, swipe, and click their way to a great new Commonwealth rediscovery. „

Tim Hewish is Executive Director of the Commonwealth Exchange (CX) and author of Saved by the Bell – UK school children’s understanding of the Commonwealth. Tim has a Master’s degree in Imperial and Commonwealth History, and a strong knowledge of the Commonwealth. He is the author of CX’s major reports on immigration, security, and education as well as having many years of political understanding of Parliament and Westminster.

Polling of British school children (YouGov - July 2015) Q1. 'R\RXNQRZZKDWWKLVWKHͥDJIRU" Only

could identify the Commonwealth flag. Implies that flag has poor brand awareness


History 8%

Nearly 50%

Citizenship 6%

say that have NOT learnt about the Commonwealth in school.

Q3. :KRGR\RXWKLQNLV+HDGRIWKH&RPPRQZHDOWK" correctly KFGPVKƒGF the Queen Nearly 4 in 10 weren’t able to guess


Only 23% 45%



could correctly select 3 Commonwealth nations



Incorrectly selected Ireland


DO NOT have a friend in a Commonwealth country

(13% had an Australian friend, 8% Canadian, 4% South African)

The Commonwealth Exchange (CX) is a new think-tank established to promote the trading, educational and strategic opportunities of the modern Commonwealth. Website:

CHOGM 2015 Report 159

EDUCATION FACILITIES COMPANY LIMITED The Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (GORTT) established the Education Facilities Company Limited (EFCL) as a Special Purpose State Enterprise (SPSE) on March 11, 2005; operations officially began on August 02, 2005. EFCL is a vibrant Project Management Organisation that delivers, repairs and maintains educational institutions from the Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) level to the Primary and Secondary levels. As an Orgnisation EFCL uses modern, innovative technology in its operations and aims to deliver all of its projects on time and within cost and specification. EFCL's mandates are derived from its supporting role in the achievement of the Ministry of Education’s strategic goals and objectives. EFCL’s mandates are: • To project manage the national School Construction Programme. This mandate has been assigned to EFCL since its formation in 2005. ‡ 7R SURMHFW PDQDJH DQG H[HFXWH WKH¬ DQQXDO 6FKRRO Repairs and Maintenance Programme; assigned March 31 2008 ‡ 7R SURMHFW PDQDJH DQG H[HFXWH WKH¬ )XUQLVKLQJ DQG Equipment Programme; assigned January 1 2009 • To project manage the Annual Textbook Rental Programme; assigned February 9 2010 The educational institutions constructed under the Project Management of EFCL are state-of-the-art and equipped with the world's finest age-appropriate, modern, ergonomic furniture and equipment. Schools constructed under EFCL can be described as truly enabling learning environments. EFCL AND ITS IMPACT ON UNIVERSAL EARLY CHILDHOOD CARE AND EDUCATION Today, Trinidad and Tobago stands as a world leader amongst nations, for its education system, having in the year 2014, achieved at a national level, Universal Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). This, coupled with the existing Universal Primary and Universal Secondary education, as well as, Universal Tertiary education up to the undergraduate level, with fifty percent (50%) of tuition fees paid for the Masters’ and PhD programmes has earned Trinidad and Tobago leadership status in the global education environment. EFCL has spearheaded Trinidad and Tobago’s thrust in providing the requisite infrastructure to enable this transition to Universal ECCE, as well as, in upgrading the present stock of Primary and Secondary School infrastructure. Through EFCL, a wholly owned Government State Enterprise, one hundred twenty seven (127) new school facilities have been constructed and outfitted in Trinidad and Tobago since the formation of the Organisation. This figure comprises thirty six (36) new Primary Schools, eighty three (83) new ECCE Centres and eight (8) new Secondary Schools.

In addition to the one hundred twenty seven (127) Schools and ECCE Centres newly constructed under the Project Management of EFCL, another ninety two (92) Schools and ECCE Centres are under construction. This number comprises thirty one (31) Primary Schools, fifty two (52) ECCE Centres and nine (9) Secondary Schools. Additionally, there are eleven (11) Secondary Schools’ Administrative and Science blocks under construction and over six thousand (6,000) repairs and maintenance projects have been completed in some eight hundred fifty (850) schools throughout the nation since the formation of EFCL. Trinidad and Tobago has also made inroads towards improving Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education. In keeping with this, all of the nation’s Secondary Schools and over three hundred (300) Primary Schools have been equipped with functioning Computer Laboratories. As of March 2015, twenty (20) Secondary Schools in Trinidad and Tobago are outfitted and equipped with 21st century Smart Classrooms with Audio Visual Laboratories.

Build 100: Programme Overview and Impact on Universal Early Childhood Care and Education In 2013 after conducting a comprehensive analysis of School stock and a review of the requirements to achieve national Universal ECCE, the GORTT recognized that much of the existing school stock was in excess of fifty (50) to one hundred (100) years old and required urgent upgrade and as such an accelerated School Construction Programme was required. A number of techniques and strategies were used under the ambit of the “Build 100 Programme”, which accelerated the School Construction Programme, thus enabling EFCL to meet the increased demand for more modern School facilities at a faster turnaround. Three (3) of these techniques employed are: 1.

A Standardized Prototype Design was introduced for ECCE Centres resulting in a significant reduction in the construction time of these Centres. This construction time being reduced to a mere six (6) months as compared to two (2) years. Through the use of the Standardized Protoype Design the construction and outfitting cost per square foot was also reduced compared to buildings similar in nature.


The Design Build Method was utilized for Primary Schools under the Build 100 Programme. Through this method EFCL has benefitted from time and financial savings on all of the Primary School projects.


Pre-engineered Systems were also utilized for selected Projects, allowing for an expedited construction process.


To be the Project Management Company of choice.


To deliver and maintain modern building facilities utilizing best practices in Project Management.

SERVICES OFFERED BY EFCL FOR CLIENTS • Project Planning and Management for all types of construction (EFCL is specialized in Education Facilities) Manzanilla/Nariva Government Primary School

St Anns Government ECCE Centre

The above techniques coupled with funding sourced through the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) resulted in the output of ECCE Centres and Primary Schools being doubled, thus improving significantly the stock of School infrastructure and enabling Trinidad and Tobago to realise Universal Early Childhood Care and Education at the national level. A point to note, is that all Schools and ECCE Centres constructed under the Project Management of EFCL are environmentally friendly, utilizing natural lighting and ventilation. Attention is also paid to the quality of construction of these Schools and Centres, utilizing international health and safety standards during the construction and hand-over phase. All School facilities are designed in accordance with the necessary building codes and statutory requirements.

• Consultancy • Management of the execution of construction works • Management of Repairs and Maintenance to existing structures • Procurement and tender execution

EFCL DELIVERABLES – 2010 - 2015 • • •

• Engineering and Design Services

83 ECCE Centres • 36 Primary Schools 8 Secondary Schools • 6,000 repairs and maintenance jobs 2,325,489 textbooks procured and distributed

CONCLUSION EFCL remains committed to its Mission, “To deliver and maintain modern building facilities utilizing best practices in Project Management”. Its work as a superior Project Manager in the Caribbean and Latin America has seen the Organisation’s mandate increase steadily and exponentially from the National School Construction and Repair and Maintenance Programmes to include the construction of National Libraries and the Procurement and Distribution of Textbooks. EFCL is now moving to make its mark on the global Project Management scene!

Enterprise Government ECCE Centre

Pt Cumana R. C. Primary School

Aranguez North Secondary School

Rose Hill R. C. Primary School

Health, Education, Youth & Gender

Education is the key to the future Rt Hon. Perry Christie, Prime Minister of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas, welcomes a new emphasis on education catalysed by the 19th Conference of Commonwealth Education Ministers, and calls on ministers to redouble their efforts to promote and develop this critical tool for development.


iewed from a global perspective, there is a newfound appreciation of the role of education, as an indispensable part of the planning and policy matrix for social and economic development. Education has moved from the ivory tower of pedagogy into the mainstream, and is seen now as one of the essential resources that need to be exploited if a country, particularly a developing country, is to achieve its maximum potential and be positioned to compete in an increasingly global economy. As the political leader of a small developing country, I developed a passion for education and, in so doing, began to truly understand its true value and power to transform lives. I recall the profound impact of education on my own life and how it catapulted me into a new realm of possibilities. It struck me as odd that when I was a teenager no one had ever explained to me the true and enduring value of an education. It was only much later in life that I developed an appreciation that education was not so much something to be acquired, but rather an investment in the future that could yield great returns, not only personally but for the wider community in which one lived. Today, as the leader of a country, the Commonwealth of the Bahamas, and coming to grips with our myriad challenges and enormous potential, I now realise more than ever before that education must be the driving force by which we change the trajectory of our nation: socially and economically. It is against that background that we in the Bahamas were so privileged to play host this summer to the 19th Conference of Commonwealth Education Ministers (CCEM), chaired by my Minister of Education, the Hon. Jerome Fitzgerald. The Bahamas, along with delegates from all over the Commonwealth, understood that education needed a renewed focus and that it was the responsibility of our government to ensure that every school-aged child would be able to receive the best education that our resources would allow. That was now the new agenda. We agreed unequivocally that the theme of the 19th CCEM was not just something to

162 CHOGM 2015 Report

be adopted at a theoretical level; but that we had to embrace, adopt and bring to real life the theme of the Conference, “Quality Education for Equitable Development; Performance, Paths and Productivity.” Education holds the key In my opening remarks at the Conference, I lamented the challenges that plague us globally, among them violent crimes, unemployment, and disparities in life expectancy. One thing is apparent: there is a direct correlation between those people affected by criminal activity, joblessness, poor quality of health and diminished life expectancy, and their low level of education. I made the appeal to those present at the Conference that all the evidence points to the fact that education holds the key to overcoming these challenges. I reminded them that, throughout the world, the rate of crime inexorably falls when the rate of education rises. Indeed just a short distance from the Bahamas, in the United States, the 2010 census showed that an individual with a high-school diploma was 70 per cent less likely to be imprisoned than one with no diploma. Moreover, the OECD, in its 2014 Education at a Glance report, tells us that “the more we learn, the more we earn”. Throughout the industrialised world, a high-school graduate earns 10 per cent more than

The Nassau Declaration which was issued at the conclusion of the 19th CCEM outlined the major topics and issues that were discussed. Twenty-five points were covered in that Declaration. I would submit that these should be the focus of all Commonwealth Ministers of Education and by Governments of the Commonwealth as a whole. It points the way forward to a better and brighter future for all of us.

Health, Education, Youth & Gender

the OECD average; a vocational college graduate 30 per cent more, and a university graduate 70 per cent more.” These statistics speak for themselves.

In a year when the international community decides its global education targets and adopts the Sustainable Development Goals, I can think of no better motivation to identify realistic and practical measures to ensure that every Commonwealth country is able to provide a world-class education for its citizenry. Indeed there can be no disagreement that we, as leaders, must find ways to ingrain into the psyche of individuals and entire communities the value of an education as an indispensable tool for self-development and nationbuilding. According to the Education for All Global Monitoring Report, “if all students left school with basic reading skills, 171 million people could be lifted out of poverty.” The Commonwealth Education Ministers Conference in Nassau enabled the Commonwealth educational community to develop strategies to impel our citizens and our countries towards educational success, and positive social, economic and cultural outcomes. Greater emphasis must be placed on education, not only at the policy level but in the proverbial trenches as well, so as to ensure that policies that look good on paper are genuinely translatable into substantive and sustainable action. Quality education can be measured by its relevance to employment and its usefulness in assisting young people in the transition to full adulthood, active citizenship and productive and gainful employment. The educational product that we offer must equip our students with the

It is imperative that we embark on an aggressive Commonwealth education campaign, that “through quality education, we can change the world”. We must put action to words. If we are not able to transfer what we have shared and received into practical application that is culturally relevant, needs-based and flexible enough to meet the needs of today’s diverse group of learners, our meeting this week would have been in vain. We must now implement! Our fierce drive to implement must be sustained and measurable, driven by an uncompromised political will. Closing remarks by The Hon Jerome K Fitzgerald, Chair of the 19th Conference of Commonwealth Education Ministers, and Minister of Education, Science and Technology of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas.

The Rt Hon. Perry Gladstone Christie is Prime Minister of the Bahamas. He also holds the portfolio of Minister of Finance. Mr Christie is believed to have been the youngest Bahamian ever appointed to the Senate. He has represented the same constituency (Centreville in the capital city of Nassau) for his entire stint in the House of Assembly, and has served in many political and governmental positions, including Minister of Health and Housing, Minister of

Bahamas Information Services

New policy goals

tools necessary to perform at satisfactory levels, avail themselves of various career paths and position them to be productive members of society. At the 19th CCEM it was noted, rather disappointingly, how much further we must still go to meet the Millennium Development Goals outlined in the 2000 United Nations Millennium Declaration. One of the key objectives of the Millennium Development Goals as they relate to education is to ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling. Even now, in 2015, this is still an elusive goal for many of our countries. Indeed there is no more compelling mission than to help secure the future of young people; to help dispel their sense of hopelessness; to fi x the problem of joblessness; and to ensure that regardless of their circumstances, they all get a good education, one that will help them become a productive part of the formal economies of our respective countries. The challenges that I have touched on in this article are common to nearly all of us in the Commonwealth, irrespective of geography, culture, ethnicity or economic disparities. These challenges and the problems that give birth to them are for nearly all of us common denominators that have relevance and resonance for our respective countries and our national educational systems. All the more reason, therefore, why collaboration and co-operation with each other in tackling these common problems and challenges must become a major part of our forward planning and strategic outreach. Working together we will be brought ever closer to the realisation of the lofty goals we have set for ourselves as we seek to make the peoples of the countries we serve better prepared not only to survive but to prosper in the challenging world that lies before them. „

Tourism and Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries. He has been the Leader of the Progressive Liberal Party (PLP) since 1997. 2015 marks 40 years of his continuous service to the Bahamas Government. Mr Christie was called to the Bar of the Inner Temple, London, and subsequently to the Bahamas Bar. Website:

CHOGM 2015 Report 163

TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN MOZAMBIQUE INDEPENDENCE Until 1975, Technical and Vocational Education (Ensino Técnico Profissional, ETP) in Mozambique was governed by Ordinance No. 13.883 of 1952, which enforced the Portuguese Act No 2.025 of 1947 and provided the foundations of ETP reform in Portugal. In December 1975, a national seminar of technical education was held and was the first chance for the newly independent Mozambique to reflect on the nature and structure of its training requirements and how they corresponded with the country’s development needs. At that time, it was noted that: 1.




The existing lecturers were predominantly foreign-owned, usually consisting of technicians linked to production and services or army officers teaching as a sideline There had been a mass exodus of Portuguese technicians back to their home country, causing an abrupt shortage of skilled labour The country’s school network was frail, with elementary education generally being taught in rural areas by religious missions The existing institutions were poorly furnished and lacking workshops and laboratory equipment; but that there was a greater number of technical and vocational students than those in general education.

Following this seminar, implementation of the recommended changes was led by the Committee on Technical Education (Comissão do Ensino Técnico, CET) under the National Directorate of Education, which was in charge of general education within the Ministry of Education.

DEVELOPMENT PHILOSOPHY and ETP FROM 1976 The development philosophy, expressed in the Economic and Social Directives of the ruling FRELIMO Party in 1976, was based on a centrally planned economy, rural socialisation, industrial development through large infrastructure projects and with clearly defined goals for technical schooling. Studies were conducted and the first transformations began to take place, but which were then hampered by changes also happening within companies and services already suffering from the exit of skilled personnel, a lack of resources and raw materials, as well as the economic and technological choices taken by the Third Congress of FRELIMO. Between 1976 and 1978 the first curricular reorganisations took place, which were conducted by specialised technical groups, including university and vocational scholars, officials and technicians from the various social and economic sectors, who combined to configure the required training profiles, study plans and educational programmes. The resulting Prospective Indicative Plan (Plano Prospectivo Indicativo, PPI), approved in 1980/81, would become the compass of all the work carried out during the Eighties. The National Directorate for Technical Education (Direcção Nacional do Ensino Técnico, DINET) was created in 1980 to replace the Committee on Technical Education and two pedagogical institutes were established, the Pedagogical University in Nampula in 1980 and the Umbeluzi Pedagogical Institute in 1981, in order to train teachers, as well as pedagogical and administrative staff, in technical subjects. As a result, hiring rates of foreign teachers had decreased from 90.3% in 1975 to 5.3% in

1988 within primary education, and from 80% to 11.2% across secondary education. From 1980 to 1982 discussions were held with the various employment sectors in order to adapt the courses and the network of institutions to those sectors’ needs and those of the regional development programmes. The changes were originally introduced on a trial basis, whilst management of ETP under the old system continued in parallel. In 1983, after gaining the approval of the National Education System (Sistema Nacional de Educação, SNE), the newly developed curricula were implemented to the entire network of ETP institutions. Resources for the management of technical education and vocational training were also rationalised, with the aim of a higher quality and more professionally competent student output. Within the Ministry of Education, a State Secretariat for Technical and Vocational Education (Secretaria de Estado da Educação Técnico-Profissional, SETEP) was also created as a separate legal entity and with administrative and financial autonomy. From 1985 onwards, analysis was shifted onto the configuration of the technical and vocational secondary schooling to further improve the quality of graduates coming through. It was decided that, besides just teaching, the Institutes should be centres where research and technological innovation was developed in close collaboration with production and service units, and cooperation programmes with Sweden and Finland were also launched.

ECONOMIC FRAMEWORK Mozambique is now benefitting from a significant growth of Foreign and National Direct Investment across many different areas of the economy. Factors contributing to attracting investment include:

The economic potential of the country, especially within agriculture, fisheries, tourism, the mining industry and natural resources generally The express political commitment of the Government to introduce policies improving the business climate as a way of making Mozambique a preferred investment destination Mozambique’s politically stable and peaceful environment.

In turn, increased inward investment is contributing to: •

• • •

An increased productivity and competitiveness within the national economy Sustained GDP growth Increased employment opportunities for Mozambique nationals The economic and social development of the country.

The Hon. Prof. Dr. Eng. Jorge Nhambiu (centre) Minister of Science, Technology, Higher, Technical and Professional Education. system to one oriented by labour market demands is being carried out, along with the promotion of an effective participation of the manufacturing sector. The reforms include:

All these improvements and innovations will significantly contribute to the formation of a skilled labour force in line with market needs.

NEED FOR HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT With increased investment, there is a greater potential for the local workforce in Mozambique. However, workers are currently either not properly qualified, or the qualifications do not meet the specific needs of the labour market. As a corollary, we are seeing the tendency of investors resorting to hiring skilled foreign workers to the detriment of the national workforce.

GOVERNMENT RESPONSE The Government of Mozambique is therefore undertaking a comprehensive Reform of Vocational Education (Reforma da Educação Profissional, REP) to establish an integrated vocational education system, which is consistent, flexible and geared to the changing demands of the labour market. The Vocational Education Concept includes:

Vocational, technical education provided by the Ministry of Science, Technology, Higher, Technical and Professional Education Vocational training promoted by the Ministry of Labour and Social Security, other ministries and the private sector.

• •

• The Government’s focus is to promote vocational education that is relevant, has quality and which produces technicians endowed with the appropriate skills, qualifications, values and attitudes.

CHANGES TO INCORPORATE Within the ongoing reforms, a transformation from a supply based

Within Vocational Education Management, creating representation within ANEP (Autoridade Nacional da Educação Profissional) In financing, encouraging financial contributions from companies to the National Fund for Professional Education For curriculum development, a new definition of competency standards set by Technical Committees represented by industry and by sector The introduction of a curriculum based on standards determined by the shifting dynamics of working life and the economy The implementation of control mechanisms and quality assurance at various levels of the Vocational Education System Promoting a decentralised management model of Vocational Education Institutions Development of ‘know how’ and ‘how to be’ skills within students and graduates Modernisation of vocational education to make it comparable to international standards Increasing graduate employment. Obtaining greater satisfaction levels of employers towards the technical skills of graduates Developing a more qualified Mozambican workforce Promoting the spirit of entrepreneurship within the students and graduates Strengthening the link between the education institutions and the labour sector, through partnerships and preprofessional internships Granting greater autonomy to vocational education institutions

Improving the conditions and learning environment within the institutions, including ongoing training for teachers.








To develop an action plan for training human resources in the short, medium and long terms To establish partnerships between companies and training institutions, to improve the training capacity, taking advantage of business ‘know how’ and the existing business technologies To increase the average level of technical education supply and promote the provision of short courses for a swift response to workforce needs To increase opportunities for internships to vocational education graduates including students of higher education to strengthen the practical side of their training To improve the quality of training of teachers and create incentives to attract good professionals to the training institutions To promote awareness programmes at secondary school level, promoting the employment opportunities the industry offers, in order to attract 10th Grade graduates to embrace technical and professional training To foster creation of Centres of Excellence for training in specialised industry areas.

Hon. Prof. Dr. Eng Jorge Nhambiu Minister of Science, Technology, Higher, Technical and Professional Education

Health, Education, Youth & Gender

How can we ensure access to quality education post-2015? The Hon Julia Gillard, Chair of the Global Partnership for Education, calls for the global mobilisation of resources to deliver quality education.


new era beckons us, one in which we have addressed the interconnected challenges of sustainable development. This is an era that can only be reached by working together – an era in which we live together in peace and security, on a planet we nurture; in which we realise opportunity for all. The good news is that we know that improving access to education, and enhancing its quality, are both possible. In the 15 years that the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have galvanised the world we have seen the number of children not in primary school halve to 59 million. The number of children not enrolled in primary or lower secondary dropped by almost halve, 41 per cent to 124 million.

