Issuu on Google+

"" 7 / i>`ÃʜvÊœÛiÀ˜“i˜ÌÊiï˜}ÊÓääÇ

Published by Henley Media Group Ltd in association with the Commonwealth Secretariat


"" 7 / i>`รƒรŠยœvรŠยœร›iร€ย˜ย“iย˜รŒรŠiiรŒยˆย˜}รŠร“รครคร‡ 0UBLISHED BY (ENLEY -EDIA 'ROUP ,IMITED IN ASSOCIATIONWITHTHE#OMMONWEALTH3ECRETARIAT 4EXTCOPYRIGHT#OMMONWEALTH3ECRETARIAT ORASOTHERWISESTATED 6OLUMECOPYRIGHT(ENLEY-EDIA'ROUP,IMITED (ENLEY-EDIA'ROUP,IMITED 4RANS WORLD(OUSE #ITY2OAD ,ONDON %#9"0 5NITED+INGDOM 4EL   &AX   WWWHENLEYMEDIAGROUPCOM &IRSTPUBLISHED.OVEMBER )3".     0UBLISHER %DITORIAL-ANAGER 0RODUCTION-ANAGER $ESIGNER 3UB EDITOR 0RINTER

*ANE(ENRY ,ISA0IKE 4INA+HANIAN !NDY#RISP *OHN3AUNDERS 'HYLL0RINT

4HE PUBLISHERS WISH TO THANK ALL THE INDIVIDUALS AND ORGANISATIONSWHOHAVECONTRIBUTEDTOTHEPUBLICATION ESPECIALLYTHEVARIOUSDIVISIONSOFTHE#OMMONWEALTH 3ECRETARIAT 4HEINFORMATIONCONTAINEDINTHISPUBLICATIONHASBEEN PUBLISHED IN GOOD FAITH AND THE OPINIONS HEREIN ARE THOSE OF THE AUTHORS AND NOT OF (ENLEY -EDIA 'ROUP ,IMITEDORTHE#OMMONWEALTH3ECRETARIAT (ENLEY -EDIA 'ROUP ,IMITED OR THE #OMMONWEALTH 3ECRETARIAT CANNOT ACCEPT RESPONSIBILITY FOR ANY ERROR OR MISINTERPRETATION BASED ON THIS INFORMATION AND NEITHER DO THEY ENDORSE ANY OF THE PRODUCTS ADVERTISEDHEREIN 0RINTS TRANSPARENCIES OR ANY OTHER MATERIAL SUBMITTED TO (ENLEY -EDIA 'ROUP ,IMITED ARE SENT AT OWNERS RISK NEITHER (ENLEY -EDIA 'ROUP NOR THEIR AGENTS ACCEPT LIABILITY FOR LOSS OR DAMAGE 2EPRODUCTION IN WHOLEORPARTOFANYCONTENTSOFTHISPUBLICATIONEITHER INPRINTFORMORELECTRONICALLY WITHOUTPRIORPERMISSION ISSTRICTLYPROHIBITED 4O PURCHASE FURTHER COPIES OF THIS PUBLICATION PLEASE APPLYINWRITINGTOTHEPUBLISHER

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




#ONTENTS

 &OREWORD 9OWERI+AGUTA-USEVENI 0RESIDENTOFTHE2EPUBLICOF5GANDA

 4RANSFORMING3OCIETIES

 4 RANSFORMINGSOCIETIESTOACHIEVEPOLITICAL ECONOMICANDHUMANDEVELOPMENT 2T(ON$ON-C+INNON #OMMONWEALTH3ECRETARY 'ENERAL

 ' OOD'OVERNANCE 0EACEAND 0ROSPERITY

 ( OWGOVERNANCEISCRUCIALTOPOVERTY REDUCTION PEACEANDSTABILITY 2ANSFORD3MITH #OMMONWEALTH$EPUTY3ECRETARY 'ENERAL

 3 PECIAL&EATURE$!4!nADVOCATESFOR !FRICANDEVELOPMENT $!4!

 0 ROMOTINGWOMEN PEACE ANDSECURITY ACOLLECTIVERESPONSIBILITYFORTHE #OMMONWEALTH &LORENCE-UGASHA #OMMONWEALTH$EPUTY3ECRETARY 'ENERAL

 4 HECURRENTSTATEOFTHE$OHATRADETALKS FROMTHE'PERSPECTIVE 3IR*OHN+APUTIN 3ECRETARY 'ENERALOFTHE!#0'ROUPOF3TATES





4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

 4RADEFORDEVELOPMENTAROLEFORTHE #OMMONWEALTH %DWIN,AURENT ( EADOF)NTERNATIONAL4RADEAND2EGIONAL #O OPERATION #OMMONWEALTH3ECRETARIAT

 2 ECOVERINGTHEPROCEEDSOFCORRUPTION THECHALLENGESFORDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES !BDULLAHI93HEHU $IRECTOR'ENERAL ')!"!

 6 OLUNTARYSUSTAINABILITYREPORTINGFORTHEOIL ANDGASINDUSTRY #HRIS-ORRIS 'ENERAL3ECRETARY )0)%#!

 0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF $EVELOPMENT

 'OVERNMENTSWORKINGTOGETHERTHE IMPORTANCEOFCROSS BORDERCOLLABORATION FOREFFECTIVEHEALTH 0ROFESSOR!LPHA/UMAR+ONARÏ #HAIRPERSONOFTHE#OMMISSIONOFTHE!FRICAN 5NION

 (EALTHCAREHUMANRESOURCESINCRISIS 7HAT#OMMONWEALTHCOUNTRIESCAN CONTRIBUTETOWARDSASOLUTION 0ROFESSOR"ARBARA-C0AKE $IRECTOR )NSTITUTEFOR)NTERNATIONAL(EALTHAND $EVELOPMENT

 0 UBLIC PRIVATEPARTNERSHIPSINHEALTHIN!FRICA $R)AN#LARKE &OUNDERAND#HIEF%XECUTIVE/FlCER )NTERNATIONAL -EDICAL'ROUP 5GANDA




#ONTENTS

 !WORLDOFOPPORTUNITYUNIVERSALACCESS TO()6PREVENTION TREATMENT CAREAND SUPPORT $ R!LVARO"ERMEJO 3USIE-C,EAN $R-ANDEEP$HALIWAL )NTERNATIONAL()6!)$3!LLIANCE

 ' ENDEREQUALITYINEDUCATIONINCREASING THEMOMENTUMFORCHANGETHROUGHOUT THE#OMMONWEALTH 0ROFESSOR#HRISTOPHER#OLCLOUGH #ENTREFOR#OMMONWEALTH%DUCATION #AMBRIDGE5NIVERSITY

 3 TRONGFOUNDATIONSAMUSTTOREACH %DUCATIONFOR!LL +O̥CHIRO-ATSUURA $IRECTOR 'ENERALOF5.%3#/

 ! BOLISHINGSCHOOLFEESANDMAINTAINING QUALITYARETHETWOCOMPATIBLE $ZINGAI-UTUMBUKA #HAIR THE!SSOCIATIONFORTHE$EVELOPMENTOF %DUCATIONIN!FRICA!$%!

 ( ARNESSINGTHEPOWEROFSPORTFORCHILDREN ANDYOUTH !NNA!LEXANDROVAAND,INDSAY'LASSCO 2IGHT4O0LAY

 3 PECIAL&EATURE2UGBYAHOLISTICAPPROACH TOTACKLINGOBESITY )NTERNATIONAL2UGBY"OARD

 0 ARTNERSHIPSINSPORTRAISINGAWARENESSOF GLOBALHUNGER *OHN-0OWELL $ EPUTY%XECUTIVE$IRECTOROF#OMMUNICATIONS 7ORLD&OOD0ROGRAMME

 5 NEXPLODEDREMNANTSOFCONmICTTURNING DEADLYLEGACIESINTOSAFEFUTURES ,OU-C'RATH %XECUTIVE$IRECTOR -!'-INES!DVISORY'ROUP

 .ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE %NVIRONMENT

 2EDUCINGTHERISKSOFNATURALDISASTERS THEBESTINVESTMENT *OHN(OLMES 5.5NDER 3ECRETARY 'ENERALFOR(UMANITARIAN !FFAIRSAND%MERGENCY2ELIEF#OORDINATOR

PECIAL&EATURE&INANCIALRISKTRANSFER  3 SOLUTIONSTHEIRROLEINCLIMATECHANGE ADAPTATION 3WISS2E

 3MALLISLANDSTATESSEEKEQUITABLEPOST CLIMATEAGREEMENT -*-ACE $IRECTOR #LIMATE#HANGEAND%NERGY 0ROGRAMME &)%,$

 #LIMATECHANGECHARTINGA#ARIBBEAN RESPONSE %DWIN#ARRINGTON 3ECRETARY 'ENERAL #!2)#/-

 &ORESTSANDCLIMATECHANGENEW CHALLENGESTOSUSTAINABLEFOREST MANAGEMENT 4HE(ON'ARY,UNN -INISTEROF.ATURAL2ESOURCESFOR#ANADA





5GANDA  .OVEMBER




#ONTENTS

 #LIMATECHANGEAGROWINGCHALLENGEFOR DEVELOPMENTANDPOVERTYREDUCTION ,ENNART"ÍGE 0RESIDENT THE)NTERNATIONAL&UNDFOR!GRICULTURAL $EVELOPMENT)&!$

 )NVESTINGINAGRICULTURALGROWTHANDRURAL SOCIALPROTECTIONTHEKEYTOREDUCINGPOVERTY *OACHIMVON"RAUN $IRECTOR'ENERAL )NTERNATIONAL&OOD0OLICY 2ESEARCH)NSTITUTE)&02)

 3USTAINABLETOURISMOPPORTUNITIESFOR DEVELOPMENTINTHE#OMMONWEALTH $R$AVID*3INGH $IRECTOR'ENERAL )WOKRAMA)NTERNATIONAL#ENTRE

 4HEENVIRONMENTALIMPACTOFTHEDRUGS TRADEACASESTUFYFROM#OLOMBIA &RANCISCO3ANTOS#ALDERON 6ICE0RESIDENTOF#OLOMBIA 3HARED2ESPONSIBILITY

 E,EARNINGINTHE3OUTH0ACIlCCURRENT STATUS CHALLENGESANDTRENDS $R2OBERT7HELAN # ENTREFOR%DUCATIONAL$EVELOPMENTAND 4ECHNOLOGY 0ACIlCE,EARNING/BSERVATORY 0ROJECT 5NIVERSITYOFTHE3OUTH0ACIlC

 -OBILITYFOR!FRICANDEVELOPMENT ,LOYD4IMBERLAKE 7 ORLD"USINESS#OUNCILFOR3USTAINABLE $EVELOPMENT

 !LTERNATIVETRANSPORTFUELSTHEROLEOF GOVERNMENT $R'ARTH(ARRIS 3 ECRETARY'ENERAL )NTERNATIONAL!SSOCIATIONFOR .ATURAL'AS6EHICLES

 !IRTRANSPORTANDTHEENVIRONMENT 'IOVANNI"ISIGNANI #%/AND-ANAGING$IRECTOR

)NTERNATIONAL!IR4RANSPORT!SSOCIATION

#ONNECTINGTHE#OMMONWEALTH &INANCINGFOR$EVELOPMENT  3PECIAL&EATURE- PAYMENTSREVOLUTIONISE WORLDCOMMERCE ,550

 (OW)#4CANMAKEADIFFERENCEIN AGRICULTURALLIVELIHOODS &RANS.EUMAN 7IETSE"RUINSMAAND *AC3TIENEN )NTERNATIONAL)NSTITUTEFOR#OMMUNICATIONAND $EVELOPMENT))#$

 #OMMONWEALTH#ONNECTSANDE(EALTH THE!FRICANEXPERIENCE $EVINDRA2AMNARINEAND4ANIA'ESSI #OMMONWEALTH#ONNECTS0ROGRAMME 



4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

 4HE@GLOBALDEALTOREDUCEPOVERTY PROGRESSANDRESPONSIBILITIES %VELINE(ERFKENS % XECUTIVE#OORDINATOR THE5.-ILLENNIUM #AMPAIGN

 "USINESSASAPARTNERINTHE #OMMONWEALTHSDEVELOPMENT *ANE.ELSON $ IRECTOR "USINESS,EADERSHIPAND 3TRATEGY )NTERNATIONAL"USINESS,EADERS&ORUM




#ONTENTS

 3 PECIAL&EATURE4HEROADTOSUCCESS CAPITALMARKETSINSUB 3AHARAN!FRICA 2ENAISSANCE'ROUP

 3PECIAL&EATURE&INANCINGPRIVATE INVESTMENTIN!FRICA #&3'ROUP

 2ENEWABLEENERGIESONTHEIRWAYTO CONQUERWORLDMARKETS $R7OLFGANG0ALZ #HAIRMAN 7ORLD#OUNCILFOR2ENEWABLE%NERGIES

 %NERGYFORDEVELOPMENTANON NUCLEAR FUTURE "ENET.ORTHCOTE #HIEF0OLICY!DVISER 'REENPEACE5+

 &INANCINGGENDEREQUALITYFORDEVELOPMENT ANDDEMOCRACY (ON3YDA.-"BUMBA -INISTEROF'ENDER ,ABOURAND3OCIAL $EVELOPMENT 5GANDA

 &INANCINGACCESSTOWATERANDELECTRICITY FORALLnEXPERIENCESOF#OMMONWEALTH MEMBERSTATES $ANIEL0LATZ %CONOMIC!FFAIRS/FlCER 5.$EPARTMENTOF %CONOMICAND3OCIAL!FFAIRS

 0ROMOTINGKNOWLEDGE BASEDANDSERVICE INDUSTRIESINSMALLSTATES -AHVASH1URESHI 5NIVERSITYOF#AMBRIDGEAND $IRK7ILLEMTE6ELDE /VERSEAS$EVELOPMENT)NSTITUTE

 )NVESTINGINYOUTHIN#OMMONWEALTH DEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES % MMANUEL*IMENEZ $AVID-C+ENZIE -AMTA-URTHIAND!NNETTE2ICHTER 4HE7ORLD"ANK

!DVERTISERS)NDEXCHRONOLOGICALORDER 0AGE 3WISS,IFE.ETWORK )NSIDE&RONT 5GANDA4ELECOM  $ANIDA -INISTRYOF&OREIGN!FFAIRS $ENMARK  -ETROPOLITAN'ROUP  +INGDOM:EPHYR!FRICA-ANAGEMENT  -ERCEDES "ENZ  (UMAN3CIENCES2ESEARCH#OUNCIL  ,EXIS.EXIS  #ITYOF*OHANNESBURG$EPARTMENTOF%CONOMIC $EVELOPMENT  .EVIS&INANCIAL3ERVICES  -OMENTUM!FRICA  .ATIONAL(EALTH,ABORATORY3ERVICE  "!2#3!  /-2/.  5NIVERSITYOF#AMBRIDGE)NTERNATIONAL%XAMINATIONS  4HE4ECHNOLOGY!SSOCIATIONOF3OUTH!FRICA  4HE5NIVERSITYOF-ANCHESTER  .ATIONAL(OUSINGAND#ONSTRUCTION#OMPANY,TD  3HUMUK!LUMINIUM)NDUSTRIES5 ,TD  77&  %CO-APPING 

0AGE

!LTERNAFRUIT3!



!FGRI/PERATIONS,TD



7ORLD&EEDER)NTERNATIONAL



!NTARES



-IDAS-ANAGEMENT3YSTEMS



4HRANEAND4HRANE!3



.OKIA



)NTERNET3OLUTIONS



#ONRICO0ROJECT6EHICLES



!SSOCIATED&REIGHT,OGISTICS#ONSULTANTS,TD



!UTOMOTIVE)NDUSTRY$EVELOPMENT#ENTRE



/VERARUPAND0ARTNERS)NTERNATIONAL



'LOBAL"ANKOF#OMMERCE



)NVEST"ARBADOS



3HANDUKA'ROUP



-ARINE-INING



3WISS 3OUTH!FRICA#O OPERATION)NITIATIVE



#IRRA



!QUA "ROOKS



"ANK0(" 2ENAISSANCE'ROUP

 /UTSIDE"ACK

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




COMMITMENT TO DEVELOPMENT - taking partnership seriously DENMARK

PROVIDES STABLE AND

HIGH-QUALITY

DEVELOPMENT

ASSISTANCE

www.um.dk/en

In 2007, Denmark’s development assistance was up for examination by OECD DAC as part of its regular peer review cycle. The Netherlands and Greece were leading the inquiry into the objectives and results of the Danish aid programme on behalf of the DAC members, and the examination resulted in a very positive assessment of Danish development efforts. A key issue in the discussion was the appropriate balance between risktaking and accountability. The Netherlands and Greece argued that Denmark should allow more space for experimentation and innovation in its aid programmes. In response, the Danish government explained that Denmark is ready to take risks, when it is necessary and conducive to development results. However, Danish development assistance builds on a firm commitment to spending aid money effectively and to building longterm partnerships with strong mutual accountability. Denmark is an honest, predictable and consistent partner in development. Denmark has a long tradition of actively involving domestic stakeholders in debates about development assistance and in implementation. This has created a basis for public support of a high level of development assistance and a robust framework for partnerships. But it also leads to demands for accountability and high fiduciary standards. Danish programmes promise to deliver results, and this is what both the Danish public and development partners have come to expect. DANISH AID IS VALUE-BASED Since its establishment in the 1960’s, Danish development assistance has built on a broad political consensus, based on values that are also at the heart of the Danish welfare state: The rich have an obligation to support the poor, and rich countries have an obligation to support developing countries in their struggle against

poverty. Conservative, liberal and social-democratic parties have subscribed to this basic rationale for development assistance, and it has been embedded in the Danish legislation on development assistance since 1971.

There are currently 16 programme countries, of which 10 are in Africa, 4 are in Asia and 2 in Latin America. The Danish Government has indicated that it will gradually adjust its bilateral assistance, so that 2/3 will eventually go to Sub-Saharan Africa.

Denmark has been an active participant in the construction of an international system that promotes these values. In its dialogue with partners in the EU, in the UN and elsewhere, this has been a consistent Danish aim through the years. The administration of development assistance is a fully integrated part of the Danish Foreign Service, and this has helped Denmark to play an active role. Far from being an appendix to Danish foreign policy, development is at the heart of Danish foreign policymaking.

Denmark is at the forefront in pursuing the principles of the Paris Declaration on aid effectiveness. While emphasising local ownership as the starting point, Denmark is actively engaged in aligning its assistance closer to partners’ strategies, systems and procedures. To the largest extent possible this is done in consonance with other donors through harmonised processes and programmes.

Globalisation has introduced a set of new issues and made the development challenge more complex for both aid donors and recipients. Commercial ties, security, communicable diseases, climate change and migration are all issues that are connected with development, and where aid donors have a growing self-interest in providing aid. This is also part of the Danish debate, and will increasingly be reflected in Danish aid programmes and in the political dialogue with partner governments. This will be done in an honest and open manner, and with a firm view to identifying common objectives and opportunities for making joint progress. STRONG POVERTY ORIENTATION AND MORE EFFECTIVE AID

In order to be an effective donor, Danida has maintained a focus on a relatively small number of partner countries that receive the main part of Danish bilateral assistance. These countries are selected in a transparent process based on objective criteria, including the severity of poverty and the commitment of governments to work for poverty eradication. The most recent programme country, Mali, which is one of the world’s poorest countries, was selected in 2006 after a competitive process with an initial list of 25 candidates.

As a result, within each programme country, Denmark will work for an improved division of labour with the partner government and other donors. In a number of countries, the improved division of labour is agreed in a joint assistance strategy covering most donors. Fewer, but much larger interventions is the objective. Depending on the quality of partners’ systems and procedures, much of the financing will be provided in the form of sector budget support. Joint strategies, increased and harmonised use of partners’ systems and procedures will reduce transaction costs for recipient governments and donors alike, reduce overlap and improve strategic orientation. Recipient countries will need to produce fewer reports and receive fewer donor delegations – thereby having more time left to serve their own populations. Typically, Denmark is active in the social sectors of health and education, as well as in rural development, water and sanitation, private sector development and governance. Women and gender equality, the environment and human rights are important crosscutting themes. AN

INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR

BROAD PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT

Denmark has a unique institutional framework for involving Danish stakeholder groups and the public in discussions about priorities for


Danish support for flower project in Naivasha, Kenya. Flowers are grown in large greenhouses without the use of pesticides. Instead, specially raised beetles are spread out between the flowers, and they attack harmful insects.

Young mother breastfeeding her baby at a local health center supported by Denmark.

development programmes. This system has created a basis for strong and continuous political support of development aid, and is a key factor in explaining the high level and quality of Danish aid.

areas, and form the basis for negotiations in Parliament and public debate. All new country and sector strategies are likewise submitted for open public debate.

Parliament discusses development issues on a regular basis, and Government faces tough scrutiny in Parliament committees when it presents specific development initiatives. Members of the Parliament Foreign Affairs and Finance Committees frequently visit partner countries to meet with their governments and parliamentarians and to inspect Danish programmes. Before proposals are submitted to Parliament, every new programme or policy initiative is being discussed in the Danida Board, where representatives of business groups, trade unions, NGOs, and independent experts have an opportunity to criticise and suggest improvements.

SHORT-TERM FLEXIBILITY

Policy documents on Danish development assistance are issued every year in conjunction with the Government Budget. They outline new priorities and main spending

LONG-TERM

COMMITMENTS

AND

The basic objectives of Denmark’s development assistance and its country programmes have a long-term perspective. Development does not take place from one year to the next. Sector programmes run over periods of several years and build on existing Danish engagement and the activities of other donors. Danish priorities are in line with the Millennium Development Goals, and Denmark is fully committed to these and to continue support for development beyond 2015. Equal rights of women and the participation of women in the development process is a longstanding Danish priority, and the Danish Government plans to use a growing amount on activities targeted at women up to app. 75 million USD from 2010. The fight against

Denmark has made a commitment to provide at least 0.8% of its GNI as development assistance, making it one of the most generous donors in the world. In 2008, the Government plans to spend 2.6 billion USD on development assistance, up 3.5% from 2007. This increase will go exclusively towards bilateral programmes in Africa.

HIV/AIDS is another top priority, and Denmark plans to spend app. 150 million USD for this purpose in 2008. The management of Danish programmes is decentralised and most decisions on a daily basis are taken by Denmark’s embassies in programme cooperation countries. While keeping in mind long-term objectives and commitments, this enables a pragmatic and flexible approach to aid management and a close cooperation and continuous dialogue with local partners. New ideas and opportunities can quickly be assessed, and adjustment to changing local conditions is made more easily, when local people are responsible. On a global level, Denmark adjusts its development assistance to meet new common challenges, including climate change, migration and instability and conflict. Climate change is a particular priority for the Danish Government, which will host the 15th Conference of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol in 2009. The principal aim of this conference will be to agree on a successor to the Kyoto Protocol, which will expire in 2012

Ministry of Foreign Affairs Asiatisk Plads 2 DK-1448 Copenhagen Denmark Phone: +45 33 92 00 00 Email: um@um.dk


&OREWORD

9OWERI+AGUTA-USEVENI 0RESIDENTOFTHE2EPUBLICOF5GANDA

7ELCOME #OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT#(/'- AREMEETINGATTHEIRBIENNIALSUMMIT FOR THE lRST TIME IN %AST !FRICA IN +AMPALA FROM .OVEMBER  n   ) SHALL WELCOMETHEMASREPRESENTATIVESOFBILLIONPEOPLEnNEARLYATHIRDOFTHEWORLDS POPULATION n THUS UNDERLINING 5GANDAS CONTINUED COMMITMENT TOTHE VALUES OF THE  MEMBER!SSOCIATION

4HE THEME FOR THIS YEARS SUMMIT IS @4RANSFORMING #OMMONWEALTH 3OCIETIES TO ACHIEVE 0OLITICAL %CONOMIC AND (UMAN $EVELOPMENT 4HIS THEME IS APT BECAUSE DESPITE ALL THE ADVANCES IN MODERN THINKING INDUSTRIALIZATION SCIENCE AND COMMERCE PLUS HAVING PUT A MAN ON THE MOON AND BEING ABLE TO MAP THE HUMAN GENOME VAST DIFFERENCES REMAIN BETWEEN THE SOCIETIES ANDCOUNTRIESTHATMAKEUPTHISWORLD

DESPITEECONOMICGLOBALIZATION SEVENYEARS OFTHE-ILLENNIUM$EVELOPMENT'OALS0ROJECT WHICH WAS DRAWN UP TO ELIMINATE POVERTY AND A WORLD TRADING SYSTEM THAT WAS MEANT TO ENSURE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES COULD TRADE THEIRWAYOUTOFPOVERTYnISSURELYATHREATTO WORLDPEACE

7HY@DEVELOPMENTAND TRANSFORMATION"ECAUSE DEVELOPMENTISNOTPOSSIBLE WITHOUTSOCIALTRANSFORMATION

3OMECOUNTRIESHAVEGONETHROUGHECONOMIC POLITICAL AND SOCIAL METAMORPHOSIS IN THE LAST  YEARS SADLY MANY OTHERS HAVE NOT !MONG OUR #OMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES THE 5+ !USTRALIA #ANADA AND .EW :EALAND FOR EXAMPLE ARENOWRICHANDDEVELOPED/THERS 7HAT WE WANT IS FOR ALL PARTS OF THE LIKE 3INGAPORE )NDIA AND -ALAYSIA ARE SLOWLY #OMMONWEALTH TO EVENTUALLY METAMORPHOSE TRANSFORMINGINTODEVELOPEDCOUNTRIES INTO MATURE STABLE AND WELL OFF SOCIETIES )N 5GANDA FOR INSTANCE PEASANTS WE DO NOT WANT A #OMMONWEALTH OF HALF PEASANTS HALF 7HATWEWANTISFORALLPARTSOF MIDDLECLASS7EWANTA#OMMONWEALTHOFA THE#OMMONWEALTHTOEVENTUALLY MIDDLECLASSANDASKILLEDWORKINGCLASS4HAT ISWHENTHESHAREDVALUESWILLBEREALLYSHARED METAMORPHOSEINTOMATURE STABLE SHAREDINPRACTICE NOTJUSTBYASPIRATION

ANDWELL OFFSOCIETIES



/F COURSE SOME OTHER COUNTRIES ARE EITHER STRUGGLING IN OR OUT OF POVERTY %DUCATION AND LITERACY LEVELS HEALTH STATISTICS AND LIVING STANDARDSVARYWIDELYMANYMILLIONSCONTINUE TOLIVEINHUNGERANDFEAR

#(/'-IN+AMPALAOFFERSAWONDERFUL OPPORTUNITY FOR THE #OMMONWEALTH TO LEAD THEDEBATEONTHEISSUEOFDEVELOPMENTAND SOCIAL TRANSFORMATION 7HY @DEVELOPMENT AND TRANSFORMATION"ECAUSEDEVELOPMENTISNOT POSSIBLEWITHOUTSOCIALTRANSFORMATION

4HESE DIFFERENCES ARE OFTEN THE SOURCE OF INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CONmICTS RESULTING IN MILLIONS OF REFUGEES AND LEGAL AND ILLEGAL MIGRATION OF PEOPLE AROUND THE WORLD 4HE CONTINUED POVERTY OF MILLIONS OF PEOPLE n

#OMMUNITIES AND SOCIETIES IN THE #OMMONWEALTH MUST TRANSFORM THEMSELVES FROM PRE INDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES IN !FRICA ESPECIALLY THEYMUSTMAKETHETRANSITIONFROM PEASANTSOCIETIES

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING


&OREWORD

5GANDA IS ALREADY IN THE PROCESS OF MAKING THE SAID TRANSITION AND THAT IS WHY WE HAVE INTRODUCED UNIVERSAL EDUCATION WHICH IS ONE OF THE FOUNDATIONS OF TRANSFORMING SOCIETY 4HROUGH 5NIVERSAL 0RIMARY %DUCATION 3ECONDARY THEN 4ERTIARY %DUCATION MILLIONS OFYOUNGPEOPLEWILLNEVERBETHESAME4HEY WILLBECOMELEADERSANDPATHlNDERSFORFUTURE GENERATIONS

4HROUGHOURCOLLECTIVEEFFORTnTHEEFFORTOFRICH ANDPOORCOUNTRIES SMALLISLANDSTATES HUGELY POPULATEDSTATES ANDTHOSESTILLSTRUGGLINGTO BRIDGE THE GAP BETWEEN RICH AND POOR n WE HOPETOBEANEXAMPLETOTHERESTOFTHEWORLD OFHOWDIFFERENTPEOPLESCANSITDOWNTOGETHER AND DISCUSS HOW TO OVERCOME ADVERSITY (OW OUR SOMETIMES GREAT DIFFERENCES CAN BE OVERCOME BY REASON AND UNDERSTANDING n HENCE BECOMING THE #OMMONWEALTHS FORMIDABLESTRENGTH

%DUCATION TRADEANDINDUSTRIALISATION ARESOMEOFTHEBESTINSTRUMENTS FORTRANSFORMINGSOCIETIES

7EAREALLPROUDOFTHEVALUESTHATMAKETHE #OMMONWEALTH A VIBRANT ORGANISATION AN ORGANISATIONTOWHICHMANYCOUNTRIESWISHTO BELONG ONEINWHICHWEAREPROUDMEMBERS MEMBERS WHOSE PRIDE IS PREDICTED ON THE /NE COUNTRY CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE TO STRONGVALUESTHATARETHEBEDROCKOFOURSHARED ITS PEOPLE BUT IN THIS ERA OF A GLOBALIZED COMMITMENTTOTHECOMMONHUMANITY ECONOMY HOW MUCH BETTER WOULD IT BE FOR MANYCOUNTRIES ORBETTERSTILLTHEWHOLEWORLD 7EAREALLPROUDOFTHEVALUES TOJOININTHISENDEAVOR !S WE PUT OUT EFFORTS INTO SUPPORTING EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS WE SHOULD SUPPORT FREE AND BETTER TRADE BETWEEN COUNTRIES 4RADEISANOTHERINSTRUMENTTOSTIMULATESOCIAL TRANSFORMATION )F YOU BUY WHAT IS PRODUCED ITENRICHESTHEPRODUCERANDENABLESTHEMTO BUY FROM OTHERS OR INVEST !ND SLOWLY WE ALL BECOMERICHERANDMOREEDUCATED7ECREATE ANDlLLBETTERJOBSWEDEVELOPINFRASTRUCTURE INDUSTRIALIZEETC %DUCATION TRADE AND INDUSTRIALISATION ARE SOMEOFTHEBESTINSTRUMENTSFORTRANSFORMING SOCIETIES7HILEDRAWINGONOURDIVERSITYAND UNITY AS A GROUP #OMMONWEALTH MEMBERS HAVEENOUGHEXPERIENCETOHELPDElNEAWAY FORWARD"YTHEENDOFOURMEETINGIN+AMPALA FELLOW (EADS OF 'OVERNMENT AND ) HOPE TO MAP A CLEARER ROUTE TOWARDS BUILDING BETTER STRONGERANDMOREMODERNSOCIETIES

THATMAKETHE#OMMONWEALTH AVIBRANTORGANISATION

)HAVEATTENDEDANUMBEROF#(/'-STHElRST ONE BEING IN  !S ALWAYS ) LOOK FORWARD TO MEETING WITH FELLOW HEADS OF 'OVERNMENT AGAIN INCLUDINGTHOSEWHOHAVEATTENDEDPAST #(/-'SANDTHOSEWHOWILLBEATTENDINGFOR THElRSTTIME)LOOKFORWARDTOWELCOMING(ER -AJESTY 1UEEN%LIZABETH WHOISALSO(EADOF THE#OMMONWEALTH 4O ALL OUR VISITORS IN .OVEMBER ) SAY @KARIBU @WELCOMEIN3WAHILI OR@TUBASANYUKIDDETHE SAMEINTHE,UGANDALANGUAGE TO+AMPALA

9OWERI+AGUTA-USEVENI 0RESIDENTOFTHE2EPUBLICOF5GANDA

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




4RANSFORMING3OCIETIES

2T(ON$ON-C+INNON #OMMONWEALTH3ECRETARY 'ENERAL

4RANSFORMINGSOCIETIESTO ACHIEVEPOLITICAL ECONOMICAND HUMANDEVELOPMENT %CONOMICGROWTHWILL ALWAYSBETHEMOST OBVIOUSSTIMULUSn ANDRESULTnOF @TRANSFORMATION

@-ILLIONDOLLARQUESTIONSAREPRICEDFORAREASON !LMOSTNOONEGETSTHEMRIGHT BUTIFTHEYDO THE PRIZEISWELLWORTHHAVING)FTHEQUESTIONISHOW TO TRANSFORM SOCIETIES TO ACHIEVE DEVELOPMENT WECANSAFELYCLAIMTHATNOTONESOCIETYHASYET FOUND THE ONE ALL ENCOMPASSING SOLUTION !LL AREPERMANENTLYEVOLVINGANDALL EVENTHEMOST PEACEFUL AND PROSPEROUS EXPERIENCE THE EBB ANDmOWOFADVANCEANDREVERSAL 4HERE ARE MANY COMPLEX THEORIES AND TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS ABOUT THE TRANSFORMATION OF SOCIETIES AND THESE MAY OR MAY NOT PROVIDE SOME OR ALL OF THE ANSWERS-YTHEORYISSIMPLYTHISTRANSFORMEDSOCIETIES ARE SOCIETIES IN WHICH ALL THE PEOPLE UNDERSTAND AND SUPPORT WHAT IS HAPPENING AND WHY AND IN WHICH EVERYONE PLAYS A PART AND EVERYONE BENElTS nINDIVIDUALLY ANDCOLLECTIVELY4HATISMYVISIONAND) BELIEVEITISTHEVISIONOFOURMODERN#OMMONWEALTH 4HEVISION OFCOURSE CANBEFARFROMREALITY ANDWE HAVE TO DECIDE WHAT WE WISH TO CHANGE 7HICHEVER OFTHEINDICESWELOOKATnWHETHERPERCAPITANATIONAL INCOME THEENROLMENTRATEINPRIMARYSCHOOL THELITERACY RATEFORYOUNGADULTS LIFEEXPECTANCY INFANTMORTALITY LEVELS OF ()6!)$3 INFECTION LEVELS OF TELEPHONE AND INTERNET CONNECTION CLEAN WATER OR ANY OTHER n ONLY  OF OUR  #OMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES SIT IN THE TOP QUARTILEOFTHE5.S(UMAN$EVELOPMENT)NDEX WHILE  SIT IN THE BOTTOM QUARTILE WITH THE BALANCE NEARER THELATTERTHANTHEFORMER 0RESIDENT 9OWERI -USEVENI OF 5GANDA OUR #(/'-  HOST HAS CHALLENGED US TO DETERMINE THE INGREDIENTSOFTRANSFORMEDSOCIETIESANDTOSHARETHEM ACROSS THE #OMMONWEALTH (E HAS NEVER DENIED THATHEISPROMPTEDBYDISMAYATWHATHECALLSTHESE @GLARINGLY WIDE GAPS AND A SITUATION WHICH IS BOTH @UNTENABLEANDUNACCEPTABLEnYETCHANGEABLE 4HEWORD@TRANSFORMATIONIMPLIESDEEP POSSIBLYRAPID CHANGEnFORTHEBETTER 7ECERTAINLYKNOWTRANSFORMATIONWHENWESEEIT)SAW ITIN)NDIALASTYEAR WITHLOCALFARMERSIN-AHARASHTRA 3TATERECEIVINGACCURATEWEATHERFORECASTSANDLOCAL CROPPRICEINFORMATION DIRECTTOTHEIRMOBILEPHONES

&OR  FARMERS THIS MEANS @TRANSFORMATION FOR AN )NDIAN AGRICULTURAL COMMUNITY OF  MILLION PEOPLE BEYOND ITOFFERSTRULYTRANSFORMATIVEPOTENTIAL-OBILE TELEPHONYISJUSTONEIMPORTANTTOOLOFTRANSFORMATION AND IT BEARS OUT MY ARGUMENT THAT TRANSFORMATION IS SOMETHINGUNDERSTOOD SUPPORTEDBYANDBENElTING ALL INDIVIDUALLYANDCOLLECTIVELY

%CONOMICSTRANSFORMATIONALONE /NE OF THE FALLACIES OF TRANSFORMATION IS THAT IT IS SOLELY AN ECONOMIC PROCESS n USING ECONOMIC MEANS FOR ECONOMICENDS9ES THEECONOMICENDSARETHESUREST WAYOFMEASURINGTRANSFORMATION BUTTHEMEANSTOREACH THATGOALCANNOTONLYBEBASEDONECONOMICACTIONS 4HECONSEQUENCESOFMORERECENTECONOMICTHEORIES ARE ONLY NOW BEGINNING TO CRYSTALISE 4HE S FOR INSTANCE TENDEDTOSEEDEVELOPMENTASTHEREALLOCATION OF RESOURCES AND THE ACCUMULATION OF CAPITAL 4HE S PRIZED THE GROWTH OF MANUFACTURING 4HE @S SAWTHEDEBATEABOUTABOLISHINGGOVERNMENTSUPPORT TURN INTO REALITY ALONG WITH TIDAL WAVES OF PRIVATISATION OF 3TATE ASSETS 4HE EARLY @S CREATED DEMANDS FOR BALANCED BUDGETS AND LOOKED BEYOND NATIONS TO MACRO ECONOMICIMBALANCESINTHEGLOBALORDER $EVELOPMENT HOWEVER STILLREQUIREDTECHNICALSOLUTIONS WHICH HAD NOT YET BEEN DELIVERED BY POLICY CHANGES WHICHFAILEDTOPRODUCETHERESULTSEXPECTED4HERAPID

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




4RANSFORMING3OCIETIES

!TRUEDEMOCRATIC PRACTICEANDCULTURE ISATTHEHEARTOF @TRANSFORMATION

TOSTRENGTHENORDIVERSIFYGOODSANDSERVICES ANDTO RECONlGURE THE LAWS AND PRACTICES n LIKE QUICK AND EFlCIENTCUSTOMSSERVICESnTHATALLOWNEWTRADETOBE REALLYBENElCIAL 4HELISTOFINGREDIENTSFORTRANSFORMATIONBYECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT GOES FURTHER "OTH THEORISTS AND PRACTITIONERSRIGHTLYPRIZETHEPOTENTIALUSESOFSCIENCE ANDINFORMATIONTECHNOLOGY4HEYPRIZETHECAPACITY TOPROCESSANDDEVELOPRAWMATERIALS RATHERTHANJUST SELLTHEM4HEYLOOKFORINVESTMENTININFRASTRUCTURE 4HEY COUNSEL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AS A CONCERNTOBEBROUGHTINTOEVERYSPHEREOFECONOMIC ACTIVITY-ANYPRIZETHEPROCESSOFLANDREFORMTOTURN SUBSISTENCEFARMINGINTOINCOME GENERATINGFARMING ANDTOGIVEMOREPEOPLEACCESSTOTHEFRUITSOFTHE LAND "EYOND AGRICULTURE THEY LOOK TO INDUSTRY AND SERVICES4HEYTREASURETHESMALLBUSINESSESWHICH nCOMPRISINGPERCENTOFMOSTCOUNTRIESBUSINESS ACTIVITYnARETHEDYNAMOSOFALLECONOMIES DEVELOPED ORDEVELOPING4HEYLOOKFORINVESTMENTCOMINGFROM OUTSIDE BUTABOVEALLTHEYLOOKFORINVESTMENTFROM WITHIN ASTHESURESTSIGNOFLOCALPEOPLESCONlDENCE INTHEIROWNFUTURE CHANGE OF 3OVIET STYLE CONTROL TO LIMITED 'OVERNMENT INTERVENTIONOFTENPRODUCEDMOREPROBLEMSTHANTHERE HAD BEEN BEFORE 'OVERNMENTS BLINDLY GOVERNING IN THE HOPE OF BETTER RESULTS DESPAIRED WHEN THEY WERE CONFRONTED BY GREATER POVERTY AND INEQUALITIES 4HERE WERE ENDEAVOURS TO lND A THIRD WAY LEANING TO THE RIGHT ECONOMICALLY AND TO THE LEFT SOCIALLY AND INCLUDING SOME GOVERNMENT SUPPORT TO PARTICULAR EXPORTS SOME GOVERNMENT REGULATION OF lNANCIAL MARKETS SOME GOVERNMENT INVESTMENT IN RESEARCH ANDTECHNOLOGY-ANAGEMENTBYABDICATIONBECAME MANAGEMENTWITHALIGHTERTOUCH 4HEFUSIONOFLAISSER FAIREANDINTERVENTIONISCLEARLYTHE MODELNOWEMBRACEDBYMOSTECONOMICDEVELOPMENT THEORISTS 4HESE PEOPLE ALSO AGREE ON FURTHER REQUIREMENTS FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 0ERHAPS THE GREATEST OF THESE n MORE EVEN THAN MACRO ECONOMIC STABILITY n IS A DEVELOPING COUNTRYS CAPACITY TO TRADE 9ET ON ITS OWN A LEVEL PLAYING lELD IN REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE n ACHIEVABLE BY ABANDONING GOVERNMENTS SUBSIDIES FOR THEIR OWN GOODS AND THEIR TARIFFS AND QUOTAS RAISED AGAINST OTHERS n WILL NOT SUFlCE 4HE %5S %VERYTHING "UT !RMS )NITIATIVE AND THE 53S !FRICAN 'ROWTH AND /PPORTUNITIES!CT FORINSTANCE AREHUGEADVANCES BUT THEY DO NOT IN THEMSELVES PROMISE !FRICAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT "ECAUSE IF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ARE NOT IN A POSITION TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THE CONCESSIONS THAT MAKE FOR FREE TRADE THEN THOSECONCESSIONSAREMEANINGLESS!NDWHENTHERE ARE CLAUSES IN THE SMALL PRINT ON IMPORTANT ISSUES LIKERULESOFORIGINANDPHYTO SANITARYSTANDARDS THEY AREFURTHERUNDERMINED (ENCE THE PRIMACY OF DEVELOPING COUNTRY EFFORTS SUPPORTEDBYRICHERCOUNTRIES@AIDFORTRADEPROGRAMMES



4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

-ANYTHEORISTSALSOPRIZETHEPOSSIBILITIESOFDEVELOPED COUNTRYlNANCIALAIDANDASSISTANCE THOUGHONLYIN THE/%#$0ARIS$ECLARATIONOFHASAUNIVERSAL COMMITMENT BEEN MADE TO MAKE THIS ASSISTANCE PREDICTABLE AND UNCONDITIONAL AS IT SHOULD BE !ID CANNOT BE IMPOSED IT CAN ONLY WORK IF ITS ACTIONS ARE TRULY OWNED AND PLANNED FOR BY THOSE WHO ARE TORECEIVEIT)NTERNATIONALAIDCANONLYACHIEVEIFITS AIMSCOINCIDEWITHNATIONALASPIRATIONS

$EVELOPMENTAND$EMOCRACY 9ET IT IS MY BELIEF THAT THESE ECONOMIC THEORIES AND PRACTICES ALONE WILL BRING ABOUT NEITHER TRUE TRANSFORMATIONNORTRUEDEVELOPMENT)FTRANSFORMATION REALLYISSOMETHINGTHATMUSTBEEMBRACEDBYALLAND BE FOR ALL THEN IT MUST TRANSCEND ECONOMICS AND TAKE ON A POLITICAL AND SOCIAL HUE FOR IT IS SOCIETIES THEMSELVES THAT ARE BEING TRANSFORMED )N SHORT TRANSFORMATION MUST BE DEMOCRATIC BECAUSE THE MODERN#OMMONWEALTHBELIEVESTHATITSTWOPILLARSOF $EMOCRACYAND$EVELOPMENTAREORGANICALLYLINKED ANDMUTUALLYREINFORCING )NTHE#OMMONWEALTHASANYWHERE THEREWILLALWAYS BEANOMALIESTHATBUCKTHETREND(OWEVERSUBJECTIVE AND RELATIVE THE WORDS @DEMOCRATIC AND @DEVELOPED PERHAPS THERE WILL ALWAYS BE UNDEMOCRATIC SOCIETIES THAT ARE DEVELOPED AND THERE WILL ALWAYS BE UNDEVELOPEDSOCIETIESTHATAREDEMOCRATIC /UR #OMMONWEALTH BELIEF IS SIMPLY AND COLLOQUIALLY THATYOUCANTHAVETRUEANDMEANINGFULDEVELOPMENT WITHOUT DEMOCRACY #YNICS MAY ACCUSE US OF USING MERE WORDS BUT WHEN ONE #OMMONWEALTH 0RIME -INISTER ONCE TOLD ME THAT HE WOULDNT QUITE BELIEVE WHAT)SAIDABOUTDEMOCRACYUNTILHISPEOPLECOULDEAT IT )TOLDHIMTHATTHEYCAN&ORTHEGREATESTDIVIDENDOF DEMOCRACYISDEVELOPMENT ANDDEVELOPMENTMEANS AMONGOTHERTHINGS FOODONTHETABLE


4RANSFORMING3OCIETIES

@4RANSFORMATION AND EDUCATION ISFORALLn MALEANDFEMALE YOUNGANDOLD OF EVERYCOMMUNITY

4HIS LONG HELD VIEW WAS SET IN STONE BY A  #OMMONWEALTH REPORT 0OVERTY $EMOCRACY AND $EVELOPMENT BY A #OMMONWEALTH %XPERT 'ROUP CHAIRED BY THE NOW )NDIAN 0RIME -INISTER $R-ANMOHAN3INGH 4HEREPORTTOOKFULLACCOUNTOFTHEECONOMICSUCCESSESOF UNDEMOCRATICCOUNTRIES ANDINDEEDITCHARTEDADECLINE OFFAITHINDEMOCRACYANDITSSUPPOSEDDIVIDENDS)TDREW HEAVILYFROMTHE5.(UMAN$EVELOPMENT2EPORTOF INACKNOWLEDGINGTHEDIFlCULTIESINSTATISTICALCORRELATIONS BETWEEN DEMOCRACY AND PROSPERITY !ND YET IT CAME DOWNlRMLYONTHESIDEOFTHEVALUEOFPOLITICALFREEDOMS n BOTH IN THEIR OWN RIGHT AND AS A MEANS TO ECONOMIC GROWTH )T ALSO SAW THE DEMOCRATIC BENElTS OF POVERTY REDUCTION SIMPLY IN EXPANDING INDIVIDUALS CHOICE AND POTENTIALASTOHOWTHEYWANTTOLIVE 4HEREMAYBEAQUALITATIVENATURETOPEOPLESJUDGMENT ON DEMOCRACY AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH DEVELOPMENT BUT THE EVIDENCE IS INCONTROVERTIBLE 4HE %CONOMIST )NTELLIGENCE 5NITS DEMOCRACY INDEX OF *ANUARY  SURVEYEDCOUNTRIES BASEDONAREVIEWOFELECTORAL PROCESSES THE FUNCTIONING OF GOVERNMENT THE LEVEL OF POLITICAL PARTICIPATION AND CULTURE AND THE EXTENT OFCIVILLIBERTIES)TCLAIMEDTOBE@FULLDEMOCRACIES OF WHICH SIX ARE FROM THE #OMMONWEALTH  TO BE @mAWED DEMOCRACIES  #OMMONWEALTH  TO BE @HYBRID REGIMES  #OMMONWEALTH AND  TO BE @AUTHORITARIANREGIMESlVE#OMMONWEALTH  &ROM A SEA OF SUBJECTIVITY COMES A SIMPLE OBJECTIVE FACTTHATWHENOUREYESARECASTTOTHEBOTTOMOFTHESE OR OTHER SIMILAR LISTINGS WE SEE THE LEAST DEMOCRATIC ANDPOORESTOFTHEWORLDSSTATES

$EMOCRACYATTHEROOTOFTRANSFORMATION 7HAT IS THIS MUCH USED TERM @DEMOCRACY WHICH WE SEEATTHEROOTOFTRANSFORMEDSOCIETIES!THEARTITIS THECAPACITYFORCITIZENSTOHAVEASAYINWHOGOVERNS THEM ANDHOWTHEYAREGOVERNED 4HAT IMPLIES CREDIBLE FREE AND FAIR ELECTIONS AND THE INDEPENDENTELECTORALBODIESTOENSURETHEM)TIMPLIES THAT A VOTE MUST BE WORTH HAVING IN GUARANTEEING GOVERNMENT THAT IS FAIR EFlCIENT AND ESPECIALLY IN lNANCIALAFFAIRS TRANSPARENT$EMOCRACYRISESANDFALLS BYTHEQUALITYOFITSINSTITUTIONSnABOVEALLOFTHETHREE INDEPENDENTPILLARSOFTHEPARLIAMENT THEJUDICIARY AND THEEXECUTIVE ASWELLASTHEOTHEROVERSIGHTBODIESTHAT HAVEEMERGEDINMODERNTIMES SUCHASNATIONALHUMAN RIGHTSCOMMISSIONSANDTHEOFlCESOFOMBUDSMEN !ND YET IT GOES FURTHER AND DEEPER $EMOCRACY IS KNOWNBESTANDEXPERIENCEDMOSTCOMPLETELYWHERE ITISINGRAINEDASADEEP ROOTEDCULTURE WHICHBRINGS WITHITAFREEYETRESPONSIBLEMEDIA ALIVELYCIVILSOCIETY ANDASOCIETYTHATVALUESANDINCLUDESITSWOMENAND GIRLS AS MUCH AS ITS MEN AND BOYS ITS CHILDREN AND YOUTHASMUCHASITSADULTS ITSHUMANRIGHTS ANDITS DIFFERENTRELIGIOUS LINGUISTICORETHNICCOMMUNITIES !LL THESE WE BELIEVE ARE THE REAL INGREDIENTS OF A TRANSFORMED SOCIETY AND ANSWER TO THE CALL OF TRANSFORMATIONTHATISUNDERSTOODBYANDSUPPORTEDBY ALL ANDFORALL

4HESE INGREDIENTS HAVE BEEN CLEARLY SET OUT IN OUR #OMMONWEALTH0RINCIPLESOFAND4HEYARE WHATWEPROMISEDTODEFENDWITHTHECREATIONIN OF THE #OMMONWEALTH -INISTERIAL !CTION 'ROUP SET UPTODEALWITHPERSISTENTVIOLATIONSOFOUR0RINCIPLES 4HEY ARE ENSHRINED TOO IN INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL STANDARDS AND AGREEMENTS WHICH ALSO PROVIDE BENCHMARKS &OR EXAMPLE THE 5. )NTERNATIONAL #OVENANTSON#IVIL 0OLITICAL 3OCIALAND%CONOMIC2IGHTS OF ANDTHE#ONVENTIONONTHE%LIMINATIONOF !LL&ORMSOF$ISCRIMINATION!GAINST7OMEN 7HAT IS MORE THE INGREDIENTS OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT SET DOWN EARLIER ONLY TAKE ON REAL SHAPE WHEN THEY ARE MADE DEMOCRATIC (ENCE THE NEED TO PROMOTE ALL BUSINESS ACTIVITY n AS MUCH FOR SMALL BUSINESSES AND WOMEN AND YOUTH ENTREPRENEURS AS FOR BIG BUSINESS (ENCE TOO THE NEED FOR RESPONSIBLE BUSINESS n ACCOUNTABLE SOCIALLY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY AS WELL AS FINANCIALLY 3IMILARLY DEMOCRACYISATPLAYINTHERULESTHATGOVERN AND PROTECT BUSINESS CONDUCT n IN LEGISLATION AND WAYSOFENFORCINGIT FORINSTANCE ANDSAFEBANKING 4HE CLEAREST INDICATION OF A SOCIETYS COMMITMENT TO ITSELF IS THAT ITS CITIZENS INVEST THEIR HARD EARNED CASHINTHECOUNTRYITSELF ANDDONTTAKETHEIRMONEY BEYONDITSBORDERSTOKEEPIT@SAFE4HEYSHOULDBE ABLE TO ESTABLISH THEMSELVES IN BUSINESS IN DAYS NOT MONTHS 4HEY SHOULD HAVE THE CONFIDENCE TO LIVE WORK SAVEANDINVESTINTHEIROWNCOUNTRIES 4HE ENTIRE TRANSFORMATION PROCESS CAN ONLY TAKE ROOT IF IT IS THE PRODUCT OF FULL NATIONAL CONSULTATION n DEEP AND WIDE n TO AGREE A COMMON LONG TERM VISION 4HIS IS DEMOCRACY AT WORK IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 7E HAVE SEEN IT MOST CLEARLY IN #OMMONWEALTHCOUNTRIESWHOSEONLYREALRESOURCE ISTHEIRPEOPLE0EOPLESINVOLVEMENTISATTHECOREOF TRANSFORMATIONTHEYHAVETOBELIEVEINTHEIRLEADERS AND THEIR COUNTRY AND SHARE IN ITS ASPIRATIONS AND GOALS4HISSELF BELIEFANDSELF MOTIVATIONHAVEBEEN AT THE CORE OF THE MOST PROFOUNDLY TRANSFORMED SOCIETIES WHICHHAVEDRIVENTHEMSELVESRELENTLESSLY TOWARDS THEIR GOALS 4O HAVE ASPIRATIONS IS ONE THINGTOENACTTHEM ANOTHER4HEREISADEMOCRACY IN THE SHEER DYNAMISM AND ENERGY OF COMMITTED PEOPLES

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




4RANSFORMING3OCIETIES

4RUELEADERSHIPIS SERVICEASWELLAS VISIONITENGAGES ANDENLISTSPEOPLEIN TRUSTANDCONlDENCE

)NTHESAMEWAY THE5.S-ILLENNIUM$EVELOPMENT 'OALS n PERHAPS THE MOST UNIVERSALLY AGREED ASPIRATIONS FOR TRANSFORMATION n ARE AS MUCH ABOUT DEMOCRACYASTHEYAREABOUTDEVELOPMENT&IGHTING POVERTY ENSURING PRIMARY EDUCATION AND GENDER EQUALITY IN SCHOOLS REDUCING CHILD AND MATERNAL MORTALITY TURNING BACK DISEASES LIKE ()6!)$3 AND MALARIA STEWARDING THE ENVIRONMENT ALL ARE ABOUT PEOPLES POTENTIAL AND PARTICULARLY POOR PEOPLES POTENTIAL

,EADERSHIP SERVICE VISION !T #(/'-  THE 5GANDAN 'OVERNMENT HAS THROWNDOWNTHEGAUNTLETTO#OMMONWEALTHCOUNTRIES JUSTHOW COLLECTIVELY CANWE#OMMONWEALTHSOCIETIES HELPEACHOTHERTOTRANSFORM INDIVIDUALLY 4O THE #OMMONWEALTH (EADS OF 'OVERNMENT GATHERED IN +AMPALA IN .OVEMBER  ) SAY THAT @4RANSFORMINGSOCIETIESISAFUNDAMENTALLYDEMOCRATIC PROCESS !T ITS HEART LIE ALL PEOPLES GREATEST NEEDS ANDTHEIRASPIRATIONSTORISETOWHERETHEYSEEOTHERS 4RUE LEADERSHIP IS SERVICE AS WELL AS VISION IT IS THE LEADERSHIP WHICH ENGAGES AND ENLISTS PEOPLE IN TRUST AND CONlDENCE )T SEEKS TO GIVE TO ALL PEOPLE THE MAXIMUM EDUCATIONAL AND ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES 4RANSFORMED SOCIETIES ARE SOCIETIES THATBRINGBENElTSFORALL



4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

4HE2T(ON$ON-C+INNONBECAME#OMMONWEALTH3ECRETARY 'ENERAL IN !PRIL  AFTER A  YEAR CAREER IN .EW :EALAND POLITICS(EWAS.EW:EALANDSLONGESTSERVING-INISTEROF&OREIGN !FFAIRSAND4RADE ANDHASHELDANUMBEROFSENIORPOSTSWITHINTHE GOVERNMENT INCLUDING$EPUTY0RIME-INISTER -INISTEROF&OREIGN !FFAIRSAND4RADE AND,EADEROFTHE(OUSEOF2EPRESENTATIVES (EBECAMEAMEMBEROFTHE0RIVY#OUNCILIN(ESERVED AS THE $EPUTY #HAIRPERSON OF THE #OMMONWEALTH -INISTERIAL !CTION'ROUPONTHE(ARARE$ECLARATION#-!' ANDCHAIREDTHE #OMMONWEALTH3MALL3TATES-EETINGATTHE!UCKLAND#(/'- IN(EWASAPPOINTEDTOTHElVE MEMBER#OMMONWEALTH -INISTERIAL-ISSIONON3MALL3TATESIN 4HE#OMMONWEALTH3ECRETARIAT ESTABLISHEDIN ISTHEMAIN INTERGOVERNMENTAL AGENCY OF THE #OMMONWEALTH FACILITATING CONSULTATION AND CO OPERATION AMONG MEMBER GOVERNMENTS AND COUNTRIES )T IS HEADED BY THE #OMMONWEALTH 3ECRETARY 'ENERAL 4HE #OMMONWEALTH IS ACTIVE IN A NUMBER OF AREAS INCLUDING DEVELOPMENT DEMOCRACY DEBT MANAGEMENT AND TRADE )T IS COMMITTED TO THE ACHIEVEMENT OF THE -ILLENNIUM $EVELOPMENT 'OALS AND PURSUES THESE THROUGH PROGRAMMES IMPLEMENTEDBYITS$IVISIONS #OMMONWEALTH3ECRETARIAT -ARLBOROUGH(OUSE 0ALL-ALL ,ONDON379(8 5+ 4EL   &AX   %MAILINFO COMMONWEALTHINT 7EBSITEWWWTHECOMMONWEALTHORG


KINGDOM ZEPHYR AFRICA MANAGEMENT Kingdom Zephyr Africa Management is one of the most successful private equity fund managers in Africa. Through its two sponsors, Kingdom Holding and Zephyr Management LP, Kingdom Zephyr has been active in Africa since the 1990’s. Kingdom Holding, the private investment vehicle of HRH Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal Bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, member of the Saudi Royal family and renowned international investor, is estimated to have assets exceeding US $25 billion. Zephyr Management is a New York based private equity firm and has been active in emerging markets since 1994, having been involved in the formation and management of twelve private investment funds with over US $850 million of committed capital. With the support and endorsement of the Commonwealth Secretariat, in late 2004 Kingdom Zephyr raised two panAfrican private equity funds: Pan-Commonwealth African Partners Limited and Pan-African Investment Partners Limited, with total capital commitments of US $122.5 million. The funds have been invested in parallel and have been seeking returns from investments in high-growth, regionally expanding companies with proven management and established revenue streams in Africa. In sub-Saharan Africa, excluding South Africa, there are few formal financial institutions that cater to the lower-paid formal workforce. Consumer micro-lending has proven to be one of the viable channels for delivering much needed credit to this demographic. Consumer micro-lending provides access to credit lines to individuals who need relatively small amounts of credit at a time and who generally do not have access to bank credit because banks generally find it difficult to service this sector profitably, given their high cost structures, complex credit administration processes, and perceived risks. In 2004 Kingdom Zephyr’s funds led a US $19 million investment in Micro Provident Botswana Limited, trading as “Letshego”. Letshego is a Botswana based consumer microfinance provider that makes loans mainly to government employees. Collections are effected by means of payroll deduction, where the employers deliver the employees’ salaries net of the relevant loan installments due. Although the loans are not backed by physical collateral and are, therefore, unsecured lending, they are effectively secured by highly predictable future streams of cash flow. Letshego was the first consumer micro-lending company to be formed in Botswana, and the only listed one on the Botswana Stock Exchange. A well governed, well capitalized company, Letshego had at the time of Kingdom Zephyr’s investment a market capitalization of US $55 million. Today, Letshego is the dominant consumer micro-lender in Botswana, is valued at over US $300 million, and with the help of Kingdom Zephyr has expanded its operations to Tanzania, Zambia, Uganda and Swaziland. Letshego’s future looks bright, with aspirations to consolidate its position in its new markets and further enhance its African footprint.