The aim of the Global Partnership for Education has always been to unlock the power of a genuine partnership, to build on the wealth of expertise and experience of our members. 166 CHOGM 2015 Report

But the new Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) present a greater challenge. To address it by pursuing ‘business as usual’ will not be enough. Business as usual will mean we do not see the fi rst cohort of sub-Saharan African girls to universally attend primary and lower secondary school until 2111. ‘Business as usual’ is not enough As Chair of the Board of Directors of the Global Partnership for Education (GPE), I can give the assurance that our organisation is determined to bust beyond business as usual and slash that one-hundred-year time horizon. Such is that determination that as a partnership we are driving ourselves through a rigorous process of improvement, so that we maximise the resources going to the education of the poorest children and the impact of those dollars. We entered 2015 having received from our developing country partners pledges of increased domestic fi nancing to achieve quality basic education totalling US$26 billion, with donors pledging US$2.3 billion. We also entered 2015 with a new funding model where 70 per cent of available funding for a partner country is provided against evidence-based and fi nancially sustainable education sector plans, drawn up in consultation with donors and other education stakeholders. Thirty per cent of the grant amount is allocated based on the achievement of specific results chosen by the government and development partners in the areas of learning quality, education system efficiency and equity for all children.

Credit: GPE/Mediabase

Health, Education, Youth & Gender

Pupils at Langata West School in Nairobi, Kenya.

Health, Education, Youth & Gender

Sustainable Development Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all 4.1 By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes. 4.2 By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and pre-primary education so that they are ready for primary education. 4.3 By 2030, ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university. 4.4 By 2030, substantially increase the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship. 4.5 By 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations. 4.6 By 2030, ensure that all youth and a substantial proportion of adults, both men and women, achieve literacy and numeracy. 4.7 By 2030, ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including, among others, through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and nonviolence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development. 4.a Build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, non-violent, inclusive and effective learning environments for all. 4.b By 2020, substantially expand globally the number of scholarships available to developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing states and African countries, for enrolment in higher education, including vocational training and information and communications technology, technical, engineering and scientific programmes, in developed countries and other developing countries. 4.c By 2030, substantially increase the supply of qualified teachers, including through international cooperation for teacher training in developing countries, especially least developed countries and small island developing states.

The aim of the Global Partnership for Education has always been to unlock the power of a genuine partnership, to build on the wealth of expertise and experience of our members, including UN agencies such as UNICEF and UNESCO. In addition, the Global Partnership is increasingly experienced and adept at resourcing and involving civil society in developing countries to contribute to education efforts and to hold all actors accountable for results. Our core principle has always been country ownership of the vision for strengthening education systems. We support developing countries over a multi-year process to prepare, implement, fund and monitor credible education sector plans to establish sustainable education systems which serve all children. Now we are increasingly enabling South-South learning to strengthen education results. Having entered 2015 stronger than we have been in the past, we will leave it further improved – with a new strategic plan, a fit-forpurpose Secretariat and a refined operational model and theory of change. All this will ensure that GPE is more than the sum of its parts and is leveraging resources, advocacy and technical expertise for impact. Since 2002, the Global Partnership has allocated US$4.3 billion to developing country partners and programmes. Almost half of all GPE funding allocated in 2014 and 2015 supported children in fragile and conflict-affected countries and we have adapted our operational model so our support in crisis circumstances is more flexible and quicker. It is right to be pleased with this progress, but we must also be hungry for further change. Even with all this work, the reality is that education is shockingly under-financed by an estimated US$39 billion per year, according to UNESCO. Note that that is the gap in external financing, with the assumption that developing countries will make major new strides in domestic financing. A global mobilisation of resources In the years immediately following the adoption of the MDGs, the world came together and recognised the health goals could not be achieved without a major change in financing and ways of working. Out of this global mobilisation came the Global Alliance for Vaccines and the Global Fund for Aids, TB and Malaria. It is equally valid to believe that if we jointly commit to it, following the adoption of the SDGs, we can see such a global mobilisation around education. Already we have seen the following positive moves: • The repeated endorsement by the global community in multiple United Nations My World surveys that education should be the highest development priority • The ambition of the Incheon Declaration • The creation of a Financing Commission at the Education for Development Summit in Oslo to guide and inform the global debate

7KHUHDOLW\LVWKDWHGXFDWLRQLVVKRFNLQJO\XQGHUͤQDQFHG by an estimated US$39 billion per year. 168 CHOGM 2015 Report

Health, Education, Youth & Gender

â&#x20AC;˘ The language of the outcome document for the Third Financing for Sustainable Development Conference in Addis, July 2015, which declares: â&#x20AC;&#x153;We will scale up investments and international cooperation to allow all children to complete free, equitable, inclusive and quality early childhood, primary and secondary education, including through scaling up and strengthening initiatives, such as the Global Partnership for Education.â&#x20AC;?

Recommended actions â&#x20AC;˘ An immediate advocacy effort to enable better resourcing of the current GPE operational model. â&#x20AC;˘ The design and implementation of a strategy to bring new donor nations to education and new engagement from the private sector and foundations. There is critical need to design innovative ďŹ nancing solutions that will work at scale. There is also a pressing need to ensure better donor co-ordination. â&#x20AC;˘ The undertaking of work to join together efforts within developing countries to create functioning taxation systems and transparent government accounting with work on domestic resource mobilisation. â&#x20AC;˘ The resolution of the best approach to meeting the educational needs of children in crisis and conďŹ&#x201A;ict. â&#x20AC;˘ Ensuring advances in our capabilities to meet educational needs by exploring seed ďŹ nancing and then upscaling, after appropriate due diligence. I am thinking here of what can be done to create global goods platforms for educational inputs such as books, technology, teacher professional support materials and student learning assessment mechanisms, so that we bring the efďŹ ciencies that come with scale as a support to country-led education planning and implementation. The continuing calls for sustainable educational development will be fruitless if the world does not follow through to make sure the post-2015 development goals are achievable. The ambition is audacious indeed. But these exhortations will ring hollow if there are not the resources

Julia Gillard is the Chair of the Board of Directors of the Global Partnership for Education (GPE). She was Prime Minister of Australia between 2010 and 2013, and was central to the successful management of Australiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s economy, the 12th biggest in the world. She delivered nation-changing policies including reforming Australian education at every level. Following her passion for education, in February 2014 she became the board chair of the GPE. She also serves as a non-resident Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution in Washington and its Centre for Universal Education, and as an Honorary Professor at the University of Adelaide.

Credit: GPE/Stephan

It is important now to build on these positive steps â&#x20AC;&#x201C; to create a global mobilisation that brings about the kind of leap forward in education that we saw in health just over a decade ago. To do that let me recommend the following ďŹ ve actions. Children in line at school in Sierra Leone.

committed to acquit the goals that have been set. The Global Partnershipâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 60 developing country partners, donor partners, civil society partners, private sector and other members, including UN agencies, are all ready to build on the platform we have laid down together to make the SDG vision possible. Those most committed to these goals know that this is the time, this is our ďŹ ght, this is what we must do for our children throughout the world. There is a rising tide of optimism on this fundamental quest for quality education for all in order to forge a better world. We must make sure that the surge of support delivers the change the world needs. Â&#x201E;

The ambition is audacious indeed. But these exhortations will ring hollow if there are not the resources committed to acquit the goals that have been set. The Global Partnership for Education supports developing countries to ensure that every child receives a quality basic education, prioritising the poorest, most vulnerable and those living in fragile and conflict-affected countries. Established in 2002, the Global Partnership for Education comprises 60 developing countries, more than 20 donor governments, and international organisations, the private sector and foundations, teachers, and civil society/NGOs. The Global Partnership brings together all these stakeholders to develop effective and UWUVCKPCDNGGFWECVKQPU[UVGOUOQDKNKUGVGEJPKECNCPFĆ&#x2019;PCPEKCN resources, and ensure that those resources are coordinated and WUGFGHĆ&#x2019;EKGPVN[ Website:

CHOGM 2015 Report 169

Health, Education, Youth & Gender

The shape of global health David E. Bloom, Alyssa Lubet and Elizabeth Mitgang, of the Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health, discuss past progress, the current situation and future prospects of global health, arguing the world has come a long way, but still has a long way to go.


ealth is a fundamental aspect of well-being, and there are multiple pathways through which good health improves individual and societal welfare. Despite current and future challenges – including Ebola, antimicrobial resistance, and non-communicable diseases – health innovations hold promise for making the world healthier, wealthier, and more equitable and secure. Health spending is more than consumption; it is an investment in growth and poverty reduction. Adding years One of the clearest indications of health advances is increasing longevity. Since 1950, average global life expectancy at birth has increased more than 23 years, and is projected to increase almost another seven years by 2050, as shown in Figure 1. This steady increase in life expectancy reflects a sharp drop in infant and child mortality and longer lives for individuals surviving to adulthood. Life expectancy at birth hovered around 25-30 years throughout most of human history, making these gains among humankind’s greatest achievements. Although living longer may not necessarily mean living better, life expectancy gains are a hopeful indicator of what is possible in the face of serious health threats, including infectious diseases like Ebola, malaria, tuberculosis and HIV, as well as chronic infi rmities,

170 CHOGM 2015 Report

including cardiovascular disease, cancer, respiratory disease, and diabetes. In 2015, an estimated 6.1 million children will die before age five, reflecting a decline from 90 child deaths per thousand live births in 1990, to 42.5 in 2015. However, even this level of child mortality highlights a major failing of health systems. Most early childhood deaths can be prevented with relatively inexpensive measures such as vaccination, oral rehydration, improved nutrition, access to contraception, use of insecticide-treated bed nets, improved prenatal care, and reliance on skilled birth attendants. Non-communicable diseases The eradication of smallpox and near-eradication of polio are regarded as two of the most successful public health interventions ever. But the lessons these efforts offer for battling non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which account for almost two-thirds of the world’s estimated 53 to 56 million deaths a year, are not altogether clear. That is because death is not the only issue in dealing with NCDs; a healthy lifestyle is also important. The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) measures effective years lost to disability and premature death. Table 1 depicts the distribution of deaths and DALYs by cause – globally, and in developed and developing countries. Infectious diseases

Source: Credit: Andrew W. McGalliard

Health, Education, Youth & Gender


Life expectancy is increasing worldwide and is projected to continue rising in the coming decades 90


80 70 60 50

World Less Developed Regions



30 20 10
























CHOGM 2015 Report 171

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Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Share of disability-adjusted life years (%)

Share of deaths (%)














Musculoskeletal disorders







Mental and substance use disorders







Neurological disorders







Diabetes, urogenital, blood and endocrine diseases







Chronic respiratory diseases














Digestive diseases







Other non-communicable diseases







Infectious diseases and maternal, neonatal and nutritional disorders Share of disability-adjusted life years (%)

Share of deaths (%)













Neonatal disorders



























Maternal disorders







Other infectious diseases














Diarrhoea, lower respiratory, and other common infectious diseases

Neglected tropical diseases and malaria


account for more deaths in developing countries, while NCDs are more prominent in developed countries, reďŹ&#x201A;ecting a phenomenon known as the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;epidemiological transitionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. While this is a sign of progress, because infectious diseases tend to strike early in life, the fact remains that many deaths from NCDs are premature in the sense that they occur before age 70. Some developing countries are only midway through their epidemiological transition and face a dual burden of infectious and non-communicable disease. Among

172 CHOGM 2015 Report

NCDs, cardiovascular diseases are the dominant cause of death, followed by cancer. Mental illness is also a notable contributor to the global burden of disease. Non-communicable diseases account for a growing share of the overall disease burden â&#x20AC;&#x201C; both from ageing populations and the effects of tobacco use, physical inactivity, poor diet and harmful alcohol use. There are nearly one billion adult smokers in the world and nearly six million tobacco-related deaths each year.

Health, Education, Youth & Gender

Most early childhood deaths can be prevented with relatively inexpensive measures.

cholesterol, and increased risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and certain cancers. Alcohol consumption is growing globally, especially in China and India. Many populations exhibit high rates of heavy episodic drinking that contribute to cirrhosis of the liver, heart disease, cancer, and injury. Roughly six per cent of global deaths are attributable to alcohol.

Although the global rate of smoking has decreased by about 10 percentage points since 1980, the number of smokers has increased because of population growth. The leading cause of tobacco-related illness and mortality is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which is responsible annually for an estimated 3 million deaths and 77 million DALYs. Lung cancer is responsible for 1.5 million deaths and 32 million DALYs. The widespread growth of service sector employment, at the expense of agriculture and industry, has been accompanied by a rise in sedentary behaviour. The shift is magniďŹ ed by the increase in the proportion of the world population living in urban areas (from 30 per cent in 1950 to 53 per cent today), where there are often fewer opportunities for physical activity. The World Health Organization estimates that 25 per cent of adults worldwide are insufďŹ ciently physically active. As people eat less fresh produce and more reďŹ ned starch, sugar, salt, and unhealthy fats, rates of overweight and obesity have risen, from 29 per cent of the global adult population in 1980 to 39 per cent in 2014, and from 10 to 14 per cent of children in the same period. Weight issues contribute to high blood pressure, high blood sugar and

In many respects, the most jarring features of the global health scene are the disparities between our achievements and failings. For example: â&#x20AC;˘ Although life expectancy for every country in the world has increased over the past 50 years, this progress has not been uniform: there is a 34-year gap between the countries with the longest and shortest life expectancies: Japan at 83 years, and Swaziland at 49. On average, individuals in low-income countries can expect to live almost 20 years less than individuals in high-income countries (60 versus 79 years). Sub-Saharan Africa has an even lower average life expectancy of 57, due in large part to HIV/AIDS-related mortality. â&#x20AC;˘ Twenty-three countries have an infant mortality rate greater than 60 per 1,000 live births, while in 25 countries fewer than 4 infants die out of each 1,000 live births. â&#x20AC;˘ In 2013, 27 countries spent less than US$50 per capita on healthcare, while 18 countries spent more than US$4,000 per capita (see Figure 2). Norway spent the most, at US$9,714 per capita â&#x20AC;&#x201C; about 750 times the US$13 per capita spent by lowest-ranking Central African Republic.

Unsettling disparities

Healthy spending varies widely across the globe









*GCNVJGZRGPFKVWTGRGTECRKVCEWTTGPV75 Figure 2: Spend a little, spend a lot Note: Data are for 2013.

Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators (2015).

CHOGM 2015 Report 173

Health, Education, Youth & Gender

Economists have begun to view health as a form of human capital that can be put to productive use, like knowledge and skills. Health matters Development economists traditionally illustrate the connection between income and health, shown at the country level in Figure 3. Countries with higher incomes have healthier populations, traditionally seen as the result of the superior nutrition and access to safe water, sanitation and healthcare that higher income brings. In recent years, though, economists have also begun to view health as a form of human capital that can be put to productive use, like knowledge and skills. Insofar as health is a determinant of the value of labour, it is especially important to peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ability to rise, or stay, above the poverty line. The most rigorous evidence of healthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s economic value comes from microeconomic analyses, because they are typically based on large sample sizes with detailed measures of health and income. Many micro studies are based on randomised controlled trials, which have shown the economic value of interventions from iron and iodine supplementation to hookworm and malaria eradication.

Macroeconomic studies, which look at the big picture, also suggest that good health is a powerful engine of growth: GDP per capita increases about four per cent with each year of life expectancy. Reasons for this relationship include the positive effects of health on workforce productivity, educational attainment, savings rates and foreign direct investment. Fertility also tends to decline in healthier populations, leading to a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;demographic dividendâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; of rising incomes, because the labour force grows faster than the portion of the population (young and old) depending on it. Beyond oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s individual well-being, public health matters because of its role in building cohesive and stable societies. The inability of governments to satisfy peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s basic health needs erodes trust and may lead to repeated cycles of instability and collapse. Focus on the future According to a recent article in The Atlantic, of the top 20 innovations that have shaped modern life, ďŹ ve are directly related to health: penicillin, optical lenses, vaccination, sanitation systems, and oral contraceptives. Innovations in health still abound. Personalised medicine, fuelled by advances in genetic testing, offers new possibilities for disease prediction and treatment. The development of new or improved vaccines, drugs, and genetically modiďŹ ed organisms holds promise for the prevention and management of disease. Digital health â&#x20AC;&#x201C; including telemedicine, wearable sensors, electronic records, and big data â&#x20AC;&#x201C; introduces possibilities for higherquality care at lower cost. However, many problems must be tackled before the promise of these innovations can be fully realised. Some

People who live in higher-income countries tend to live longer than those in lower-income countries 90 85


80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 0









)&2RGTECRKVCEWTTGPVVJQWUCPFUQH75 Figure 3: The rich are healthier Note: Data are for 2013.

174 CHOGM 2015 Report

Source: United Nations World Population Prospects, 2015 revision; World Bank, World Development Indicators (2015)

Health, Education, Youth & Gender

solutions will require resources to enable health providers to simply take advantage of existing knowledge. Others will require infrastructure for sanitation, transport, communication, education, and energy â&#x20AC;&#x201C; important ingredients in providing quality care. Yet others will require policies that motivate lifestyle change and encourage innovation in the design and delivery of health-promoting products and services. ScientiďŹ c advances must feed those product pipelines and address the challenges presented by threats from diseases such as Ebola, chikungunya, antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and NCDs. The capacity and reach of health systems must also be expanded, with new models for epidemiological surveillance and efďŹ cient deployment of health workers. Coordination of different actors at multiple levels is required to avoid duplication of effort and ensure productive information sharing and priority setting. Coordination is likewise required to protect health from such spillovers of globalisation as cross-border mobility, climate change, desertiďŹ cation, drought, and food and drug contamination. All of these efforts must be undertaken in a ďŹ nancially responsible manner, which becomes difďŹ cult as populations grow and age beyond traditional working years and health systems expand their reach and service mandates. Other matters that must be considered include the decentralisation of national health systems, pay-forperformance models, and the promotion of health through cash transfer programmes, which reward households for speciďŹ c actions such as vaccinating children. Government has a natural role to play in protecting and promoting good health, which is difďŹ cult for unregulated markets to achieve due to spillovers associated with infectious diseases and the sometimes opportunistic behaviour of private providers who may use information and status advantages to exploit consumers. Health system organisation is another major issue. Whether systems are best organised vertically, as several disease-speciďŹ c programmes, or horizontally, as a unitary system dealing with all diseases and disorders, is a subject of perennial debate among policy-makers. Although vertical programmes claim the most impressive successes, there has recently been a notable shift from vertical to horizontal interventions. This is partly due to concerns that vertical programmesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; success often comes at the expense of other parts of the health sector. The shift also reďŹ&#x201A;ects the view that vertically organised health systems duplicate infrastructure and delivery mechanisms. Many professionals also believe that horizontal programmes are better able to evolve as new health threats emerge. Private enterprise is also important to improving health. Its strengths include effective messaging and distribution; capacity for innovation and rapid expansion; and ďŹ nancial sustainability. Private spending on health

Source: / Credit: Sean Clover

Public health matters because of its role in building cohesive and stable societies.


(over US$2.9 trillion globally in 2012, of which 44 per cent was household spending) is signiďŹ cant worldwide, but especially in low- and middle-income countries. The virtues of a strong private sector notwithstanding, governments must engage in essential activities, including provision of a health safety net, and monitoring and regulating health markets. Public-private partnerships that provide healthcare are especially desirable when they achieve an efďŹ cient division of labour between the sectors. Disease prevention, early detection, treatment and care will always matter to human health, and will ďŹ gure prominently in the future through vaccination, smoke-free spaces, tobacco taxation and advertising bans, and emphasis on in-utero and childhood health. Early detection is crucial because diseases caught early are typically easier and less expensive to treat. Treatment must take into account the interaction of conditions and drugs and shift focus from cure to quality of life. States will have to assume an increased burden of long-term care, because declining fertility and womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s increased participation

The capacity and reach of health systems must also be expanded, with new models for epidemiological VXUYHLOODQFHDQGHIͤFLHQW deployment of health workers. CHOGM 2015 Report 175

Health, Education, Youth & Gender

in paid labour reduce the number of relatives able to care for the elderly. Investment in health could deliver handsome returns, especially if it limits costs by focusing on prevention. Global health governance â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the large and complex architecture of institutions focused on global health â&#x20AC;&#x201C; needs to promote transparency, efďŹ ciency and coordination in order to address health problems. While the World Health Organization (WHO) has long been the cornerstone of global health governance, compelling global partnerships have emerged in recent years â&#x20AC;&#x201C; such as the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, GAVI the Vaccine Alliance, and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. New mechanisms are also needed to promote more effective disease surveillance and response, international data sharing, and intellectual property standards that guarantee the private sector ďŹ nancial incentives for research and development while maintaining the ďŹ&#x201A;exibility to deal with health needs of the poor. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), established by the United Nations in 2000, were a symbol

The virtues of a strong private sector notwithstanding, governments must engage in essential activities, including provision of a health safety net, and monitoring and regulating health markets. Dr David E BloomKU%NCTGPEG,COGU)CODNG2TQHGUUQTQH 'EQPQOKEUCPF&GOQITCRJ[KPVJG&GRCTVOGPVQH)NQDCN Health and Population, Harvard T H Chan School of Public *GCNVJ+PTGEGPV[GCTUJGJCUYTKVVGPGZVGPUKXGN[QP primary, secondary, and tertiary education in developing EQWPVTKGUCPFQPVJGNKPMUCOQPIJGCNVJUVCVWURQRWNCVKQP dynamics, and economic growth. Alyssa Lubet is a research assistant in the Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T H Chan School of 2WDNKE*GCNVJ5JGJCUNKXGFCPFYQTMGFGZVGPUKXGN[KPVJG %\GEJ4GRWDNKE$CPINCFGUJCPF+PFKCCPFJQNFUC/CUVGTŨUKP 2WDNKE2QNKE[HTQO&WMG7PKXGTUKV[KP&WTJCO0QTVJ%CTQNKPC Elizabeth Mitgang is a former research assistant in the Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T

176 CHOGM 2015 Report

Early detection is crucial because diseases caught early are typically easier and less expensive to treat. of good global health governance. AfďŹ rmed by 189 UN members, the MDGs had legitimacy and lent themselves to accountability because they were readily measured. Although it is impossible to rigorously estimate the contribution the MDGs have made to global health, they focused the attention of the international development community on health and promoted increased health spending in low-income countries. Health remains prominent in the post-2015 development agenda, as embodied in the UNâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s new Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Goal 3, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all agesâ&#x20AC;?, comprises a number of ambitious targets. Among these are goals aimed at problems that hit low-income countries the hardest, including reducing maternal and infant/child mortality rates and combating AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. In addition, however, Goal 3 also aims to dramatically cut NCD morbidity through both treatment and prevention. It also strives to achieve universal health coverage and to increase health ďŹ nancing and personnel recruitment and training in developing countries. Growing attention to prevention and equity, as well as the control and treatment of both infectious and noncommunicable diseases, is indicative of the heterogeneous challenges that the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nations and the global community must strive to address as we move further into the 21st century. An earlier version of this piece appeared in the December 2014 issue of the International Monetary Fundâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Finance & Development magazine. The authors are grateful to Jim Rowe for thoughtful guidance and many helpful comments. Â&#x201E;


Committed to supporting sustainable Healthcare in Nigeria Our Role

Our Vision

Our Approach

Improving health is a shared responsibility and Roche is committed to play its part

To be the most respected Healthcare partner in Nigeria

Develop solutions in partnership with stakeholders tailored to local needs to provide sustainable improvements in health and Healthcare

Seven key access barriers to overcome

Our focused interventions •

Competing priorities for government’s attention

Training for Healthcare Professionals

Not enough medical specialists

Preceptorships for Healthcare Professionals in Nigeria Development of Therapeutic Area Experts Certification Programs

• •

Public Awareness Campaigns Health Journalists Academy


Awareness Campaigns

Little to no local prevalence data

Late presentation of disease

Prioritisation of Healthcare in Nigeria


Public Private Partnership (PPP) in collaboration with Federal Ministry of Health

Partnership with Private Insurance & NHIS Restructuring alternative funds to create more access to treatment

Centres of Excellence

Limited quantity & poor quality of Healthcare institutions


Uncertain supply chain quality Innovative Funding Solutions

Limited funding

Roche activities in 2015 to drive sustainable Healthcare CANCER SUMMIT 2015


Hepatitis Project Maximize Collaboration with selected states like Taraba State Government to improve awareness, diagnostics and access to Hepatitis medications

Health Journalists Academy Partnership with the School of Media and Communication (SMC) to train 15 journalists on the need to improve reportage and awareness of health issues among Nigerians

National Hepatitis Policy Supported the Federal Ministry of Health to develop the National Policy for the control of Viral Hepatitis in Nigeria

Cancer Summit Key supporter of CEAFON in convening the Cancer Summit 2015

Doing now what patients need next Roche Product Limited 8th Floor Etiebet Place, Mobolaji Bank Anthony Way, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria Tel: +(234) 8058207198

Diagnostic Services Strategic placements of advanced testing facilities to support diagnosis in Nigeria

Health, Education, Youth & Gender

Health in the Commonwealth Dr Joanna Nurse, Head of Health and Education for the Commonwealth Secretariat, summarises the Commonwealth’s health priorities and underlines its commitment to assist members in strengthening health policies and frameworks.


he Commonwealth is home to 2.2 billion people – that is, about one-third of the world’s population. However, in terms of health challenges the Commonwealth tends to carry more than its fair share: • Just over half of the estimated 289,000 maternal deaths recorded globally in 2013 occurred in Commonwealth countries • About 3.2 million children under five years old died in Commonwealth countries in 2015; that is over half of the current global child mortality estimate of 5.9 million deaths • More than half of the people living with HIV/AIDS in the world (37 million) live in Commonwealth countries (22 million) • Of those living with HIV/AIDS in Commonwealth countries, just over a third are estimated to have access to anti-retroviral therapy • Of the 198 million malaria cases worldwide in 2013, more than half occurred in the Commonwealth • The majority (>80%) of the 38 million premature global deaths due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) occur in low- and middle-income countries, which make up the largest part of the Commonwealth membership • During the recent ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa more than 12,000 people were infected in Sierra Leone, a Commonwealth country, and 3,865 people died as a result. Faced with these challenges, the Commonwealth’s response was rightly focused on assisting member countries in their efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), particularly the directly health-related ones. As the global community transitions from the MDG focus to the newly agreed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the Commonwealth is committed to

178 CHOGM 2015 Report

The Commonwealth is mindful of ensuring that the XQͤQLVKHGEXVLQHVVRIWKH MDGs is not left out of the commencing SDG agenda. assisting member countries as they seek to translate the internationally-agreed goals and targets into national and local realities and interventions that will benefit their citizens. At the same time, the Commonwealth is mindful of ensuring that the unfi nished business of the MDGs is not left out of the commencing SDG agenda, particularly maternal and child mortality as well as communicable diseases such as HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. Policy and framework review The focus of Commonwealth assistance to member countries is in the development and review of policies and frameworks, particularly those relating to universal health coverage (UHC) and non-communicable diseases. The Commonwealth is also in the process of developing health and education knowledge hubs which will function as virtual one-stop shop knowledge services for health and education professionals as well as planners. The Commonwealth health hub is envisaged as an online, knowledge-sharing platform, which will bring communities together to improve the dissemination of knowledge across the Commonwealth. It will also serve as a leading source for health information, communication and collaboration.

Copyright: Commonwealth Secretariat

Health, Education, Youth & Gender

A doctor checks the blood pressure of a patient outside a hospital compound in Lagos, Nigeria.

The Commonwealth has provided thought leadership in bringing issues such as NCDs to global attention, from the 2007 Commonwealth Health Ministers Meeting which focused on â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Lifestyle Diseasesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; to the 2009 meeting in Trinidad and Tobago at which Commonwealth Heads of Government issued a landmark Statement on â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Commonwealth Action to Combat Non-Communicable Diseasesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, culminating in the 2011 United Nations High Level Meeting on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases. At their 27th meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, on 17 May 2015, Commonwealth Health Ministers focused on â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Universal Health Coverage with emphasis on ageing and good healthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, addressing the challenges of achieving UHC in the light of an ageing population and the need to focus on preventive health. While acknowledging the successful health interventions that have led to an ageing population, ministers also noted the challenge posed by the increasing age of the population in terms of economic growth, social security and the capacity of health systems to cope with escalating demands and costs. They particularly noted the increasing prevalence of non-communicable diseases, including mental health, as the population ages. Ministers also recognised that the burden of NCDs cannot be adequately addressed without UHC, strong health systems and public health policies that support the delivery of UHC, including the promotion of healthy behaviours. Ministers therefore supported the inclusion

Ministers particularly noted the increasing prevalence of QRQFRPPXQLFDEOHGLVHDVHV LQFOXGLQJPHQWDOKHDOWKDV the population ages. of UHC as a central component of the health goal in the SDGs, noting the need for all countries, irrespective of income levels, to move towards UHC in order to meet the outlined challenges and to consolidate past gains. The Commonwealth is therefore assisting member countries develop policies that include a life course approach to healthcare, but also take into account the wider determinants of health and promote sustainable social development. A whole-of-society approach Commonwealth Health Ministers therefore called on the Heads of Government at their meeting in Malta to support a whole-of-government, whole-of-society approach to systems strengthening as well as UHC, as part of the SDGs.

CHOGM 2015 Report 179

Copyright: Commonwealth Secretariat

Health, Education, Youth & Gender

Women attending health centre in Bangladesh.

In supporting member countriesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; efforts towards the SDGs, the Commonwealth, in collaboration with other development partners, will focus on the following: â&#x20AC;˘ Strengthening health policies and frameworks to offer a healthier future to all Commonwealth citizens through policy advocacy, analysis, development and implementation â&#x20AC;˘ Priority policy areas such as health system strengthening for UHC and for addressing NCDs â&#x20AC;˘ Scaling up capacity and impact in priority countries to reduce inequalities across the Commonwealth â&#x20AC;˘ Facilitating knowledge sharing, innovation and collaborative working across the Commonwealth via the health hub.

The Commonwealth will also work towards facilitating the coordination between countries, particularly in relation to collaboration to build strong and resilient healthcare systems, in the light of the recent Ebola crisis. In this regard, the Commonwealth has placed a long-term technical consultant in the Ministry of Health and Sanitation in Sierra Leone to assist the country in strengthening its national public health system. Recognising the threat of unexpected public health emergencies to health systems across the Commonwealth, ministers decided to focus on â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Health Security and Access to Universal Health Coverageâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; as the theme for their meeting in May 2016. Â&#x201E;

Dr Joanna Nurse is Head of Health and Education for the Commonwealth Secretariat. From 2005-14, Joanna was employed by the Department of Health, England, covered a number of policy areas at regional and national levels, and was the national lead for Public Mental Health and Well-Being. She undertook a three-year placement at WHO Europe, initially on climate change and sustainability, and then on system strengthening, leading on the delivery of the European Action Plan for Public Health. More recently, Joanna has advanced the development of a Global Public Health Charter as part of the World Federation of Public Health Associations. Joanna trained as a doctor and practised initially in the UK, before specialising in Public Health in 1998. Across her career Joanna has gained international experience working in India, Latin America, Europe and Central Asia, and in 2003 was

seconded to WHO HQ in Geneva to work globally on gender and violence prevention.

180 CHOGM 2015 Report

Health and human development have been priority areas for %QOOQPYGCNVJIQXGTPOGPVUUKPEGYJGP/KPKUVGTUĆ&#x2019;TUV met in Edinburgh for the inaugural Commonwealth Health Ministers Meeting (CHMM) and Commonwealth Medical Conference. As member countries share remarkably similar public administrations and services, intra-Commonwealth collaboration is commonplace. Reflecting the theme of CHMM 2015, the publication Commonwealth Health Partnerships 2015 looks at universal health coverage, with a particular focus on health and development challenges in an ageing world. Website:

tŚĂƚĚŽ ͘͘͘/͘ ĂŶĚ͙ 



Placing transformation & the value of diversity at the heart of a South African Health Care Business




Great Business Models can travel the Commonwealth 


Health, Education, Youth & Gender

Achieving health for all through primary health care Dana Hovig, Tim Evans and Edward Kelley emphasise why strong primary health care systems matter, and introduce a new partnership - the Primary Health Care Performance Initiative - to catalyse improvements in primary health care in low- and middle-income countries.

Why strong primary health care systems matter An elderly woman visits her local clinic with a lingering cough. Her primary care provider asks questions and examines her, and finding nothing serious and noting no concerns for epidemic illness, she correctly diagnoses a viral illness and recommends rest and fluids. She notes that she should feel better in a week or two, but if she doesn’t, or if she gets sicker, she should return. Because she has cared for this woman for years, she asks her how her blood pressure treatment is going, and if she would be interested in discussing her smoking. She also reviews her records and makes sure she has had all recommended vaccines. This story offers a picture of what primary health care can and should be: the front line of health care, providing a spectrum of health services – both public and private – and placing people, rather than diseases, at the centre of care. When a primary health care system works well, it can meet the vast majority of people’s health needs, and engage the whole community in improving health outcomes. But when the system fails to work – as we saw during the Ebola crisis – the consequences can be devastating. It is true that the last five decades have seen great improvements in the health of populations worldwide, and the importance of primary health care has long

182 CHOGM 2015 Report

been recognised as fundamental to achieving health and development goals. Formal calls for improving primary health care began in 1978, when the Declaration of AlmaAta expressed the need for urgent national and international action. In the nearly 40 years since, a number of other declarations and initiatives on primary health care have followed suit, from the Bamako Initiative in 1987 to the Abuja Call on HIV, TB and Malaria in 2006. More recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) published its

When a primary health care system works well, it can meet the vast majority of people’s health needs, and engage the whole community in improving health outcomes.

Health, Education, Youth & Gender

Source: the Primary Health Care Performance Initiative


When primary health care works, people and families are connected with trusted health workers and supportive systems throughout their lives, and have access to comprehensive services. global strategy on integrated and people-centred health services, which highlights, among other critical reforms, the importance of basing all health services in strong primary health care – a strategy that has been shown to improve access, equity, and outcomes while reducing costs. Yet, despite numerous calls to action, too many children still suffer or die from largely preventable causes, too many women still die in childbirth, too many people die from treatable chronic conditions, and too many people lack access to quality and affordable health care. Strengthening health systems – especially at the primary level – is central to addressing these challenges, building on health gains, and achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, especially the goal of quality universal health coverage. The foundation of health systems Primary health care forms the foundation of health systems, ensuring all people stay healthy and get care when they need it. When primary health care works, people and

families are connected with trusted health workers and supportive systems throughout their lives, and have access to comprehensive services ranging from family planning and routine immunisations to treatment of illness and management of chronic conditions. Health systems built on strong primary care are more resilient, efficient and equitable. Indeed, primary health care meets the vast majority of communities’ diverse health needs, and ultimately saves lives. When primary health care systems are strong, the benefits extend far and wide: • Growing evidence shows that investing in primary health care leads to high quality and cost-effective care for people and communities. • Widespread access to primary health care supports more equitable distribution of health. • The primary health care system serves as an early warning mechanism to detect and stop disease outbreaks before they become epidemics. • Targeted investments in primary health care amplify efforts to improve health across the course of life, from birth to old age. • Good primary health care empowers individuals, families and communities to be active decision-makers about their health. A number of countries are making progress towards building high-performing primary health care systems, serving as an instructive model for other countries. For instance, Rwanda has integrated services for a range of community health needs – including malaria, pneumonia, family planning, and HIV and AIDS – into its primary health care system as a core part of the country’s health reforms, an approach that has helped Rwanda come close to achieving universal health coverage for its citizens (BMJ 346, 2013). In Namibia, the government has committed to strengthening primary health care as a means of improving population health and reducing disparities. These goals have been supported in part through the decentralisation

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The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation/Jiro Ose

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of decision-making to local communities, and the innovative use of mobile clinics to provide continuous and comprehensive services. Despite the devastating effects of the HIV epidemic, Namibia’s focus on primary health care has produced substantial improvements in health access and critical outcomes ( promising-practices/namibia). Still, a major obstacle to improving primary health care is the availability of specific and relevant information to guide improvements. Countries that want to improve their primary health care systems often do not know in what ways their systems are getting better or worse – and more importantly, why. Spurring primary health care improvement Adequate funding is critical. However, few low- and middle-income countries collect systematic data on basic indicators of primary health care spending – per capita primary health care expenditure, and the percentage of government health spending dedicated to primary health care. The data that are available show very low spending on the sector, highlighting a need for greater investment in these systems. Further, while many countries have identified primary health care as an urgent priority, they do not have comprehensive data that will allow them to pinpoint specific weaknesses in the system, understand their causes, and strategically direct resources to the areas of greatest need. Past efforts to identify the determinants of strong health systems performance have focused on aspects of the system that are relatively well measured,

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such as outcomes achieved and the availability of physical inputs. However, what is often neglected and unmeasured is the experience of patients, health workers and communities seeking and accessing health services, as well as the perspectives of those who cannot or choose not to interact with health care. Countries do not typically assess the core functions of primary health care – first contact accessibility, continuity, coordination, comprehensiveness and patient-centeredness. Existing research points to the importance of service delivery processes such as the performance of supply chains, the availability of minimum infrastructure, drugs or vaccines, and the organisation and management of primary care services. But the lack of knowledge about how best to improve these processes makes them a ‘black box’. To improve primary health care, countries first need better information about the drivers of high-performing systems, to help them identify what investments and

What is often neglected and unmeasured is the experience of patients, health workers and communities seeking and accessing health services.

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policies deliver the best and most efficient care that meets the needs of communities. The Primary Health Care Performance Initiative The Primary Health Care Performance Initiative (PHCPI) is a new partnership that brings together country policymakers, health system managers, practitioners, advocates and other development partners to catalyse improvements in primary health care in low- and middle-income countries through better measurement and knowledge-sharing. PHCPI will help countries track key performance indicators for their primary health care systems, identifying which parts of the system are working well and which ones are not. This will enhance accountability and provide decisionmakers with essential information to drive improvements. To make data actionable, this partnership will also provide a platform for countries to share lessons and best practices. The PHCPI approach The Primary Health Care Performance Initiative (PHCPI) supports stronger systems through four interconnected areas of work: Strengthen performance measurement. PHCPI will harness existing and emerging data on primary health care performance to monitor and report on variations across and within countries, promote accountability and guide performance improvement. Specifically, PHCPI’s Vital Signs Indicators include measures that, when taken together, provide a snapshot of primary health care system performance. PHCPI will also work with countries to expand data availability and develop additional indicators that countries can use to diagnose and address underlying challenges. Tracking and measuring what is working will guide decisions about meaningful improvements at all levels of the health system – from doctor-patient interactions to district planning to national health strategies. PHCPI seeks to build on existing data and generate insights to determine the most effective ways countries can improve primary health care performance. Generate and share knowledge. PHCPI will synthesise existing information on effective delivery models across the globe and generate new knowledge based on how

Dana Hovig, director of integrated delivery at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, works with the global development and global health programmes to speed up the launch, improve the delivery, enhance integration, and scale up the use of lifesaving and life-changing products, services, technologies, and service delivery innovations. Dana has broad experience in healthcare delivery and has designed, launched and OCPCIGFUWEEGUUHWNJGCNVJRTQITCOOGUQPƒXGEQPVKPGPVU Tim Evans is the senior director for the health, nutrition and population global practice at the World Bank Group. Dr Evans has been a leader in global health equity and health systems performance, notably through his work with the Rockefeller Foundation and the Harvard School of Public Health, and

The launch of PHCPI and global primary health care indicators In September 2015, world leaders met at the United Nations to adopt the new Sustainable Development Goals. For global health, the success or failure of this important agenda will depend in large part on measuring and improving primary health care. It will be difficult for countries to make sustainable gains in health – including reaching global goals such as universal health coverage – without strengthening access to and delivery of essential care in communities. The Primary Health Care Performance Initiative (PHCPI) was launched on 26 September 2015 at an event co-hosted by the governments of Germany, Ghana and Norway, where the German Chancellor Angela Merkel released a new framework, Roadmap: Healthy Systems – Healthy Lives, for global cooperation to strengthen health systems. To learn more please visit to explore PHCPI primary health care indicators through an interactive data visualisation tool, and access information about primary health care across the globe.

countries have achieved improvements. It will identify drivers of performance and document useful strategies for countries seeking to improve primary health care. Promote country-level improvement. PHCPI will work with countries and development partners on an ongoing basis to improve primary health care. PHCPI is supporting countries through partnerships with the Joint Learning Network for Universal Health Coverage, the WHO Global Partnerships Programme and other global networks to collaboratively develop tools to collect, interpret and act on data. Engage partners to build momentum. PHCPI will bring together a network of country policy-makers, advocates and other development partners who are committed to building momentum and supporting improvement efforts. Working together, we will increase the focus on primary health care as a global priority. „

contributions to innovative partnerships, including the Global Alliance on Vaccines and Immunization, INDEPTH and Health Metrics networks, and the Global Health Workforce Alliance. Edward Kelley currently serves as director for the World Health Organization’s patient safety programme. In this capacity, Dr Kelley coordinates both strategic management and external relations and business development for the world’s only global healthcare safety initiative, with responsibility for administration of the department and teams working in healthcare associated with infection, technology, capacity building, reporting and learning, and patient and community empowerment. Website:

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ABOUT CAAM-HP The Caribbean Accreditation Authority for Education in Medicine and other Health Professions (CAAM-HP) is the regional body responsible for the accreditation of degree level programmes of education in medicine, dentistry, nursing, veterinary medicine and other health professions within the Caribbean Community, or CARICOM, where new, developing and established education programmes are subjected to an objective peer review process designed to attest to their educational quality. CAAM-HP was launched in July 2004 under the aegis of the CARICOM Secretariat. Having received formal recognition from the UK Government and, following a review in 2011, also recognised by the World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) as operating to internationally high standards, this accrediting body has secured the confidence of its stakeholders, both regionally and internationally. In addition, the standards and processes used by CAAM-HP to accredit medical schools in Antigua & Barbuda and Jamaica have been determined to be comparable to those used to accredit the medical schools of the United States. Membership of CAAM-HP is multidisciplinary, and features representatives from the universities across the region

Mrs Lorna Parkins Executive Director of CAAM-HP

– the senior faculty and students – and from within the wider civil society, from professional associations and other professionals with the expertise and knowledge of the accreditation and administration of education programmes. The accreditation process involves the annual monitoring of new and developing programmes, and uses predetermined, profession-specific standards, as well as utilizing external reviewers to visit the campuses and clinical training sites during the rigorous onsite surveys. The more established programmes are evaluated on a periodic basis, but remain subject to same specific standards and reviews.


The CAAM-HP 10th Anniversary Conference From left to right: Professor Emeritus, Marlene Hamilton, Chair of CAAMHP; Professor Judy McKimm, Swansea University, Wales; Professor Errol Walrond, former chair of CAAM-HP; Dr Manolo Cassimatis, President of the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates.

The steadily increasing establishment of offshore medical schools in the Caribbean, operating for-profit and targeting students primarily from the United States, underscores the important role CAAM-HP plays in ensuring that the quality of medical education in the region meets the international standards. To date CAAM-HP has carried out accreditation exercises at 13 medical schools, a dental school and a veterinary school. Those schools which have undergone CAAM-HP accreditation acknowledge the benefits and advantages of the process and the importance of CAAM-HP accreditation for maintaining their international standing.

CAAM-HP and the US Federation of State Medical Boards From left to right: Professor Emeritus, Marlene Hamilton, Chair of CAAM-HP; Dr Donald Polk, previous-Chair, FSMB; Dr Dan Gifford, Chair, FSMB; Mrs Lorna Parkins, Executive Director, CAAM-HP; Dr Arthur Hengerer, Chair-elect, FSMB; Mr David Johnson, Senior VP for Assessment Services, FSMB; Mr Kevin Caldwell, Senior Director of Ancillary Services, FSMB.

10th ANNIVERSARY CONFERENCE In July 2014, CAAM-HP celebrated the 10th anniversary of its formation with an international conference held in Montego Bay, Jamaica, under the theme of “Coming of Age: Lessons from the Past, Strategies for the Future” - chosen not only to reflect on CAAM-HP’s growth and international recognition at that point, but also to chart the organisation’s course for the future, given the ongoing developments in accreditation practices.

INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION The United States’ Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) is developing a relationship with CAAM-HP, in light of the fact that several CARICOM member countries host the offshore, for-profit medical schools, where the majority of students originate from the United States. The Federation visited Jamaica to meet with CAAM-HP at the time of its annual meeting in 2015 and learned about the accreditation activities of CAAM-HP in promoting quality medical

CAAM-HP Secretariat, P.O. Box 5167, Kingston 6, JAMAICA Tel: 001 876-927-4765 Fax: 001 876-927-6781

education within the Caribbean, the successes already achieved by CAAM-HP and about those challenges which are unique to the region.

WHAT NEXT FOR CAAM-HP? CAAM-HP is currently in the process of revising its accreditation standards for medical education programmes and is developing standards for new areas to be unveiled in the near future. With CAAM-HP’s existing reputation for excellence, countries outside of the CARICOM framework are also requesting consultations and accreditation. Most recently, a workshop was held in Santo Domingo, in the Dominican Republic, with medical faculties and students there. In the light of the challenges inherent to promoting and implementing an accreditation process, CAAM-HP remains committed to strengthening its role in assuring the quality of the educational programmes delivered for medicine and the other health professions across the Caribbean.

Health, Education, Youth & Gender

Towards Universal Health Coverage in the Commonwealth Robert Yates and Mbololwa MbikusitaLewanika encourage Heads of Government to give Universal Health Coverage (UHC) full country-wide support in their response to the Sustainable Development Goals.


n 12 December we will celebrate Universal Health Coverage Day and the third anniversary of a historic, unanimous resolution of the United Nations General Assembly, calling on all countries to plan or pursue the transition of their health systems towards universal coverage. Also, UHC has recently been included as a sub-goal within the health-related sustainable development goal agreed at the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit held on 25-27 September 2015. The importance of UHC UHC is a simple but powerful concept that the World Health Organization defi nes as follows: “The goal of universal health coverage is to ensure that all people obtain the health services they need without suffering fi nancial hardship when paying for them”


UHC therefore combines two benefits, which are important to people across the world. First, everybody is covered by a full spectrum of good quality health services including preventive, curative, rehabilitative and palliative care. In addition, UHC provides fi nancial protection from healthcare costs and reduces people’s fears of the consequences of becoming sick. Achieving UHC is important, because it can deliver substantial benefits at a population level, not only in improving health indicators, but also in stimulating economic development, improving efficiency, reducing poverty and inequalities, building social harmony and maintaining political stability. UHC is built on a foundation of human rights and equity and is a practical way to deliver the right to health. This is because its two main components, healthcare coverage and financial protection, refer to an equitable allocation of benefits. Specifically, UHC requires that health services are allocated according to need – so sick and vulnerable people receive more health services than healthier people. In addition, the financial protection component requires that financial contributions to pay for the health system are based on one’s ability to pay. Combining these two elements, one can see that UHC is therefore built on a system of social solidarity whereby healthy and wealthy members of society subsidise services for the sick and the poor. Financing UHC in developing countries In analysing recent progress towards UHC in developing countries, it is apparent that some strategies are proving

Health, Education, Youth & Gender

Sri Lanka has moved rapidly to achieve close to full population coverage.

Universal strategies KDYHDOVRKDGDSROLWLFDO LPSDFWEHFDXVHWKH\ KDYHVXFFHHGHGLQ FUHDWLQJV\VWHPVZKHUHE\ HYHU\ERG\IHHOVWKDWWKH\ KDYHVRPHSURWHFWLRQIURP KHDOWKFDUHFRVWV more successful than others. One approach – scaling up population coverage by encouraging people to join voluntary health insurance schemes – is only making slow progress. Also, this route is associated with inefficiencies due to fragmented risk pools and inequities, because poorer households in the informal sector are often excluded. However, in recent years the world’s attention has been drawn to a number of developing countries that have moved rapidly to achieve close to full population coverage. Examples include Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Thailand, Turkey, China, Bhutan, Brazil, Mexico, Chile, Cuba, Costa Rica, Nepal, Bhutan and Rwanda. These countries have demonstrated better health outcomes, lower inequality and

higher levels of financial protection than other countries at their income levels. The common feature of these countries’ strategies has been to socialise their health financing systems (that is, creating a large pool of social financing which facilitates cross-subsidies to needier groups) and the use of public financing, such as tax financing and compulsory health insurance contributions, to provide a universal entitlement to services for the whole population. These universal strategies have also had a political impact because they have succeeded in creating systems

Rationing service provision Because public finances are limited and perceived healthcare needs are almost infinite, policy-makers need to undertake a difficult rationing exercise when prioritising which services will be covered. Staying true to the principles of UHC, the overall objective of this exercise ought to be to include services that have the maximum impact on population health outcomes, reduce financial hardship for households and limit inequalities. When determining which health services should be included, the services that invariably appear at the top of the best-buys list are primary healthcare interventions – in particular preventive health services that stop people from becoming sick in the first place, and outpatient curative services.

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Women and children queue patiently at the launch of free mother and child healthcare in Sierra Leone, April 2010.

whereby everybody feels that they have some protection from healthcare costs. Often this has proved very popular with electorates and delivered considerable political benefits to the politicians who led these reforms. After decades of heated debate, there is now a growing global consensus that public financing is the key to achieving UHC. This is because only compulsory public mechanisms can force healthy and wealthy people into the same risk pool as poorer and sicker members of society. The cross-subsidies that then flow from the former to the latter groups are a pre-requisite for achieving the equity goals of UHC. Although other private financing mechanisms such as private health insurance, health savings accounts and point of service fees can supplement public funding, countries that have relied predominantly on these funding mechanisms have not been successful in achieving UHC. Raising adequate levels of public financing is a necessary condition for achieving UHC but it is not sufficient in itself. It is also necessary to turn these resources into a health system capable of achieving UHC, and this requires that these funds are allocated and managed efficiently and equitably. WHO calls this process of extracting more health benefits from financial resources getting more ‘health for the money’, and this can be achieved through strengthening health systems.


UHC in the Commonwealth In reviewing health data and looking at published comparisons of health systems, Commonwealth countries are well represented in what have been identified as some of the best performing health systems in the world. However, it is apparent that there are large variations in health sector performance in the Commonwealth, in terms of health outcomes and the degree to which governments prioritise health. There is also a large variation in performance at similar levels of public spending, indicating that some health systems are operating more efficiently – i.e. providing more health for the money. Commonwealth countries have demonstrated that it is possible to achieve UHC success at all income levels. For example, Sri Lanka was one of the countries chosen for the seminal report Good health at low cost, published in 1985, that singled out Sri Lanka as a ‘positive deviant’ health performer with China, Costa Rica, Cuba and the Indian state of Kerala. Despite a long civil war and the devastating impact of the 2004 tsunami, Sri Lanka has maintained its position as one of the best health systems in Asia and among middle income countries worldwide. It has already achieved its health-related MDGs, with a child mortality rate of 10 per 1,000 live births and its maternal mortality rate of 29 per 100,000 pregnancies, both results being ranked 10th in the Commonwealth – even outperforming some countries with six times Sri Lanka’s national income. Even low income Commonwealth countries have been able to take concrete steps towards extending health coverage for vulnerable populations. For example, in 2010 the President of Sierra Leone launched a programme to provide free, publicly financed healthcare to all pregnant women and children under 5, which proved very successful and popular. Additionally, the Commonwealth’s most recent member, Rwanda, has made spectacular progress in extending health coverage in the last 20 years. This is attracting a lot of international attention, including from the Nobel Laureate

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Amartya Sen, who highlighted in a recent newspaper article: â&#x20AC;&#x153;Devastated by genocide in 1994, the country has rebuilt itself and established an inclusive health system for all with equity-oriented national policies focusing on social cohesion and people-centred development.â&#x20AC;? In a 2014 paper in the Lancet entitled â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Rwanda: 20 years on investing in lifeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, the Rwandan Minister of Health Dr Agnes Binagwaho and colleagues highlighted their successes and outlined how they had achieved their impressive results. These include reducing the child mortality rate from 151 per 1,000 in 1990 to 55 in 2012 (with an expectation to reach 40 in 2015) and reducing the maternal mortality rate from 910 per 100,000 in 1990 to 340 in 2012 (212 predicted in 2015). Furthermore, life expectancy has practically doubled from 33 to 63 in this period. On these and other health indicators, Rwanda has overtaken all of its immediate neighbours. Looking at Commonwealth countries that have reached high levels of population coverage both in terms of effective health services and ďŹ nancial protection, the common features of their strategies have been: â&#x20AC;˘ Genuine and sustained political commitment at the highest level of government â&#x20AC;˘ A high priority given to reaching full population coverage â&#x20AC;˘ A rights-based approach and a universal entitlement to services â&#x20AC;˘ A system built on sustainable public ďŹ nancing, and â&#x20AC;˘ A strong focus on primary care services. The 2015 Commonwealth Health Ministers Meeting In supporting the international consensus on UHC, Commonwealth Ministers of Health have been giving considerable attention to accelerating progress towards UHC in the Commonwealth. For example, the theme of the Commonwealth Ministerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s meeting in May 2015 was Universal Health Coverage with an emphasis on ageing and good health. Here ministers noted the need for all countries to move towards UHC, and supported the inclusion of UHC as a central component of the health goal in the Sustainable Development Goals. They also stressed the importance of a life course approach to healthcare, ensuring that all citizens have equitable access to the quality and affordable essential health services they need, without ďŹ nancial hardship. In addition to discussing the role of UHC in building resilient health systems in the aftermath of the Ebola epidemic, the importance of UHC in tackling noncommunicable diseases and the health challenges of ageing populations, the ministers made the following speciďŹ c recommendations to Heads of Government:

Robert Yates is a senior fellow of Chatham House, Royal Institute of International Affairs, in London where he is Project Director of the UHC Policy Forum. He has previously worked as a Senior Health Economist with the UKâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Department for International Development (DFID) and the World Health Organization (WHO). He is also a member of the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Health for Allâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Thematic Group of the UNâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Sustainable Development Solutions Network.

â&#x20AC;˘ Support the call for UHC as one of the health goals in post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals. (This has since been achieved â&#x20AC;&#x201C; it is Goal 3.8). â&#x20AC;˘ Give priority to a systems-strengthening, whole-ofgovernment, whole-of-society approach. â&#x20AC;˘ Recognise the primary role of governments in encouraging a society-wide response to the global challenge of ageing and non-communicable diseases, including mental health. â&#x20AC;˘ Recognise the importance of cooperation across the Commonwealth to strengthen health systems. In maintaining their focus on UHC, Commonwealth Health Ministers also agreed that the theme of their 2016 meeting will be: â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Health Security and access to Universal Health Coverageâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. Next steps for UHC in the Commonwealth As there is now a global commitment to achieving UHC, following the UN Resolution and the new health SDG, and a wealth of evidence on how to achieve it, it may be prudent for Commonwealth countries to increasingly focus on actively planning and implementing effective UHC reforms, with the assistance of the Commonwealth Secretariat and other development agencies as appropriate. In doing this, it is important to recognise that the starting position and context of every country is different in terms of their history, geography, economic situation, political make-up, levels of inequality and the health needs of their populations. Therefore it should stressed that there is never going to be a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;one size ďŹ ts allâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; strategy to achieving UHC, and every country will need to implement its own plan, taking into account its own circumstances and constraints. However, in saying this, it is important to remember that UHC is based on fundamental principles of the right to health, full population coverage of needed services, ďŹ nancial protection, equity, and all countries continuing to make some progress towards universal health coverage (â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;progressive realisationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;). It is therefore essential that all these principles are adhered to in reforming healthcare systems to achieve UHC. This article is based on a paper commissioned by the Commonwealth Secretariat. The full paper and list of references are available: Yates, Robert (2015) Accelerating Progress Towards Universal Health Coverage in the Commonwealth, Commonwealth Secretariat, London. The views expressed in the article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reďŹ&#x201A;ect the ofďŹ cial position or policy of the Commonwealth Secretariat or any other agency or government identiďŹ ed. Â&#x201E;

Dr Mbololwa Mbikusita-Lewanika is Health Adviser at the Commonwealth Secretariat. Originally from Zambia, she is a social development expert with a health science and education background. She has over 30 years national and international experience in these areas, with much of her time spent at Kingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s College London. She has over 30 years national and international GZRGTKGPEGKPVJGUGCTGCUYKVJOWEJQHJGTVKOGÇĄURGPVCV-KPIŨU College London and the University of Zambia School of Medicine.

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Nazounki was the first name of Dr Sayavé Gnoumou’s father, who devoted his life to promoting education and health in rural villages and contributed to the decline of practices such as facial scarring and mutilations. Choosing his name is a sign of respect to what he did. Nazounki was created in order to respond to a real need which, as a doctor, Dr Gnoumou could not avoid. Before Nazounki was created, patients from Africa were sent to hospitals in Europe and the USA in complete anonymity. Isolated and often not speaking the language, they usually waited for weeks before their disease was identified and they were sent to the right services and supported by the right specialist. Besides the daily cost of a hospital stay, any delay could have serious consequences on the patient’s health. As more and more African colleagues took to contacting him every time one of their patients came to Europe, even as a fully qualified surgeon, Dr Gnoumou could not answer all their requests. So one day, Dr Gnoumou chose to create this initiative for patients who wished to be accompanied by health professionals, fully responsible for their care and recovery. The philosophy of Nazounki is that the interests of the patient come before all other considerations. Nazounki is even sometimes obliged to refuse a patient, either because of the medical regulations of the host country or simply because they think that our doctors will not be able to provide a satisfactory enough improvement. Even so, Nazounki makes it their duty to inform that patient as soon as possible to avoid them from harbouring futile hopes or paying any unnecessary expenses. The aim, therefore, is not to lower the quality of the medical care, but to enable tight planning and lower the duration of any stay abroad. Nazounki offers a network of over 1,500 internationally recognised surgeons, doctors and specialists. With ten years of experience, Nazounki is able to select the appropriate medical professional from any field of medicine globally. • Each specialist is renowned in their discipline • Each makes themselves available to advise or provide a second opinion, to take care of and support every patient sent by Nazounki • Each is extremely involved in providing the best quality of medicine for every patient • Each will recommend the a suitable eHealth solution • Each is key to Nazounki’s success.

MEDICAL EVACUATIONS THE RIGHT TREATMENT: an independent and expert committee review each case individually, in order to send each patient to the right specialist in the right hospital and to make sure each patient is getting the right treatment. Chaired by Dr Gnoumou, our Medical Committee is a team of specialists. They do not provide direct care to any Nazounki patient, but oversee the process make sure that the patient is having the right treatment in the right hospital, ensuring respect, security and consideration. The Committee will take the time to listen, then to explain the different choices of treatments and their duration. They will be there to answer to all medical concerns, to whoever has the right to get such information. They will be in touch with the home country doctor to make sure recuperation and convalescence will be planned on the right way. NAZOUNKI LOGISTICS: Our logistics team is able to help from door to door, should a case need a specialised air ambulance or regular flight, they will take care of all aspects of transportation and accommodation. ADMINISTRATIVE and FINANCE TEAM: We provide cost efficient assistance for any administrative purpose, such as visas and insurance and will provide an estimate of costs before any decision is made. All expenses will be reviewed and a detailed bill for your medical journey will be provided at the end of your stay. The paying party has overall control and a real time access to the expenses accrued. No additional surcharges will be accepted, outside of emergency situations, without prior authorisation. We provide the right care, at the best costs. COST and QUALITY MANAGEMENT: We pick from only the finest specialists and the best equipped health centres. We do not negotiate with the specialists, as we want the best care delivered to our patients without any constraints. THE LESS TIME THE PATIENT SPENDS ABROAD, THE GREATER THE SAVINGS WE WILL MAKE FOR THEM. The aim, therefore, is not to lower the quality of the medical care, but to tightly plan to lower the duration of any stay. CONTROL OF MEDICAL EXPENSES: We make sure that all fees are standard and justified. We keep in contact with all the relevant financial departments in charge of the medical care and alert them whenever there are complications requiring extra costs. Our clients and financial services are invited to audit our records annually, with access to all invoices, to ensure full transparency.

eHEALTH and ICT OUR eHEALTH SOLUTIONS We noticed that medical files were very often incomplete; time was therefore wasted recovering information, thus delaying decisionmaking with the specialists. The smallest missing detail can delay the diagnosis and increase costs. Therefore we are fully installed with: FUENI A powerful tool, created by doctors, to improve and empower their daily practice and confirm the medical protocol for each patient. It allows several specialists globally to focus on one same patient and share sophisticated images such as MRIs or CT scans in a diagnostic format. GNISSAN The Mobile Care Unit for remote diagnosis. Connected to a central database, it allows our specialists, doctors and hospitals to assist or perform medical care remotely. The hospital therefore comes to the patient. SAGESSE Medical A Global System of electronic actions for health and medical education. It is a global concept which gathers the most powerful tools for physicians, hospitals, health centre managers and health authorities, up to ministerial level.

HEALTHCARE ENGINEERING Nazounki are able to advise or to lead a project for any specific equipment, human resources and organisational needs. We can help you to build a high quality medical centre in your environment, allowing you to deliver the right medical care. Project Implementation • We outline the staff required • We assist with recruitment • We assess equipment needs • We structure the project • We optimise the resources • We improve the quality of healthcare.

Medical Centre Assessment • Environmental impact • Technical aspects • Feasibility and implementation • Equipment maintenance • Planning and construction.

Health, Education, Youth & Gender

Gender and equality in the Commonwealth The President of Malta, HE Marie-Louise Coleiro Preca, encourages states to celebrate diversity and prevent discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender citizens of the Commonwealth.


he crucial importance of equality may be obvious to those of us who are doing what we can to make positive changes in the world. But the reality in many countries around the globe is not so encouraging. Women, girls and gender minorities in particular continue to face challenges, especially in terms of access to health, education, and economic opportunity. The recent successful launch of the Commonwealth Youth Gender and Equality Network marks an important step forward towards meeting these challenges. It is an unfortunate fact that Commonwealth member states attract their fair share of criticism when it comes to equality. In the run-up to the Commonwealth Games in Glasgow in 2014, there was much debate on the credentials of member states and their position on the rights of people of diverse sexual orientation, gender identities, gender expression and sex characteristics. The disturbing statistic came to the fore that an estimated four out of five Commonwealth countries criminalise homosexuality, and there was increased pressure for the Commonwealth to do more to support lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) communities and others who represent the many

The Commonwealth Charter springs from notions of inclusion, equality and human rights. In fact, achieving true equality is crucial. • Without equality, the eradication of poverty, of discrimination, or of the root causes of gender violence will not be possible. • Without equality we cannot build resilient societies and economies. • Without equality we cannot encourage sustainable development and prosperity for all.

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facets of gender and sexuality. We must do what we can to ensure that citizens are not discriminated against, no matter the place of their birth. However, things are certainly improving. I was overjoyed to read the Secretary-General of the Commonwealth’s statement issued for the International Day Against Homophobia, Transphobia and Biphobia. This statement recognises the universal rights of all citizens of the Commonwealth as a shared birthright, and calls for member states to come together in exploring ways of celebrating and safeguarding diversity and inclusion in our societies. Equality is a vital foundation for human rights. In today’s Commonwealth, millions of children are denied education because of their gender identity. Therefore we must prioritise access to gender-inclusive quality education, with a relevant curriculum, which highlights universal learning methods and prepares young people to achieve full and productive employment. This will not only empower young people, but also enable them to effectively engage with important life transitions, and become successful and active citizens of the Commonwealth. It is by entering into dialogue with one another that we can most authentically discover the diverse realities experienced by people whose lives are often hidden, and whose voices are ignored. Such work is being done by the Foundation for the Wellbeing of Society, in Malta. All our efforts must be informed by consultation at the grassroots level, and must be encouraged to flourish. The Foundation provides a safe space where ideas, experiences, and concerns around a range of topics can be freely discussed. The Foundation works in close collaboration with civil society, government entities and stakeholders, and welcomes initiatives such as the launching of this essential Commonwealth Youth Gender and Equality

Health, Education, Youth & Gender


The efforts of those who were active in launching the Commonwealth Youth Gender and Equality Network are critically important. They signal a change in the way we talk about gender, and the underlying structures that enforce rigid and coercive categories to the detriment of so many people. These efforts will provide opportunities across the Commonwealth and beyond, so that sustainable

solutions may be identiďŹ ed, explored, and implemented. The Royal Commonwealth Society and all the participants are to be commended for organising and facilitating the CYGEN Forum in May 2015. It is now vital for all the active participants to remain involved and connected through this Network. The crucial next step is to approach civil society in all countries, and keep the wider communities informed about this Network and about the progress already achieved. Civil society has a critical role in bringing speciďŹ c concerns and situations to the fore, and I commend the participantsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; bold resolve to engage in much needed advocacy, and see that necessary changes are made. The continuing support from the Royal Commonwealth Society is fundamental to this initiative, backed by acknowledgement and nurturing from the Commonwealth Foundation. In conclusion, the constructive debates with colleagues who have now become friends are leading to a bond of solidarity between citizens of the Commonwealth. We must each, in our own ways and in our own lives, contribute to the great work of social justice. We must ďŹ nd viable solutions for the future, global solutions to global problems, and discover how best to secure harmonious transformations in our nations, in our communities, and in our lives. Â&#x201E;

Marie-Louise Coleiro Preca was elected the ninth President of the Republic of Malta in April 2014. Elected with the unanimous approval of all Members of Parliament, she is the youngest serving President of Malta and the second woman to hold the post of Head of State. She has been active in national politics for the past forty years, since the age of sixteen. She served as MP in the Maltese Parliament from 1998 to 2014. From March 2013 she served as Minister

for the Family and Social Solidarity. Social measures VCMGPYJKNGKPQHĆ&#x2019;EGKPENWFGCHWNNYKFQYGTŨURGPUKQPCPF VJGTGUEJGFWNKPIQHVJGEJKNFTGPŨUCNNQYCPEGRC[OGPVU+P January 2014, together with the Prime Minister of Malta, Coleiro Preca launched a Green Paper: A Framework for Poverty Reduction and for Social Inclusion. She has introduced a number of measures to address poverty, including a child supplement aimed at 22,000 lower-income children.