J. Kofi Bucknor Managing Partner Kingdom Zephyr Africa Management

Accra 81 Osu Badu Street West Airport Accra, Ghana West Africa Tel: + 233 21 769 725 Fax: +233 21 769 727

London 25 Hill Street 4th Floor London W1J 5LW United Kingdom Tel: + 44 207 907 2430 Fax: +44 207 907 2434

Johannesburg 1st Floor Unihold House 22 Hurlingham Road Illovo Boulevard Illovo, 2196 South Africa Tel: +27 11 268 6911 Fax: +27 11 268 6917

New York 320 Park Avenue 28th Floor New York NY 10022 United States of America Tel: +1 212 508 9400 Fax: +1 212 508 9494


'OOD'OVERNANCE 0EACEAND0ROSPERITY

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




'OOD'OVERNANCE 0EACEAND0ROSPERITY

2ANSFORD3MITH #OMMONWEALTH$EPUTY3ECRETARY 'ENERAL

(OWGOVERNANCEISCRUCIALTO POVERTYREDUCTION PEACE ANDSTABILITY 4HE #OMMONWEALTH VIEWS GOVERNANCE AS THE EXERCISE OF ECONOMIC POLITICAL AND ADMINISTRATIVEAUTHORITYTOMANAGEACOUNTRYS AFFAIRS AT ALL LEVELS /N THIS BASIS IT WOULD COMPRISE ASTHE5NITED.ATIONS$EVELOPMENT 0ROGRAMME HAS POSITED THE MECHANISMS PROCESSES AND INSTITUTIONS THROUGH WHICH CITIZENS AND GROUPS ARTICULATE THEIR INTERESTS EXERCISETHEIRLEGALRIGHTS MEETTHEIROBLIGATIONS AND MEDIATE THEIR DIFFERENCES )NSTITUTIONS OF GOVERNANCE EXERT A FUNDAMENTAL INmUENCE OVER A NATIONS STABILITY PROSPERITY AND THE WELL BEING OF ITS CITIZENS )N THIS ARTICLE THE AUTHOR EXPLAINS THE #OMMONWEALTHS LONG HELD VIEW THAT THERE ARE CRITICAL LINKS BETWEEN GOOD GOVERNANCE AND POSITIVE DEVELOPMENT OUTCOMES !S THE FORMER 5. 3ECRETARY 'ENERAL +Ol !NNAN HAS SAID hGOOD GOVERNANCE IS THE SINGLE MOST IMPORTANTFACTORINERADICATINGPOVERTYANDPROMOTING DEVELOPMENTv )T IS NOW ACKNOWLEDGED THAT THERE ARE CRITICAL LINKAGES BETWEEN GOOD GOVERNANCE AND POSITIVE DEVELOPMENT OUTCOMES SUCH AS REDUCED POVERTYANDPEACEANDSTABILITY4HE#OMMONWEALTH HAS ITSELF LONG VOICED THIS VIEW !S EARLY AS  #OMMONWEALTH (EADS OF 'OVERNMENT IN THE 3INGAPORE $ECLARATION AGREED ON #OMMONWEALTH PRINCIPLES WHICH EMPHASISED THE IMPORTANT ROLE OF GOVERNANCE IN THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS AND SUBSEQUENTLY IN THE LANDMARK (ARARE $ECLARATION  ASWELLASINTHE!SO2OCK$ECLARATION THEY REAFlRMED THEIR COMMITMENT TO DEMOCRACY GOOD GOVERNANCE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT HUMAN RIGHTS AND GENDER EQUALITY )T WILL ALSO BE RECALLED THAT (EADS OF 'OVERNMENT IN  AT THE #OOLUM 3UMMIT RECOGNISED THE LINKS BETWEEN DEMOCRACY AND GOOD GOVERNANCE ON THE ONE HAND AND POVERTY DEVELOPMENT AND CONmICT ON THEOTHER AND ESTABLISHEDAHIGH LEVEL%XPERT'ROUPON$EMOCRACY AND $EVELOPMENT WHICH PRODUCED A SEMINAL AND INSIGHTFUL REPORT -AKING DEMOCRACY WORK FOR PRO POORDEVELOPMENT  

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

7HATISGOODGOVERNANCE !N IMPORTANT PERSPECTIVE ON GOVERNANCE IS THAT IT ENCOMPASSESBOTHPROCESSESANDINSTITUTIONS ANDNOT ONLYTHESTATEASAKEYACTOR BUTTHEPRIVATESECTORAND CIVILSOCIETYASWELL!LLTHELATTERTHREEPLAYCENTRALROLES IN PROVIDING THE CONDITIONS AND STRUCTURES NECESSARY FOR IMPROVED GOVERNANCE !MONG THE KEY ROLES OF THESTATEISTHATOFCREATINGASTABLEPOLITICALANDLEGAL ENVIRONMENT CONDUCIVE TO SUSTAINED DEVELOPMENT 4HE PRIVATE SECTOR CONTRIBUTES THROUGH WEALTH AND EMPLOYMENTCREATION WHILECIVILSOCIETYINSTITUTIONSAND ORGANISATIONS FACILITATE POLITICAL AND SOCIAL INTERACTION INCLUDINGTHROUGHMOBILISINGGROUPSANDINDIVIDUALSTO PARTICIPATEINECONOMIC SOCIALANDPOLITICALACTIVITIES

!MONGTHEKEYROLESOFTHESTATE ISTHATOFCREATINGASTABLEPOLITICAL ANDLEGALENVIRONMENTCONDUCIVE TOSUSTAINEDDEVELOPMENT 4HISPERSPECTIVEPOINTSBROADLYTODESIREDOUTCOMESn BUTITISIMPORTANTTOEMPHASISETHATGOODGOVERNANCE ISASMUCHABOUTPROCESSASITISABOUTOUTCOMESTHE TWOAREINEXTRICABLYLINKED)NTHISCONTEXT WHILETHERE ARENUANCEDDIFFERENCES GOODGOVERNANCEHASBEEN IDENTIlEDGENERALLYWITHCERTAINATTRIBUTESWHICHRELATE TOBOTHPROCESSANDOUTCOME

'OVERNANCEANDPOVERTYREDUCTION $OESGOODGOVERNANCECONTRIBUTETOPOVERTYALLEVIATION 4HE#OMMISSIONON!FRICAASSERTEDTWOYEARSAGOTHAT GOODGOVERNANCEANDCAPACITYBUILDINGAREATTHECORE OFALLOF!FRICASPROBLEMS4HISISANASSESSMENTTHAT NEEDNOTBECONlNEDINTHEDEVELOPINGWORLDTO!FRICA 0ROBLEMSOFPOVERTYANDGOVERNANCEAREINTERTWINED )T IS CLEARLY THE CASE THAT WHEN POWER IS ABUSED OR EXERCISED IN AN IMPROPER MANNER AND IF INSTITUTIONS


'OOD'OVERNANCE 0EACEAND0ROSPERITY

AREINEFlCIENT THOSEWITHOUTACCESSnTHEPOORnARE MOST LIKELY TO SUFFER )NEFFECTIVE OR WEAK GOVERNANCE COMPROMISESTHEDELIVERYOFSERVICESANDBENElTSTO THOSEWHONEEDTHEMMOSTTHEINmUENCEOFORGANISED AND WELL HEELED INTEREST GROUPS BIASES POLICIES PROGRAMMES AND SPENDING AWAY FROM THE POOR .OT SURPRISINGLY ANALYSTS HAVE POINTED TO THE VICIOUS CIRCLE IN WHICH THE POOR ARE CAUGHT UP "Y DElNITION LACKING SIGNIlCANT ASSETS THE LACK OF PROPERTY RIGHTS POORSECURITY ANDINADEQUATELEGALSERVICESTHATOFTEN ATTENDWEAKGOVERNANCEFURTHERDISADVANTAGETHEPOOR ANDINHIBITTHEMFROMSECURINGTHEIRHOMESANDOTHER ASSETS AND FROM OPERATING BUSINESSES 4HUS POOR GOVERNANCE BOTH GENERATES AND REINFORCES POVERTY ANDSUBVERTSEFFORTSTOREDUCEITTHECOROLLARYOFCOURSE ISTHATSUSTAINABLEPOVERTYREDUCTIONSTRATEGIESREQUIRE GOODGOVERNANCE

!PILLAROFTHEEMERGING POLICYFRAMEWORKISTHE0ARIS $ECLARATIONON!ID%FFECTIVENESS WHICHINTRODUCESPRINCIPLESESSENTIAL TOGENUINEPARTNERSHIPBETWEEN DONORSANDRECIPIENTS )T IS BOTH INTUITIVELY PLAUSIBLE AND DEMONSTRATED EMPIRICALLY THAT THE PROVISION OF EXTERNAL RESOURCES IS AFFECTED BY THE QUALITY OF GOVERNANCE ALTHOUGH IT WILL BE READILY RECOGNISED THAT IN A COMPLEX WORLD THE REASONS FOR RESOURCE mOWS PUBLIC AND PRIVATE CAN VARY 2EGRESSION ANALYSES MORE THAN A DECADE OLD INDICATE THAT CORRUPTION IS NEGATIVELY LINKED TO LEVELS OF INVESTMENT AS WELL AS TO ECONOMIC GROWTH THELATTERBEINGRETARDEDBYFACTORSSUCHASEXCESSIVE RENT SEEKING LOSS OF TAX REVENUE UNPRODUCTIVE AND WASTEFUL EXPENDITURE AND POOR QUALITY INFRASTRUCTURE ANDSERVICES4HE#OMMONWEALTHSOWNENGAGEMENT INANTI CORRUPTIONPROGRAMMESINITSMEMBERSTATESIS PREDICATEDONTHEPREMISETHATCORRUPTIONISDELETERIOUS TO DEVELOPMENT HURTS THE POOR DISPROPORTIONATELY BY DIVERTINGFUNDSINTENDEDFORDEVELOPMENT UNDERMINES THE ABILITY OF GOVERNMENTS TO PROVIDE BASIC SERVICES AND HELPS TO PERPETUATE INEQUALITY AND INJUSTICE 4HE 3ECRETARIATSPROGRAMMESAIMULTIMATELYTOENSURETHAT GOVERNANCEINSTITUTIONSSERVECITIZENSEFlCIENTLYANDIN ACOST EFFECTIVEMANNER )NREGARDTOAIDmOWS ARGUABLYNOASPECTOFDEVELOPMENT COOPERATIONHASBEENTHESUBJECTOFMORECONCERTED ATTENTIONINRECENTYEARSTHANTHERELATIONSHIPBETWEEN GOVERNANCE AND AID EFFECTIVENESS -ANY COUNTRIES IN !FRICA WILL HAVE TO DOUBLE THEIR PER CAPITA INCOME OVER THE NEXT DECADE IF THEY ARE TO MEET THE GOAL OF HALVING POVERTY BY  4HE ATTAINMENT OF THIS AND OTHER-ILLENNIUM$EVELOPMENT'OALS -$'S DEMAND A SIGNIlCANT SCALING UP OF AID n EVEN BEYOND THE LEVELS COMMITTED TO AT THE 'LENEAGLES 3UMMIT n AS

WELL AS INCREASED PRIVATE INVESTMENT BOTH DOMESTIC AND EXTERNAL AND THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE POLICY REFORMSTHATAREATTHEHEARTOFIMPROVEDGOVERNANCE 4HE 5NITED 3TATES -ILLENNIUM #HALLENGE !CCOUNT THE5NITED+INGDOMS'OVERNANCEAND4RANSPARENCY &UND THE %5!5 3TRATEGY FOR !FRICA AND THE !FRICAN 5NION .%0!$ 0EER 2EVIEW -ECHANISM ARE SOME OF THE INITIATIVES WHICH REmECT THIS NEW AND CONCERTED FOCUSONGOVERNANCEANDDEVELOPMENT!PILLAROFTHE EMERGINGPOLICYFRAMEWORKATTHEINTERNATIONALLEVELISOF COURSE THE  0ARIS $ECLARATION ON !ID %FFECTIVENESS nTOBEREVIEWEDINnWHICHINTRODUCESPRINCIPLES ESSENTIALTOGENUINEPARTNERSHIPBETWEENDONORSAND RECIPIENTS COUNTRY OWNERSHIP MUTUAL ACCOUNTABILITY ANDHARMONISATIONANDALIGNMENTOFAIDEFFORTSAMONG THEM 4HE CHANGING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DONOR AND RECIPIENT AS REmECTED IN THE 0ARIS PRINCIPLES IS AS OF NOWAWORKINPROGRESS BUTONETHATAUGURSWELLFOR BOTH GOVERNANCE AND DEVELOPMENT !ND GIVEN THE UNDENIABLE LINKAGE BETWEEN THE TWO IN THE MEDIUM TOLONGTERMTHISMUSTNECESSARILYAUGURWELLALSOFOR POVERTYALLEVIATION 4HE TASK BEFORE THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY AND NO LESS THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES THEMSELVES IS A VERY CHALLENGING ONE !CCORDING TO THE 7ORLD "ANKS 7ORLDWIDE 'OVERNANCE )NDICATORS 7') 0ROJECT WHICHTRACKSGOVERNANCEINDICATORSFORCOUNTRIES ANDTERRITORIESFORSIXDIMENSIONSOFGOVERNANCE OF COUNTRIESIN!FRICAAREBOTHPOORERTHANTHEGLOBAL AVERAGE AND SCORE LOWER THAN THE GLOBAL AVERAGE ON THEBASISOFTHEPROJECTSGOVERNANCEINDICATORS4HOSE INDICATORSAREVOICEANDACCOUNTABILITY POLITICALSTABILITY AND ABSENCE OF VIOLENCE GOVERNMENT EFFECTIVENESS REGULATORYQUALITY RULEOFLAW ANDCONTROLOFCORRUPTION 7HETHERTHEREWILLBEBROAD BASEDSUCCESSINACHIEVING THE-$'SORNOTnANDTHISISTHELEADINGDEVELOPMENT CHALLENGEOFOURTIMESnWILLBEDECIDEDIN!FRICA&OR THISREASONTHERELATIONSHIPBETWEENGOVERNANCEAND DEVELOPMENT IS OF IMMENSE RELEVANCE PARTICULARLY TO THATCONTINENT

7HATISTHE#OMMONWEALTHDOING 4HE CONSIDERABLE VARIATION IN THE KIND AND QUALITY OF THE GOVERNANCE ARRANGEMENTS ACROSS COUNTRIES MEANS THAT THERE IS NO ONE SIZE lTS ALL APPROACH TO THE PROCESSES AND INSTITUTIONS THAT WILL BE PLAUSIBLE AND BENElCIAL TO COUNTRIES UNDER ALL CIRCUMSTANCES !T THE #OMMONWEALTH WE CONSIDER A STRONG AND VIBRANTDEMOCRACYTOBECRUCIALFORDEVELOPMENT AND WEHOLDDEMOCRACYANDDEVELOPMENTTOBEMUTUALLY REINFORCING &OR THE #OMMONWEALTH THEREFORE GOOD GOVERNANCEISTOBEIDENTIlEDWITHDEMOCRATICFORMS WITH THE RULE OF LAW AND WITH INSTITUTIONS ANCHORED IN PUBLIC PARTICIPATION ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY /N THIS BASIS ALSO INTEGRAL TO GOOD GOVERNANCE ARE PROCESSES RELATIONSHIPS ANDINSTITUTIONSWHICHMAKE IT POSSIBLE FOR CITIZENS AND GROUPS hTO ARTICULATE THEIR INTERESTS EXERCISE THEIR RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS AND MEDIATETHEIRDIFFERENCESv4HE#OMMONWEALTH%XPERT 'ROUP ON $EMOCRACY AND $EVELOPMENT REFERRED TO EARLIER EMPHASISEDTHATTHESCOPEOFDEMOCRACYMUST

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




'OOD'OVERNANCE 0EACEAND0ROSPERITY

BE WIDENED BEYOND ELECTIONS SO THAT DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS AND PROCESSES FACILITATE PROTECT AND REINFORCETHEFULLRANGEOFHUMANRIGHTSnWHICHINCLUDE POLITICAL AND CIVIL RIGHTS SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC RIGHTS GENDERRIGHTS ANDGROUPRIGHTS

INLEGISLATIVEDRAFTING TRAININGOFTHEJUDICIARYANDCOURT MANAGEMENT UNDERTAKEN IN !FRICA THE 0ACIlC AND IN THE #ARIBBEAN IN PARTICULAR 3UCH INITIATIVES ARE DESIGNEDTOENSURETHATCITIZENSRIGHTSAREENSHRINEDIN LEGISLATIONANDCANBEFULLYPROTECTED

4HE#OMMONWEALTHISTHUSCOMMITTEDTOANDACTIVELY PROMOTES hDEMOCRATIC PROCESSES AND INSTITUTIONS WHICH REmECT NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES THE RULE OF LAW THE INDEPENDENCE OF THE JUDICIARY AND JUST AND HONESTGOVERNMENTv(ARARE$ECLARATION 

4HE 'OOD /FlCES ROLE n POLITICAL INTERVENTION OF THE #OMMONWEALTH 3ECRETARY 'ENERAL AT THE HIGHEST POLITICALLEVELnHASHELPEDRESOLVEORPREVENTCONmICTS INANUMBEROFCOUNTRIES

!MONG #OMMONWEALTH PROGRAMMES AIMED AT PROMOTING GOOD GOVERNANCE ARE 'OOD /FlCES FOR 0EACE $EMOCRACY AND #ONSENSUS "UILDING 2ULE OF ,AW (UMAN2IGHTS 0UBLIC3ECTOR$EVELOPMENT AND #APACITY"UILDINGAND)NSTITUTIONAL$EVELOPMENT

%LECTIONOBSERVATIONISONE OFTHEMANYWAYSINWHICHTHE #OMMONWEALTHENCOURAGES ADHERENCETODEMOCRATICPROCESS

)T SHOULD BE EMPHASISED THAT WHILE FALLING OUTSIDE STRICT DElNITIONS OF DEVELOPMENT MODALITIES CONmICT RESOLUTION AND CONSENSUS BUILDING MECHANISMS ARE ESSENTIALTOPEACEANDSTABILITY TOGOODGOVERNANCE ANDTODEVELOPMENT!SWITHTHERELATIONSHIPBETWEEN GOVERNANCE AND POVERTY GOVERNANCE PEACE AND STABILITY ARE INTERRELATED ISSUES CONSTITUTING A VIRTUOUS CIRCLE IN WHICH EACH ELEMENT REINFORCES THE OTHERS 0EACE AND STABILITY ARE DEPENDENT ON GOOD GOVERNANCEPOORGOVERNANCEBREEDSDISILLUSIONMENT GRIEVANCESANDCONmICT 4HE #OMMONWEALTH HAS LONG PROVIDED ADVICE AND TECHNICALASSISTANCEONGOVERNANCEANDRELATEDMATTERS TOITSDEVELOPINGMEMBERSTATESTHROUGHPROGRAMMES AND ACTIVITIES SUCH AS THOSE CITED EARLIER %LECTION OBSERVATION FOR EXAMPLE IS ONE OF THE MANY WAYS IN WHICH THE #OMMONWEALTH ENCOURAGES ADHERENCE TO DEMOCRATIC PROCESS 4HE #OMMONWEALTH HAS OBSERVED MORE THAN FORTY lVE ELECTIONS IN MORE THAN THIRTY COUNTRIES AND HAS ASSISTED GOVERNMENTS IN IMPLEMENTINGTHERECOMMENDATIONSOFOBSERVERGROUPS INREGARDTOELECTIONSANDTHEELECTORALPROCESS4HIS YEARALONETHE#OMMONWEALTHHASOBSERVEDELECTIONS IN #AMEROON ,ESOTHO .IGERIA 0APUA .EW 'UINEA AND3IERRA,EONE WITHOTHERSTOFOLLOW /VERTHEYEARS THE#OMMONWEALTHHASBEENACTIVEALSO INASSISTINGMEMBERSTATESINSTRENGTHENINGINSTITUTIONS THATUPHOLDDEMOCRATICPRINCIPLESANDPROCESSES SUCH ASTHEJUDICIARY THEPARLIAMENT THECIVILSERVICE ELECTION MANAGEMENT BODIES OFlCES OF THE OMBUDSMAN REGULATORY BODIES AS WELL AS STRENGTHENING THE OTHER SOCIALPARTNERS THEPRIVATESECTORnINCLUDINGTHROUGH THEPROMOTIONOFPUBLICPRIVATEPARTNERSHIPSnANDCIVIL SOCIETY!NOTHERPRACTICALEXAMPLEOFTHISISINITIATIVES 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

7HILEITISRECOGNISEDTHATTHEREISMUCHMOREWORKTO BE DONE WE CONSIDER THAT ON BALANCE THESE EFFORTS AT STRENGTHENING GOVERNANCE ARE YIELDING SIGNIlCANT IMPROVEMENTS ALTHOUGH ACROSSCOUNTRIES THEPROGRESS ISUNEVEN&URTHERMORE INSOMENOTEWORTHYCASES THIS ISBEGINNINGTOPAYDIVIDENDSINTHEAREAOFECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT /F THE  #OMMONWEALTH MEMBERSIN!FRICA ACHIEVEDGROWTHRATESIN OFlVEPERCENTORMORE.INEOFTHESECOUNTRIESWERE INSUB3AHARAN!FRICA7HILEONEMUSTNOTETHATTHESE GROWTHRATESLAGONTHEWHOLETHEAVERAGEPERFORMANCE OFDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES ANDTHESPECIlCCIRCUMSTANCE OF A COMMODITY BOOM MUST BE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT ITISEVIDENTTHATTHEQUALITYOFPOLITICALANDECONOMIC GOVERNANCEHASBEENIMPROVINGINSOMECOUNTRIESAND THATGROWTHRATESHAVETRENDEDUPWARDSnTHOUGHNOT YETBYENOUGHTOENSURETHATTHE-$'SAREMET ORTO REDUCETHEABSOLUTENUMBEROFTHOSELIVINGINPOVERTY ! MAJOR DEVELOPMENTAL CHALLENGE REMAINS BUT HOW THISCHALLENGECANBEMETISINCREASINGLYCLEAR

!NOTHERDIMENSIONOFGOVERNANCETHE PRIVATESECTOR )TISNECESSARYTOHIGHLIGHTTHEKEYROLETHATSUCCESSFUL PARTNERSHIP WITH THE PRIVATE SECTOR CAN PLAY IN TAKING BOTHTHEGOODGOVERNANCEANDDEVELOPMENTAGENDAS FORWARD4HEPRIVATESECTORISQUITEAPPROPRIATELYAKEY DRIVER OF SUSTAINABLE GROWTH IN MANY #OMMONWEALTH DEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES ESPECIALLYTHROUGHTHEACTIVITIES OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES 3-%S  4HE DEVELOPMENTOF3-%SISALSOAKEYPREREQUISITEFORTHE

4WO IMPORTANT POINTS SHOULD BE MADE ABOUT GOODGOVERNANCE4HElRSTISTHATANENVIRONMENT CONDUCIVE TO CONmICT MANAGEMENT REQUIRES RESPONSIVEGOVERNANCEMACHINERYANDPROCESSES 4HISPOINTSONCEAGAINTOTHECRUCIALIMPORTANCEOF INCLUSION AND ACCOUNTABILITY WHICH AS MENTIONED ABOVE AREKEYELEMENTSOFGOODGOVERNANCE4HE SECOND IS THAT GOOD GOVERNANCE IS NOT A LUXURY ITEM THAT CAN AWAIT INROADS INTO POVERTY OR THE ATTAINMENTOFPARTICULARMILESTONESALONGTHEROAD TODEVELOPMENT/NTHECONTRARY ITISPRECISELYIN ACONTEXTOFPERVASIVESCARCITYANDACONSPICUOUS MISMATCH BETWEEN NEEDS AND AVAILABILITY THAT THE PRINCIPLES WHICH UNDERLIE GOOD GOVERNANCE SUCH AS TRANSPARENCY ACCOUNTABILITY AND EQUITY ARE MOSTRELEVANT


'OOD'OVERNANCE 0EACEAND0ROSPERITY

EMERGENCEOFAMIDDLESTRATUMWHICHISIMPORTANTFOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP HUMAN CAPITAL FORMATION DOMESTIC MARKET EXPANSION AND THUS TO LONG TERM SOCIAL AND POLITICALSTABILITY4HEREISCLEARCONVERGENCEOFINTEREST BETWEEN THE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS IN PROMOTING GOOD GOVERNANCE GIVEN THE EVIDENT NEXUS BETWEEN GOVERNANCE AND DEVELOPMENT AND THE DELETERIOUS IMPACTONDEVELOPMENTOFWASTE INEFlCIENCY CORRUPTION ANDGENERALINEFFECTIVENESS)TMUSTBESAID HOWEVER THAT WHILE GOVERNMENTS INTERESTED IN PROMOTING DEVELOPMENT ARE DUTY BOUND TO PROVIDE A CONDUCIVE AND FACILITATORY LEGAL AND REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT FOR BUSINESSESANDENTREPRENEURS DOMESTICANDFOREIGN THE PRIVATE SECTOR EVEN IF ONLY INCIPIENT MUST BE EXPECTEDTOADHERETOACCEPTABLESTANDARDSOFPROBITY ANDTOITSELFEXERCISESOCIALRESPONSIBILITY

4HEPRIVATESECTORIS QUITEAPPROPRIATELYAKEY DRIVEROFSUSTAINABLEGROWTH INMANY#OMMONWEALTH DEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES

4HE #OMMONWEALTH 3ECRETARIAT CONSISTENT WITH THE VIEWTHATTHEIMPERATIVEOFGOODGOVERNANCEEXTENDS BEYOND THE PUBLIC SECTOR HAS THROUGH ADVISORY SERVICES AND TRAINING SOUGHT TO STRENGTHEN BEST PRACTICES WITHIN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ENTITIES INCLUDING 3-%SANDCOOPERATIVES'IVENTHECOMPOSITIONOFTHE #OMMONWEALTH OFPARTICULARRELEVANCEINTHISREGARDIS THEFACTTHATHIGHSTANDARDSOFCORPORATEGOVERNANCE BY A FEW ROLE MODEL ENTERPRISES IN SMALL STATES CAN HAVE RAPID DEMONSTRATION EFFECT IN THESE MARKETS BOOSTING CONlDENCE FOR LOCAL AND FOREIGN INVESTORS ALIKE.EEDLESSTOSAYnANDREGRETTABLYnTHEREVERSE ISALSOTRUE 4HE #OMMONWEALTH CONTRIBUTES TO PROMOTING GOOD GOVERNANCE n AND BY EXTENSION TO POVERTY REDUCTION AND THE PROMOTION OF PEACE AND STABILITY n THROUGH VARIOUSCHANNELS &IRSTLY THROUGHPOLICYADVICEANDTECHNICALASSISTANCE DELIVEREDPRIMARILYUNDERITSPUBLICSECTORDEVELOPMENT ANDCAPACITYBUILDINGPROGRAMMES THE#OMMONWEALTH HASASSISTEDITSMEMBERCOUNTRIESBYENHANCINGTHEIR CAPACITY TO DESIGN AND IMPLEMENT SOUND ECONOMIC ANDSOCIALPOLICIES BUILDANDMAINTAINEFFECTIVEPUBLIC SECTOR INSTITUTIONS INCLUDING LEGAL AND REGULATORY MACHINERY AND IMPROVE ACCOUNTABILITY 3ECONDLY THROUGH ITS GOOD OFlCES RULE OF LAW AND DEMOCRACY PROGRAMMES THE #OMMONWEALTH HAS ASSISTED MEMBERSTATESINSTRENGTHENINGDEMOCRATICINSTITUTIONS ANDCULTURE ESPECIALLYTHROUGHMEDIATIONANDCONmICT RESOLUTION ASSISTANCETOELECTIONMANAGEMENTBODIES ANDTHEPROMOTIONANDPROTECTIONOFCIVIL POLITICALAND HUMANRIGHTS

4HE PRIMACY OF GOOD GOVERNANCE FOR SUSTAINABLE POVERTY REDUCTION AND FOR PEACE AND STABILITY IS UNASSAILABLE 0UTTING IN PLACE AND CONSOLIDATING THE INSTITUTIONS STRUCTURES AND PROCESSES THAT MAKE FOR GOODGOVERNANCEDEMANDSCONSTANTANDCONCERTED COMMITMENT FROM GOVERNMENTS AND INDEED FROM ALL SOCIAL PARTNERS 4HE ASSISTANCE OF DEVELOPMENT PARTNERS IS PARTICULARLY CRUCIAL 4HE #OMMONWEALTH WILL CONTINUE TO PROVIDE AND INCREASE ITS ASSISTANCE INTHISAREATOMEMBERSTATES ANDINPARTICULARTOTHE LEASTDEVELOPEDAMONGTHEM"YSODOINGITWILLFULlL ITSCOMMITMENTTODEMOCRACYANDDEVELOPMENT4HE  #OMMONWEALTH %XPERT 'ROUP ON $EMOCRACY AND$EVELOPMENTWASPRESCIENTWHENITSTATEDh'IVEN THECONmICTSANDTENSIONSINTHEWORLDTODAY ANDTHE SERIOUSNESSOFMANYOFTHEDIVIDESBETWEENCOUNTRIES RELIGIONS AND ETHNIC GROUPS REDUCING POVERTY AND IMPROVINGGOVERNANCEAREMOREIMPORTANTTHANEVER 4HEYAREDIRECTLYNEEDEDFORPEACEANDSTABILITYAND ARE ESSENTIAL STEPS FOR THE WORLD TO MOVE TOWARDS GREATERINTERNATIONALEQUALITYANDJUSTICEv

-R 2ANSFORD 3MITH WAS APPOINTED $EPUTY 3ECRETARY 'ENERAL OF THE #OMMONWEALTH IN !UGUST  ! CAREER DIPLOMAT OF NEARLY  YEARS STANDING IN THE *AMAICAN 0UBLIC AND &OREIGN 3ERVICE -R3MITHPREVIOUSLYSERVEDAS0ERMANENT3ECRETARYTO THE-INISTRYOF#OMMERCEAND4ECHNOLOGY ANDALSO0ERMANENT 3ECRETARYTOTHE-INISTRYOF)NDUSTRYAND)NVESTMENT-R3MITH WASFORMERLYTHE0ERMANENT2EPRESENTATIVEOF*AMAICATOTHE /FlCE OF THE 5NITED .ATIONS AND ITS SPECIALISED AGENCIES IN 'ENEVA 2OMEAND6IENNA-R3MITHWASALSO!MBASSADOROF *AMAICATOTHE7ORLD4RADE/RGANISATION74/ ANDSERVEDAS NON RESIDENT!MBASSADORTOANUMBEROF%UROPEANCOUNTRIES 4HE#OMMONWEALTHISANASSOCIATIONOFINDEPENDENTSTATES CONSULTING AND COOPERATING IN THE COMMON INTERESTS OF THEIR PEOPLES AND IN THE PROMOTION OF INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING ANDWORLDPEACE4HE#OMMONWEALTH3ECRETARIAT ESTABLISHED IN  IS ITS MAIN INTERGOVERNMENTAL AGENCY FACILITATING CONSULTATION AND CO OPERATION AMONG MEMBER GOVERNMENTS ANDCOUNTRIES #OMMONWEALTH3ECRETARIAT -ARLBOROUGH(OUSE 0ALL-ALL ,ONDON 379(8 5+ 4EL   &AX   %MAILINFO COMMONWEALTHINT 7EBSITEWWWTHECOMMONWEALTHORG

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




'OOD'OVERNANCE 0EACEAND0ROSPERITY

3PECIAL&EATUREBY$!4!

$!4!nADVOCATESFOR!FRICAN DEVELOPMENT $!4!ISTHE!FRICAADVOCACYGROUPCO FOUNDEDIN BYTHE5SINGER"ONOANDACTIVISTSFROMTHE $ROPTHE$EBTCAMPAIGN(ERE !FRICA/UTREACH -ANAGER %DITH *IBUNOH AND %XECUTIVE $IRECTOR *AMIE $RUMMOND OUTLINE $!4!S SUCCESSFUL ADVOCACY RECORD AND SUGGEST NEW AVENUES FOR COOPERATIONWITH!FRICANPOLICYMAKERSANDCIVIL SOCIETYINTHElGHTAGAINSTPOVERTY $!4! STANDS FOR $EBT !)$3 4RADE !FRICA )T ALSO STANDS FOR $EMOCRACY !CCOUNTABILITY AND 4RANSPARENCY 7E FORMULATEDTHENAMETODEMONSTRATEASERIOUS EVIDENCE BASEDAPPROACHTOTHECOMPLEXRANGEOFISSUESTHATHAVE HINDERED !FRICAS GROWTH AND ITS ABILITY TO lGHT POVERTY ANDTOREmECTTHERELATIONSHIPBETWEENWHATDONORSAND !FRICANGOVERNMENTSNEEDTODOTOBRINGABOUTCHANGE )T IS NO NEWS TO READERS OF THIS PUBLICATION THAT SUB 3AHARAN!FRICAISDISPROPORTIONATELYBURDENEDBY!)$3 ANDPOVERTY)NANERAOFGLOBALISATIONITSSHAREOFWORLD TRADEHASSHRUNKANDDEBTSSTILLCRIPPLENATIONALBUDGETS %VEN THOUGH  COUNTRIES HAVE SUSTAINED ECONOMIC GROWTHOFOVERPERCENTFORADECADE ANDTHEREGION ASAWHOLEISGROWINGATOVERPERCENT ITISNOTON TRACKTOMEETTHE-ILLENNIUM$EVELOPMENT'OALS.O MATTERHOWDYNAMICANDCREATIVE!FRICANBUSINESSES ARE THEY CANNOT ENGAGE FULLY IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY WITHOUT FAIRER TRADE RULES HEALTHY EDUCATED WORKERS RELIABLEINFRASTRUCTUREANDEFFECTIVEGOVERNANCE /F COURSE THE DELIVERY OF ALMOST ALL OF THESE IS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF !FRICAN GOVERNMENTS (OWEVER $!4! RECOGNISES THAT THE POLICIES AND CAPITAL mOWS OF RICH INDUSTRIALISED COUNTRIES HAVE CONSIDERABLE INmUENCE OVERALLASPECTSOFDEVELOPMENT 3O$!4!WASSETUPTODRAWATTENTIONTOTHEDEVELOPMENT NEEDSOFTHECONTINENT ANDPARTICULARLYTODEMANDBETTER DEVELOPMENTANDTRADEPOLICIESOFTHE'AND%5/VER THEPASTlVEYEARS $!4!HASACTIVELYADVOCATEDFOR °"ILATERALANDMULTILATERALDEBTCANCELLATION °2OBUSTLYFUNDEDMECHANISMSTOlGHT()6!)$3 4" ANDMALARIALIKETHE530RESIDENTS%MERGENCY0LAN FOR !)$3 2ELIEF 0%0&!2 AND THE 'LOBAL &UND TO &IGHT!)$3 4"AND-ALARIA °)NNOVATIVEEFFORTSTOINVESTINCOUNTRY LEDDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIESSUCHASTHE53-ILLENNIUM#HALLENGE!CCOUNT °)MPROVEDTRADEPOLICYTHATGIVESENHANCEDACCESSTO DONORMARKETSTHROUGH!'/!AND%"! °4HE%DUCATION&AST4RACK)NITIATIVE 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

3AVINGSANDLOAN GROUP 4ANZANIA nHELPINGSMALL BUSINESSES

)NORDERTOACHIEVERESULTS WEHAVEENGAGEDDIRECTLY WITHLEADERS URGINGTHEINTRODUCTIONOFPOLICIESINFAVOUR OF!FRICANDEVELOPMENT7ECOLLABORATEONCAMPAIGNS WITHOTHERCIVILSOCIETYSTAKEHOLDERSANDLEVERAGEOUR HIGHPROlLEPARTNERSTODRAWMASSAUDIENCEATTENTION TOAREASOFCONCERN7EDEMONSTRATETHATDEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCEREACHESINTENDEDRECIPIENTSANDACHIEVES RESULTS4HROUGHOURNEWOFlCEIN!BUJA .IGERIA WEARE KEENTOFOSTERRELATIONSHIPSWITH!FRICANSTAKEHOLDERS 7E HAVE ALREADY SEEN THAT PARTNERSHIPS BETWEEN DONORSAND!FRICACANYIELDGREATRESULTS4HOUGHTHEY ARENOTBROADCASTASWIDELYASTHEYSHOULDBE MANY OFTHE#OMMONWEALTHCOUNTRIESIN!FRICAHAVEPOSITIVE STORIES TO TELL ABOUT THE EFFECTIVE USE OF AID AND DEBT CANCELLATION 4HESE RESOURCES HAVE HELPED TO BOOST PRIMARY SCHOOL ENROLMENTS BY  MILLION SINCE  AND TO PUT  MILLION PEOPLE ONTO LIFE SAVING !)$3 TREATMENT 4HESE POSITIVE AND EFFECTIVE ILLUSTRATIONS OF ASSISTANCEINFORM$!4!SAPPROACH /F COURSE SPENDING MONEY FOR THE SAKE OF IT IS IN NOBODYSINTERESTAND$!4!ISTHElRSTTOACKNOWLEDGE THAT DEVELOPMENT REQUIRES A COMPLEX SET OF FACTORS TO SUCCEED INCLUDINGSTABLEANDACCOUNTABLEGOVERNMENT 4HAT IS WHY AS MENTIONED $!4! ALSO STANDS FOR $EMOCRACY !CCOUNTABILITYAND4RANSPARENCYONTHEPART OFBOTHDONORSANDRECIPIENTS$!4!ISATTHEFOREFRONTOF EFFORTSTOIMPROVETHEIMPACTEVALUATIONOFDEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE ASWELLASSUPPORTINGTHEIMPLEMENTATIONOF THE%XTRACTIVE)NDUSTRIES4RANSPARENCY)NITIATIVEANDASSET RECOVERYUNDERTHE5.#ONVENTION!GAINST#ORRUPTION 4HE7ORLD"ANKRECENTLYREPORTEDTHATANUMBEROF!FRICAN COUNTRIESAREMAKINGRAPIDPROGRESSONGOVERNANCE BUT A LACK OF TRANSPARENCY AND CORRUPTION STILL IMPOSE AN INTOLERABLEBURDENONTHEPOORESTPEOPLEINMANY!FRICAN SOCIETIES PERPETUATING HUGE INEQUALITIES WHILE FRUSTRATING BUSINESSESANDLIMITINGGROWTH


'OOD'OVERNANCE 0EACEAND0ROSPERITY

$!4!WORKSTOWARDSTHE-ILLENNIUM$EVELOPMENT'OALS AND SPECIlCALLY FOCUSES ON THE OBJECTIVES OUTLINED IN /UR#OMMON)NTERESTTHE2EPORTOFTHE#OMMISSION FOR!FRICA 5SINGTHEREPORTASAROADMAP $!4! WORKED WITH OTHER PARTNERS TO SECURE A COMMITMENT FROMTHE'DONORSATTHE3UMMITIN'LENEAGLES ON DEBT CANCELLATION SUBSTANTIAL AID INCREASES AND FAIRERTRADERULESFOR!FRICA -AKINGSURETHATTHEPROMISESAREKEPTIS$!4!SRAISON DÐTRE AND SINCE  WE HAVE PRODUCED A DETAILED ANNUAL ACCOUNT OF THE 'S PROGRESS CALLED 4HE $!4! 2EPORT WWWTHEDATAREPORTORG  )T HAS QUICKLY BECOME THEMOSTINmUENTIALANDRESPECTEDANALYSISOFITSKINDnBUT ALSOSHOWSTHATTHE'AREAVERYLONGWAYFROMDELIVERING THEPROMISEDLEVELSOFAIDANDFAIRERTRADERULES 4HE$!4!2EPORTMONITORSNOTJUST/FlCIAL$EVELOPMENT !SSISTANCE /$! mOWS TO !FRICA AGAINST PROMISES MADE BUTALSOTHE'EFFORTSON/$!QUALITY TRADE DEBT GOVERNANCE EDUCATION ()6!)$3 MALARIA WATER AND PEACE AND SECURITY $!4!S CALCULATIONS WHICH EXCLUDEDEBTRELIEFTOMOREACCURATELYREmECTUNDERLYING TRENDS SHOWTHATBETWEEN  DONORSNEEDED TOINCREASEAIDBY53BILLIONTOBEONTRACKTOKEEP THEIRPROMISES BUTINFACTONLYDELIVEREDANINCREASEOF BILLION7HATISEVENMOREWORRISOMEISTHATWHILE THEYCOULDGETBACKONTRACKINWITHBILLION ININCREASEDASSISTANCE CURRENTBUDGETSINDICATETHAT ONLYBETWEEN BILLIONWILLBEPROVIDEDnABOUTA THIRDOFWHATISREQUIRED 4HESE lNDINGS HAVE PROMPTED REDOUBLED EFFORTS AT $!4!)NTHETWOYEARSSINCE $!4!HASINCREASED ITSLOBBYINGEFFORTS ESTABLISHINGNEWOFlCESIN"ERLINAND !BUJA TO LEAD OUTREACH TO %UROPES BIGGEST ECONOMY AND ALSO TO !FRICAN GOVERNMENTS AND CIVIL SOCIETY 4OGETHER WE HAVE IDENTIlED FOUR KEY AREAS WHERE WE BELIEVECOOPERATIONWOULDBEMOSTEFFECTIVEANDWHERE THENEEDFORINVESTMENTISMOSTURGENT4HEYARE °%NCOURAGING INVESTMENT INTO !FRICA BOOSTING MICROlNANCE FUNDING @AID FOR TRADE AND HELPING !FRICATOADAPTTOCLIMATECHANGE °3TRENGTHENING THE GOVERNANCE OF /$! lGHTING CORRUPTIONANDPROMOTINGTRANSPARENCY °&UNDING THE lGHT AGAINST !)$3 PARTICULARLY THROUGH THE 'LOBAL &UND WHILE ALSO STRENGTHENING HEALTH SYSTEMSIN!FRICA °2EMOVING BARRIERS TO PRIMARY EDUCATION AND FULLY FUNDINGTHE%DUCATION&AST4RACK)NITIATIVE $ETAILED VERSIONS OF THESE PROPOSALS WERE PRESENTED EARLIERTHISYEAR TOTHE'&INANCE-INISTERSAND TOTHESHERPASnTHEOFlCIALSINCHARGEOFMANAGING' NEGOTIATIONS-EETINGSWITH'ERMANMINISTERSANDOFlCIALS FOLLOWED INCLUDINGAVERYPOSITIVEMEETINGBETWEEN"ONO ANDTHE'ERMAN#HANCELLOR !NGELA-ERKEL )T IS A COMBINATION OF SOUND POLICY UNDERSTANDING HIGH LEVEL CONTACTS AND MEDIA APPEAL THAT ARE THE KEY TO $!4!S EFFECTIVENESS "ONO AND "OB 'ELDOFS HIGHPROlLESGIVE$!4!LEVERAGEWITHDONORS ANDBOTH AREALSOVERYWELL VERSEDONPOLICYISSUES/UR0OLICY !DVISORY "OARD OF PROMINENT !FRICANS PRIVATE SECTOR AND DEVELOPMENT EXPERTS INCLUDES $R .GOZI /KONJO

3CHOOLCHILDREN IN.AGURA(ILL 5GANDA

)WEALA + 9 !MOAKO *OHN 'ITHONGO !RCHBISHOP .JONGONKULU.DUNGANE 9OUSSOU.$OUR 0AUL#OLLIER 3TEVE 2ADELET 'AYLE 3MITH !MRE 9OUNESS (ADEEL )BRAHIM $AVID,ANE 2ICHARD+IPHART .ED*ANOTTAAND 4REVOR.IELSEN 4HE ' WILL CONTINUE TO BE A MAJOR FOCUS OF $!4! ACTIVITY IN THE COMING YEARS $!4! IS ALSO LOOKING TO ENGAGEDONORSBEYONDTHE'IN%UROPEAND!SIA TO ENSURETHESUSTAINABLEDEVELOPMENTOF!FRICAFEATURES PROMINENTLYONTHEIRAGENDAS 4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETINGIN 5GANDA IS A FURTHER OPPORTUNITY FOR COORDINATION AND PROGRESSONDEVELOPMENTCHALLENGES -ANY OF !FRICAS #OMMONWEALTH STATES ARE RISING ECONOMIC STARS DRIVING THE CONTINENTS GROWTH AND MAKING GREAT STRIDES IN PRIMARY EDUCATION AND HEALTHCARE(OWEVER ALLSTILLFACESIGNIlCANTCHALLENGES AND IT IS HERE THAT $!4! WOULD LIKE TO ENCOURAGE COOPERATIONTOENSURETHE'ANDOTHERDONORSKEEP UPTHEIRAIDQUANTITYANDQUALITYCOMMITMENTS ANDTHAT FUNDS ARE USED MOST EFFECTIVELY 4HIS IS LIKELY TO WORK BESTWHEREPRIORITIESARESHAREDnSUCHASTHE7ORLD "ANKS%DUCATION&AST4RACK)NITIATIVE THE'LOBAL&UND TO&IGHT!)$34"AND-ALARIAAND)$!REPLENISHMENT $!4!WOULDLIKETOENCOURAGECOOPERATIONWITH!FRICAN GOVERNMENTS AND CIVIL SOCIETY TO ENSURE THE ' AND OTHER DONORS KEEP UP THEIR AID QUANTITY AND QUALITY COMMITMENTS ANDTHATFUNDSAREUSEDMOSTEFFECTIVELY 4HIS IS LIKELY TO WORK BEST WHERE PRIORITIES ARE SHARED SUCHASTHE7ORLD"ANKS%DUCATION&AST4RACK)NITIATIVE THE'LOBAL&UNDTO&IGHT!)$34"AND-ALARIAAND)$! REPLENISHMENT $!4! WOULD WELCOME COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS FORBETTERCOORDINATIONMECHANISMS ANDOUROFlCEIN !BUJAWOULDBEPLEASEDTOASSISTTHISPROCESS#ONTACT DETAILSCANBEFOUNDATTHEENDOFTHISARTICLE !T$!4! WESHARETHEDESIREOF!FRICANSFORTHECONTINENT TOBESEENASAPLACEOFDYNAMISMANDOPPORTUNITY ANDTOPROMOTEITSPOTENTIALFORECONOMICGROWTHAND STABILITY !T THE SAME TIME $!4! BELIEVES THAT FAIRER TRADERULES GOODGOVERNANCEANDSMARTAIDCANHELP !FRICANS MOVE MORE QUICKLY TOWARDS PROSPERITY AND LEAVEEXTREMEPOVERTYWELLBEHIND7ELOOKFORWARDTO WORKINGWITHYOUONTHISSHAREDVISION %MAILEJIBUNOH DATAORG

7EBSITEWWWDATAORG

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




Human Sciences

www.hsrc.ac.za

Research Council of South Africa Social science that makes a difference The Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC), South Africa's statutory research agency, conducts research that generates critical and independent knowledge relative to all aspects of human and social development. Poverty alleviation and public policy development and implementation are central to all its research activities. Its research extends beyond South African borders through projects and collaborations in other African countries. As a national public entity, the HSRC adheres to best-practice requirements in relation to its corporate governance as well as financial and performance reporting. Its work is overseen by a governing body, the HSRC Council (Board). The HSRC reports annually to the parliament of South Africa. The HSRC is committed to making a difference in the quality of life of ordinary people and is often commissioned to under-take large-scale research on behalf of government departments at national, regional and local levels. The organisation also serves the research needs of parastatal organisations, the private sector and local and international development agencies to track service delivery, evaluate performance and measure the efficacy of interventions. The HSRC's collaborative approach to research provides a platform for interaction with research experts in our country, elsewhere in Africa, and internationally. The organisation proactively disseminates its research findings in peer-reviewed and other publications, and through seminars, invited lectures, and media briefings.

employment, quality education, HIV and AIDS, and service delivery. The work of the Unit is centred upon the various crossroads between these policy issues and heuristic parameters drawn from the National Research and Development (R&D) Strategy.

Functioning as a knowledge hub, the HSRC contributes to bridging the gap that so often exists between research, policy and action.

The three national priority areas, currently housed at the HSRC, are the National Quality Education Initiative, the Employment, Growth and Development Initiative and the Youth Initiative.

The research undertaken by the HSRC has been configured into five interdisciplinary research programmes, namely: Child, Youth, Family and Social Development Democracy and Governance Education, Science and Skills Development Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS and Health Urban, Rural and Economic Development Five 'cross-cutting' research units and two special initiatives have been established to interactively contribute to, as well as draw from, the five research programmes in order to integrate and enhance the work of the HSRC as a whole. The units are: Capacity Development Gender and Development Knowledge Systems Policy Analysis Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance (SAHARA) The Policy Analysis Unit has a dual mandate. The first is to serve as a think-tank and provide a platform for the public discourse of critical social issues. The second is to pursue time-limited, multiyear analyses into specific priority areas, namely poverty reduction,

Over the last few years, the HSRC has undertaken rich and varied array of research investigations, averaging 250 projects at any given time like these selected two: The 2005 South African National Household Survey of HIV Prevalence, Incidence, Behaviour and Communication which generated data from a representative sample of the total South African population. The Trends in international Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS 2003) involved more than 50 countries including South Africa. To succeed in its mandate to conduct social science that makes a difference, the HSRC jealously guards its reputation as an independent, professional and unbiased research council. For more information contact: Ms Mbali Mkhize Director of Communications mmkhize@hsrc.ac.za www.hsrc.ac.za


'OOD'OVERNANCE 0EACEAND0ROSPERITY

&LORENCE-UGASHA #OMMONWEALTH$EPUTY3ECRETARY 'ENERAL

0ROMOTINGWOMEN PEACE AND SECURITYACOLLECTIVERESPONSIBILITY FORTHE#OMMONWEALTH 0EACEANDDEMOCRACYARECORE#OMMONWEALTH GOALS#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENTNOT ONLYEMPHASISETHEIRCOMMITMENTTOINTERNATIONAL PEACEINVARIOUSDECLARATIONS BUTALSOENDORSE AND UPHOLD GENDER EQUALITY AS ONE OF THE FUNDAMENTALVALUESOF#OMMONWEALTHPEOPLES )N THIS ARTICLE THE AUTHOR OUTLINES THE MOST IMPORTANTWORKTHE3ECRETARIATISUNDERTAKINGTO SUPPORTANDPROMOTETHEEFFORTSOFTHE(EADSOF 'OVERNMENTINTHESEVITALAREAS )NTHE0LANOF!CTIONFOR'ENDER%QUALITY  THE#OMMONWEALTH-INISTERS2ESPONSIBLEFOR7OMEN AND 'ENDER !FFAIRS NOTED hTHE DIFFERENTIAL IMPACTS OF CONmICTS ON WOMEN MEN AND CHILDREN AND THE CHALLENGES THEY CREATE HAVE PROFOUND DEMOCRATIC AND DEVELOPMENTAL IMPLICATIONS FOR ALL HUMANITYv )N ADDRESSING THE IMPACT OF CONmICTS AND ITS DIRECT LINK TO DEMOCRACY AND PEACE (EADS OF 'OVERNMENT ACKNOWLEDGE THEIR RESPONSIBILITY TO PROMOTE PEACE 4HISCOMMITMENTWASARE AFlRMATIONOFTHE-ILLENNIUM /UTCOME$OCUMENT AGREEDBY(EADSOF'OVERNMENT IN .EW 9ORK IN  WHICH ESTABLISHED A COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITYONTHEINTERNATIONALCOMMUNITYTOADDRESS THEIMPACTANDIMPLICATIONSOFVIOLENT ARMEDANDOTHER FORMSOFCONmICTONSOCIETIES

)NADDRESSINGTHEIMPACTOFCONmICTS ANDITSDIRECTLINKTODEMOCRACY ANDPEACE (EADSOF'OVERNMENT ACKNOWLEDGETHEIRRESPONSIBILITY TOPROMOTEPEACE &URTHERMORE THE#OMMONWEALTH3ECRETARY 'ENERALS @'OOD/FlCESROLEATTEMPTSTOPREVENTDISPUTESBEFORE THEYDETERIORATEINTOVIOLENTCONmICTS THROUGHQUIETAND TRACK TWO DIPLOMATIC EFFORTS WHICH OFTEN INVOLVES THE APPOINTMENT OF SPECIAL ENVOYS SOME OF WHOM HAVE BEEN WOMEN  4HIS PREVENTIVE MECHANISM IS CLOSELY

SUPPORTEDBYTHEWORKOFTHE'ENDER3ECTIONTHROUGH MAINSTREAMINGAGENDERPERSPECTIVEINTOPOLICIESAND PROGRAMMES WITH MEMBER COUNTRIES FOR INSTANCE IN PROMOTINGTHEPROVISIONSOF5NITED.ATIONS2ESOLUTION ON@7OMEN 0EACE AND3ECURITY5.3#2  ANDOTHERFRAMEWORKSANDINSTRUMENTSRELATING TO EQUAL PARTICIPATION AND REPRESENTATION IN THESE PROCESSES 4RADITIONALLY THE #OMMONWEALTH n UNLIKE THE 5NITED .ATIONSnDOESNOTHAVETROOPSHOWEVER WESUPPORT OURMEMBERCOUNTRIESINMAKINGSIGNIlCANTCONTRIBUTIONS TOREQUESTSFORTROOPS)NDEED ASOF$ECEMBER SEVENOUTOFTHELARGEST4ROOPAND0OLICE#ONTRIBUTING #OUNTRIES4##S0##S ARE#OMMONWEALTHMEMBER COUNTRIES4HESEINCLUDE"ANGLADESH 0AKISTAN )NDIA 'HANA .IGERIA +ENYAAND3OUTH!FRICA3IMILARLY WE TOOKPRIDEWHEN)NDIAINDEPLOYEDTHE@lRSTEVER ALLFEMALEPOLICECONTINGENTFORTHEMISSIONIN,IBERIA

7ESTANDINAUNIQUEPOSITIONTO INmUENCETHEAGENDAONWOMEN PEACEANDSECURITY ESPECIALLY THROUGHDIRECTNETWORKWITHWOMENS CONSTITUENCIESINTHE#OMMONWEALTH ANDELSEWHERE )T IS ALSO PERTINENT TO MENTION THAT AS THE LARGEST INTERGOVERNMENTAL AND ONLY ORGANISATION WITH DIRECT MANDATE AND ACCESS TO  MINISTERS RESPONSIBLE FOR WOMEN AND GENDER AFFAIRS WE STAND IN A UNIQUE POSITION TO INmUENCE THE AGENDA ON WOMEN PEACE AND SECURITY ESPECIALLY THROUGH DIRECT NETWORK WITH WOMENS CONSTITUENCIES IN THE #OMMONWEALTH AND ELSEWHERE )N LEVERAGING THIS UNIQUE POSITION WE ACKNOWLEDGE THE COMMITMENT AND EFFORTS OF OTHER PARTNERS AND THE @COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY TO PROMOTE PEACE AND ACHIEVE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 4HUS THE #OMMONWEALTH WORKS TO IMPLEMENT FRAMEWORKS

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




'OOD'OVERNANCE 0EACEAND0ROSPERITY

AND MECHANISMS AGREED BY THE MEMBER COUNTRIES WITHINTHE#OMMONWEALTHANDATTHEGLOBALLEVEL/NE SUCHAGREEDCOMMITMENTISTHE5.3#2 WHICH AMONGSTOTHERISSUES CALLSFORINCREASEDPARTICIPATION AND REPRESENTATION OF WOMEN IN PEACE NEGOTIATIONS PEACEKEEPING DEMOCRATICPROCESSESANDPOST CONmICT RECONSTRUCTION INCLUDING ISSUES OF GENDER JUSTICE AND ANENDTOIMPUNITY

7HATWEDO 'IVENOURCOMPARATIVEADVANTAGE THE#OMMONWEALTH 3ECRETARIAT ADOPTS A TWO PRONGED APPROACH WITH lVE COMPONENTS IN ADDRESSING ISSUES OF PEACEBUILDING ANDCONmICTMANAGEMENT4HEAPPROACHRELATESTO ß4HESHORTTERMnPROBLEMSOLVING AND ß4HELONGTERMnSTRUCTURALWITHAFOCUSONPREVENTION ANDREBUILDING 7ITHIN THESE BROAD CATEGORIES THROUGH PROGRAMME IMPLEMENTATION AND IN PARTNERSHIP WITH OUR MEMBER COUNTRIES WEENGAGEINTHEFOLLOWINGACTIVITIES

'OODOFlCES 4HE #OMMONWEALTHS SHORT TERM MEASURES FOCUS ON DIALOGUE AND PROBLEM SOLVING COMPLEMENTED BY A LONG TERM APPROACH THAT ADDRESSES THE ROOT CAUSES OF CONmICT WITHIN ITS MEMBER STATES 4HE SHORT TERM MEASURESAREIMPLEMENTEDTHROUGHTHE'OOD/FlCES OFTHE3ECRETARY 'ENERALANDSEEKTORESOLVEIMMEDIATE ORONGOINGDISPUTESORCRISESBEFORETHEYDETERIORATEINTO VIOLENTCONmICT/VERTHELONGTERM THE#OMMONWEALTH SEEKS TO HELP BUILD A POSITIVE ENVIRONMENT THAT CAN ENABLEDEMOCRACYANDDEVELOPMENTTOmOURISH

/VERTHELONGTERM THE #OMMONWEALTHSEEKSTOHELP BUILDAPOSITIVEENVIRONMENTTHAT CANENABLEDEMOCRACYAND DEVELOPMENTTOmOURISH 7HILE BEING PROACTIVE IN ENGAGING WHERE ACTION IS NECESSARY THE#OMMONWEALTHATTEMPTSTOWORKINCO OPERATIONWITHTHEGOVERNMENTOFTHEMEMBERCOUNTRY CONCERNED )T ALSO ENGAGES WITH KEY STAKEHOLDERS SUCHASPOLITICALPARTIES CIVILSOCIETYORGANISATIONSAND INTERNATIONALPARTNERS 4HE 3ECRETARY 'ENERAL MONITORS POLITICAL AND ECONOMICDEVELOPMENTSACROSSTHE#OMMONWEALTH 4HIS IS DONE EITHER DIRECTLY OR THROUGH SPECIAL ENVOYSTOPROMOTEHUMANRIGHTSANDINCLUSIVENESS 0ROMOTING RESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS STANDARDS GENDEREQUALITY YOUTHDEVELOPMENTANDCIVILSOCIETY PARTICIPATION IS INTEGRAL TO THE 'OOD /FlCES ROLE AND %NVOYS AND THE 3ECRETARIAT WORKS CLOSELY WITH MEMBERSOFCIVILSOCIETYANDTHE'ENDERSECTIONTO MAINSTREAM GENDER INTO ALL THEIR ACTIVITIES INCLUDING THEPROMOTIONOF5.3#2 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

0ROMOTIONOFLEGALANDINSTITUTIONALFRAMEWORKS ANDCOMMITMENTS 3PECIlCALLY ON 5.3#2  THE 'ENDER 3ECTION IN COLLABORATION WITH MEMBER COUNTRIES AND PARTNERS ORGANISEDASUCCESSFULMEETINGAT7ILTON0ARK TOREVIEWTHECHALLENGESANDGAPSTOTHEIMPLEMENTATION OFTHISLANDMARKRESOLUTION4HEREPORTOFTHATMEETING PROVIDEDUSEFULINSIGHTS WHICHHASINFORMEDOURFUTURE INTERVENTIONS SOME OF WHICH WILL BE INCLUDED IN MY RECOMMENDATIONS BELOW !DDITIONALLY OUR -INISTERS WITHSUPPORTFROMTHE3ECRETARIATDEVELOPEDTERMSOF REFERENCEFORA@7ORKING'ROUPON@'ENDER 0EACE AND 3ECURITY TOCONDUCTINITIALASSESSMENTINPOST CONmICT SITUATIONSANDCOMPLEMENTNATIONALLEVELEFFORTSTHROUGH THEIMPLEMENTATIONOF@NATIONALACTIONPLANS MONITORING ANDEVALUATIONOFPEACEINITIATIVESINTHESESITUATIONS !TTHEIRLASTMEETINGIN+AMPALA 5GANDA THE-INISTERS 2ESPONSIBLEFOR7OMENAND'ENDER!FFAIRS AGREEDTO THE CREATION OF THE 7ORKING 'ROUP %FFORTS ARE UNDER WAY TO INTEGRATE THE PROVISION OF SUCH ASSISTANCE IN PRE DEPLOYMENTTRAININGOFTROOPSANDPOLICEINSOME OFOURMEMBERCOUNTRIESINTHE0ACIlC7EARECLOSELY MONITORING THIS DEVELOPMENT AS A POTENTIAL @GOOD PRACTICE FROM OUR MEMBER COUNTRY &URTHERMORE THE #OMMONWEALTHHASCONTINUEDTOENGAGETHE3ECURITY #OUNCILANDCONTRIBUTETOTHEOPENDEBATEON@5.3#2 INANDRESPECTIVELY REITERATINGAMONG OTHER ISSUES THE NEED FOR EDUCATION AND CHANGE IN MINDSETSTOAVOIDCONmICTS ASWELLEQUALPARTICIPATION ANDREPRESENTATIONINPEACEPROCESSES

7EREMAINCOMMITTEDTHATEQUAL PARTICIPATIONANDREPRESENTATIONOF WOMEN MENANDYOUNGPEOPLEIS ANESSENTIALPANACEATOACHIEVING SUSTAINABLEPEACEGLOBALLY .ATIONANDINSTITUTIONALBUILDING 4HROUGHMUTUALASSISTANCE THE#OMMONWEALTHWORKS TO IMPROVE DEMOCRATIC ARRANGEMENTS THROUGH THE OBSERVATION OF ELECTIONS AND THE PROVISION OF TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE AND TRAINING 7E ALSO SEEK TO SUPPORT THE PROMOTION OF BEST PRACTICE THROUGH THE ORGANISATION OF WORKSHOPS SEMINARS AND CONFERENCES AND THE PRODUCTIONANDCIRCULATIONOFPUBLICATIONSTOSTRENGTHEN DEMOCRATIC VALUES AND CULTURE 4HIS IS AN ONGOING ACTIVITYANDINTHElRSTTHREEQUARTERSOF WEHAVE DEPLOYED #OMMONWEALTH /BSERVER 'ROUPS IN .IGERIA 0APUA.EW'UINEAAND3IERRA,EONE/BSERVERGROUPS COMPRISE ELECTORAL EXPERTS POLITICIANS CIVIL SOCIETY REPRESENTATIVES INCLUDING WOMEN AND YOUTH TO ENSURE BALANCED AND INFORMED ASSESSMENT OF THE CONDUCT OF ELECTIONS AND THE ELECTORAL AND DEMOCRATIC CONTEXT IN WHICHTHEYARECONDUCTED4HEGROUPSRECOMMENDWAYS TOIMPROVEELECTORALANDDEMOCRATICCONDITIONSSOASTO ENSUREIMPROVEMENTINTHEDEMOCRATICANDJUSTPOLITICAL ENVIRONMENTTHATMUSTUNDERPINAPEACEFULSOCIETY


'OOD'OVERNANCE 0EACEAND0ROSPERITY

%DUCATION -INISTERS  PROMOTING EDUCATION FORALL PARTICULARLYINCRISIS POST CONmICTANDDIFlCULT CIRCUMSTANCES

#HALLENGES 4HERE ARE A FEW CHALLENGES THAT STILL CONFRONT OUR MEMBERCOUNTRIESANDTHE3ECRETARIATINOUREFFORTS TO MAINSTREAM THE GENDER AND PEACE PRIORITIES 7ITH GREAT OPTIMISM AND A SENSE OF PRIDE IN THE WORKOFOUR4##S0##S )SHOULDMENTIONTHATTHE STORY IS NOT ALL GLOOM 4HERE ARE SEVERAL REPORTS OF EXCELLENT PERFORMANCE BY CONTINGENTS IN MANY PEACEKEEPINGOPERATIONS(OWEVER DESPITEEFFORTS ANDACHIEVEMENTS MOREWORKREMAINSTOBEDONE )NORDERTOIMPROVEINOUREFFORTSANDINTERVENTIONS SEVERAL CHALLENGES MUST BE ADDRESSED 3OME OF THESEINCLUDE ß0ERSISTENTLACKOFACCESSTOWOMENSPARTICIPATION ANDREPRESENTATIONINALLPROCESSES ß5NWILLINGNESSTOEXERCISETHENECESSARYPOLITICAL WILL BY STATE AND NON STATE ACTORS TO IMPLEMENT AGREEDCOMMITMENTSANDFRAMEWORKS ß,ACKOFRESOURCES BOTHHUMANANDlNANCIALnFOR EXAMPLE NEED TO ENHANCE WOMENS CAPACITIES ANDSKILLSTOENGAGEINTHESEPROCESSES ß,ACKOFDISAGGREGATEDDATATOINFORMINTERVENTIONS n FOR EXAMPLE CASES OF GENDER BASED VIOLENCE GOINGUNREPORTED AND

"UILDINGSYNERGIESANDSTRENGTHENINGPARTNERSHIPS )NTANDEMWITHTHEINTEGRATEDAPPROACH WECONTINUE TOIMPROVEPARTNERSHIPEFFORTSTOENSUREHOLISTIC MULTI SECTORALANDTARGETEDSTRATEGIESTOIMPROVEEFlCIENCY )NCARRYINGOUTTHESEEFFORTS WEHAVERECORDEDSOME ACHIEVEMENTS ALTHOUGH PROGRESS REMAINS SLOW AND MINIMAL (OWEVER WE REMAIN COMMITTED THAT EQUAL PARTICIPATION AND REPRESENTATION OF WOMEN MEN AND YOUNG PEOPLE IS AN ESSENTIAL PANACEA TO ACHIEVING SUSTAINABLEPEACEGLOBALLY

7ORKINGINPARTNERSHIP !SAFOLLOW UPTOTHE0OLICY$IALOGUEANDINTHESPIRIT OF@/NE5.ASRECOMMENDEDBYTHE(IGH,EVEL0ANEL ON 3YSTEM 7IDE #OHERENCE THE #OMMONWEALTH 3ECRETARIAT IN COLLABORATION WITH THE 5NITED .ATIONS ORGANISED THE lRST EVER @0OLICY AND )MPLEMENTATION $IALOGUE WITH 7OMENS #ONSTITUENCIES 4##S AND 0##S IN &EBRUARY  4SHWANE 3OUTH !FRICA TO REVIEWANDRECOMMENDWAYSTOIMPROVEPEACEKEEPING WITHINMEMBERCOUNTRIES ANDENSUREEFFECTIVEGENDER MAINSTREAMINGINPOST CONmICTSITUATIONS

ß/VERBURDEN OF WORK INCLUDING UNPAID WORK WHICH IS FURTHER EXACERBATED IN POST CONmICT SITUATIONS AND DENIES WOMEN THE OPPORTUNITY ANDTIMETOPARTICIPATE

5NDERSTANDINGANDEXCHANGE OFINFORMATIONISIMPERATIVEAS WEGRAPPLEWITHDIFlCULTCHALLENGES THATCONTINUETOCONFRONT PEACEKEEPINGINTERVENTIONS

$EVELOPMENTOFTOOLSANDRESOURCESINCLUDING DOCUMENTINGGOODPRACTICES !SPARTOFOUREFFORTSTOINSTITUTIONALISEMECHANISMS ANDINTERVENTIONSTRATEGIESINCLUDING@GOODPRACTICE WE RECENTLY PUBLISHED 'ENDER -AINSTREAMING IN #ONmICT4RANSFORMATION"UILDING3USTAINABLE0EACE ANADVOCACY CAPACITYBUILDINGANDPOLICYTOOL WITH REVIEWS ON COMMITMENTS THEIR IMPACT GAPS AND PROGRESS HIGHLIGHTING NATIONAL LEVEL PROGRAMME IMPLEMENTATIONANDEXAMPLESOFGOODPRACTICE WHICH MAYBEREPLICABLE2ECENTFEEDBACKHASSHOWNTHIS RESOURCETOBEUSEFULANDTHEREHAVEBEENREQUESTS FROMAGROUPOFNON #OMMONWEALTHPRACTITIONERSIN !SIA REQUESTINGTRANSLATIONINTHEIRLOCALLANGUAGETO FACILITATEUSAGEANDINFORMATIONSHARINGAMONGLOCAL PRACTITIONERS &URTHERMORE BECAUSE WE RECOGNISE THE CRITICAL IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATION AS A POWERFUL TOOL TO CHANGE MINDSETS AS WELL AS THE FACT THAT PREVENTING CONmICTS IS MUCH MORE EFFECTIVE THAN POST CONmICT RECONSTRUCTION WE CONTINUE TO PUSH FORPEACEEDUCATIONCITIZENSHIPEDUCATIONINCONmICT AND DIFlCULT CIRCUMSTANCES )N THIS REGARD TWO IMPORTANT INITIATIVES HAVE BEEN CARRIED OUT BY THE #OMMONWEALTH4HESEARE ß$EVELOPMENT OF CITIZENSHIP FRAMEWORK FOR 3OUTH !FRICAANDSIMILARLYFOR3IERRA,EONE AND ß4HE-OMBASA$ECLARATIONBY#OMMONWEALTH!FRICAN

3UCH UNDERSTANDING AND EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION IS IMPERATIVE PARTICULARLY AS WE GRAPPLE WITH DIFlCULT ISSUES SUCH AS HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS INCLUDING SEXUALABUSEWITHIMPUNITY LACKOFACCESSFORWOMENS CONTRIBUTIONTOPEACEBUILDING INCLUDINGTHEIRMANDATE TOPROTECTANDSECURETHEHUMANRIGHTSOFWOMEN MEN AND CHILDREN AND OTHER CHALLENGES THAT CONTINUE TO CONFRONTPEACEKEEPINGINTERVENTIONS)TISALSOAFOLLOW UPTOTHE0OLICY$IALOGUEORGANISEDBYTHE$EPARTMENT OF0EACEKEEPING/PERATIONSIN-ARCHFOR4##S 0##S)NRESPONSETOTHECALLFOR@INTEGRATEDRESPONSES IT IS A TESTAMENT TO OUR COMMITMENT TO BUILDING SYNERGIES STRENGTHENINGPARTNERSHIPSESSENTIALFORTHE PROMOTIONOFGENDEREQUALITYANDLASTINGPEACEFORALL OURPEOPLES !GAINST THIS BACKGROUND AND IN THE SPIRIT OF @COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY ) WOULD LIKE TO MAKE THE FOLLOWING RECOMMENDATIONS WHICHAREBYNOMEANSEXHAUSTIVE

2ECOMMENDATIONS /VERALL OURINTERVENTIONSNEEDTOBEBETTERCOORDINATED AND ESSENTIAL DISAGGREGATED DATA DEVELOPED TO

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




'OOD'OVERNANCE 0EACEAND0ROSPERITY

ENSURE EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROVISIONS OF 2ESOLUTION  AND PROMOTE WOMENS INVOLVEMENT INPEACEANDCONmICTPROCESSES 2ESOURCE MOBILISATION /NE OF THE OUTCOMES OF THE MEETING ORGANISED AT 7ILTON 0ARK AS MENTIONED ABOVE ISTHECONTINUINGLACKOFRESOURCESFOREFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATIONATALLLEVELS)NADDITION MANYWOMEN SHOULDBEAPPOINTEDTOPARTICIPATEANDBEREPRESENTED PARTICULARLYATPEACENEGOTIATIONTABLES 4RUSTFUND)NTHELIGHTOFTHELACKOFRESOURCES MEMBER STATESAREURGEDTOCONSIDERTHEESTABLISHMENTOFATRUST FUND TOCOVERINTERVENTIONSPROMPTLY4HISISABSOLUTELY NECESSARYTOBETTERMAINSTREAMINGASTHE/FlCEOFTHE 3PECIAL!DVISERON'ENDER)SSUESAND!DVANCEMENT OF 7OMEN AND THE DEPARTMENT OF PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS FACES THE CHALLENGE OF INADEQUATE RESOURCESTOEFFECTPROGRAMMESANDDEPLOYSTAFF

-EMBERSTATESSHOULDPUT INTOPLACEPRACTICALMONITORING ANDEVALUATIONTOOLSINCLUDINGTHE DEVELOPMENTOFINDICATORSTO MEASUREPROGRESS -ONITORING AND EVALUATION 4O PROMOTE EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROVISIONS OF 2ESOLUTION  MEMBER STATES SHOULD PUT INTO PLACE PRACTICAL MONITORING AND EVALUATION TOOLS INCLUDING THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDICATORS TO MEASURE PROGRESS 4HIS CAN EASILY BE ACHIEVED PARTICULARLY WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL ACTION PLANS REQUESTED BY THE 3ECURITY #OUNCIL THROUGH THE 3ECRETARY 'ENERALS REPORT IN  ) ENCOURAGE MEMBER COUNTRIES TO DEVELOPACTIONPLANSTOPROMOTE5.3#2