â&#x20AC;˘ When true gender equality is achieved, people of all genders will be able to go to school and have the opportunity to prosper and experience wellbeing. â&#x20AC;˘ True gender equality will offer us the opportunity to enjoy the same employment rights, with equal pay and conditions. â&#x20AC;˘ Only then will we be in a position to reach our development goals, and beneďŹ t as one human family from global prosperity.

Network. It is up to citizens all over the Commonwealth to see that the Network lives up to its potential. Changes in attitude

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Realising women’s rights in the Commonwealth Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka, United Nations Under-SecretaryGeneral and Executive Director of UN Women discusses the critical issue of gender equality and women’s rights, reflecting on progress so far and looking ahead at the challenges that remain.


his year is a critical time for the United Nations, for the Commonwealth and for the global community as a whole. We are celebrating 70 years since the United Nations was founded; the 20th anniversary of the landmark Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing; the end-point of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs); and the exciting start of a new 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, including 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which have gender equality and women’s empowerment at their heart. In September, thousands of representatives from all over the world gathered at the United Nations General Assembly in New York to launch the new Agenda, which is the most ambitious global effort since the UN’s Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. With countries in every region, and nearly one-third of the world’s population, the Commonwealth will be central to achieving our shared goals for a more equal,

With countries in every region, and nearly one-third of the world’s population, the Commonwealth will be central to achieving our shared goals. 196 CHOGM 2015 Report

peaceful and sustainable world, where economic growth benefits the many not the few, and where our economic and political systems protect rather than destroy our natural environment. None of this will be possible without advancing the rights of women and girls. Our vision is for ‘Planet 50:50 by 2030’, a world where women, men, girls and boys are equal. It means transformative change that is irreversible, sustainable and substantive. Slow, patchy progress So, how far have we come? The 2014 global review of implementation of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, based on reports from 164 governments, found progress in some key areas. We have seen an increasing number of laws that promote gender equality and address violence against women and girls, and higher levels of girls’ enrolment in primary and secondary education, a key success of the MDGs. There has been a decline in maternal mortality and an increase in women’s access to contraception, and women’s representation in national parliaments has doubled. Yet the overall picture is of slow and uneven progress, with serious stagnation and even regression in several areas. Deep-seated discriminatory norms, stereotypes and violence remain pervasive, and progress has been particularly slow for the most marginalised women and girls who experience multiple and intersecting forms of discrimination. We also face new challenges, such as the lingering economic crisis, volatile food and energy prices, food insecurity and climate change, as well as rising

Credit: UN Women/Marni Gilbert

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Market vendors participating in a UN Women Markets for Change workshop complete a group exercise at Auki Market, Solomon +UNCPFUKP,WPG$GVYGGPCPFRGTEGPVQHOCTMGVXGPFQTUKPVJG2CEKĆ&#x2019;ETGIKQPCTGYQOGPDWVVJG[CTGTCTGN[ TGRTGUGPVGFKPVJGRNCPPKPICPFFGEKUKQPOCMKPIVJCVFGVGTOKPGUJQYOCTMGVUCTGTWP&GXGNQRGFURGEKĆ&#x2019;ECNN[HQTVJG2CEKĆ&#x2019;E region, the six-year, multi-country initiative is injecting more than US$10 million into ensuring that such workplaces in Fiji, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu are safe, inclusive and non-discriminatory.

extremism and backlash against womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rights which jeopardise our fragile gains towards gender equality. As a result, the majority of women and girls are still not able to enjoy their human rights in practice. The challenges we face are enormous, but as UN Womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ďŹ&#x201A;agship report, Progress of the Worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Women 2015-2016: Transforming Economies, Realizing Rights, shows, social and economic policies can have a tremendous impact in creating the kind of world we want to see. Progress reinforces the messages of the Beijing review: as it stands, the global economy is not working for women (or indeed for the majority of men). Paid employment can be a foundation for womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s economic empowerment, but only if that work is decent, which means it is adequately and equally paid. Universally, we are far from that ideal. Women are paid

Childcare services are essential for enabling women to access decent work, yet in most countries they are patchy or non-existent, even in developed regions. To reduce and redistribute this responsibility, we need governments to supply social services that relieve women from exclusively ďŹ lling this role, and businesses to put in place ďŹ&#x201A;exible leave policies for both women and men. This work has unrecognised value. In India, the total value of time spent on unpaid care and domestic work was estimated to be equivalent to 39 per cent of GDP. Meeting care needs should be seen as offering opportunities that will yield future beneďŹ ts.

on average globally 24 per cent less than men, and as much as 33 per cent less in South Asia. Informal and unregulated The reality is that in developing regions at least threequarters of womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s employment is informal, unprotected by labour laws and without access to basic social protection. These kinds of jobs are also on the rise in some developed countries. Women carry the burden of unpaid care work, doing two and a half times more of this work than men. In Pakistan women are reported to perform ten times as much unpaid care work as men and almost seven times more in India. Such work is vital for sustaining economies and societies, but often goes unrecognised and unsupported. The assumption is still that women will look after the young, the elderly and the sick. At the global level, the problem is not that resources are scarce, but that they are not equally distributed or

In India, the total value of time spent on unpaid care and domestic work was estimated to be equivalent to 39 per cent of GDP. CHOGM 2015 Report 197

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Increased security

By the year 2020 we already want to be able to take stock and assess our progress

The agenda we lay out in Progress is ambitious, but it is also achievable. Indeed, many countries, including those in the Commonwealth, are already implementing elements of it. There are 44 million women employed in domestic work globally, working behind closed doors, often in informal, unprotected and poor quality jobs. After years of lobbying by domestic workersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; organisations, the ILO domestic workers convention was agreed in 2011, extending basic rights and recognition to these workers, including the right to the minimum wage, maternity leave and paid time off. Three Commonwealth countries, Guyana, Mauritius and South Africa, are among only 22 countries worldwide that have so far ratiďŹ ed the convention, signalling their commitment to improving the conditions of these workers.

Other initiatives aim to make womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s informal selfemployment more secure and viable. In the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Port Moresby Safe City Free from Violence against Women and Girlsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; programme in Papua New Guinea, city authorities, police and womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s organisations have made market spaces safer for women vendors by improving infrastructure, training the police and ensuring that vendors have a voice in the governance of the markets. As a result, vendors can now pay their market fees with their mobile phones, which has reduced womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s exposure to extortion. Millions of women work in self-employment in agriculture, scraping by to provide food for themselves and their families. A number of countries in sub-Saharan

directed to the right places. This is clear when we see that in a world of unprecedented wealth, women often live out their older years in grinding poverty, denied an adequate pension; and millions of women and girls in developing countries continue to lack access to basic water, sanitation and healthcare.

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Economic aspects Of course, social policies need to be ďŹ nanced, which requires ďŹ scal policies that expand the tax base and ensure that money is spent where it is most needed. Botswana is among those countries that has used revenues generated through natural resource extraction to fund social policies, such as healthcare and old age pensions. One area where much more global coordination is required is in eliminating tax avoidance, which robs both developing and developed countries of vital resources needed to ďŹ nance public services and infrastructure. Annual revenue lost to developing countries due to trade mispricing alone is estimated to be between US$98 billion and US$106 billion, more than US$20 billion above the annual capital costs needed to achieve universal water and sanitation coverage. Transforming the economy and making it work for women requires economic and social policies to work in tandem. When these policies are effectively integrated it can create a virtuous cycle: gender responsive social protection, social services and infrastructure can help people cope with economic challenges while reducing and redistributing womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s unpaid care and domestic work, while enabling macroeconomic policies that prioritise job creation and investments in human beings can generate decent work.

Africa, including Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Rwanda and the United Republic of Tanzania, have introduced input subsidy programmes. These are vital for supporting the livelihoods of small-scale farmers, particularly women who often cannot afford to buy fertilisers and seeds at market prices. A number of African countries have also led the way in making older age more secure for women. Because they have unequal access to labour markets, and tend to take time out to care for dependents, women are often penalised by pension systems. In Cameroon, for example, only 6 per cent of women over statutory pension age

Ms Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka is United Nations Under5GETGVCT[)GPGTCNCPFJCUDGGP'ZGEWVKXG&KTGEVQTQH 709QOGPUKPEG#WIWUV/U/NCODQ0IEWMCYCU actively involved in the struggle to end apartheid in her home country of South Africa. From 2005 to 2008, she served as Deputy President of South Africa, overseeing programmes VQEQODCVRQXGTV[CPFDTKPIVJGCFXCPVCIGUQHCITQYKPI economy to the poor, with a particular focus on women. Prior to this, she served as Minister of Minerals and Energy from 1999 to 2005 and Deputy Minister in the Department of 6TCFGCPF+PFWUVT[HTQOVQ5JGYCUC/GODGT of Parliament from 1994 to 1996 as part of South Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Ć&#x2019;TUVFGOQETCVKEIQXGTPOGPV/U/NCODQ0IEWMCDGICP her career as a teacher and gained international experience as a coordinator at the World YWCA in Geneva, where she GUVCDNKUJGFCINQDCNRTQITCOOGHQT[QWPIYQOGP5JGKU VJGHQWPFGTQHVJG7ONCODQ(QWPFCVKQPYJKEJUWRRQTVU leadership and education.

receive a pension, compared with 20 per cent of men. By introducing universal social pensions, countries including Botswana, Lesotho and Mauritius have made signiďŹ cant progress on closing gender gaps in access to pensions, ensuring a digniďŹ ed old age for women and men. The Commonwealth also offers inspiring examples in implementing social services. In Rwanda, communitybased health insurance schemes have reduced the barriers to women accessing the care they need. Community health workers have helped to increase skilled birth attendance from 39 to 69 per cent between 2005 and 2010. Combined, these policies have contributed to a rapid decline in maternal mortality in Rwanda, far outstripping the rate of progress in the sub-Saharan African region as a whole. The new agenda The challenges we face are daunting, but the abundant evidence of policies that are making a difference should make us optimistic that we can progress. Another major reason for optimism is the agreement of the ambitious new 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which is grounded in human rights principles, is universal in scope, and takes a comprehensive approach to tackling the structural barriers to overcoming poverty, inequality and environmental degradation. The inclusion of SDG 5, a standalone goal on gender equality and womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s empowerment, as well as gender equality targets across all other goals, is a landmark achievement for member states and for the civil society organisations that have held us accountable throughout the negotiations. Everyone has a signiďŹ cant role to play in the implementation of the SDGs, and we must start from day one. By the year 2020 we already want to be able to take stock and assess our progress. We know that this will require leadership, accountability and investment, but the pay-offs in terms of advancing sustainable development, achieving human rights, and creating a more peaceful and secure world can hardly be quantiďŹ ed. We are counting on the 53 countries in the Commonwealth of Nations for their continued support in this historic endeavour. Â&#x201E;

UN Women is the UN organisation dedicated to gender GSWCNKV[CPFVJGGORQYGTOGPVQHYQOGP#INQDCN EJCORKQPHQTYQOGPCPFIKTNU709QOGPYCUGUVCDNKUJGF to accelerate progress on meeting their rights worldwide. 709QOGPUWRRQTVU70OGODGTUVCVGUCUVJG[UGVINQDCN standards for achieving gender equality, and works with governments and civil society to design laws, policies, programmes and services needed to implement these UVCPFCTFU+VUVCPFUDGJKPFYQOGPŨUGSWCNRCTVKEKRCVKQPKP CNNCURGEVUQHNKHGHQEWUKPIQPĆ&#x2019;XGRTKQTKV[CTGCUKPETGCUKPI womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s leadership and participation; ending violence against women; engaging women in all aspects of peace and security processes; enhancing womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s economic empowerment; and making gender equality central to national development RNCPPKPICPFDWFIGVKPI709QOGPCNUQEQQTFKPCVGUCPF promotes the UN systemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s work in advancing gender equality. Website:

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uring the 2009 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) in Trinidad and Tobago, much of the media coverage was dominated by concerns over the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) citizens of the Commonwealth. It has also been discussed on the sidelines of CHOGMs since Malta 2005 through the media and civil society forums. Today 40 of the 53 members of the Commonwealth criminalise consensual same-sex activity between adults in some way. Additionally, in numerous countries, access to the rights enjoyed by the majority of citizens have been denied to people identiďŹ ed as transgender or â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;third genderâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. In the 19th century, the British Empire imposed vaguely worded laws criminalising consensual same-sex activity in many of its colonies, thus institutionalising discrimination against numerous colonial subjects and cultures. The Indian Penal Code was the most famous example of a law created by the colonisers and subsequently replicated across the Empire to ensure compliance with the moral codes of 19th century Britain. Today, these same laws remain on the statute books of many Commonwealth members, and are now used to discriminate against many LGBT citizens and to deny them access to a range of services and

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rights. They are also invoked by citizens taking the law into their own hands as justiďŹ cation to commit violence and other forms of persecution. Just as the Commonwealth has strived to relegate racial and gender inequalities to the history books, so too must the pursuit of equality for sexual and gender minorities become part of the anticolonial project of the modern Commonwealth. The context of regional and international standards The necessity of action on this issue is established and undeniable. Firstly, state-led discrimination runs contrary to many international and regional human rights standards. Discriminatory criminalisation of sexual activity between consenting adults violates both the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The African Union Commission on Human and Peoplesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Rights has passed a resolution (No 275 of 2014) urging â&#x20AC;&#x153;States to end all acts of violence and abuse, whether committed by state or non-state actors, including by enacting and effectively applying appropriate laws prohibiting and punishing all forms of violence including those targeting persons on the basis of their imputed or real sexual orientation

Credit: Alistair Stewart

Health, Education, Youth & Gender


Just as the Commonwealth has strived to relegate racial and gender inequalities to the history books, so too must the pursuit of equality for sexual and gender minorities become part of the anticolonial project of the modern Commonwealth. or gender identities”. The Organisation of American States has also passed resolutions (for example in 2010) calling for an end to violence targeted against people because of their sexual orientation or gender identity. Meanwhile, the Commonwealth Charter (2012) states that Commonwealth members are “implacably opposed to all forms of discrimination” (see box). Putting these statements into action is not just a moral and legal necessity but increasingly a business and developmental one as well. Just as excluding women

The oversight and interpretation of the Commonwealth Charter, as a guiding document agreed by Commonwealth members, is of particular interest to those working on issues related to sexual orientation and gender identity. The Commonwealth Charter does not specifically enshrine protection of people based on their sexual orientation, but is inclusive, stating: “We are implacably opposed to all forms of discrimination, whether rooted in gender, race, colour, creed, political belief or other grounds.”

from the labour market or other economic life means less innovation, production and ultimately tax income for governments, so too does rejecting gender and sexual minorities. If citizens are continuously harassed or excluded they cannot fully contribute to society. Commonwealth progress Numerous governments across the Commonwealth are taking note of this reality and developing manageable political policies to advance equality. Last year, Mozambique reformed its penal code by removing the Portuguese colonial-era provisions which could be used to criminalise homosexuality. Countries including Botswana, the Seychelles and Mauritius have passed laws protecting people in the workplace, regardless of their sexual orientation. Courts in India and Pakistan have upheld the constitutional rights of ‘Third Gender’ or Hijra citizens on the basis of traditional cultural understandings

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Experience with Commonwealth networks By Jonah Chinga Recently at a joint press conference between the US President and the President of Kenya, Uhuru Kenyatta maintained that lesbian gay bisexual and transgender (LGBT) issues are a non-issue for the country. Many Kenyans, however, suffer harassment, discrimination and violence purely on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity, despite the fact that the Kenyan Constitution provides for equality and freedom from discrimination. Working with the Gay and Lesbian Coalition of Kenya (GALCK) and now as a member of the Commonwealth Equality Network (TCEN), I have been working to extend my advocacy work to protect LGBT people in the Commonwealth, and most importantly engage with organisations and institutions to ensure that Kenyan and Commonwealth decision-making reďŹ&#x201A;ects the views of my community. As part of my work at GALCK, we actively engage with human rights rapporteurs to give a true account of what is happening on the ground. The experience is a daunting one, but providing facts and being actively involved dispels the phobia of stakeholders operating in Commonwealth-facilitated deliberations. Being an advocate of human rights equality, my base of support, networks and connections is expanded by the Commonwealth; and, as the popular saying goes, you can achieve more together than you can alone. LGBT networks value allies who advance the sexual orientation and gender identity discourse. To enable us to counter stigma and discrimination we cannot work in isolation. Visibility at regional and international platforms creates an opportunity for our concerns to be raised and addressed. This helps discontinue the anti-gay rhetoric that threatened to spiral in African states after Nigeria and Uganda passed their laws. Our visibility provides an opportunity for networks in the Commonwealth to understand the difďŹ culties we face at home including harassment, arbitrary arrests and violence. Visibility at regional and international platforms sensitises and helps build allies who are able to inďŹ&#x201A;uence policy and consensus to curb human rights violations against sexual minorities in Commonwealth states. The data we provide on sexual minority violations helps other activists realise the difďŹ culties in human rights work, and helps strengthen their efforts, for the beneďŹ t of all Commonwealth people. International advocacy Advocacy at the international level is typically part of a larger campaign. It can build public demand to inďŹ&#x201A;uence government support. It should not be done in isolation, but must complement and supplement

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My base of support, networks and connections is expanded by the Commonwealth; and, as the popular saying goes, you can achieve more together than you can alone. domestic efforts. The reasons for this are several. First, as a practical matter, some international or regional human rights bodies do not accept complaints over rights violations if recourse to domestic forums, such as the courts or administrative bodies, has not ďŹ rst been exhausted. Second, much of the advocacy done at this level results in non-binding decisions or reports. This means that even if a human rights body releases a report ďŹ nding in favour of an indigenous community, the body cannot force the state to implement the reportâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s recommendations. As a result, an indigenous group such as a local LGBT community has to utilise other avenues of advocacy to encourage or press the state to implement any recommendations. More generally, however, advocacy at any level typically consists of many paths, such as media campaigns, lobbying with government ofďŹ cials, and judicial efforts.



Credit: GALCK

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of these groups. The Government of Bangladesh has enacted similar statements through cabinet decree, while the Government of Belize has launched a gender policy inclusive of sexual orientation. Malta, the host country of this yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s CHOGM, has achieved more rapid progress in recent years than almost any other Commonwealth country, and is a world leader in respect of its Constitution, which prohibits discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity. It follows in the footsteps of two other Commonwealth nations, namely South Africa and Fiji, which have similar constitutional provisions.

Connecting civil society and policy-makers at the Commonwealth Peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Forum This Commonwealth Peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Forum (CPF) will see new innovation in the Commonwealthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s contribution to policy-making. The ofďŹ cial programme will include the convening of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Policy Dialogueâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; sessions where civil society and governments can discuss together practical policy options for governments to pursue. Resilience in health systems, education in small states and LGBT rights will all have their own policy dialogue sessions. The latter will give policy-makers a chance to discuss the progress they have made with activists pushing for change, and demonstrate global value in civil society/government collaboration.


Just as all citizens should demand respect and understanding from their governments, so too should this approach govern relations between states. A positive approach Given the cultural impositions of the colonial era, and the progress being made across the regions of the Commonwealth, the lecturing by Western nations at past CHOGMs of other nations in relation to their LGBT rights records seems inappropriate. Just as all citizens should demand respect and understanding from their governments, so too should this approach govern relations between states â&#x20AC;&#x201C; indeed, the Commonwealth has long prided itself in this respect. The Commonwealth does, however, enjoy a range of strengths and tools which enable it to undertake a positive Commonwealth approach to the issue of LGBT rights. Building upon a base of crosscultural respect and understanding, and using dialogue processes effectively, the Commonwealth has numerous avenues through which this issue can be discussed constructively. Regular meetings of Law, Health and Education Ministers provide opportunities to share policy experience between governments. The Commonwealth Secretariat is in a position to support further peer learning and the provision of technical policy expertise. Finally, the Commonwealthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s vibrant civil society can be constructively connected to those governments seeking partners in the development of equality. They can also connect to one another to offer mutual support through opportunities such as the Commonwealth Peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Forum or online platforms. Building the reality of an inclusive Commonwealth is a necessity for the successful development of all Commonwealth members. Fortunately, this family of nations is well placed to achieve this and to build equality for its member countries and citizens alike. Â&#x201E;


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Making urban development work for sustainable growth and prosperity Dr Joan Clos, UN Under-Secretary-General and Executive Director, UN-Habitat, asserts that urban development can be the driving force behind sustainable growth and prosperity if we move away from power-hungry urbanisation towards a new productive, safe and inclusive model.


e live in an urban era: the majority of the world’s population today live in cities. The rapidly increasing dominance of cities, as the habitat of humankind, places the process of urbanisation among the most significant global trends of the next twenty years. Demographic studies confi rm that between 2010 and 2050, the global urban population will grow by almost three billion people. Huge urban transformations around the world, including many Commonwealth countries in subSaharan Africa, south Asia and the Caribbean, are already happening. The key issue is not whether we urbanise, but in the way that we are going to do it. How are we going to optimise all the benefits of urbanisation? In UN-Habitat, there is a strong belief that urbanisation is not so much the problem as the solution to many of the challenges the world is facing today. Well planned urbanisation is a driving force and a source of development which has the power to improve and change the lives of billions of people. This reflection comes at an unprecedented moment of international dialogue marked by three global events. The fi rst is the adoption of the post-2015 universal agenda, in September this year, which consists of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aiming at ending poverty and improving the quality of life of the world population for the next thirty years. One of these goals is dedicated

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The key issue is not whether we urbanise, but in the way that we are going to do it. to sustainable cities and human settlements. No less than five other goals and around 40 targets require sustainable approaches to urbanisation to succeed. The second is COP21, the 21st Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, to take place in Paris in December this year. Sustainable urban development is at the heart of the fight against climate change. To devise a collective and effective response to climate change, the international community is already looking towards cities. We must move away from urban development that is power-hungry and creates ecological risks, towards a new urban model that is productive, safe and reduces greenhouse gas emissions. This is not a dream. In fact, it is not only possible but an imperative, if we want to keep the planet within the 2 degrees C of global warming as demanded by science.

Credit: © Julius Mwelu / UN-Habitat

Infrastructure Investment & Development

Nairobi, Kenya, by night.

The third is Habitat III, the UN Conference of Housing and Sustainable Urban Development, scheduled for October 2016 in Quito, Ecuador. This conference represents a crucial moment for the new urban agenda, as world leaders will review the UN Urban Agenda and rethink together about the future model of urbanisation. It is the first implementation conference on the SDGs, and will define how sustainable urbanisation can be harnessed for the benefit of the goals as a whole. The task for the Commonwealth will therefore be to analyse the challenges and opportunities of the existing urban trends, assessing the current synergies between urbanisation and urban development, as well as to adjust to and take advantage of the great potential of well planned urbanisation in achieving sustainable development in all its three dimensions: economic, social and environmental. Urban challenges in Commonwealth countries Globalisation, investments and private-sector led initiatives have all combined to create rapid economic growth and extensive development of urban areas. This has generated both benefits and costs. On the positive side, the pattern in Commonwealth countries has been economic growth in the last years, despite the broader crisis in the world’s economy. However, these

economic transformations have come with considerable environmental and social costs. From an environmental sustainability perspective cities, mostly in the developed world, contribute up to 70 per cent of the world’s total greenhouse gas emissions, largely because industrial production and construction activities are concentrated in urban areas. Equally, with increasing urbanisation and concentration of large numbers of people, disaster risk is also increasing within towns and cities. Cities, towns and villages in many low-lying countries are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change such as flooding. From a social point of view, we are witnessing a migration from rural poverty to urban poverty. Global reductions in poverty have not reached everyone. In developing countries slums, which currently accommodate close to one billion people, are the physical manifestation of urban poverty and inequality. About 2.5 billion people – mostly in the global South – lack access to safe sanitation; and 1.2 billion people lack access to clean drinking water worldwide. Fewer than 35 per cent of the cities in developing countries have their waste water treated. It is therefore evident that achieving socially sustainable development will require serious action to reduce urban poverty and inequality, especially in the light of the increasing concentration of humanity in towns and cities.

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Infrastructure Investment & Development


In general terms, we can afďŹ rm that the challenges posed by the world model of urbanisation â&#x20AC;&#x201C; such as global warming, social segregation and urban poverty â&#x20AC;&#x201C; have global ramiďŹ cations that, if not addressed adequately, could jeopardise chances of achieving sustainable development. An opportunity for global development The prosperity of nations is intimately linked to the prosperity of their cities. No country has ever achieved sustained economic growth and rapid social development without urbanising. Cities have the potential to make countries more developed because they provide the economies of scale and proximity that generate enhanced productivity. Today cities account for about 70 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP) and they generate nearly 80 per cent of all jobs. This economic growth can turn cities into effective â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;poverty ďŹ ghtersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; â&#x20AC;&#x201C; not only in urban areas, but also in the rural world. Objective 11 of the Sustainable Development Agenda intends to make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. In this sense, urbanisation is seen as clear source of value for development across the development spectrum. Economies of location, economies of efďŹ ciency and economies of urbanisation are beneďŹ cial for a wide range of issues from social inclusion to climate change. This capacity to generate value is a huge source of potential growth for the national economy, coming with a relatively moderate investment cost. In that sense, it is highly productive to invest in urbanisation because it will yield a high return for cities and countries alike.

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It is highly productive to invest in urbanisation because it will yield a high return for cities and countries alike. UN-Habitatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s current strategic direction is based on a view that considers urbanisation as a way of life, as a process of change from rural to urban ways of living, in physical-spatial, social and economic terms. Well-planned rural human settlements, small villages and market towns play an important role in providing the physical, social and economic services necessary for rural development, while urban centres of all sizes stimulate rural development by providing markets for agricultural and other primary products. Effective urbanisation is a human choice that is not achieved by change but by design and political will. It is for this reason that UN-Habitat strongly advocates the purposeful use of urbanisation, by governments, as an effective instrument and driver of rural prosperity as well as general economic development. Many of the challenges that developing countries are facing can be alleviated with positive urban planning. For example, it is estimated that private motorised transport costs commuters in New Delhi, India, between 20 and 25 per cent of their daily wages. In East Africa (Nairobi,

Infrastructure Investment & Development

Kenya and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania) this is as high as 30 per cent, as detailed in UN-Habitatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Global Report on Human Settlements 2013: Planning and Design for Sustainable Urban Mobility. A concerted effort to optimise density and a comprehensive approach to urban transport would not only provide positive economic beneďŹ ts but would also help to lighten some of the impact of transport on climate change. For countries in sub-Saharan Africa, south Asia, the Caribbean and small island states, the time is ripe to develop a New Urban Agenda. Many countries are experiencing economic growth and, hand in hand with it, signiďŹ cant rates of urbanisation. We strongly believe that urbanisation can be harnessed and steered through policy, planning and design, using regulatory instruments as well as other human actions to contribute towards the three dimensions of sustainable development: economic, social and environmental. This is why the case of India is so interesting, where a new urban model is being conceived as the government has pledged to create one hundred new cities, with a capacity of two million inhabitants each, in the coming ďŹ ve years. The ambition and scale of this move alone demonstrate that the potential of planned urbanisation is increasingly recognised by governments. UN-Habitatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s three-pronged approach The urban model of the last 50 years has demonstrated good economic performance, but has not addressed the social challenge of equity and cohesion, and has ignored the global environmental challenge. In order to address the deďŹ ciencies of this model, UN-Habitat proposes a paradigm shift based on three pillars. The ďŹ rst is strengthening urban legislation and systems of governance. Legislation and its robust and fair implementation shape the operational principles as well as the stability of organisational structures and institutional and social relationships that underpin the process of urbanisation. The second is developing and implementing national urban policies and reinvigorating territorial planning and urban design. National urban policies amalgamate the dispersed energy and potential of urban centres within a national system or hierarchy of cities and towns. They help to coordinate the work of different sectors


and tiers of government, establish the incentives for more sustainable practices, and provide a basis for the allocation of resources. New planning methods and systems can contribute to changing the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s internal structure, form and functionality towards more compact, integrated and connected and sustainable solutions, such as densiďŹ cation, social diversity and mixed land uses, climate change mitigation and adaptation, sustainable use of natural resources, and adequate public spaces, including vibrant streets. The third is harnessing the urban economy, including strengthening municipal ďŹ nance. In order to create employment, urban areas and regions require strong economic growth strategies such as regeneration, cluster development and industrial zones. Strengthening municipal ďŹ nance is about realigning ďŹ scal authority, responsibility and revenue sharing, thus achieving the right balance between different levels of government; designing new ďŹ nancial mechanisms and exploring new sources of capital; improving systems of revenue collection; and improving budget management and transparency. This represents a systemic approach that goes beyond addressing only the symptoms of malfunctioning urbanisation. It is integrated rather than sectorial, transformative rather than fragmentary, and links urbanisation and human settlements to sustainable development by focusing on prosperity, livelihoods and employment. Looking forward to Habitat III Habitat III, in October 2016, deserves a special mention in this article. This will be the ďŹ rst UN global conference to be held after the adoption of the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals. It will largely focus on how to implement the urbanisation dimension of sustainable development and, hopefully, a new climate change agreement. The New Urban Agenda must therefore resonate with the letter and spirit of post-2015 sustainable development, the climate change discussion and the global social agenda. Only with this cohesive and inclusive approach can we truly harness urbanisation as an engine for sustainable development, growth and prosperity for all. Â&#x201E;

&T%NQUTGEGKXGFCIQNFOGFCNHTQOVJG4Q[CN+PUVKVWVGQH$TKVKUJ #TEJKVGEVUKPHQTVTCPUHQTOKPI$CTEGNQPCCPFKPJG YQPVJG70*CDKVCV5ETQNNQH*QPQWT#YCTF+P#RTKNJG was appointed the Secretary-General for 2016â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s UN Conference QP*QWUKPICPF5WUVCKPCDNG7TDCP&GXGNQROGPV*CDKVCV+++ The United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UNHabitat) has developed a unique position supporting urban development and the planning and building of a better urban future for next generations. UN-Habitatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s priorities are focused on seven areas: urban legislation, land and governance; urban planning and design; urban economy; urban basic services; JQWUKPICPFUNWOWRITCFKPITKUMTGFWEVKQPCPFTGJCDKNKVCVKQP urban research and capacity development. Website:

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7th Africities Summit « Shaping the Future of Africa with the People: African Local Government Contribution to the Africa 2063 Vision ».

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Infrastructure Investment & Development

Aviation: the next infrastructure growth frontier for Africa Tony Tyler, Director General and CEO of the International Air Transport Association (IATA), urges African governments and their stakeholders to continue investing in air transport so the continent can better realise its ideals of regional integration, peace and prosperity.


he great continent of Africa covers more than 30 million kilometres. It is home to more than a billion people. It is host to some of the most diverse and challenging terrain anywhere to be found – and in between its growing cities lie some of the most remote and inaccessible communities on earth. It is air transport that binds this incredible land together. Aviation is the lifeblood of Africa, supporting 6.9 million jobs and US$80 billion in GDP. It sends African goods and its people out into the world, and brings in economic investment, tourism, trade and aid. Without aviation, Africa would be a more fractured and constrained continent; with aviation, it can better realise its ideals of regional integration, peace and prosperity. But Africa’s aviation network is not without considerable challenges and troubles. We can celebrate the contribution of air transport to African development, but must not shirk tough decisions to improve it. Ill-conceived regulation, poor safety oversight, inadequate and costly infrastructure and restrictive air-service agreements are some of the most familiar issues. In particular, the high cost to airlines of doing business in Africa is a major impediment. Taxes and charges on infrastructure and fuel are much higher than the global average, and must be reduced. These issues, and more, are pressing concerns and must be addressed by governments, because a strong aviation system is the key to resolving many of Africa’s deepest problems in health, education and economic development. However, these issues should be placed in a new context: a future in which Africa becomes a thriving centre of aviation, even leading other regions by its example. The

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The nations of Africa have a unique opportunity not only to strengthen air transport, but to surpass many other traditional aviation powers. nations of Africa have a unique opportunity not only to strengthen air transport, but to surpass many other traditional aviation powers, who through neglect and poor strategic thinking have failed to maximise the potential air connectivity offers. Smarter regulation The fi rst opportunity to consider is regulation. Africa is fortunate that it has a chance to learn from the mistakes of others, particularly the EU and the US which have examples of the worst legislation in this area. This lesson can be learned by developing smarter regulation using best practice principles such as full consultation, consideration of unintended consequences, and a proportional approach. Unfortunately there are some examples where African states have not been following

Infrastructure Investment & Development

The high cost to airlines of doing business in Africa is a major impediment. smarter regulation principles. One is the response to Ebola, where the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines were not adhered to. Despite the WHO’s call that closing borders and adding restrictions was unhelpful, some African states did just that. Fortunately, some good lessons have been learned and in the future, states will be more aligned with the WHO’s consistent global approach. A second example comes from South Africa, where there was an absence of consultation with industry prior to the implementation of immigration regulations which require unabridged birth certificates for children travelling by air, and also for all travellers requiring visas to apply in person. These obstacles are deterring would-be visitors. There are encouraging signs, however, that the government is prepared to review and possibly re-craft the regulations. Certainly, the industry wants

to work with the South African government to help it achieve its laudable anti-child-trafficking objectives. Safety Smarter regulation also needs to be applied in a local context, where it can have the greatest effect. Aviation safety is a very clear example of this. Safety must always be our first priority, and smarter regulation offers an opportunity for Africa to show what can be achieved in terms of safety improvement. The all-accident rate for the region last year was 11.18 for every one million flights, higher than the global average. But the jet hull-loss rate last year was zero, better than the global average. Our challenge is to ensure this great performance continues. The 2014 result was a culmination of a number of initiatives set down by governments in their efforts to

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Infrastructure Investment & Development

Smarter regulation offers an opportunity for Africa to show what can be achieved in terms of safety improvement. meet the Abuja Declaration objectives. This momentum needs to continue and become established. Only 14 out of 54 African states comply with 60 per cent or more International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Standards and Recommended Practices, or SARPS. We would like to see national civil aviation authorities (CAAs) given greater resources and operational independence. We are working with a number of airlines to bring them onto the IATA Operational Safety Audit (IOSA) registry, to join the 27 airlines from sub-Saharan Africa which already benefit from this rigorous safety audit. For those airlines not eligible for IOSA, we have created the IATA Standard Safety Assessment (ISSA), giving even the smallest carrier the opportunity to benchmark its safety performance. The first ISSA workshop was held in Nairobi in June 2015. With government commitment, the adoption of global best practices and the continued vigilance and excellence of Africa’s aviation professionals, there is no reason why Africa cannot soon match the levels of aviation safety enjoyed in other regions of the world: and once that has been done, to keep making even more progress. Connectivity The problem of traffic rights restrictions within Africa has been an issue for many years. The Yamoussoukro Decision (YD) can be traced back to the 1990s. It committed its 44 signatory countries to deregulating air services and to opening regional air markets to transnational competition. Unfortunately, the implementation of this agreement has been slow, and the benefits have not been realised. To quantify some of those benefits, IATA commissioned independent economists to research the impact of applying the Decision to 12 key markets across Africa. The results were startling: intra-African liberalisation between these 12 markets would provide an extra 155,000 jobs and US$1.3 billion in annual GDP. A potential five million extra passengers a year would have the chance to travel. And the good news is that there are both established and new-entrant carriers ready to service this demand. Fast Jet is building a multi-national brand presence. SubSaharan Africa now has three major hubs in Ethiopia, Johannesburg, and Nairobi, and their home carriers are strong brands. Some have argued that opening up Africa’s skies will weaken African airlines, but I believe more traffic and more services opens up greater opportunities. Certainly, many African airlines are not thriving in the current climate. IATA’s June 2015 profit forecast for the industry calculated African airlines would make a collective profit of US$100 million this year, for a margin of only 0.8 per cent, the lowest of any region of the world.

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The logic for opening Africa’s skies is inescapable, and it is very encouraging to see the member states of the African Union commit themselves to implementing Yamoussoukro by 2017. We commend the 11 states that have signed up to full implementation of the YD since January 2015 and urge others to follow suit for their benefit and the overall benefit of Africa. (̩FLHQF\OHJLVODWLRQ Two other important pieces of regulation which we need African states to adopt without delay are the Montreal Convention 1999 (MC99) and the Montreal Protocol 2014 (MP14). They are both excellent examples of the common framework and global consistency elements of smarter regulation. MC99 establishes a standard approach to airline liability, delivering benefits to all stakeholders without creating a regulatory burden. It provides better protection and compensation to passengers, and it provides the legal framework for digital invoicing, meaning faster shipments for time-sensitive goods – something particularly important for Africa’s perishable export industry. It is reassuring to see that the majority of nations recently ratifying MC99 have come from Africa. A number of African states, however, such as Algeria, Angola, Ghana, Mauritius, Senegal and Uganda, are yet to ratify, and we hope they will do so soon. MP14 is an example of strong leadership from African states in developing effective global regulations. MP14 amends the 50-year-old Tokyo Convention on unruly passengers. Together with the initiatives already undertaken by airlines to prevent and manage unruly passengers, this important international law will act as a deterrent, giving states the legal powers they need to take action. African nations have been at the forefront, comprising 16 of the 28 states to sign it, and with Congo being the first in the world to ratify. We look forward to more African states ratifying MP14 and continuing to demonstrate leadership on this issue. We also urge states to implement the World Trade Organization Trade Facilitation Agreement. This Agreement promises enormous potential for countries to reduce transport costs by up to 10 per cent through more efficient facilitation, making them more competitive in the global economy. ,QIUDVWUXFWXUH Infrastructure is a challenge in Africa. Investment is certainly needed to create the right facilities to ensure the expected growth in passenger numbers can be accommodated. Development is welcome, but we must

There is no reason why Africa cannot soon match the levels of aviation safety enjoyed in other regions of the world.

Infrastructure Investment & Development

be careful, for over-investment will cripple the industry with a cost burden that will weigh down air connectivity. ICAO has very clear guidelines on infrastructure funding â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and Africa has an opportunity to be a leader in this ďŹ eld. Very few parts of the world get this balance right. IATA has recently signed a memorandum of understanding with the Mexican government to work together on the development of a new hub airport for Mexico City, and I hope that other states will follow the example by working closely with the industry, not just for new infrastructure, but for making the best use of existing facilities. No one knows better than an airline the level of air navigation and airport charges that enable a route to be viable, and the kind of amenities they need to support their passengers and aircraft efďŹ ciently. If African governments were to take the lead in genuinely consulting the users of the infrastructure before it gets funded, built or operated, they would soon ďŹ nd themselves with the right mix of facilities, growing lock-step with demand, providing the right level of worldclass quality, at the right price to maximise growth. Few, if any, regions would be able to boast of a comparable achievement.

As we move forward with this vital agenda for African aviation, it is critical we retain and build strong partnerships.


For too long, Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s aviation potential has been overlooked. But the reality is that Africa is a coming economic power in the world. Two decades ago, Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s market had the same potential as Chinaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s. Since then China has leaped far ahead. But Africa still has that potential â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and it must be developed correctly. Smarter regulation, and a focus on delivering the safety and connectivity commitments of the African Union, will be crucial to establishing Africa as a global aviation powerhouse. As we move forward with this vital agenda for African aviation, it is critical we retain and build strong partnerships. IATA has forged close relationships with governments and important institutions such as the AU and the African Development Bank. The transformative power of placing aviation at the heart of a nationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s economic strategy is a proven fact. When placed at the heart of an entire continent, aviation can drive an economic revolution. I regard it as a privilege to be a witness to Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s aviation revolution taking ďŹ&#x201A;ight. Â&#x201E;

The aviation industry is committed to meeting its carbon emissions targets. In particular, our goal of carbon-neutral growth from 2020 is of utmost priority. Airlines are making great strides with the adoption of new aircraft, more efďŹ cient operations, and better use of infrastructure. It is the adoption of a global marketbased mechanism (MBM), however, that will be the most important piece in the jigsaw. A global MBM can only be agreed by governments, working at ICAO. We are in a crucial period ahead of next yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Triennial Assembly, where a proposal for a global MBM to be implemented by 2020 must be agreed. I urge everyone to back these negotiations and for governments to commit to a workable solution. For their part, airlines have already suggested that a global offsetting scheme would be the most effective way forward. Another environmental issue, especially relevant to Africa, is the increasing amount of endangered animals

Tony Tyler has been Director General and CEO of the International Air Transport Association (IATA) since July 2011. With over three decades of airline industry experience, 6[NGTKUCUVTQPICFXQECVGHQTCUCHGUGEWTGGHĆ&#x2019;EKGPVCPF sustainable global air transport industry. In addition to spearheading such innovations as IATAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s new distribution capability, smarter airport security and management of the industryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s carbon footprint, he has overseen a major internal restructuring of IATA to improve the associationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s organisational effectiveness in delivering greater value to its members. Prior to joining IATA, Tyler built his career at John Swire & Sons in Hong Kong, rising to become Chief 'ZGEWVKXGQH%CVJC[2CEKĆ&#x2019;E#KTYC[U  &WTKPIVJCV time he served on the IATA Board of Governors, including as its Chairman from June 2009 to June 2010. He has broad

and plants illegally trafďŹ cked by air. At the IATA AGM in June, we signed a memorandum of understanding with CITES, the UN body responsible for the safe transit of wildlife. We will be working together to put an end to this trade. Africa is home to many of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most precious and endangered animals. It is my hope that together, we can play our part in ensuring this amazing biological inheritance is not lost. 9LWDOGHYHORSPHQWDJHQGD

international working experience in Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, the Philippines and the UK. He is a Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society. 7KH,QWHUQDWLRQDO$LU7UDQVSRUW$VVRFLDWLRQ ,$7$ is the trade association for the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s airlines, representing some CKTNKPGUQTRGTEGPVQHVQVCNCKTVTCHĆ&#x2019;E9GUWRRQTVOCP[ areas of aviation activity and help formulate industry policy on critical aviation issues. A guiding concept of IATAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s structure is ŧ)NQDCN&GXGNQROGPV4GIKQPCN&GNKXGT[ŨYJGTGVJG*GCF1HĆ&#x2019;EG divisions drive the development of global standards, systems CPFCFXQECE[RQUKVKQPUYJKNGVJGTGIKQPCNCPFEQWPVT[QHĆ&#x2019;EGU are responsible for implementation. :HEVLWHLDWDRUJ

CHOGM 2015 Report 213

USING TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE TO DRIVE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC GROWTH A CASE STUDY OF THE FUFULSO – SAWLA ROAD PROJECT IN GHANA A NEW APPROACH TO ROAD SECTOR INVESTMENT IN GHANA The Ministry of Roads and Highways implements its policies, programmes and projects through the Ghana Highway Authority, the Department of Feeder Roads, the Department of Urban Roads, the Road Fund Secretariat and the Koforidua Training Centre.

His Excellency John Dramani Mahama, President of the Republic of Ghana. H.E. President John Dramani Mahama envisages that the roads and highways of Ghana should play a leading role in providing an integrated, efficient, costeffective and sustainable transportation system, which is responsive to the needs of the country’s society, supports its growth, reduces poverty and is capable of establishing and maintaining Ghana as a key transportation hub of West Africa.

In order to implement H.E. President Mahama’s overarching vision for the road sector, under the able leadership of Hon. Alhaji Inusah Fuseini (MP), left, the Ministry has embarked on a gradual paradigm shift from the wisdom of conventional road construction. Where previously the focus was simply on the road network itself, the emphasis now is more on the social needs of the catchment areas for the projects, especially along the major road corridors in the country.

This new concept ensures the provision of social services such as schools, potable water, health facilities, alternative livelihood opportunities, tourism infrastructure and markets, amongst others, and considers the construction of road infrastructure as a coordinated and incremental form of development, with immense economic and social returns.