#ONCLUSION 4HE #OMMONWEALTH IS WELL PLACED TO CONTINUE STRENGTHENING DEMOCRACIES THROUGH ASSISTANCE IN ELECTIONS DRAFTING OF CONSTITUTIONS CAPACITY BUILDING INITIATIVES AND BROKERING STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIPS )N THE AREA OF MONITORING IT IS HOPED THAT THE 7ORKING 'ROUP ON 'ENDER 0EACE AND 3ECURITY WILL SERVE AS AMONITORINGMECHANISMTOPROMOTEEFFECTIVEGENDER MAINSTREAMINGINPEACEANDCONmICTPROCESSES &OR US AT THE #OMMONWEALTH 3ECRETARIAT GENDER EQUALITY IS THE FUNDAMENTAL PREMISE ON WHICH ANY ATTEMPT AT SUSTAINABLE DEMOCRACY AND PEACE CAN BEACHIEVED AND2ESOLUTIONISONEOFTHEMOST IMPORTANTMECHANISMSTOENSURETHIS)TNOTONLYCALLS FOREQUALPARTICIPATIONANDREPRESENTATIONOFWOMENAT ALLLEVELSOFPEACEANDCONmICTMANAGEMENTPROCESSES BUT INCLUDES DEMOCRATIC PROCESSES SUCH AS NATION BUILDING WHERE WE AT THE #OMMONWEALTH HAVE A COMPARATIVEADVANTAGE 4HROUGHTHESEFRAMEWORKS WEHAVETHERESPONSIBILITY TO ENSURE EQUAL AND BALANCED PARTICIPATION OF ALL CITIZENS 4HIS COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY CLEARLY OUTLINED 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

INTHE-ILLENNIUM/UTCOMEDOCUMENT ASWELLASTHE DEMAND FOR LASTING PEACE AND EQUAL PARTICIPATION OF WOMEN IS NON NEGOTIABLE 4O SECURE A FAIR EQUAL AND PEACEFUL #OMMONWEALTH AND BEYOND WE MUST DISCHARGETHISRESPONSIBILITY

-RS&LORENCE-UGASHAASSUMEDHERDUTIESAS$EPUTY 3ECRETARY 'ENERALOFTHE#OMMONWEALTHONST-AY  ANDTHUSBECAMETHESECONDWOMANTOSERVEIN THATCAPACITYINTHE#OMMONWEALTH3ECRETARIAT3HEIS RESPONSIBLEFORPOLITICAL LEGAL CONSTITUTIONALANDHUMAN RIGHTSISSUESANDYOUTHAFFAIRS)NADDITION HERBRIEFALSO COVERS lNANCE HUMAN RESOURCES AND OTHER ASPECTS OF#OMMONWEALTH3ECRETARIATADMINISTRATION3HEHAS HADADISTINGUISHEDCAREERSINCEINTHE5GANDAN 0UBLIC3ERVICE BEINGAPPOINTEDIN.OVEMBERTO THEMOSTSENIORPUBLICSERVICEPOSITIONINTHE5GANDA 'OVERNMENT (EADOF0UBLIC3ERVICEAND3ECRETARYTO #ABINET IN THE /FlCE OF THE 0RESIDENT -RS -UGASHA HAS REPRESENTED 5GANDA AT A NUMBER OF IMPORTANT REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL MEETINGS INCLUDING THE 5NITED.ATIONS&OURTH7ORLD#ONFERENCEON7OMENIN "EIJINGANDTHE#OMMONWEALTHSUMMITSIN%DINBURGH IN $URBANINAND#OOLUMIN3HEHAS ALSOBEENASSOCIATEDCLOSELYWITHTHE#OMMONWEALTH !SSOCIATIONFOR0UBLIC!DMINISTRATIONAND-ANAGEMENT ASAMEMBEROFTHE"OARDOF$IRECTORS ANDTHE!FRICAN !SSOCIATIONFOR0UBLIC!DMINISTRATIONAND-ANAGEMENT !!0!- ASAN%XECUTIVE-EMBER 4HE #OMMONWEALTH IS AN ASSOCIATION OF  INDEPENDENTSTATESCONSULTINGANDCOOPERATINGINTHE COMMONINTERESTSOFTHEIRPEOPLESANDINTHEPROMOTION OF INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING AND WORLD PEACE 4HE #OMMONWEALTHS  BILLION CITIZENS ABOUT  PER CENT OF THE WORLDS POPULATION ARE DRAWN FROM THE BROADESTRANGEOFFAITHS RACES CULTURESANDTRADITIONS !MONG OTHER THINGS IT STRESSES THE NEED TO FOSTER INTERNATIONALPEACEANDSECURITYDEMOCRACYLIBERTYOF THE INDIVIDUAL AND EQUAL RIGHTS FOR ALL THE IMPORTANCE OF ERADICATING POVERTY IGNORANCE AND DISEASE AND IT OPPOSES ALL FORMS OF RACIAL DISCRIMINATION 4HE #OMMONWEALTH3ECRETARIAT ESTABLISHEDIN ISTHE MAININTERGOVERNMENTALAGENCYOFTHE#OMMONWEALTH FACILITATING CONSULTATION AND COOPERATION AMONG MEMBERGOVERNMENTSANDCOUNTRIES #OMMONWEALTH3ECRETARIAT -ARLBOROUGH(OUSE 0ALL-ALL ,ONDON 379(8 5+ 4EL   &AX   %MAILINFO COMMONWEALTHINT 7EBSITEWWWTHECOMMONWEALTHORG


'OOD'OVERNANCE 0EACEAND0ROSPERITY

3IR*OHN+APUTIN 3ECRETARY 'ENERALOFTHE!#0'ROUPOF3TATES

4HECURRENTSTATEOFTHE$OHA TRADETALKSFROMTHE' PERSPECTIVE 4HEGROUPSOF,EAST$EVELOPED#OUNTRIES,$#S THE!FRICAN5NION!5 ANDTHE!FRICA #ARIBBEAN AND 0ACIlC 3TATES !#0 COALESCE TO FORM THE '4HE!#0ISTHELARGESTCONSTITUENCYWITHIN THE ' AND THE BULK OF THE #OMMONWEALTH DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ARE MEMBERS OF THE ' TOO4HESECOUNTRIESARECHARACTERISEDANDMADE VULNERABLE BY THEIR LOW LEVELS OF DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC VULNERABILITY AND SMALL SIZE )N SOME CASESTHEYAREISLANDSTATESORLANDLOCKED AND SOMEAREINCONmICTANDPOST CONmICTSITUATIONS 4HEIR PARTICIPATION IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY IS HAMPEREDBYTHESECONSTRAININGTRAITS(OWEVER THEY REPRESENT THE LARGEST PROPORTION IN THE MEMBERSHIPOFTHE74/ 4HE RECOGNITION OF THE STATUS OF THE COUNTRIES IN THE 'ROUP OF  ' AND THE CRUCIAL STAGE OF THE 74/ NEGOTIATIONS IN THE $OHA 7ORK 0ROGRAMME $70 MAKESITNECESSARYTOREMINDTHEINTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY AND IN PARTICULAR THE MAJOR PLAYERS IN THE 74/PROCESSOFTHEIMPERATIVETORETAIN@DEVELOPMENT ASTHECENTRALTENETOFNOTONLYTHENEGOTIATIONSBUTTHE OUTCOMEASWELL )N THE PREAMBLE TEXT OF THE !GREEMENT ESTABLISHING THE 74/ MEMBERS RECOGNISED THAT THEIR RELATIONS IN THE lELD OF TRADE AND ECONOMIC ENDEAVOUR SHOULD BE CONDUCTED WITH A VIEW TO RAISING STANDARDS OF LIVING ENSURING FULL EMPLOYMENT AND A LARGE AND STEADILY GROWING VOLUME OF REAL INCOME AND EFFECTIVE DEMAND %XPANDING PRODUCTION AND TRADE IN GOODS ANDSERVICES WHILEALLOWINGFORTHEOPTIMALUSEOFTHE WORLDS RESOURCES IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE OBJECTIVE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT MEMBERS SEEK BOTH TO PROTECTANDPRESERVETHEENVIRONMENTANDTOENHANCE THE MEANS FOR DOING SO IN A MANNER CONSISTENT WITH THEIR RESPECTIVE NEEDS AND CONCERNS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OFECONOMICDEVELOPMENT 4HEYFURTHERRECOGNISEDTHATTHEREISNEEDFORPOSITIVE EFFORTSDESIGNEDTOENSURETHATDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES AND ESPECIALLY THE LEAST DEVELOPED AMONG THEM SECURE A SHARE IN THE GROWTH IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMENSURATE WITH THE NEEDS OF THEIR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

4AKINGDEVELOPMENTCONCERNSINTO ACCOUNT )NDEED THE $OHA -INISTERIAL $ECLARATION RECOGNISES THENEEDFORALLPEOPLESTOBENElTFROMTHEINCREASED OPPORTUNITIES AND WELFARE GAINS THAT THE MULTILATERAL TRADING SYSTEM GENERATES )T IS BECAUSE THE BULK OF 74/MEMBERSAREDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESTHATTHE74/ -INISTERIAL#ONFERENCEINPLACEDTHEIRNEEDSAND INTERESTSATTHEHEARTOFTHENEGOTIATIONS -ORERECENTLY THE!#0#OUNCILOF-INISTERS ATITS-AY SESSIONIN"RUSSELS ADOPTEDA2ESOLUTIONONTHE 74/ $OHA .EGOTIATIONS WHICH AMONG OTHER THINGS REITERATEDTHATTHEDEVELOPMENTFACETMUSTBEINCLUDED INALLASPECTSOFTHERESULTSOFTHE$OHA2OUND

4HEREISNEEDFORPOSITIVE EFFORTSDESIGNEDTOENSURETHAT DEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES ANDESPECIALLY THELEASTDEVELOPEDAMONGTHEM SECUREASHAREINTHEGROWTHIN INTERNATIONALTRADE 4HE -INISTERS AVERRED THAT THE CONTENT OF THE AGREEMENTS IS WHAT MATTERS IN THAT THE END RESULT SHOULDBEINCREASEDTRADEANDPOSITIVETRADEBALANCE UPGRADING IN PRODUCTION AND SUPPLY CAPACITY AS WELL AS IMPROVED EMPLOYMENT AND INCOMES OF THE PEOPLES OF THE !#0 STATES 4HESE SHOULD BE AMONG THE DEVELOPMENT YARDSTICKS BY WHICH MODALITIES AND TEXTS BEING NEGOTIATED HAVE TO BE ASSESSED )NDEED ITISTRUETHATTHE'ISCONCERNEDBYTHEINORDINATE DELAY IN CONCLUDING THE NEGOTIATIONS (OWEVER THE GROUPHASREITERATEDTHATCONTENTCANNOTBESACRIlCED FORTIMELINES)TISMOREIMPORTANTTOGETTHEAGREEMENTS RIGHTTHANTOMEETDEADLINES4HEREFORE AGREEMENTON MODALITIES FOR AGRICULTURE AND NON AGRICULTURE MARKET ACCESS .!-! WILL BE PREDICATED ON DEVELOPMENT CONCERNSBEINGFULLYTAKENINTOACCOUNT


'OOD'OVERNANCE 0EACEAND0ROSPERITY

)T IS THEREFORE DISHEARTENING THAT SOME OF THE MOST CRITICAL ISSUES FOR THE ' COUNTRIES HAVE PALED IN IMPORTANCE AND GAINED LOW PRIORITY DURING THE NEGOTIATION PROCESS &OR INSTANCE THE 3PECIAL AND $IFFERENTIAL3$ 4REATMENTASWELLAS)MPLEMENTATION )SSUESAND#ONCERNSWHICHARERELATEDTOTHEPRESENT 74/ DISCIPLINES SHOULD HAVE BEEN IN THE FRONTLINE OF THE NEGOTIATION PROCESS WELL AHEAD OF OTHER ISSUES &OCUS INSTEAD IS PLACED ON MARKET ACCESS ISSUES IN .!-!ANDAGRICULTUREWHILEISSUESOFGREATERCONCERN TO MANY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES SUCH AS COMMODITIES PREFERENCEEROSION COTTON TARIFFESCALATION 'REEN"OX SUBSIDIES NET FOOD IMPORTING DEVELOPING COUNTRIES HAVEBEENGIVENLESSATTENTION

"ALANCEBETWEENOBLIGATIONSAND BENElTS 4HE'HASREPEATEDLYENUNCIATEDAKEYPRINCIPLE THAT SHOULD BE OBSERVED IN THE NEGOTIATIONS PROCESS NAMELYTHATTHELEVELOFOBLIGATIONSMUST BECOMMENSURATEWITHTHEBENElTSTOBEACCRUED FROMTHElNALRESULTS4HE'CANNOTBEEXPECTED TO UNDERTAKE OBLIGATIONS THAT RESULT IN COSTS OR LOSSESUNMITIGATEDBYBENElTS)NDEEDTHE2OUND MUST NOT RESULT IN DE INDUSTRIALISATION OR IN IMPORT SURGES IN AGRICULTURE TO THE EXTENT OF ADVERSELY AFFECTING FOOD SECURITY FARMERS LIVELIHOODS AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT 4HIS WOULD RUN COUNTER TO THE DEVELOPMENTOBJECTIVESOFTHE2OUND &URTHERMORE ITISCONVENTIONALKNOWLEDGETHATMANY DEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESAREUNABLETOTAKEADVANTAGEOF OPPORTUNITIESARISINGFROMINCREASEDMARKETACCESS DUE TO OTHER NON TARIFF BARRIERS AND LIMITED SUPPLY CAPACITY .UMEROUS STUDIES HAVE CONCLUDED THAT MOSTDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESWILLGAINLITTLEORNOTHING ANDINDEEDMANYWILLBELOSERSIFEXISTINGPROPOSALS PUT FORWARD BY DEVELOPED COUNTRIES ARE ADOPTED %VENIFASSISTANCEISPROVIDEDTOBUILDTHEIRSUPPLY CAPACITY IT WOULD TAKE A LONG TIME BEFORE THE POSITIVEEFFECTSAREFELT4HE'SHOULDTHEREFORE NOTBEASKEDTOUNDERTAKEOBLIGATIONSTHATRESULTIN COSTSANDLOSSESUNMITIGATEDBYBENElTS

$EVELOPMENTFACETMUSTBE INCLUDEDINALLASPECTSOFTHERESULTS OFTHE$OHA2OUND )TCANNOTBEOVEREMPHASISEDTHATFORTHE$OHA2OUND TO BE SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETED THE CONCERNS AND ISSUES THAT MATTER TO A MAJORITY OF WEAK DEVELOPING COUNTRIESAREDEALTWITHINASATISFACTORYMANNER AND THEIRDEVELOPMENTINTERESTSSERIOUSLYADDRESSED

&ULLBUTNOTPARTIALMODALITIES 4HE@SINGLEUNDERTAKINGPRINCIPLEINTAKINGCOMMITMENTS OFTHEOUTCOMEOFTHENEGOTIATIONSMAKESITIMPERATIVE THATALLISSUESTHATAREIMPORTANTTOMEMBERSMUSTBE CONSIDEREDINABALANCEDANDEQUITABLEMANNER4HE MODALITIES AND SOLUTIONS FOR ALL ISSUES THEREFORE HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED AND SETTLED SIMULTANEOUSLY 4HE 'DEEMSITUNFAIRTOCATEGORISESOME@COREISSUES FOR EARLY TREATMENT AND RELEGATE @OTHER ISSUES TO BE SETTLED LATER &OR WHAT MAY BE A @CORE ISSUE FOR ONE 74/MEMBERMAYWELLBEAN@OTHERISSUEFORANOTHER MEMBER &URTHERMORE THERE ARE FEARS THAT THE @OTHER ISSUESRUNTHERISKOFBEINGLEFTASIDEALTOGETHERAFTER THESO CALLED@COREISSUESARESETTLED)TISRECALLED FOR INSTANCE THAT 3$ AND )MPLEMENTATION ISSUES WERE ONCECONSIDEREDPRIORITYISSUES BUTAFTERTHE#ANCUN -INISTERIALTHEYWERENOTINCLUDEDINTHESO CALLEDFOUR KEYISSUESTORESOLVE4HEREFORE THEYHAVEFALLENASIDE DESPITESTATEMENTSTHATTHEYAREEQUALLYIMPORTANT ,IKEWISE THE ' WOULD NOT ACCEPT THAT PARTIAL MODALITIES BE lNALISED WHERE ONLY SOME ISSUES ARE INCLUDED WHILE EXCLUDING OTHERS !NY SETTLEMENT OF MODALITIES HAS TO INCORPORATE THE WHOLE RANGE OF ISSUES OF IMPORTANCE TO THE MEMBERSHIP 4O ECHO THE SENTIMENTS OF THE !#0 -INISTERS ISSUES THAT SHOULDBETAKENONBOARDTOCONSTITUTEFULLMODALITIES INCLUDE 3$ 4REATMENT )MPLEMENTATION )SSUES AND #ONCERNS DUTY FREE AND QUOTA FREE MARKET ACCESS FOR ,$#S SIMPLIlED AND TRANSPARENT 2ULES OF /RIGIN SPECIALCONCERNSOF3MALLAND6ULNERABLE%CONOMIES 36%S COMMODITIES TARIFF ESCALATION LONG STANDING PREFERENCES COTTON AND mEXIBILITIES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IN AGRICULTURE INCLUDING SPECIAL PRODUCTS AND

SPECIAL SAFEGUARD MECHANISM  !LSO INCLUDED SHOULD BESPECIALTREATMENTFORCOUNTRIESWITHCEILINGBINDINGS INAGRICULTURESPECIALTREATMENTFOR,$#SANDNETFOOD IMPORTING DEVELOPING COUNTRIES RELATING TO ELIMINATION OF EXPORT CREDITS OPERATIONALISATION OF THE @LESS THAN FULL RECIPROCITY PRINCIPLE ADEQUATE mEXIBILITIES FOR DEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESIN.!-!ANDSPECIALTREATMENT FORCOUNTRIESWITHLESSTHANPERCENTBOUNDTARIFFSIN .!-!THESO CALLED0ARAGRAPHCOUNTRIES 4HE' REMAINSENGAGEDTOENSURETHATTHESEISSUESAREGIVEN DUECONSIDERATION

.UMEROUSSTUDIESHAVE CONCLUDEDTHATMOSTDEVELOPING COUNTRIESWILLGAINLITTLEORNOTHINGAND INDEEDMANYWILLBELOSERSIFEXISTING PROPOSALSPUTFORWARDBYDEVELOPED COUNTRIESAREADOPTED 4HEPRINCIPLEOFLESSTHANFULLRECIPROCITY )T IS CRITICAL THAT THE NEGOTIATIONS AND THE OUTCOME ADHERETOTHEPRINCIPLEOFLESSTHANFULLRECIPROCITY WHICH ISESTABLISHEDINTHE$OHA$ECLARATION!TTHEMINIMUM IT MEANS THAT DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ARE TO UNDERTAKE FEWEROBLIGATIONSTHANDEVELOPEDCOUNTRIESFOREXAMPLE ASMEASUREDBYPERCENTAGEREDUCTIONINTARIFFS 

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




'OOD'OVERNANCE 0EACEAND0ROSPERITY

(OWEVER THIS PRINCIPLE HAS A MUCH DEEPER AND BROADER MEANING AS ELABORATED BY SEVERAL CLAUSES IN THE '!44 !GREEMENT 4HE PRINCIPLE GIVES THE RIGHT TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES TO MAKE DECISIONS ON THEIR COMMITMENTS WHICH THEY CONSIDER CONSISTENT WITH THEIR lNANCIAL AND TRADE NEEDS AND ALSO THEIR LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT4HEREFORETHE'CANNOTBEEXPECTED TO MAKE COMMITMENTS INCONSISTENT WITH THEIR NEEDS PARTICULARCIRCUMSTANCESANDPROBLEMS

4RANSPARENTANDPARTICIPATORYPROCESS 7ITH REGARD TO THE NEGOTIATION PROCESS THE !#0 #OUNCIL OF -INISTERS HAVE REITERATED THE NEED FOR A @TRANSPARENT INCLUSIVEANDWITHABOTTOM UPAPPROACH 4HEY UNDERLINED THAT @MEMBERS SHOULD BE ACCORDED ADEQUATE TIME TO EXAMINE IN DETAIL THE PROPOSALS SUBMITTED BY OTHER 74/ MEMBERS AND #HAIRS OF THE NEGOTIATING BODIES WITH A VIEW TO CONSULTING THEIR RESPECTIVEAUTHORITIESANDTAKINGINFORMEDDECISIONON THESEPROPOSALS )NTHISCONTEXT ITISNECESSARYTOREITERATETHECENTRALITY OF THE PRINCIPLES OF TRANSPARENCY FULL PARTICIPATION OF ALL MEMBERS AND THE MULTILATERAL PROCESS 4HE VIEWS CONCERNS AND INTERESTS OF THE MAJORITY OF MEMBERS SHOULD BE FULLY TAKEN ON BOARD IN THE NEGOTIATIONS IN ORDER TO PROVIDE A FAIR AND ACCEPTABLE OUTCOME 4HE LEGITIMACYANDCREDIBILITYOFTHE74/RESTSONWHETHERTHE PRINCIPLEOFAFFORDINGALLTRADINGPARTNERSTHEOPPORTUNITY TOPARTAKEINMAKINGTHERULESISADHEREDTO )T CREATED A CREDIBILITY GAP TO HAVE SELECTED COUNTRIES LEAD THE PROCESS 7E HAVE WITNESSED AN EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH INVOLVING THE 'ROUP OF  MAJOR PLAYERS "RAZIL %UROPEAN #OMMISSION )NDIA 5NITED 3TATES LATER EXPANDED TO 'ROUP OF  ' PLUS!USTRALIAAND*APAN WHICHCOMPLETELYFAILEDTO DELIVER &OLLOWING THE RE IGNITION OF THE NEGOTIATIONS BYTHE#HAIRSOF!GRICULTUREAND.!-! THE'HAS COALESCEDAGAINANDINITIALLYADDEDTOITSRANKSTWO MEMBERS !RGENTINAAND#ANADA)NORDERTOAPPEAR TO MAKE IT REPRESENTATIVE FOUR ADDITIONAL MEMBERS HAVE BEEN ADDED TO THE LIST n $OMINICAN 2EPUBLIC 36%S  )NDONESIA '  *AMAICA !#0 AND 3OUTH !FRICA!LTHOUGHEXPECTEDTOBEREPRESENTINGCERTAIN INTEREST GROUPS WITHIN THE 74/ THESE MEMBERS DO NOT HAVE A MANDATE AND ARE PARTICIPATING IN THE PLURILATERALPROCESSINTHEIRNATIONALCAPACITIES3UCH APPROACHESTENDTOCREATESUSPICIONAND ASSTATED BEFORE THEY CALL INTO QUESTION THE LEGITIMACY AND CREDIBILITYOFTHESYSTEM )TGOESWITHOUTSAYINGTHATTHEMULTILATERALPROCESSWITH FULLPARTICIPATIONOFALLMEMBERSINDISCUSSIONSANDIN PREPARINGTHEDRAFTSANDlNALTEXTSMUSTBECENTRAL4HE MULTILATERAL SYSTEM CANNOT BE USED TO RUBBER STAMP ANDLEGITIMISETHEDECISIONSMADEBYAFEWMEMBERS

2EACTIONONTHEDRAFTMODALITIESTEXTS #ONCERNING !GRICULTURE GENERALLY THE !#0 'ROUP HAS NOTED THE NEW INPUTS IN THE DRAFT MODALITIES IN THIS SECTOR BUT WAS DISAPPOINTED BY THE LACK OF SPECIlCITY WITHIN PILLARS AND ACROSS PILLARS 7HILE REITERATING THE CALL FOR DOMESTIC SUPPORT AND EXPORT 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

COMPETITION TO BE TREATED MORE AMBITIOUSLY OF KEY CONCERN IS THE MARKET ACCESS PILLAR 3UBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT IN MARKET ACCESS SHOULD BE ACHIEVED THROUGHTARIFFSIMPLIlCATIONANDTHEELIMINATIONOFTARIFF ESCALATION WHICH IMPEDE OR DENY MARKET ACCESS OPPORTUNITIES TO PRODUCTS OF EXPORT INTEREST TO !#0 STATES &URTHERMORE THE !#0 STATES WOULD EXPECT GREATER ATTENTION TO BE DIRECTED TOWARDS MARKET ACCESS ASPECTS THAT IMPACT ON DEVELOPMENT IN PARTICULAR IN RESPECT OF LONG STANDING PREFERENCES TARIFFESCALATION COMMODITIES SPECIALPRODUCTSAND THESPECIALSAFEGUARDMECHANISM4HE'PROPOSAL ISTHATTARIFFREDUCTIONFORDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESSHOULD ON AVERAGE NOT EXCEED  PER CENT APPLIED ON A TIEREDFORMULAAPPROACH

4HEMULTILATERALPROCESSWITH FULLPARTICIPATIONOFALLMEMBERSIN DISCUSSIONSANDINPREPARINGTHEDRAFTS ANDlNALTEXTSMUSTBECENTRAL

4HE PROPOSAL IS TO TREAT THE !#0 STATES AS SMALL AND VULNERABLE ECONOMIES 36%S AND COUNTRIES WITH CEILING BINDINGS SPECIFYING THE NEED FOR THE INCLUSION OF OTHER !#0 MEMBERS IN THIS SPECIlC PROPOSAL 4HE TREATMENT OF SPECIAL PRODUCTS 30S SHOULD GUARANTEE ADEQUATE mEXIBILITY INCLUDING EXEMPTIONS FROM TARIFF REDUCTIONS FOR REALISING THE OBJECTIVES OF ACHIEVING FOOD SECURITY LIVELIHOOD SECURITYANDRURALDEVELOPMENTNEEDSOF!#03TATES 30SSHOULDALSOBEEXEMPTEDFROM4ARIFF2ATE1UOTAS 421S AND HAVE AUTOMATIC ACCESS TO THE 3PECIAL 3AFEGUARD -ECHANISM 33-  )N ADDITION THE 33- MUST EFFECTIVELY ADDRESS TWO TRIGGERS NAMELY IMPORT SURGESANDPRICEDEPRESSIONSINTHE'COUNTRIES!LL AGRICULTURALPRODUCTSSHOULDQUALIFYFORTHEMECHANISM AND THERE CERTAINLY SHOULD BE NO LINKAGE BETWEEN ACCESS TO THE 33- AND THE COMMITMENTS ON TARIFF REDUCTIONSONPARTICULARPRODUCTS /N LONG STANDING PREFERENCES THE ' HAS CATEGORICALLY STATED THAT IT WOULD NOT BE ABLE TO JOIN THE CONSENSUS ON A MODALITIES TEXT THAT DOES NOT ADDRESS IN A MEANINGFUL AND EFFECTIVE MANNER ITS CONCERNS REGARDING PREFERENCE EROSION 2EGRETTABLY ITS EXPECTATIONS HAVE NOT BEEN MET BY THE LATEST DRAFT MODALITIES TEXT SINCE NO CONCRETE PROPOSAL HAS BEENMADE 4HE ' HAS ALSO MAINTAINED THAT TRADE RELATED SOLUTIONS ALONGSIDE NON TRADE RELATED ONES SUCH AS SUPPORT THROUGH AID FOR TRADE AT THE MULTILATERAL LEVEL ARETHEONLYACCEPTABLESOLUTIONS/NCOTTON THE' STRESSESTHENEEDTOSETUPAMECHANISMTODEALWITH THELOSSOFREVENUETHATCOTTONPRODUCING!#0COUNTRIES AREFACINGASARESULTOFDECLININGCOTTONPRICES7ITH REGARDTOCOMMODITIES REALPROGRESSISNECESSARYIN ADDRESSINGTHECRISISOFINSTABILITYANDLONG TERMDECLINE


'OOD'OVERNANCE 0EACEAND0ROSPERITY

IN COMMODITY PRICES SO AS TO ATTAIN STABLE EQUITABLE ANDREMUNERATIVEPRICESFORTHESEPRODUCTS #ONCERNINGDOMESTICSUPPORT THE'!#0'ROUPIS CALLINGFOREFFECTIVEREDUCTIONINTHELEVELOFOVERALLTRADE DISTORTINGSUPPORTINDEVELOPEDCOUNTRIES SIGNIlCANTLY BELOWCURRENTLEVELS

4HE'STRESSESTHENEEDTO SETUPAMECHANISMTODEALWITHTHE LOSSOFREVENUETHATCOTTONPRODUCING !#0COUNTRIESAREFACINGASARESULT OFDECLININGCOTTONPRICES .!-! 4HE'ISDISCONTENTEDWITHFAILURETOTAKEONBOARD PROPOSALS THAT ADDRESS ITS CONCERNS IN LINE WITH THE DEVELOPMENT MANDATE OF THE $OHA 2OUND 4HE AGGRESSIVE-&.LIBERALISATIONANDAMBITIOUSTARIFFCUTS IN .!-! WOULD RESULT IN SEVERE SECTORAL ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS AS A CONSEQUENCE OF REVENUE LOSSES AND SIGNIlCANT DIMINUTION OF POLICY SPACE NECESSARY FOR PROMOTINGDOMESTICINDUSTRIES 4HE PRINCIPLE OF @LESS THAN FULL RECIPROCITY IN REDUCTION COMMITMENTS SHOULD BE OBSERVED TO ENSURE TARIFF REDUCTIONS BY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ARE NOT DISPROPORTIONATETOTHOSEOFTHEDEVELOPEDECONOMIES 4HE ' HAS BEEN CALLING FOR A MINIMUM  YEAR IMPLEMENTATION PERIOD PROPOSED FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES WITH A LONGER PERIOD FOR THOSE COUNTRIES FACING SPECIlC DIFlCULT CIRCUMSTANCES &URTHERMORE THE0ARAGRAPHCOUNTRIESSHOULDBEALLOWEDTOBIND UPTOPERCENTOFTHEIRTARIFFLINES

)MPROVINGRULESOFORIGINFORTHIS CATEGORYOFCOUNTRIESISANINTEGRAL PARTOFTHEMULTILATERALEFFORTOFTHE .!-!MODALITIES 4HE ' IS CONCERNED ABOUT THE NON RECIPROCAL PREFERENCE EROSION ARISING FROM MOST FAVOURED NATION -&. LIBERALISATIONWHICHADVERSELYAFFECTSTHEIREXPORT COMPETITIVENESS 7HAT IS NEEDED IS A TRADE BASED SOLUTIONCOMBINEDWITHOTHERACCOMPANYINGMEASURES SUCHASCOMPENSATORYANDADJUSTMENTMECHANISMS

INLIGHTOFTHEDIFlCULTECONOMICREFORMPROCESSUNDER WAYINMANY!#0STATES4HISISASENSITIVEISSUEFOR !#0 COUNTRIES AND REQUIRES A REASONABLE TRANSITIONAL PERIODANDABACKLOADINGOFTHETARIFFDISMANTLEMENT 7ITH REGARD TO ,$#S THE !#0 'ROUP SAID THAT IMPROVING RULES OF ORIGIN FOR THIS CATEGORY OF COUNTRIESISANINTEGRALPARTOFTHEMULTILATERALEFFORT OFTHE.!-!MODALITIES4HE,$#GROUPRECENTLYPUT FORWARD A PROPOSAL THAT COULD SERVE AS A CONCRETE BASIS FOR ADDRESSING THIS ISSUE THAT HAS NOT YET BEENDISCUSSEDSATISFACTORILY

!NUNCERTAINFUTURE 4HISPAPERHASATTEMPTEDTOBRIEmYHIGHLIGHTTHE'S CURRENT POSITION IN RELATION TO THE INHERENT ISSUES UNDER$OHATRADETALKS7HATBECOMESOFTHEGROUPS POSITIONAFTERTHISISDIFlCULTTOPROJECT7HATCANBE SAID OTHERWISE IS THAT MANY ' COUNTRIES IN TERMS OF THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH THE 74/ ARE IN UNCHARTED WATERS/NLYTIMEWILLREVEALTHElNALOUTCOMES

3IR*OHN+APUTINCOMESFROM0APUA.EW'UINEA(ESERVEDFOR  YEARS IN THE COUNTRYS .ATIONAL 0ARLIAMENT   AND AT DIFFERENT TIMES WAS THE -INISTER OF &OREIGN !FFAIRS &INANCE AND.ATIONAL0LANNINGAND$EVELOPMENT(ESERVEDASTHECO 0RESIDENTOFTHE!#0 %50ARLIAMENTARY!SSEMBLYIN  3IR *OHN RECEIVED HIS EDUCATION IN 0.' !USTRALIA AND THE 5NITED3TATES 4HE !#0 'ROUP OF 3TATES COMPRISES  COUNTRIES FROM THE !FRICAN #ARIBBEANAND0ACIlCREGIONS4HEMEMBERCOUNTRIES EXCEPT #UBA ARE BOUND TO THE %5 THROUGH THE #OTONOU 0ARTNERSHIP !GREEMENT SIGNED IN  4HE !#0 'ROUP CELEBRATED ITS TH ANNIVERSARY ON *UNE   AFTER IT WAS INAUGURATEDIN'EORGETOWN'UYANA IN4HE'EORGETOWN !GREEMENTINSTITUTED AMONGOTHERTHINGS TRADINGARRANGEMENTS WITH THE %5 AND A SECRETARIAT 4HE !#0 'ROUP AND %5 HAVE ENLARGED IN MEMBERSHIP SINCE THE S AND THE VARIOUS MULTILATERALAGREEMENTSADOPTEDSINCEHAVEMIRROREDTHEIRNEEDS AND WISHES AT DIFFERENT EPOCHS .ONETHELESS THE UNDERLYING GOAL OF ENHANCING STRATEGIC COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORKREMAINSPARAMOUNTAMONGTHEMEMBERCOUNTRIES 3ECRETARIATOFTHE!#0'ROUPOF3TATES !VENUE'EORGES(ENRI " "RUSSELS "ELGIUM 4EL  &AX 

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




Joburg UDZ Investment surpasses the R2.Billion Mark Once again the investors in the Johannesburg UDZ have given their clear vote of confidence in the future of the “heart of the City of Gold” Johannesburg investors share the Johannesburg City Council’s vision of making Joburg a World Class City by 2030. They are highly enthusiastic about taking advantage of the opportunities presented by the UDZ tax incentive and the up-coming events leading to the 2010 FIFA Soccer World Cup. Revitalizing the Inner City is a key City priority hence the mobilization of the Inner City stakeholders around the agenda for the regeneration of this important economic hub. The revitalization of the distressed areas such as the Inner City of Johannesburg is of high priority to the entire Johannesburg City Council and me, thus the UDZ legislation has been very helpful in that regard. It has also assisted us to pursue the City of Johannesburg’s Vision of attaining the World Class African City status by 2030. So far, as a result of successful and intense promotion of the incentive, we have recorded about R2.5 billion worth of investment directly linked to the UDZ tax incentive. The private investors have welcomed the incentive and have demonstrated confidence in the Inner City by investing these billions of rand towards resuscitating the economy in this strategically important region of the City. A high number of refurbished buildings is located in the core Inner City, Braamfontein and Newtown. Braamfontein refurbishments are predominantly conversions from commercial use to residential primarily due to the township’s proximity to the Wits University and other tertiary institutions. The core Inner City, Braamfontein and in Newtown there is some large developments of commercial buildings such as the Turbine Square and Turbine Hall, the Mills, the Standard Bank Parkade, BHP Billiton nexpansion, South Point Management Services, the Brickfield Developments, etc. It is desirable to encourage further investment in commercial property and tourism facilities as well as the industrial sector, in order to meaningfully derive economic regeneration. Efforts are therefore afoot to pursue the large corporations to get on board. Abundant opportunities still exist in the traditionally marginal nodes where the UDZ pick up has been rather slow, they include Hillbrow, Berea, Yeoville, Bertrams, Doornfontein, Fordsburg, Belleview, etc. They are characterized by pockets of small residential properties and have been red-lined by the financial sector. Marketing drive depicting their positive attributes are in the pipeline. Investment by BEE and women investors has had a slow take up therefore the City is intensifying its efforts to attract investment from this important constituency. Currently the BEE investment on the City’s records amounts to about 10% of the cumulative total investment. The City has decided to measure the BEE contribution not only in absolute direct investment but also in respect of their participation in the value chain. The features of the incentive are as follows: · Construction, expansion or improvement of, or addition to an entire building; · Construction, extension or improvement of, or addition to at least a floor area of 1,000 sq metres; · The purchase of property or part thereof from developers under conditions that; i. 55% of purchase price is deemed to be the eligible cost in respect of newly constructed building or part thereof, ii. 30% of purchase price in respect of refurbished property or part thereof. · The buildings eligible for the incentive should have come into use by March 31 2009 The tax-deductible amounts or amortizations are computed follows: · In respect of a newly constructed building or a part thereof, the deduction amounts to 20% of investment in the 1st year, and 5% in each for the subsequent 16 years;

· For a refurbished building or a part thereof, the deduction is a 5-year straightline depreciation or 20% of the investment in each of the 5-year period upon completion of the development. The UDZ scheme creates an opportunity for entrepreneurs to share in the economic success by taking advantage of investment opportunities – thus delivering on our drive for a balanced and shared growth initiative. The city effectively increases investors profits with this more than generous tax incentive. The UDZ incentive gives us all an opportunity to create jobs, fight poverty and increase the prosperity of all. Since its introduction the UDZ incentive has been a great success: Well over 150 investments are now in the pipeline for R2.5 billion worth of investment. To date, over 100 projects have been completed at a total value of about R1. billion. · There are ongoing big opportunities for investors to take advantage of this scheme, given the sheer size of the Inner City and its many property segments. Everyone has room to share in this good news. · The economic boom shows no sign of abating, this is good news for investors, there is still room for more development . · The City economy continues to outperform the national growth rate, and the Inner City itself is the biggest employment centre in the country. Also Bear in mind that already, the Inner City offers over 200 000 jobs (more than most of the city’s other nodes combined!) and that the UDZ incentive can only accelerate these positive forces. The UDZ incentive allows for a number of socio-economic benefits, such as allowing private sector investors to reap huge economic spin-offs from public policy decisions… · Such as ensuring that inner city decline is reversed… · Such as promoting job creation in construction and the services sectors within the broader value chain of the property sector… · Such as diversifying the economy of the inner city … · Such as combining the skills of individual investors with the resources of institutional investors… · Such as kick-starting the process of increasing the inner city’s share of the residential property market while catering for a diverse clientele, and lastly… · Providing BEE investors a once-in-life-time opportunity to get a slice of Africa’s greatest city To stake your claim, contact: Lebo Ramoreboli Acting Program Manager Spatial Economic Development City of Johannesburg Tel. 011 358 3437 E-mail: lebor@joburg.org.za Or consult: www.joburg.org.za/udz


'OOD'OVERNANCE 0EACEAND0ROSPERITY

%DWIN,AURENT (EADOF)NTERNATIONAL4RADEAND2EGIONAL #O OPERATION #OMMONWEALTH3ECRETARIAT

4RADEFORDEVELOPMENTAROLE FORTHE#OMMONWEALTH )N TODAYS WORLD IT IS GENERALLY ACCEPTED THAT INTERNATIONAL TRADE CAN MAKE AN INDISPENSABLE CONTRIBUTION TO ECONOMIC GROWTH WHICH PARTICULARLYWHENEQUITABLE ISAMOSTIMPORTANT CONTRIBUTOR TO REDUCING POVERTY AND ACHIEVING THE -ILLENNIUM $EVELOPMENT 'OALS -$'S  4O THIS END THE #OMMONWEALTH IS COMMITTED TO PROMOTINGADEVELOPMENT FRIENDLYGLOBALTRADING SYSTEMTHATCREATESGREATERTRADINGOPPORTUNITIES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND ENSURES THAT THEY HAVE THE NECESSARY NATIONAL POLICIES DOMESTIC CAPACITY AND ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE TO ENABLE THEM TO BENElT FROM THESE OPPORTUNITIES 7ITH KEY PRINCIPLES INCLUDING THE FOSTERING OF PEACE AND SECURITY EQUAL RIGHTS AND THE ALLEVIATION OF POVERTY AND ITS MEMBERSHIP DOMINATED BY DEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES ITISNOWONDERTHATTRADE ISHIGHONTHE#OMMONWEALTHAGENDA 4HE LAST MEETING OF THE (EADS OF 'OVERNMENT HELD IN -ALTA IN  CALLED ON THE 3ECRETARY 'ENERAL TO EXPLORE INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO STRENGTHEN INTRA #OMMONWEALTH DIALOGUE NETWORKING AND COLLABORATION ON TRADE AND ECONOMIC ISSUES 4HE 3ECRETARIAT HAS BEEN EXAMINING AND PURSUING POLICY OPTIONSTHATSEEKTOSTRENGTHEN#OMMONWEALTHTRADE BYBUILDINGONEXISTING#OMMONWEALTHSTRENGTHSAND LEVERAGING#OMMONWEALTHRESOURCESTOMEETTHETRADE CHALLENGES 4HE #OMMONWEALTH SUPPORTS PRO POOR POLICIES FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN MEMBER COUNTRIES AND THE 3ECRETARIAT PURSUES THIS OBJECTIVE IN TRADE VIA ITS PROGRAMMES TO ENHANCE THE ABILITY OF DEVELOPING MEMBER COUNTRIES PARTICULARLY ,$#S AND SMALL VULNERABLE STATES TO FUNCTION SATISFACTORILYINFORMULATINGANDIMPLEMENTINGAPPROPRIATE POLICIESANDEFFECTIVELYNEGOTIATINGATREGIONALANDMULTI LATERAL LEVELS TO SECURE THEIR INTERESTS #OMMONWEALTH SUPPORTINBUILDINGCAPACITYFORTRADEPOLICYDEVELOPMENT ANDMANAGEMENTISWIDELYAPPRECIATED 4HE EIGHT ROUNDS OF MULTILATERAL TRADE NEGOTIATIONS UNDER THE 'ENERAL !GREEMENT ON 4ARIFFS AND 4RADE '!44 PRIOR TO THE CURRENT 74/ $OHA ROUND THAT WAS LAUNCHED IN  FOCUSED PRIMARILY THOUGH NOT EXCLUSIVELY ON REDUCING TARIFFS AND OTHER BARRIERS TO TRADE !S PROTECTION HAS FALLEN GLOBAL ATTENTION HAS

SHIFTED TO FOCUS ON TRADE CONSTRAINTS THAT LIE BEHIND THE BORDER !T THE SAME TIME THE RECENT EMERGENCE OFNEWHUGEMARKETSFORANDSUPPLIERSOFGOODSAND SERVICESSUCHAS#HINA )NDIAAND"RAZILISDRAMATICALLY TRANSFORMING GLOBAL TRADE PATTERNS 4HIS DYNAMISM WILL BE ACCENTUATED BY THE CONTINUED INCREASE IN THE MOBILITYOFFACTORSOFPRODUCTIONLABOUR ANDESPECIALLY CAPITAL FOR INVESTMENT 4HIS NEW TRADING ENVIRONMENT WILLOFFEROPPORTUNITIESBUTALSOPRESENTCHALLENGESTHAT REQUIREINCREASEDCOOPERATIONAMONGNATIONS ANDIN PARTICULAR INCREASED SUPPORT FOR THOSE THAT ARE LEAST ABLETOCOPE 4HETURNOFTHECENTURYSEEMEDTOHERALDANEWSENSE OF SHARED RESPONSIBILITY FOR GLOBAL CHALLENGES AND AN INCREASEDWILLINGNESSTOACTCOLLECTIVELYTOSOLVETHEM 4HE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE -$'S THE LAUNCH OF THE $OHA2OUND ANDTHE-ONTERREY#ONSENSUS WEREALL CONCRETEEXPRESSIONSOFTHISCOMMITMENT4HEPOLITICAL CLIMATE FOR THE MULTILATERAL TRADING SYSTEM TO SUPPORT DEVELOPMENTSHOULDBEFAVOURABLE

#OMMONWEALTHSTRENGTHS )N PURSUING ITS MANDATE THE #OMMONWEALTH HAS SEVERALSTRENGTHSnTHOUGHITMUSTREMAINAWAREOFITS LIMITATIONS4HE#OMMONWEALTHISBOUNDBYCOMMON VALUES AND SIMILAR VIEWS ON MUCH OF THE UNDERLYING AIMS OF THE GLOBAL AGENDA n ALTHOUGH ITS MEMBERS POSITIONS ARE SUFlCIENTLY DIVERSE TO LIMIT THE SCOPE FOR CONVERGENCE ON SPECIlC NEGOTIATING ISSUES "UT ITS INDEPENDENT CHARACTER MAKES IT A UNIQUE FORUM FOR NON CONFRONTATIONAL DIALOGUE AND COMMUNICATION CHAMPIONING CONCERNS OF PRINCIPLE AND BUILDING CONSENSUSATTHEHIGHESTLEVEL 4HE @#OMMONWEALTH CULTURE OF AMICABLE PARTNERSHIP IS A DISTINCT ADVANTAGE )TS MEETINGS ARE CONDUCTED IN AN ATMOSPHERE OF COOPERATION AND WITH A SHARED SENSE OF COMMUNITY REmECTING COMMON TRADITIONS AND SHARED VALUES THAT PERMIT DEEPER EXPLORATION OF ISSUES !NOTHER ADVANTAGE IS THE #OMMONWEALTHS COMMENDABLE REPUTATION )T IS WIDELY RECOGNISED AS BEING IMPARTIAL AND NON IDEOLOGICAL )TS RESEARCH IS VIEWED AS INDEPENDENT AND OF HIGH QUALITY AND IT IS SEENASHAVINGmEXIBILITYTHATISLACKINGINSOMEOFTHE LARGERINTERNATIONALORGANISATIONS4HE#OMMONWEALTH ALSO HAS THE ADVANTAGE OF ITS COMMENDABLE TRACK

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




'OOD'OVERNANCE 0EACEAND0ROSPERITY

RECORDOF3OUTHn3OUTHCOLLABORATIONTHATPROVIDESAN EXCELLENTBASISFOREXPANDINGANDBUILDINGTRADINGLINKS &INALLY THE #OMMONWEALTH CONTINUES TO ENJOY HIGH LEVELENGAGEMENTWITHITSMEMBERS MOSTIMPORTANTLY ATTHELEVELOFHEADSOFGOVERNMENT

7HATINITIATIVESINTRADECANBETAKENBY THE#OMMONWEALTH

4HIS UNIQUE MIX OF CHARACTERISTICS AND STRENGTHS PERMITSTHE#OMMONWEALTHTOSERVEASACATALYSTFOR GENUINEENGAGEMENT UNDERSTANDINGANDPROGRESSAT THEINTERNATIONALLEVEL

)NDIVIDUALMEMBERSHAVEAWEALTHOFEXPERIENCEINDEALING WITH TRADE POLICY CHALLENGES -ANY #OMMONWEALTH NATIONSAREWORLDLEADERSINSOMEAREASOFTRADEPOLICY AND LESSONS FROM THEIR EXPERIENCE SHOULD BE SHARED AMONGOTHERMEMBERS&OREXAMPLE

3UPPORTIVEROLEINTRADENEGOTIATIONS

°3INGAPORE AWORLDLEADERINTRADEFACILITATION

)N RECENT YEARS THE #OMMONWEALTH HAS PROVIDED SUPPORT TO ITS MEMBERS IN MULTILATERAL TRADE NEGOTIATIONS IN PARTICULAR THE $OHA AND %CONOMIC 0ARTNERSHIP !GREEMENT %0! NEGOTIATIONS "UT EVEN BEFORETHESECOMETOANEND PRIORITYWILLHAVETOBE GIVENTOIMPLEMENTINGTHEAGREEMENTSANDSUPPORTING THEEFFORTSOFDEVELOPINGCOUNTRYMEMBERSTOACTUALLY BENElTFROMTRADINGOPPORTUNITIESASTHEWORLDCONTINUES TOCHANGE NEWECONOMICGIANTSEMERGEANDREGIONAL AND BILATERAL TRADING ARRANGEMENTS PROLIFERATE 4HE #OMMONWEALTHCANASSISTITSMEMBERSTOBENElCIALLY ADAPT TO THE CHANGING GLOBAL ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT BEYOND$OHA 4HE #OMMONWEALTH 3ECRETARIAT IS DISMAYED BY THE SLOW PACE OF THE $OHA NEGOTIATIONS 4HIS COULD IN PART BE DUE TO THE FACT THAT THEIR POLITICAL FOCUS HAS LARGELY CENTRED ON AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRIAL TARIFFS WITHLITTLEACTUALPROGRESSONOTHERIMPORTANTAREASOF NEGOTIATIONS PARTICULARLYTHOSEOFINTERESTTODEVELOPING COUNTRIES ALTHOUGH SOME COMMENTATORS BELIEVE SOME PROGRESS HAS BEEN MADE ON IMPORTANT ISSUES SUCHASTHE,$#PACKAGE  !WAY FROM THE MULTILATERAL LEVEL GIVEN THAT THE !FRICAN #ARIBBEAN AND 0ACIlC STATES !#0 CONSTITUTE A LARGE PROPORTION OF #OMMONWEALTH DEVELOPING COUNTRIES A KEY AREA OF FOCUS OF THE 3ECRETARIATS INTERNATIONAL TRADEPROGRAMMEHASBEENTHEPROVISIONOFSUPPORTTO ENHANCE THE !#0 REGIONS CAPACITIES TO SUCCESSFULLY NEGOTIATE%0!SWITHTHE%5THATWILLCONTRIBUTETOTHEIR SUSTAINABLEDEVELOPMENTANDTHEALLEVIATIONOFPOVERTY

4HETRADINGSYSTEMBEYOND$OHA 4HEWORLDTRADINGSYSTEMISINTRANSITION7HATEVERTHE OUTCOME OF THE CURRENT ROUND OF 74/ NEGOTIATIONS THE$OHA2OUND ANDWHENEVERITCONCLUDES NATIONAL CONCERNSARESETTOSHIFTFROMMULTILATERALNEGOTIATIONS TOWARDSNEWPRIORITIES4HEPRINCIPALFOCUSWILLNOLONGER BESUPPORTFORCAPACITYTONEGOTIATE BUTRATHERBUILDING CAPACITYFORTRADE(ENCETHE#OMMONWEALTHSTRADE ACTIVITIES MUST ANTICIPATE FUTURE TRADE POLICY ISSUES AND DEVELOP FORWARD LOOKING PLANS TO SUPPORT ITS MEMBERS 4HE #OMMONWEALTH IS ALSO CONVINCED THAT GREATER ECONOMIC COORDINATION AND COOPERATION AMONG MEMBERS IS ESSENTIAL AT THE CURRENT STAGE OF MULTILATERALTRADENEGOTIATIONS)NSUCHCIRCUMSTANCES ITNEEDSTOCRAFTANEWROLEFORITSELFINCONNECTIONWITH THESEIMPORTANTISSUESOFTHEFUTURESOASTOPROVIDE MAXIMUMSUPPORTTOITSMEMBERSINTHEIRMANAGEMENT OFTHESEGLOBALCHALLENGES 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

%NGAGINGMEMBERSTOEXCHANGEBESTPRACTICES INTRADEPOLICY

°-AURITIUS SUCCESSFULLY TRANSITIONING AWAY FROM A PREFERENCE DEPENDENT ECONOMY AND ESTABLISHING ITSELFASAFREE TRADEZONE °!USTRALIA ACHIEVING PRODUCTION

WORLD

CLASS

AGRICULTURAL

°"OTSWANA CAPITALISINGONITSNATURALRESOURCES °"AHAMAS ABLETOINCREASEITSINCOMEPERCAPITATO THETHIRDHIGHESTINTHE!MERICAS 3UCH VALUABLE EXPERTISE OF #OMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES NEEDS TO BE HARNESSED VIA BETTER EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION

%XPANDINGINTRA #OMMONWEALTHTRADEAND DEEPENINGLINKAGES 7ITHONEQUARTEROFTHEWORLDSGOVERNMENTS ONE THIRD OFTHEWORLDSPOPULATIONANDONE lFTHOFGLOBALTRADE THE #OMMONWEALTH MEMBERS AS A GROUP CAN BE A MAJOR PLAYER IN GLOBAL TRADE )NTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN TRADE IS INCREASINGLY PREVALENT AND NOTWITHSTANDING THE SOMEWHAT UNCLEAR GAINS FROM TRADING BLOCS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR MULTILATERAL FREE TRADE 2EGIONAL 4RADING!GREEMENTS24!S HAVEBECOMEAPROMINENT FEATUREOFTHEWORLDTRADINGSYSTEM4HATISWITNESSED BY THE FACT THAT AS MANY AS  TRADING BLOCS HAVE BEEN NOTIlED TO THE 74/ DURING   !LMOST ALL #OMMONWEALTH NATIONS ARE MEMBERS OF AT LEAST ONE24! ANDMANYOFTHEMHAVESIGNEDUPTOSEVERAL SUCH ARRANGEMENTS 4HE #OMMONWEALTH ITSELF HAS A COMMENDABLE TRACK RECORD OF .ORTHn3OUTH AND OF 3OUTHn3OUTHCOLLABORATIONTHATPROVIDESASOUNDBASIS FORCOOPERATIONTARGETEDSPECIlCALLYATEXPANDINGAND BUILDINGINTER COUNTRYANDINTER REGIONALTRADINGLINKS4HE CLEARDESIREANDSPIRITOFCOOPERATIONAMONGMEMBERS AREREmECTEDINNUMEROUS#OMMONWEALTH SPONSORED INITIATIVESINBOTHREGIONALANDMULTILATERALFORUMS4HE STRENGTHSALLUDEDTOABOVEPLACETHEORGANISATIONINA PRIVILEGEDPOSITIONTOPROVIDESUPPORTFORFURTHERINGTHE ATTAINMENT OF THEIR GOALS OF EXPANDED TRADE AND THE IMPROVEDWELFAREOFTHEIRPOPULATIONS THROUGHTHEJOINT ACTIONOFITSMEMBERS &IRSTLY THE 3ECRETARIAT SHOULD UNDERTAKE AN IN DEPTH ANALYSISOFINTRA #OMMONWEALTHTRADESTRUCTURES mOWS AND TRENDS EXAMINE THE CONSTRAINTS ON GROWTH AND ASSESS THE SCOPE AND THE PROSPECTS FOR INCREASED TRADE AMONG MEMBERS )T SHOULD PROVIDE CLEAR OBJECTIVEANDINFORMEDGUIDANCEFORPOLICYMAKERS AS THEYSEEKTOENHANCEDOMESTICWELFAREANDTHATOFTHE #OMMONWEALTH AS A WHOLE THROUGH EXPANDING INTRA #OMMONWEALTHTRADEANDDEEPENINGLINKAGESAMONG COUNTRIESANDREGIONALGROUPINGS


'OOD'OVERNANCE 0EACEAND0ROSPERITY

3ECONDLY THE 3ECRETARIAT SHOULD STUDY AND ADVISE ON CONCRETE POLICY AND OTHER MEASURES AIMED AT ADDRESSING THE INABILITY OF SEVERAL MEMBER STATES TO PRODUCEANDSUPPLYINTERNATIONALLYCOMPETITIVEGOODS AND SERVICES HELP THEM REDUCE THEIR COMMODITY DEPENDENCE AND IDENTIFY MEANS BY WHICH THEY COULD OBTAIN GREATER BENElTS FROM INTERNATIONAL TRADE nINCLUDINGBYMOVINGUPTHE@VALUECHAIN

4HE3ECRETARIATASA@THOUGHTLEADERON FORWARD LOOKINGISSUES 4HE #OMMONWEALTH HAS ALREADY ESTABLISHED A REPUTATION FOR HIGH QUALITY RESEARCH 5NLIKE MANY OTHER ORGANISATIONS THAT RELY EXCLUSIVELY ON IN HOUSE EXPERTISE THE #OMMONWEALTH COMBINES ITS OWN RESEARCH WITH THAT OF LEADING EXPERTS AND HAS CONSEQUENTLYCOMETOBERECOGNISEDASA@RESPECTED MESSENGER 4HE 3ECRETARIAT NEEDS TO ENSURE THAT ITS RESEARCH CONTINUES TO BE TIMELY AND FORWARD LOOKING 4HE CHALLENGE FOR #OMMONWEALTH RESEARCH IS TO IDENTIFY ISSUES ON THE HORIZON OF TRADE POLICY AND PROVIDE BETTER DISSEMINATION AMONG MEMBERS AND THEIR REPRESENTATIVES OF THE lNDINGS OF PRACTICAL ANALYTICAL RESEARCH BEFORE POSITIONS HAVE BECOME ENTRENCHEDORNEGOTIATIONSHAVEMOVEDON

4HE3ECRETARIATNEEDSTOPROMOTETHETRANSLATION OFPOLITICALWILLINTOMOVEMENTAMONGNEGOTIATORS 4HE 6ALETTA 3TATEMENT AGREED AT THE #OMMONWEALTH (EADS MEETING IN -ALTA IN  WAS A DETAILED VISIONARY AND WIDE RANGING DOCUMENT THAT DEMONSTRATEDTHEPOLITICALWILLANDPOLITICALCONVERGENCE OF #OMMONWEALTH MEMBERS WHICH INCLUDED A LARGE AND DIVERSE SUB POPULATION OF 74/ MEMBERS 9ET SUCHSTATEMENTS THOUGHDEMONSTRATINGPOLITICALWILLAT THELEVELOF(EADSOF'OVERNMENT ARENOTAUTOMATICALLY REmECTED IN THE NEGOTIATIONS 4HE CHALLENGE FOR THE #OMMONWEALTH IS TO CONTINUE TO GENERATE POLITICAL CONVERGENCE THAT TRANSLATES TO MOVEMENT AMONG ACTORS IN THE TRADE POLICY ARENA n PARTICULARLY TRADE MINISTERS AND TRADE NEGOTIATORS &OR THIS CONCRETE MECHANISMSAREREQUIREDTHATWILLINVOLVEANDENGAGE BROADERAUDIENCESINCLUDING.'/S THEPRIVATESECTOR AND#OMMONWEALTHCIVILSOCIETYORGANISATIONS

4HE3ECRETARIATSHOULDPROMOTECONSENSUSAND ENGAGEMENTATALLLEVELSOFGOVERNMENTANDCIVIL SOCIETY 4HE #OMMONWEALTH ALREADY HAS CONSIDERABLE ENGAGEMENT WITH THE PRIVATE SECTOR THROUGH ITS #OMMONWEALTH "USINESS #OUNCIL WHICH CONDUCTS A WIDERANGEOFSUCCESSFULPROGRAMMESATTHEINTERFACEOF PUBLICPOLICYANDPRIVATESECTORINITIATIVE)TISALSOUSEFUL TOEXPLORENEWWAYSOFINCREASINGTHEmOWOFMARKET OPPORTUNITYINFORMATIONBETWEENlRMS4HEEXPANSION OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION HAS MASSIVELY INCREASED THE VOLUMEOFBUSINESSINFORMATIONAVAILABLEONTHEWEB VIANEWSWIRES ANDOTHERSERVICES4HE#OMMONWEALTH ANDOTHERSCOULDPACKAGETHISINFORMATION ANDMAKE IT AVAILABLE TO lRMS INDUSTRY ASSOCIATIONS TRADE PROMOTION AUTHORITIES AND INVESTMENT PROMOTION AUTHORITIES ! DATABASE OF @INVESTOR LEADS COULD ALSO

BE COMPILED THAT WOULD CONTAIN INFORMATION ABOUT lRMSTHATHAVEDECIDEDTOINVESTABROADBUTHAVENOT YETCHOSENWHERETODOSO 0OTENTIALLY THE MOST SIGNIlCANT CHANGE TO THE INSTITUTIONALLANDSCAPEOFTHETRADINGSYSTEMSINCETHE 5RUGUAY2OUNDANDTHECREATIONOFTHE74/HASBEEN THE ENGAGEMENT OF NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS .'/S  4HERE CAN BE NO DOUBTING THE IMPORTANCE OFTHEROLEOF.'/SANDCIVILSOCIETYORGANISATIONSON THECONDUCTANDOVERSIGHTOFTRADEPOLICY.'/SLIKE THEMEDIAHAVEBECOMEPOWERFUL AFFECTANDINmUENCE THE NEGOTIATIONS BY MUSTERING PUBLIC SUPPORT BEHIND THEIRCAMPAIGNSANDLOBBYINGGOVERNMENTS

#ONCLUSION 4HE INTERNATIONAL TRADING SYSTEM IS UNDERGOING A PROCESSOFTRANSFORMATIONTHATWILLCONTINUEASTHEST CENTURYUNFOLDS$EVELOPMENTSINTHERECENTDECADES HAVE MADE IT CLEAR THAT THE BEST OPTION FOR THE WORLD ISANINCLUSIVEANDFAIRRULES BASEDMULTILATERALTRADING SYSTEM THAT CAN SUPPORT UNIVERSAL ECONOMIC GROWTH SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 'IVEN ITS CHARACTERISTICS AND STRENGTHS THE #OMMONWEALTH CAN MAKE A CATALYTIC BUT UNIQUE CONTRIBUTION TO THE ATTAINMENT OF THESE GOALS #OMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES CAN THROUGH THEIR JOINT ACTION PROMOTE CHANGE THAT CONFORMS TO THEIR SHARED VISION FOR A SYSTEM THAT IS FAIR EFFECTIVE AND ADVANCES THE DEVELOPMENT INTERESTS OF ALL "UT IF IT IS TO ACHIEVE ITS POTENTIAL THE #OMMONWEALTH MUST NOT SEEKTOREPLICATEOTHERINSTITUTIONSBUTINSTEADFOCUSIN ANINNOVATIVEMANNERONTHOSEINTERVENTIONSANDAREAS INWHICHITHASACOMPARATIVEADVANTAGE

%DWIN ,AURENT /"% IS (EAD OF THE )NTERNATIONAL 4RADE AND 2EGIONAL #O OPERATION 3ECTION AT THE #OMMONWEALTH 3ECRETARIAT(ISCAREERSTARTEDIN3AINT,UCIABECOMING0RINCIPAL !SSISTANT 3ECRETARY n -INISTRY OF &INANCE THEN 0ERMANENT 3ECRETARY OF THE -INISTRY OF 4RADE )NDUSTRY AND 4OURISM ,ATER HEHELDVARIOUSDIPLOMATICPOSTSINCLUDING !MBASSADORTOTHE 74/ %5 &RANCE 'ERMANY AND TO "ELGIUM BEFORE MOVING TO THE3ECRETARIAT%DUCATEDATTHE5NIVERSITIESOFTHE7EST)NDIES -ANCHESTER AND THE *OHNS (OPKINS 5NIVERSITY 3CHOOL OF !DVANCED)NTERNATIONAL3TUDIES-R,AURENTHASPUBLISHEDONA VARIETYOFTRADEPOLICYISSUES 4HE #OMMONWEALTH IS AN ASSOCIATION OF  INDEPENDENT STATES CONSULTING AND COOPERATING IN THE COMMON INTERESTS OF THEIR PEOPLES AND IN THE PROMOTION OF INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING AND WORLDPEACE4HE#OMMONWEALTH3ECRETARIAT ESTABLISHEDIN IS ITS MAIN INTERGOVERNMENTAL AGENCY FACILITATING CONSULTATION AND CO OPERATIONAMONGMEMBERGOVERNMENTSANDCOUNTRIES #OMMONWEALTH3ECRETARIAT -ARLBOROUGH(OUSE 0ALL-ALL ,ONDON 379(8 5+ 4EL  \&AX   %MAILINFO COMMONWEALTHINT 7EBSITEWWWTHECOMMONWEALTHORG

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




'OOD'OVERNANCE 0EACEAND0ROSPERITY

!BDULLAHI93HEHU $IRECTOR'ENERAL ')!"!

2ECOVERINGTHEPROCEEDSOF CORRUPTIONTHECHALLENGESFOR DEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES #ORRUPTION IS ONE OF THE MAJOR CRIMES THAT GENERATE ILLICIT PROCEEDS 3OCIETIES AFFECTED BY THIS PROBLEM ARE ALSO FACED WITH THE TASK OF RECOVERING THE PROCEEDS OF CORRUPTION 4HIS PAPER EXAMINES THE BENElTS OF ASSET RECOVERY AND THE CHALLENGES THAT DEVELOPING COUNTRIES MIGHT FACE IN THIS DIRECTION !SSET RECOVERY IS A BILATERAL AND LEGAL ISSUE BUT EMERGING PRACTICE PROVIDES A ROADMAP .EVERTHELESS STATESSEEKINGTORECOVERTHEIRASSETSMUSTRE ESTABLISHRULEOFLAWTOPREVENTSUBSEQUENTTHEFT BYPOLITICALLEADERS #ORRUPTION IS ROOTED IN HISTORY BUT ITS CONTEMPORARY MANIFESTATION MEANS DIFFERENT THINGS TO DIFFERENT SOCIETIES )N MOST DEVELOPING COUNTRIES CORRUPTION CONSTITUTES A MAJOR PROBLEM AND THIS REmECTS A REAL ISSUEFORALLSOCIETIESBECAUSEOFITSCROSSOVERIMPACT )TISESTIMATEDTHATABOUT53BILLIONISTAKENOUTOF !FRICAANNUALLY AMOUNTINGTOATOTALOF53  BILLIONBEINGHELDBY!FRICANLEADERSOUTSIDE!FRICA

)NDEED NOSOCIETYISIMMUNE TOTHISPROBLEMANDTHESEARCH FORITSREMEDYSHOULDALSO REmECTAGLOBALCONCERN #ORRUPTION BENElTS A FEW AND HARMS THE MAJORITY $ESPITE THIS CORRUPTION IS NOT UNIQUE OR PECULIAR TO ANY ONE SOCIETY )NDEED NO SOCIETY IS IMMUNE TO THIS PROBLEM AND THE SEARCH FOR ITS REMEDY SHOULD ALSO REmECT A GLOBAL CONCERN 4HE COMPLEX NATURE OF CORRUPTION ESPECIALLY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE GLOBAL APPROACHES TO THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF MONEY LAUNDERING MAKES THE RECOVERY OF THE PROCEEDS OF CORRUPTION A HUGE IF NOT DAUNTING TASK )N TRYING TO REMEDY THE BAD SITUATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES THE RECOVERY AND RETURN OF STOLEN ASSETS IS NOT ONLY ATTRACTIVE BUT IMPERATIVE 4HIS PAPER EXAMINES THE BENElTS OF RECOVERING THE PROCEEDS AS WELL AS THE CHALLENGES THEREOF AND CONCLUDES THAT A PRACTICAL 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

7HYASSETRECOVERY 4HE DRAMATIC CASES OF CORRUPTION AND THE CIVIL SOCIETYPRESSUREONGOVERNMENTSTOBRINGCORRUPT OFlCIALS TO JUSTICE HAVE LED TO MANY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES SEEKING TO RECOVER THEIR STOLEN ASSETS 4HE PHILOSOPHY BEHIND THIS IS THAT ASSET RECOVERY IS AN ECONOMIC INTERVENTION STRATEGY TO REMEDY GOVERNANCEPROBLEMS ASITWOULDPROVIDEPOLITICAL LEADERS WITH MORE RESOURCES FOR SOCIAL REFORMS ASWELLASTHEPOSSIBILITYOFREMOVINGNEGATIVEROLE MODELSANDBRINGINGCORRUPTOFlCIALSTOJUSTICE 3UCCESSFUL PROSECUTION AND CONlSCATION HAVE A DETERRENTEFFECTONTHEACTIVITIESOFCRIMINALS5NDER ACIVILFORFEITUREAPPROACH RECOVERYOPENSUPNEW ROUTESTOFOLLOWINGANDCONlSCATINGASSETSTHATARE BEYONDTHEREACHOFTHECRIMINALLAW ATTHESAME TIME AS PROTECTING HUMAN RIGHTS !N EMERGING BEST PRACTICE WHERE ASSETS ARE RETURNED TO STATE OWNERS WITH A LIBERTY FOR THE @WRONGFUL OWNERS TO APPEAL REPRESENTS AN APPROACH WITH POSITIVE RESULTS ESPECIALLYWHERETHEOBJECTIVEOFTHESTATE ISTORECOVERSTOLENASSETS ANDNOTNECESSARILYTO PUNISHTHOSEWHOSTOLETHEASSETS

SOLUTIONTOTHEPROBLEMOFTREASURYLOOTINGLIESWITHIN THE STATES IN ORDER WORDS THE COMMITMENT OF THE POLITICAL LEADERSHIP TO RE ESTABLISH RULE OF LAW AND BUILDCAPACITYONANINCREMENTALBASISTORESPONDTO THECHALLENGES

4HECHALLENGES (OWEVER ATTRACTIVE AND COMPELLING THE BENElTS OF ASSET RECOVERY ARE THERE ARE NUMEROUS CHALLENGES FOR COUNTRIES SEEKING THE RECOVERY AND RETURN OF THEIR ASSETS -OST CASES OF CORRUPTION DO NOT CONSTITUTE A CONTINUING PROCESS OF RECYCLING THE PROCEEDS AS IN OTHERORGANISEDCRIMINALACTIVITIES!SSETRECOVERYISA BILATERALISSUE SOTHECHALLENGESFORRECOVERYTHEREFORE


'OOD'OVERNANCE 0EACEAND0ROSPERITY

VARYONACASE BY CASEBASISANDTOALARGEEXTENTON THELEGALARRANGEMENTSANDPOLITICALRELATIONSBETWEEN THESTATESINVOLVED 4HE lRST CHALLENGE IS WHAT LEGAL APPROACH TO ADOPT nCRIMINALORCIVILRECOVERY,EGISLATIONWHICHPROVIDES FORTHETRACING FREEZING SEIZINGANDFORFEITUREOFFUNDS OROTHERASSETSTHATAREDERIVEDFROMTHEPROCEEDSOF CORRUPTIONISAPOWERFULWEAPON BECAUSETHESETARGET THEESSENTIALMOTIVATIONOFCORRUPTIONnECONOMICGAIN ,EGISLATIVE FRAMEWORKS OFTEN COMBINE ELEMENTS OF CRIMINALLAW CRIMINALPROCEDUREANDCIVILORADMINISTRATIVE LAW WHICHCREATEOPTIONSmEXIBLEENOUGHTODEALWITH A RANGE OF CORRUPTION SCENARIOS )F THERE IS SUFlCIENT EVIDENCE TO PROVE THAT CORRUPTION HAS OCCURRED AND THATPARTICULARASSETSAREDERIVEDFROMIT FOREXAMPLE IT MAYBEPOSSIBLETOTARGETTHEPROCEEDSEVENWHEREIT ISNOTPOSSIBLETOPROSECUTEOFFENDERS

-UTUAL,EGAL!SSISTANCE 3OME NATIONAL FRAMEWORKS ALLOW FOR PROCEEDS TO BE TARGETED EITHER BY VICTIMS OR BY THE STATE IN CIVIL PROCEEDINGS WHICHMAYCARRYALOWERBURDENOFPROOF THANTHOSEREQUIREDTOAPPLYCRIMINALPROSECUTIONSAND PUNISHMENTS4HUS -UTUAL,EGAL!SSISTANCE-,! IS ONEOFTHEMECHANISMSTOASSISTDEVELOPINGNATIONSIN THEIRRECOVERYEFFORTS

)N SHORT -,! HAS A MUCH STRENGTHENED CAPACITY THAN USUALLY RECOGNISED BECAUSE MOST INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTSnSUCHASTHE5.#ONVENTIONSnPROVIDE THATSTATESSHOULDPROVIDETHEWIDESTFORMOF-,!IN CRIMINALMATTERS (OWEVER -,!HASITSOWNWEAKNESSES!RECOGNISED PROCEDURE FOR THE RETURN OF CONlSCATED FUNDS TO THE @VICTIMISED STATE REMAINS TO BE ESTABLISHED &URTHERMORE THEREAREMANYQUESTIONSSURROUNDING THE PROCEDURE FOR THE USE OF EVIDENCE OBTAINED BY THE REQUESTING STATE )N MOST CASES THE COSTS OF GATHERINGTHEEVIDENCEANDTHEDIFlCULTYOFPROVINGA CRIMINALOFFENCEMEANTHATITISNOTCOST EFFECTIVETO PURSUEACRIMINALINVESTIGATIONANDPROCEEDINGS EVEN THOUGHTHEREISASTRONGSUSPICIONOFCRIMINALITY)NTHE -ARCOS CASE AS AN EXAMPLE IT TOOK THE 0HILIPPINE AUTHORITIESYEARSTOOBTAINACOURTRULINGREGARDING THE ILLICIT ORIGIN OF THE 53 MILLION IT CLAIMED IN AN -,! REQUEST TO 3WITZERLAND !LTHOUGH PROVIDING MORE AND MORE RESOURCES INCLUDING TRAINING AND FOSTERING MEANINGFUL INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AS WELL AS REVERSING BURDEN OF PROOF COULD BE HELPFUL THENEEDTOESTABLISHANEXUSBETWEENASSETSAND A SPECIlC OFFENCE WILL RESULT IN A VAST MAJORITY OF PROCEEDSOFCORRUPTIONREMAININGBEYONDTHEREACH OFTHELAW

2EQUESTSFOR-,!AREAIMEDATFACILITATINGCOOPERATION AND EXPEDITIOUS ACTION ACROSS JURISDICTIONS IN INVESTIGATIONOBTAININGOFEVIDENCE4HEREQUESTMUST SPECIFYCLEARLYTHETYPEOFASSISTANCEREQUIRED4HERE IS A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A REQUEST FOR EVIDENCE FOR PROSECUTIONANDAFORMALREQUESTFORPOLICEASSISTANCE INANINVESTIGATION4HESECOULDNOTBEFULLYADDRESSED INTHISPAPERFORLACKOFSPACE

)TMAYBEPOSSIBLETOTARGETTHE PROCEEDSEVENWHEREITISNOT POSSIBLETOPROSECUTEOFFENDERS 4O BE ACTED UPON A -,! REQUEST MUST EMANATE FROMTHECOURTEXERCISINGCRIMINALJURISDICTIONINSUCH MATTERS ORTHEAPPROPRIATEAUTHORITYDEPARTMENTOF GOVERNMENT4HEREQUESTMUSTALSOCONTAINASHORT STATEMENTOFTHEOFFENCETHATHASBEENCOMMITTED OR UNDER WHICH THE ACCUSED IS BEING TRIED OR ON WHICH INVESTIGATION IS BEING CARRIED OUT AMONG OTHERTHINGS 4HE ADVANTAGE OF -,! IS THAT IT IS RELATIVELY COST EFFECTIVE AS THE REQUESTED COUNTRY BEARS THE COST OF EXECUTION IN ITS JURISDICTION &URTHERMORE IT HAS THE POTENTIAL OF OVERCOMING THE DIFlCULTIESOBSTACLES RELATEDTOBANKSECRECY)NOTHERWORDS ITREPRESENTSAN OBLIGATIONTHATHASTOBEIMPLEMENTEDINACCORDANCE WITH DOMESTIC LAW -,! HAS THE PROMISE OF BEING EFFECTIVEINSECURINGADMISSIBLEEVIDENCENECESSARYIN CRIMINALPROCEEDINGS&URTHER -,!HASTHEADDITIONAL ADVANTAGE IN THAT THERE IS NO COST FOR EMPLOYING ATTORNEYSTOPURSUETHEKINDOFASSISTANCEREQUESTED

3OMECOUNTRIESHAVEENACTED LEGISLATIONALLOWINGFORCONlSCATION OFASSETSINTHEPOSSESSIONOFA PUBLICOFlCIALWHICHCANNOTBE ACCOUNTEDFORASHAVINGCOME FROMLEGITIMATESOURCES #IVILRECOVERY )NVIEWOFTHESECHALLENGES APOSSIBLEOPTIONISTHE CIVILRECOVERY3OMECOUNTRIESHAVEENACTEDLEGISLATION ALLOWINGFORCONlSCATIONOFASSETSINTHEPOSSESSION OFAPUBLICOFlCIALWHICHCANNOTBEACCOUNTEDFORAS HAVING COME FROM LEGITIMATE SOURCES OF PRE EXISTING WEALTH OR PRESENT LEGITIMATE INCOME ! LESS DRASTIC BUT SIMILAR POLICY IS TO IMPOSE AN ONUS TO ESTABLISH LAWFUL ORIGIN OR TO CREATE A REASONABLE DOUBT AS TO ILLICITORIGIN ANAPPROACHTAKENBYTHE5NITED.ATIONS #ONVENTION AGAINST 4RANSNATIONAL /RGANIZED #RIME AND MORE SPECIlCALLY THE #ORRUPTION #ONVENTION 7HEREADEQUATESAFEGUARDSAREINPLACE HOWEVER A REVERSALOFONUSORPARTIALREVERSALOFONUSREPRESENTS ANEFFECTIVEMEASURE #IVIL FORFEITURE IS INCREASINGLY GAINING GROUND IN THE RECOVERY OF THE PROCEEDS OF ILLICIT ENRICHMENT &OR EXAMPLE .EW3OUTH7ALESIN!USTRALIAHASINTRODUCED A NEW CIVIL FORFEITURE REGIME WHICH IS DIRECTED AT PERSONSRATHERTHANASSETS)NTHISCASE THEFORFEITURE TRIGGERISPROOFTOTHECIVILSTANDARDTHATAPERSONWITHIN THEPASTSIXYEARSCOMMITTEDASERIOUSOFFENCEIEAN OFFENCETHATISPUNISHABLEBYlVEYEARSIMPRISONMENT

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




'OOD'OVERNANCE 0EACEAND0ROSPERITY

ORMORE "ASEDONSUCHlNDINGS THEENTIREPERSONS PROPERTY BECOMES LIABLE FOR FORFEITURE UNLESS THAT PERSONPROVESTOTHECIVILSTANDARDTHATSUCHPROPERTY WASLAWFULLYACQUIRED)NSUCHPROCEEDINGS THEREIS NO NEED TO PROVE THAT THE PROPERTY REPRESENTS THE PROCEEDS OF CRIMINAL CONDUCT 3OUTH !FRICAS  0REVENTION OF /RGANIZED #RIME !CT AND .IGERIAS #ORRUPT 0RACTICES AND /THER 2ELATED /FFENCES !CT  BOTHALLOWFORTHECIVILANDCRIMINAL RECOVERY OF ASSETS DERIVED FROM UNLAWFUL ACTIVITY INCLUDING CORRUPTPRACTICES 4HIS APPROACH COULD BE HELPFUL BECAUSE FREEZING ORDERS MAY BE EASIER TO OBTAIN IN CIVIL COURTS 3ECONDLY CIVILPROCEEDINGSCOULDRESULTINMONETARY JUDGMENTSAGAINSTTHEACCUSED4HISMAY HOWEVER BEAPROBLEMWHERETHEJUDGMENTRESULTSINACLAIM AGAINSTTHESTATE4HIRDLY THEREISRELATIVELYLOWERLEVELOF PROOF WHICHMAKESITCONVENIENTANDPERHAPSEASIER FOR THE PROSECUTION TO OBTAIN COOPERATION &OURTHLY ANDMOSTIMPORTANTLYWITHREGARDTOPROCEEDSOFILLICIT ENRICHMENT CIVIL PROCEEDINGS HAVE A WIDER ARRAY OF POTENTIAL DEFENDANTS TO TARGET INCLUDING THE CORRUPT OFlCIAL AND THE INTERMEDIARY THROUGH WHICH THE PROCEEDSWERELAUNDERED 4HERATIONALEFORCIVILFORFEITUREINCLUDESBOTHREPARATIVE ANDPREVENTIVEMEASURES NAMELY I TAKINGAWAYFROM INDIVIDUALSWHATDOESNOTBELONGTOTHEMII OPENING UP NEW ROUTES TO FOLLOWING AND TRACKING ASSETS THAT AREBEYONDTHEREACHOFCRIMINALLAWIII UNDERTHECIVIL FORFEITURE APPROACH HUMAN RIGHTS CAN BE PROTECTED BY RETAINING THE ONUS OF PROOF ON THE STATE THE PROVISIONOFCIVILLEGALAIDANDPOSSIBLECOMPENSATION (OWEVER THISAPPROACHMUSTBECAREFULLYAPPLIEDSO THATITDOESNOTPERVERTTHEOBJECTIVESOFPROSECUTION ANDCONVICTIONWHERETHEREARECHANCESOFSECURING CONVICTION

$EVELOPMENTAGENCIESAREMORE CONCERNEDABOUTREPUTATIONALRISK RATHERTHANMAKINGTHEMAXIMUM IMPACTINTHEIRINTERVENTIONS )NTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS INCLUDING THE 5NITED .ATIONS AND !FRICA 5NION #ONVENTIONS AGAINST #ORRUPTION PRESENT OPTIONS FOR BOTH CRIMINAL AND CIVIL RECOVERY OF ASSETS 4HE PROVISIONS OF THE 5. #ONVENTIONDEALINGWITHASSETRECOVERYBEGINWITHTHE STATEMENTTHATTHERETURNOFASSETSISA@FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE OF THE #ONVENTION 4HE SUBSTANTIVE PROVISIONS THEN SET OUT A SERIES OF MECHANISMS INCLUDINGBOTHCIVILANDCRIMINALRECOVERYPROCEDURES WHEREBY ASSETS CAN BE TRACED FROZEN SEIZED FORFEITEDANDRETURNED4HUS ITISPOSSIBLETOIMAGINE THATFUNDSEMBEZZLEDFROMTHESTATEARERETURNEDTO IT IFITESTABLISHESOWNERSHIPORDAMAGESRECOGNISED BY THE REQUESTED STATE PARTY AS A BASIS FOR RETURN 4HE#ONVENTIONALSOPROVIDESMECHANISMSFORDIRECT RECOVERYINCIVILOROTHERPROCEEDINGS!RT 4HE CHALLENGE HOWEVER ISTHATBEFOREACIVILACTIONCAN 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

BEBROUGHTTHEREMUSTBEACAUSEOFACTION ANDIN PRACTICETHISISNOTALWAYSFEASIBLE 2ECENTLY THE 7ORLD "ANK IN COLLABORATION WITH THE 5./$# LAUNCHEDAN!SSET2ECOVERY)NITIATIVEAIMED AT SUPPORTING DEVELOPING COUNTRIES TO RECOVER THEIR STOLENASSETS4HEMAINTHRUSTOFTHISINITIATIVELIESWITH THESTATESSEEKINGTORECOVERTHEIRASSETS BECAUSETHE INITIATIVE IS PREDICATED ON TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE WHILE THE REAL SOLUTION IS LARGELY IN THE STATES THEMSELVES -ORE THAN lFTY YEARS SINCE THE lRST #OMMONWEALTH INDEPENDENTSTATEIN!FRICASTARTEDRECEIVINGTECHNICAL ASSISTANCE LITTLE IS ON THE GROUND AS A PROOF OF TURN AROUND OF THE COUNTRY THROUGH DEVELOPMENT AID !FURTHERCHALLENGEISWHYDIDITTAKEMULTILATERALAND DEVELOPMENT ORGANISATIONS SUCH AS THE 7ORLD "ANK AND THE 5./$# SO LONG TO LAUNCH THIS INITIATIVE

4HEMOSTEFFECTIVESTRATEGYFOR ASSETRECOVERYISTOPREVENTTHETHEFT OFTHEASSETSINTHElRSTINSTANCE 4HE5.#ONVENTIONAGAINST#ORRUPTIONISAPRODUCTOF CONSENSUS ORIGINATED FROM PRESSURE FROM DEVELOPING COUNTRIES TO HAVE SUCH AN INSTRUMENT (OW MANY DEVELOPED COUNTRIES HAVE BEEN PRESSURISED BY THESE INSTITUTIONS TO RATIFY THE #ONVENTION )N SHORT DEVELOPMENT AGENCIES ARE MORE CONCERNED ABOUT REPUTATIONAL RISK RATHER THAN MAKING THE MAXIMUM IMPACT IN THEIR INTERVENTIONS IN SUPPORT OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND THE ISSUE OF ASSET RECOVERY IS NO EXCEPTION )TSHOULDBENOTEDALSO THATTHEFACTTHATAGOVERNMENT ISPURSUINGTHERECOVERYOFTHEPROCEEDSOFCORRUPTION FROMITSPREDECESSORDOESNOTNECESSARILYMEANTHAT THE CURRENT GOVERNMENT ITSELF MIGHT NOT BE CORRUPT /N THE OTHER HAND A CORRUPT GOVERNMENT MAY INTRODUCEANTI CORRUPTIONREFORMSEITHERFORTHESAKEOF GARNERINGSUPPORT ORTOCOVERUPITSOWNWRONGDOINGS &OREXAMPLE THELATE'ENERAL3ANI!BACHAOF.IGERIA HAS BEEN PORTRAYED AS ONE OF THE CORRUPT LEADERS IN !FRICA)RONICALLY ITWASTHESAME!BACHA'OVERNMENT THATINTRODUCEDMANYOFTHELEGALFRAMEWORKSAGAINST CORRUPTION

4HEWAYFORWARD )NVIEWOFTHEABOVECHALLENGES COUNTRIESSEEKINGTO RECOVERTHEIRSTOLENASSETSMUSTlRSTOFALLRE ESTABLISH ASTRONGRULEOFLAWREGIMEINTHEIRCOUNTRIES)NDEED THE MOST EFFECTIVE STRATEGY FOR ASSET RECOVERY IS TO PREVENTTHETHEFTOFTHEASSETSINTHElRSTINSTANCE4HIS MIGHT TAKE QUITE SOME TIME CONSIDERING THE MYRIAD OF PROBLEMS IN SUCH COUNTRIES INCLUDING THE LACK OF RESOURCES)TWOULDBEADVISABLETODEVELOPA.ATIONAL !SSET2ECOVERY3TRATEGYWHICHSHOULDCONSISTOFTHE FOLLOWINGMAINELEMENTS °)DENTIFYPRIORITIESANDSETTARGETSONWHICHASSETSTO BEPURSUED °!LLOCATE AND CLARIFY RESPONSIBILITIES AND ENCOURAGE


'OOD'OVERNANCE 0EACEAND0ROSPERITY

PROACTIVE BEHAVIOUR BY THE VARIOUS AUTHORITIES INSTITUTIONSINVOLVEDINTHEPROCESS °%NSURE THAT SYSTEMIC INCENTIVES FOSTER COOPERATIVE BEHAVIOURSANDJOINED UPDELIVERYTOENHANCEASSET IDENTIlCATION TRACKINGANDRECOVERY °)MPROVE COMMUNICATION AND INFORMATION SHARING BETWEENTHEVARIOUSINSTITUTIONS °0ROMOTE COOPERATION WITH THE lNANCIAL SERVICES INDUSTRYBOTHWITHINANDOUTSIDEACOUNTRY °0ROMOTE BEST PRACTICE AND THE SHARING OF EXPERIENCE °-AXIMISE EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES OUTSIDE THE PUBLICSECTOR AND

)N PARALLEL TO THE RECOVERY EFFORT IT IS ESSENTIAL TO STRENGTHENNATIONALMECHANISMSDESIGNEDTOPREVENT THEDIVERSIONOFFUNDSTHROUGHCORRUPTPRACTICES4HIS WOULDNOTONLYHELPTOPROTECTTHECOUNTRYANDITSPEOPLE FROMBEINGVICTIMISEDBYFUTUREGENERATIONSOFCORRUPT LEADERSORHIGH LEVELPUBLICOFlCIALSBUTALSOCONTRIBUTE TOTHECREDIBILITYOFTHERECOVERYEFFORTANDTHEREBYGIVE ADDITIONAL LEGITIMACY TO THE REQUEST FOR INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE3UCHMEASURESSHOULDINCLUDE °4HESTRENGTHENINGOFANTI CORRUPTIONBODIES °$EVELOPMENTANDIMPLEMENTATIONOFACOMPREHENSIVE NATIONALINTEGRITYSTRATEGYAND °%FFECTIVEMONITORINGANDEVALUATION

°$ElNE CLEAR INDICATORS WITH SPECIlC BASELINES FOR MEASURINGPROGRESS &URTHERMORE THERE IS THE NEED FOR TRANSPARENCY 4RANSPARENCY IN GOVERNMENT IS WIDELY VIEWED AS A NECESSARY CONDITION FOR EFFECTIVE CORRUPTION CONTROL AND MORE GENERALLY FOR GOOD GOVERNANCE ,ACK OF TRANSPARENCY IS LIKELY TO RESULT IN PUBLIC IGNORANCE WHEN IN FACT BROAD ENTHUSIASM AND PARTICIPATION ARENEEDED

4RANSPARENCYINGOVERNMENT ISWIDELYVIEWEDASANECESSARY CONDITIONFOREFFECTIVECORRUPTION CONTROLAND MOREGENERALLY FORGOODGOVERNANCE 4HEFIGHTAGAINSTCORRUPTIONWILLGENERALLYBEALONG TERMEFFORTAND INMOSTCOUNTRIES ISLIKELYTOSPAN SUCCESSIVE POLITICAL ADMINISTRATIONS 4HAT MAKES IT CRITICALFORANTI CORRUPTIONEFFORTSTOREMAINPOLITICALLY NEUTRAL BOTH IN THE WAY THEY ARE ADMINISTERED AND IN THEIR GOALS 7HILE STRATEGIES SHOULD SET OUT CLEAR GOALS AND THE MEANS OF ACHIEVING THEM THE STRATEGIES AND THOSE CHARGED WITH THEIR IMPLEMENTATIONSHOULDBEFLEXIBLEENOUGHTOPERMIT ADAPTATIONSTOBEMADEBASEDONINFORMATIONFROM THE PERIODIC PROGRESS ASSESSMENTS 4O ENCOURAGE ANDFACILITATEVOLUNTARYRETURNOFSTOLENASSETS STATES MAY CONSIDER THE @AMNESTY SOFT OPTION WHERE THE CORRUPTOFFICIALAGREESTORETURNACERTAINPERCENTAGE ONTHEASSURANCEOFNONPROSECUTION

$R !BDULLAHI 9 3HEHU IS $IRECTOR 'ENERAL OF 'ROUPE )NTER 'OUVERNEMENTAL D!CTION #ONTRE LE "LANCHIMENT D!RGENT EN !FRIQUE DE LOUEST )NTER 'OVERNMENTAL !CTION 'ROUP !GAINST -ONEY,AUNDERINGIN7EST!FRICA ')!"! (EHOLDSADOCTORATE DEGREE IN CRIMINOLOGY FROM THE 5NIVERSITY OF (ONG +ONG (E HAS A VAST LAW ENFORCEMENT EXPERIENCE HAVING COORDINATED LAW ENFORCEMENT EFFORTS AGAINST DRUGS ECONOMIC AND lNANCIAL CRIMES IN THE /FlCE OF THE (EAD OF 3TATE OF .IGERIA SINCE  (E WAS 0ROGRAMME %XPERT !NTI #ORRUPTION AND -ONEY ,AUNDERING INTHE5./$#IN6IENNA$IRECTOROFTHE%CONOMIC AND&INANCIAL#RIMES#OMMISSION%&## 4RAININGAND2ESEARCH )NSTITUTEIN!BUJA .IGERIA$R3HEHUHASWRITTENANDPUBLISHED EXTENSIVELY ON CORRUPTION AND MONEY LAUNDERING INCLUDING HIS BOOK %CONOMIC AND &INANCIAL #RIMES IN .IGERIA 0OLICY )SSUES AND/PTIONS ')!"! WAS FORMED IN  BY THE %CONOMIC #OMMUNITY OF 7EST!FRICAN3TATES%#/7!3 WITHSTATUTESADOPTEDIN 4HEOBJECTIVESARETO

°0ROTECTTHENATIONALECONOMIESANDTHElNANCIALANDBANKING SYSTEMS OF SIGNATORY STATES AGAINST THE PROCEEDS OF CRIME ANDCOMBATTHElNANCINGOFTERRORISM

°)MPROVE MEASURES AND INTENSIFY EFFORTS TO COMBAT THE PROCEEDSFROMCRIME

°3TRENGTHENCOOPERATIONAMONGMEMBERS ')!"! "0 $AKAR0ONTY4 $AKAR 3ENEGAL 4EL  &AX   %MAILSECRETARIAT GIABA WESTAFRICAORG 7EBSITEWWWGIABA WESTAFRICAORG

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




'OOD'OVERNANCE 0EACEAND0ROSPERITY

#HRIS-ORRIS 'ENERAL3ECRETARY )0)%#!

6OLUNTARYSUSTAINABILITYREPORTING FORTHEOILANDGASINDUSTRY /ILANDGASCOMPANIESFACEINCREASINGPRESSURE WORLDWIDE RELATED TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE 3TAKEHOLDERS ARE INCREASINGLY DEMANDING CLEAR AND CONSISTENT DISCLOSURE FROM THE INDUSTRY ON HOW ITS MOST SIGNIlCANTRISKSANDISSUESAREBEINGMANAGED 6OLUNTARY REPORTING HAS EMERGED AS ONE IMPORTANTTOOLINTHEWAYCOMPANIESRESPONDTO THIS DEMAND )T HAS BEEN ARGUED THAT REPORTING CAN ENHANCE BUSINESS VALUE BY BUILDING INVESTOR CONlDENCE AND DEMONSTRATING RISK MANAGEMENT ANDCANIMPROVEINTERNALCOMPANY OPERATIONSBYINCREASINGUNDERSTANDINGOFTHESE ISSUES AND AIDING DECISION MAKING &ROM AN EXTERNALPERSPECTIVE REPORTINGHELPSSTRENGTHEN RELATIONSHIPS WITH STAKEHOLDERS AND PROVIDES A USEFUL ACCOUNTABILITY MECHANISM FOR DISCLOSING COMMITMENTSANDCOMMUNICATINGPERFORMANCE 4HE GROWING INTEREST IN SUSTAINABILITY OR NON lNANCIALINDICATORREPORTING WHICHDERIVESBOTH FROMTHISPERCEPTIONOFPOTENTIALBENElTSASWELL ASTHENEEDTORESPONDTOSTAKEHOLDERCONCERNS IS REmECTED IN THE EMERGENCE OF THE 'LOBAL 2EPORTING )NITIATIVE '2)  4HE '2) PROVIDES AN INTERNATIONAL FRAMEWORK THAT IS DESIGNED TO GIVE GENERIC GUIDANCE ON VOLUNTARY REPORTING APPLICABLEACROSSDIFFERENTSECTORS 4HEREWASATIMEWHENPUBLICREPORTINGINTHEOILAND GASINDUSTRYMERELYMEANTINFORMINGSHAREHOLDERSAND RELEVANT lNANCIAL REGULATORS ABOUT THE BALANCE SHEET 4HATTIMEISLONGOVER!STHEWORLDANDITSEXPECTATIONS HAVEMOVEDON SOHASTHEOILANDGASINDUSTRY4HATIS WHYTHE)NTERNATIONAL0ETROLEUM)NDUSTRY%NVIRONMENTAL #ONSERVATION !SSOCIATION )0)%#! AND THE !MERICAN 0ETROLEUM )NSTITUTE !0) JOINED FORCES TO PRODUCE AN INDUSTRY GUIDE ON VOLUNTARY SUSTAINABILITY REPORTING 4HEGUIDANCEWASLATERENDORSEDBYTHE)NTERNATIONAL !SSOCIATIONOF/IL'AS0RODUCERS/'0  4HIS EXTENSIVE  PAGE DOCUMENT IS BASED IN PART ON INDUSTRY EXPERIENCE IN SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL REPORTING THAT GOES BACK SEVERAL DECADES (AVING IDENTIlED AND MASTERED THE DISCIPLINES NEEDED TO REPORTONTHESEISSUES ITWASANATURALSTEPTOEXTEND REPORTING STILL FURTHER TO INCLUDE SOCIAL TOPICS AND BROADERECONOMICISSUESnCOMMONLYKNOWNASTHE

@TRIPLE BOTTOM LINE 4HERE ARE SEVERAL SOUND REASONS FORTHIS °#OMPANIES CAN ENHANCE THEIR VALUE BY BUILDING INVESTOR CONlDENCE AND DEMONSTRATING THAT THEY ARE MANAGING RISKS AND POSITIONING THEMSELVES TO ADDRESSEMERGINGOPPORTUNITIES °#OMPANIES ALSO IMPROVE THEIR INTERNAL OPERATIONS BY MAKING EMPLOYEES BETTER AWARE OF COMPANY PERFORMANCE AND USING THAT INFORMATION TO RAISE STANDARDSTHROUGHOUTTHEORGANISATION °$EMONSTRATING A COMMITMENT TO ENVIRONMENTALLY AND SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE PERFORMANCE STRENGTHENS RELATIONSHIPSWITHLOCALCOMMUNITIES °2EPORTING CAN ALSO SERVE AS AN IMPORTANT ACCOUNTABILITY MECHANISM BY ESTABLISHING COMMITMENTS AND CREATING TRANSPARENCY ON THE CHALLENGESANDPROGRESSBEINGMADE

4HEREWASATIMEWHENPUBLIC REPORTINGINTHEOILANDGASINDUSTRY MERELYMEANTINFORMINGSHAREHOLDERS ANDRELEVANTlNANCIALREGULATORS ABOUTTHEBALANCESHEET 4HATTIMEISLONGOVER 4HEISSUESTHATCORPORATEREPORTSCOVERARECOMPLEX INTERCONNECTED AND VARIED 4HEY REmECT MANY BASIC CHARACTERISTICSOFTHEINDUSTRY SUCHASITSGEOGRAPHIC AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY ITS ORGANISATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND THE BREADTH OF OIL COMPANY ACTIVITIES 4HESE ACTIVITIES NOT ONLY FALL WITHIN THE TYPICAL AREAS OF UPSTREAM DOWNSTREAM AND CHEMICAL OPERATIONS BUT ALSO EXTEND INTO SECONDARY BUSINESSES NOT TYPICALLYASSOCIATEDWITHTHEINDUSTRYnSUCHASCOAL MINING POWER GENERATION NATURAL GAS TRANSMISSION RENEWABLEENERGYSYSTEMS SPECIALITYCHEMICALSAND METALS PRODUCTION 'IVEN THIS DIVERSITY IT IS HARDLY SURPRISINGTHATTHESTYLEANDCONTENTOFREPORTINGHAS BEENSIMILARLYVARIED 4HEDIFFERENCESININDIVIDUALCOMPANYREPORTINGAREA SIGNOFTHEINDUSTRYSDIVERSITYAND THUS OFITSSTRENGTH

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




'OOD'OVERNANCE 0EACEAND0ROSPERITY

4HE)0)%#!!0) GUIDANCE DOCUMENT

(OWEVER THEYALSOGIVERISETOCHALLENGESSUCHASTHE DIFlCULTYOFDRAWINGCOMPARISONSBETWEENCOMPANIES AND ASSESSING THE SECTORS OVERALL PERFORMANCE ON KEY SUSTAINABILITY ISSUES ! MAJOR PART OF THIS IS THE PROBLEMOFDElNINGANDUSINGAPPROPRIATEPERFORMANCE INDICATORS4HEINDUSTRYnASINDIVIDUALCOMPANIESAND TRADEASSOCIATIONSnHASTHEREFOREWORKEDTOGETHERIN ANEFFORTTOBRINGCLARITYANDCONSENSUSONTHENEED FOR CONSISTENT SUSTAINABILITY REPORTING 4HE /IL AND 'AS )NDUSTRY 'UIDANCE ON 6OLUNTARY 3USTAINABILITY 2EPORTINGPROVIDESAGLOBALLYENDORSEDFRAMEWORK

4HEOILANDGASINDUSTRYVOLUNTARY REPORTINGGUIDANCE 4HEPREPARATIONPROCESSTOOKTWOYEARSANDINVOLVED SIGNIlCANTCHALLENGESnNOTLEASTOFWHICHWASGAINING CONSENSUS FROM THE  COMPANIES PARTICIPATING IN THE PROJECT )NVOLVING SUCH A BROAD CROSS SECTION OF THE INDUSTRY WAS CRUCIAL TO THE OBJECTIVE WHICH WAS TO ENCOURAGE AS MANY COMPANIES AS POSSIBLE TO PUBLICISETHEIRSUSTAINABILITYEFFORTSANDACHIEVEMENTS !LL PARTICIPANTS IN DRAFTING THE GUIDANCE DOCUMENT AGREEDTHATTOBEEFFECTIVE SUSTAINABILITYREPORTINGFOR THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY SHOULD ADDRESS THE DIVERSITY OFOPERATIONSANDUNIQUEACTIVITIESOFTHESECTOR4HEY ALSOAGREEDONTHEFOLLOWINGSETOFKEYPRINCIPLES °2ELEVANCEREPORTEDINFORMATIONSHOULDBEMEANINGFUL ANDVALUABLETOTHEUSER °4RANSPARENCY INFORMATION SHOULD BE CLEAR UNDERSTANDABLE FACTUAL AND COHERENT AND SHOULD ENABLE INDEPENDENT REVIEW 4HE PROCESSES PROCEDURES ASSUMPTIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF REPORT PREPARATIONSHOULDBEDISCLOSED °#ONSISTENCY DISCLOSED INFORMATION SHOULD BE CAPABLE OF MEANINGFUL COMPARISON OVER TIME BOTH WITHINANDBETWEENCOMPANIES °#OMPLETENESSINFORMATIONSHOULDBECOMPLETEWITH RESPECTTOTHEOPERATIONALBOUNDARIESOFTHEREPORTING ORGANISATION °!CCURACYINFORMATIONSHOULDBESUFlCIENTLYACCURATE n THAT IS ENABLING USERS TO ASSESS ITS USEFULNESS RELIABILITYANDLIMITATIONSSOTHATTHEYCANUNDERSTAND ITSRELEVANCEWITHAREASONABLELEVELOFCONlDENCE

%QUALLYIMPORTANTARE TIMELINESSANDTHEMETHODS USEDFORDISSEMINATINGTHE INFORMATIONCONTAINEDWITHIN ASUSTAINABILITYREPORT 4HESEAGREEDPRINCIPLES INTURN PROVIDEDAFOUNDATION FORDEVELOPINGGENERALREPORTINGPRACTICES4HEREFORE THE NEW )0)%#!!0) GUIDANCE DOCUMENT INCLUDES ADVICEONDETERMININGTHESCOPEOFAREPORTANDON SETTINGOUTTHENATUREOFTHEINFORMATIONTHATITMIGHT CONTAIN IN TERMS OF QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE DATA 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

%QUALLY IMPORTANT ARE TIMELINESS AND THE METHODS USED FOR DISSEMINATING THE INFORMATION CONTAINED WITHIN A SUSTAINABILITY REPORT !S THIS DOCUMENT NOTES MANY COMPANIES ALSO ESTABLISH BASELINES TO MAINTAINDATACONSISTENCYANDCANHELPTOPROVIDEA USEFUL CONTEXT FOR INDIVIDUAL COMPANY PERFORMANCE 3OMEORGANISATIONSMAYALSOWANTTODESCRIBETHEIR OPERATIONSINTERMSOFSPECIlCIMPACTnENVIRONMENTAL SOCIAL ECONOMICORACOMBINATIONOFANYTWOORTHREE )N THOSE CIRCUMSTANCES THE GUIDANCE DOCUMENT RECOMMENDSABROADERDISCUSSIONTHATENCOMPASSES AN EXAMINATION OF EVERY ASPECT OF IMPACT n BOTH POSITIVEANDNEGATIVE 4YPICALLY AN OIL AND GAS COMPANYS SUSTAINABILITY REPORTCONSISTSOFANEXECUTIVESUMMARY ACOMPANY PROlLEANDSECTIONSONREPORTINGBOUNDARIES COMPANY POLICIES MAJORPROGRAMMEINITIATIVESANDPERFORMANCE INDICATORS/THERPOSSIBLEADDITIONSTOTHECONTENTCOULD INCLUDEINFORMATIONONTHEINTEGRATIONOFMANAGEMENT SYSTEMS INTO OPERATIONS OPERATIONAL SECURITY lNES AND PENALTIES MAJOR MEDIA EVENTS AND OF COURSE VERIlCATIONOFTHEREPORTITSELF 4HE)0)%#!!0)GUIDANCEDOCUMENTLOOKSATCORE INDICATORS AND  ADDITIONAL INDICATORS 4HE REPORT DIVIDES THESE INTO ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND ECONOMIC CATEGORIES 4HE COREINDICATORSPROVIDEDARETYPICALLYRELEVANTTOMOST OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY COMPANIES AS THEY REmECT THE FUNDAMENTALACTIVITIESUNDERTAKENBYMOSTCOMPANIES INTHESECTORANDTHEYRELATETOISSUESOFBOTHNATIONAL ANDGLOBALSIGNIlCANCE#OREINDICATORSARESUFlCIENTLY MATUREINTHEIRUSEANDREPRODUCIBILITY 4HEADDITIONALINDICATORSARETYPICALLYASSOCIATEDWITH A SUBSET OF THE INDUSTRY (OWEVER THEY MAY BE OF


'OOD'OVERNANCE 0EACEAND0ROSPERITY

EQUAL OR GREATER IMPORTANCE FOR INDIVIDUAL COMPANIES INTHECONTEXTOFTHEIRLOCATION ACTIVITIESORRELATIONSHIPS WITH PARTICULAR STAKEHOLDERS 4HEY OFTEN REmECT LOCAL REGULATIONS OR LEGISLATION AND ARE GENERALLY RELATED TO ISSUES OF LOCAL OR REGIONAL SIGNIlCANCE 4HESE INDICATORSOFTENREmECTLEADINGOREMERGINGPRACTICEIN SUSTAINABILITYREPORTINGANDARELIKELYTOBELESSMATURE INTHEIRUSETHANCOREINDICATORS

4YPICALLY ANOILANDGAS COMPANYSSUSTAINABILITYREPORT CONSISTSOFANEXECUTIVESUMMARY ACOMPANYPROlLEANDSECTIONSON REPORTINGBOUNDARIES COMPANY POLICIES MAJORPROGRAMMEINITIATIVES ANDPERFORMANCEINDICATORS

BASELINE POSITION IN RELATION TO SUSTAINABILITY REPORTING THROUGH TO DEVELOPING THE GUIDANCE WHICH WILL HELP IMPROVECONSISTENCYANDCREDIBILITY 9ETTHEGUIDELINESAREJUSTABEGINNING4HEYARENOT STATIC NORSETINSTONE4HEYWILLEVOLVEANDDEVELOP INTHELIGHTOFEXPERIENCE&ORTHEINDUSTRYASAWHOLE THEYPROVIDEAFRAMEWORK4HECHALLENGEAHEADISFOR INDIVIDUAL COMPANIES TO PUT THAT FRAMEWORK TO GOOD USE "Y PROMOTING BETTER REPORTING THE GUIDELINES WILL ALSO HELP STIMULATE BETTER QUALITY ENGAGEMENT WITHSTAKEHOLDERS PROMOTINGDIALOGUEANDPROVIDING A FOCUS FOR FEEDBACK ON HOW THE INDUSTRY CAN IMPROVE ITS PERFORMANCE 4HIS WILL ENABLE MORE INFORMED JUDGEMENTS TO BE MADE NOT ONLY ABOUT THEPERFORMANCEOFINDIVIDUALORGANISATIONS BUTALSO ABOUT THE SUSTAINABILITY PERFORMANCE OF THE INDUSTRY ASAWHOLE

4HEINDUSTRY WORKINGTOGETHER HASPROGRESSEDINARELATIVELYSHORT TIMEFROMASSESSINGITSBASELINE POSITIONINRELATIONTOSUSTAINABILITY REPORTINGTHROUGHTODEVELOPINGTHE GUIDANCEWHICHWILLHELPIMPROVE CONSISTENCYANDCREDIBILITY

&OREVERYONEOFTHEINDICATORS ASIMPLEANDCONCISE DElNITIONOFTHEINDICATORISPROVIDED ITSSCOPEDESCRIBED AND ITS PURPOSE SUMMARISED &OR ALL QUANTITATIVE INDICATORS AREPORTINGUNITISPROVIDED7HEREESTIMATION AND CALCULATION METHODS ARE REQUIRED GUIDANCE IS PROVIDED ON APPROPRIATE METHODS 7HERE NECESSARY OTHERCONSIDERATIONSARENOTED SUCHASDIFFERENCESIN COMPANY ACTIVITIES OR PROGRAMMES THAT MIGHT HAVE A BEARINGONDElNINGTHESCOPEOFANINDICATOR !S OUTLINED IN THE GUIDANCE DOCUMENT FOR EACH INDICATOR THEAIMISTO °%STABLISHDATAANDTHENCONSISTENCYANDQUALITY °!CCELERATEDATACOLLECTION °#REATE OPPORTUNITIES FOR INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL BENCHMARKING °$EMONSTRATE CONSISTENCY AND TRANSPARENCY IN PERFORMANCEREPORTING °%NCOURAGE AND FACILITATE STAKEHOLDER FEEDBACK ENGAGEMENTANDDIALOGUE °5SE SUSTAINABILITY DATA TO IMPROVE BUSINESS PROCESSES STRATEGIESANDACTIONS "Y RECOMMENDING A CONCISE SUITE OF PERFORMANCE INDICATORS THAT DRAW ON CURRENT PRACTICE BUT SIMPLIFY ANDGROUPTHEMBYTHEMEANDPRIORITY THEGUIDELINES PAVE THE WAY FOR INDUSTRY AND EXTERNAL OBSERVERS TO EXAMINE PERFORMANCE USING COMPARABLE DATA AND INFORMATION4HISWILLENABLECONSISTENTASSESSMENTOF ANINDIVIDUALCOMPANYSPERFORMANCEYEAR ON YEARAS WELLASREVIEWSOFCROSS COMPANYPERFORMANCE

4HEFUTURE 4HE GUIDELINES ARE A SIGNIlCANT DEMONSTRATION OF THE IMPORTANCE OF SECTOR CONSISTENCY AND TRANSPARENCY IN ITS SUSTAINABILITY REPORTING 4HEIR VERY PREPARATION WASAMAJOREFFORTOFCROSS INDUSTRYCOLLABORATIONAND CONSENSUSBUILDING4HEINDUSTRY WORKINGTOGETHER HAS PROGRESSEDINARELATIVELYSHORTTIMEFROMASSESSINGITS

#HRIS-ORRISIS'ENERAL3ECRETARYOF)0)%#!"EFOREJOININGTHE ASSOCIATIONIN HESPENTYEARSWITH4EXACO WHEREHE ENJOYED MANAGERIAL AND LEADERSHIP ROLES IN THE INTERNATIONAL UPSTREAM DOWNSTREAMANDGLOBALBUSINESSSECTORS-R-ORRIS BEGANHISCAREERINTHE2OYAL.AVYANDTRAINEDATTHE$ARTMOUTH 2OYAL.AVAL#OLLEGE(EHOLDSA"!(ONS INPSYCHOLOGY 4HE )NTERNATIONAL 0ETROLEUM )NDUSTRY %NVIRONMENTAL #ONSERVATION !SSOCIATION)0)%#! ISAMEMBERSHIP LEDORGANISATIONCOMPRISING INTERNATIONAL AS WELL AS NATIONAL OIL AND GAS COMPANIES FROM AROUND THE GLOBE )0)%#! WAS FOUNDED IN  FOLLOWING THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE 5NITED .ATIONS %NVIRONMENT 0ROGRAMME 5.%0  )0)%#! IS THE SINGLE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION REPRESENTING BOTHTHEUPSTREAMANDDOWNSTREAMOILANDGASINDUSTRYONKEY GLOBALENVIRONMENTALANDSOCIALISSUES)0)%#!ISNOTALOBBYING ORGANISATION BUTPROVIDESAFORUMFORENCOURAGINGCONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENTOFINDUSTRYPERFORMANCE )0)%#! TH&LOOR  "LACKFRIARS2OAD ,ONDON3%., 5+ 4EL   &AX   %MAILINFO IPIECAORG 7EBSITEWWWIPIECAORG

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




0EOPLEATTHE (EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

0ROFESSOR!LPHA/UMAR+ONARÏ #HAIRPERSONOFTHE#OMMISSIONOFTHE !FRICAN5NION

'OVERNMENTSWORKINGTOGETHER THEIMPORTANCEOFCROSS BORDER COLLABORATIONFOREFFECTIVEHEALTH #ROSS BORDER COLLABORATION REFERS TO COUNTRIES WORKING TOGETHER ON A BILATERAL OR MULTILATERAL BASIS AND INCLUDES BROAD AREAS OF COOPERATION BETWEENHEALTHSYSTEMSANDOTHERSECTORS7HILE ITISRECOGNISEDTHAT!FRICANCOUNTRIESHAVEUNIQUE HEALTHCAREPRIORITIES THEYALSOSHAREMANYSIMILAR DISEASEBURDENSANDHEALTHSYSTEMCONSTRAINTS #ENTRAL REGIONAL COORDINATION IS CRITICAL IN LIGHT OF EMERGING HEALTH PROBLEMS THE POTENTIAL FOR RAPID IMPORTATION AND SPREAD OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND THE PLETHORA OF GOVERNMENTAL AND NON GOVERNMENTALORGANISATIONSLIKELYTOMOUNT A RESPONSE TO ILL HEALTH 4HE !FRICAN 5NION IS IDEALLY PLACED AS EXISTING STRUCTURES WITHIN THE ORGANISATION MAY BE USED TO SUPPORT THE SUGGESTEDCONTROLMEASURES $ATAONTHEBURDENOFDISEASEANDINTERNATIONALLYAGREED UPONTARGETSSUCHASTHE-ILLENNIUM$EVELOPMENT'OALS -$'S FURTHERSTRENGTHENTHECASEFORTHESEPRIORITIES #ROSS BORDERMAYALSOREFERTOCONTIGUOUSSPREADOF DISEASEACROSSBORDERSBETWEENNEIGHBOURINGCOUNTRIES ORTHEIREXPOSURETOACOMMONENVIRONMENTALSOURCE OF DISEASE 3TRATEGIES RELEVANT TO THIS ASPECT INCLUDE THECONTROLOFDIARRHOEALDISEASETHROUGHSANITATIONAND WATERSECURITYMALARIACONTROLINITIATIVESIMMUNISATION CAMPAIGNSANDHEALTHPROMOTIONEFFORTS )N!PRILTHE!FRICAN5NIONADOPTEDTHE!FRICA(EALTH 3TRATEGY WHICH WILL ACT AS AN OVERARCHING FRAMEWORK WITHIN WHICH MEMBER STATES AND 2EGIONAL %CONOMIC #OMMUNITIES 2%#S CAN ADDRESS HEALTH CHALLENGES FACINGTHECONTINENT/NEOFTHEPRINCIPLESUNDERPINNING THISSTRATEGYISTHAT@DISEASESKNOWNOBORDERS

#OLLABORATIVEEFFORTSnPRACTICALEXAMPLES

TREATED AND TO ENSURE THAT THE lNANCIAL BURDEN OF PAYINGFORHEALTHISFAIRLYDISTRIBUTEDACROSSHOUSEHOLDS %FFORTS DIRECTED AT INCREASING CAPACITY WITHIN NATIONAL HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS ARE COORDINATED AND SUPPORTED BY VARIOUS ORGANISATIONS OFTEN SITUATED WITHIN THE RESPECTIVEREGIONS!NEXAMPLEOFSUCHANORGANISATION IS THE %ASTERN #ENTRAL AND 3OUTHERN !FRICAN (EALTH #OMMUNITY%#3! WHICHFOSTERSCOLLABORATIONINHEALTH IN%ASTERN #ENTRALAND3OUTHERN!FRICAANDCOMPRISES TEN MEMBER STATES -UCH OF ITS WORK IS FOCUSED ON STRENGTHENINGTECHNICALCAPACITYWITHINHEALTHSYSTEMS WHICH COULD BE CONSIDERED COMPLEMENTARY TO OTHER ORGANISATIONS SUCH AS THE 3OUTH !FRICAN $EVELOPMENT #OMMUNITY WHICHISGEAREDMOREATPOLICYLEVEL4HE ACTIVITIES OF %#3! INCLUDE BRINGING MEMBERS TOGETHER TO IMPLEMENT ACTIVITIES TO STRENGTHEN HEALTH SYSTEMS PROMOTING ADVOCACY FOR APPROPRIATE HEALTH POLICY AND PROGRAMMES AND ENGAGING AND TRAINING EXPERTS IN SPECIlClELDSPERTINENTTOHEALTHSYSTEMS

4HE7EST!FRICAN(EALTH/RGANIZATION 7!(/ PLAYSACOORDINATINGROLEIN FORMULATINGTHESTRATEGYFORTHELOCAL PRODUCTIONOFANTIRETROVIRALDRUGS 3URVEILLANCE SUPPORT AND INFORMATION SHARING IS NECESSARY FOR BOTH PLANNING AND MONITORING OF HEALTH STATUS AND PROGRAMME IMPLEMENTATION )N *ANUARYTHE!FRICAN5NIONLAUNCHEDTHE@!FRICAN )NTEGRATION 2EVIEW AN INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNALFORTHEDISCUSSIONOFAWIDERANGEOFINTEGRATION ISSUESIN!FRICA FOCUSINGONAVARIETYOFDEVELOPMENT RELATEDTHEMES

3TRENGTHENINGHEALTHSYSTEMS

4HEDISEASEBURDEN

!LTHOUGH THE DElNING GOAL OF A HEALTH SYSTEM IS TO IMPROVE ANDOR RESTORE POPULATION HEALTH ANOTHER INTRINSIC GOAL IS RESPONSIVENESS n THAT IS THE HEALTH SYSTEM MUST BE RESPONSIVE TO THE NEEDS OF THE POPULATION IT IS INTENDED TO SERVE 4HIS IS DETERMINED BY THE WAY AND THE ENVIRONMENT IN WHICH PEOPLE ARE

!FRICAN COUNTRIES ARE DEALING WITH A TRIPLE BURDEN OF DISEASE NAMELY COMMUNICABLE DISEASES NON COMMUNICABLEDISEASESANDTHECOMBINEDEFFECTSOF INJURY AND VIOLENCE 4HE SIXTH -$' PERTAINS TO ()6 !)$3 TUBERCULOSISANDMALARIACONTROLWITHTARGETSOF REDUCTIONINTRANSMISSIONSETFOR

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

)N 7EST !FRICA THE #ORRIDOR 0ROJECT TARGETS HIGH RISK GROUPS SUCH AS TRUCK DRIVERS AND COMMERCIAL SEX WORKERS THROUGH ADVOCACY PREVENTION CARE AND TREATMENT FOR ()6!)$3 3IMILAR INITIATIVES HAVE BEEN INTRODUCEDFOCUSINGONMILITARYPEACE KEEPINGFORCES 4HE 7EST !FRICAN (EALTH /RGANIZATION 7!(/ PLAYS A COORDINATING ROLE IN FORMULATING THE STRATEGY FOR THE LOCAL PRODUCTION OF ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS 4HERE ARE CONCERTED REGIONAL PROGRAMMES PROVIDING VOLUNTARY COUNSELLING AND TESTING SERVICES FOR YOUTH -ALARIA RELATED INITIATIVES IN 7EST !FRICA INCLUDE TRAINING FOR PROGRAMMEMANAGERSINTHESUB REGION ADVOCACYFOR LONG LASTINGINSECTICIDE TREATEDNETSANDFORREMOVALOF TAXES AND TARIFFS FROM DRUGS AND OTHER CONSUMABLES USED IN MALARIA CONTROL )N %ASTERN #ENTRAL AND 3OUTHERN !FRICA REVIEWS OF PRE SERVICE CURRICULA FOR ()6TRAININGWERECONDUCTEDINANUMBEROFCOUNTRIES INCLUDING 3WAZILAND :AMBIA AND 5GANDA 4HESE REVIEWSFOCUSEDONNURSINGANDMIDWIFERYEDUCATION ANDEVALUATEDTHECURRICULUMANDTRAININGTOOLS3TUDIES AREALSOBEINGCONDUCTEDONTHEIMPACTOF()6!)$3 ONTHEHEALTHWORKFORCEININDIVIDUALCOUNTRIESANDTHE RESULTSDISCUSSEDATAREGIONALFORUM %PIDEMIC CONTROL IS A PRIORITY AREA IN RESPONSE TO BOTH FAMILIAR PATHOGENS AND EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES SUCH AS AVIAN INmUENZA 4HE 7EST !FRICAN SUB REGION HAS DEVELOPED A STRATEGY FOR THE CONTROL OF EPIDEMICS 4HIS STRATEGY INCLUDES THE SHARING OF INFORMATION DURING EPIDEMICS AND THERE HAS BEEN INTER MINISTERIAL DIALOGUE REGARDING POLIO OUTBREAKS AND CONCERNING A COMMON STRATEGY FOR DEALING WITH AVIAN INmUENZA 0LANS ARE UNDER WAY TO STRENGTHEN TWO REFERENCE LABORATORIES IN 'HANA AND .IGER 4HE 7!(/AIMSTOBEACATALYSTFORCOUNTRY LEDACTIVITIES FOR CONTROL OF EPIDEMICS 3IMILARLY 3OUTHERN !FRICAN $EVELOPMENT #OMMUNITY 3!$# COUNTRIES MET IN -ARCHINACOMBINEDEFFORTTOASSESSREADINESS OFAGRICULTURALANDHEALTHDEPARTMENTSINTHEEVENTOF

THEINTRODUCTIONOFHIGHLYPATHOGENICAVIANINmUENZA 3TRENGTHENINGOFSURVEILLANCESYSTEMSISANONGOING PROCESS COMPLICATED BY DIVERSE HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEMTECHNOLOGIESBETWEENMEMBERCOUNTRIES $ISEASESSUCHASONCHOCERCIASISANDDRACUNCULIASISARE SIGNIlCANTCONTRIBUTORSTOMORBIDITYANDDISABILITYWITHIN THE7EST!FRICANSUB REGIONANDPREVENTIONOFBLINDNESS ISAFOCUSAREA4OTHATENDINITIATIVESWITHINTHEREGION INCLUDETHETRAININGOFOPHTHALMICEQUIPMENTTECHNICIANS FOR ANGLOPHONE 7EST !FRICA IN .IGERIA AND TRAINING IN LOCAL PRODUCTION OF COMMON OPHTHALMIC DRUGS -ASS TREATMENTWITH)VERMECTININMANYCOUNTRIESHAVESHOWN THAT ONCHOCERCIASIS CAN BE CONTROLLED )N THIS REGARD THE !FRICAN 5NION SUPPORTS THE WORK OF THE !FRICAN 0ROGRAMMEFOR/NCHOCERCIASIS#ONTROL!0/# 

4HE20&COULDBECOMEA SYSTEMFORPOOLEDPROCUREMENT ANDASITUATIONALANALYSISANDFEASIBILITY STUDYHASBEENCONDUCTEDTO INVESTIGATETHISPOSSIBILITY #HILDSURVIVALISADDRESSEDBYSHARINGOFBESTPRACTICES IN COMMUNITY INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF CHILDHOOD ILLNESSES )-#) AND COMMUNITY MANAGEMENT OF COMMON CHILDHOOD DISEASES 4HE 7!(/ HAS COORDINATED A ROADMAP FOR THE REDUCTION OF MATERNAL AND PERINATAL MORTALITY ! SUB REGIONAL STRATEGY OF @COORDINATED INFORMED BUYING #)" FOR REPRODUCTIVE HEALTHCOMMODITIESCONTRIBUTESTOECONOMIESOFSCALE AND EXERTING GREATER CONTROL OF COSTS AT PROCUREMENT POLICY LEVEL /N TWO OCCASIONS REGIONAL IMMUNISATION CAMPAIGNS HAVE BEEN SYNCHRONISED IN NEIGHBOURING 7EST !FRICAN COUNTRIES ALTHOUGH IN EACH EVENT ONLY THREECOUNTRIESWEREINVOLVED

!CCESSTOESSENTIALMEDICINES

#OLLABORATIONONNUTRITION .UTRITION RELATEDISSUESDEALTWITHINACROSS BORDER MANNERINCLUDECOMMONPOLICIESONSALTIODISATION VITAMIN ! SUPPLEMENTATION FOOD FORTIlCATION WITH 6ITAMIN!ANDIRONANDNUTRITIONAND()6!)$3 4HE%CONOMIC#OMMUNITYOF7EST!FRICAN3TATES COORDINATES NUTRITION POLICIES THROUGH A NUTRITION FORUM)N3OUTHERN!FRICA %#3!HASBEENINVOLVED INSTRENGTHENINGCAPACITYIN,ESOTHOAND3WAZILAND COLLECTIVELY AND INDIVIDUALLY THROUGH COMPILATION OFGUIDELINESANDTOOLSON()6!)$3ANDNUTRITION THEYHAVEALSOBEENINSTRUMENTALINPROMOTINGFOOD FORTIlCATIONTOREDUCEMICRONUTRIENTDElCIENCIESIN THEREGIONANDHAVEESTABLISHEDTECHNICALGROUPS ON ASPECTS SUCH AS QUALITY CONTROL 4OWARDS THE END OF  THE !5 CONVENED A &OOD 3ECURITY 3UMMIT IN !BUJA AND ALSO ORGANISED AN %XPERTS -EETING ON THE !FRICAN 2EGIONAL .UTRITIONAL 3TRATEGYIN#ONGO "RAZZAVILLE



4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

!DVANCINGLOCALDRUGMANUFACTURINGCAPACITYIN!FRICAIS CONSIDEREDAPRIORITYANDTHE!FRICAN5NIONCONFERENCE OF -INISTERS OF (EALTH HAS ADOPTED A PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING PLAN FOR !FRICA SUPPORTED BY THE RESPECTIVE MEMBER COUNTRIES !T PRESENT THE LOCAL PRODUCTION CAPACITY WITHIN !FRICA IS LIMITED AND ONLY RECONSTITUTION AND PACKAGING OF ACTIVE INGREDIENTS OF DRUGSTAKESPLACE )N %ASTERN #ENTRAL AND 3OUTHERN !FRICA COUNTRIES HAVE ESTABLISHED A REGIONAL PHARMACEUTICAL FORUM 20& COMPRISING EXPERTS DEALING WITH PHARMACEUTICAL DRUG SUPPLIES 2EPRESENTATIVES ON THIS FORUM INCLUDE CHIEF PHARMACISTS LOGISTICPLANNERS ANDPROCUREMENTOFlCIALS 4HE PURPOSE OF THE FORUM IS TO IMPROVE MANAGEMENT OF PHARMACEUTICALS ACCESS TO MEDICINES 3!$# HAS A SIMILAR FORUM AND DEVELOPMENT OF POLICY GUIDELINES ON GENERIC FORMULARIES 4HE 20& COULD BECOME A SYSTEM FOR POOLED PROCUREMENT AND A SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS AND FEASIBILITY STUDY HAS BEEN CONDUCTED TO INVESTIGATE THIS POSSIBILITY %#3! MAINTAINS A MEDICINES WEBSITE WHICH SUMMARISESPHARMACEUTICALPRICESINMEMBERSTATESAND PROVIDESRELEVANTTECHNICALINFORMATIONONMEDICINES


0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

,IMITEDlNANCINGFORHEALTH )MPROVED ECONOMIC AND lNANCIAL PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT IS REQUIRED TO MAXIMISE UTILISATION OF RESOURCES &OR THIS TO OCCUR SUCCESSFULLY THERE NEEDS TO BE A GOOD RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NATIONAL HEALTH DEPARTMENTSANDTREASURIES2EGIONALANDSUB REGIONAL COUNTRY GROUPINGS MAY CONSOLIDATE EFFORTS TO PROMOTE SOUNDECONOMICPOLICIES TRADEINITIATIVESANDOPTIMISE POOLED PURCHASING %#3! HAS TRAINED COUNTRY BASED EXPERTS ON THE USE OF .ATIONAL (EALTH !CCOUNTS AS A MEANSTOTRACKPROGRESSIONTOEQUITABLElNANCINGINHEALTH 4HIS TRAINING IS DONE IN COLLABORATION WITH THE 0ARTNERS FOR(EALTH2EFORMANDTHE7ORLD(EALTH/RGANIZATIONIN THE FORM OF ANNUAL EDUCATIONAL COURSES 0ROFESSIONALS FROM -AURITIUS WHO COMPLETED SUCH COURSES ARE NOW CONDUCTINGTRAININGWITHINTHEIROWNCOUNTRY 4ECHNICALSUPPORTORGANISATIONSALSOPROVIDEASSISTANCE INANALYSINGNATIONALHEALTHACCOUNTSINSOMEOFTHE COUNTRIESASYETUNABLETODOSOINDEPENDENTLY%#3! MEMBER COUNTRIES HAVE BEEN ASSISTED IN IMPROVING HOSPITAL EFlCIENCY 4EACHING HOSPITALS IN ,USAKA :AMBIA ANDIN+ENYA -ULAGOHOSPITALIN5GANDAAND THE+ILIMANJARO#OMMUNITY-EDICAL#ENTREHOSPITALIN 4ANZANIAHAVESUBSEQUENTLYESTABLISHEDCOSTCENTRES WITHINHOSPITALSTOTRACKEXPENDITURES

(UMANRESOURCESFORHEALTH 3KILLED HEALTH WORKERS ARE INTEGRAL TO EFFECTIVE HEALTHCARE SERVICE DELIVERY 2EGIONAL INITIATIVES PLAY AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN STRENGTHENING THE CAPACITY OF HUMAN RESOURCES FOR HEALTH 2EGIONAL SCHOOLS OF PUBLICHEALTHCANBESTUTILISEAVAILABLEEXPERTISEAND RESOURCESTOMEETTHEPUBLICHEALTHTRAININGNEEDSOF A NUMBER OF COUNTRIES ON THE CONTINENT 2ECIPROCAL RECOGNITIONOFDEGREESFORPHYSICIANS SURGEONSAND NURSES HAS BEEN IMPLEMENTED IN ANGLOPHONE 7EST !FRICA 4RAINING OF MIDDLE LEVEL CADRE HEALTH WORKERS INEYECAREHASCOMMENCEDINTHE'AMBIA3EVERAL INITIATIVES ARE IN PLACE ENCOURAGING EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION AND EXPERTISE ACROSS LINGUISTIC BARRIERS INCLUDINGTEACHEREXCHANGEPROGRAMMESANDAYOUNG PROFESSIONALINTERNSHIPSPROGRAMME )N3OUTHERNAND#ENTRAL!FRICA%#3!HASESTABLISHED TWOCOLLEGES ONEFORNURSESANDMIDWIVES%CSACON n%AST #ENTRAL 3OUTHERN!FRICAN#OLLEGEOF.URSING ANDONEFORSURGEONS#OSECSA TOPROMOTESTANDARDS OF CARE IN THE REGION 4HESE COLLEGES CONDUCT SHORT AND LONG TERM COURSES FOR HEALTH PROFESSIONALS FROM ALL%#3!COUNTRIESANDOFFERFELLOWSHIPSINSURGERY

%QUITYANDSUSTAINABILITY -ANYCOUNTRIESWITHIN!FRICAARESTILLLARGELYDEPENDENTON DONORFUNDING ANDWHILEMUCHOFTHISFUNDINGISNECESSARY AND APPRECIATED IT SHOULD NOT BECOME A SUBSTITUTE FOR A GOVERNMENTS lSCAL RESPONSIBILITIES !T ITS MOST BASIC EQUITY IMPLIES SOME NOTION OF FAIRNESS &AIRNESS IS FUNDAMENTALESPECIALLYWHENAPPLIEDTOHEALTH WHICHIS ABASICHUMANRIGHT,ACKOFEQUITYINHEALTHSYSTEMSIS RESPONSIBLEFORHUGEDISPARITIESINHEALTHSTATUSWITHINAND ACROSS COUNTRIES -ARGINALISED COMMUNITIES CONTINUE TO BEARTHEBRUNTOFINEQUITABLEDISTRIBUTIONOFDETERMINANTS OFHEALTH0OPULATIONSLIVINGCLOSETOBORDERREGIONSMAY

BEUNDERSERVEDWHERECOUNTRIESARERELUCTANTTOINVESTIN HEALTHCAREINFRASTRUCTUREIFTHEREISAHIGHLIKELIHOODTHATIT MAY BE USED BY PERIPHERAL POPULATIONS OF NEIGHBOURING COUNTRIES