THE FUFULSO – SAWLA ROAD PROJECT Started in 2012 and completed over the summer of 2015, the road improvement project linking Fufulso and Sawla in the north of Ghana formed part of H.E. President Mahama’s policy to link the regional capitals together with good quality, all-weather roads. In the President’s August 2015 speech to inaugurate the road, he noted that whereas this policy had been successful for most of the regional capitals in the southern part of the country, the same could not have been said of the north, especially between Tamale and Wa and, similarly, between Bolgatanga and Wa. This gave rise to the

the region, and Wa, capital of the Upper West and functions as Ghana’s gateway to Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso, and corridor towards Bobo Dioulasso, that country’s economic capital.

The Damongo grain store. Fufulso-Sawla Road Project to address the development constraints caused by the poor road infrastructure in one of the most impoverished and isolated regions of Ghana. The aim was to enhance accessibility and improve livelihoods, in line with the Ministry’s objective to provide an integrated, viable and sustainable transport infrastructure and meet the ECOWAS regional integration goals. It was envisaged that completion of the project would lead to an improved access to public transport in all seasons, to reduce transportation costs between Fufulso and Sawla, to more tourists visiting the area, to a lower traffic mortality rate and to better access to potable water and healthcare. Costs, exclusive of taxes, duties and coordination expenses, were around $157m, which were jointly financed by an African Development Bank grant and the Ghanaian government’s contribution of compensation payments for resettlement and the coordination costs.

THE LINK TO THE COUNTRY’S STRATEGY AND OBJECTIVES The strategic vision of the Medium Term National Development Policy Framework of 2010-2013, also known as the Ghana Shared Growth and Development Agenda, aimed to reduce poverty, achieve the Millennium Development Goals, work towards Ghana reaching middleincome status by 2020 and see the country become a leading agro-industrial nation. The importance of transport infrastructure is highlighted as a key enabler for socio-economic development and poverty reduction and also prominent in the manifesto of the ruling National Democratic Congress. The Fufulso-Sawla Road Project was a high priority for the trunk road network of Ghana. It now enhances regional and national integration, serves as the shortest distance link between Tamale, the largest city in Northern Ghana and capital city of

The Fufulso-Sawla Road Project will now expand markets beyond national boundaries and foster a conducive and enabling environment for the private sector and for attracting Foreign Direct Investment. In addition to enhancing trade and strengthening regional integration, the Project is expected to contribute to poverty reduction in both countries by increasing access to markets and social services for the surrounding areas and communities, and by empowering the rural poor, women and other disadvantaged groups through a better roadside socio-economic infrastructure and services. Despite their vast resources and potential, the three districts of Central Gonja, West Gonja and Sawla-Tuna-Kalba along the road corridor were amongst the most deprived areas in Ghana. In 2012, only a third of households along the road had access to safe water, far below the regional and national averages. The majority of households relied on unsafe sources such as dug-out dams for drinking water, most of which dried-up during the dry season, and contributed to high instances of water-borne diseases there. The previous Fufulso-Sawla road should already have been playing an important role in the development of the area, but many sections were impassable during the raining season. Public transport was minimal and the journey took up to four times longer than it should. The poor quality of the road was also a deterrent to recruiting and retaining many health and education professionals in those districts, with doctor-patient ratios three times lower than the national average and a scarcity of community health infrastructure being a constraint to quality of health service delivery.

Fufulso - Sawla Road.

Fufulso market. Educational infrastructure along the road was also inadequate, with some classes held in sheds or under trees. Primary school enrolment was moderate and well below the regional and national averages. For most women in the region, earning an income involves trading foodstuff. There is ready market for these products in the cities, but the poor quality road made transportation difficult. In addition, the route traverses a key agricultural area which accounts for a quarter of total food production in the region, and some of Ghana’s most important tourist sites, such as the Mole National Park, the Larabanga Historic Mosque and the Mystic Stone are found along the road corridor.

ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGES To counter these issues, an ancillary works component was incorporated into the Project and key socio-economic infrastructures such as boreholes, schools, community-based health centres, an accident and emergency centre, markets, lorry parks and access roads to tourist sites were either built or rehabilitated. In addressing MDG gender concerns, an assessment approach informed the design of the Project and specific interventions were included to promote gender equality, enhance women’s economic empowerment and increase their voice and participation in household and community affairs. The road construction created jobs for women either as unskilled or skilled labourers, as well as opportunities for ancillary activities such as cooking at construction sites. More long-term and sustainable earning opportunities will also be created through this investment which now provides improved mobility and access to trading markets. The availability of potable water, with reduced walking and waiting, and the improved health services also frees time for women to engage in other activities, and will particularly improve girls’ attendance in school, an investment whose long term poverty reducing effects are significant.

• Tourist numbers sre also expected to be increased. The Mole National Park, the largest national park in Ghana, is located directly along the Fufulso-Sawla Road and construction of the road should lead to an increase in both domestic and international tourists. Already, private investors are benefitting by upgrading and, in some cases, building new infrastructure at the Mole Game Reserve, in anticipation of an increased number of visitors to the reserve, where construction of the new road will ease what was hitherto a great bottleneck. Furthermore, the construction of the infrastructure in support of tourism, such as signage, lay-bys and parking, will help further increase the tourism revenues and create jobs locally.

The Fufulso water treatment plant

ECONOMIC BENEFITS • The Fufulso-Sawla Road Project on its own provided employment for local artisans and labourers and this has resulted in an injection of wealth into the local economies. Expected multiplier effects are improved savings, increased capital for further investment and increased purchasing power. • The road is also expected to yield an increased productivity of goods and services in the communities. A boost to economic activities such as farming and trading, which are the prevalent occupations of the region, is now anticipated. Farmers can now travel outside their communities to access better markets in the district, the regional capitals and beyond, and earn better prices for their crops. • Diversification of the local economy is another anticipated impact of the road. By building market centres in the communities along the route, it is expected that more people will engage in commercial activities. The completion of the road should now further attract different commercial, industrial and service enterprises to these communities and, directly related to this diversification of the economy, will be the creation of more job opportunities.

• By opening up the area, the road will improve access to agricultural inputs and markets. Due to its previously poor condition, transportation had been largely by head portage and bicycles. With the completion of the road, there will be increased vehicular traffic and improved mobility, thereby lightening the transport burden on women. • Given that women along the road corridor derive their income from petty trading and agro-processing, the construction of the four markets will promote trading activities. The market designs included storage places and separate wash rooms for men and women.

ROAD SAFETY Key road safety measures were similarly incorporated into the Project. Road crashes kill an average of four people a day in Ghana. Three-quarters of these crashes occur on flat and straight roads, with speeding the major cause in over half of these. Pedestrians continue to be the most vulnerable road user group, accounting for more than 40 percent of the annual fatalities. Without any mitigation measures, the number of fatalities and injuries would be expected to significantly increase, with more traffic and greater speeds allowed by the road improvements. Therefore the Fufulso-Sawla Road Project design included speed calming devices and signs on the approach to all settled areas, with signs in the vicinity of the Mole Park warning of the danger to traffic posed by the wildlife. Road safety awareness campaigns have also been organised, in partnership with the Road Safety Commission of Ghana,

and the construction of a fully equipped accident centre attached to the Damongo District Hospital, along with provision of ambulances should ensure urgent medical attention to accident and trauma victims is possible.

Fufulso lorry park and market. Lastly, the lorry parks built under the Project will also serve as rest stops for transit drivers and be an added benefit for road safety, where fatigue is one of the main contributory factors to road traffic accidents.

CONCLUSION As an infrastructure development which combines regional economic integration, private sector involvement, agricultural and trade support, particularly focusing on gender and the youth, the FufulsoSawla Road Project is acknowledged as a model to now replicate throughout Ghana and beyond. In several ways unique, it provided an integrated solution that helps tackle many socio-economic issues through just one project and thus unlock the economic potential of the area, create jobs and generate sustainable income, reduce poverty and ensure a broad socioeconomic development. The Project stands out as a flagship in terms of its inclusive all-in-one packaging, providing a holistic response to the socio-economic needs for the region, immediately transforming the lives of its communities, particularly for women and children, and availing basic services including access to clean drinking water - quality services for health and education and opening up the whole region for trade within Ghana and across the borders. It has been noted that the Fufulso-Sawla Road Project has yielded unprecedented results and benefits within the area; a clear testament of H.E President John Mahama’s commitment of ensuring a “BETTER GHANA FOR ALL”.

Infrastructure Investment & Development

The power and promise of infrastructure Uhuru Kenyatta, President of the Republic of Kenya, looks at the transformative potential of infrastructure in Kenya. He asserts that lack of investment can lead to stagnation, but investment in infrastructure, such as the Standard Gauge Railway, can unify and transform East Africa’s prospects.


t can sometimes seem that the Kenyan past is not quite past. Everywhere one turns, there are reminders – disputes, reconsiderations, memorials – of our history. That may explain why we remain in the Commonwealth – despite our complicated, and sometimes deeply unpleasant, shared history with Britain. But it is worth thinking through a neglected aspect of our past, and its connection to the present. Few now remember just how controversial the somewhat oddlynamed Uganda railway was at the time of its construction. There seemed little justification for spending the money, and still less chance of ever getting it back. But the railway was built. It would be an exaggeration, but only a minor one, to say that a country grew up around it. In all sorts of ways, the railway made the country: the city from which I now write would not be here, were it not for the railway. Academic studies, and the everyday experience of our people, show that our patterns of trade and travel bear the stamp of those old tracks.

In all sorts of ways, the railway made the country: the city from which I now write would not be here, were it not for the railway. CHOGM 2015 Report 217

Infrastructure Investment & Development

The new railway shows the ambition, resolve and solidarity of all East Africa.

That was then – and this is now. In the intervening years, many of us in Africa managed to convince ourselves that infrastructure did not matter too much. We were joined in our forgetfulness by some of our foreign friends. In hindsight, this mistake is barely comprehensible. We all know that supplying reliable electricity to a school stretches our children’s study time; and that reliable roads mean our farmers’ produce will find new markets, and reach old ones on time. How did these facts escape us? I cannot say. What I can say is that we in Kenya, with others in the region, have rediscovered the power and promise of infrastructure. Just as Britain reshaped the country by building its Uganda railway here, so we too are looking to transform our and the region’s prospects by building a new Standard Gauge Railway, to run from Mombasa to Malaba, and thence to Kampala in Uganda, before unifying the entire region. The new railway shows the ambition, resolve and solidarity of all East Africa. We know that we cannot prosper unless our neighbours do. We know that unless we join hands, the developments we seek will escape us. That is why we have come together in this, and other infrastructure projects, to truly transform our region.

Where infrastructure spending differs from the common run of other realworld investment is in its transformative potential. H.E. Uhuru Kenyatta, CGH, was sworn in as the fourth President of Kenya on 9 April 2013, following the victory of the Jubilee alliance he led in the general election of March 2013. After a start in business, Kenyatta turned to politics in 1997, entering parliament as a nominated member in 1999, and the cabinet as Minister for Local Government in October 2001. In 2002, he was elected one of the KANU party’s four national vice-chairs, but lost to Mwai Kibaki in the presidential election, and subsequently served as the Leader of the Opposition. He was appointed Minister for Local Government in January 2008 in Kibaki’s presidency, going on to serve as Minister for Finance and Deputy Prime Minister until 2012. He was recently voted chair of the Africa Peer Review Mechanism (APRM).

218 CHOGM 2015 Report

Credit: The Kenya Railways Corporation

Cooperative transformation

The Standard Gauge Railway will connect Mombasa to Malaba

Of course, there will be setbacks, and disappointments. Some of our investments in infrastructure will not work, or will work less well than we hoped. In that, they are no different from any other real world investment. Where infrastructure spending differs from the common run of other real-world investment is in its transformative potential – as we have found out over the course of our project to light up every primary school in our republic, and as we have found out in the course of bringing thousands more megawatts to our grid. Children who would once have had to stop studying, or strain their eyes under lamps, now study easily in electric light. Businesses which would not have considered Kenya in the past have made it clear that they are now happy to consider us, given the extra power on hand. I am glad that Kenya is at the very front of this rediscovery of infrastructure. But, as I said, we will prosper with our friends and neighbours. So I would be glad to consider new ties with other members interested in our push, and to advise or to help in any way I can. These are exciting times for Africa, and the Commonwealth. Let us also make them productive ones. „

The Republic of Kenya administration under President Kenyatta has prioritised health, infrastructure, and PanAfrican engagement. The Northern Corridor, connecting the port of Mombasa with Kampala, Kigali, Bujumbura and the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, has been revitalised. The inauguration of the LAPSSET project – under which Kenya is forging partnerships with investors to build a highway, an oil pipeline, a railway line and a seaport in Lamu, connecting South Sudan and Ethiopia – is a measure of the administration’s ambition. Another key infrastructure venture is the Standard Gauge Railway, whose construction has already begun.

Infrastructure Investment & Development

Power, People, Planet: seizing Africa’s energy and climate opportunities Olusegun Obasanjo, former President of Nigeria and member of the Africa Progress Panel, calls for ambitious, GHƒEKGPVCPFRTQRGTN[ƒPCPEGFOWNVKNCVGTCNEQQRGTCVKQPVQ OGGV#HTKECŨUGPGTI[EJCNNGPIGU


an the world prevent catastrophic climate change while building the energy systems needed to sustain growth, create jobs and lift millions of people out of poverty? That question goes to the heart of the defining development challenges of the 21st century. This year’s Africa Progress Report, Power, People, Planet: Seizing Africa’s Energy and Climate Opportunities, calls for determined leadership to answer it affirmatively. Africa (along with several other regions across the Commonwealth) is already

experiencing earlier and more damaging impacts of climate change than many other parts of the world. For some time, we have lacked the political leadership and practical policies needed to break the link between energy and emissions. The December 2015 talks in Paris on a new global climate treaty have prompted some notable forward steps from several of the world’s most influential countries. We now need to see more of such leadership across the board to truly set us on a new course.

Infrastructure Investment & Development

We can expand our power generation and achieve universal access to energy by leapfrogging into new technologies. A coherent set of demands Greater cohesion among African countries is essential to success – in terms of the positions they take to Paris, as well as in how they negotiate. A coherent set of common African demands will be critical if the world is to raise the level of ambition needed for the Paris talks to end with a viable global climate agreement. Additionally, engaged political leadership at the highest levels between African and likeminded countries is crucial. We therefore encourage the initiatives and efforts under way to ensure such leadership – before, during and beyond the Paris talks. In that regard, ambitious leadership from Commonwealth Heads of State and Government will be instrumental in ensuring we reach a deal in Paris that the lays the foundations for the transition to a low-carbon future. Africa’s leaders must push for ‘development first’ – while emphasising that it is possible for Africa to expand its economies and improve the well-being of its citizens by choosing a low-carbon path. Some countries in the region are already at the front of the global trend of climateresilient, low-carbon development, including Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa. They are boosting economic growth, expanding opportunities and reducing poverty, particularly through agriculture. African nations do not have to lock into developing high-carbon old technologies; we can expand our power generation and achieve universal access to energy by leapfrogging into new technologies that are transforming energy systems across the world. A strong African voice promoting the opportunities for a ‘triple win’ in energy, climate action and poverty reduction can up the tempo for a scaling-up of low-carbon energy investment, not just on the continent, but globally. The recent G7 pledge to increase investments in the African renewables sector is the latest powerful acknowledgement from some of the world’s major emitters of the important role Africa can play. Access to electricity Africa stands to gain from developing low-carbon energy, and the world stands to gain from Africa avoiding the high-carbon pathway followed by today’s rich world and emerging markets. Unlocking this opportunity will not be easy. It will require decisive action on the part of Africa’s leaders, not least in reforming inefficient, inequitable and often corrupt utilities that have failed to develop flexible energy systems to provide firms with a reliable power supply and people with access to electricity.

220 CHOGM 2015 Report

Africa’s energy challenge is substantial. Over 600 million people still do not have access to modern energy. It is shocking that sub-Saharan Africa’s electricity consumption is less than that of Spain, and on current trends it will take until 2080 to for every African to have access to electricity. Modern energy also means clean cooking facilities that do not pollute household air. An estimated 600,000 Africans die each year as a result of household air pollution, half of them children under the age of five. On current trends, universal access to non-polluting cooking will not happen until the middle of the 22nd century. The waste of scarce resources in Africa’s energy systems remains stark and disturbing. Current highly centralised energy systems often benefit the rich and bypass the poor, and are underpowered, inefficient and unequal. Energy-sector bottlenecks and power shortages cost the region 2-4 per cent of GDP annually, undermining sustainable economic growth, jobs and investment. They also reinforce poverty, especially for women and people in rural areas. It is indefensible that Africa’s poorest people are paying among the world’s highest prices for energy: a woman living in a village in northern Nigeria spends around 60 to 80 times per unit more for her energy than a resident of New York City or London. Changing this is a huge investment opportunity. Millions of energy-poor, disconnected Africans, who earn less than US$2.50 a day, already constitute a US$10billion yearly energy market. 5HGLUHFWLQJ̧QDQFH What would it take to expand power generation and finance energy for all? We estimate that investment of US$55 billion per year is needed until 2030 to meet demand and achieve universal access to electricity. One of the greatest barriers to the transformation of the power sector is the low level of tax collection and the failure of governments to build credible tax systems. Domestic taxes can cover almost half the financing gap in sub-Saharan Africa. Redirecting the US$21 billion spent on subsidies to wasteful utilities and kerosene towards productive energy investment, social protection and targeted connectivity for the poor would show that governments are ready to do things differently. Additional revenues can be mobilised by stemming the haemorrhage of finance lost through illicit financial transfers, narrowing opportunities for tax evasion and borrowing cautiously on bond markets. In 2012, Africa lost US$69 billion from illicit financial flows. G8 and G20 countries must act on past commitments to strengthen tax-disclosure requirements, prevent the creation of shell companies and counteract money laundering. Implementation of the G20/OECD’s planned actions on

It is shocking that subSaharan Africa’s electricity consumption is less than that of Spain.

Infrastructure Investment & Development

Long-term national interest must override short-term political gain, vested interests, corruption and political patronage. base erosion and proďŹ t shifting should be accelerated; and the international community should support African efforts to strengthen tax and customs. Aid must play a supportive, catalytic role. Global and African investment institutions already see the growth and revenue prospects of African infrastructure in a world where demand is slowing in developed countries. Reforming energy utilities is also key. Long-term national interest must override short-term political gain, vested interests, corruption and political patronage. Energy-sector governance and ďŹ nancial transparency will help bring light in the darkness. Energy entrepreneurs can join the reformed utilities in investing revenues and energy funds in sustainable power that saves the planet and pays steady dividends. Act now and act together Better and more accessible energy can also power up Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s agriculture. Governments should take advantage of adaptation opportunities that integrate social protection with climate-smart strategies to raise agricultural productivity and to develop rural infrastructure, including crop storage, agro-processing and transport, cutting poverty while strengthening international efforts to combat climate change. Governments in the major emitting countries should place a stringent price on emissions of greenhouse gases by taxing them, instead of continuing effectively to subsidise them, for example by spending billions on subsidies for fossil-fuel exploration. In our latest report, we call for a comprehensive phase-out of all fossil fuel subsidies


by 2025, with appropriate support for low-income countries. Eliminating subsidies for fossil-fuel exploration and production â&#x20AC;&#x201C; especially coal â&#x20AC;&#x201C; should be a priority. The political power of multinational energy companies and other vested interest groups is still far too strong. Developed countries should withdraw by 2018 all tax concessions, royalty relief and ďŹ scal transfers, and all state aid to fossil-fuel industries by 2020. The G20 countries should set a timetable for acting on their commitment to phase out fossil-fuel subsidies, with early action on coal. Unlocking Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s energy potential and putting in place the foundations for a climate-resilient, low-carbon future will require ambitious, efďŹ cient and properly ďŹ nanced multilateral cooperation. Yet the current global climate ďŹ nance architecture fails each of these credibility tests. The window of opportunity for avoiding climate catastrophe is closing fast. The only promises that matter at the Paris climate summit are those that are kept. Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s leaders must rise to the challenge. They are the voice of their citizens in the climate talks â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and that voice must be heard. Business leaders, religious leaders of all faiths, social movements and the leaders of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cities must continue to pressure political leaders to reach an ambitious Paris climate agreement, backed by carbon pricing and taxation. Representing a combined population of 2.1 billion people, almost a third of humanity, the leaders of the Commonwealth group of nations can individually and collectively play an instrumental role in implementing, to paraphrase the late Mahatma Gandhi, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;the change we wish to seeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. Together we can create an overwhelming force for change to avert climate catastrophe and win the war against poverty. We must us act now and act together. Â&#x201E;


CHOGM 2015 Report 221


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Infrastructure Investment & Development

Overcoming the energy challenge in South Africa Jacob Zuma, President of South Africa, explains how the country is responding to the serious power constraints that have haunted South Africa over the last few years, and outlines the strategy for achieving future energy security.


he debilitating energy challenges that South Africa has been experiencing since 2008 until some few months back are rapidly becoming a thing of the past. These challenges arose mainly from rapid economic growth and electricity consumption that outpaced the country’s power generation capacity. Over these years, government has made decisive interventions in the energy sector, expanding the country’s generation capacity and diversifying energy sources, which included the involvement of independent energy providers (IPPs) as well as exploration of green energy sources, and this has improved the country’s energy situation enormously. In addressing the energy challenges in December 2014, the Economic Sectors, Employment and Infrastructure Development Ministers’ Cluster, and subsequently the Cabinet, adopted a Five Point Plan advancing immediate and short-term interventions (over the next three years) to limit ‘load shedding’ (managed reduction of load

On their own, energy efficiency programmes involving the public and the private sector have resulted in a 450MW electricity saving. CHOGM 2015 Report 223

Infrastructure Investment & Development

President Zuma at the Medupi Power Station.