%MERGINGCHALLENGES 2ECENT CONCERN OVER THE RAPID EMERGENCE OF DRUG RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS HAS ONCE AGAIN HIGHLIGHTED THE IMPORTANCE OF REGIONAL COOPERATION AT ALL LEVELS 4HE IMMINENTTHREATOFPANDEMICINmUENZAWARRANTSSIMILAR VIGILANCE AND INFORMATION SHARING TO ENABLE RAPID OUTBREAKRESPONSE4HE)NTERNATIONAL(EALTH2EGULATIONS OFFORIMPLEMENTATIONIN REQUIRESIGNATORY STATESTOCOMPLYWITHSPECIlCREPORTINGPROCEDURES .ATURALDISASTERSCONTINUETOPLAGUE!FRICANCOUNTRIES WITH THE CONSEQUENCES OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE OF GRAVECONCERNTOHEALTHANDECOLOGYONTHECONTINENT 4HERECENTmOODINGANDCYCLONEACTIVITYIN-OZAMBIQUE REQUIREDREGIONALASSISTANCEINADDITIONTOFOREIGNAID 2EGIONALDISASTERMANAGEMENTPLANSMUSTBEDEVISED TODEALWITHSIMILAREVENTSINFUTURE )NCREASINGLY COMPLEX HEALTH PROBLEMS SUCH AS DRUG RESISTANCE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY RELATED DISEASE CAN BE ADDRESSED BY PARTNERSHIPS WITH ACTIVE RESEARCH ANDSCIENTIlCPROGRAMMESSUCHASMEDICALRESEARCH COUNCILSANDCOMMUNICABLEDISEASEINSTITUTES -ONITORINGANDEVALUATIONOFTHELONG TERMEFFECTIVENESS ANDSUSTAINABILITYOFCOLLABORATIVEVENTURESISNECESSARY TO ADDRESS CURRENT GAPS IN KNOWLEDGE -ANY PROGRAMMESARENEWANDWILLNEEDTOBETIME TESTED TOINTERPRETTHEIRTRUEIMPACT 3UCCESSFUL CROSS BORDER COLLABORATION BETWEEN COUNTRIES IS DEPENDENT ON APPROPRIATE SHARING OF STRATEGIES AND RESOURCES AND HARMONISATION OF HEALTH RELATEDPOLICIESANDLEGISLATIONWITHINCOUNTRIES REGIONS AND IN COMPLIANCE WITH INTERNATIONAL HEALTH LEGISLATION 4O ALL THESE INITIATIVES THE !FRICAN 5NION BRINGS IN A CONTINENTAL PERSPECTIVE AND SHOULDALWAYS BE CONSIDERED A PARTNER )T HAS A SPECIAL ROLE TO PLAY THROUGHTHECONSOLIDATIONOFDEMOCRACY PROMOTIONOF GOODGOVERNANCEANDCONmICTMANAGEMENT

0ROFESSOR !LPHA /UMAR +ONARÏ IS A 0OLITICIAN AND (ISTORIAN BORN ON &EBRUARY   AT +AYES IN -ALI (E IS A 0ROFESSOR OF (ISTORY AND !RCHEOLOGY 0ROF +ONARÏ RECEIVED A $OCTOR OF ,ETTERDEGREESPECIALISINGIN!RCHEOLOGYFROMTHE5NIVERSITÏDE 6ARSOVIE 0OLOGNE IN  &ROM  TO  0ROF +ONARÏ WAS THE 0RESIDENT OF THE 2EPUBLIC OF -ALI (E IS CURRENTLY THE #HAIRPERSONOFTHE!FRICAN5NION#OMMISSION !FRICAN5NION 0/"OX !DDIS!BABA %THIOPIA 4EL  &AX  7EBSITEWWWAFRICA UNIONORG

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

0ROFESSOR"ARBARA-C0AKE $IRECTOR )NSTITUTEFOR)NTERNATIONAL(EALTH AND$EVELOPMENT

(EALTHCAREHUMANRESOURCES INCRISIS7HAT#OMMONWEALTH COUNTRIESCANCONTRIBUTE TOWARDSASOLUTION 4HERE HAS NEVER BEEN AN EVEN DISTRIBUTION OF SKILLED HEALTH WORKERS BETWEEN RICH AND POOR COUNTRIES 4HE ROLE OF HEALTHCARE MIGRATION FROM LOW INCOME TO HIGH INCOME COUNTRIES HAS RECENTLYCAUSEDWIDESPREADCONCERN ESPECIALLY IN THE #OMMONWEALTH WHICH REPRESENTS BOTH SIDES OF THE COMPLEX EQUATION )N THIS ARTICLE THE AUTHOR EXAMINES THE CURRENT SITUATION AND THEACTIONSTHATCANBETAKENBYGOVERNMENTSIN HIGH INCOMEASWELLASLOW INCOMECOUNTRIES )N SOME LOW INCOME COUNTRIES THE NUMBERS OF PHYSICIANS AND NURSES SERVING THE POPULATION ARE THOUGHT TO HAVE BEEN DECLINING SUGGESTING THAT INEQUITIES ARE WORSENING 7HILE DATA ARE LACKING TO CONlRM TRENDS THE SITUATION IS GENERALLY CONSIDERED A CRISIS IN SOME VERY LOW INCOME COUNTRIES SUCH AS 'HANA WHEREPERCENTOFDOCTORPOSTSANDPER CENT OF NURSE POSTS ARE VACANT AND -ALAWI WHERE PERCENTOFDOCTORPOSTSANDPERCENTOFNURSE POSTSAREVACANT)TISWORTHNOTINGTHATMOSTBUTNOTALL LOW INCOMECOUNTRIESFACEACRITICALSHORTAGEOFSKILLED HEALTH STAFF #OUNTRIES SUCH AS .AMIBIA 3UDAN AND MOSTOFTHECOUNTRIESOF3OUTH!MERICAAREJUDGEDNOT INTHISSITUATION 4ABLESHOWSTHENUMBERSOFPHYSICIANSANDNURSES PER POPULATIONINASELECTIONOF#OMMONWEALTH COUNTRIESINORAROUND -IGRATION IS NOT THE ONLY CAUSE OF THE PROBLEM 4HE ()6!)$3EPIDEMICKILLSANDDEBILITATESATASIGNIlCANT RATE COMPARED WITH THE RATE THAT THE LOWEST INCOME COUNTRIESTRAINHEALTHWORKERS)N -ALAWILOST NURSESASARESULTOF!)$37HILETHISMAYSOUNDQUITE SMALL ITWASPERCENTOFTHETOTALTRAINEDTHATYEAR )N   :AMBIAN NURSES DIED  PER CENT OF THE NUMBER TRAINED IN GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS 4HESE DEATHS FAIL TO CAPTURE THE LOSSES DUE TO INCAPACITY CARINGFOROTHERS ANDLOWPRODUCTIVITY ,OW INCOME COUNTRIES HAVE ALSO REDUCED INVESTMENT IN EDUCATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE AND TEACHING STAFF !ND EVENINTHEABSENCEOFMIGRATINGINTERNATIONALLY SOME 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

4ABLE0HYSICIANANDNURSEDENSITIESIN SELECTED#OMMONWEALTHCOUNTRIES OR MOSTRECENTYEARAVAILABLE #OUNTRY

0HYSICIANS .URSES PER PER  POPULATION POPULATION

'HANA





+ENYA





-ALAWI





.IGERIAª





3OUTH!FRICA





'UYANA





*AMAICAª





4RINIDADAND4OBAGO 



"ANGLADESH





)NDIA

>



3RI,ANKA





0APUA.EW'UINEA 



3OLOMON)SLANDS



p

!USTRALIA





5+s





UNLESSsp  ª> 3OURCE7(/3)3COREHEALTHINDICATORSATWWWWHO INTWHOSISCORE ACCESSEDTH*ANUARY

HEALTHWORKERSARELEAVINGTHEHEALTHSECTORFOROTHER EMPLOYMENTINTHEIROWNCOUNTRIES

4HEROLEOFMIGRATION 2ATES OF EMIGRATION FROM LOW INCOME COUNTRIES SEEM TO BE INCREASING 4HERE HAVE BEEN RISING INTAKES OF FOREIGN MEDICAL AND NURSING GRADUATES TO THE 5+ WHERE ONE THIRD OF DOCTORS WERE TRAINED OVERSEAS  INSUB 3AHARAN!FRICA ANDWHERETHEPROPORTION


0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

4ABLE0USHANDPULLFACTORSININTERNATIONAL MARKETFORSKILLEDHEALTHWORKERS 0USHFACTORS

0ULLFACTORS

,OWPAYLATEAND NON PAYMENT

(IGHERPAY /PPORTUNITIESFOR REMITTANCES

,OWJOBAVAILABILITY

6ACANCIES

0OORWORKINGCONDITIONS INADEQUATERESOURCES

"ETTERWORKING CONDITIONS

HIGHWORKLOADPOORHUMAN RESOURCESPLANNING ,ACKOFRESOURCESTO WORKEFFECTIVELY

"ETTERRESOURCED HEALTHSYSTEMS

,IMITEDCAREEROPPORTUNITIES #AREEROPPORTUNITIES ,IMITEDEDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIESFORWORKER ANDCHILDREN

0ROVISIONOFPOST BASICEDUCATION 'OODGENERAL EDUCATIONSYSTEM

(IGHPREVALENCEOF ()6!)$3

,OWPREVALENCEOF ()6!)$3

5NSTABLEDANGEROUS WORKENVIRONMENT

0OLITICALSTABILITY

5NSTABLEGENERALPOLITICAL ,OWCRIMERATES ENVIRONMENTRISKSOF POLITICALANDCRIMINALVIOLENCE %CONOMICINSTABILITY

%CONOMICSTABILITY

!DAPTEDFROM*"UCHAN #HAPTERIN(UMAN 2ESOURCESFOR(EALTHIN%UROPE7(/ AND 2,ABONTÏETALIN(UMAN2ESOURCESFOR(EALTH  

OF NURSES ADDED TO THE 5+ REGISTER AND TRAINED OVERSEAS EXCEEDED  PER CENT FOR THE lRST TIME IN   AND TO THE 53! AND #ANADA WHERE  PER CENT OF DOCTORS TRAINED IN 'HANA AND  PER CENT OF DOCTORSTRAINEDIN+ENYANOWWORK4HE5+HASBEEN AN IMPORTANT DESTINATION FOR MIGRATING SKILLED HEALTH STAFF BUTSINCEITSRECRUITMENTRATESHAVEDECLINED DUETOlNANCIALCRISIS ANDTHESITUATIONISCHANGING /NE FACTOR IMPLICATED SEEMS TO BE GLOBALISATION OR THE INCREASINGLY EASY LINKAGES BETWEEN PEOPLE AND ECONOMIES2ESEARCHERSHAVEPOINTEDOUTTHAT  HIGHLYQUALIlED!FRICANSEMIGRATEDBETWEENAND  ANAVERAGEOF PEOPLEPERYEAR4HISANNUAL RATEHADRISENTO BY ANDTO DURING THES )N SOME COUNTRIES THE EXPORT OF HEALTH WORKERS HAS BEENADELIBERATESTRATEGYTOEARNFOREIGNREMITTANCES )NDIA #UBA %GYPT AND THE 0HILIPPINES DELIBERATELY EXPORT HEALTH WORKERS AND SOME PEOPLE TRAIN IN THE HEALTH PROFESSIONS WITH THE INTENTION OF ACQUIRING AN INTERNATIONALLYMARKETABLESKILL /THERSHAVEPOINTEDTOASETOFSPECIlCHEALTHSECTOR @PUSH AND @PULL FACTORS THAT HAVE DRIVEN UNPLANNED MIGRATION 4WO PUBLISHED SIMILAR TABLES HAVE BEEN ADAPTEDIN4ABLE

7HATCANLOW INCOMECOUNTRY GOVERNMENTSDO 4HESEIDENTIlEDPUSHANDPULLFACTORSAREALMOSTENTIRELY FEATURESORDIRECTCONSEQUENCESOFTHEMACROECONOMIC ANDGEOPOLITICALCIRCUMSTANCESTHATSEPARATELOWFROM HIGH INCOMECOUNTRIES)FTHESEARETHEONLYPOINTSOF LEVERAGE OVER THE SITUATION THERE IS LITTLE PROSPECT OF ACTIONTOSOLVETHISPARTICULARONEOFTHEMANYPROBLEMS THESEFACTORSAREIMPLICATEDIN (OWEVERITISALSOCLEARTHATFROMALOW INCOMECOUNTRY HEALTHSYSTEMPERSPECTIVE THEREAREMORETRACTABLESETS OFFACTORSIMPLICATEDINTHEMIGRATIONCRISISINTHEFORMOF THEMANAGEMENTPRACTICESTHATGOVERNHEALTHWORKERS IN LOW INCOME COUNTRIES &OR EXAMPLE RESEARCHERS FOUND THAT IN +ENYA AND "ENIN A SIGNIlCANT SOURCE OFDEMOTIVATIONANDFRUSTRATIONFORHEALTHWORKERSWAS INADEQUATEORINAPPROPRIATELYAPPLIEDHUMANRESOURCE MANAGEMENT TOOLS /THERS ON THE BASIS OF RESEARCH IN3OUTH!FRICA WEREABLETOLINKTHEPROBLEMOFPOOR MANAGEMENTTOHEALTHWORKERSWORKLOCATIONCHOICES (EALTHWORKERSCONSIDEREDTHATBETTERMANAGEMENTIN THEIRWORKINGLOCATIONWASMOREIMPORTANTTHANAPER CENTINCREASEINPAYBUTLESSTHANADOUBLINGOFPAY  4HISSUGGESTSTHATIF-INISTERSOF(EALTHINLOW INCOME COUNTRIESCANIMPROVETHEMANAGEMENTSYSTEMWITHIN THE HEALTH SECTOR IN WAYS THAT ENABLE HEALTH WORKERS TO PURSUE THEIR VOCATION AND SATISFY THEIR PROFESSIONAL CONSCIENCE HIGHERRATESOFRETENTIONCANBEEXPECTED 4HEKINDSOFMEASURESTHATMIGHTBETAKENHAVEBEEN SUGGESTED BY 3TILWELL AND COLLEAGUES IN THE 7(/ REPORT TO THE 7ORLD (EALTH !SSEMBLY IN  4HE -IGRATIONOF(EALTH7ORKERSAN/VERVIEW7HILEACTION IN HIGH INCOME COUNTRIES WILL STILL BE IMPORTANT THIS IS PERHAPS THE SINGLE MOST IMPORTANT AREA FOR ATTENTION WITHINLOW INCOMECOUNTRIESTHEMSELVES

7HATCANHIGH INCOMECOUNTRY GOVERNMENTSDO )THASBEENARGUEDTHATTHECRITICALFACTORDRIVINGHEALTH WORKERMIGRATIONHASBEENHEALTHSECTORPOLICIESINHIGH INCOMECOUNTRIES&ARFROMBEINGATTHEMERCYOFMARKET FORCES SUCH AS SALARY DIFFERENTIALS BETWEEN COUNTRIES AND THE GROWING DEMANDS OF AGEING POPULATIONS IT IS POINTED OUT THAT POLICY MEASURES LARGELY UNRELATED TO THESETRENDSHAVECREATEDSTAFFSHORTAGESINFOUR/%#$ COUNTRIESTHATHAVECONSEQUENTLYINCREASEDTHEEXTENT TO WHICH THEY HAVE CALLED ON TRAINED HEALTH STAFF FROM ELSEWHERE)NTHE5+ THEPOLICYMEASUREWASADECISION TOSIGNIlCANTLYINCREASESPENDINGONTHE.ATIONAL(EALTH 3ERVICEAFTERA,ABOURGOVERNMENTTOOKPOWERIN )N &RANCE RESTRICTIVE QUOTAS FOR NURSING AND MEDICAL TRAININGOPERATEDUNTILTHELATES THREATENINGTORESULT INADECLINEINHEALTHWORKERDENSITY!FTERTHISPOINT NEW POLICIES INCREASED THE QUOTAS AND RELAXED RESTRICTIONS ONFOREIGN EDUCATEDDOCTORS)N'ERMANY ATUNIlCATION THEREWASlRSTACONSENSUSTHATTHEREWASANOVERSUPPLY OFDOCTORS RESULTINGINREDUCTIONSINNUMBERSINTRAINING 3HORTAGES OF DOCTORS EMERGED IN SOME REGIONS AND THE NUMBER OF FOREIGN DOCTORS WORKING IN 'ERMANY INCREASED BY  PER CENT BETWEEN  AND 

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

)N THE 53! ATTITUDES TO MANAGED CARE ARRANGEMENTS THATSEEKTOCONTAINTHECOSTSOFTHEHEALTHCARESYSTEM HAVE WAXED AND WANED IN GOVERNMENT AND NURSING SHORTAGES HAVE PERIODICALLY BEEN EXPERIENCED EACH TIME COST CONTAINMENT HAS BEEN RELAXED /NE VIEW IS THATTHECURRENTNURSINGSHORTAGEISMORESEVEREANDWILL HAVELONGER TERMREPERCUSSIONSTHANPREVIOUSONES (OWEVER RATHER THAN EXAMINE THE FORCES THAT HAVE CREATED SHORTAGES OF HEALTH STAFF AND COULD PRESUMABLYELIMINATETHEMWITHINLOCALLABOURMARKETS EMPHASIS HAS INSTEAD BEEN PUT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OFETHICALRECRUITMENTPOLICIES INIDENTIFYINGMEASURES THATHIGHINCOMEGOVERNMENTSCANTAKETOAMELIORATE THE MIGRATION CRISIS 4HE lRST INTERNATIONAL CODE TO BE ADOPTEDWASTHE#OMMONWEALTH#ODEOF0RACTICEFOR THE)NTERNATIONAL2ECRUITMENTOF(EALTH7ORKERS BUTTHIS CODEHASNOTBEENSIGNEDBY!USTRALIA #ANADAANDTHE 5+ REPUTEDLYBECAUSEITRECOMMENDSCOMPENSATION FORTHELOSSOFINVESTMENTINLOW INCOMECOUNTRIES !T NATIONAL LEVEL THE 5+ DEVELOPED THE lRST CODE OF PRACTICEANDREVISEDITININANATTEMPTTOCLOSE SOMELOOPHOLESTHATHADBECOMEAPPARENT FOREXAMPLE SEEKINGTOEXTENDITSREACHTOTHEPRIVATESECTOR AND TEMPORARYLOCUMSTAFF4HECODERESTRICTSTHESPECIlC TARGETINGFORRECRUITMENTOFALISTOFDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES INCLUDING SOME !FRICAN AND !SIAN #OMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES BUT DOES NOT PRECLUDE ACCEPTANCE OF INDIVIDUALAPPLICATIONSFROMTHOSECOUNTRIES 4HE CODES AND INTERGOVERNMENTAL AGREEMENTS THAT HAVEBEENSETUPWITHSIMILARINTENTAREWIDELYVIEWEDAS HAVINGBEENLARGELYINEFFECTIVE&OREXAMPLE IN  MORE THAN A QUARTER OF NEWLY REGISTERED NURSES OR APPROXIMATELYHALFOFNEWLYREGISTEREDFOREIGNNURSES IN THE5+ORIGINATEDFROMPROSCRIBEDCOUNTRIES ANDTHESE NUMBERS CONTINUED TO INCREASE IN SEVERAL PROSCRIBED COUNTRIES AFTER THE CODE SHOULD HAVE TAKEN EFFECT 3OME HAVE EVEN SUGGESTED THAT ETHICAL RECRUITMENT CODESCOULDHAVETHEDETRIMENTALEFFECTOFAPPEARING TO ADDRESS A PROBLEM AND DEmECTING ATTENTION FROM MOREEFFECTIVESTRATEGIES (IGH INCOME COUNTRIES BENElT FROM A SIGNIlCANT SUBSIDY FROM LOW INCOME COUNTRIES WHEN A HEALTH PROFESSIONALMOVESFROMTHELATTERTOTHEFORMER/NE SOURCEESTIMATEDINTHAT!FRICALOST53  FOREACHMIGRATINGPROFESSIONAL4HECOSTOFOBTAINING ANADEQUATESUPPLYOFHEALTHSTAFFFROMWITHINAHIGH INCOMEPOPULATIONINCLUDESNOTONLYTHETRAININGCOSTS BUT THE COSTS OF MAINTAINING PAY AND CONDITIONS AT A LEVELATTRACTIVETOTHEHOMEWORKFORCE$EPENDINGON THEDOMESTICELASTICITYOFLABOURSUPPLY THISCOSTMIGHT BECONSIDERABLE PERHAPSEVENCONSIDEREDPROHIBITIVE BYTHOSECOUNTRIES )F BENElCIARY COUNTRIES SUCH AS !USTRALIA #ANADA ANDTHE5+AREUNWILLINGTOCONSIDERRELATIVELYMODEST COMPENSATION FOR THE TRAINING COST OF THE HEALTH STAFF RECRUITED ITISUNLIKELYTHATTHEYWILLBEWILLINGTOUNDERWRITE THECONSIDERABLYGREATEREXPENSEOFACHIEVINGINCREASES INHEALTHSTAFFFROMTHEIROWNPOPULATIONS 4HEPOLICYCONSTRAINTSINHIGH INCOMECOUNTRIESGOSTILL FURTHER!SPOINTEDOUTBYARECENTCORRESPONDENTTOTHE ,ANCET HEALTHPROFESSIONALMIGRATIONISONECOMPONENT 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

OFGLOBALISEDMIGRATIONTRENDS ANDITMAYNOTBETENABLE TOACHIEVECONTROLOVERASINGLEPROFESSIONALGROUP

4HENEXTSTEPS ,OW INCOMECOUNTRYGOVERNMENTSCOULDIMPROVETHEIR SITUATIONBYFOCUSINGONHUMANRESOURCEMANAGEMENT IMPROVEMENTSATALLLEVELSOFTHEIRHEALTHSYSTEMS(IGH INCOMECOUNTRYGOVERNMENTSCOULDOFFERCOMPENSATION TO THE COUNTRIES WHOSE SKILLED PROFESSIONALS THEY ARE RECRUITING#OMPENSATIONFORTHECOSTOFTRAININGWOULD PROBABLYBEALOWER COSTOPTIONTHANSEEKINGTORESOLVE IMBALANCESINLOCALLABOURMARKETS)TCOULDHELPRESOLVE THE OVERALL PROBLEM BY ALLOWING GREATER INVESTMENT IN TRAININGINSOURCECOUNTRIESnYETITSEEMSTHATEVENTHIS ISASTEPGOVERNMENTSARERELUCTANTTOTAKE 4HE MOST POLICY OPTIMISM CURRENTLY SURROUNDS IDEAS OF@SKILLRECIRCULATIONOR@MANAGEDMIGRATION)NBILATERAL AGREEMENTSBETWEENTHE5+AND%GYPT FOREXAMPLE APROGRAMMETOIMPROVECAREOFTHEELDERLY PATHOLOGY AND MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES IN %GYPT IS SUPPORTED BY AFELLOWSHIPPROGRAMMEFOR%GYPTIANSTOCOMETOTHE 5+FORADDITIONALEXPERIENCE3UCHPROGRAMMESMAY INCREASETHERATEOFRETENTIONANDRETURNOFPROFESSIONALS INTHEIRORIGINALCOUNTRIES BYTACKLINGANUMBEROFTHE PUSHFACTORSOF4ABLEPOTENTIALLYCAREERANDEDUCATION OPPORTUNITIES ANDWORKINGCONDITIONS3EVERALBILATERAL AGREEMENTSARENOWINPLACE BUTITISTOOEARLYTOJUDGE THEIREFFECTIVENESSINTACKLINGTHEPROBLEMSASSOCIATED WITHMIGRATION 4HE #ARIBBEAN NURSING ASSOCIATION AND THE 0AN !MERICAN (EALTH /RGANIZATION HAVE AGREED TO SEEK TO REGULATE THE mOW OF NURSES FROM THE #ARIBBEAN TO THE5NITED3TATESAND#ANADAANDTOIMPROVEWORKING CONDITIONS IN THE #ARIBBEAN TO STEM THE mOW 3OME EXPERTS ARGUE FOR A FOCUS ON RETURN ALONGSIDE THAT ON RETENTION IN EXPORTING COUNTRIES )N SOME CASES COUNTRIES EFFECTIVELY DISCOURAGE RETURN BY DEMOTING RETURNINGHEALTHPROFESSIONALSANDFAILINGTORECOGNISE EXPERIENCEGAINEDOVERSEAS4HESEAREPRACTICESTHAT MIGHTBETACKLEDRELATIVELYEASILY

0ROFESSOR"ARBARA-C0AKE 0H$ ISAHEALTHECONOMISTWITH YEARSEXPERIENCEINHEALTHPOLICYANDHEALTHSYSTEMSRESEARCH 3HEISCURRENTLY$IRECTOR )NSTITUTEFOR)NTERNATIONAL$EVELOPMENT AND 0ROGRAMME $IRECTOR OF THE (EALTH 3YSTEMS $EVELOPMENT +NOWLEDGE 0ROGRAMME OF THE 5+ $EPARTMENT FOR )NTERNATIONAL $EVELOPMENT 3HE HAS RECENTLY MOVED TO THE )NSTITUTE FOR )NTERNATIONAL (EALTH AND $EVELOPMENT 1UEEN -ARGARET 5NIVERSITY %DINBURGH FROMTHE,ONDON3CHOOLOF(YGIENEAND 4ROPICAL-EDICINE 4HE)NSTITUTEFOR)NTERNATIONAL(EALTHAND$EVELOPMENTFORMERLY #ENTREFOR)NTERNATIONAL(EALTH3TUDIES WASFOUNDEDINAS AMULTI DISCIPLINARYCENTREFOREDUCATION RESEARCHANDTECHNICAL ASSISTANCE SUPPORTING INTERNATIONAL HEALTH DEVELOPMENT IN LOW ANDMIDDLEINCOMECOUNTRIES 4HE)NSTITUTEFOR)NTERNATIONAL(EALTHAND$EVELOPMENT 1UEEN-ARGARET5NIVERSITY %DINBURGH%(43 3COTLAND 5+ 4EL   &AX   %MAILBMCPAKE QMUCACUK 7EBSITEWWWQMCEDACUKCIHS


0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

$R)AN#LARKE &OUNDERAND#HIEF%XECUTIVE/FlCER )NTERNATIONAL-EDICAL'ROUP 5GANDA

0UBLIC PRIVATEPARTNERSHIPSIN HEALTHIN!FRICA )NORDERTOACHIEVETHE-ILLENNIUM$EVELOPMENT 'OALS -$'S BOTH THE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE HEALTHCARE SECTORS WILL HAVE TO WORK TOGETHER 0RIVATE HEALTH PROVIDERS IN !FRICA ALREADY PLAY ASIGNIlCANTROLEINMEETINGHEALTHNEEDS BUT THE PERCEPTION IS THAT IT IS ONLY GOVERNMENT THAT IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE DELIVERY OF HEALTH SERVICESANDHITTINGTARGETSSUCHASTHE-$'S 4HERESULTISTHATTHEREISOFTENNOMEANINGFUL PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN THE PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SECTORS 4HERE IS A NEED FOR A FUNDAMENTAL CHANGEINATTITUDE SOTHATALLPLAYERSCANPOOL THEIR RESOURCES IN ORDER TO MEET THE COMMON TARGET OF IMPROVING HEALTH INDICATORS 4HE AUTHOR ILLUSTRATES THESE POINTS WITH EXAMPLES OFRECENTEXPERIENCEIN5GANDA 4HEPROVISIONOFBASICHEALTHCARESERVICESISSEEN AS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF GOVERNMENT ALONG WITH THE PROVISION OF OTHER BASIC SERVICES INCLUDING EDUCATION AND INFRASTRUCTURE SUCH AS ROADS WATER AND ELECTRICITY (OWEVER GOVERNMENTS ARE NOT THE ONLY PLAYERS IN THE HEALTH SECTOR AND A SUBSTANTIAL AMOUNTOFHEALTHSERVICEPROVISIONCOMESTHROUGH THE PRIVATE SECTOR BOTH @PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT 0.&0 AND @PRIVATE FOR PROFIT 0&0  0OLICYMAKERS OFTEN ASSUME THAT THE GOVERNMENT IS THE ONLY BODY RESPONSIBLE FOR MEETING HEALTH SECTOR GOALS WITH THE RESULT THAT HEALTH PROFESSIONALS WITHIN THE GOVERNMENTSECTORTAKEITPERSONALLYIFTHEYARENOT ABLE TO MEET ALL THE TARGETS AND PROVIDE THE IDEAL SERVICE (OWEVER WE LIVE IN A REAL WORLD WHERE EVEN IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES THERE IS HARDLY A LIMIT ON THE RESOURCES REQUIRED FOR HEALTHCARE (ENCE INRESOURCEPOORCOUNTRIES THEPOLICIESSHOULDBE GEAREDTOTHEUTILISATIONOFALLSECTORS BRINGINGTHE MAXIMUM RESOURCES TO THE TABLE WHETHER PUBLIC ORPRIVATE 7HILETHEREISMUCHLIP SERVICEPAIDTOPUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS IN HEALTH THERE IS STILL AN INGRAINED ATTITUDETHAT IF GOVERNMENT DOES NOT DO EVERYTHING ITISSOMESORTOFAFAILURE SOPRIVATECOLLABORATIONS PARTICULARLYWITHTHE@FORPROlTSECTOR ARESEENASA LASTRESORT4HISATTITUDEISREINFORCEDBYTHEDEMANDS OF THE PUBLIC WHO ALSO TEND TO HOLD GOVERNMENT SOLELYRESPONSIBLEFORPROVIDINGHEALTHSERVICES 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

4RADITIONALROLEOFGOVERNMENTHEALTHCARE 'OVERNMENT IS TRADITIONALLY TASKED WITH THE PROVISION OF CERTAIN ESSENTIAL HEALTH SERVICES )N THE CASE OF !FRICAN COUNTRIES THESE INCLUDE HEALTH EDUCATION IMMUNISATIONS MALARIA PREVENTION AND TREATMENT FAMILYPLANNINGSERVICES ANDMATERNALANDCHILDHEALTH SERVICES%VENINTHESUPPLYOFIMPORTANTBASICPUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES MORE WILL BE ACHIEVED IF GOVERNMENT WORKSINPARTNERSHIPWITH.'/SANDPRIVATEPROVIDERS (OWEVER IN CERTAIN GOVERNMENT CIRCLES THERE IS A TENDENCYTOVIEWOTHERPLAYERSASOUTSIDERS 3EVERAL YEARS AGO THE 5GANDAN GOVERNMENT DID RECOGNISETHEROLEPLAYEDBYNON GOVERNMENTINSTITUTIONS nPARTICULARLYTHEMISSIONHOSPITALSnANDINCORPORATED SUPPORT FOR THEM WITHIN THE HEALTH SECTOR BUDGET 4HESE INSTITUTIONS HAVE BEEN MEETING A SIGNIlCANT PROPORTIONOFTHEHEALTHCARENEEDSOF5GANDANSAND INRECOGNITIONOFTHISTHEGOVERNMENTPROVIDEDlNANCIAL SUPPORTFORTHEIRBUDGETS5NFORTUNATELY OVERTHEPAST SEVERAL YEARS THE PERCENTAGE BUDGETED HAS ACTUALLY BEENDECREASING

0OLICYMAKERSOFTENASSUMETHAT THEGOVERNMENTISTHEONLYBODY RESPONSIBLEFORMEETINGHEALTHSECTOR GOALS WITHTHERESULTTHATHEALTH PROFESSIONALSWITHINTHEGOVERNMENT SECTORTAKEITPERSONALLYIFTHEYARE NOTABLETOMEETALLTHETARGETSAND PROVIDETHEIDEALSERVICE 3UCCESSFULPARTNERSHIPSnBUTFURTHERTOGO 3OME STEPS HAVE ALSO BEEN TAKEN BY THE 5GANDAN GOVERNMENT TO INCLUDE ALL ACTORS IN THE PROVISION OF ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS TO THE COMMUNITY 4HESE ARE SUPPLIEDTOANYSERVICEPROVIDERWHOHASBEENAUDITED AND TRAINED WITHIN THE PROGRAMME WHETHER PUBLIC OR PRIVATE 4HIS HAS LED TO SOME INNOVATIVE SCHEMES WITH COLLABORATIONS BETWEEN PRIVATE COMPANIES LOCAL COMMUNITIES AND GOVERNMENT &OR EXAMPLE A LOCAL


0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

HEALTH MANAGEMENT ORGANISATION (-/ IN 5GANDA )!! (EALTHCARE RUNNING A FACTORY CLINIC FOR A PRIVATE COMPANY+ASESSE#OBALT,TD HASPARTNEREDWITHTHE COMPANY ITSELF TO REACH OUT TO THE LOCAL COMMUNITY IN VOLUNTARY COUNSELLING AND TESTING AND ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGSTREATMENT4HEDRUGSAREPROVIDEDFREETHROUGH THE GOVERNMENT PROGRAMME THE COMPANYS CLINIC IS USED AS A BASE FOR OUTREACH AND THE PROFESSIONAL HEALTHWORKERSAREPROVIDEDBYTHE(-/

2EGULATIONANDACCOUNTABILITY 3YSTEMS WHICH ENSURE THE IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIES AND TARGETS SUCH AS KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AND ACCOUNTABILITY ARE STILL A CHALLENGE FOR GOVERNMENT HEALTHSERVICES4HISISOFTENDUETOUNWIELDYLINESOF REPORTINGANDACCOUNTABILITY ALLOWINGPOORPRACTICE TOBEACCEPTEDASNORMAL4HUSADOCTORORHEALTH WORKERMAYNOTBEATTHEIRPOST BUTARENEVERCALLED TOACCOUNT(OWEVERWHENTHEPATIENTSAREPAYING FORTHESERVICEnNOMATTERHOWLITTLEnTHEYBECOME MOREASSERTIVEANDDEMANDINGOFTHEIRRIGHTS4HIS MEANSTHATPATIENTANDPROVIDERCHARTERSARETHEN MOREREALISTICANDRELEVANT

4HE AVAILABILITY OF FREE DRUGS FROM THE GOVERNMENT ACTED AS THE KEY INCENTIVE FOR THE PRIVATE COMPANIES TO MAKE THEIR CONTRIBUTION /N THE OTHER HAND ARTEMISININ BASED COMBINATION THERAPIES !#4S ARE NOWBEINGPROVIDEDFREEFORTHETREATMENTOFMALARIAIN GOVERNMENTHOSPITALS BUTNOTTOPRIVATECLINICS SINCE THEREISASUSPICIONTHATTHESEDRUGSWILLBESOLDFORA PROlT(OWEVER MANYPRIVATECLINICSAREBETTERPLACED TOENSURETHATSUCHTREATMENTREACHESTHEGRASSROOTS WITHINTHECOMMUNITY

/FCOURSE IFTHEPRIVATESECTORISONLYDRIVENBYTHE PROlT MOTIVE AT THE EXPENSE OF ETHICAL TREATMENT THISRAISESANOTHERSETOFPROBLEMS4HISMEANSTHAT THEPRIVATESECTORMUSTALSOBEADEQUATELYAUDITED ANDPOLICED

'OVERNMENTGENERALLYHASDIFlCULTY INCARRYINGOUTPROGRAMMESWHICH REQUIREMANYSUB SECTORSANDSKILLS TOCOMETOGETHERSEAMLESSLY 4HEREAREALSOAREASINWHICHTHEPRIVATESECTORISBETTER EQUIPPED TO MEET A PARTICULAR NICHE 'OVERNMENT GENERALLY HAS DIFlCULTY IN CARRYING OUT PROGRAMMES WHICH REQUIRE MANY SUB SECTORS AND SKILLS TO COME TOGETHERSEAMLESSLY&OREXAMPLE MANY!FRICANHEALTH MINISTRIES lND IT DIFlCULT TO MAINTAIN SOPHISTICATED MEDICAL EQUIPMENT 3MALL THINGS SUCH THE LACK OF AN %#' ELECTRODE LACK OF AN OXYGEN SENSOR OR A PARTICULAR TYPE OF CATHETER BEING OUT OF STOCK CAN RESULT IN A WHOLE PROGRAMME COMING TO A STANDSTILL 4HEPRIVATESECTORISGENERALLYBETTERMOTIVATEDTOPAY ATTENTION TO THESE DETAILS ENSURING THAT EVERYTHING HAS BEEN DOUBLE CHECKED AND IS IN PERFECT WORKING ORDER 4HEREFORE SOPHISTICATED EQUIPMENT MAY BE BETTERMAINTAINEDBYTHEPRIVATESECTOR BUTTHEPRIVATE SECTORMAYSTRUGGLETORAISETHECAPITALTOPAYFORSUCH EQUIPMENT SINCETHEABILITYTOPAYBYTHECLIENTISLIMITED RESULTINGINAPOORRETURNONINVESTMENT!CASECANBE MADEFORSUBSIDIESTOHELPTHEPRIVATESECTORPURCHASE EXPENSIVEEQUIPMENT WHICHWOULDTHENBEACCESSIBLE TOGOVERNMENTPATIENTSATANAGREEDAFFORDABLEFEE4HIS WOULD INEFFECT ALLOWTHEPRIVATESECTORTOMAINTAINTHE EQUIPMENT AND BOTH THE GOVERNMENT AND THE PRIVATE SECTORTOBENElTFROMIT

#OMMONASPIRATIONS !SFARASTHEPROVISIONOFHEALTHSERVICESARECONCERNED EVERYONE SHOULD BE WORKING TOWARDS THE SAME OUTCOMES n WHETHER PUBLIC OR PRIVATE )N THE CASE OF THE -$'S AMONG OTHER THINGS WE ARE ALL WORKING TOWARDS THE DECREASE IN THE RATES OF INFANT MORTALITY ANDMATERNALMORTALITY(OWEVER INORDERTOHAVEANY HOPE OF ACHIEVING THE TARGETS SET A MUCH GREATER

4HE GOVERNMENT IS NOT ONLY A PROVIDER OF MEDICAL SERVICES BUTTHEYISALSOTHEREGULATOROFSTANDARDS FORALLHEALTHPROVIDERSnPRIVATEORPUBLIC4HEREISIN EFFECTACONmICTOFINTEREST INTHATTHEGOVERNMENTIS BOTHTHEPROVIDERANDTHEAUDITOROFITSOWNSERVICES AND THE AUDITOR OF SERVICES THAT IT MAY PERCEIVE ASCOMPETITION4HISISHARDLYALEVELPLAYINGlELD PARTICULARLY IF THE GOVERNMENT HAS A REPUTATION FOR BEINGUNACCOUNTABLEWITHINITSOWNSECTOR4HISWILL NOTPROMOTECONlDENCEINTHEREGULATORYFRAMEWORK ANDWILLNOTMAKEFORAGOODWORKINGENVIRONMENT SHOULDGOVERNMENTTHENPROPOSEANYCOLLABORATIVE VENTURE WITH THE PRIVATE SECTOR 4HIS IS THE CASE IN 5GANDA TODAY WHERE THERE IS A PROPOSAL FOR A NATIONALSOCIALHEALTHINSURANCESCHEME INWHICH BOTHPRIVATECLINICSANDTHEGOVERNMENTFACILITIESWILL ACTASSERVICEPROVIDERS(OWEVERTHESUSPICIONIS THATGOVERNMENTCANNOTBETRUSTEDTOREGULATEINAN IMPARTIALMANNER

COLLABORATIVEEFFORTWILLBEREQUIRED ANDAFUNDAMENTAL CHANGE OF MINDSET BY THE GOVERNMENT SECTOR THE PRIVATESECTORANDTHEGENERALPUBLIC4HOSEWORKINGIN THEGOVERNMENTWILLHAVETOSTOPTHINKINGOFTHEPRIVATE SECTOR AS COMPETITORS TO BE MARGINALISED 4HOSE WORKINGINTHEPRIVATESECTOR INTHE0.&0 MUSTLOOKFOR OPPORTUNITIESTOCOLLABORATEWITHGOVERNMENTHOSPITALS 4HOSE WORKING IN THE 0&0 MUST SEE THEMSELVES AS SETTINGTHEHIGHESTSTANDARDS NOTSIMPLYPROlTEERING

)NORDERTOHAVEANYHOPEOFACHIEVING THETARGETSSET AMUCHGREATER COLLABORATIVEEFFORTWILLBEREQUIRED AND AFUNDAMENTALCHANGEOFMINDSETBY THEGOVERNMENTSECTOR THEPRIVATE SECTORANDTHEGENERALPUBLIC

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

4HElRSTOPENHEART SURGERYIN5GANDA BEINGCARRIEDOUT AT)NTERNATIONAL (OSPITAL+AMPALA

!ND THE GENERAL PUBLIC MUST LOOK TO ALL PLAYERS TO MEET THEIR HEALTH NEEDS AND NOT BLAME ONLY THE GOVERNMENT FOR LACK OF SERVICES 4HEY MUST ALSO LEARN TO DEMAND HIGH STANDARDS FROM ALL PROVIDERS nGOVERNMENTANDPRIVATEnANDHAVEACLEARMEANSOF REDRESSINALLSECTORS 4HE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS MAY APPEAR TO HAVE DIFFERENTGOALS PARTICULARLYTHEPRIVATEFORPROlTSECTOR (OWEVERTHEVERYFACTTHATTHEPRIVATESECTORHASTOBE ACCOUNTABLETOTHEBOTTOMLINECANBEAFORCEWHICH PROMOTES BEST PRACTICE !LTHOUGH THERE ARE THE SHORT TERM PROlTEERS IN ANY BUSINESS HIGH QUALITY SERVICE PROVISIONWILL IN THE LONG RUN PROVE TO BE SUSTAINABLE &ORTHISREASONTHEPRIVATESECTORCANBEADRIVINGFORCE INBENCHMARKINGANDIMPROVINGSTANDARDS

!LTHOUGHTHEREARETHESHORTTERM PROlTEERSINANYBUSINESS HIGHQUALITY SERVICEPROVISIONWILLINTHELONGRUN PROVETOBESUSTAINABLE &UTUREHOPES 4HEREARECERTAINSTRAWSINTHEWIND)N5GANDA ONE OF +AMPALAS LEADING PRIVATE HOSPITALS )NTERNATIONAL (OSPITAL RECENTLYLAUNCHEDACHARITYOR@PUBLICWARD USING ITS OWN PROlTS AND SPONSORSHIP FROM SOME LOCALCOMPANIES4HEIRRATIONALEWASTHATTHISWOULD NOTONLYHELPTHEINDIVIDUALPATIENTSWHOWOULDHAVE THE BENElT OF A HIGH LEVEL OF CARE BUT THAT IT WOULD INCREASE THE NUMBER OF COMPLEX PROCEDURES BEING CARRIED OUT AT THE HOSPITAL AND THUS IMPROVE THE STAFFS EXPOSURE AND EXPERTISE "OTH )NTERNATIONAL (OSPITALAND-ULAGOTHEGOVERNMENTHOSPITAL THEN 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

CARRIED OUT THE lRST OPEN HEART SURGERY IN 5GANDA )NTERNATIONAL(OSPITALSENTSOMEOFTHEIRNURSESTOGAIN EXPERIENCE AT -ULAGOS (EART )NSTITUTE WHILE SOME OF -ULAGOS DOCTORS PARTICIPATED IN )NTERNATIONALS OPENHEARTSURGERYTOGAINEXPERIENCE4HEREWASA DEGREEOFCOMPETITION BUTITMOVEDTHEDEVELOPMENT OFCARDIACSURGERYFORWARDANDRESULTEDINSEVENTEEN PATIENTSHAVINGHEARTDEFECTSREPAIREDINTHESPACEOF AFEWMONTHS)FSUCHPROGRAMMESWEREEVENMORE COLLABORATIVE THEBENElTSWOULDBETHATMUCHGREATER

$R)AN#LARKEHASWORKEDIN5GANDAFORTHEPASTTWENTYYEARS lRST IN THE NON GOVERNMENT SECTOR SETTING UP +IWOKO (OSPITAL IN,UWEEROAFTERTHEBUSHWAR(ETHENMOVEDTO+AMPALAAND FOUNDED )NTERNATIONAL (OSPITAL +AMPALA (E IS THE AUTHOR OF A NUMBER OF PUBLICATIONS AND A REGULAR COLUMNIST IN 5GANDAS NATIONALNEWSPAPER 4HE3UNDAY6ISION )NTERNATIONAL -EDICAL 'ROUPS VISION IS TO MAKE A DIFFERENCE TO HEALTHCAREIN5GANDA4HEGROUPINCLUDES)NTERNATIONAL(OSPITAL AND)!!(EALTHCARE WHICHHASCLINICSTHROUGHOUT5GANDAAND IN *UBA 3OUTH 3UDAN )-' IS IN THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING A 5NIVERSITYOF(EALTH3CIENCESASAMEANSOFINCREASINGMEDICAL CAPACITYIN5GANDA )NTERNATIONAL-EDICAL'ROUP 0/"OX +AMPALA 5GANDA 4EL  &AX  %MAILIHK IMGCOUG 7EBSITEWWWIMGCOUG


0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

$R!LVARO"ERMEJO 3USIE-C,EAN $R-ANDEEP$HALIWAL

)NTERNATIONAL()6!)$3!LLIANCE

!WORLDOFOPPORTUNITYUNIVERSAL ACCESSTO()6PREVENTION TREATMENT CAREANDSUPPORT 4WENTY YEARS ON ()6 CONTINUES TO BE AMONG THE MOST DESTRUCTIVE PANDEMICS IN HISTORY /F EIGHT KEY AREAS COVERED BY THE -ILLENNIUM $EVELOPMENT 'OALS SIX n REDUCED POVERTY AND CHILD MORTALITY INCREASED ACCESS TO EDUCATION GENDER EQUALITY IMPROVED MATERNAL HEALTH AND EFFORTSTOCOMBATMAJORINFECTIOUSDISEASESnARE BEING UNDERMINED BY HIGH RATES OF ()6 ()6 IS REVERSINGRECENTHEALTHANDDEVELOPMENTGAINS !T THE END OF  THERE WERE AN ESTIMATED  MILLION PEOPLE LIVING WITH ()6  MILLION NEW ()6 INFECTIONS AND  MILLION PREVENTABLE DEATHS DUE TO !)$3 /F THOSE INFECTED WITH ()6  PER CENT ARE LIVING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES CONSEQUENTLY THESE COUNTRIES ARE BEARING A DISPROPORTIONATELY HIGH BURDEN OF MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY 7ITH   NEW INFECTIONS A DAY RATES OF ()6 INFECTION CONTINUE TO RISE AND MILLIONS OF PEOPLE DO NOT HAVE ACCESS TO ESSENTIAL HEALTH SERVICES AND COMMODITIES 4HE #OMMONWEALTHREPRESENTSPERCENTOFTHEWORLDS POPULATIONANDISHOMETOPERCENTOFTHEGLOBAL ()6BURDEN/FTHEMILLION#OMMONWEALTHCITIZENS LIVING WITH ()6  MILLION ARE IN URGENT NEED OF LIFE SUSTAINING ANTIRETROVIRAL TREATMENT !24  (OWEVER IN SPITEOFRECENTADVANCESINSCALINGUP!24 LESSTHAN PERCENTAREACTUALLYACCESSING!24

4HE()6RESPONSE )N  4HE #OMMONWEALTH (EADS OF 'OVERNMENT DECLARED()6AGLOBALEMERGENCY4HEPASTFEWYEARS HAVEBROUGHTGREATERATTENTIONTOANDINVESTMENTINTHE GLOBAL RESPONSE TO ()6 LEADING TO SEVERAL IMPORTANT INITIATIVES INCLUDING 4HE 5NITED .ATIONS 'ENERAL !SSEMBLY 3PECIAL 3ESSION ON ()6!)$3 5.'!33  4HE 'LOBAL &UND TO &IGHT !)$3 4UBERCULOSIS AND -ALARIA'&!4- THEBYINITIATIVETHE7ORLD"ANK -ULTI COUNTRY!)$30ROGRAMME-!0 ANDTHE5NITED 3TATES 0RESIDENTS %MERGENCY 0LAN FOR !)$3 2ELIEF 0%0&!2  4HE INCREASING ENGAGEMENT OF NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS CIVILSOCIETYnESPECIALLYPEOPLEWITH()6 nANDCOMMUNITIESHASPLAYEDACRITICALROLEINSCALING UP THE ()6 RESPONSE &OR MANY YEARS COMMUNITIES

-OZAMBIQUEnELDERLY GRANDMOTHERWITH ORPHANEDGRANDCHILDREN 'IDEON-ENDELFORTHE )NTERNATIONAL()6!)$3 !LLIANCE

HAVE BEEN ON THE FRONTLINES OF THE ()6 PANDEMIC DELIVERING ESSENTIAL PREVENTION CARE AND SUPPORT SERVICES4HEREISNOWAGROWINGUNDERSTANDINGOFTHE CRUCIALROLEOFCOMMUNITIES INCLUDINGPEOPLEWITH()6 ANDTHEIREFFECTIVEENGAGEMENTINALLLEVELSOFRESPONSE +EY STAKEHOLDERS NOW SEE COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT AS AN INTERVENTION THAT IS CRITICAL TO SUCCESSFUL ()6 RESPONSES-AJORDONORSSUCHAS0%0&!2 THE5NITED +INGDOMS$EPARTMENTFOR)NTERNATIONAL$EVELOPMENT $F)$ AND '&!4- HAVE COMMITTED TO SUPPORTING EXPANDED COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT AND STRENGTHENING COMMUNITYSYSTEMSASAKEYINGREDIENTFORSCALINGUP THERESPONSETO()6 ()6 PREVENTION RESPONSES ALONE HAVE NOT PREVENTED THE CONTINUED INCREASE IN THE EPIDEMIC WORLDWIDE !LTHOUGH PREVENTION EFFORTS HAVE OFTEN BEEN LATE IN STARTING UNDER RESOURCED AND POORLY SUPPORTED IT IS INCREASINGLY BEING RECOGNISED THAT IN ORDER TO REVERSETHE()6EPIDEMIC ACOMPREHENSIVEAPPROACH COMPRISING ()6 PREVENTION TREATMENT CARE AND SUPPORTISREQUIRED 4HEREHASBEENASEA CHANGEINTHERESPONSETO()6 SINCETHE5.'!33$ECLARATIONOF#OMMITMENT ON ()6!)$3 4HE MOST PROFOUND EXAMPLE OF THIS CHANGE IS THE RECENT EXPANSION IN !24 #IVIL SOCIETY AND COMMUNITY ADVOCACY SPECIAL PRICING BY PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES FOR LOW INCOME COUNTRIES INCREASED GENERIC COMPETITION AND LOCAL PRODUCTION ANDNEGOTIATIONSFACILITATEDBYPHILANTHROPICFOUNDATIONS HAVE SLASHED THE PRICES OF lRST LINE ANTIRETROVIRAL

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

MEDICINES !26S AND INCREASED THEIR AVAILABILITY 4HEBY)NITIATIVE LAUNCHEDBY7(/AND5.!)$3 IN  BUILT ON THESE DEVELOPMENTS TO CATALYSE ANDMOBILISESUPPORTFORNATIONAL()6PROGRAMMESTO EXPANDACCESSTO!24 3INCETHEENDOF THENUMBEROFPEOPLERECEIVING !24 IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES HAS MORE THAN TRIPLED ANDACCESSTO!24INTHEWORLDSHARDEST HITREGION SUB 3AHARAN !FRICA HAS INCREASED BY MORE THAN PERCENT #OUNTRIESSUCHAS"OTSWANA 5GANDAAND:AMBIAHAVE SHOWN REMARKABLE SUCCESS IN PROVING THAT !24 CAN INDEEDBESCALEDUPINRESOURCE CONSTRAINEDSETTINGS $ESPITEINITIALCONCERNSTHAT()6TREATMENTCOULDDIVERT BOTHRESOURCESANDATTENTIONAWAYFROMPREVENTION IT ISNOWCLEARTHATTREATMENTSCALE UPACTUALLYINCREASES OPPORTUNITIES FOR EFFECTIVE PREVENTION %VIDENCE IS EMERGINGTHATTHEAVAILABILITYOF!24LEADSTOANUPSURGE IN DEMAND FOR VOLUNTARY ()6 TESTING AND COUNSELLING SERVICESnAKEY()6PREVENTIONINTERVENTION!SMORE PEOPLEBECOMEAWAREOFTHEIR()6STATUSANDACCESS TREATMENTANDCARE NEWOPPORTUNITIESAREALSOARISING TO PROVIDE PREVENTION SERVICES INCLUDING FOR PEOPLE LIVINGWITH()6 4HUSFAR!24SCALE UPHASSHOWNTHATKEYBARRIERSTO EXPANDINGSERVICESINCLUDE °)NSUFlCIENTTRAININGOFHEALTHCAREWORKERS °7EAKSUPPLYMANAGEMENTSYSTEMS °3TIGMAANDDISCRIMINATION °5SERFEES °,ACKOFCOMMUNITYINVOLVEMENTANDSUPPORT AND °4HECOSTOF!24 %XPERIENCE HAS SHOWN THAT EXPANDING ACCESS TO AFFORDABLE !24 WILL REQUIRE CHALLENGING AND CHANGING INTERNATIONALTRADELAWSTOALLOWFORGREATERCOMPETITION FROMGENERICDRUGS$EVELOPINGCOUNTRIESWILLNEEDTO BUILDLOCALMANUFACTURINGCAPACITYANDTOEXERCISETHE mEXIBILITIESPRESENTININTERNATIONALLAWTOBUYCHEAPER MEDICINES TO PROTECT PUBLIC HEALTH THE ISSUE OF PROHIBITIVELY COSTLY SECOND LINE !26S IS A PARTICULARLY PRESSINGONE #OVERAGEOF()6PREVENTIONSERVICESREMAINSLOW4HE SAME CAN BE SAID FOR CARE AND TREATMENT SERVICES 0REVENTION PROGRAMMES ARE FAILING TO REACH THOSE AT GREATEST RISK )T IS ESTIMATED THAT ()6 PREVENTION PROGRAMMESREACHFEWERTHANONEINlVEOFTHOSEWHO NEEDTHEMANDTHATONLYPERCENTOFPEOPLEWITH()6IN NEEDOF!24INLOW ANDMIDDLE INCOMECOUNTRIESHAVE ACCESS3URVEYSINEIGHTEENCOUNTRIESINDICATETHATLESS THANPERCENTOFYOUNGPEOPLEHAVECOMPREHENSIVE KNOWLEDGEABOUT()6)NALLBUTTHREECOUNTRIES YOUNG WOMEN HAD SIGNIlCANTLY LOWER KNOWLEDGE ABOUT ()6 THANYOUNGMEN4WO THIRDSOFYOUNGWOMENINSUB 3AHARAN !FRICA LACKED COMPREHENSIVE KNOWLEDGE OF ()6 TRANSMISSION 3IMILAR TRENDS HAVE BEEN NOTED IN )NDIA #HINAANDOTHERCOUNTRIES-OSTOFTHEESTIMATED MILLIONPEOPLELIVINGWITH()6AREUNAWAREOFTHEIR INFECTION)N ONLYPERCENTOFADULTSINLOW AND MIDDLE INCOME COUNTRIES OBTAINED ()6 TESTING 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

AND COUNSELLING AND WORLDWIDE ONLY  PER CENT OF PEOPLEWHOWANTTOGETTESTEDARECURRENTLYABLETODO SO#URRENTDEBATESABOUTROUTINETESTINGUNDERLINETHE URGENT NEED FOR SCALING UP VOLUNTARY ()6 TESTING AND COUNSELLINGASACRITICALENTRYPOINTFOR()6PREVENTION TREATMENTANDCARE

"EHAVIOURCHANGEANDPREVENTION 3TUDIESON()6PREVENTIONREVEALGAPSINTHECOVERAGE OF BEHAVIOUR CHANGE PROGRAMMES TARGETING YOUNG PEOPLEANDGROUPSATHIGHRISKOF()6INFECTION ASWELL ASINSUFlCIENTACCESSTOCONDOMSANDOTHERPROVEN ()6 PREVENTION TECHNOLOGIES 5NITED .ATIONS &AMILY 0LANNING !SSOCIATION 5.&0! ESTIMATES THAT THE GLOBALPUBLICSECTORSUPPLYOFCONDOMSISLESSTHAN  PER CENT OF WHAT IS NEEDED TO ENSURE ADEQUATE CONDOM COVERAGE AN ANNUAL GAP OF  BILLION CONDOMS&EMALECONDOMSAREALSONOTAVAILABLEOR ACCESSIBLEONTHEREQUIREDSCALE 0ROGRESS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW PREVENTION TECHNOLOGIES HAS BEEN VARIED MORE INVESTMENT IS NEEDED FOR MICROBICIDE AND VACCINE DEVELOPMENT (OWEVER THE RESULTS OF MALE CIRCUMCISION TRIALS OFFER THEPOSSIBILITYOFANEWEFFECTIVEPREVENTIONTOOL )TISESTABLISHEDTHATACOMBINATIONOFPROVENPREVENTION INTERVENTIONSCANREDUCENEW()6INFECTIONSANDHELP STOP THE EPIDEMIC 0ROVEN PREVENTION INTERVENTIONS INCLUDE BEHAVIOUR CHANGE PROGRAMMES INCLUDING EFFORTSTOENCOURAGEINDIVIDUALSATRISKTODELAYINITIATION OFSEXUALACTIVITY REDUCETHENUMBEROFSEXUALPARTNERS ANDUSECONDOMSDURINGSEXUALINTERCOURSE SEXUALLY TRANSMITTEDDISEASECONTROL VOLUNTARYCOUNSELLINGAND TESTING HARMREDUCTIONPROGRAMMESFORINJECTINGDRUG USERS PREVENTIONOFMOTHER TO CHILD()6TRANSMISSION BLOOD SAFETY INFECTION CONTROL IN HEALTHCARE SETTINGS ANDPROGRAMMESFORPEOPLELIVINGWITH()6 7E ALSO KNOW THAT PREVENTION MUST GO BEYOND BEHAVIOURAL INTERVENTIONS AND ADDRESS THE BROADER ISSUES THAT DETERMINE VULNERABILITY )N SPITE OF THIS A NARROWINTERPRETATIONOF()6PREVENTIONHASBECOMEA MAJORBARRIERTOSCALINGUPEFFECTIVE EVIDENCE INFORMED PREVENTION EFFORTS 4HE COMPONENTS OF THE @!"# !BSTINENCE "EING FAITHFUL #ONDOM USE APPROACH ARE AN IMPORTANT PART OF THE ()6 PREVENTION ARMOURY !BSTINENCE FOR YOUNGER ADOLESCENTS FAITHFULNESS IN MARRIAGE AND CONDOM PROMOTION ARE CRUCIAL PARTS OF ()6 PREVENTION 3TUDIES HAVE SHOWN THAT CONSISTENT CONDOM USE IS EFFECTIVE IN PREVENTING TRANSMISSION OF ()6 (OWEVER THE DISTORTION OF THE !"# MODEL TO FOCUSONLYONABSTINENCE ORIENTEDPROGRAMMESnAND MISINFORMATION ABOUT CONDOMS n IS UNDERMINING THE GLOBALRESPONSE &EW COUNTRIES DELIVER ()6 PREVENTION IN MATERNITY SERVICESONABROADSCALE!TTHEENDOF ONLY PERCENTOFPREGNANTWOMENINLOW ANDMIDDLE INCOME COUNTRIESHADACCESSTOSERVICESTOPREVENTMOTHER TO CHILD TRANSMISSION OF ()6 0-4#4  4HIS REPRESENTS A VERYSLIGHTINCREASEFROMPERCENTCOVERAGEREPORTED IN  n DESPITE THE FACT THAT IN THESE COUNTRIES  PERCENTOFWOMENHAVEACCESSTOANTENATALSERVICES


0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

&IGURE0ROJECTED NEWADULTINFECTIONS ANDTOTALADULTDEATHS INSUB 3AHARAN!FRICA INMILLIONS BYTHEYEAR IMPACTOFTHREE SCENARIOSCOMPARED WITHBASELINE 3OURCE3ALOMON *! ETAL h)NTEGRATING ()60REVENTIONAND 4REATMENTFROM 3LOGANTO)MPACTv 0,O3-EDICINE *ANUARY

0REVENTION PROGRAMMES FOCUSING ON SEX WORKERS INJECTINGDRUGUSERS GAYMENANDOTHERMENWHOHAVE SEXWITHMENANDPRISONERSAREPARTICULARLYIMPORTANT 7HILEFUNDINGFOR()6ACTIVITIESHASINCREASEDINRECENT YEARS MANY COUNTRIES ARE FAILING TO DIRECT lNANCIAL RESOURCES TOWARD PROGRAMMES THAT ADDRESS THE ()6 PREVENTION NEEDS OF THE POPULATIONS AT HIGHEST RISK OPTINGINSTEADTOPRIORITISEGENERALPOPULATIONPREVENTION EFFORTS THAT ARE LESS COST EFFECTIVE AND LESS LIKELY TO HAVEANIMPACTONTHEEPIDEMIC!GLOBAL()6SERVICES GAP EXISTS WHICH SEES  PER CENT OF INJECTING DRUG USERS PERCENTOFMENWHOHAVESEXWITHMEN AND  PER CENT OF SEX WORKERS WITHOUT ACCESS TO BASIC ()6SERVICES$F)$INPARTICULARHASSHOWNREMARKABLE LEADERSHIPINCHAMPIONINGEVIDENCE BASEDANDRIGHTS BASEDSERVICESFORTHESEKEYPOPULATIONS)TISALARMING TO NOTE THAT ()6 PREVENTION INTERVENTIONS FOR PEOPLE LIVING WITH ()6 ALTHOUGH EPIDEMIOLOGICALLY CRITICAL ARE NOTBEINGIMPLEMENTEDATSUBSTANTIALSCALE

3PECIALRISKSFORWOMENANDGIRLS

(UMANRIGHTSABUSESFUELTHESPREADOF()6AND()6 FUELS HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES ()6 RELATED STIGMA AND DISCRIMINATIONHAVEBEEN ANDCONTINUETOBE THEMOST CHALLENGING OBSTACLES TO THE DELIVERY AND UPTAKE OF ()6 PREVENTION TREATMENT CARE AND SUPPORT 7ITHOUT CONCRETELY ADDRESSING STIGMA DISCRIMINATION AND GENDER BASED VIOLENCE SCALING UP COMPREHENSIVE ()6 TREATMENT CARE AND PREVENTION PROGRAMMES WILL NOT BECOME A REALITY &EAR VIOLENCE STIGMA AND DISCRIMINATION HAVE SEVERELY HAMPERED EFFORTS TO FULLY ENGAGE PEOPLE WITH ()6 IN THE RESPONSE EVEN THOUGHTHEIRPARTICIPATIONISCRITICALFORTHESUCCESSOF ()6 PREVENTION TREATMENT AND CARE EFFORTS 3TIGMA INCLUDING THE CRIMINALISATION OF RISKY BEHAVIOURS AND A WIDESPREAD LACK OF LEGAL PROTECTIONS CONTINUES TO ACT AS AN OBSTACLE FOR SCALING UP INTERVENTIONS WITH POPULATIONS WHO ARE TYPICALLY MARGINALISED SUCH AS SEX WORKERS GAY MEN AND OTHER MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITHMEN INJECTINGDRUGUSERSANDPRISONERS

)NMANYSETTINGS MARRIAGEANDlDELITYARENOTENOUGH TO PROTECT WOMEN AGAINST ()6 INFECTION )N )NDIA A SIGNIlCANT PROPORTION OF NEW ()6 INFECTIONS ARE OCCURRINGINWOMENWHOAREMARRIEDANDWHOHAVE BEENINFECTEDBYHUSBANDSWHOEITHERCURRENTLYORIN THE PAST EXCHANGED MONEY FOR SEX ()6 PREVENTION PROGRAMMES THAT FOCUS ON ABSTINENCE lDELITY IN MARRIAGE AND CONDOM USE HAVE GREAT LIMITATIONS IN THISCONTEXT-UCHGREATEREFFORTSAREREQUIREDTOBETTER UNDERSTAND THE FACTORS THAT CAN INmUENCE BEHAVIOUR CHANGE AND CONDOM USE WITHIN MARRIAGE )F ()6 PREVENTION CAREANDTREATMENTACTIVITIESARETOHAVE ANIMPACT THEYMUSTBEEVIDENCE BASEDANDOCCUR ALONGSIDEOTHEREFFORTSSUCHASLEGALREFORMINCLUDING PROPERTYRIGHTS ANDTHEPROMOTIONOFWOMENSRIGHTS ADDRESSINGANDREDUCINGINPARTICULARVIOLENCEAGAINST WOMENANDGIRLS

7OMEN AND GIRLS ARE OFTEN IN RELATIONSHIPS BUILT ON UNEQUAL POWER RELATIONS AND AS A RESULT ARE UNABLE TO NEGOTIATE SEXUAL ACTIVITY OR CONDOM USE INCREASING THEIR VULNERABILITY TO ()6 &EAR OF ABUSE ALSO DISCOURAGES WOMEN FROM TESTING FOR ()6 AND GETTING TREATMENT SINCE DISCLOSING THEIR STATUS TO THEIR PARTNERS OR THE LARGER COMMUNITY USUALLY EXPOSES THEM TO EVEN MORE DISCRIMINATION AND VIOLENCE 7OMEN WHOSE PARTNERS FALL SICK AND DIE PARTICULARLYOF!)$3 FREQUENTLYSUFFERDISCRIMINATION ABANDONMENT ANDVIOLENCE )N ADDITION TO BEING AT HIGH RISK OF CONTRACTING ()6 WOMENANDYOUNGGIRLSAREBEARINGADISPROPORTIONATELY HIGH BURDEN OF CARING FOR PEOPLE LIVING WITH ()6 THE SICK ANDORPHANEDCHILDRENFEMALESEXWORKERSAND THE SEXUAL PARTNERS OF DRUG USERS ARE INCREASINGLY INFECTEDANDAFFECTED

4HERE IS NOW A GROWING UNDERSTANDING THAT UNDER RESOURCED HEALTH SYSTEMS DELIVERING FRAGMENTED

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

#OMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES MUST FULLY UTILISE THEIR SHAREDVISION KNOWLEDGE RESOURCESANDEXPERIENCE TO ENSURE THAT UNIVERSAL ACCESS TO COMPREHENSIVE ()6SERVICESISACHIEVEDACROSSTHE#OMMONWEALTH BY)NLINEWITHCOMMITMENTSMADEATTHE(IGH ,EVEL-EETINGON!)$3IN*UNE #OMMONWEALTH COUNTRIESSHOULD