The IPPPP programme has been designed to procure renewable energy from green sources – wind and solar power, solar PV and small hydro, biomass, biogas and landfill gas. to avoid a total blackout) and enhance the electricity generation utility Eskom’s strategic developmental role. This was to be achieved by ensuring improved plant reliability, among other measures, while also building

224 CHOGM 2015 Report

new energy supply capacity. To implement the Five Point Plan, the government established a Technical Implementation War-room on the Electricity Crisis, comprising seven government departments led by the Deputy President, Mr Cyril Ramaphosa, working together with Eskom. The strategies adopted have so far yielded substantial advances in curtailing electricity deficiencies. Some of these measures include ShortTerm Power Purchase (STPP) agreements that Eskom concluded to secure additional electricity supply to offset shortfalls arising from maintenance and huge peak hour demand. In addition, on their own, energy efficiency programmes involving the public and the private sector have resulted in a 450MW electricity saving. Plans are also afoot to procure more than 7,000 MW, and ministerial determinations to this effect have already been made in August 2015. As everyone can attest, these interventions have ensured a progressive decline in load shedding in the country, and we remain upbeat about their sustainability

Infrastructure Investment & Development

A competitive procurement approach has resulted in considerable tariff savings. going forward. This is has already had a salutary effect on our economy, and countered any views of an impending catastrophe in our power supply. Private supply options

has been delivered to the power system during peak demand periods and has consequently alleviated constraints in domestic power supply. A competitive procurement approach has resulted in considerable tariff savings. Also signiďŹ cant for South Africa is a strong developmental dimension that the IPPPP also incorporates. For example, 48 per cent of independent power producer construction spend has been procured from local suppliers against a contractual commitment of 43 per cent. Also, South Africans have been granted 47 per cent of IPP ownership, against a 40 per cent requirement, while 29 per cent went to black South Africans as part of broadening black economic empowerment, and about 19,050 jobs have so far been created. A total of R19.1 billion has been committed to socio-economic development initiatives across bidding window one to four, which is 120 per cent more than the minimum compliance threshold over the 20 year project operational life. An amount of R15.1 billion has speciďŹ cally been allocated to the local communities in which IPPs operate, including to enterprise development initiatives.

The Independent Power Producers Procurement Programme (IPPPP), adopted in 2010, has been a very effective way of securing electricity from private suppliers at very competitive prices, signiďŹ cantly turning the tide in the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s energy supply. This has been made possible through the utilisation of a rolling bid-window programme, which increases competition among bidders, resulting in reasonable prices. The IPPPP programme has been designed to procure renewable energy from green sources â&#x20AC;&#x201C; wind and solar power, solar PV and small hydro, biomass, biogas and landďŹ ll gas. It is also intended to contribute towards socio-economic development and environmentally sustainable growth, and to stimulate the renewable energy industry in South Africa. As indicated, independent power producers have made an enormous contribution to our national energy yield. An independent study by the South African Council for ScientiďŹ c and Industrial Research (CSIR) shows that in the ďŹ rst six months of 2015 the Renewable Energy IPPPP has generated around two terawatt-hours of electricity, including 800 MWh from wind and 1,000 MWh from solar PV. This has created net ďŹ nancial beneďŹ ts for the economy of around R4 billion, and further billions of rands saved from fuel purchases required for coal and diesel-based power generation. The CSIR had recorded similar results in a preceding study on the ďŹ nancial beneďŹ ts of renewables to the South African economy in 2014. This economic beneďŹ t is projected to increase as more renewable electrical energy is fed into the national grid. As of 30 June 2015, under four bidding windows of the Renewable Energy IPPPP, 6,328 MW of electricity has been successfully procured, that is, a total 91.4 per cent of the 2019 target of 6,925 MW renewable energy, contributing 1,860 MW of electrical generation capacity from 37 independent power producers to the national grid. About 14 per cent of the generated capacity in Q1 2015/16

It is important to highlight that our IPPPP also incorporates strong environmental sustainability and compliance dimensions.

H E President Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma, President of the Republic of South Africa, became an active member of the African National Congress (ANC) during the 1950s, the decade of draconian apartheid laws. He was imprisoned on Robben Island for ten years at the age of 21, in 1963, for taking part in sabotage activities. After being forced into exile in 1975, he continued to take part in underground work supporting internal resistance, allied with former

President Thabo Mbeki and others. After the release of Nelson Mandela and the unbanning of political organisations in 1990, he secretly returned to South Africa, and was appointed as the Deputy President of the Republic in 1999. Mr Zuma was inaugurated as President of the Republic for JKUĆ&#x2019;TUVVGTOKP1PGQHVJGMG[CEJKGXGOGPVUQHVJG administration has been the development of the National Development Plan, Vision 2030.

The low carbon dimension With these milestones, it is important to highlight that our IPPPP also incorporates strong environmental sustainability and compliance dimensions, in line with the National Climate Change Response Policy targets, and this is one of most prominent bid compliance criteria. In line with the national commitment to transition to a low carbon economy, 17,800 MW (or 41.8%) of the 2030 target are expected to be from renewable energy sources other than hydro, while the remainder should be met from coal (14.7%), gas (14.8%), nuclear (22.6%) and hydroelectricity (6.1%). We have, therefore, as a country made enormous strides with regard to energy security, with a consequent pronounced economic boost. Â&#x201E;

CHOGM 2015 Report 225

Infrastructure Investment & Development

A smart Commonwealth – our moral obligation Shola Taylor, Secretary-General of the Commonwealth Telecommunications Organisation (CTO), charts the progress of Commonwealth member states in information-based cooperation and economic development, and emphasises VJTGGURGEKƒECTGCUQHRGTHQTOCPEGVJCVFGUGTXGCVVGPVKQP


’ve chosen Joe Biden to be my running mate”, announced Barack Obama by SMS to his supporters in 2008 when he ran for president of the United States of America for the fi rst time, consecrating text messaging as a powerful, instant and readily accessible means of mass communication that could rival the press, radio and television networks. Although they became generation-defining icons, many inventions such as the phonograph, plastic and more recent ones such as the short message service (SMS) were discovered by chance or seen initially as of little application. Their impact was simply unexpected. Much older inventions discovered in the same way, such as paper, have not marked only generations, they have defined entire civilisations. Like paper, voice telephony, SMS, e-mails and the internet have also brought unexpected but dramatic changes to our lives, though much more quickly. Our

Many, especially among younger generations, now live mostly a cyberlife, learning, socialising, shopping or voting predominantly online. 226 CHOGM 2015 Report

habits are changing rapidly; many, especially among younger generations, now live mostly a cyberlife, learning, socialising, shopping or voting predominantly online. Businesses operating in virtual environments are also on the increase. And as with paper once, governments have today the opportunity to use these new information and communication technologies (ICT) to manage and deliver more effectively public services and engage us as true e-citizens. A sense of shared purpose Yet, in most Commonwealth countries, this transformation could be far more inclusive than it is at present; while many Commonwealth citizens have uninterrupted access to ICTs, many more remain excluded from our emerging e-societies. For the most excluded, owning a phone, making a phone call or browsing the internet remains out of reach or too economically prohibitive. Just as paper once was. Today, we have resolutely entered the information economy, and this economy is ever more creative, more global, more competitive and increasingly borderless. Used separately or in combination, ICTs can empower our citizens to be part of this new economy and help engage them in public life in radically different and far more efficient ways. Each of our member nations has something to offer in the new information age. However, to succeed we must arm ourselves with the right visions, policies, frameworks and resources. For Commonwealth nations, the challenge is not merely to embrace new technologies, but to embrace

Infrastructure Investment & Development

Table 1. Top 10 Commonwealth countries by overall networked readiness

Table 2. Top 10 Commonwealth countries by political and regulatory environment


World Rank


World Rank

1. Singapore


1. Singapore


2. United Kingdom


2. New Zealand


3. Canada


3. United Kingdom


4. Australia


4. Canada


5. New Zealand


5. Australia


6. Malta


6. Malaysia


7. Malaysia


7. South Africa


8. Cyprus


8. Rwanda


9. Barbados


9. Mauritius


10. Mauritius


10. Malta


Source: WEF NRI

and adopt these technologies with a strong and explicit sense of purpose, building on our shared values. Singapore is one such country that embarked early in the ICT adoption process. According to the World Economic Forum (WEF) in their Global Information Technology Report 2015, the city-state is now the first country in the world by networked readiness, a measure of countries’ capacity to make use of the possibilities offered by ICTs in their economic development (Table 1). Many countries of comparable landmass or GDP are well below in the rankings. This result should not be surprising; Singapore is reaching this year the end of iN2015, its sixth national ICT strategy since 1980, when most countries are still implementing their second or third ICT plan. And despite this achievement, Singapore still nourishes the vision to become the world’s first ‘smart nation’. WEF’s Networked Readiness Index (NRI) is a composite indicator made up of 53 individual indicators grouped into four main sub-indexes. Many of these measures show that most Commonwealth countries have significant gaps to close. The first nine indicators assess countries’ political and regulatory environment (Table 2). Three progress areas Although ICTs must not be an end in themselves, a key role of the Commonwealth Telecommunications Organisation is to assist member countries in establishing a conducive policy and regulatory environment that enables them to develop their ICT sector and permeate the use of these technologies in sectors they see as critical to their economic development. To this end, the CTO’s efforts are focused on three specific areas of importance: • Development of conducive national policies for ICTs • Establishment of effective regulatory environments, and • Effective participation in international decision-making meetings and treaties. Conducive national policies for ICTs. Continued technological innovation in ICTs has brought unprecedented opportunities for government, businesses and citizens. The growing contribution of ICTs to

Source: WEF NRI

A key role of the Commonwealth Telecommunications Organisation is to assist member countries in establishing a conducive policy and regulatory environment. the economic development of countries, through e-government, e-commerce, e-education, e-health and numerous other applications makes the case for a special place for ICTs in national and regional development programmes highly compelling. Universal access to services such as telecommunications, broadcasting and the internet; universal and affordable broadband access to the internet; and a secure, safer and resilient cyberspace are challenges that require adequate policies to attract investment and mainstream the use of ICTs. To be effective, these policies must emanate from ambitious visions that place these technologies at the centre of national development efforts. Most Commonwealth countries have developed a range of policies, including for broadband access and cybersecurity. The challenge is now one of implementation, and we must continue to join forces as a collaborative group of nations to mutually support these efforts. Enabling regulatory environments. The regulatory environment of our member countries is equally important to encouraging investment and innovation in ICTs. Regulatory visibility, regulatory transparency and regulatory effectiveness can be hindered by various

CHOGM 2015 Report 227

Infrastructure Investment & Development

factors, starting with the very governance of regulatory agencies. Indeed, in many member countries, governmentappointed members of boards of regulatory agencies come from a variety of professional backgrounds; however, they are not necessarily familiar with the ICT sector, and this often contributes to reducing the effectiveness of these agencies. Within the Commonwealth framework, we launched a capacity and governance programme in 2013 to apprise board members of regulatory agencies of key ICT industry and regulatory concepts, models and trends. This programme has quickly evolved to attract not only board members, but also senior civil servants, directors-general of regulatory agencies and parliamentarians. Beyond governance issues, we must continue to address and build membersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; capacity in key areas of regulatory intervention, such as universal service obligations, competition, quality of service, tariffs and consumer protection.

To be effective, these policies must emanate from ambitious visions that place these technologies at the centre of national development efforts.

Effective participation in international treaties and forums. In addition to innovation, the development of the ICT sector is governed predominantly by internationally agreed treaties, rules, standards and norms. Whether these treaties address international trade rules on the trade of goods or services (e.g. General Agreement on Trade in Services), the use of the electromagnetic spectrum for radio communications (e.g. World Radiocommunication Conference â&#x20AC;&#x201C; WRC), international standards for telecommunication networks (e.g. World Telecommunication Standardisation Assembly), or ICT development priorities (e.g. World Telecommunication Development Conference), they are agreements that are arrived at or amended through negotiations, sometimes ďŹ erce. During such negotiations, it is important that the

In early October 2015, Commonwealth countries held a coordination meeting in preparation for the 2015 WRC. The meeting resulted in the adoption of a Commonwealth Action Plan ahead of the ITU-hosted international conference. Commonwealth preparatory meetings of this kind have several beneďŹ ts, such as helping countries from different regions appreciate the concerns of others; securing much-needed goodwill; and consolidating positions to facilitate ďŹ nal treaty negotiations. And in the same spirit of active participation, the CTO takes part in the work of other organisations, such as Internet Corporation for Assigned Names & Numbers, the organisation managing the global internet domain name system, and the Internet Governance Forum. Relying on market mechanisms alone to leverage ICTs in economic development efforts has proved far too insufďŹ cient, and there are many more enabling factors, as WEF shows. However, together, the adoption of conducive national policies for ICTs, effective and predictable regulatory environments, and well-negotiated international treaties and conventions for ICTs contributes signiďŹ cantly to countriesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; capacity to leverage ICTs. Giving due attention to these areas constitutes a moral obligation on the part of our member governments, as it is about making the most of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;mannaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, of unexpected technologies that, for many, resulted from random discoveries. Â&#x201E;



228 CHOGM 2015 Report

interests of all Commonwealth countries are safeguarded, and also that all Commonwealth countries can contribute actively and effectively. This requires advance preparation.

The Commonwealth Telecommunications Organisation


Broadband in Nigeria – the new digital frontier ADAPTI – the Advanced Digital Appreciation Programme for Tertiary Institutions

higher education institutions across the country have benefitted from this much credited NCC-sponsored intervention.

In 2006, the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC) introduced the Advanced Digital Appreciation Programme for Tertiary Institutions (ADAPTI) in pursuance of the mandate enshrined in the Nigerian Communications Act 2003. The Programme is aimed at bridging the digital divide existing within academia and to provide computers and other Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) to lecturers and other experts, to improve their ICT skills and to enrich the students. There are two very important aspects of this programme; the supply of hardware and the training. The training programmes are aimed at equipping senior administrators and academics of Nigerian universities, polytechnics, monotechnics and colleges of education with functional skills in Microsoft Word, Excel and PowerPoint, as well as providing internet access for the institutions across the country. The overriding objective of the Commission’s intervention has been to elicit a pervasive application of ICT skills within academia to enhance staff productivity, institutional efficiency and student enculturation towards an e-based learning approach and therefore a sustainable growth for the nation. Feedback from the post-ADAPTI questionnaire shows a growing number of academic staff of tertiary institutions engaging with their students electronically, and many are now uploading their academic publications to participate in the global platform for knowledge sharing. To start the ADAPTI programme, the NCC supplied eight tertiary institutions in each of the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria with 110 laptops loaded with e-Learning capabilities. As a result of the impact that the Programme made across the country, the NCC was inundated with requests from higher education institutions to join the ADAPTI programme, and has seen the Commission redoubling efforts to ensure that the ivory towers of Nigeria are at the forefront of the digital future. Since the inception of ADAPTI, over 18,000 administrators and academics from

DAP – the Digital Awareness Programme The Digital Awareness Programme is another special intervention programme formed by the NCC to address the digital knowledge gap within Nigeria, especially amongst its sizeable youth population. The strategy of the DAP is to expose schools and colleges to ICT awareness, usage and applications by facilitating access to the fundamental tools of ICT. Under the Programme, selected learning institutions across the country are equipped with computer laboratories fully installed with internet facilities and their teachers provided with ICT training to pass on to their students. According to the last audit, the DAP project supports 229 secondary schools across all six geopolitical zones of Nigeria, including the Federal Capital Territory, by providing 21 desktop computers, a Local Area Network, printers, scanners, VSAT dishes and a one year bandwidth subscription for internet access. These facilities are complemented with standby generators and a special laboratory built for the purpose. The programme also incorporates human capacity building and managerial training for the key personnel from the beneficiary institutions in charge of the centres.

Committee of Evaluators for Telecoms-Based Research Proposals from Nigerian Academia To promote education and encourage research in the sector, the NCC continually calls for telecoms-based research proposals from the Nigerian academia outlining and demonstrating the potential for development within the telecommunications industry. These evaluation exercises are the culmination of an enormous collective effort which began in 2013, when the pilot phase of the initiative commenced. The NCC originally advertised for and received

11 proposals, from which one proposal from a private university in Nigeria was recommended. The NCC Management approved that recommendation and released funds for its implementation. That project is still ongoing. Participation increased in 2014, where 32 proposals were received. The 2014 Committee of Evaluators for Telecoms-Based Research Proposals recommended three of these proposals, which all met the specific criteria for selection. It is worth noting that NCC Management similarly approved all three proposals and Letters of Grants have been presented to the lead researchers by the Commission. In the short history of its existence, the Committee has played a very pivotal role in promoting this initiative and has resulted in the NCC Management’s decision to open another round of submissions for the Evaluation of Telecoms-Based Research Submissions for 2015. A meeting was subsequently organised to inaugurate the Committee with members drawn from different professional bodies and academic institutions. At the date of writing, the Commission has received 24 proposals which the 2015 Committee will assess and make their appropriate recommendations to the NCC Management. The Committee remains dispassionate, honest and fair in their assessments and is consistent with the present administration’s desire to improve on the Nigerian telecommunications industry in line with global standards. The telecommunications industry is ever growing, with new technological trends seen by the day. As such, each annual Committee is expected to be thorough and provide reliable advice that will help the NCC in achieving its objective of promoting telecommunications-based innovation from within academia.

Infrastructure Companies and the Broadband Revolution Broadband is no longer a mirage in Nigeria, it is a reality. Following a strong input from the NCC, the endorsement of a National Broadband Plan by the Federal Government, the adoption of the

Open Access Model and the licensing of infrastructure companies are just a few of the actions taken by the Commission to birth yet another revolution that will make broadband pervasive within the nation’s telecommunications ecosystem. Nigeria is the biggest and most dynamic telecom market within Africa and it was only fitting that the Commonwealth Telecommunications Organisation chose Nigeria as host for the Broadband Forum in 2015. The CTO event provided an auspicious platform for Nigeria to market her broadband potential and to outline the inherent and abundant opportunities for investors. As well as being Africa’s biggest market, Nigeria has enjoyed the singular distinction of being the fastest growing mobile market globally for five consecutive years - a demonstration of the capacity of its market, which the NCC has leveraged effectively and readied for the inevitable broadband revolution. The lack of a robust fixed network infrastructure to provide universal broadband services requires a coordinated national approach, which led to the creation of the National Broadband Plan in 2013. Running through until 2018, this Plan was founded in order to increase broadband infrastructure across the country and to widen internet and broadband access. Nigeria is not walking through the broadband alley blindfolded, and has set timelines and landmark targets as it journeys through the five-year implementation plan. These are to: • License seven infrastructure companies to roll out Metropolitan Fibre Networks across the country • Auction available slots in the 2.3GHz, 2.6GHz and 700MHz bands for wireless broadband access • Implement a cost-based pricing model and price caps for leased transmission capacity and to drive affordability • Open non-discriminatory access to broadband infrastructure for all service providers • Create new high capacity spectrum bands for licensing (at 70/80GHz) • Interconnect all internet exchange points with fibre optic cable transmissions • To provide incentives to drive the rollout of broadband infrastructure and increase wireless broadband access across the country. To accelerate the process, the NCC adopted the Open Access Model in November 2013, a model in line with global best practices, to license operators to grow the current ten percent broadband availability to 30 percent by 2018, from an initial starting point of 6 percent in 2012. Two infrastructure companies have so far been licensed to provide Metropolitan Fibre Networks to increase broadband access both in Lagos, the commercial hub, and in the North Central Zone, which includes the

Federal Capital Territory of Abuja. Further licenses will be granted in the five remaining geopolitical zones of Nigeria, which will even the spread of broadband across the country and improve e-government, e-business, e-commerce and e-learning seamlessly. The Federal Government has also put in place tax incentives for prospective investors to the sector, and there are rebates of around 30 percent available for investors venturing into areas considered less economically attractive. The NCC anticipates in excess of $20billion in new investments across this new frontier over the next five years, and we invite the global community to join us in this revolution that is expected to change the way we think, the way we act and the way we relate.

DBI – the Digital Bridge Institute The Digital Bridge Institute, Nigeria’s flagship ICT organisation which came into existence in 2004, has undergone a major transformation aimed at enlarging its scope and spread, and to enhance the national human ICT capital building efforts. Acknowledging the need to continue to foster the rapid development and growth of the Nigerian telecommunications marketplace, as well as address the potentially significant vulnerability a lack of human resources could pose, the NCC established the Digital Bridge Institute with the following mandate: • The Institute shall serve as a focal point for human resource development and workforce capacity building, as well as driving research on matters relating to telecommunications in Nigeria, and Africa in general • The Institute shall offer a comprehensive portfolio of hands-on engineering and technical training programmes for professionals and practitioners in the telecommunications and IT industries. The programme shall encompass every subject matter that affects the proper implementation and management of telecoms, datacoms and internet infrastructures • The Institute shall focus on educating and training manpower in all spheres of telecommunications and IT at diploma and post-graduate levels • The Institute shall educate and train policymakers, regulators, legislators, economists, accountants, judges, lawyers, bankers and other high-profile professionals in the development of national policies regarding telecommunications regulation, legislation, interconnectivity, billing, costing, tariffs, charges, license management, spectrum management, business opportunities, venture financing, multilateral trade agreements, global information society initiatives, future trends and analysis

• The Institute shall provide the capability to formulate and implement pilot projects demonstrating the application of ICT within the relevant and important fields in Nigeria and across wider Africa • The Institute shall have state-of-the-art multimedia training facilities that can support video-conferencing, e-Learning and in-class training options. With its headquarters in Abuja, and branches in Lagos, Kano and Enugu, the DBI has trained more than 5,000 people in their professional training programme to date and enrolled more than 300 postgraduate students in the academic programmes since the Institute’s inception.

USPF - Universal Service Provision Fund The Universal Service Provision Fund was established by the Federal Government of Nigeria in 2006 to achieve the national policy goals of universal access service to ICT in rural, off network and underserved areas of Nigeria. The mission of the USPF, a subsidiary of the NCC, is to facilitate the policy through market-based investments, which then stimulate development in the targeted communities. To realise the objectives of ‘Universal Access’, the USPF embarked on a combination of programmes and projects to meet its vision of equitable ICT access for all, which include: The Connectivity Programme Projects are being implemented to fac