:AMBIAnOUTREACH WORKER#HAMA-USOKA TALKSTOPEEREDUCATORS ABOUTLIFEWITH()6 'IDEON-ENDELFOR THE)NTERNATIONAL ()6!)$3!LLIANCE

HEALTH SERVICES ARE A MAJOR BOTTLENECK IMPEDING THE SCALE UP OF ()6 PREVENTION TREATMENT CARE AND SUPPORT !CCORDING TO 7(/ KEY COMPONENTS OF HEALTH SYSTEM STRENGTHENING THAT WILL NEED TO BE ADDRESSED INCLUDE POLICY lNANCING TRAINING AND SUPPORT FOR HEALTHCARE WORKERS STRENGTHENING SUPPLY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS INFORMATION SYSTEMS MONITORING AND EVALUATION INNOVATIONS IN SERVICE DELIVERY INCLUDING INTEGRATION OF SERVICES @TASK SHIFTING ANDPUBLIC PRIVATEPARTNERSHIPS (EALTH SYSTEMS WEAKENED THROUGH YEARS OF UNDER INVESTMENT HEALTH WORKER MIGRATION AND GROWING DISEASEBURDENS ARESTRUGGLINGTOMEETTHEINCREASED DEMAND FOR HEALTHCARE RESULTING FROM ()6 )N MANY PLACES ()6 IS UNDERMINING HEALTH SYSTEMS 5RGENT ATTENTION MUST BE PAID TO STRENGTHENING HUMAN RESOURCE CAPACITY SERVICE DELIVERY HEALTH SYSTEM COMMUNITY SYSTEM INTERFACE SUPPLY MANAGEMENT ANDMONITORINGANDREPORTINGSYSTEMS

#OMMITMENTTOUNIVERSALACCESS )N*ULY ()6FEATUREDPROMINENTLYONTHEAGENDA OF THE ' 3UMMIT IN 'LENEAGLES WITH THE LEADERS OF THE ' COMMITTING TO hxDEVELOP AND IMPLEMENT A PACKAGE OF ()6 PREVENTION TREATMENT AND CARE WITH THE AIM OF AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE TO UNIVERSAL ACCESSTOTREATMENTFORALLTHOSEWHONEEDITBY ,IMITEDHEALTHSYSTEMSCAPACITYISAMAJORCONSTRAINT TO ACHIEVING THIS AND WE WILL WORK WITH OUR PARTNERS IN !FRICA TO ADDRESS THIS INCLUDING SUPPORTING THE ESTABLISHMENT OF RELIABLE AND ACCOUNTABLE SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT AND REPORTING SYSTEMS x 7E WILL WORK TO MEET THE lNANCING NEEDS FOR ()6!)$3 INCLUDING THROUGH THE REPLENISHMENT THIS YEAR OF THE 'LOBAL&UNDTOlGHT!)$3 4"AND-ALARIAxv )N 3EPTEMBER  ALL 5NITED .ATIONS MEMBER STATES ENDORSED THE UNIVERSAL ACCESS GOAL AT THE (IGH ,EVEL 0LENARY -EETING OF THE TH 3ESSION OF THE 5NITED .ATIONS 'ENERAL !SSEMBLY IN /CTOBER  (EALTH-INISTERSOFTHE!FRICAN5NIONFOLLOWED SUIT4HESEEVENTS ALONGWITHCOMMITMENTSMADEAT THE !FRICAN 5NION 3UMMIT IN !BUJA !PRIL  AND THE5.'!33 AND(IGH ,EVEL-EETINGON!)$3IN .EW9ORK-AY MARKAHISTORICOPPORTUNITYTO FURTHER INTENSIFY EFFORTS AND INCREASE THE MOMENTUM TOWARDSACHIEVINGUNIVERSALACCESSTO()6PREVENTION TREATMENTANDCARE 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

°%NSURE THAT NATIONAL ()6 PLANS INCLUDE AMBITIOUS TARGETS FOR ACHIEVING UNIVERSAL ACCESS TO ()6 PREVENTION TREATMENT CARE AND SUPPORT 4HESE TARGETS MUST BE EPIDEMIOLOGICALLY RELEVANT 4ARGETS MUSTALSOFOCUS()6PROGRAMMESTODELIVEREVIDENCE BASEDINTERVENTIONSANDTOMEETTHENEEDSOFTHOSE MOSTVULNERABLETOANDTHOSEAFFECTEDBY()6 °,EVERAGE EXPANDED GLOBAL RESOURCES TO SECURE MUCH NEEDED INCREASES IN DOMESTIC SPENDING ON ()6ANDHEALTH#OMMONWEALTHCOUNTRIESWITHHIGH AND MEDIUM ()6 BURDEN SHOULD PROVIDE TIMELINES FOR INCREASED INVESTMENT IN HEALTH TO THE LEVEL OF AT LEASTPERCENTOF'$0 °)NVEST IN SCALING UP COMPREHENSIVE ()6 SERVICES WHICH INCLUDE SPECIlC INVESTMENT IN  IMPROVING ACCESS TO ESSENTIAL MEDICINES AND COMMODITIES INCLUDINGENSURINGTHAT!24ANDOTHERESSENTIAL()6 SERVICESAREPROVIDEDFREEOFCOSTAND CONCRETE INTERVENTIONS TO REDUCE STIGMA DISCRIMINATION VIOLENCEANDGENDERINEQUALITY °$EVELOP AND RESOURCE NATIONAL ()6 PLANS WHICH STRENGTHEN COMMUNITY LEVEL PROVISION OF ()6 PREVENTION TREATMENT CARE4HISSHOULDINCLUDE ENSURINGTHATCIVILSOCIETYHASSUFlCIENTACCESSTOTHE NECESSARYTECHNICALANDlNANCIALSUPPORT MORE INDIVIDUALANDINSTITUTIONALSUPPORTFORTHEMEANINGFUL INVOLVEMENT OF PEOPLE WITH ()6  DEVELOPING AND SUPPORTING NEW CADRES OF COMMUNITY HEALTH WORKERS AND  DESIGNING SIMPLIlED STANDARDISED APPROACHES TO DELIVERING ESSENTIAL HEALTH AND ()6 SERVICES

$R !LVARO "ERMEJO IS %XECUTIVE $IRECTOR )NTERNATIONAL ()6!)$3 !LLIANCE 3USIE -C,EAN IS 3ENIOR 0OLICY !DVISOR )NTERNATIONAL ()6!)$3 !LLIANCE $R -ANDEEP $HALIWAL IS !SSOCIATE #ONSULTANT )NTERNATIONAL()6!)$3!LLIANCE AND#HAIR 0!2! #OMMONWEALTH!CTION'ROUPON()6 4HE )NTERNATIONAL ()6!)$3 !LLIANCE IS A PARTNERSHIP OF ORGANISATIONS WORKING TOGETHER TO STRENGTHEN COMMUNITY RESPONSESTO!)$3%STABLISHEDIN THE!LLIANCEWORKSIN OVERDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESIN!FRICA !SIA ,ATIN!MERICA THE #ARIBBEAN AND %ASTERN %UROPE 4HE !LLIANCE HAS A LONG AND PROUD HISTORY OF WORKING WITH COMMUNITIES AND GROUPS KEY TO THEDYNAMICSOF()6TRANSMISSION )NTERNATIONAL()6!)$3!LLIANCE 1UEENSBERRY(OUSE  1UEENS2OAD "RIGHTON".8& 5+ 4EL   %MAILMAIL AIDSALLIANCEORG

&AX   7EBSITEWWWAIDSALLIANCEORG


0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

0ROFESSOR#HRISTOPHER#OLCLOUGH #ENTREFOR#OMMONWEALTH%DUCATION #AMBRIDGE5NIVERSITY

'ENDEREQUALITYINEDUCATION INCREASINGTHEMOMENTUMFOR CHANGETHROUGHOUTTHE #OMMONWEALTH !LLNATIONSARECOMMITTED VIATHEIRESPOUSALOF THE-ILLENNIUM$EVELOPMENT'OALS TOELIMINATE GENDERDISPARITIESINEDUCATIONOVERTHENEXTFEW YEARS4HISARTICLEEXAMINESTHEMAJORCAUSESOF EXISTING INEQUALITIES IN EDUCATION BASED UPON AN ASSESSMENT OF RECENT RESEARCH RESULTS AND SETSOUTLESSONSFORPOLICYCHANGE!LTHOUGHTHE CAUSESOFINEQUALITYARECOMPLEX POLICYREFORMS TOIMPROVEWOMENSRIGHTSINTHEHOUSEHOLDAND THEMARKETPLACE TOREDUCETHEDIRECTCOSTSOF SCHOOLINGTOHOUSEHOLDS ANDTOIMPROVESCHOOL QUALITY IN GENDER AWARE WAYS CAN DO MUCH TO ENCOURAGE AND SUSTAIN INCREASED ENROLMENTS AMONG BOTH GIRLS AND BOYS !LTHOUGH THE  TARGETOFACHIEVINGGENDERPARITYATPRIMARYAND SECONDARYLEVELSHASBEENMISSED THATFOR CAN BE REACHED IF CAREFULLY FOCUSED REFORMS AREEMPLOYED !TTHETURNOFTHECENTURY BOTHTHE-ILLENNIUM$ECLARATION AND THE $AKAR &RAMEWORK FOR !CTION COMMITTED THE NATIONSOFTHEWORLDTOELIMINATINGGENDERDISPARITIESIN EDUCATIONOVERTHESHORTTERMTO ANDTOACHIEVING GENDEREQUALITYINEDUCATIONBYTHEYEAR4HESE COMMITMENTSREmECTEDBOTHANEARUNIVERSALCONCERN TOPROMOTETHEEQUALRIGHTSOFWOMENANDMENINALL ASPECTS OF LIFE n AS HAD BEEN AFlRMED IN THE HUMAN RIGHTS LEGISLATION ENACTED BY MOST COUNTRIES OVER THE PREVIOUSHALFCENTURYnANDCLEAREVIDENCETHATPATTERNS OF DISCRIMINATION AND INEQUALITY REQUIRED SPECIlC AND PURPOSIVEPOLICYACTIONIFTHEYWERETOBEOVERTURNED !TTHATTIMETHEEDUCATIONALGAPWASSUBSTANTIAL3OME PERCENTOFTHEOUT OF SCHOOLPOPULATIONATPRIMARY LEVELWEREGIRLS ANDALMOSTTWO THIRDSOFTHEMILLION PEOPLE ESTIMATED TO BE NON LITERATE WERE WOMEN !S EDUCATION SYSTEMS EXPANDED SO TOO THE ENROLMENT OF GIRLS HAD INCREASED WITH THE PROPORTION OF GIRLS TO BOYSENROLLEDCLIMBINGFROMPERCENTTOPERCENT OVERTHES&URTHERPROGRESSWASMADEOVERTHE FOLLOWING lVE YEARS BUT NOT SUFlCIENTLY SO TO ACHIEVE THEGOALOFPARITYOFENROLMENTSBY)NTHATYEAR 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

SOME  COUNTRIES FAILED TO ACHIEVE PARITY AT PRIMARY LEVEL WHILSTSOMECOUNTRIESHADNOTACHIEVEDITAT SECONDARYORHIGHERLEVELS

,OOKINGTOWARDS )T IS NOW CLEAR THAT THE GOAL SET FOR  WAS OVERLY AMBITIOUS)NORDERTOACHIEVEGENDERPARITYATPRIMARY ANDSECONDARYLEVELSOVERAlVE YEARPERIODITWOULD HAVE BEEN NECESSARY FOR LARGE NUMBERS OF OUT OF SCHOOLGIRLSTOENROLINORREJOIN CLASSESATLEVELSWELL BEYONDPRIMARYGRADE3UCH@MID CAREERENROLMENT WOULD HAVE BEEN EXTENSIVELY REQUIRED IF SECONDARY ENROLMENTPARITYWERETOHAVEBEENACHIEVEDWITHINTHE lVE YEARPERIODnATLEASTINTHOSEMANYSCHOOLSYSTEMS INWHICHMALEPUPILSSIGNIlCANTLYOUTNUMBEREDGIRLSAT ALLGRADELEVELS4HISKINDOFENROLMENTBEHAVIOURWOULD HAVEBEENUNSUSTAINABLEOVERTHEMEDIUMTERMAND IN MOST COUNTRIES IT WOULD NOT HAVE BEEN FEASIBLE IN THElRSTPLACE

!SEDUCATIONSYSTEMSEXPANDED SOTOOTHEENROLMENTOFGIRLSHAD INCREASED WITHTHEPROPORTIONOFGIRLS TOBOYSENROLLEDCLIMBINGFROMPER CENTTOPERCENTOVERTHES )TWAS THEREFORE SOMEWHATPREDICTABLETHATTHEGENDER GOALS IN EDUCATION WOULD NOT BE ACHIEVED WITHIN THE INITIAL lVE YEAR CHOSEN TIME FRAME /N THE OTHER HAND THEEXPERIENCEOFANUMBEROFNATIONSHASDEMONSTRATED THAT GIVENTHERIGHTPOLICIESANDCIRCUMSTANCES COUNTRIES COULDMAKERAPIDPROGRESSTOWARDSGENDERPARITY4HE TARGETOFACHIEVINGENROLMENTPARITYTHROUGHOUTEDUCATION BYTHUSLOOKSMUCHMORETRACTABLEnALTHOUGHTHE DEEPERGOALSOFACHIEVINGEQUALITYINEDUCATION ANDIN SOCIETYMOREBROADLY REMAINEXTREMELYCHALLENGINGFOR MOSTCOUNTRIES


0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

4HEPRIORITIESFORPOLICYCHANGECANBESTBEINFORMED BY AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE CAUSES OF EXISTING INEQUALITIES )N #OMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES THESE ARE DEPENDENTONTHEIROWNCONTEXT HISTORYANDSOCIALAND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS (OWEVER THERE ARE IMPORTANT CIRCUMSTANCESWHICHARECOMMONTOMANYCOUNTRIES AND SOME DISCUSSION OF THEIR NATURE AND EXTENT CAN HELPTOINFORMSTRATEGIESFORTACKLINGTHEM

APPEARSTYPICALLYTOAMOUNTTOAROUNDONE THIRDOFTOTAL ANNUALUNITCOSTSATPRIMARYLEVEL4HISCANREPRESENTA SIGNIlCANTPROPORTIONOFHOUSEHOLDINCOME ESPECIALLY FOR THE POOREST HOUSEHOLDS AND LEADS TO UNDER ENROLMENTOFSCHOOL AGECHILDREN PARTICULARLYGIRLS

#REATINGANENVIRONMENTWHERE EQUALITYBETWEENWOMENANDMEN ISAGUIDINGPRINCIPLEISESSENTIALTO IMPROVINGGIRLSEDUCATIONAL CHANCESANDOUTCOMES

4HESOCIALCONTEXT %DUCATIONAL DISCRIMINATION IS BOTH A CAUSE AND A CONSEQUENCE OF MUCH WIDER DISCRIMINATION AGAINST GIRLSANDWOMENINSOCIETY4HEMOSTMARKEDGENDER INEQUALITIESAREFOUNDINCOUNTRIESANDREGIONSWHERE WOMENSROLESARECONSTRAINEDBYPATRILINEALPRINCIPLES OF INHERITANCE AND DESCENT BY EARLY MARRIAGE BY FAMILY RESOURCES BEING CONTROLLED BY THE SENIOR MALE HOUSEHOLD MEMBER AND SOMETIMES BY TRADITIONAL RESTRICTIONS PREVENTING WOMEN PARTICIPATING IN THE PUBLIC SPHERE 3UCH TRADITIONS ARE OFTEN STRONGER IN THE POOREST COUNTRIES WHICH ARE ALSO FARTHEST FROM ACHIEVING UNIVERSAL SCHOOLING )T IS STRIKING THAT IN COUNTRIESWHEREENROLMENTSARELOW BOYSTENDTOBE GIVEN PREFERENCE IN ACCESS TO SCHOOLING &IGURE   #REATING AN ENVIRONMENT WHERE EQUALITY BETWEEN WOMENANDMENISAGUIDINGPRINCIPLEISESSENTIALTO IMPROVING GIRLS EDUCATIONAL CHANCES AND OUTCOMES 4HE AGENDA INVOLVES REFORMING FAMILY LAW GIVING WOMENPROPERTYANDINHERITANCERIGHTSANDDESIGNING EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES LEGISLATION 4HE AGENDA MAY BE CONTROVERSIAL BUTITPROVIDESADECISIVECOUNTERWEIGHT TOENTRENCHEDSOCIALNORMSTHATALSOAFFECTWHETHEROR NOTCHILDRENGOTOSCHOOL

2EDUCINGTHECOSTSOFSCHOOLATTENDANCE $ESPITETHEALMOSTUNIVERSALRATIlCATIONOFHUMANRIGHTS TREATIESWHICHCOMMITNATIONSTOTHEPROVISIONOF@FREE ANDCOMPULSORYEDUCATIONATPRIMARYLEVEL SCHOOLFEES ARE STILL CHARGED IN ALMOST  COUNTRIES n INCLUDING IN MANY OF THOSE THAT ARE FARTHEST FROM ACHIEVING THE ENROLMENT AND GENDER PARITY GOALS 4HE AVERAGE PARENTAL CONTRIBUTION DIFFERS BETWEEN COUNTRIES BUT IT

4HUS ABOLISHINGSCHOOLFEESATTHEPRIMARYLEVELCAN HAVE A MAJOR POSITIVE IMPACT ON ENROLMENTS AS THE RECENTEXPERIENCESOF-ALAWI 5GANDA +ENYAANDOTHER #OMMONWEALTHCOUNTRIESHAVEDEMONSTRATED"ILATERAL AIDAGENCIESCANHELPTOSUPPORTSUCHINITIATIVESnBY COMPENSATINGGOVERNMENTS ORSCHOOLS FORTHELOSSOF FEEREVENUESANDBYPROVIDINGRESOURCESTOSUPPORTTHE QUALITY OF SCHOOLING DURING ITS SUBSEQUENT EXPANSION nINWAYSWHICHCANHAVEACRUCIALROLEINENSURINGTHE SUCCESSOFSCHOOL FEEREFORMS

2EMOVINGTHENEEDFORCHILDLABOUR 4HE PROVISION OF PAID AND UNPAID CHILD LABOUR IS A LEADING CAUSE OF UNDER ENROLMENT AND DROP OUT PARTICULARLY AMONG GIRLS 2ECENT ESTIMATES SUGGEST THATMORETHANMILLIONCHILDRENAGED YEARS AREINSOMEFORMOFPAIDWORKINDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES ABOUT HALF OF WHOM ARE GIRLS )N ADDITION THERE ARE MANY MORE CHILDREN n MAINLY GIRLS n WHO SPEND CONSIDERABLE TIME EACH WEEK IN UNPAID DOMESTIC WORK INWAYSTHATAFFECTTHEIRACCESSTO ORPROGRESS IN SCHOOLING 0ARENTS ARE THE MAIN EMPLOYERS OF THESE CHILDREN n WHETHER IN THE HOUSEHOLD OR IN THE INFORMALECONOMY,EGISLATIONCANHELPTOTACKLETHIS PROBLEM BUT IN MANY CASES INCENTIVES ARE NEEDED TOPERSUADEHOUSEHOLDSTOFORGOTHEINCOMEBENElTS THEYDERIVEFROMTHEIRSCHOOL AGECHILDREN &IGURE'ENDER INEQUALITYAND ENROLMENTSAT PRIMARYLEVELIN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

&IGURE3UB 3AHARAN !FRICATHEPROPORTION OFFEMALETEACHERSAT PRIMARYLEVEL ANDTHE GENDERBALANCEOF lRSTGRADEINTAKES AVALUEOF INDICATESGENDER PARITYINENROLMENTS 

)N,ATIN!MERICA INCOMESUPPORTSCHEMESTHATPROVIDE CASHTOPOORFAMILIES CONDITIONALONSCHOOLATTENDANCE BYTHEIRCHILDREN HAVEBEENSUCCESSFULINREDUCINGTHE INCIDENCE OF CHILD LABOUR &OOD INCENTIVES PROVIDED ASMEALSATSCHOOLORASDRYFOODRATIONS CANHELPTO BOOSTENROLMENTS3CHOLARSHIPSANDBURSARIESCANALSO STRONGLYINmUENCEWHETHERGIRLSSTAYINSCHOOLTOTHEHIGHER PRIMARYANDSECONDARYLEVELS4HE&OODFOR%DUCATION 0ROGRAMME IN "ANGLADESH HAS HAD A MARKED IMPACT UPON GIRLS ENROLMENTS 3CHOLARSHIPS AT SECONDARY LEVELHAVEALSOBEENSHOWNTOHAVEMAJOREFFECTSUPON SCHOOLATTENDANCEAMONGGIRLSIN"ANGLADESH :AMBIA :IMBABWEANDELSEWHEREIN!FRICA

2EFORMINGCLASSROOMPRACTICE $ESIGNING A GENDER SENSITIVE CURRICULUM AND TRAINING TEACHERSTOBE@GENDER AWAREISNOTASIMPLEPROCESS 4HEFACTTHATGIRLSARESTILLUNDERREPRESENTEDINSCIENCE SUBJECTS IN INDUSTRIALISED COUNTRIES AT SECONDARY AND TERTIARY LEVELS POINTS TO ENDURING BIASES )N THE DEVELOPING WORLD ALTHOUGH PROGRESS HAS OFTEN BEEN MADE IN REMOVING FROM SCHOOL TEXTS THE PORTRAYAL OF WOMEN IN STEREOTYPICAL ACTIVITIES IN MANY COUNTRIES REGULARGENDERAUDITINGOFCURRICULARMATERIALSISNEEDED IFTHEBARRIERSARETOBEBROKENDOWN

2ECENTESTIMATESSUGGESTTHAT MORETHANMILLIONCHILDRENAGED  YEARSAREINSOMEFORMOF PAIDWORKINDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES ABOUTHALFOFWHOMAREGIRLS )RRESPECTIVE OF CURRICULUM DESIGN THE WAY IN WHICH IT IS INTERPRETED BY TEACHERS HAS A CRUCIAL INmUENCE ON STUDENTS 4EACHERS CAN PROVIDE ROLE MODELS AND A SENSE OF DIRECTION AND ENCOURAGEMENT TO BOTH BOYS AND GIRLS (OWEVER THEY CANNOT BE EXPECTED TO SEPARATE THEMSELVES EASILY FROM THE POWERFUL CULTURALANDSOCIALNORMSWITHWHICHTHEYTHEMSELVES HAVE GROWN UP )N STRONGLY PATRIARCHAL ENVIRONMENTS TEACHERS FACE POWERFUL OBSTACLES IN CHOOSING THEIR 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

OWNCAREERSANDACTIVITIES ANDINSUCHCIRCUMSTANCES GENDER SENSITISATION COURSES ARE SELDOM A STANDARD PARTOFTEACHERTRAININGPROGRAMMES .OTWITHSTANDING THESE DIFlCULTIES HIRING MORE FEMALE TEACHERS AND TRAINING THEM WELL ARE TOP PRIORITIES FOR COUNTRIESWHEREGENDERDISPARITIESREMAINHIGH)NSUB 3AHARAN!FRICA WOMENHOLDONLYONE THIRD ORLESS OF TEACHINGPOSTS ANDINSOMECOUNTRIESTHEIRNUMBERSARE EXTREMELYSMALL4HEREARESTRONGCORRELATIONSBETWEEN GIRLS ENROLMENTS AT PRIMARY LEVEL AND THE PRESENCE OF FEMALE TEACHERS &IGURE  AND WHERE THE FEMALE MALE TEACHER RATIO IS LOW DELIBERATE POLICY MEASURES TO INCREASE IT SHOULD BE A LEADING COMPONENT OF ANY GENDERSTRATEGY4HEREAREINITIATIVESTOLEADTHEWAYINA NUMBEROFSUB 3AHARAN!FRICANCOUNTRIES THE&ORUMFOR !FRICAN7OMEN%DUCATIONALISTS&!7% HASESTABLISHED @CENTRESOFEXCELLENCETOBUILDTHECAPACITYOFTEACHERS THROUGHCOURSESONGENDERSENSITISATIONANDAWARENESS THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE MATHS AND TECHNOLOGY AND TRAININGINGENDER RESPONSIVEMETHODOLOGIES

,ITERACYPROGRAMMESTIEDTO INCOME GENERATINGACTIVITIES ANDTO HEALTHANDHUMANRIGHTSAWARENESS CAMPAIGNS HAVESHOWNTHEIR POTENTIALTOEMPOWERWOMEN 0ROMOTINGSAFETYANDWOMENS EMPOWERMENT 3CHOOLSAREOFTENNOTSAFEPLACESFORLEARNINGVIOLENCE AGAINST GIRLS BY OTHER PUPILS AND EVEN BY TEACHERS HELPS TO PERPETUATE THE GENDER GAP IN EDUCATION ! NUMBER OF STUDIES FROM !FRICA SUGGEST THAT MUCH GENDERVIOLENCEINSCHOOLSGOESUNREPORTEDBECAUSE STUDENTS FEAR VICTIMISATION PUNISHMENT OR RIDICULE 0LACING SCHOOLS CLOSER TO HOMES IS ALSO IMPORTANT IN MANYCOUNTRIESnWHERETHEDISTANCETOSCHOOLISLARGE THE SAFETY OF CHILDREN DURING THE JOURNEY TO SCHOOL IS PARTICULARLYINmUENTIALINAFFECTINGPARENTALDECISIONSTO SENDTHEIRGIRLSTOSCHOOL


0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

'IRLS HAVE A MUCH HIGHER CHANCE OF ATTENDING SCHOOL IFTHEIRMOTHERSAREEDUCATEDnEVENIFSUCHEDUCATION WAS ACQUIRED AT A MATURE AGE ,ITERACY PROGRAMMES TIED TO INCOME GENERATING ACTIVITIES AND TO HEALTH AND HUMANRIGHTSAWARENESSCAMPAIGNS HAVESHOWNTHEIR POTENTIALTOEMPOWERWOMEN,INKINGSUCHPROGRAMMES TOEARLYCHILDHOODCAREANDEDUCATIONGENERATESSTRONG BENElTS OFTENATLOWCOST!NEFFECTIVERECOGNITIONOFTHE LINKSBETWEENDIFFERENTGENERATIONSOFLEARNERSPAVESTHE WAYTOWARDSGREATEREQUALITY INEDUCATIONANDBEYOND

!COMMITTEDSHIFTTOWARDSTHE CREATIONOFGENDEREQUALITYIN EDUCATIONWOULDSTIMULATEARANGE OFPERSONAL ECONOMICANDSOCIAL BENElTSTHATWELLEXCEEDTHEIRCOSTS -OBILISINGTHECOMMITMENT 4HERE IS NO SINGLE CAUSE OF INEQUALITY IN EDUCATION AND MANY REFORMS ARE AT HAND WHICH ARE CAPABLE OF ADDRESSING IT 4HE STATE HAS A CRITICAL ROLE TO PLAY IN CREATINGANENVIRONMENTTHATPROMOTESGREATEREQUALITY THROUGHLEGISLATIVEANDPOLICYREFORM4HEREISANEED TO TARGET RESOURCES FOR FEMALE EDUCATION AND TO INTRODUCE DELIBERATE MEASURES TO REDUCE INEQUITIES 4HEMAINREQUIREMENTSARETOMOBILISETHENECESSARY POLITICALCOMMITMENT EXPERTISEANDRESOURCES SOAS TORESPONDTOTHEURGENCYOFTHETASK!RGUMENTSTHAT EQUALITYCANNOTBEAFFORDED ORTHATITWOULDGENERATE PRESSURESTHATWOULDCONmICTWITHOTHER MOREPRESSING DEVELOPMENT PRIORITIES ARE LARGELY MISGUIDED /N THE CONTRARY A COMMITTED SHIFT TOWARDS THE CREATION OF GENDEREQUALITYINEDUCATIONWOULDSTIMULATEARANGE OF PERSONAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL BENElTS THAT WELL EXCEED THEIR COSTS )T WOULD PROVIDE THE CORNERSTONE TO ALLOW WOMEN AND MEN TO ENJOY THE RIGHTS AND

FREEDOMSSPELTOUTINTHE5.#HARTERON(UMAN2IGHTS MORETHANHALFACENTURYAGO ANDWHICHTHEWORLDHAS RECOMMITTEDITSELFTOACHIEVEOVERTHEYEARSTO

#HRISTOPHER #OLCLOUGH IS 0ROFESSOR OF THE %CONOMICS OF %DUCATIONAT#AMBRIDGE5NIVERSITYAND$IRECTOROFTHE#ENTREFOR #OMMONWEALTH %DUCATION AT THE 5NIVERSITY "EFORE COMING TO #AMBRIDGE HEWASTHEFOUNDING$IRECTOR  AT5.%3#/ OF THE 'LOBAL -ONITORING 2EPORT ON %DUCATION FOR !LL AND A 0ROFESSORIAL &ELLOW OF THE )NSTITUTE FOR $EVELOPMENT 3TUDIES 3USSEX(EISCURRENTLYLEADINGACONSORTIUMOFSEVENRESEARCH INSTITUTIONS FROM lVE COUNTRIES IN A 2ESEARCH #ONSORTIUM ON %DUCATIONAL/UTCOMESAND0OVERTY2%#/50 !DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIST HEHASPUBLISHEDEXTENSIVELYONPROBLEMSOFHUMAN RESOURCES EDUCATIONANDECONOMICDEVELOPMENT 4HE#ENTREFOR#OMMONWEALTH%DUCATIONISAJOINTCOLLABORATIVE INITIATIVEBETWEENTHE#OMMONWEALTH)NSTITUTEANDTHE5NIVERSITY OF #AMBRIDGE ESTABLISHED IN  TO UNDERTAKE RESEARCH TEACHING POLICY ANALYSIS AND ADVISORY WORK ON EDUCATIONAL PROBLEMSIN#OMMONWEALTHCOUNTRIES 4HE 2ESEARCH #ONSORTIUM ON %DUCATIONAL /UTCOMES AND 0OVERTY 2%#/50 COMPRISES SEVEN PARTNERS FROM THE 5+ 'HANA +ENYA )NDIA AND 0AKISTAN LED BY THE 5NIVERSITY OF #AMBRIDGE )T IS ONE OF THREE MAJOR RESEARCH PROGRAMMES ON EDUCATIONINDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESFUNDEDBYTHE5+$EPARTMENT FOR )NTERNATIONAL $EVELOPMENT $F)$ OVER THE PERIOD  4HE #ONSORTIUM SEEKS TO IMPROVE EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES FOR THE POOR IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES THROUGH RESEARCH CAPACITY BUILDING COMMUNICATION ANDDISSEMINATION #ENTREFOR#OMMONWEALTH%DUCATION #AMBRIDGE5NIVERSITY&ACULTYOF%DUCATION (ILLS2OAD #AMBRIDGE #"01 4EL   %MAILRECOUP HERMESCAMACUK 7EBSITEWWWEDUCCAMACUK2%#/50

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

+OÕCHIRO-ATSUURA $IRECTOR 'ENERALOF5.%3#/

3TRONGFOUNDATIONSAMUSTTO REACH%DUCATIONFOR!LL !TTENTIVELEARNERTHE *AMAICAN2OVING #AREGIVERS0ROGRAMME HELPSCHILDRENAND FAMILIESIN DISADVANTAGEDAREAS

,EARNING BEGINS AT BIRTH AS OVER  COUNTRIES AFlRMEDIN*OMTIEN 4HAILANDINATTHE7ORLD #ONFERENCEON%DUCATIONFOR!LL4ENYEARSLATER IN $AKAR 3ENEGAL THE CRUCIAL RELEVANCE OF THE CHILDSEARLYYEARSBECAMETHESUBJECTOFTHElRST %DUCATIONFOR!LL%&! GOAL4HISGOALADDRESSES ACCESS QUALITYANDEQUITYBYEXPLICITLYCALLINGFOR hEXPANDING AND IMPROVING EARLY CHILDHOOD CARE ANDEDUCATIONESPECIALLYFORTHEMOSTVULNERABLE AND DISADVANTAGED CHILDRENv 4HE REASONS ARE COMPELLING TOO MANY YOUNG CHILDREN TODAY ARE ATRISK !CHILDBORNINTHEDEVELOPINGWORLDHASAONEINFOUR CHANCEOFLIVINGINEXTREMEPOVERTY!BOUTMILLION CHILDRENDIEEACHYEARBEFORETHEAGEOFlVE MOSTFROM PREVENTABLE DISEASES #HRONIC HUNGER DEPRIVATION OF CAREANDPOORTREATMENTDIRECTLYAFFECTACHILDSABILITY TO LEARN WITH REPERCUSSIONS OFTEN FELT INTO THE ADULT YEARS )F COUNTRIES ARE SERIOUS ABOUT MAKING PRIMARY EDUCATION UNIVERSAL BY  PUBLIC POLICY MUST PAY HEEDTOWHATHAPPENSBEFOREACHILDWALKSTHROUGHTHE DOOROFTHEPRIMARYCLASSROOMFORTHElRSTTIME 4HE SIX %&! GOALS ADOPTED IN  CANNOT BE ADDRESSED IN ISOLATION 'OOD QUALITY EARLY CHILDHOOD CAREANDEDUCATIONHASIMMEDIATEBENElTSINADDITION TO FAVOURABLE REPERCUSSIONS ON ALL THE OTHER GOALS #HILDRENWHOPARTICIPATEINEARLYCHILDHOODPROGRAMMES PARTICULARLY WHEN THEY COME FROM DISADVANTAGED BACKGROUNDS AREMORELIKELYTOMAKETHETRANSITIONTO PRIMARYSCHOOLANDTOCOMPLETETHEPRIMARYCYCLE%&! 'OAL  UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION  /LDER SISTERS OR OTHERFEMALEKINARERELIEVEDOFCARERESPONSIBILITIES A COMMON BARRIER TO GIRLS ENROLMENT IN PRIMARY SCHOOL %&! 'OAL  GENDER PARITY  0ROGRAMMES CAN WORK CLOSELYWITHADULTSTOIMPROVETHEIRPARENTINGANDOTHER SKILLS AND TO INTEGRATE THESE INTO LITERACY PROGRAMMES %&! 'OALS  AND  LIFE SKILLS AND LITERACY  &INALLY EARLY CHILDHOOD CARE AND EDUCATION %##% IS LINKED TO FUTURE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND CONTRIBUTES TO THE OVERALL EFlCIENCY OF EDUCATION SYSTEMS %&! 'OAL  QUALITY  !T A BROADER LEVEL %##% PROGRAMMES HAVEANUNCONTESTEDIMPACTONREDUCINGPOVERTY THE OVERARCHINGAIMOFTHE-ILLENNIUM$EVELOPMENT'OALS $ESPITE THESE MULTIPLE BENElTS %##% PROGRAMMES ARENOTAPRIORITYACROSSMOSTOFTHEDEVELOPINGWORLD

#REDIT5.%3#/ '-ASTERS

#HILDRENUPTOAGElVEACCOUNTFORPERCENTOFTHE WORLDPOPULATIONnSOMEMILLIONnANDTHEIRNUMBER IS EXPECTED TO REACH  MILLION BY  DRIVEN BY GROWTHINSUB 3AHARAN!FRICAANDTHE!RAB3TATES 4HEEDITIONOF5.%3#/S%&!'LOBAL-ONITORING 2EPORT @3TRONG &OUNDATIONS %ARLY CHILDHOOD CARE AND EDUCATION WWWEFAREPORTUNESCOORG DRAWS ADETAILEDPICTUREOFTHESTATEOF%##%ANDMAKESA SUBSTANTIVECASEFORPOLICYTOFOCUSMORESYSTEMATICALLY ONTHElRSTEIGHTYEARSOFACHILDSLIFE

7HEREDOWESTAND 4HE REPORT lNDS THAT THE YOUNGEST CHILDREN ARE THE MOSTNEGLECTEDALMOSTHALFTHEWORLDSCOUNTRIESOFFER NOFORMALPROGRAMMESFORCHILDRENUNDERAGETHREE A TIMEOFREMARKABLEPOTENTIALANDEXTREMEVULNERABILITY -INISTRIES OF EDUCATION TEND TO VIEW EDUCATION AT THIS AGE AS THE SOLE RESPONSIBILITY OF PARENTS PRIVATE ASSOCIATIONS OR NON GOVERNMENTAL AGENCIES 9ET WHETHERINFORMALORNON FORMALSETTINGS INTERVENTIONS TARGETED AT THE YOUNGEST AGE GROUP CAN SIGNIlCANTLY COMPENSATEFORDISADVANTAGE)NDIAS)NTEGRATED#HILD $EVELOPMENT 3ERVICES )#$3 FOR EXAMPLE PROVIDES A PACKAGE OF SERVICES TO SOME  MILLION VULNERABLE CHILDREN UNDER AGE SIX IN CITY SLUMS TRIBAL AREAS AND REMOTEREGIONS 4HEPICTUREISDIFFERENTFORCHILDRENABOVETHEAGEOFTHREE /VERTHEPASTYEARSTHENUMBEROFCHILDRENENROLLED IN PRE PRIMARY EDUCATION HAS INCREASED THREEFOLD !MONGDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES ABOUTONECHILDINTHREEIS ENROLLEDINAPRE PRIMARYINSTITUTION COMPAREDWITHONE ININ)NTHE#OMMONWEALTHCOUNTRIESFORWHICH

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

!T(AGARA%LEMENTARY 3CHOOLIN0ORT-ORESBY 0APUA.EW'UINEA A COUNTRYWITHOVER DIFFERENTLANGUAGES CHILDRENlRSTSTARTTO READANDWRITEIN-OTU THEIRLOCALLANGUAGEAS PARTOFANATIONWIDE MULTILINGUALEDUCATION POLICY,EARNINGIN THEMOTHERTONGUE FACILITATESSUBSEQUENT ACHIEVEMENTIN PRIMARYSCHOOL

AS THE MAIN INSTRUCTION MEDIUM AND THE INTEGRATION OF EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT AS A COMPULSORY SUBJECT IN TEACHER TRAINING *AMAICA WHICH HAS ACHIEVED NEAR UNIVERSAL PRE SCHOOL COVERAGE IS NOW FOCUSING ON IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF PROGRAMMES REACHING THE MOST DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN AND LAUNCHINGANATIONALPARENTINGPOLICY

#REDIT5.%3#/22OE

DATAAREAVAILABLE MILLIONCHILDRENWEREENROLLEDIN PRE PRIMARYEDUCATIONIN(UGEREGIONALVARIATIONS PREVAIL7HILEIN,ATIN!MERICAANDTHE#ARIBBEANTHREE QUARTERSOFCOUNTRIESHAVEGROSSENROLMENTRATIOS'%2S ABOVE  PER CENT HALF THE COUNTRIES IN SUB 3AHARAN !FRICAHAVERATIOSLOWERTHANPERCENT)N3OUTHAND 7EST!SIAMOSTCOUNTRIESNOWENROLBETWEENONE THIRD ANDONE HALFOFTHEIRCHILDRENINPRE PRIMARYEDUCATION )NTHE#OMMONWEALTHCOUNTRIESOFSUB 3AHARAN!FRICA -AURITIUSANDTHE3EYCHELLESHAVE'%2SCLOSETO SO DO -ALAYSIA IN !SIA AND 'UYANA AND 3T +ITTS AND .EVISINTHE#ARIBBEAN!TTHEOTHERENDOFTHESCALE SIX COUNTRIES #AMEROON 'AMBIA .IGERIA 5GANDA "ANGLADESH AND &IJI )SLANDS HAVE A '%2 OF LESS THAN PERCENT

,ONG TERMBENElTSFROMSTARTINGEARLY -OVING%##%UPONPOLICYAGENDASISNOTONLYURGENT FOR THE WELL BEING OF CHILDREN BUT ALSO TO IMPROVE EDUCATIONAL PROSPECTS ACROSS THE BOARD %VEN IN THE CONTEXT OF TIGHT BUDGETS AND COMPETING PRIORITIES THEREISAVERYSTRONGCASEFORINCREASINGINVESTMENTIN %##% PROGRAMMES 3UCH PROGRAMMES YIELD IMPRESSIVE EDUCATIONAL AND ECONOMIC RETURNS ESPECIALLY FOR CHILDREN FROM POOR FAMILIES ,ANDMARK STUDIES IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES STAND AS PROOF WHILE GROWING EVIDENCE FROM DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ALSO POINTSTOHIGHCOSTBENElTRATIOS )NSHORT EDUCATIONPOLICYREQUIRESALONG TERMVISIONIT ISMORECOST EFFECTIVETOINSTITUTEPREVENTIVEMEASURES ANDSUPPORTFORCHILDRENEARLYONTHANTOCOMPENSATE FOR DISADVANTAGE AS THEY GROW OLDER 4HE TREND HOWEVER ISFORCOUNTRIESANDTHEDONORCOMMUNITYTO RALLY BEHIND THE GOAL OF UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION LARGELY NEGLECTING EARLY CHILDHOOD AND ADULT LITERACY PROGRAMMES )N THIS CONTEXT HOW CAN WE GENERATE STRONGERAWARENESSANDCOMMITMENTTO%##%

4OP LEVELCOMMITMENTS 0OLITICAL ENDORSEMENT AT THE HIGHEST LEVEL IS THE lRST STEPTOWARDSCREATINGAFAVOURABLEPOLICYENVIRONMENT %##% MUST BE RECOGNISED AS ESSENTIAL TO CHILDRENS PRESENT WELFARE AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENT 'HANA IS EXPANDING BASIC EDUCATION TO INCLUDE TWO YEARS OF KINDERGARTEN PARTLY IN RESPONSE TO THE NUMBER OF CHILDREN LIVING IN DEPRIVATION 4HE COUNTRYS EARLY CHILDHOOD POLICY HAS LED TO THE OPENING OF KINDERGARTENS THE ENCOURAGEMENT OF LOCAL LANGUAGE 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

0OLICYATTHISLEVELISPARTICULARLYCHALLENGINGBECAUSEAN INTEGRATEDAPPROACHRHYMESWITHCOORDINATIONnNOTONLY BETWEEN MINISTRIES RESPONSIBLE FOR EDUCATION HEALTH SOCIALAFFAIRSANDWOMEN BUTALSOAMONGPRIVATEACTORS NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS AND COMMUNITIES THEMSELVES3EVERAL!FRICAN#OMMONWEALTHCOUNTRIES INCLUDING -AURITIUS 'HANA AND .AMIBIA HAVE RATIlED NATIONAL %##% POLICIES THAT ADOPT AN INTEGRATED APPROACH BY ADDRESSING ISSUES RELATED TO HEALTH NUTRITION WATER SANITATIONANDCHILDPROTECTION !N INCREASING NUMBER OF COUNTRIES ARE CONSOLIDATING RESPONSIBILITYFORALLFORMSOF%##%UNDERONEMINISTRY TO INCREASE POLICY COHERENCE %XPERIENCES IN SEVERAL SUGGEST THAT A PROPERLY RESOURCED INTER MINISTERIAL BODY CAN HELP PROMOTE COORDINATION 0ARTNERSHIPS WITH INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS OR AID AGENCIES CAN PROVIDETECHNICALASSISTANCEFORNATIONALPLANNINGAND GENERATE SEED MONEY FOR PROJECTS &INALLY INTEGRATING EARLYCHILDHOODINTOPOVERTYREDUCTIONSTRATEGYPAPERS n AS IN 'HANA 5GANDA AND :AMBIA n IS A STRATEGIC WAYTOLEVERAGERESOURCESFOREARLYCHILDHOOD %##% IS NOT A LUXURY IT IS A RIGHT AND THE FOUNDATION OF SUBSEQUENT LEARNING 3UCH RECOGNITION IMPLIES lNANCINGCHOICES9ETCOMMITMENTTOEXPANDINGEARLY CHILDHOOD CARE AND EDUCATION IS MORE THE EXCEPTION THANTHERULE3PENDINGONPRE PRIMARYISLESSTHAN PERCENTOFPUBLICSPENDINGONEDUCATIONASAWHOLE 4HE BURDEN OFTEN FALLS ON PARENTS 4HIS UNTENABLE SITUATION AUTOMATICALLY EXCLUDES CHILDREN FROM THE POOREST FAMILIES )N CONTEXTS WHERE THE PRIVATE SECTOR PLAYSAPROMINENTROLEnASINSUB 3AHARAN!FRICA THE !RAB 3TATES THE #ARIBBEAN AND %AST !SIA n PUBLIC POLICY MUST ENSURE THAT REGULATIONS EXIST THAT APPLY TOALLSETTINGS 4HE%&!EARLYCHILDHOODGOALPLACESSPECIALEMPHASIS ON REACHING THE MOST DISADVANTAGED AND VULNERABLE CHILDREN $EVELOPING A UNIVERSAL POLICY APPLICABLE TO ALLCHILDRENTHATCLARIlESISSUESRELATEDTOGOVERNANCE CURRICULUM LEARNING AND QUALITY ASSURANCE OFFERS AN OVERALLNATIONALFRAMEWORK"UTINTHECONTEXTOFMANY DEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES THISPOLICYMAYBEBESTIMPLEMENTED THROUGHAPHASE INAPPROACHWHEREBYRESOURCESARE TARGETED TOWARDS THE MOST DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN EITHERGEOGRAPHICALLYORBYINCOMEGROUP

4HEEQUITYYARDSTICK 4HISFOCUSONACCESS QUALITYANDEQUITYMUSTGUIDEALL OURINITIATIVESINFAVOUROF%&!%DUCATIONSYSTEMSCAN BEJUDGEDBYTHEEXTENTTOWHICHTHEYGIVEALLCHILDREN ACCESSTOLEARNINGOPPORTUNITIESANDENABLESUCCESS INEDUCATIONALACHIEVEMENT4HEREHASBEENSIGNIlCANT PROGRESSINACCESSSINCEENROLMENTSIN3OUTH AND7EST!SIAGREWBYPERCENT ANDINSUB 3AHARAN


0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

)NAVILLAGE OFWESTERN "ANGLADESH A WOMANWHONEVER WENTTOSCHOOL FOLLOWSCLASSES COMBINING LITERACY HEALTH ANDLIFESKILLS

!FRICABYPERCENT4HENUMBEROFCHILDRENENROLLED IN PRIMARY EDUCATION IN #OMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES INCREASED FROM  MILLION TO  MILLION BETWEEN  AND  WITH NEARLY  PER CENT OF THE TOTAL ACCOUNTEDFORBYlVECOUNTRIES)NDIA .IGERIA 5NITED 2EPUBLIC OF 4ANZANIA -OZAMBIQUE AND +ENYA  4HE FASTEST PROGRESS IS BEING MADE IN COUNTRIES FURTHEST FROM UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION 4HIS PROVIDES A MEASURE OF HOW MUCH CAN BE ACCOMPLISHED WHEN COUNTRIES AND THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY JOIN FORCES FOR CONCERTED ACTIONS "UT WE ARE ALSO FACED WITH CONSIDERABLECHALLENGES

/VERARCHINGCHALLENGES &IRST THEREARESTILLMILLIONCHILDRENOUTOFSCHOOLnOF WHICHMILLIONAREINTHE#OMMONWEALTHCOUNTRIES WITH DATA 3IX #OMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES ARE HOME TO MORE THAN ONE MILLION OUT OF SCHOOL CHILDREN 'HANA )NDIA +ENYA -OZAMBIQUE .IGERIA AND 0AKISTAN  *USTOVERPERCENTAREGIRLS!GAIN THEREAREHIGHLY ENCOURAGING INDICATIONS OF CHANGE NOTABLY IN )NDIA WHERE THE NUMBER OF OUT OF SCHOOL CHILDREN DROPPED SHARPLY BETWEEN  AND  )N A MAJORITY OF COUNTRIES THOSE MOST LIKELY TO NEVER ATTEND SCHOOL ORTODROPOUTEARLYLIVEINRURALAREASANDCOMEFROM THEPOORESTHOUSEHOLDS!BOLISHINGSCHOOLFEESISAN ESSENTIALMEASURETOALLOWALLCHILDRENTOATTENDSCHOOL A STEP TAKEN BY SEVERAL #OMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES INCLUDINGTHE5NITED2EPUBLICOF4ANZANIAAND+ENYA 3ECOND THE  TARGET DATE FOR ACHIEVING GENDER PARITY IN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION HAS BEEN MISSED !LTHOUGH TWO THIRDS OF COUNTRIES HAVE ACHIEVEDGENDERPARITYINPRIMARYEDUCATION DISPARITIES ATTHEEXPENSEOFGIRLSREMAINSIGNIlCANTATTHISLEVELIN MANYCOUNTRIES OFTENTHOSEWITHTHELOWESTENROLMENT RATIOS /UT OF THE  #OMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES WITH DATA  HAVE NOT ACHIEVED GENDER PARITY IN PRIMARY EDUCATION&AILINGTOACHIEVEGENDERPARITYINEDUCATION ISAMAJOROBSTACLETODEVELOPMENT MAKINGGIRLSMORE VULNERABLETOPOVERTY HUNGERANDEXPLOITATION 4HIRD TOOMANYCHILDRENWHOSTARTSCHOOLFAILTOREACH THE LAST GRADE OF PRIMARY n FEWER THAN TWO THIRDS IN HALF THE COUNTRIES OF SUB 3AHARAN !FRICA (OUSEHOLD POVERTY THE NEED FOR DOMESTIC CHILD LABOUR AND THE LOSS OF PARENTS FROM ()6!)$3 REPRESENT ONE FACET OF THE PROBLEM 4HE OTHER IS THE POOR QUALITY OF TEACHING AND LEARNING OVERCROWDED CLASSES LACK OF LEARNING MATERIALS INSUFlCIENT INSTRUCTIONAL TIME AND INADEQUATELY TRAINED TEACHERS 3UB 3AHARAN !FRICA ALONE NEEDS TO RECRUIT AT LEAST  MILLION TEACHERS TO ACHIEVEUNIVERSALPRIMARYEDUCATIONBY &OURTH  MILLION ADULTS n ONE IN lVE n LACK BASIC LITERACYSKILLS AFORMIDABLEBARRIERTOMAKINGINFORMED CHOICES AND IMPROVING LIVELIHOODS /VER  PER CENT OF THESE ADULTS LIVE IN THE #OMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES CONCENTRATED IN )NDIA "ANGLADESH AND 0AKISTAN !DULTLITERACYRATESREMAINBELOWPERCENTIN3OUTH AND 7EST !SIA SUB 3AHARAN !FRICA THE !RAB 3TATES AND THE #ARIBBEAN /N CURRENT TRENDS THIS lGURE WILL ONLYDECREASEBYMILLIONBY

#REDIT5.%3#/ "/-ALLEY

&INALLY AID TO BASIC EDUCATION MUST SUPPORT COUNTRY EFFORTS ANDBEPREDICTABLEANDLONG TERM"ILATERALAID FOREDUCATIONINCREASEDFROM53BILLIONINTO 53BILLIONIN OFWHICH53BILLIONGOES TOBASICEDUCATION!NEGLIGIBLEAMOUNTGOESTOEARLY CHILDHOOD)TISESTIMATEDTHAT53BILLIONISREQUIREDTO DELIVERUNIVERSALACCESSTOPRIMARYEDUCATION EXPAND ADULTLITERACYANDEARLYCHILDHOODPROGRAMMES 5.%3#/ IN ITS ROLE AS THE GLOBAL COORDINATOR OF %DUCATION FOR !LL AIMS TO PROVIDE SUPPORT TO NATIONAL LEADERSHIPANDTOSTRENGTHENINTERNATIONALCOOPERATION TO REACH THE %&! GOALS 4HREE SPECIlC INITIATIVES ARE INPLACETHE4EACHER4RAINING)NITIATIVEIN3UB 3AHARAN !FRICA %$5#!)$3 TO GLOBALLY SCALE UP EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMMES ON ()6 AND !)$3 AND THE ,ITERACY )NITIATIVEFOR%MPOWERMENT PARTOFTHE5NITED.ATIONS ,ITERACY$ECADE %DUCATION IS A HUMAN RIGHT AND PLAYS A CRUCIAL ROLE IN POVERTY REDUCTION #OUNTRIES AND THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITYHAVETHERESPONSIBILITYTOEXTENDTHISRIGHT TOALLCHILDREN YOUTHANDADULTS STARTINGINTHEEARLIEST YEARS OF LIFE 0EACE HUMAN SECURITY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTDEPENDTOALARGEEXTENTONGIVINGPEOPLE THE CAPABILITIES TO SHAPE THEIR FUTURE A RESPONSIBILITY THATBEGINSINTHEVERYlRSTYEARSOFLIFE +O̥CHIRO -ATSUURA HAS BEEN $IRECTOR 'ENERAL OF 5.%3#/ SINCE .OVEMBER  (AVING SERVED AN INITIAL SIX YEAR TERM HEWASRE ELECTEDIN/CTOBERFORASECONDFOUR YEARTERM 0RIORTOJOINING5.%3#/AS#HAIRPERSONOFTHE7ORLD(ERITAGE #OMMITTEEIN -R-ATSUURAHELDVARIOUSPOSITIONSWITHTHE *APANESE -INISTRY OF &OREIGN !FFAIRS CULMINATING AS *APANESE !MBASSADOR TO &RANCE CONCURRENTLY TO !NDORRA AND $JIBOUTI  (ESTUDIEDATTHE5NIVERSITYOF4OKYO&ACULTYOF,AW ANDTHEN (AVERFORD#OLLEGE&ACULTYOF%CONOMICS 53! 4HE 5NITED .ATIONS %DUCATIONAL 3CIENTIlC AND #ULTURAL /RGANIZATION 5.%3#/ PROMOTES INTERNATIONAL CO OPERATION AMONG ITS  MEMBER STATES AND SIX ASSOCIATE MEMBERS IN THE lELDS OF EDUCATION SCIENCE CULTURE AND COMMUNICATION 5.%3#/ISWORKINGTOCREATETHECONDITIONSFORGENUINEDIALOGUE ANDPEACEBASEDUPONRESPECTFORSHAREDVALUESANDTHEDIGNITY OFEACHCIVILISATIONANDCULTURE4ODAY 5.%3#/SPRINCIPALPRIORITY IS%DUCATIONFOR!LL WHICHISSEENASTHEFOUNDATIONFORSUSTAINABLE HUMANDEVELOPMENTANDTHEBUILDINGOFKNOWLEDGESOCIETIES  PLACEDE&ONTENOY 0ARIS30 &RANCE  RUE-IOLLIS 0ARIS#EDEX &RANCE 4EL   &AX   %MAILBPI UNESCOORG 7EBSITEWWWUNESCOORG

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




The Technology Association of South Africa

The Technology Association of South Africa is a non profit organizaion which has a vision to promote the development of teachers and learners who are technologically literate, skillful, informed, knowledgeable, discerning, innovative and creative. Our mission is to empower teachers to develop learners to become skilled problem solvers. We have branches in every province and Botswana and attempt to reach as many teaches as possible by having conferences and weekend workshops to provide training and lesson plans. The Technology Association of South Africa was started by Andre Goosen from Western Province Prep to get technology teachers together to share ideas, to learn and to grow. It has been in existence since 1995, and now has branches in most regions of the country. Our next chairperson was Karen Walstra, and the present Chairperson is Sue Murray. Once a year an annual conference is held, where many hands-on, practical technology lessons are offered to all delegates. An extensive conference book is given, containing all the lesson ideas. International and Natioanl speakers are invited to present their views and ideas on technology. Some of the international guests over the years

have been Prof Clare Benson from Birmingham University, Dawn Coburn from Dunedin College of Education, New Zealand, Dr Gill Hope from Canterbury Christ Church University College, Kent, England. Dr Welby Ings from Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand. The conference moves from province to province every second year. Two Technology Olympiads have been organised for primary school children aged: 10 – 12 years, the day is divided into two. The first half the learners present the product they have developed, the second part, learners are divided into groups and given a problem to solve with limited resources. Every month a newsletter is mailed to all members called: Snippets. South Africa is a very diverse country where there are areas with excellent facilities and rural areas with little or no facitities. The committed committee try to establish the needs in the different areas and then provide training. Each region organises its own workshops, and / or Regional Conference. We have members throughout South Africa and even in Botswana. In Limpopo there is a small rural school called Mannyetha Primary. We first

visited the school to provide training three years ago. The school had six classrooms and two hundred and eighty pupils. The teachers from surrounding schools and the community attended the workshops. The headmaster had a vision and has since used the community to build more classrooms and a technology centre. The pupils wish to have an orchestra, so they made wire instruments and they ‘played’ them at the end of year function. We regularly provide training in the area. Gauteng has recently had a conference which focused on Systems and Controls. The delegates were able to attend four different workshops on levers, wheels and axles, electricity and electronics. The delegates received notes on all the workshops so that they could build up a resource pack and could adapt the lessons to suit the age and grade. Afternoon sessions are also held at schools where workshops are conducted for teachers in those surrounding areas. The schools request the workshops and invite other teachers to the workshop. A TA website was developed which contains forthcoming events and lesson ideas, the web-address is: www.tech.org.za.

for forthcoming events and lesson ideas, www.tech.org.za


0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

$ZINGAI-UTUMBUKA #HAIR THE!SSOCIATIONFORTHE$EVELOPMENT OF%DUCATIONIN!FRICA!$%!

!BOLISHINGSCHOOLFEESAND MAINTAININGQUALITYARETHETWO COMPATIBLE 2ECENTYEARSHAVESEENANENCOURAGINGDECLINE IN THE NUMBER OF CHILDREN OUT OF SCHOOL BOTH WORLDWIDE AND IN !FRICA )N   MILLION CHILDRENWERENOTENROLLEDINSCHOOLOFWHICH MILLION WERE !FRICAN AS COMPARED TO  MILLION IN  OF WHICH  MILLION WERE !FRICAN  4HE MOSTREMARKABLEPROGRESSHASBEENOBSERVEDIN THOSE COUNTRIES THAT HAVE TAKEN BOLD MEASURES TO REDUCE OR COMPLETELY ABOLISH SCHOOL FEES AND OTHER DIRECT AND INDIRECT COSTS (OWEVER COUNTRY EXPERIENCES IN SCHOOL FEE ABOLITION RAISE QUESTIONS ABOUT THE IMPACT ON EDUCATION QUALITY )N THIS ARTICLE THE AUTHOR OUTLINES THE MAINCHALLENGESASWELLASINNOVATIVESTRATEGIES BEING DEVELOPED BY COUNTRIES TO ENSURE THAT ACCESSTOEDUCATIONFORALLISADDRESSEDWITHOUT COMPROMISINGQUALITY 3CHOOL FEES ARE A SIGNIlCANT BARRIER IN THE EXPANSION OFSCHOOLING4HEREISPLENTYOFEVIDENCESHOWINGTHAT THEYAREAMAJOROBSTACLEPREVENTINGCHILDRENFROMTHE POORESTFAMILIESFROMACCESSINGANDCOMPLETINGQUALITY BASIC EDUCATION #OUNTRIES THAT HAVE TAKEN THE BOLD STEPTOELIMINATESCHOOLFEESHAVEWITNESSEDDRAMATIC ANDRAPIDINCREASESINENROLMENTRATES)NSUB 3AHARAN !FRICA FOREXAMPLE PRIMARYSCHOOLENROLMENTGREWFROM MILLIONTOMILLION PERCENT IN5GANDAIN FROMMILLIONTOMILLION PERCENT IN+ENYAIN  ANDFROMMILLIONTOMILLION PERCENT IN 4ANZANIA IN  ,ESS IMPRESSIVE ALBEIT REMARKABLE INCREASES IN ENROLMENT HAVE ALSO BEEN OBSERVED IN ,ESOTHO PERCENTIN IN-OZAMBIQUE PER CENTIN ANDIN'HANA PERCENTIN 

THE INITIATIVE IS TO MOBILISE SUPPORT WITHIN A CONTEXT IN WHICH NO CHILD IS EXCLUDED FROM ACCESS TO EDUCATION BECAUSEOFlNANCIALREASONS4HEINITIATIVEAIMSTOMAKE DRAMATICIMPROVEMENTSINACCESSTOGOODQUALITYBASIC EDUCATION BY SUPPORTING POLICIES AIMED AT ADDRESSING THECOSTBARRIERSTOEDUCATIONFACEDBYHOUSEHOLDSAND FAMILIES3CHOOLFEESCONSISTOFABROADRANGEOFCOSTSn INADDITIONTOTUITIONFEESnANDMAYINCLUDETHECOSTSOF TEXTBOOKS STATIONERY UNIFORMS 04!CONTRIBUTIONS COSTS RELATED TO SPORTS AND OTHER SCHOOL ACTIVITIES TRANSPORT COSTS CONTRIBUTIONS TO TEACHERS SALARIES ESPECIALLY IN SOME COMMUNITY SCHOOLS LOCATED IN RURAL AREAS OPPORTUNITYCOSTSANDOTHERBURDENSONPOORFAMILIES 3&!)HASTHREEOBJECTIVES °4OESTABLISHAKNOWLEDGEBASEANDNETWORKFORTHE ABOLITIONOFSCHOOLFEES °4O USE THIS KNOWLEDGE BASE TO ASSIST GUIDE AND SUPPORTCOUNTRIESINPLANNINGANDENGAGINGINSOUND ANDSUSTAINABLESCHOOLFEEABOLITIONPROCESSES °4OFACILITATE PROMOTEANDADVANCETHEGLOBALDIALOGUE ONlNANCIALOBSTACLESTOACCESSTOEDUCATION !lRSTMEETINGWASORGANISEDBY5.)#%&ANDTHE7ORLD "ANK IN .AIROBI IN !PRIL  FOCUSING ON LESSONS LEARNEDFROMSCHOOLFEEABOLITIONINSUB 3AHARAN!FRICA )N !$%! 5.)#%&ANDTHE7ORLD"ANKORGANISED AMEETINGIN"AMAKO *UNE  WHICHTACKLEDTHE MAINCHALLENGESFACINGCOUNTRIESTHATHAVEENGAGEDIN THESCHOOLFEEABOLITIONPROCESSESSEE"OXOVERLEAF  4HEMAINCHALLENGESARETWOMAINTAININGQUALITYWHILE AT THE SAME TIME ADMITTING MORE CHILDREN TO SCHOOL AND ENSURING THE LONG TERM lNANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY OF SCHOOL FEE ABOLITION INITIATIVES 4HIS ARTICLE FOCUSES MAINLYONTHElRSTCHALLENGE

.OCHILDSHOULDBEPREVENTEDFROMGOING 1UALITYISESSENTIALTOAVOIDREVERSING TOSCHOOLBECAUSEOFlNANCIALREASONS HARD EARNEDGAINS !CKNOWLEDGING THAT SCHOOL FEESARE A MAJORBARRIERTO ACCESSANDTHATSCHOOLFEEABOLITIONMAYBETHESINGLE MOST IMPORTANT POLICY MEASURE TO TRIGGER A DRASTIC INCREASE IN SCHOOL ENROLMENTS PROMPTED 5.)#%& AND THE 7ORLD "ANK TO LAUNCH THE 3CHOOL &EES !BOLITION )NITIATIVE 3&!) IN  SUBSEQUENTLY JOINED BY !$%! AND OTHER DEVELOPMENT PARTNERS 4HE MAIN GOAL OF

"ECAUSETHEABOLITIONOFSCHOOLFEESENTAILSADRAMATIC AND SUDDEN SURGES IN ENROLMENT IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT STEPSTOIMPROVEACCESSARENOTTAKENATTHEEXPENSE OFQUALITY/VERCROWDEDCLASSESANDMEAGRERESOURCES THATARENOLONGERAVAILABLEBECAUSEFEESAREABOLISHED CAN REVERSE HARD EARNED GAINS AND DEMOTIVATE

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

TEACHERS PARENTS AND STUDENTS 7HILE THE CHALLENGE ISGREAT EXPERIENCEFROMSEVERALCOUNTRIESSHOWSTHAT ACCESS AND QUALITY ARE NOT INCOMPATIBLE AND CAN BE ADDRESSEDSIMULTANEOUSLY 4WOSTRATEGICAREASAFFECTINGQUALITYSHOULDBELOOKED INTOANDPLANNEDCAREFULLY °-EETING THE DEMAND FOR TEACHERS CLASSROOMS AND SCHOOLMATERIALS AND °%MPOWERINGPARENTSANDSCHOOLSTHROUGHCAPITATION GRANTS

-EETINGTHEDEMANDFORTEACHERS CLASS ROOMSANDTEXTBOOKSISTHElRSTCHALLENGE 7HEN FEES ARE REMOVED THE GREATEST CHALLENGE IS TO PROVIDE THE NEEDED SUPPLY OF TEACHERS TO COPE WITH THE SURGE AND THEN TO GIVE THEM ADEQUATE SUPPORT AND IN SERVICE TRAINING 4HIS CAN BE AN OPPORTUNITY FORASSESSINGHOWTHEEXISTINGTEACHINGFORCEISBEING USED AND HOW IT MAY BE DRAWN ON MORE EFFECTIVELY

BEFOREEVALUATINGTHENEEDFORNEWTEACHERS!NUMBER OFCOUNTRIESHAVEACCOMMODATEDTHEENROLMENTSURGE BYINCREASINGTHEPUPILTEACHERRATIOORCLASSSIZE BUT SUCHASTRATEGYISOFTENDETRIMENTALTOSTUDENTLEARNING /THEROPTIONSINCLUDETHERECRUITMENTOFUNEMPLOYED UPPERSECONDARYGRADUATES CONTRACTTEACHERS RETIRED TEACHERSANDVOLUNTEERS(OWEVER PLANNERSWILLNEED TO CONSIDER THAT THE RECRUITMENT OF THESE TYPES OF TEACHERS WILL REQUIRE INTENSIVE IN SERVICE TRAINING AND SUPPORT TO ENSURE THAT QUALITY IS MAINTAINED /THER TEACHER RELATED STRATEGIES TO DEAL WITH THE SURGE INCLUDEBETTERMANAGEMENTOFSCHOOLHOURSANDOFTHE SCHOOL YEAR INTRODUCTION OF MULTIPLE SHIFTS IN SERVICE TRAINING ON MULTI GRADE TEACHING INNOVATIVE TEACHING ANDLEARNINGPRACTICESANDPROVIDINGACCOMMODATION FORTEACHERS ESPECIALLYINREMOTERURALAREAS !STHETEACHINGFORCEINCREASES MANAGINGDEPLOYMENT ALSOBECOMESAMAJORCHALLENGE WHICHINCLUDESTHAT OF PROVIDING TEACHERS IN REMOTE RURAL AREAS 0OLICIES THATLINKNEWTEACHERPOSITIONSDIRECTLYTOSCHOOLSARE

4HE"AMAKO3TATEMENT 4HE )NTERNATIONAL #ONFERENCE ON 3CHOOL &EE !BOLITION 0LANNING FOR 1UALITY AND FOR &INANCIAL 3USTAINABILITY WAS CONVENEDBY!$%!ANDORGANISEDWITH5.)#%&ANDTHE 7ORLD"ANKINCOLLABORATIONWITHTHE-INISTRYOF%DUCATION OF-ALIANDWASHELDIN"AMAKO -ALI *UNE   )T WAS ATTENDED BY DELEGATIONS INCLUDING -INISTERS OF %DUCATION AND &INANCE FROM  COUNTRIES "ANGLADESH "ENIN "URKINA &ASO "URUNDI $EMOCRATIC 2EPUBLIC OF #ONGO %THIOPIA 'HANA 'UINEA (AITI +ENYA ,ESOTHO ,IBERIA -ALAWI -ALI -OZAMBIQUE 0APUA .EW 'UINEA 3ENEGAL 3IERRA,EONE 3RI,ANKA 4ANZANIA 4OGO 9EMEN AND:AMBIA4HE"AMAKO3TATEMENTISQUOTEDHERE h7E THE -INISTERS OF %DUCATION AND &INANCE FROM THE FOLLOWING COUNTRIES "ANGLADESH "ENIN $EMOCRATIC 2EPUBLIC OF #ONGO +ENYA ,ESOTHO -ALI -OZAMBIQUE ,IBERIA 3ENEGAL 3IERRA ,EONE 3RI ,ANKA 4OGO AND :AMBIA IN ATTENDANCE WITH THE REPRESENTATIVES OF  COUNTRIES AT THE )NTERNATIONAL #ONFERENCE ON SCHOOL FEE ABOLITION IN "AMAKO REAFlRM OUR COMMITMENT TO ACHIEVE THE %&! GOAL OF UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION BY  &URTHER WERECOGNISETHATMANYCOUNTRIESARENOTCURRENTLY ONTRACK7ITHOUTUNIVERSALACCESSTO'RADEWITHINTHE NEXTTWOYEARS THISGOALWILLNOTBEACHIEVED7EAGREE THATlNANCIALBARRIERSFACEDBYPOORFAMILIESARETHEBIGGEST OBSTACLETOEVERYCHILDRECEIVINGAQUALITYBASICEDUCATION nPARTICULARLYGIRLS ORPHANS ANDOTHERVULNERABLECHILDREN h7E AFlRM OUR COMMITMENT THAT NO CHILD SHOULD BE PREVENTEDFROMATTENDINGSCHOOLINOURCOUNTRIESBECAUSE OFINABILITYTOPAY7EAGREETOWORKTOMAKEITPOSSIBLEFOR ALLCHILDRENTOGOTOSCHOOLREGARDLESSOFTHEIRFAMILYSABILITY TOPAY7ERECOGNISETHEIMPORTANCEOFTHOROUGHPLANNING ANDSOUNDPOLICIESTOSUCCESSFULLYIMPLEMENTTHEABOLITION OFPRIMARYSCHOOLFEES/URGOVERNMENTSSHARETHESTRONG POLITICALWILLNECESSARYTOACHIEVETHISPURPOSE h7ERECOGNISETHATOURCOUNTRIES WHILESHARINGTHESAME COMMITMENT AREATDIFFERENTSTAGESOFACHIEVINGTHISGOAL 3OME COUNTRIES HAVE SUCCEEDED IN ABOLISHING PRIMARY SCHOOLFEESANDARENOWWORKINGTOWARDEXPANDINGFREE



4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

EDUCATION TO THE SECONDARY LEVEL /THER COUNTRIES ARE STILLINTHEEARLYSTAGESOFMOVINGFORWARDWITHABOLISHING PRIMARYSCHOOLFEES%ACHCOUNTRYFACESDIFFERINGREALITIES DIFFERING CHALLENGES AND EACH WILL lND ITS OWN PATH !LL MUST ANDWILL MOVEFORWARDTOMAKE%DUCATIONFOR!LLA REALITY!PPRECIATINGTHEROLEOFCIVILSOCIETYINDEVELOPMENT WE PLEDGE TO WORK TOGETHER TO MOBILISE THE SUPPORT OF OUR CITIZENS WHOSE CHILDRENS FUTURES DEPEND ON THE OPPORTUNITIESTHATFREESCHOOLINGWILLPROVIDE h7EREAFlRMOURCOMMITMENTTOINCREASEOUROWNNATIONAL RESOURCESANDTHEEFFECTIVENESSWITHWHICHWEUSETHEM IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE %DUCATION FOR !LL (OWEVER THESE EFFORTSWILLNOTOFTHEMSELVESMOBILISESUFlCIENTRESOURCES FOR ALL COUNTRIES 7E ALSO REQUEST GREATER SUPPORT FROM THE DONOR PARTNERS IN ORDER TO MAKE QUALITY UNIVERSAL EDUCATIONAREALITY h!WARE OF THE NECESSITY TO ACHIEVE THIS GOAL WITHIN THE CONTEXTOFACCELERATEDMACROECONOMICGROWTHANDSTABLE MACROECONOMICFRAMEWORKS WEURGETHE)-&TOINCLUDE GREATERmEXIBILITYANDSUPPORTWITHRESPECTTOSIGNIlCANTLY INCREASED NATIONAL EXPENDITURES FOR EDUCATION INCLUDING THE HIRING OF THE ADDITIONAL TEACHERS NEEDED TO ACHIEVE %DUCATIONFOR!LL h7EREMINDTHE' COUNTRIESTHATIN THEYCOMMITTED TOENSURINGTHAThALLCHILDRENHAVEACCESSTOCOMPLETEFREE AND COMPULSORY PRIMARY EDUCATION OF GOOD QUALITYv 7E URGETHEMTORESPECTTHISCOMMITMENTANDINVITEALLDONORS WHOHAVECOMMITTEDTOTHE-ILLENNIUM$EVELOPMENT'OALS TO PROVIDE lNANCING THAT IS PREDICTABLE THAT IS AVAILABLE OVERTHELONGTERM ANDTHATISCONSISTENTWITHOURNATIONAL EDUCATIONPLANS h7E COMMIT OURSELVES TO ESTABLISH EFFECTIVE MONITORING MECHANISMS TO ENSURE THE COMMITMENT TO THESE GOALS ACHIEVES RESULTS 4OGETHER WE WILL MAKE %DUCATION FOR !LL A REALITY BY ENSURING THAT NO CHILD IS DENIED A QUALITY EDUCATIONBYLACKOFABILITYTOPAYv


0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

A WAY OF ADDRESSING THIS CHALLENGE AND ENSURING AT THESAMETIMETHATLOCALCOMMUNITIESHAVEAGREATER SAY IN TEACHER RECRUITMENT AND ARE MORE INVOLVED IN TEACHING ISSUES #OMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT AFFECTS QUALITY AS IT IS A KEY TO SUPPORTING TEACHERS AND REDUCINGABSENTEEISM &INALLY AFACTORTHATNEEDSTOBEBORNEINMINDWHEN ASSESSINGTHETEACHINGFORCEISTHEIMPACTOF()6!)$S ONTEACHERABSENTEEISMANDDEPLETION #LASSROOM CONSTRUCTION AND REHABILITATION IS A MAJOR QUALITY CHALLENGE BECAUSE CONSTRUCTION AND REHABILITATION TAKE TIME AND ARE COSTLY 3INCE FEW COUNTRIESWHICHHAVEABOLISHEDFEESHAVEMEDIUM TO LONG TERMCONSTRUCTIONANDREHABILITATIONPLANS SCHOOL BUILDINGS AND FURNITURE ARE CONTINUALLY DETERIORATING 4EMPORARYSTRATEGIESFORPROVIDINGENOUGHCLASSROOMS INCLUDEGREATEROCCUPATIONOFEXISTINGCLASSROOMSAND MAKING USE OF UNOCCUPIED LOCATIONS AND FACILITIES )N THE MEDIUM AND LONG TERM COMMUNITY DRIVEN AND LOCALLY ADAPTED CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE ARE COST EFFECTIVE ALTERNATIVES WHICH ARE PROVIDING CHILD FRIENDLYANDQUALITATIVESCHOOLENVIRONMENTS 4EXTBOOKS AND OTHER TEACHING AND LEARNING MATERIALS ARE SOME OF THE MOST COST EFFECTIVE INPUTS FOR IMPROVING LEARNING )T IS THEREFORE IMPORTANT TO ENSURE ANINCREASED TIMELYANDADEQUATESUPPLYOFTEXTBOOKS AND MATERIALS AS AN IMMEDIATE MEASURE TO ADDRESS THE QUALITY CONCERNS OF SCHOOL FEE ABOLITION 4HIS CAN REPRESENT AN OPPORTUNITY FOR IMPROVING TEXTBOOK POLICIES AND STRENGTHENING THE PROCUREMENT AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM )N SOME CASES IMPROVING PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS AND SHIFTING TEXTBOOK PRODUCTION TOTHEPRIVATESECTORHASPROVEDSUCCESSFUL

%MPOWERMENTANDINFORMATIONINTHE PUBLICDOMAINAREPOWERFULTOOLS 3CHOOL FEE ABOLITION PROCESSES ARE ALSO TRIGGERING REFORMS FOR MORE EFFECTIVE DECENTRALISED EDUCATION MANAGEMENT AND lNANCE SYSTEMS 4HE TRANSFERRING OF FEES BETWEEN THE CENTRAL AND LOCAL LEVEL AND THE UTILISATIONOFFEESAREBEINGSCRUTINISEDINMANYCOUNTRIES ANDSTRATEGIESAREBEINGDEVELOPEDTOENSUREAPROPER mOWOFRESOURCESTOTHESCHOOLS )N A NUMBER OF COUNTRIES BLOCK OR CAPITATION GRANTS HAVEBEENINTRODUCEDTOREPLACETHEFEESANDREVENUE LOSS AT THE SCHOOL LEVEL AND HAVE HAD A POSITIVE IMPACTONBOTHACCESSANDQUALITY4HISCORROBORATES RESEARCHCONDUCTEDBY!$%!WITHINTHEFRAMEWORKOF ITSEXPLORATIONOFTHEFACTORSANDCONDITIONSUNDERLYING QUALITYTHATHASSTRESSEDTHEIMPORTANCEOFMANAGEMENT SYSTEMSTHATSHIFTRESOURCESANDACCOUNTABILITYTOTHE LOCALLEVEL%XPERIENCESWITHCAPITATIONORBLOCKGRANTS TO SCHOOLS REVEAL SEVERAL ADVANTAGES SCHOOL GRANTS ARE REVITALISING SCHOOL COMMITTEES AND ENHANCING COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN DECISIONS ABOUT RESOURCE ALLOCATION AND QUALITY IMPROVEMENT THEY ARE THEREBY STRENGTHENING THE CAPACITY OF SCHOOLS IN PLANNING AND BUDGETING PROCUREMENT AND MANAGEMENT AND THEYAREPROMOTINGLOCAL LEVELSOLUTIONS ADMINISTRATIVE EFlCIENCYANDACCOUNTABILITY

4HEBIGGESTCHALLENGERELATEDTOBLOCKANDCAPITATION GRANTS IS ENSURING ACCOUNTABILITY )N !FRICA 5GANDAS 4ANZANIAS AND +ENYAS SUCCESSFUL EXPERIENCES ARE ATTRIBUTEDTOTHESETTINGUPOFTWOINSTRUMENTS °3CHOOL COMMITTEES COMPOSED OF TEACHERS AND PARENTSWHOHAVEBEENTRAINEDBYACCOUNTINGlRMS TOMANAGETHEGRANTS °4HE PUBLIC DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION ON THE MANAGEMENTANDUSEOFTHEFUNDS WHICHHASBEEN SHOWNTOBEAMOSTPOWERFULINSTRUMENTFORENSURING EFFECTIVEACCOUNTABILITY

!BOLISHINGSCHOOLFEESCANSPARKOFF POLICIESTOIMPROVEQUALITY !NUMBEROFCOUNTRIES PARTICULARLY!FRICANCOUNTRIES WILL NOTBEABLETOACHIEVE%DUCATIONFOR!LLANDTHE-$'S UNLESSBOLDPOLICYMEASURESARETAKENTOADDRESSTHE EDUCATIONCOSTBARRIERS3TRONGPOLITICALDETERMINATION WILLBENEEDEDFORSUCHINITIATIVESTO BESETINMOTION(OWEVER INORDERTOLEADTOSUCCESS POLITICAL DETERMINATION MUST BE ACCOMPANIED BY RIGOROUSPLANNING CAREFULLYLAYINGOUTNEEDSTOBEMET ANDRESOURCESTOBEMOBILISEDASWELLASCONSIDERINGTHE DIRECTIMPACTSONQUALITYANDLEARNINGACHIEVEMENT

$ZINGAI-UTUMBUKAISCURRENTLY#HAIROFTHE!SSOCIATIONFORTHE $EVELOPMENT OF %DUCATION IN !FRICA !$%!  (E IS ALSO 3ECTOR -ANAGER FOR (UMAN $EVELOPMENT AT THE 7ORLD "ANK LEADING WORK IN %ASTERN AND 3OUTHERN !FRICA "EFORE JOINING THE 7ORLD "ANKIN HESERVEDAS-INISTEROF%DUCATIONIN:IMBABWE BETWEEN  AND  "EFORE THAT HE PARTICIPATED IN THE LIBERATION STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCE (E HAS CONTRIBUTED TO BUILDINGONEOFTHEBESTEDUCATIONSYSTEMSIN!FRICA 4HE !SSOCIATION FOR THE $EVELOPMENT OF %DUCATION IN !FRICA !$%! WASESTABLISHEDATTHEINITIATIVEOFTHE7ORLD"ANKIN 4HENCALLED$ONORSTO!FRICAN%DUCATION$!% ITSOBJECTIVEWAS TO FOSTER COLLABORATION AND COORDINATION BETWEEN DEVELOPMENT AGENCIES IN SUPPORT OF EDUCATION IN !FRICA !$%! NOW FOCUSES ON DEVELOPING PARTNERSHIPS BETWEEN -INISTERS OF %DUCATION AND FUNDING AGENCIES IN ORDER TO PROMOTE EFFECTIVE EDUCATION POLICIESBASEDON!FRICANLEADERSHIPANDOWNERSHIP!$%!HAS EXPLOREDTHEISSUEOFQUALITYIMPROVEMENTEXTENSIVELY!SYNTHESIS OF LESSONS LEARNED HAS BEEN PUBLISHED AS @4HE #HALLENGE OF ,EARNING)MPROVINGTHE1UALITYOF"ASIC%DUCATIONIN3UB 3AHARAN !FRICA !$%!  &OR INFORMATION ON THE DECENTRALISATION OF BOOK SELECTION AND PROCUREMENT REFER TO @#HANGING 0UBLIC 0RIVATE0ARTNERSHIPSINTHE!FRICAN"OOK3ECTOR 0ERSPECTIVESON !FRICAN"OOK$EVELOPMENT3ERIES .O !$%!7ORKING'ROUP ON"OOKSAND,EARNING-ATERIALS)NFORMATIONON3&!) INCLUDING DOCUMENTATION ON TECHNICAL ISSUES AND COUNTRY DEVELOPMENTS WILL BE AVAILABLE ON THE 3&!) WEBSITE WHICH WILL BE LAUNCHED IN /CTOBER#ONSULTWWWSCHOOLFEEABOLITIONORG !SSOCIATIONFORTHE$EVELOPMENTOF%DUCATIONIN!FRICA  RUE%UGÃ’NE $ELACROIX 0ARIS &RANCE 4EL   &AX   %MAILADEA IIEPUNESCOORG 7EBSITEWWWADEANETORG

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

!NNA!LEXANDROVAAND ,INDSAY'LASSCO 2IGHT4O0LAY

(ARNESSINGTHEPOWEROFSPORT FORCHILDRENANDYOUTH 3PORT AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ARE RAPIDLY GAINING RECOGNITION AS SIMPLE AND EFFECTIVE MEANS OF ACHIEVING THE -ILLENNIUM $EVELOPMENT 'OALS -$'S  7ELL DESIGNED SPORT AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PROGRAMMES ARE POWERFUL TOOLS FOR FOSTERING HEALTHY CHILD AND YOUTH DEVELOPMENT TEACHING POSITIVE VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS STRENGTHENINGEDUCATION PREVENTINGDISEASEAND IMPROVING HEALTH AND WELL BEING 2ECOGNISING THECOMMITMENTOF#OMMONWEALTH-INISTERSOF 3PORT TO USING SPORT AS A TOOL FOR DEVELOPMENT THISPAPERHIGHLIGHTSTHEBENElTSOFSPORTTOCHILD AND YOUTH DEVELOPMENT FOCUSING IN PARTICULAR ONTHECONTRIBUTIONOFSPORTTOHEALTHYCHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT()6AND!)$3PREVENTIONEDUCATION ANDRETENTIONINSCHOOLSANDSKILLS BUILDING4HIS PAPERDRAWSONTHE,ITERATURE2EVIEWSON3PORT FOR $EVELOPMENT AND 0EACE ONLINE HTTPIWG SPORTANDDEVORGENINDEXHTM AND RESEARCH CONDUCTED BY 2IGHT 4O 0LAY IN ITS ROLE AS THE 3ECRETARIAT TO THE 3PORT FOR $EVELOPMENT AND 0EACE)NTERNATIONAL7ORKING'ROUP3$0)7'  4HERE IS A STRONG DESIRE AMONG THE #OMMONWEALTH MEMBERSTATESTOATTAINTHE-$'SBY!FlRMING THEIMPORTANCEOFTHEDEVELOPMENTPOTENTIALOFSPORT ATTHERECENTMEETINGOFTHE#OMMONWEALTH-INISTERS OF 3PORT IN -ELBOURNE -ARCH  THE -INISTERS AGREEDTO °0ROMOTE THE HEALTH BENElTS OF SPORT AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY °0ROMOTEEDUCATIONTHROUGHSPORT °5SESPORTTODEVELOPLEADERSHIPANDPARTICIPATIONIN THECOMMUNITYAND °"UILDINCLUSIVECOMMUNITIESTHROUGHSPORT

3PORTANDHEALTHYCHILDHOODDEVELOPMENT !CCORDING TO THE 7ORLD (EALTH /RGANIZATION 7(/ REGULAR PRACTICE OF APPROPRIATE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND SPORTSPROVIDESPEOPLEOFBOTHSEXES ANDALLAGESAND CONDITIONS WITH A WIDE RANGE OF PHYSICAL SOCIAL AND MENTAL HEALTH BENElTS 0HYSICAL ACTIVITY REINFORCES STRATEGIESTOIMPROVEDIETANDDISCOURAGESTHEUSEOF TOBACCO ALCOHOL AND DRUGS HELPS REDUCE VIOLENCE ENHANCES FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY AND PROMOTES SOCIAL

INTERACTIONANDINTEGRATION0HYSICALACTIVITYSTRENGTHENS THE CAPACITY OF INDIVIDUALS TO lGHT DISEASE AND IS A COST EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR NATIONS TO IMPROVE PUBLIC HEALTHACROSSTHEPOPULATION4HISISESPECIALLYTRUEFOR CHILDREN AS ACTIVE CHILDREN ARE MORE LIKELY TO ENGAGE INLIFE LONGACTIVITY 4HE 7(/ RECOGNISES THE IMPORTANCE OF SPORT FOR CHILDRENANDYOUTHINBUILDINGANDMAINTAININGHEALTHY BONES MUSCLES AND JOINTS CONTROLLING BODY WEIGHT REDUCING FAT AND DEVELOPING EFlCIENT FUNCTION OF THE HEART AND LUNGS #ONVERSELY PHYSICAL INACTIVITY IN CHILDRENANDYOUTHINCREASESTHERISKOFBODYFATAND EARLYSYMPTOMSOFCARDIOVASCULARDISEASE

3PORTCANBRINGCOMMUNITIESTOGETHER HELPCLOSEGENERATIONGAPS EXPAND ANDSTRENGTHENSOCIALTIESAND NETWORKS ANDPROVIDECHILDRENAND YOUTHWITHASENSEOFBELONGING %PIDEMIOLOGICAL RESEARCH SUGGESTS THAT THERE MAY BE A DIRECT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ANDCHOLESTEROLLEVELINCHILDREN ANDTHATCHILDRENAT HIGHRISKFORCORONARYHEARTDISEASEMAYBENElTFROM PHYSICALACTIVITY4HEREISALSOEVIDENCETHATPHYSICAL ACTIVITY CAN HELP LOWER BLOOD PRESSURE IN CHILDREN ANDADOLESCENTS 3PORTISALSOAPOWERFULSOCIALCONNECTORnITCANBRING COMMUNITIES TOGETHER HELP CLOSE GENERATION GAPS EXPANDANDSTRENGTHENSOCIALTIESANDNETWORKS AND PROVIDECHILDRENANDYOUTHWITHASENSEOFBELONGING 4HESE SOCIAL TIES ARE A FUNDAMENTAL DETERMINANT OF MENTAL HEALTH BUT ARE OFTEN LACKING FOR CHILDREN AND YOUTHMARGINALISEDBYPOVERTY DISEASE DISCRIMINATION OR CONmICT &OR THIS REASON SPORT IS OFTEN USED AS A MEANS OF OUTREACH TO MARGINALISED INDIVIDUALS AND GROUPS AND IS EFFECTIVE IN HELPING THEM FORGE THEIR OWN SOCIAL CONNECTIONS n WHILE ALSO LINKING THEM TO SERVICES FROM WHICH THEY CAN BENElT SUCH AS HEALTHCARE EDUCATIONANDEMPLOYMENTASSISTANCE)N (ULL 5+ $ADS!GAINST$RUGSISACOMMUNITYPROJECT THAT USES SPORTS ESPECIALLY FOOTBALL AS AN OUTREACH TOOL TO ENGAGE YOUNG PEOPLE WHO MAY BE AT RISK OF

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

2IGHT4O0LAYCOACHES CONDUCT()6AND!)$3 AWARENESSTRAINING WITHTHE2WANDA 3COUTS!SSOCIATION +IGALI 2WANDA

OFPROJECTPARTICIPANTS3UPPORTEDBYCOLOURFULPOSTERS BEARING HEALTH ORIENTED MESSAGES AND PICTURES OF YOUTH THESE BALLS ARE GREAT TOOLS TO RAISE AWARENESS ANDBUILDKNOWLEDGEOFYOUNGPEOPLE

Â¥2IGHT4O0LAY 

'IRLSAREPARTICULARLYVULNERABLETO()6)NTHE+ILIlDISTRICT OF+ENYA WHEREABOUTPERCENTOFTHEPOPULATION CANNOTMEETTHEIRBASICFOODREQUIREMENTS GIRLSOFTEN SUFFER FROM LOW SCHOOL ATTENDANCE HEAVY DOMESTIC RESPONSIBILITIES EARLY PREGNANCY AND VULNERABILITY TO ()6 AND !)$3 -OVING THE 'OALPOSTS IS A GRASSROOTS ORGANISATION THAT USES FOOTBALL AS AN OUTREACH TOOL TO TACKLESENSITIVEISSUESAROUND()6AND!)$3PREVENTION ANDBUILDLEADERSHIPCAPACITIESINYOUNGWOMEN 2ECOGNISINGTHEIMPORTANCEOFADDRESSINGTHENEEDSOF GIRLSFROMTHEUNDERPRIVILEGEDCOMMUNITIESIN:AMBIA %DU3PORT&OUNDATIONINITIATEDTHE'O3ISTERSPROGRAMME IN  'O 3ISTERS IS A GIRLS SPORTS PROGRAMME RUN BYGIRLS FORGIRLSANDWITHGIRLS4HROUGHREGULARSPORTS TOURNAMENTS WORKSHOPS ON GENDER EQUALITY HEALTH LEADERSHIPANDSPORTSTRAININGINCOACHINGTECHNIQUES AND OTHER FUN EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES THE PROGRAMME CREATES A PLATFORM TO DISCUSS ISSUES AROUND ()6 AND !)$3PREVENTION ANDREPRODUCTIVEANDSEXUALHEALTH DRUGUSE ANDTHEGAMESPROVIDEANOUTLETFORFAMILIES COPING WITH DRUG USE TO DISCUSS THEIR ISSUES IN A SUPPORTIVEENVIRONMENT 3PORT CAN BE USED TO EMPOWER CHILDREN AND YOUTH WITHPREVENTIONMESSAGESAND INEARLYADOLESCENCE TEACH THEM THE SKILLS NECESSARY TO ESTABLISH AND SUSTAINHEALTHYBEHAVIOURPATTERNS!MPLEPARTICIPATION IN PLAY GAMES AND OTHER PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES BOTH IN SCHOOLANDDURINGFREETIME ISESSENTIALFORTHEHEALTHY DEVELOPMENTOFEVERYYOUNGPERSON!CCESSTOSAFE PLACES AND GOOD EXAMPLES FROM TEACHERS PARENTS ANDFRIENDSAREALLPARTOFENSURINGTHATCHILDRENAND YOUNGPEOPLEBECOMEACTIVEANDSTAYHEALTHY

3PORTAND()6PREVENTION 3PORTOFFERSANIDEALMEANSTOREACHOUTTOANDEQUIP YOUNG PEOPLE TO PROTECT THEMSELVES AGAINST ()6 AND !)$3 AND OTHER DISEASES 3PORTS OVERWHELMING POPULARITYALLOWSITTOBRINGPEOPLETOGETHERTOTALKOPENLY ABOUTSENSITIVEISSUESSUCHASSAFERSEX#OACHESCAN BECOMEGREATROLEMODELSFORCHILDRENANDYOUTH 4HERE IS EVIDENCE THAT WHERE THE INCIDENCE OF ()6 IS SUBSIDING OR DECLINING IT IS PRIMARILY BECAUSE YOUNG PEOPLEAREBEINGEMPOWEREDWITHTHEINFORMATIONAND SKILLS THAT THEY NEED TO ADOPT SAFER BEHAVIOURS 3PORT CANBEUSEDTOENCOURAGECHILDRENANDYOUTHTOADOPT AND MAINTAIN HEALTHY BEHAVIOURS EMPOWERING THEM WITHRELEVANTLIFESKILLS SUCHASNEGOTIATIONANDRESISTING PEERPRESSURE 3PORT IS A PERFECT MEDIUM TO TRANSMIT NON POLITICAL MESSAGESABOUT()6PREVENTION ANDEMPOWERYOUTH WITHRELEVANTSKILLSINAFUNMANNER&OREXAMPLE EACH OF THE SOCCER BALLS PRODUCED BY !LIVE AND +ICKING IN +ENYACARRIESPRINTEDMESSAGESTARGETINGCHILDRENAND YOUTH 4HESE MESSAGES OFTEN SPEAK ABOUT ()6 AND !)$3 MALARIAAND4"PREVENTIONINTHELOCALLANGUAGES 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

%NGAGINGBOYSANDYOUNGMENIN()6AND!)$3PREVENTION EFFORTSISCRITICALFORSTOPPINGTHETIDEOFTHEEPIDEMIC)N 3OUTH!FRICA 3PORTS#OACHES/UTREACH3#/2% USES SPORTANDPLAYASATOOLFOR()6AWARENESSANDBRINGS BOTHBOYSANDGIRLSTOGETHERTOPLAYWHILELEARNINGABOUT ()6 AND !)$3 )N THE COUNTRIES OF THE #ARIBBEAN THE (EALTHY,IFESTYLESPROJECTUSESSPORTTOTARGETYOUNGGIRLS ANDWOMENWITHPREVENTIONMESSAGESABOUT()6AND !)$3 TEENAGE PREGNANCY NUTRITION SUBSTANCE ABUSE ANDOTHERHEALTHTOPICS4HEPROJECTHASBEENRECENTLY EXTENDEDTOINCLUDEBOYSASWELL

4HEREISEVIDENCETHATWHERETHE INCIDENCEOF()6ISSUBSIDINGOR DECLINING ITISPRIMARILYBECAUSE YOUNGPEOPLEAREBEINGEMPOWERED WITHTHEINFORMATIONANDSKILLSTHAT THEYNEEDTOADOPTSAFERBEHAVIOURS )NVOLVINGPEOPLELIVINGWITH()6AND!)$3INSPORT BASED PREVENTIONINITIATIVESCANALSOBEAPOWERFULMEANSOF REDUCING ()6 RELATED STIGMA AND DISCRIMINATION THUS CONTRIBUTING TO SUCCESSFUL ()6 AND !)$3 PREVENTION 2IGHT 4O 0LAY USES THE BEST VALUES OF SPORT AND THE PRINCIPLEOFINCLUSIONINITS,IVE3AFE0LAY3AFE,303 PROGRAMME IN +IGALI 2WANDA WHERE ()6 PREVALENCE ISREPORTEDLYHIGH7ORKINGWITHINTERNATIONALANDLOCAL PARTNERS THEPROGRAMMEREACHESOUTTOCHILDRENBOTH IN SCHOOL AND OUT OF SCHOOL AND EDUCATES TEACHERS STAFFANDVOLUNTEERSONHOWTOUSESPORTANDPLAYAS EFFECTIVETOOLSFORINCLUSIONAND()6PREVENTION4HROUGH REGULARACTIVITIES USINGOVERGAMESANDACTIVITIES SPECIlCALLY DESIGNED FOR CHILDREN AND YOUTH ,303 BUILDS KNOWLEDGE OF ()6 AND !)$3 AND PROMOTES LIFE SKILLSFORADOPTINGANDMAINTAININGHEALTHYBEHAVIOURS


0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

4O BE SUCCESSFUL 3PORT FOR $EVELOPMENT AND 0EACEPROGRAMMESNEEDTOBE °3AFE °#ULTURALLYANDAGEAPPROPRIATE °!SOURCEOFPLEASURE JOYANDHAPPINESSFOREVERY CHILD °)NCLUSIVE °$ESIGNEDWITHTHEPARTICIPATIONFROMCHILDRENAND YOUNGPEOPLE °!WARE OF THE RISK FACTORS SOCIAL CONDITIONS AND MATERIAL REALITIES OF THE CHILDREN AND YOUTH THEY SERVE °#HILD CENTREDANDVALUE BASED °%MPHASISINGINDIVIDUALCHOICEANDPARTICIPATION °#OGNIZANTTHATSPORTANDPLAYALONECANNOTSOLVE COMPLEXSOCIALPROBLEMS °#OGNIZANTOFTHEIMPORTANCEOFCHILDPROTECTION °)NCORPORATEDINABROADERKITOFPROGRAMMEDESIGN TOMEETTHENEEDSOFCHILDRENANDYOUTH

3PORTANDEDUCATION !CCORDINGTOTHE5.)#%&REPORT PRIMARYSCHOOL ENROLMENTISONTHERISEINMANYCOUNTRIES$ESPITETHIS SUCCESS YOUNGPEOPLESFAILURETOCOMPLETEEDUCATION REMAINSACHALLENGE4HISISESPECIALLYTRUEFORGIRLS AS THEYOFTENHAVEFAMILYDUTIESOUTSIDEOFSCHOOL ANDIN MANYCOUNTRIESMARRYYOUNG

4HEPOSITIVERELATIONSHIPBETWEEN PHYSICALACTIVITY HEALTHANDACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTSUGGESTSTHATSPORT CANHELPREDUCENEGATIVEATTITUDESTO SCHOOLANDDECREASESCHOOLATTRITION %DUCATION IS A CRITICAL COMPONENT OF CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENTANDSPORT BASEDPROGRAMMESCANIMPROVE THE LEARNING PERFORMANCE OF CHILDREN AND YOUTH AND ENCOURAGECHILDRENANDYOUNGPEOPLETOSTAYINSCHOOL 2ESEARCHASSERTSTHATREASONABLETIMESPENTINPHYSICAL ACTIVITY DOES NOT HINDER ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AND ACTUALLY IMPROVES IT 4HE POSITIVE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY HEALTH AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT SUGGESTSTHATSPORTCANHELPREDUCENEGATIVEATTITUDES TOSCHOOLANDDECREASESCHOOLATTRITION!REPORTFROM THE7ORLD3UMMITON0HYSICALEDUCATIONINDICATED THAT PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT IN SCHOOLS HELP DECREASE SCHOOL DROP OUT RATES )N 'ORMETI 4ANZANIA WHERE2IGHT4O0LAYDELIVERSSPORTANDPLAYPROGRAMMES INSCHOOLS THEREISINCREASEDATTENDANCEONTHEDAYS WHENCOACHESHOLDTHEIRPLAYDAYS 3PORT CAN ALSO BE USED TO SUCCESSFULLY MOBILISE COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN SCHOOL RETENTION EFFORTS SIGNIlCANTLY INCREASING STUDENT CHANCES FOR SUCCESS

&OR EXAMPLE THE 0HYSICALLY !CTIVE 9OUTH 0!9 PROGRAMME WAS DESIGNED AND IMPLEMENTED IN .AMIBIA TO SUPPORT THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENTS OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS -ORE THAN HALF OF THE STUDENTS IN THE .AMIBIAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM FAILED A NATIONAL EXAMAFTER'RADE PREVENTINGTHEMFROMCONTINUING THEIR EDUCATIONAL PURSUITS 0!9 COMBINED A SPORT PROGRAMME WITH INFORMAL TUTORING TO SUPPORT HIGH SCHOOL DROPOUTS AND OTHER STUDENTS CONSIDERED TO BEATRISKOFFAILINGTHENATIONALEXAMANDENDINGTHEIR EDUCATION CAREER 4HE PROGRAMME IMPLEMENTED IN PARTNERSHIP WITH #OMMONWEALTH 'AMES #ANADA 5+ 3PORT AND LOCAL ORGANISATIONS PROVIDES STUDENTS WITH AN OPPORTUNITY TO PARTICIPATE IN SPORT AND GAIN ACCESS TO INFORMAL TUTORING 4HE PROGRAMME IS NOW GROWINGTOINCLUDEMOREPARTICIPANTSFROMAWIDERAGE RANGE ASPROGRAMMESTAFFHAVEFOUNDTHATTHELONGER PARTICIPANTSAREINVOLVEDINTHEPROGRAMME THEGREATER THE IMPACT )T HAS CONTRIBUTED TO INCREASED LEVELS OF STUDENT DISCIPLINE REDUCTION IN DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOUR ANDIMPROVEMENTOFSTUDENTACADEMICPERFORMANCES 4HE 5+ BASED ,IVING FOR 3PORT PROJECT USED SPORT TO HELP STUDENTS DEVELOP DISCIPLINE CONlDENCE SELF ESTEEMANDSELF AWARENESS4HEPROGRAMMEPROVIDED AVARIETYOFRESOURCESANDTOOLSTOTEACHERSTOENGAGE STUDENTSINPHYSICALACTIVITYEXPRESSLYFORTHEPURPOSE OF IMPROVING BEHAVIOUR !S A RESULT STUDENTS WHO PARTICIPATEDINTHEPROGRAMMEIMPROVEDATTENDANCEAND PUNCTUALITY DISPLAYEDAREDUCEDNUMBEROFDETENTIONS ANDIMPROVEDCOMMUNICATIONANDLEADERSHIPSKILLS 3CHOOLS PROVIDE UNIQUE SPORT AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OPPORTUNITIES FOR ALL YOUNG PEOPLE ON AN EQUAL BASIS THROUGH OFlCIAL COMPULSORY PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMMES AS WELL AS THROUGH SCHOOL SPORT PROGRAMMES AND AFTER SCHOOL LEISURE TIME PHYSICAL ACTIVITYINITIATIVES 3PORTCANBEAKEYALLYINATTAININGTHESECOND-$' BY HELPING TO ENSURE THAT ALL BOYS AND GIRLS COMPLETE A FULL COURSE OF PRIMARY SCHOOLING 4O SUCCEED IT IS CRUCIAL TO PROMOTE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND SPORT AMONG YOUNG PEOPLE IN AND OUT OF SCHOOL STRENGTHEN THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMMES IN SCHOOLS BY STRENGTHENINGTHECAPACITYOFTEACHERSANDIMPROVING THESCHOOLCURRICULAANDPROVIDESUFlCIENTPLAYGROUNDS ANDSPORTSFACILITIESONSCHOOLPREMISES

3PORT LIFESKILLSDEVELOPMENTAND CHARACTER BUILDING %VIDENCESUPPORTSNOTONLYTHEEDUCATIONALBENElTSOF SPORTSPARTICIPATION BUTALSOTHEIMPORTANCEOFSPORT PROGRAMMESASEDUCATIONALCATALYSTSTOTEACHLIFESKILLS ANDBUILDCHARACTER3PORTHASPROVEDTOBEANEFFECTIVE MEDIUM TO EMPOWER CHILDREN AND YOUTH WITH SKILLS IN GOAL SETTING PROBLEM SOLVINGANDPOSITIVETHINKING 0OSITIVE ATTITUDES VALUES AND CHARACTER DEVELOPMENT AREMOSTEFFECTIVELYACCOMPLISHEDTHROUGHENTHUSIASTIC AND SKILFUL ENGAGEMENT OF A COACH TEACHER OR LEADER %VIDENCEALSOSUGGESTSTHATCOACHESPLAYAKEYROLEIN DEVELOPINGTHEMORALANDETHICALPARAMETERSTHATIMPACT YOUTHINVOLVEDINSPORT2ESEARCHINDICATESTHATTHEMORAL

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

VALUESANDBEHAVIOURLEARNEDBYCHILDRENINSPORTCOME DIRECTLYFROMINSTRUCTIONANDTHEIROWNENGAGEMENT AND INDIRECTLYFROMOBSERVINGCOACHESRESPONSES

3PORTOFFERSANIDEALMEANSTOREACHOUTTOANDEQUIP YOUNG PEOPLE TO PROTECT THEMSELVES AGAINST ()6 AND !)$3THROUGHITSENORMOUSPOPULARITYANDREACH

3PORT CAN FACILITATE THE LEARNING OF SKILLS SUCH AS COOPERATION COMMUNICATION RESILIENCE RESPECT FOR SELF RULES AND OTHERS LEADERSHIP AND HOW TO WIN LOSE AND MANAGE COMPETITION !T THE SAME TIME THESE POSITIVE OUTCOMES ARE NOT POSSIBLE IF SPORT PROGRAMMES ARE NOT BASED ON THE KEY BEST VALUES OF SPORT INCLUSION FAIR PLAY TEAMWORK COMMITMENT COMPASSION OPTIMISM JOYANDINTEGRITY

$ESPITE THE NUMEROUS 3PORT FOR $EVELOPMENT EFFORTS UNDERWAYBY.'/S SPORTSFEDERATIONS THE5. AND THEVARIETYOFOTHERPARTNERSANDSTAKEHOLDERS NATIONAL GOVERNMENTSHAVEAKEYROLETOPLAYTOENSURETHATEVERY CHILDHASARIGHTTOPLAY)TISUPTONATIONALGOVERNMENTS TO SET DEVELOPMENT PRIORITIES AND PROVIDE FUNDING FOR SPORTANDPLAYACTIVITIES BECAUSEWHENCHILDRENPLAY THEWORLDWINS

2ESEARCHINDICATESTHATTHE MORALVALUESANDBEHAVIOURLEARNED BYCHILDRENINSPORTCOMEDIRECTLY FROMINSTRUCTIONANDTHEIR OWNENGAGEMENT #ONCLUSION 4HIS YEAR  MARKS THE HALFWAY POINT FOR THE ATTAINMENTOFTHE-$'S-$'SCANSTILLBEACHIEVABLE IF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY JOINS FORCES TO ALIGN THEIR STRATEGIC PRIORITIES WITH THE GOALS AND EMPLOY HOLISTIC APPROACHES TO THEIR IMPLEMENTATION 3PORT ANDPHYSICALACTIVITYARESIMPLEANDEFFECTIVEMEANS OFACHIEVINGTHE-$'S 7ELL DESIGNEDSPORTANDPHYSICALACTIVITYPROGRAMMES ARE POWERFUL TOOLS FOR FOSTERING HEALTHY CHILD AND YOUTH DEVELOPMENT TEACHING POSITIVE VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS STRENGTHENING EDUCATION PREVENTING DISEASE AND IMPROVING HEALTH AND WELL BEING 3PORT BASED PROGRAMMES CAN HELP EMPOWER AND PROMOTE THE INCLUSION OF MARGINALISED GROUPS ESPECIALLY GIRLS MIGRANTSANDPEOPLEWITHDISABILITIES 3PORT ALSO PLAYS AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN INCREASING SCHOOLENROLMENTANDRETENTIONBYREDUCINGNEGATIVE ATTITUDES TO SCHOOL AND DECREASING DROPOUT RATES ENHANCING SOCIAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT CONTRIBUTING TO CHILDRENS SOCIAL SKILLS TEACHING THEM COOPERATION AND TEAM WORK RESPECTFORONESOPPONENTS ANDADHERENCETO AGREED UPONRULES 3PORTCANBEAPROMISINGANDNON THREATENINGMEANS OFREDUCINGGENDER RELATEDDISCRIMINATIONANDDEVELOPING FEMALELEADERSHIPINCOMMUNITIES



4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

!NNA !LEXANDROVA HOLDS A LAW DEGREE FROM THE )NTERNATIONAL 5NIVERSITY OF -OSCOW AND -ASTER OF ,AWS DEGREE FROM THE 5NIVERSITY OF 4ORONTO !NNAS BACKGROUND AND EXPERTISE ARE IN LAW ()6 PREVENTION INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND HUMAN RIGHTS ADVOCACY !NNA IS A 3ENIOR !DVISOR 0OLICY AND )NTER 'OVERNMENTAL2ELATIONSWITH2IGHT4O0LAY ,INDSAY 'LASSCO HOLDS A -ASTERS $EGREE IN )NTERNATIONAL $EVELOPMENTFROMTHE5NIVERSITYOF3USSEXANDA"!FROM-C'ILL 5NIVERSITY 7ITH A BACKGROUND IN INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT YEARSOFOVERSEASEXPERIENCEWITHTHE5NITED.ATIONS ANDSOCIAL POLICY DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE #ANADIAN &EDERAL 'OVERNMENT ,INDSAYWORKSWITH2IGHT4O0LAYASTHE$IRECTOROF0OLICY 3PORT FOR$EVELOPMENTAND0EACE 2IGHT 4O 0LAY USES SPORT AND PLAY PROGRAMMES TO IMPROVE HEALTH BUILD LIFE SKILLS AND FOSTER PEACE FOR CHILDREN AND COMMUNITIES AFFECTED BY WAR POVERTY DISEASE 2IGHT 4O 0LAY IS THE 3ECRETARIAT TO THE 3PORT FOR $EVELOPMENT AND 0EACE )NTERNATIONAL 7ORKING 'ROUP 3$0 )7' A FOUR YEAR POLICY INITIATIVETHATBRINGSTOGETHERGOVERNMENTS 5.ANDCIVILSOCIETY ALL WORKING TOWARDS POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS TO GOVERNMENTS ONTHEUSEOFSPORTASATOOLFORDEVELOPMENTANDPEACE 3$0)7'3ECRETARIAT2IGHT4O0LAY 1UEEN3TREET7 4ORONTO/.-(- #ANADA 4EL EXT %MAIL)7'3ECRETARIAT RIGHTTOPLAYCOM 7EBSITESWWWRIGHTTOPLAYCOM HTTPIWGSPORTANDDEVORGENINDEXHTM


0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

3PECIAL&EATUREBY )NTERNATIONAL2UGBY"OARD

2UGBYAHOLISTICAPPROACH TOTACKLINGOBESITY )TISESTIMATEDTHATOVERMILLIONOFTHEWORLDS POPULATIONISOBESEOROVERWEIGHT4HELOWERING OFPHYSICALEDUCATIONSTANDARDSANDTHECLOSING OFEDUCATIONPROGRAMMESINSCHOOLS AREDUCTION INFAMILYTIME FREEACCESSTOCOMPUTERANDVIDEO GAMES THEINTERNETANDTELEVISION THEFASTFOOD INDUSTRY TARGETING CHILDRENx THE LIST GOES ON ANDONASTOWHYSOMECOUNTRIESAREFACINGTHE LARGESTOBESITYPROBLEMINTHEIRHISTORY /BESITYISACOMPLEXPROBLEM)TISIMPORTANTFORUSTO EMPHASISENUTRITIONANDEXERCISEPHYSICALACTIVITY TO OUR CHILDREN %DUCATION IS THE KEY 0ARENTS TEACHERS ANDCOACHESNEEDTORE EVALUATEOURPRIORITIESANDPUT EXERCISEANDNUTRITIONATTHEFOREFRONT )NASOCIETYOFOVER STIMULATIONOFADVERTISEMENT QUICK lX SOLUTIONS AND HIGH CALIBRE ENTERTAINMENT GETTING BACK TO THE BASICS OF AN ACTIVE LIFESTYLE COUPLED WITH GOODNUTRITIOUSFOODANDEDUCATIONWILLGOALONGWAY TOPREVENTINGTHEPROBLEM

2UGBYnAGAMEFORALLSHAPESANDSIZES 2UGBYISAGLOBALPARTICIPATIONSPORT4HEGAMEHAS GROWNPHENOMENALLYOVERTHEPASTTENYEARSANDTHERE ARENOWOVERMILLIONREGISTEREDPLAYERSAROUNDTHE GLOBE A JUMP OF MORE THAN  PER CENT SINCE THE GAME WENT OPEN  YEARS AGO !ND NOW THERE ARE 5NIONSINMEMBERSHIPOFTHEGOVERNINGBODY THE )NTERNATIONAL 2UGBY "OARD UP FROM  COUNTRIES TEN YEARSAGO 9ETDESPITEABURGEONINGPROlLE RUGBYREMAINSAGAME WHICHATITSCOREIMPORTANTLYANDRATHERUNIQUELYISSUITED FOR ALL SHAPES AND SIZES MEN WOMEN ALL AGES AND ABILITIES4AGORTOUCHRUGBY SEVENS lFTEENS OFlCIATING OREVENBEACHRUGBY THEREISALEVELOFPARTICIPATIONIN RUGBYFOREVERYONE

(OWCANRUGBYANDHEALTHWORKTOGETHER TOTACKLEOBESITY 4HEFOLLOWINGMODELOUTLINESHOW BYAPPLYINGAHOLISTIC APPROACH TO EXERCISE AND NUTRITION RUGBY CAN PLAY A PROMINENT ROLE IN PROMOTING A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE AND TACKLINGOBESITY

4RYRUGBY %NCOURAGINGPARTICIPATIONINRUGBY WHATEVERAPERSONS ABILITY IS A POSITIVE WAY TO CONTRIBUTE TOWARDS HEALTH IMPROVEMENT 7HILE MANY ASSOCIATE THE GAME WITH HIGHLEVELPARTICIPATIONATTHEPROFESSIONALPINNACLEOF THE GAME RUGBY REALLY IS A SPORT FOR ALL AND THERE IS ALEVELOFPARTICIPATIONTOSUITEVERYMAN WOMANAND CHILD7HETHERPARTICIPATIONISFORSOCIALANDRECREATIONAL PURPOSES OR WHETHER IT IS FOR SERIOUS COMPETITION THROUGH STRUCTURED TRAINING PROGRAMMES RUGBY OFFERS REGULAREXERCISE SOCIALINCLUSION PROMOTESTEAMWORK ANDCANBOOSTSELF ESTEEMANDCONlDENCE !CCESS TO RUGBY HAS NEVER BEEN EASIER 4HE GAME CONTINUESTOEXPERIENCESIGNIlCANTGROWTHWORLDWIDE WHILE THE )NTERNATIONAL 2UGBY "OARD HAS COMMITTED AN INVESTMENT OF 53 MILLION OVER THREE YEARS TO WORLDWIDESTRATEGICINVESTMENTINITIATIVESTHATWILLHELP FOSTERTHEGAMEOUTSIDEOFTHETRADITIONALRUGBYPLAYING COUNTRIES!TGRASSROOTSLEVELSTHEGAMECONTINUESTO mOURISH ASWELLASFROMANUMBEROFUNIQUEPROJECTS SUCHASTAGRUGBY ANON CONTACTFORMOFRUGBY )MPORTANTLY THE WORLDS RUGBY PLAYING POPULATION IS YOUNG3OMEMILLIONOFTHEMILLIONPLAYINGTHE GAMEWORLDWIDEAREUNDERTHEAGEOF MEANINGTHAT RUGBY IS IDEALLY SUITED TO PREVENT AND TACKLE OBESITY ANDHEALTH RELATEDISSUESFROMANEARLYAGE 4ACKLINGOBESITY REQUIRESAHOLISTIC APPROACHTOEXERCISE ANDNUTRITION

4HE GAME BUILDS TEAMWORK UNDERSTANDING CO OPERATION AND THE RESPECT OF FELLOW ATHLETES )TS CORNERSTONES ARE AS THEY HAVE ALWAYS BEEN THE PLEASUREOFPARTICIPATINGTHECOURAGEANDSKILLWHICHTHE GAMEDEMANDSTHELOVEOFATEAMSPORTTHATENRICHES THE LIVES OF ALL INVOLVED AND THE LIFELONG FRIENDSHIPS FORGEDTHROUGHASHAREDINTERESTINTHEGAME )TISBECAUSEOF NOTDESPITE RUGBYSINTENSELYPHYSICAL AND ATHLETIC CHARACTERISTICS THAT SUCH CAMARADERIE EXISTSINTHEGAME

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

-ANY YOUNG PLAYERS DREAM OF REPRESENTING THEIR COUNTRY BUTEVENIFTHEYDROPOUTOFRUGBYASATEENOR EVENASANADULTWITHOUTREACHINGTHETOPOREVENPLAY RECREATIONALLY THEHEALTHYLIFESTYLEMESSAGESTHATTHEY LEARNALONGTHEWAYWILLHOLDTHEMINGOODSTEADWHILE THEHEALTHOFMANYNATIONSSTANDSTOBENElT

#HILDRENPLAYING RUGBYIN)NDIA

#ASESTUDY3COTTISH2UGBY5NIONMULTI SPORTS PROGRAMME )T IS IMPORTANT THAT CHILDREN ARE ABLE TO EXPERIENCE AS MANY DIFFERENT SPORTS AND RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES AS POSSIBLE IN ORDER NOT MAXIMISE THEIR ENJOYMENT OF PARTICIPATION IN A TEAM ENVIRONMENT 4HE 3COTTISH 2UGBY 5NION HAS EMBRACED THIS NOTION AND HAS TEAMEDUPWITHLOCALAUTHORITIESTORUNAMULTI SPORTS PROGRAMMEIN3COTLAND"ASKETBALL TAGRUGBY HOCKEY AND SOCCER ARE JUST FOUR OF THE SPORTS AVAILABLE TO CHILDREN (OWEVER THE SCHEME HAS PROVED HUGELY SUCCESSFULININTRODUCINGRUGBYTOYOUNGPEOPLEASIT CANBEPLAYEDBYBOTHBOYSANDGIRLS

#ASE3TUDY4RY2UGBY 4RY2UGBYISTHE!USTRALIAN2UGBY5NIONSFUN SIX WEEK SPORTSPROGRAMMEFORBOYSANDGIRLSAGED YEARS )T IS A SATISFYING WAY FOR YOUNG PLAYERS OF ALL ABILITIES ANDRUGBYEXPERIENCETOENJOYTHEGAMEATTHEIROWN PACE0LAYERSDEVELOPTHEIRPHYSICAL SPORTSANDRUGBY SPECIlCSKILLSINAFUN SAFEANDWELCOMINGATMOSPHERE TOPLAYTHEMODIlEDRUGBYGAMESOF7ALLA -INIAND-IDI 0ROFESSIONALINSTRUCTORSRUNSKILLSANDGAMESTOSUITTHE SPECIlCAGEGROUPSANDABILITIESOFTHECHILDREN

#ASE3TUDY4AGRUGBY 4AG RUGBY IS HUGELY POPULAR THE WORLD OVER AS IT IS AVAILABLE TO ALL AGE GROUPS (OWEVER BEING A NON CONTACTFORMOFTHEGAME TAGRUGBYISIDEALLYSUITEDTO INTRODUCINGBOTHBOYSANDGIRLSTOTHESPORT4AGRUGBY IS PART OF THE SCHOOL CURRICULUM IN THE 5+ !USTRALIA .EW:EALANDAND&RANCE WHILEADULTLEAGUESCATERFOR THESOCIALPARTICIPANTTOTHESERIOUSCOMPETITOR

2EGULARPARTICIPATION !CCORDING TO RECENT STUDIES IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT REGULARACTIVITYMINUTESPERDAYFORCHILDRENAND MINUTESPERDAYFORADULTS ISNECESSARYFORMAINTAINING AHEALTHYLIFESTYLE 2EGULARPARTICIPATIONINRUGBYPROVIDESPARTICIPANTSWITH APORTALFOREXERCISE IMPROVEDCARDIOVASCULARlTNESSAND HELPWITHBURNINGEXCESSFAT(OWEVER UNLIKEANUMBER OF SPORTS AND RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES RUGBY REQUIRES A BASIC LEVEL OF lTNESS TO PARTICIPATE BEFORE IMPROVING lTNESSLEVELSTHROUGHINCREASEDPARTICIPATION

3OCIALSKILLSDEVELOPMENT 2UGBY OWES MUCH OF ITS APPEAL TO THE FACT THAT IT IS PLAYEDBOTHTOTHELETTERANDWITHINTHESPIRITOFTHELAWS 4HE RESPONSIBILITY FOR ENSURING THAT THIS HAPPENS LIES NOT WITH ONE INDIVIDUAL BUT WITH COACHES CAPTAINS PLAYERSANDMATCHOFlCIALS 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

)TISTHROUGHDISCIPLINE CONTROLANDMUTUALRESPECTTHAT THESPIRITOFTHEGAMEmOURISHESAND INTHECONTEXTOFA GAMEASPHYSICALLYANDMENTALLYCHALLENGINGASRUGBY THESEARETHEQUALITIESWHICHFORGETHEFELLOWSHIPAND SENSEOFFAIRPLAYSOESSENTIALTOTHEGAMESSUCCESS °4EAMWORK °"ELONGING

°3ELF CONTROL °!MBITION

°3ELF ESTEEM °-OTIVATION

4HESE KEY VIRTUES HAVE STOOD THE TEST OF TIME AND ATALLLEVELSATWHICHTHEGAMEISPLAYED THEYREMAIN AS IMPORTANT TO RUGBYS FUTURE AS THEY HAVE BEEN THROUGHOUT ITS LONG AND DISTINGUISHED PAST 4HESE PRINCIPLES OF RUGBY ARE FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS UPON WHICHTHEGAMEISBASEDANDTHEYENABLEPARTICIPANTS ATALLLEVELSTOIMMEDIATELYIDENTIFYTHEGAMESCHARACTER ANDWHATMAKESITDISTINCTIVEASASPORT )MPORTANTLY IN A MODERN DAY CONTEXT RUGBY ALSO HAS THEABILITYTOENGAGESOCIALLYEXCLUDEDGROUPSTHROUGH COMMUNITY BASED COACHING COURSES THROUGH WHICH KEYMESSAGESABOUTHEALTHISSUESANDTHEDANGERSOF DRUGSANDSMOKINGCANBEREINFORCED

#ASE3TUDY4HE!LCATRAZ0ROJECTn6ENEZUELA 2UGBY HAS BECOME CENTRAL TO A PROJECT IN 6ENEZUELA AIMEDATREHABILITATINGEX GANGMEMBERSINTHE3OUTH !MERICAN COUNTRY ,AUNCHED IN  THE !LCATRAZ PROJECT OFFERS YOUNG PEOPLE CONVICTED OF CRIME THE CHOICE OF GOING TO COURT AND BEING CONVICTED OR JOIN THEPROJECTWITHITSTOUGHRE EDUCATIONPROGRAMMEAND ASECONDCHANCEINLIFE3OMERECRUITSDROPOUTINTHE lRSTTHREEMONTHSOFTHEPROJECT WHICHTHEYSPENDHIGH UPINTHEHILLSGROWINGCOFFEE4HOSEWHOSTAYONGET PSYCHOLOGICALCOUNSELLINGANDRUGBY WHICHISCENTRAL TOTHEREHABILITATIONPROGRAMME !CHILDIN)RELAND PLAYINGTAGRUGBY


0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

#ASE3TUDY0OSITIVE&UTURES )NTRODUCED IN  IN THE 5+ 0OSITIVE &UTURES IS A SPORT AND RECREATION PROGRAMME OPERATING FOR   YEAROLDSINTHEMOSTDEPRIVEDAREASOF%NGLANDAND 7ALES )T AIMS TO OFFER INDIVIDUALS OPPORTUNITIES FOR PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT THROUGH PARTICIPATION IN THE ACTIVITIES!SYOUNGPEOPLEMOVETHROUGHTHEPROJECT THEYAREENCOURAGEDINTOLEADERSHIPANDCOACHINGAS AWAYOFGIVINGTHEMWORKOPPORTUNITIESANDLIFESKILLS ASWELLASHELPINGTHEMTOPUTSOMETHINGBACKINTOTHE COMMUNITYINWHICHTHEYLIVE

-ENTALSKILLSAWARENESS 2UGBYISTHEULTIMATETESTOFPHYSICALANDMENTALSTRENGTH FORASPORTSMAN7HILETHEPHYSICALATTRIBUTESOFSTRENGTH POWERANDCOMPETITIONAREWELLDOCUMENTED ITISOFTEN FORGOTTENTHATRUGBYDEVELOPSTHROUGHPARTICIPATIONAND STRUCTUREDTRAININGANUMBEROFMENTALSKILLSWHICHCAN BEAPPLIEDINEVERYDAYSITUATIONS 2UGBY DEVELOPS AND PROMOTES THE FOLLOWING KEY MENTALSKILLS °3ELF CONTROL °$ECISION MAKING

°#ONCENTRATION °,EADERSHIP

°$ISCIPLINE

0LAYERSAT7OMENS 2UGBY7ORLD#UP SUPPORTTHE)2"S+EEP 2UGBY#LEANCAMPAIGN

INCREASES KNOWLEDGE OF THE IMPORTANCE OF A BALANCED DIET AND PROMOTES AND ENCOURAGES THE USE OF FRESH PRODUCE WHILE EDUCATING AGAINST THE INTAKE OF FOODS CONTAININGHIGHLEVELSOFSALT CAFFEINE SUGARANDFAT

#ARDIOVASCULARlTNESS !THLETESPARTICIPATINGINPROLONGEDACTIVITYMUSTPOSSESS HIGHLEVELSOFCARDIOVASCULARlTNESS4HEAEROBIClTNESS ISIMPERATIVETOAIDTHERECOVERYBETWEENSHORTBURSTS OFHIGHINTENSITYACTIVITYTHATAREINTRINSICTOTRAININGAND PLAYING RUGBY AT A COMPETITIVE LEVEL !T THIS LEVEL IT IS NO LONGER ADEQUATE TO PLAY WITH THE MOTIVE TO GET lT PLAYERSNEEDTOBElTTOPLAY

,EARNING NEW SKILL SETS ENHANCE THE PARTICIPANTS UNDERSTANDINGANDULTIMATELYENJOYMENTOFTHEGAME 3UCH DISCIPLINES AS SELF CONTROL AND DECISION MAKING AREKEYINMAINTAININGAHEALTHYLIFESTYLE

2EGULAR TRAINING IS NOT SIMPLY ENOUGH TO ACHIEVE AND MAINTAINTHEHIGHLEVELSOFCARDIOVASCULARlTNESSREQUIRED TOPLAYRUGBYTOACOMPETITIVELEVEL!BALANCEDCARDIO PROGRAMMETHATDOVETAILSWITHOTHERACTIVITIESSUCHAS CYCLING RUNNINGANDROWINGISALSOIMPORTANT

#ASE3TUDY+EEP2UGBY#LEAN

-AINTAINING A BASE LEVEL OF CARDIO VASCULAR lTNESS WHILEESSENTIALFORPLAYINGATACOMPETITIVELEVEL ISALSO ADVANTAGEOUSFORLIFEBEYONDRUGBY

+EEP2UGBY#LEANISTHEMESSAGEOFTHE)NTERNATIONAL 2UGBY"OARDSANTI DOPINGPROGRAMME%ACHYEARTHE )2" USES ITS !GE 'RADE 4OURNAMENTS )2" 5NDER  AND7ORLD#HAMPIONSHIPS TOEDUCATEALLPARTICIPATING PLAYERSABOUTTHEDANGERSANDCONSEQUENCESOFTAKING RECREATIONALANDPERFORMANCEENHANCINGDRUGS WHILE ALSOEDUCATINGABOUTTHETESTINGPROCESS WHICHMANY PLAYERS WILL ENCOUNTER FOR THE lRST TIME AT !GE 'RADE LEVEL )N  THE )2" DELIVERED A RECORD ANTI DOPING PROGRAMME WITH A TOTAL OF   TESTS CONDUCTED AT INTERNATIONALLEVEL WHILERUNNINGANEXTENSIVEEDUCATION PROGRAMME 4HE PROGRAMME RETURNED NO POSITIVE RESULTSATUNDER  LEVEL HIGHLIGHTING THE VALUEOFTHE OUTREACH EDUCATION PROGRAMME RUN AT THE )2"S !GE 'RADE4OURNAMENTS

0ERFORMANCEPARTICIPATION 4HROUGH A COMBINATION OF TALENT GOOD EDUCATION A HIGHSTANDARDOFTRAINING DISCIPLINE COMMITMENTAND APPLICATION TRAINING AND OF COURSE HARD WORK IT IS POSSIBLETOREACHTHEHIGHESTLEVELSOFTHEGAMEAND MAINTAIN A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE WHICH ASSISTS IN lGHTING OBESITY4HEATTRIBUTESLISTEDWITHINTHISMODELARENOT ONLY KEY TO PERFORMING AT THE HIGHEST LEVEL BUT THE lTNESSANDNUTRITIONALADVICE ROUTINEOFREGULARRUGBY ANDPHYSIOLOGICALEDUCATIONLEARNEDALONGTHEWAYWILL PROVEUSEFULFORLIFEAFTERRUGBY

$IETANDNUTRITIONALlTNESS 2UGBY UNLIKEMANYSPORTS ISAMULTI FACETEDGAME REQUIRING PLAYERS OF DIFFERENT SKILL SETS 4HE CORRECT BALANCED DIET IS ESSENTIAL TO SUSTAIN ENERGY LEVELS NECESSARY TO COMPETE AND TRAIN AT EVERY LEVEL OF THEGAME 0LAYERS WHO ARE KEEN TO PROGRESS AND IMPROVE PERFORMANCE NEED TO PAY ATTENTION TO NUTRITION AND DIET4HEGOALSOFEVERYPLAYERDIFFERDEPENDINGONTHE LEVEL OF THE GAME AND THE POSITION PLAYED BUT CORRECT NUTRITION IS ESSENTIAL .UTRITIONAL AWARENESS IS NOT ONLY IMPORTANTFORENHANCINGPERFORMANCEITCANALSOHAVE WIDERIMPLICATIONS!NUNDERSTANDINGOFDIETANDNUTRITION

4HE)NTERNATIONAL2UGBY"OARD (UGUENOT(OUSE  3T3TEPHENS'REEN $UBLIN )RELAND 4EL  &AX  7EBSITEWWWIRBCOM

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

*OHN-0OWELL $EPUTY%XECUTIVE$IRECTOROF#OMMUNICATIONS 7ORLD&OOD0ROGRAMME

0ARTNERSHIPSINSPORTRAISING AWARENESSOFGLOBALHUNGER (UNGER IS HUMANITYS OLDEST ENEMY AND CLAIMS ACHILDSLIFEEVERYlVESECONDS!CUTEHUNGEROR STARVATION ARE OFTEN HIGHLIGHTED ON 46 SCREENS HUNGRY MOTHERS TOO WEAK TO BREASTFEED THEIR CHILDREN REFUGEES QUEUEING FOR FOOD RATIONS HELICOPTERS AIRLIFTING HIGH ENERGY BISCUITS TO EARTHQUAKE VICTIMS 3UCH DRAMATIC IMAGES ARE THE RESULT OF HIGH PROlLE CRISES LIKE WAR OR NATURAL DISASTERS "UT EMERGENCIES ACCOUNT FOR LESS THAN  PER CENT OF HUNGERS VICTIMS $AILY UNDERNOURISHMENT IS LESS VISIBLE BUT IT AFFECTS MANYMOREPEOPLE&ORWEEKS EVENMONTHS ITS VICTIMSMUSTLIVEONSIGNIlCANTLYLESSTHANWHAT ANAVERAGEPERSONNEEDS"UTWECANNOTWAITFOR WAR AND NATURAL DISASTERS TO REMIND US TO KEEP UP THE ATTACK ON THIS OLD ENEMY 4HIS ARTICLE SHOWS HOW THE SPORTING WORLD IS CONTRIBUTING A VITAL SPOTLIGHT OF PUBLICITY KEEPING ALIVE THE AWARENESSTHATWEMUSTCONTINUETHElGHTEVEN WITHOUTTHEDISASTERHEADLINES )NTHElNALQUARTEROFTHETHCENTURY HUMANITYWAS WINNING THE WAR ON HUNGER &ROM  TO  THE NUMBEROFHUNGRYPEOPLEDROPPEDFROMMILLIONTO MILLIONnMAINLYTHERESULTOFDRAMATICPROGRESSIN REDUCINGTHENUMBEROFUNDERNOURISHEDIN#HINAAND )NDIA )N THE SECOND HALF OF THE S HOWEVER THE NUMBEROFCHRONICALLYHUNGRYINDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES STARTEDTOINCREASEATARATEOFALMOSTFOURMILLIONAYEAR "Y THETOTALNUMBEROFUNDERNOURISHEDPEOPLE WORLDWIDE HAD RISEN TO  MILLION  MILLION IN DEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES MILLIONINCOUNTRIESINTRANSITION ANDNINEMILLIONININDUSTRIALISEDCOUNTRIES4ODAY MORE THANONEINSEVENPEOPLEDONOTGETENOUGHFOODTOBE HEALTHYANDLEADANACTIVELIFE

!CHALLENGEnTOHUNGER &OURYEARSAGOINTHETINY!FRICANKINGDOMOF3WAZILAND $AVID+IRK THEFORMER.EW:EALANDWORLDCUPWINNING CAPTAINANDGIANTINTHEWORLDOFRUGBY STOODINFRONT OFAGROUPOFBEMUSEDSCHOOLCHILDRENANDGAVEASOLO PERFORMANCEOFTHELEGENDARY@(AKA!SFANSOF2UGBY 5NIONKNOW THISISATRADITIONALCHALLENGEDANCEOFTHE -AORIPEOPLE AVERSIONOFWHICHISPERFORMEDBYTHE .EW:EALANDRUGBYTEAM THE!LL"LACKS BEFOREEVERY INTERNATIONALMATCHTHEYPLAY 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

!FRICAISACONTINENTUSEDTOCEREMONIALDANCING BUT IT WAS STILL UNUSUAL TO SEE $AVID +IRK PERFORMING THIS AGGRESSIVE DISPLAY OF FOOT STOMPING CHEST THUMPING AND TONGUE WAGGLING FOR THE BENElT OF A GROUP OF 3WAZI SCHOOLCHILDREN !S THE lRST CAPTAIN TO WIN THE 2UGBY7ORLD#UP $AVID+IRKISSTILLAPOWERFULlGURE WITHIN THE GAME AND IT IS FAIR TO ASK HOW HE FOUND HIMSELF PERFORMING THIS RITUAL IN A COUNTRY THAT HAS NEITHEREXCELLEDONTHElELDOFRUGBY NORGENERATEDA SIGNIlCANTFOLLOWINGFORTHESPORT 4HEANSWERISSIMPLE$AVIDWASIN3WAZILANDASPART OFACAMPAIGNCALLED@4ACKLE(UNGER4HISPARTNERSHIP BETWEEN THE 5NITED .ATIONS 7ORLD &OOD 0ROGRAMME 7&0 AND THE GOVERNING BODY OF WORLD RUGBY THE )NTERNATIONAL2UGBY"OARD)2" AIMSTOUSETHESPORT OFRUGBYASAPLATFORMTORAISEGLOBALAWARENESSABOUT HUNGER AND MALNUTRITION WHICH AFFECTS  MILLION PEOPLEAROUNDTHEWORLD MAINLYWOMENANDCHILDREN

-ORETHANONEINSEVENPEOPLE DONOTGETENOUGHFOODTOBE HEALTHYANDLEADANACTIVELIFE 4ACKLE(UNGERWASLAUNCHEDATTHE2UGBY7ORLD#UP IN!USTRALIAIN!CTIVITIESOVERTHELASTFOURYEARS BRIDGED THE GAP TO THIS YEARS 2UGBY 7ORLD #UP IN &RANCE4HE4ACKLE(UNGERPARTNERSHIPOFFERSAUNIQUE OPPORTUNITY FOR 7&0 TO SPREAD ITS MESSAGES TO THE HUGEANDGROWINGINTERNATIONALBASEOFRUGBYFANS 4HE2UGBY7ORLD#UPISTHETHIRDMOSTPOPULARSPORTING EVENTINTHEWORLD AFTERTHE/LYMPIC'AMESANDTHE &OOTBALL 7ORLD #UP 4HIS YEAR MORE THAN  MILLION TICKETS WERE SOLD TO WATCH GAMES AT THE TOURNAMENT IN &RANCE WHILE THE GLOBAL TELEVISION AUDIENCE WAS ESTIMATED TO BE IN EXCESS OF THREE BILLION PEOPLE 'AININGACCESSTOTHISDEDICATEDGROUPOFFANSACROSS THEWORLDPROVIDESANEFFECTIVEWAYOFSPREADING7&0S HUMANITARIANMESSAGE &IELD VISITS BY LEGENDS OF THE GAME LIKE $AVID +IRK TO 7&0 SUPPORTED INITIATIVES SUCH AS SCHOOL FEEDING PROJECTSAREUSEDTOHIGHLIGHTTHECHALLENGEOFMEETING THENEEDSOFTHEHUNGRY&EWPEOPLEKNOWTHATITTAKES ONLY53CENTSADAYTOGIVEACUPOFPORRIDGETOA SCHOOLCHILD4HATMEALCANBELIFE CHANGINGFORCHILDREN


0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

WHOHAVELITTLEFOODATHOME ANDWHOAREMORELIKELY TOBESENTBYTHEIRPARENTSTOSCHOOLWHEREAMEALIS OFFERED/NCETHERE THEPROVISIONOFFOODHELPSTHEM TOCONCENTRATEONTHEIRLESSONS ESPECIALLYIFTHEYHAVE HADTOWALKALONGDISTANCETOSCHOOL !TTHISYEARS2UGBY7ORLD#UPIN&RANCE THEMESSAGE OF HOW TO COMBAT HUNGER WAS SPREAD THROUGH A VARIETYOFMEDIA4HE)2"DONATEDSPACEFORPERIMETER SIGNAGEPROMOTINGTHE4ACKLE(UNGERBRANDATALLTHE MAJOR MATCHES IN THE TOURNAMENT IT GAVE SPACE FOR COLOURADVERTISEMENTSINSIDEMATCH DAYPROGRAMMES ANDAGREEDTOPLAYPUBLICSERVICEANNOUNCEMENTSON BIGSCREENSINSIDETHEGROUNDS/UTSIDETHESTADIUM 7&0 STAFF SOUGHT FREE PLACEMENT OF TELEVISION PRINT ANDON LINEADVERTISEMENTSINMARKETSSUCHAS3OUTH !FRICA !USTRALIA )RELAND THE5NITED+INGDOM )TALYAND &RANCE WHERETHEREISAHUGERUGBYAUDIENCE

(UNGERREMAINSABIGGERTHREAT TOHUMANLIFETHAN!)$3 TUBERCULOSIS ANDMALARIACOMBINED 7&0ISANEFFECTIVEHUMANITARIANCHANNELMEETINGTHE NUTRITIONAL NEEDS OF THE DEVELOPING WORLD ,AST YEAR 7&0 FED  MILLION PEOPLE IN MORE THAN  OF THE WORLDS POOREST COUNTRIES !T A TIME WHEN MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC ARE BOMBARDED WITH MESSAGES ABOUT PRESSING HUMANITARIAN NEEDS AROUND THE WORLD THE 4ACKLE (UNGER CAMPAIGN ALLOWS 7&0 TO HIGHLIGHT THE FACTTHATHUNGERREMAINSABIGGERTHREATTOHUMANLIFE THAN !)$3 TUBERCULOSIS AND MALARIA COMBINED AND THATEVERYlVESECONDSACHILDDIESFROMCAUSESRELATED TOHUNGERANDMALNUTRITION !S AN ORGANISATION THAT IS ENTIRELY DEPENDENT ON VOLUNTARYFUNDING ITISESSENTIALFOR7&0TOCOMMUNICATE CLEARLY ABOUT ITS MISSION AND THE WAYS IN WHICH IT IS USING INNOVATIVE NEW APPROACHES TO DEALING WITH THE PROBLEM OF GLOBAL HUNGER !LONGSIDE THE BALD FACTS ABOUT HUNGER 7&0 ALSO USES ITS AWARENESS RAISING CAMPAIGNS TO EXPLAIN THE MORE SUBTLE WAYS IN WHICH IT IS SUPPORTING DEVELOPMENT SUCH AS ITS POLICY OF PURCHASING LARGER AMOUNTS OF FOOD ASSISTANCE FROM FARMERSINTHEDEVELOPINGWORLD

LIVESHADBEENUPROOTEDBYTHETSUNAMIIN!SIAWERE ALSO TO BENElT AS THE MATCH RAISED MORE THAN 53 MILLIONFORTHEWORKOF7&0

!LONGSIDETHEBALDFACTSABOUT HUNGER 7&0ALSOUSESITSAWARENESS RAISINGCAMPAIGNSTOEXPLAINTHE MORESUBTLEWAYSINWHICHITIS SUPPORTINGDEVELOPMENT $URING THE RUN UP TO THE EVENT AT 4WICKENHAM 7&0 GRASPED EVERY POSSIBLE OPPORTUNITY TO RAISE AWARENESS ABOUT ITS HUMANITARIAN WORK IN AREAS THAT WEREDEVASTATEDBYTHETSUNAMI!FEWWEEKSBEFORE THEEXHIBITIONMATCHTOOKPLACEAT4WICKENHAM 7&0 ARRANGEDFORANOTHERFORMER2UGBY7ORLD#UP WINNING CAPTAIN .ICK&ARR *ONES TOVISITTHE"ANDA!CEHAREA OF 3UMATRA IN )NDONESIA WHERE THE TSUNAMI HAD ITS GREATESTIMPACTONHUMANLIFE 4HISPRE PLANNINGPROVIDED7&0WITHVALUABLETELEVISION MATERIALTHATWASUSEDTOACCOMPANYANUMBEROFSET PIECEINTERVIEWSWITHNATIONALANDINTERNATIONALMEDIA ONTHEDAYOFTHE4WICKENHAMMATCH)TALSOMADETHE CONNECTIONBETWEENTHEWORLDOFRUGBY ANDTHEVICTIMS OFTHEHUMANITARIANDISASTERCAUSEDBYTHETSUNAMI

!LLPULLTOGETHER 4HATSAMEYEAR 7&0ALSOCAUGHTTHEEYEOF3IR3TEVE 2EDGRAVE THE MULTI GOLD MEDAL WINNING /LYMPIC ROWER WHO IS A TOWERING lGURE IN THE WORLD ROWING COMMUNITY3IR3TEVEHADVOLUNTEEREDTORE UNITEHIS GOLDMEDALWINNINGTEAMFROMTHE3YDNEY/LYMPICS FOR A RACE CALLED THE @,EGENDS 3PRINT THAT WOULD ALSO RAISE MONEY IN AID OF 7&0S RECONSTRUCTION WORK IN AREAS AFFECTED BY THE !SIAN TSUNAMI

.EWWAYSOFREACHINGWIDERAUDIENCES !S THE LARGEST HUMANITARIAN AGENCY IN THE WORLD 7&0 IS ALWAYS EXPLORING NEW WAYS OF REACHING WIDER AUDIENCES AND STRENGTHENING PARTNERSHIPS WITH SPORTS MEN AND WOMEN AS WELL AS SPORTING ORGANISATIONS 4HE POSITIVE ENDORSEMENT OF A WELLKNOWNSPORTINGlGURE ORANASSOCIATIONWITH A HIGHLY RESPECTED SPORTING ORGANISATION GIVES IMMEDIATEACCESSTOTHEFANBASEANDSUPPORTERS BEHINDTHATINDIVIDUALORBODY

&UNDRAISINGFORTHETSUNAMIVICTIMS !LONGSIDE THE AWARENESS RAISING PRESENTED BY PARTNERSHIPS WITH SPORTING ORGANISATIONS THERE IS ALSO THEOPPORTUNITYFORFUNDRAISING7HENTHE!SIANTSUNAMI STRUCK ON  $ECEMBER  THE WORLD RESPONDED INWAYSTHATHAVENOTBEENSEENBEFORE ORSINCE4HE INCREDIBLEOUTPOURINGOFPUBLICGENEROSITYINRESPONSETO THISUNPRECEDENTEDNATURALDISASTERWASMATCHEDINTHE SPORTINGWORLDBYAWHOLERANGEOFDIFFERENTINITIATIVES

!SSOCIATIONS WITH SPORTING EVENTS ORGANISATIONS AND INDIVIDUALS HELP TO BROADEN UNDERSTANDING ABOUT7&0SVITALWORK4HEPROMOTIONOFTHE4ACKLE (UNGERCAMPAIGNATTHE2UGBY7ORLD#UPPRESENTED A GOLDEN OPPORTUNITY TO COMMUNICATE TO A WIDE AUDIENCETHENATUREOF7&0SWORKINRESPONDINGTO HUMANITARIANEMERGENCIES ANDITSROLEINPROVIDING MORE LONG TERM SUPPORT TO COMMUNITIES THAT ARE EMERGINGFROMANATURALORMAN MADECRISIS

4HE 4ACKLE (UNGER PARTNERSHIP CAME INTO PLAY WHEN THE)2"ANNOUNCEDITWOULDSTAGEANEXHIBITIONMATCH BETWEEN TEAMS OF INTERNATIONAL PLAYERS FROM THE NORTHERNANDSOUTHERNHEMISPHEREATTHE4WICKENHAM RUGBY GROUND IN ,ONDON 4HE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE TEAM WON ON THE DAY BUT COUNTLESS PEOPLE WHOSE

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

7ITH SPORTS MEN AND WOMEN ALL OVER THE WORLD DOINGTHEIRBIT ITSEEMEDONLYRIGHTTHATTHESEROWING CHAMPIONSWOULDALSOPLAYAROLE !FTERHISCOMPELLINGVICTORYATTHE3YDNEY/LYMPICS 3IR 3TEVEHADJOKINGLY VOWED NEVER TO GET INTO THESAME BOATAGAINWITHHISFELLOWGOLDMEDALWINNINGROWERS -ATTHEW 0INSENT 4IM &OSTER AND *AMES #RACKNELL 4HEYWEREALLGOODFRIENDS BUTHEFELTTHEYHADSPENT FAR TOO MUCH TIME ON THE RIVER TOGETHER (OWEVER FOR THESAKEOFAGOODHUMANITARIANCAUSE HECASTTHAT VOW ASIDE AND RETURNED TO THE HELM FOR THE RACE THAT WAS HELD AT $ORNEY ,AKE IN %TON IN -AY  4HE EVENTATTRACTEDWIDESPREADNATIONALMEDIAATTENTIONIN "RITAIN ASWELLASRAISINGASIGNIlCANTAMOUNTOFFUNDS TOSUPPORT7&0SWORK

!MBASSADORS!GAINST(UNGER )NRECENTYEARS 7&0SPORTFOLIOOFSPORTINGPARTNERSHIPS HASEXPANDEDRAPIDLYTOINCLUDEAWHOLEARRAYOFWELL KNOWNNAMESFROMTHEWORLDOFRUGBY FOOTBALL CRICKET AND ATHLETICS )NDIVIDUALS AS DIVERSE AS THE 7ORLD &OOTBALLER OF THE 9EAR 2ONALDINHO WHO IS A "RAZILIAN NATIONALTEAMMEMBERPLYINGHISTRADEWITH"ARCELONA IN3PAIN STANDALONGSIDETEAMSSUCHASTHE%NGLAND AND7ALES#RICKET4EAMWHOARESUPPORTINGTHEWORKOF 7&0THROUGHTHE#RICKET!GAINST(UNGERPARTNERSHIP !N ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN FEATURING 2ONALDINHO EATING AFOOTBALL WITHTHETAGLINEh.OTEVERYONECANLIVEOFF FOOTBALLv FEATUREDPROMINENTLYDURINGTHE&OOTBALL7ORLD #UP IN 'ERMANY IN  "Y CONTRAST THE %NGLAND CRICKETTEAMHASTAKENEVERYOPPORTUNITYTOVISIT7&0 PROJECTSINPLACESLIKE)NDIA 3RI,ANKAAND"ANGLADESH TORAISEAWARENESSABOUTTHEIMPORTANTWORK7&0IS DOINGINTHESECRICKET LOVING3OUTH!SIANNATIONS 0ERHAPS THE MOST OUTSTANDING INDIVIDUAL TO COME FORWARD AND SUPPORT 7&0S WORK IS THE +ENYAN MARATHON RUNNER 0AUL 4ERGAT !S A YOUNG BOY 0AUL GREWUPASAMEMBEROFALARGEFAMILYONTHESHORES OF ,AKE "ARINGO (E VIVIDLY RECALLS THE STRUGGLE HIS PARENTS HAD TO ENSURE THAT ALL OF THEIR CHILDREN HAD ENOUGHFOOD ANDHEREMEMBERSTHEDAYWHEN7&0 STARTED PROVIDING FOOD TO SUPPORT THE SCHOOL FEEDING PROGRAMMEINHISVILLAGE 4ODAY 0AUL 4ERGAT WHO UNTIL RECENTLY WAS THE WORLD MARATHON RECORD HOLDER A FEAT HE ACCOMPLISHED IN THE "ERLIN MARATHON IN 3EPTEMBER  !T THE AGE OF  0AUL STILL FEATURES IN THE TOP lNISHING SPOTS IN MAJOR INTERNATIONAL MARATHONS AND LAST YEAR HE WON THEPRESTIGIOUS.EW9ORKMARATHON )N  7&0 ANNOUNCED THAT 0AUL WOULD BECOME AN !MBASSADOR !GAINST (UNGER AND SINCE THEN HE HAS HELPED TO SPREAD THE MESSAGE ABOUT THE EFFECTIVENESS OF 7&0S SCHOOL FEEDING PROGRAMMES ANDTHEIMPORTANCEOFTHEAGENCYSWORKINALLEVIATING HUNGER ACROSS THE WORLD 0AULS TIRELESS WORK VISITING SCHOOLFEEDINGPROJECTSINHISHOMECOUNTRYOF+ENYA ANDELSEWHERE ASWELLASPROMOTING7&0INSPEAKING ENGAGEMENTS AND NEWSPAPER INTERVIEWS HAS DONE MUCH TO STRENGTHEN CREDIBILITY BY PRESENTING A LIVING EXAMPLEOFTHEEFFECTIVENESSOFFOODASSISTANCE 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

)N  0AUL DEDICATED HIS PARTICIPATION IN THE &LORA ,ONDON -ARATHON TO THE PLIGHT OF HUNGRY CHILDREN ALL OVERTHEWORLD4HISWASTHElRSTOFWHATTURNEDOUTTO BEAHATTRICKOFDEDICATIONSTO7&0SWORKTHATYEAR !FEWMONTHSLATER 7&0!MBASSADOR!GAINST(UNGER +AKA THE "RAZILIAN INTERNATIONAL FOOTBALLER PLAYING FOR !#-ILAN DEDICATEDHISPARTICIPATIONINTHE#HAMPIONS ,EAGUElNALTOTHECAUSEOFHUNGRYCHILDREN

3PORTSMENANDWOMENCARRY WEIGHTBECAUSEMOSTAREEXTREMELY POSITIVEROLEMODELS ANDPOPULAR AMONGYOUNGERAUDIENCES 4HEN IN 3EPTEMBER  THE )NTERNATIONAL 2UGBY "OARD DEDICATED 2UGBY 7ORLD #UP  IN &RANCE TOTHE4ACKLE(UNGERPARTNERSHIPWITHTHE7ORLD&OOD 0ROGRAMME 4HISCOMBINATIONOFFUNDRAISINGANDAWARENESS RAISING POTENTIALISALMOSTUNIQUETOTHEWORLDOFSPORT WHICH ATTRACTS SUCH HUGE GLOBAL AUDIENCES AND DEDICATED FOLLOWINGS 3PORTSMEN AND WOMEN ALSO CARRY SUCH WEIGHT BECAUSE n GENERALLY SPEAKING n MOST ARE EXTREMELY POSITIVE ROLE MODELS AND POPULAR AMONG YOUNGERAUDIENCES

*OHN-0OWELLIS$EPUTY%XECUTIVE$IRECTOROFTHE&UNDRAISING AND#OMMUNICATIONS$EPARTMENTATTHE7ORLD&OOD0ROGRAMME 3INCE -R 0OWELL WAS APPOINTED TO THIS POSITION IN !PRIL  THE ORGANIZATION HAS DONE MORE TO PROMOTE ITS WORK AMONG DECISION MAKERS THE MEDIA AND THE PUBLIC THAN EVER BEFORE 7&0HASNEARLYTRIPLEDITSDONATIONSFROMEMERGINGDONORSINTHE PUBLICANDPRIVATESECTORS)N 7&0RAISEDATOTALOF BILLION FROM  DONORS )T ALSO RECEIVED MORE MEDIA COVERAGE ANDFREEADVERTISINGSPACETHANATANYTIMEINTHEORGANIZATIONS YEARHISTORY 4HE 7ORLD &OOD 0ROGRAMME IS THE 5NITED .ATIONS FRONTLINE AGENCYINTHElGHTAGAINSTGLOBALHUNGER/PERATIONSAIMTO

°3AVELIVESINREFUGEECRISESANDOTHEREMERGENCIES °)MPROVENUTRITIONANDQUALITYOFLIFEOFWORLDSMOSTVULNERABLE PEOPLEATCRITICALTIMESINTHEIRLIVES

°%NABLE DEVELOPMENT BY HELPING PEOPLE BUILD ASSETS THAT BENElTTHEMDIRECTLY ANDPROMOTINGTHESELF RELIANCEOFPOOR PEOPLEANDCOMMUNITIES 5.7ORLD&OOD0ROGRAMME 6IA#'6IOLA 0ARCODEI-EDICI 2OME )TALY 4EL  &AX  %MAILWFPINFO WFPORG 7EBSITEWWWWFPORG


NATIONAL HOUSING AND CONSTRUCTION COMPANY MINISTERIAL BUDGET POLICY STATEMENT FY 2007/2008 1 NHCC Vision “To use home ownership to enhance household wealth and living standards for every Ugandan.”

2 NHCCL Mission “To create the reality of home ownership in well-planned and permanent built environments.”

3 Achievements during Financial Year 2006/7 a) Restructured the company by recruiting a new staff b) Sold off Government shares and changed the company into a limited liability company c) Completed 12 bungalows in Naalya Pride III; completed 40 Flats in Naalya; completed 17 bungalows at Lubowa 108 Estate , started on 32 flats in Naalya 208 flats in Namungona and 35 bungalows at Regina Estate Upper Lubowa d) Completed third party projects in Wakiso [DDHS]; Ministry of Education [Kibuli PTC], Mbarara University Office Block. e) Attained 100% occupancy for Crested Tower Building f) Completed preparing condominium titles [for Bugolobi Block 1-17 [544 No] & Wandegeya, [364 No]] and offered Bugolobi Block 1-17 for sale.

5. Financial Summary for the Year 2006/7 The company made sales of approximately UGX 15 billion during this period. Sales from rent amounted to UGX 6.3 billion while income from sale of flats amounted to UGX 7.2 billion. The company plans to finalize construction activities started in 2006 i.e. Phase II comprising of 32 Exclusive flats at Naalya Estates and a six apartments Rubaga.

6. Planned out puts for the Financial Year 2007/08 (NHCC Targets for the year 2007-2008) The summary of construction activities for the FY 2007/08 is presented in the table below: Table of Planned Activities: in FY 2007/2008 Project Kiwatule Regina Estate ( Lubowa ) Naalya Kiwanuka Plot Naalya Residue Plots Kiwana Apartments Luthuli Rise apartments Bugolobi Prefab Namungona Housing Estate Mutundwe Housing Estate Kyambogo Estate Kireka estate Total Units

Type Flats Bungalows Bungalows Flats/ Bungalows Flats Flats Flats Flats Flats Bungalow Flats

2007units 160 10 16

2008units 148 40 80

48 40 96 208

578

500 100 9 877

2009units 200 50 16 80

1,000 300 300 1,880

7. Challenges a) Lack of construction finance at attractive terms c) High cost of infrastructure ( roads, electricity, water reticulation) e) Small mortgage market base

b) High mortgage interest rates d) Lack of plant and equipment

National Housing and Construction Company Limited, Plot 5, 7th Street, Industrial area P. O. Box 659, Kampala, Uganda. Email: admin@nhcc.co.ug T: +265 414 33 0002 F: +256 414 25 8708 W: www.nhcc.co.ug

Totalunits 508

160 48 40 96 1,348 400 9 300 2,975


0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

,OU-C'RATH %XECUTIVE$IRECTOR -!'-INES!DVISORY'ROUP

5NEXPLODEDREMNANTSOF CONmICTTURNINGDEADLYLEGACIES INTOSAFEFUTURES !-!'TECHNICIAN CAREFULLYPINSA BOUNDINGFRAGMENTATION MINE7HENTRIGGERED THISMINEJUMPSAMETRE INTOTHEAIRBEFORE BLASTINGSHRAPNELIN ALLDIRECTIONS)THAS AKILLINGRANGEOF METRES

2EMNANTSOFCONmICTSUCHASLANDMINES EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE MALFUNCTIONING AND ABANDONED WEAPONSDENYACCESSTOKEYCOMMUNITYASSETS SUCH AS LAND WATER AND INFRASTRUCTURE AND RESTRICTTHEMODUSOPERANDIOFGOVERNMENTAND RELIEFANDDEVELOPMENTAGENCIES4HESEREMAINS HAMPEROREVENDENYAPOSSIBLETRANSITIONFROM POVERTY FOR THOSE PEOPLE AND COMMUNITIES AFFECTED(UMANITARIANMINEACTIONINTERVENTIONS AS DONE BY -!' ARE DESIGNED AS A @LIVELIHOOD APPROACH AND A NECESSARY PREREQUISITE TO BE ABLE TO ACHIEVE LOCAL RESULTS TO THE OVERALL OBJECTIVEOFERADICATINGPOVERTY 4HERE IS A DEPRESSING TALE TOLD TOO MANY TIMES BY VICTIMS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD +OKULAN A  YEAR OLD BOY FROM 3RI ,ANKA WAS PLAYING WITH FRIENDS WHEN SOMETHINGCAUGHTHISEYE!SCHILDRENDO HEPICKEDIT UP5NKNOWINGLYINHISHANDSHEHELDA0 LANDMINE 3ECONDS LATER HE HAD LOST A HAND HIS SISTER HER EYE ANDHISFRIENDISNOWBLIND 7ITH HIS STORY +OKULAN REPRESENTS DOZENS OF CHILDREN WHO ARE INJURED OR EVEN KILLED BY THE REMNANTS OF CONmICTEVERYDAY/NCECONmICTHASENDEDORMOVED ON ITISNOTONLYCHILDRENWHOCONTINUETOSUFFEROFTEN ENTIRE COMMUNITIES ARE FORCED INTO HARDSHIP TAKING LIFE THREATENING RISKS EVERY DAY INACCESSIBLE LAND CONTAMINATEDWELLSINABILITYTOBUILDSCHOOLSORCLINICS MINED TRACKS AND ROAD VERGES LONG DETOURS TO GET TOMARKETS

Â¥3EAN3UTTON-!'

4HE CLEARANCE OF UNEXPLODED REMNANTS OF CONmICT IE LANDMINES UNEXPLODEDORDNANCE CLUSTERMUNITIONS SMALL ARMS AND LIGHT WEAPONS IS OFTEN SUMMARISED UNDER THE TERM @HUMANITARIAN MINE ACTION )T IS A RELATIVELY UNKNOWN ASPECT OF THE EFFORT TO ACHIEVE THE -ILLENNIUM $EVELOPMENT 'OALS -$'S TO WHICH ALL #OMMONWEALTH NATIONS HAVE COMMITTED THEMSELVES 4HE CLEARANCE OF EXPLOSIVE DEVICES MIGHT NOT BE A MILLENNIUM GOAL OR AN INDICATOR IN

"OX,ANDMINESBYNUMBERS °.UMBEROFMINE AFFECTEDCOUNTRIES °.UMBEROFNEWLANDMINECASUALTIESREPORTEDIN   °-INEVICTIMSWHOARECIVILIANS

4ARGETEDCLEARANCE

°-INEVICTIMSWHOARECHILDRENUNDERYEARSOF AGE

&OLLOWING THE CONmICT AND ITS DEVASTATING EFFECTS ON THEIR LIVELIHOODS COUNTLESS CIVILIANS ARE CONFRONTED WITH THE CONSTRAINTS THAT LANDMINES AND OTHER REMNANTSOFCONmICTIMPOSEONTHEIRDEVELOPMENTAND POSSIBLETRANSITIONFROMPOVERTY4HEIRRESOURCESHAVE BECOMESCARCEORUNAVAILABLEDUETODISPLACEMENT FORCED MIGRATION DESTRUCTION OF INFRASTRUCTURE AND INACCESSIBILITY OF SURROUNDING LAND DUE TO CONTAMINATION BY EXPLOSIVE DEVICES NOT TO MENTION THEADDEDIMPACTOFMINEANDUNEXPLODEDORDNANCE INJURIESONHEALTHSYSTEMSANDRESOURCES

°0ERCENTAGE OF MINE VICTIMS WHO DIE BEFORE REACHINGAHOSPITAL °0ERCENTAGEOFMINEVICTIMSWHOAREMALE °#OSTOFPRODUCINGALANDMINE53 °#OSTOFREMOVINGALANDMINE53   3OURCES !DOPT A -INElELD )#", AND 3URVEY !CTION#ENTRE

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

!DEMINERCLEARSTHE AREAAROUNDAVILLAGEAS AFARMERIMMEDIATELY TAKESADVANTAGEOF NEWAGRICULTURALLAND BECOMINGAVAILABLE

IMPACT OF CONmICT WAS NOT TO BE MEASURED BY LANDMINESALONE BUTBYTHEBREADTHANDSCOPEOFTHE THREAT TO COMMUNITIES THAT REMAINED AFTER THE CONmICT CAMETOANEND!SARESULT@HUMANITARIANMINEACTION HAS EXPANDED EVER SINCE INTO A BROADER APPROACH THANSIMPLYTHETECHNICALREMOVALOFALANDMINE AND TARGETSALLREMNANTSOFCONmICT

Â¥3EAN3UTTON-!'

ITSELF HOWEVER THE IMPACT THAT TARGETED CLEARANCE CAN HAVE AFFECTS ALMOST ALL OF THE DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES SET BY THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY 4HIS LINKAGE BETWEEN TARGETED HUMANITARIAN MINE ACTION AND DEVELOPMENT IS KEY TO SUCCESS 4HROUGHOUT THE YEARS -!' HAS CONDUCTED COUNTLESS OF THESE TARGETED DEMINING ACTIVITIES IN SUPPORT OF SCHOOL AND HOSPITAL REHABILITATION AND ACCESSIBILITY TO LAND WATER VILLAGES AND OTHER COMMUNITY RESOURCES 4HE WORK HAS A DIRECT FACILITATING EFFECT ALLOWING OTHER AGENCIESAND.'/STOCARRYOUTTHEIROWNRELIEFAND DEVELOPMENTPROJECTSINSUPPORTOFNATIONAL REGIONAL ANDLOCALAUTHORITIES 4HEERADICATIONOFEXTREMEPOVERTYANDHUNGERANDTHE IMPROVEMENTSINEDUCATION HEALTHCAREANDCLEANWATER BYISONLYPOSSIBLEWHENCOMMUNITYASSETSARE FREED FROM THE RISKS AND THREATS THAT SURROUND THEM HENCE THE VITAL IMPORTANCE OF INTERVENTIONS TO CLEAR UNEXPLODED REMNANTS OF CONmICT AT ANY OR MULTIPLE POINTSONTHERELIEF TO DEVELOPMENTCONTINUUM

!BOUTMINESANDSMALLARMS

4EN YEARS AGO THE )NTERNATIONAL #AMPAIGN TO "AN ,ANDMINES)#", WHICH-!'HELPEDTOFOUND WAS AWARDED THE .OBEL 0EACE 0RIZE ! FEW MONTHS LATER IN $ECEMBER  THE -INE "AN 4REATY WAS SIGNED IN /TTAWA #ANADA !S THE WORLD REACHES THE TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE TREATY IT IS WITH MIXED FEELINGS 4O DATE STATESHAVESIGNEDUPTOTHETREATY WHICHIS LAUDABLEFORTYHAVENOT INCLUDINGSIX#OMMONWEALTH NATIONS FAILINGTHEINTENTDECLAREDBYTHEPRESIDENCYOF THE#OMMONWEALTHWHENTHETREATYCAMEINTOEXISTENCE TOMAKETHE#OMMONWEALTHAMINE FREEZONE

4HEREMOVALOFLANDMINES UNEXPLODEDORDNANCEAND OTHERDANGEROUSITEMSISALIFE SAVINGACTIVITYINITSELF -!' STRIVES TO INTEGRATE ITS OPERATIONS INTO A WIDER DEVELOPMENTANDHUMANSECURITYCONTEXT TOBEABLE TOACHIEVERESULTSTHATSUPPORTPOST CONmICTRECOVERY REDUCE THE AVAILABILITY OF WEAPONS AND MINIMISE THE LEAKAGE OF WEAPONS INTO UNAUTHORISED HANDS AND ACROSS BORDERS 7HEREVER @HUMANITARIAN MINE ACTION IN ITS BROADEST FORM IS INTEGRATED INTO A COUNTRYS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME THE HUMANITARIAN SOCIAL ANDECONOMICIMPACTOFCLEARANCECANBEMAXIMISED ANDREPRESENTSADDITIONALVALUE)NNOVATIONISNOTONLY FEASIBLE IN TECHNICAL DELIVERABLES AND ACHIEVEMENTS BUT ALSO IN DEVELOPING ADAPTING AND APPLYING NEW IDEAS APPROACHES AND SYSTEMS TO lELD OPERATIONS 4HISENSURESTHEREDUCTIONOFTHREATSTOFRAGILEPEACE IN THE COUNTRIES CONCERNED AND BEYOND THEIR SOMETIMESPOROUSBORDERS

7HEREAS THE /TTAWA 4REATY CONSTITUTES A BAN ON CERTAINANTI PERSONNELLANDMINESITDOESNOTCOVERTHE WIDERRANGEOFREMNANTSOFCONmICT(OWEVER THETREATY IS SIGNIlCANT BECAUSE IT SHOWS THAT DECISIONS CAN BE MADE AND RESULTS CAN BE ACHIEVED WITHOUT BEING DEPENDENTONTHEPOLITICALANDDIPLOMATICBALANCESOF POWER 3MALLER COUNTRIES ACROSS THE 3OUTH AND THE .ORTH TOOK THE LEAD AND BYPASSED THE RESISTANCE OR RELUCTANCE OF SOME OF THE MAJOR GLOBAL POWERS 4HE TREATY RECOGNISED THE DEVASTATING IMPACT LANDMINES CANHAVEONTHELIVESANDLIVELIHOODSOFITSVICTIMSBUT ITDIDNOTnORCOULDNOTnGOFARENOUGH/NTHEONE HANDTHE/TTAWA4REATYITSELFFOCUSEDONCERTAINKINDS OFLANDMINESONLY ONTHEOTHERHAND THEHUMANITARIAN

4HEGLOBALAVAILABILITYOFSMALLARMSANDLIGHTWEAPONS 3!,7 ISINCREASINGLYRECOGNISEDBYALLSTAKEHOLDERS ASAREALHINDRANCETOPEACEANDSECURITYANDTORELIEF AND DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES 5NLIKE ANTI PERSONNEL MINES BANNED UNDER THE /TTAWA 4REATY CONTROL OF THEPRODUCTION TRANSFER POSSESSIONANDUSEOFSMALL ARMSANDLIGHTWEAPONSISMUCHMORECOMPLEX-!' BECAME INVOLVED WHEN PROVIDING SUPPORT TO SEVERAL DEMOBILISATION PROGRAMMES IN SOUTHERN !FRICA AND 3OUTH %AST !SIA $EMOBILISED SOLDIERS WERE HANDING IN THEIR WEAPONS IN AREAS WHERE -!' WAS ALREADY EXECUTING MINE AND UNEXPLODED ORDNANCE CLEARANCE ACTIVITIES4HROUGHOUTTHEPASTYEARS-!'HASBECOME INCREASINGLY INVOLVED IN THIS AREA AND HAS SET UP

"EYONDTHE/TTAWA4REATY



/VERTHEPASTYEARS RECOGNITIONHASGROWNOFTHE IMPORTANCE OF REMOVING ALL UNEXPLODED REMNANTS OF CONmICT 4HIS GENERIC TERM @REMNANTS OF CONmICT IS THEREFORELEGALLYLESSCLEARLYDElNEDANDTHERULESAND REGULATIONS OF SPECIlC TREATIES ONLY ADDRESS SOME ASPECTSOFTHEPROBLEMSFACINGCOMMUNITIES&ORITS PART -!'CONSIDERSTHEIMPACTOFREMNANTSOFCONmICT ON THE LIVELIHOODS OF INDIVIDUALS AND COMMUNITIES AT THEHEARTOFTHEOVERALLOBJECTIVE7HATSTARTEDFOR-!' SEVENTEENYEARSAGOASTHECLEARANCEOFTHESPECIlC THREAT OF LANDMINES HAS OVER THE YEARS DEVELOPED INTO AN ALL ENCOMPASSING COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH TO MITIGATE THE IMPACT OF CONmICT WHICH IS PERHAPS BESTDESCRIBEDINTHE'ENEVA$ECLARATIONON!RMED 6IOLENCEAND$EVELOPMENT WHICHSTATESTHAT hARMEDVIOLENCEDESTROYSLIVESANDLIVELIHOODS BREEDS INSECURITY FEAR AND TERROR AND HAS A PROFOUNDLY NEGATIVEIMPACTONHUMANDEVELOPMENT7HETHERIN SITUATIONS OF CONmICT OR CRIME IT IMPOSES ENORMOUS COSTSONSTATES COMMUNITIESANDINDIVIDUALSv

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING


0EOPLEATTHE(EARTOF$EVELOPMENT

"OX%NHANCINGTHEHUMANITARIAN IMPACTOF@MINEACTION °#REATE SAFE LAND FOR WIDE SCALE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENTANDFARMING °#REATETHEPOTENTIALFORRENEWEDTRADEBYOPENING UPSAFEACCESSROUTES °0ROVIDE SAFE LAND FOR CONSTRUCTION OF HOUSING SCHOOLS CLINICSETC °3TIMULATE LOCAL ECONOMY BY EMPLOYING AND EDUCATINGNATIONALSTAFFFROMAFFECTEDCOMMUNITIES °$ESTROY ILLICIT STOCKPILES OF MUNITIONS SMALL ARMS ANDLIGHTWEAPONSTOPREVENTTHEIRREINSERTIONINTO CONmICT JEOPARDISINGCEASE lRESANDPEACEDEALS °0ROVIDESAFEACCESSTOWATER SHELTERANDFOODFOR REMOTECOMMUNITIESANDASSISTTHESAFERETURNOF REFUGEESANDINTERNALLYDISPLACEDPERSONS

LARGE 3!,7 REMOVAL AND DESTRUCTION PROGRAMMES IN COUNTRIESSUCHAS)RAQANDTHE$2#ONGO.UMEROUS #OMMONWEALTH NATIONS HAVE DESIGNATED THE SMALL ARMSANDLIGHTWEAPONSISSUEASANINTERNATIONALPRIORITY SINCETHEYPOSEATHREATTOPEACEANDRECONSTRUCTION 4HEY CAN BE FAR MORE DIFlCULT TO QUANTIFY CONTROL ANDDESTROYTHAN FOREXAMPLE AMINElELDTHAT ONCE MARKED REPRESENTSASTATICANDCLEARLYDElNEDTHREAT THAT CAN BE FURTHER REDUCED THROUGH EDUCATION AND COMMUNITYLIAISONPROGRAMMESUNTILACTUALCLEARANCE TAKES PLACE !S WITH THE REMOVAL AND DESTRUCTION OF MOSTITEMSOFEXPLOSIVEORDNANCE -!'CONSIDERSTHE OBJECTIVEOFSMALLARMSANDLIGHTWEAPONSDESTRUCTION AS REDUCING THE RISK THAT THE TOOLS OF ONE COMPLETED CONmICTAREBEINGUSEDTOlGHTANOTHERONE

3ECURITYANDITSHUMANITARIANIMPACT &ORSOMETIMETHE3!,7APPROACHHASRUNINPARALLEL TO THE MINE ACTION SECTOR !S OF LATE GOVERNMENTS 5.AND.'/SHAVEBEENLOOKINGFORMOREEFFECTIVE ANDEFlCIENTWAYSOFDEALINGWITHTHEOVERALLRISKSAND THREATSTOCOMMUNITIES4HEREARESEVERALAREASWHERE COMMON APPROACHES TO MINE ACTION AND 3!,7 ARE VALUABLE 4HE SYNERGY IS ESPECIALLY POIGNANT IN THE OPERATIONAL AREA OF CLEARING THE THREAT IE STORAGE AND DESTRUCTION AND EDUCATING COMMUNITIES ON THE NATURE OF THE THREAT THROUGH RISK EDUCATION AND COMMUNITY LIAISON PROGRAMMES 4HE CLEARANCE OF BOTH THREATS AND SUBSEQUENT IMPACT ON POVERTY ALLEVIATIONISREMARKABLYSIMILARDESPITETHEDIFFERENCE ININTERACTION RISKTAKINGANDTECHNICALANALYSISOFTHE NATUREOFTHEPROBLEM4HEOVERRIDINGFACTORISTHATTHE PRESENCE OF LANDMINES OR OTHER EXPLOSIVE REMNANTS OF CONmICT INCLUDING SMALL ARMS AND LIGHT WEAPONS CAUSE DEATH AND INJURY AND DENY COMMUNITIES KEY ECONOMIC SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ASSETS ALL OF WHICH IMPACTONTHELIVELIHOODSOFTHOSEAFFECTED 4HE STRATEGIC APPROACH IN THE LONG TERM MUST BE TO ENABLE COUNTRIES TO REBUILD THEIR INFRASTRUCTURE AND DEVELOPTHEIRSOCIALANDECONOMICPOTENTIALTOSUPPORT

COUNTRIESINTHEIRACHIEVEMENTOFTHE-$'S4HEREFORE ANYSTRATEGICAPPROACHSHOULDCONCENTRATEONACTIVITIES WHERE THE HUMANITARIAN IMPACT WILL BE THE GREATEST 3IX KEY AREAS CAN BE DElNED SEE "OX  THAT WILL FACILITATE AND ENABLE LOCAL COMMUNITIES IN RECLAIMING LANDANDINFRASTRUCTURE LIVELIHOODANDSECURITYINORDER TOERADICATEPOVERTY

#ONCLUSION #AUSES OF CONmICT ARE COMPLEX AND OFTEN CONTESTED 4HE LEGACY OF CONmICTS CAN LAST FOR GENERATIONS /NCETHECONmICT WHATEVERITSCAUSE HASRESULTEDIN LANDMINES AND ORDNANCE CONTAMINATION IT BECOMES THEUTMOSTPRIORITYTOREMOVEORALLEVIATETHECONSTRAINTS PRESENTEDBYTHESEREMNANTSOFCONmICTASINSTRUMENTAL IN ALLOWING AFFECTED COMMUNITIES TO RECOVER THEIR LIVELIHOODS 4HE PRESENCE OF LANDMINES UNEXPLODED ORDNANCE ABANDONED CACHES OF SMALL ARMS AND LIGHT WEAPONS EXACERBATE AN ALREADY CRITICAL SITUATION BY DENYING COMMUNITIES ACCESS TO ASSETS OFTEN IN SITUATIONSWHERETHESEASSETSAREALREADYSCARCEAND THREATENED 7HEN THIS IS DONE IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE INITIALSHOCK IEINANEMERGENCYPHASELIKE,EBANON IN WHERE-!'WASOPERATIONALTHEDAYAFTERTHE CEASE lRECAMEINTOEFFECT THENANYOUTCOMEWILLBE IMMEDIATE FOREXAMPLEINREDUCINGTHEDEATHTOLL"UT INTHECASEWHEREINTERVENTIONTAKESPLACEFOLLOWINGAN OLDERCONmICTTHECLEARANCECANPLAYANEFFECTIVEROLEIN THELONGERTERM BYOPENINGUPPREVIOUSLYCONTAMINATED LANDANDRESTRICTEDASSETS@(UMANITARIANMINEACTION INTERVENTIONS MAY NOT BE DESIGNED SPECIlCALLY TO SUSTAINLIVELIHOODS BUTASA@LIVELIHOODAPPROACHITIS A NECESSARY PREREQUISITE TO BE ABLE TO ACHIEVE LOCAL RESULTSTOTHEOVERALLOBJECTIVEOFERADICATINGPOVERTY

,OU-C'RATHHASBEEN%XECUTIVE$IRECTOROF-!'SINCE HAVINGBEENINVOLVEDINTHEORGANISATIONSINCEITSFOUNDATIONIN 3ERVINGINTHE"RITISH!RMYTHROUGHOUTTHES HETHEN SPENTTIMETRAVELLINGIN!FRICAAND!SIABEFORETAKINGUPACAREER INTHEAGRICULTUREINDUSTRY-R-C'RATHHASPLAYEDAKEYROLEIN THELANDMINETREATYPROCESS(EHASBEENANACTIVEPARTICIPANTIN THEINTERNATIONAL@MINEACTIONCOMMUNITY COMMITTEDTOENSURING ITWORKSALONGSIDEDEVELOPMENTOBJECTIVES(EHASOVERSEENTHE SUCCESSFULGROWTHOF-!'ANDITSINNOVATIVEAPPROACHTOMINE ANDORDNANCECLEARANCE -!' -INES !DVISORY 'ROUP IS A NEUTRAL AND IMPARTIAL HUMANITARIAN ORGANISATION CLEARING THE REMNANTS OF CONmICT FOR THE BENElT OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES WORLDWIDE 2EGISTERED AS A 5+ CHARITY -!' HAS BEEN ACTIVE SINCE  WORKING ON A VARIETYOFCONmICT RELATEDPROJECTSINAROUNDCOUNTRIES-!' IS CURRENTLY OPERATIONAL IN !NGOLA #AMBODIA #YPRUS $2# 2EPUBLICOF#ONGO "URUNDI )RAQ ,AO0$2 ,EBANON 3RI,ANKA 3UDANAND6IETNAM-!'ISALSOCO LAUREATEOFTHE.OBEL 0EACE0RIZE -!' .EWTON3TREET -ANCHESTER -&4 5+ 4EL   &AX   %MAILMAGUK MAGORGUK 7EBSITEWWWMAGORGUK

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




.ATURAL2ESOURCES ANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

*OHN(OLMES 5.5NDER 3ECRETARY 'ENERALFOR(UMANITARIAN !FFAIRSAND%MERGENCY2ELIEF#OORDINATOR

2EDUCINGTHERISKSOFNATURAL DISASTERSTHEBESTINVESTMENT 4HE GROUND SHAKES THE WINDS HOWL THE SEA SURGES THE RIVERS DRY UP PEOPLE ARE KILLED OR INJURED HOMES ARE LEVELLED AND LIVELIHOODS ARE RUINED)NRECENTYEARS DEVASTATINGCATASTROPHES HAVE KILLED ENORMOUS NUMBERS OF PEOPLE IN A MATTER OF MINUTES THE DEADLY )NDIAN /CEAN TSUNAMI WHICH AFFECTED EIGHT #OMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES OR THE +ASHMIR EARTHQUAKE WHICH LEFT  PEOPLE MILLION HOMELESS IN )NDIA AND 0AKISTAN (UNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF LIVES WERE LOST IN THESE TRAGEDIES "UT SMALLER DISASTERS EVENIFLESSINTERESTINGTOTHEMEDIA CANEXTRACT ACUMULATIVETOLLTHATISEQUALLYDESTRUCTIVE"UT WHILEWECANNOTSTOPEARTHQUAKESORSTORMSFROM OCCURRING WE CAN TAKE SIMPLE MEASURES TODAY THATWILLSTRENGTHENOURRESILIENCEANDSAVELIVES )N 3OUTH !SIA SUCCESSIVE WAVES OF mOODING THIS SUMMERHAVEAFFECTEDOVERMILLIONPEOPLE WRECKING LIVESFORYEARSTOCOME%VENMORERECENTLY WELLOVER ONEMILLIONPEOPLEHAVEBEENAFFECTEDBYTORRENTIALRAINS ANDmOODSACROSS!FRICANNATIONS4OTAKEBUTONE EXAMPLE IN5GANDA HOSTOFTHISYEARS#OMMONWEALTH (EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING MASSIVEmOODINGHAS BADLYAFFECTEDMORETHAN PEOPLE INANAREA OFTHENORTHALREADYDEVASTATEDBYCONmICT /VERTHEPASTYEARS THENUMBEROFDISASTERSTRIGGERED BYNATURALHAZARDSnSTORMS mOODSANDDROUGHTSnHAS INCREASED THREEFOLD )N   DISASTERS AFFECTED MILLIONPEOPLEnSOMEPERCENTOFTHEMLIVING IN !SIA n AND RESULTED IN 53 BILLION IN ECONOMIC DAMAGE 4HAT SAME YEAR THE NUMBER OF mOODS AND

,OOKING FORWARD THE TREND IS LIKELY TO CONTINUE )N ADDITIONTOCLIMATECHANGE RAPIDURBANISATIONANDRISING POPULATIONDENSITYMEANMOREPEOPLEARETHREATENED BY NATURAL HAZARDS AND EXTREME WEATHER THAN AT ANY TIMEINHISTORY 4HE KEY POINT IS THIS NATURAL HAZARDS NEED NOT RESULT AUTOMATICALLY IN HUMAN CATASTROPHE !S POLICYMAKERS OUR ACTIONS n OR CHRONIC INACTION nAREDECISIVEINDETERMININGHOWMUCHDAMAGE RESULTSFROMNATURESCAPRICIOUSPOWERS(OWWE BUILDOURHOMESANDSCHOOLS DESIGNOURBRIDGES CONSTRUCT OUR CITIES AND PROTECT OUR COASTLINES n THESE ARE WHAT DETERMINE THE DESTRUCTIVE CONSEQUENCESOFANYGIVENEVENT )NOTHERWORDS WHILEWECANNOTSTOPEARTHQUAKESOR STORMSFROMOCCURRING WECANTAKESIMPLEMEASURES TODAYTHATWILLSTRENGTHENOURRESILIENCE SAVELIVES AND PREVENTTHEPAUPERISATIONOFMILLIONS .O COUNTRY RICH OR POOR IS IMMUNE FROM NATURES HAZARDS AND NONE IS AS PREPARED AS IT MIGHT BE TO PROTECTITSCITIZENSFROMTHEGROWINGLEVELOFTHREAT!S POLICYMAKERS WEMUSTCASTOFFALLSENSEOFRESIGNATION ANDRE AFlRMOURCOMMITMENTTOMAKINGANENORMOUS POTENTIALLYLIFE SAVINGDIFFERENCETOTHEMILLIONSNOWAT RISKTHROUGHOUTTHE#OMMONWEALTH 4AKE A CLOSER LOOK AT THESE TWO GLOBAL TRENDS n THE INCREASINGNUMBEROFNATURALHAZARDSANDTHEGROWING NUMBER OF PEOPLE IN HARMS WAY n WHICH MAKE IT SO URGENTTOSTRENGTHENOURRISKREDUCTIONEFFORTS

-ADAGASCARSUFFERED SIXCYCLONESIN #YCLONE)NDHALAWAS ONEOFTHEDEADLIEST STORMSWITHMORE THANFATALITIES AND PEOPLE AFFECTED



RELATEDDISASTERSINCREASEDBYPERCENTCOMPARED TO ANDWASUPBYPERCENTCOMPAREDTOTHE  AVERAGE4HISYEARTHE5NITED.ATIONSHAS ALREADYISSUEDTHIRTEEN@mASHAPPEALSFORURGENTNATURAL DISASTERS UNFORTUNATELYSURPASSINGTHEPREVIOUSANNUAL RECORDFORSUCHAPPEALSJUSTNINEMONTHSINTOTHEYEAR

7HILE IT MAY BE TOO DIFlCULT TO LINK ANY SINGLE EVENT TO CLIMATE CHANGE THE TREND LINE IS CLEAR 4HE RECENT REPORT BY THE )NTERGOVERNMENTAL 0ANEL ON #LIMATE #HANGE )0## MAKES CLEAR THAT GLOBAL WARMING WILL PUT HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS OF PEOPLE AT INCREASED RISK FROMCLIMATE RELATEDHAZARDS3CIENTISTSWARNTHATSEA LEVELSARESTEADILYRISINGASGLACIERSANDTHEPOLARICE CAPSMELT SPELLINGPOTENTIALCATASTROPHEFORHUNDREDS OF MILLIONS OF PEOPLE LIVING IN LOW LYING COASTAL AREAS 3OME  MILLION PEOPLE ON THE PLANET NOW LIVE IN 4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING


.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

COASTAL mOOD ZONES AT RISK FROM MORE INTENSE STORMS ANDRISINGWATERSIN3OUTHAND3OUTH EAST!SIAALONE MILLIONPEOPLE AREPARTICULARLYATRISKIN THEMEGA DELTAREGIONS #LIMATECHANGE ANDTHENATURALHAZARDSANDEXTREME WEATHER EVENTS ASSOCIATED WITH IT DO NOT REPRESENT SOMEDISTANT FUTURETHREAT4HETHREATTOCOMMUNITIES ACROSS THE #OMMONWEALTH IS HERE ITS REAL AND ITS TODAY -ORE DROUGHTS IN SUB 3AHARAN !FRICA WILL AFFECT FOOD PRODUCTION )NCREASED GLACIER MELT IN THE (IMALAYAS COULD LEAD TO INCREASED mOODING IN MANY RIVERSYSTEMS%UROPEANCOUNTRIESWILLSEEMOREINLAND mASH mOODS EROSION AND COASTAL mOODING 3TRONGER TROPICALCYCLONESANDINCREASEDCOASTALDAMAGEFROM RISING SEA LEVELS WILL DEVASTATE SMALL ISLAND NATIONS 4HEMOSTVULNERABLECOMMUNITIESAMONGUSARETHOSE LEASTRESPONSIBLEFORCAUSINGGLOBALWARMINGBUTTHEY WILLSTILLBEMOSTAFFECTEDBYITSCONSEQUENCES 4HESECONDFACTORISEQUALLYSTRIKING0UTSIMPLY MORE PEOPLE NOW LIVE IN HARMS WAY )N FACT THE NUMBER OF PEOPLEEXPOSEDTONATURALHAZARDSISROUGHLYDOUBLING EVERY DECADE 2APID POPULATION GROWTH PARTICULARLY IN @MEGA CITIES BUILT ON EXPOSED COASTLINES AND SEISMIC AREAS MEANS THAT MORE PEOPLE THAN EVER BEFORE ARE VULNERABLETOEARTHQUAKES STORMS RISINGSEALEVELS AND mOODS%VENNOW ESTIMATESSHOWTHATEVERYYEARNEARLY MILLIONPEOPLEAREEXPOSEDTOEARTHQUAKES MILLION POTENTIALLY SUFFER FROM mOODS AND SOME  MILLION ARE EXPOSEDTOHURRICANES

)NTHISYEARALONE THEGLOBALREINSURANCEINDUSTRYWILL BEREQUIREDTOPAYOUT53BILLIONTOCOVERTHECOST OF NATURAL DISASTERS INCLUDING mOODING IN "RITAIN AND HURRICANESINTHE#ARIBBEAN!CCORDINGTOTHEWORLDS LARGESTREINSURER 3WISS2E THISYEARSPAYMENTSHAVE NEARLY TRIPLED FROM THE  lGURES !S STATED IN AN !SSOCIATED 0RESS ARTICLE OF  3EPTEMBER  THIS RISE REmECTS hA LONG TERM TREND TOWARDS HIGH NATURAL DISASTERCATASTROPHECLAIMSv $ISASTERS ARE ESPECIALLY RUINOUS FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES A MUCH GREATER PROPORTION OF A COUNTRYS GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT '$0 CAN BE ADVERSELY AFFECTED 4HE SMALLER THE ECONOMY n AND MANY #OMMONWEALTH ECONOMIES ARE VERY SMALL n THE BIGGERTHERELATIVEEFFECT7HEN(URRICANE)VANSTRUCK 'RENADA IN 3EPTEMBER  THE ENTIRE ISLAND WAS DEVASTATEDPERCENTOFTHEHOMESWEREDAMAGED ORDESTROYED SOME PEOPLEWEREAFFECTEDAND  KILLED 'RENADAS ESTIMATED LOSSES OF 53 MILLIONWEREROUGHLYDOUBLEITS'$07HEN(URRICANE -ITCH HIT (ONDURAS IN  LOSSES EQUALLED  PER CENT OF THE COUNTRYS '$0 )N !CEH )NDONESIA A 5. ASSESSMENT OF TOTAL ESTIMATED DAMAGES AND LOSSES FROM THE TSUNAMI AMOUNTED TO NEARLY  PER CENT OF !CEHS'$0.OCOUNTRYCANAFFORDTOLOSESUCHHARD WONGAINS PARTICULARLYWHENEMBARKEDONTHEDIFlCULT ASCENTTOWARDDEVELOPMENTANDGREATERPROSPERITY

!BILLIONPEOPLEAROUNDTHEWORLD NOWLIVEINUNSTABLE OVERCROWDED SLUMSWHERELANDEROSION APAUCITY OFRESCUESERVICES ANDDECAYING INFRASTRUCTURECONTRIBUTETOAN EXTREMELYPRECARIOUSEXISTENCE

/F THE  CITIES EXPECTED TO HAVE AT LEAST  MILLION RESIDENTS BY   ARE IN COASTAL AREAS 4ODAY EIGHT OUT OF THE WORLDS TEN MOST POPULOUS CITIES AREPRONETOEARTHQUAKES ANDSIXOFTHEMAREONOR NEAR COASTLINES ACCORDING TO )NTERNATIONAL 3TRATEGY FOR $ISASTER 2EDUCTION )3$2 DATA !MONG THE WORLDS MEGA CITIES $ELHI $HAKA +ARACHI +OLKATA AND ,AGOS ARE AMONG THE MOST SUSCEPTIBLE IN THE #OMMONWEALTHTOCOASTAL CLIMATE RELATEDHAZARDSOR SEISMICACTIVITY !BILLIONPEOPLEAROUNDTHEWORLDNOWLIVEINUNSTABLE OVERCROWDED SLUMS WHERE LAND EROSION A PAUCITY OF RESCUE SERVICES AND DECAYING INFRASTRUCTURE CONTRIBUTE TOANEXTREMELYPRECARIOUSEXISTENCE"Y THISONE BILLIONlGUREMAYWELLDOUBLE4HECONSEQUENCESOFA MAJOR STORM OR QUAKE HITTING ONE OF THESE VULNERABLE URBAN AREAS COULD WELL BE CATASTROPHIC n A MEGA DISASTERINAMEGACITY

$EVELOPED ECONOMIES MAY SUFFER LESS PROPORTIONALLY BUT THEY CAN STILL SUFFER HUGE ECONOMIC LOSSES WHEN ADISASTERSTRIKES&OREXAMPLE THE+OBE *APAN EARTHQUAKE CAUSED 53 BILLION LOSSES WHILE (URRICANE +ATRINA IN  CAUSED 53 BILLION IN DAMAGES MAKING IT THE COSTLIEST NATURAL DISASTER IN 53HISTORY

4HEECONOMICTOLL

0ROTECTINGOURINVESTMENTINTHE-$'S

1UITE APART FROM THEIR HIGH HUMAN COST DISASTERS ALSO EXTRACT A SIGNIlCANT ECONOMIC TOLL )N THE PAST TWO DECADES ALONE ECONOMIC LOSSES FROM NATURAL DISASTERSHAVEMULTIPLIEDMORETHANlVE FOLD)&2# 7ORLD $ISASTERS 2EPORT  4HIS YEAR UP TO 3EPTEMBER  HYDRO METEOROLOGICAL EVENTS DROUGHT mOOD RAINS STORMS AND EXTREME TEMPERATURES HAD BEEN RESPONSIBLE FOR  PER CENT OF THE TOTAL NUMBER OF DISASTERS AND  PER CENT OF THE TOTAL ECONOMIC DAMAGES ACCORDING TO THE 5NIVERSITY OF ,OUVAINS RESPECTED#2%$DATABASE

$ISASTERRISKREDUCTIONISONETHEBESTTOOLSWEHAVETO PREVENTSUCHENORMOUSLOSSESANDPROTECTTHEWORLDS INVESTMENT IN THE -ILLENNIUM $EVELOPMENT 'OALS -$'S  4HE GOOD NEWS IS THAT THE ACTIONS NEEDED ARE OFTEN NOTEXPENSIVE PARTICULARLYCOMPAREDWITHTHEPOTENTIAL COSTS OF DISASTER 4HE OLD ADAGE IS TRUE PREVENTION IS CERTAINLY CHEAPER THAN THE CURE %XPERTS ESTIMATE THATADOLLARINVESTEDTODAYINRISKREDUCTIONCANSAVE ANYWHERE FROM FOUR TO SEVEN DOLLARS IN RELIEF AND RECOVERYCOSTSTOMORROW

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

4HANKSTOROOF PROTECTIONMEASURES ADOPTEDWEEKS BEFORETHEARRIVAL OFTHECYCLONE IN ADDITIONTOTHEEARLY WARNINGSYSTEMS ALREADYINPLACE HOUSESWEREBETTER PROTECTEDAND RESISTANTTOTHEFORCE OFTHEWINDS

-ANAGEMENT EXTENDS TO CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT FOR PRIMARY SECONDARYANDTERTIARYLEVELEDUCATION(AZARDS ANDVULNERABILITYREDUCTIONAREALSOTAKENINTOACCOUNTIN THELOCATIONANDDESIGNOFSCHOOLS 4HE 3OUTH !FRICAN $ISASTER -ANAGEMENT !CT  PROVIDESANATIONALLYINTEGRATEDDISASTERMANAGEMENT PLANTOCOORDINATEPOLICY PREVENTANDREDUCETHERISK AND SEVERITY OF DISASTERS AND SUPPORT EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS RESPONSE AND POST DISASTER RECOVERY 4HE !CT ESTABLISHES A SET OF NATIONAL PROVINCIAL AND MUNICIPALCENTRESANDORGANISESVOLUNTEERS

4OPREVENTTHEHUGELOSSESFROMMAJORDISASTERS RISK REDUCTIONMUSTBEWOVENINTOTHEFABRICOFINTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENTANDLENDINGPOLICIES4OTHISEND THE5. RECENTLYFORMEDAGLOBALPARTNERSHIPFORRISKREDUCTION THAT PRIORITISES ASSISTANCE FOR COUNTRIES AT HIGH RISK OF DISASTERS ANDHARNESSESSUPPORTFROMGOVERNMENTS THE7ORLD"ANK NON GOVERNMENTALORGANISATIONSAND CIVICGROUPS 2ISK REDUCTION IS NOT ROCKET SCIENCE !T ROOT MANY OF THE MOST EFFECTIVE RISK REDUCTION TOOLS ARE ABOUT MOBILISING PEOPLE NOT EXPENSIVE TECHNOLOGY QUICKLY AND EFFECTIVELY IN ORDER TO SAVE THE MOST LIVES #OMMUNITY BASED EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS LOCAL DISASTER EDUCATION AND EVACUATION PLANS BETTER CROP ANDLANDMANAGEMENTTECHNIQUESnALLTHISANDMORE IS ALREADY BEING DONE TODAY WITH GREAT INGENUITY AND SUCCESSINSEVERAL#OMMONWEALTHNATIONS #ONCRETELY WHATDOES@DISASTERRISKREDUCTIONMEAN &IRST AND FOREMOST IT MEANS TAKING THE PROBLEM OF DISASTERRISKSERIOUSLY BEGINNINGWITHPOLITICALLEADERS WHO RECOGNISE THE THREAT THAT DISASTER VULNERABILITY PRESENTS TO THEIR COUNTRYS DEVELOPMENT AND NATIONAL SECURITY ANDWHOAREWILLINGTOCHAMPIONRISKREDUCTION EFFORTS 4IED TO THIS LEADERS SHOULD HOLD SPECIlC AGENCIESANDINSTITUTIONSACCOUNTABLEFORTHEMEASURES THEY UNDERTAKE TO REDUCE DISASTER RISKS AND ALLOCATE SUFlCIENTBUDGETARYRESOURCESFORTHISPURPOSE

2ISKREDUCTIONPRACTICESINTHE #OMMONWEALTH -ANY #OMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES ALREADY TAKE THIS AGENDASERIOUSLY)N)NDIA REPEATEDDISASTERSHAVEGIVEN RISE TO SOME HARD LEARNED LESSONS AND STRENGTHENED POLITICAL COMMITMENT TO RISK REDUCTION 4HE $ISASTER -ANAGEMENT!CTOF)NDIAHASCREATEDSEPARATEFUNDS ATTHENATIONAL STATEANDLOCALLEVELSTHATAREAVAILABLE EXCLUSIVELYFORTHEPURPOSEOFDISASTERMITIGATION4HE CREATION OF THESE FUNDS BY AN !CT OF 0ARLIAMENT HAS ENSURED THAT EACH LEVEL OF GOVERNMENT DEDICATES ADEQUATERESOURCES 4O EDUCATE CHILDREN AND HELP RAISE PUBLIC AWARENESS *AMAICA RUNS A MULTIFACETED HAZARD AWARENESS PROGRAMME IN ITS SCHOOLS THAT INCLUDES lRE AND EARTHQUAKE DRILLS COMPETITIONS EXHIBITIONS TALKS AND A $ISASTER 0REPAREDNESS $AY AT THE START OF HURRICANE SEASON#OLLABORATIONBETWEENTHE-INISTRYOF%DUCATION ANDTHE/FlCEOF$ISASTER0REPAREDNESSAND%MERGENCY 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

5GANDAHASESTABLISHEDANATIONALPLATFORMFORDISASTER RISK REDUCTION TO COORDINATE THE EFFORTS OF RELEVANT MINISTRIES INCLUDINGTHEENVIRONMENT EDUCATION HEALTH ANDAGRICULTURALMINISTRIES ANDTOPLANANDIMPLEMENT DISASTERRISKREDUCTIONANDRESPONSEINITIATIVES INCLUDING THROUGHSECTORALWORKPLANSANDBUDGETS)THASBEEN SUCCESSFUL AT ENGAGING INTERNATIONAL SUPPORT TO HELP INTEGRATECRISISMANAGEMENTANDDISASTERRISKREDUCTION INTOSUSTAINABLEDEVELOPMENTANDPOVERTYERADICATION POLICIES ! PARALLEL PROCESS IS BEING REPLICATED AT THE DISTRICTLEVEL

4HEKEYPOINTISTHISNATURALHAZARDS NEEDNOTRESULTAUTOMATICALLYINHUMAN CATASTROPHE!SPOLICYMAKERS OUR ACTIONSnORCHRONICINACTIONn AREDECISIVEINDETERMININGHOW MUCHDAMAGERESULTSFROMNATURES CAPRICIOUSPOWERS )N &IJI FOLLOWING TROPICAL CYCLONES .IGEL AND %RIC IN  INSURANCECOMPANIESANNOUNCEDTHEIRINTENTION TOWITHDRAWFROMTHE&IJIMARKET(OWEVER DISCUSSIONS LED TO A NEW SCHEME WHEREBY INSURANCE WOULD BE PROVIDED IF &IJIAN HOUSEHOLDERS UNDERTOOK SIMPLE ENGINEER CERTIlED ACTIVITIES TO STRENGTHEN THEIR REBUILT HOUSES!VIABLEINSURANCEMARKETWASTHUSDEVELOPED ANDTHEOVERALLRISKOFLOSSESTO&IJIREDUCED 0OLICIES ADOPTED FOR OTHER REASONS CAN ALSO HAVE VALUABLE RISK REDUCTION SIDE EFFECTS )N "ANGLADESH EXPERIMENTS WITH MICROINSURANCE AND MICROlNANCE ARE IMPORTANT INNOVATIONS IN HELPING COMMUNITIES DIVERSIFY AND MANAGE THE lNANCIAL RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH DISASTERS 4HE 'RAMEEN "ANK FOR EXAMPLE IS PROVIDINGCREDITSTOTHERURALPOORTOHELPTHEMIDENTIFY SOURCES OF SELF EMPLOYMENT OUTSIDE THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR THAT ARE LESS VULNERABLE TO STORMS mOODS AND OTHERNATURALHAZARDS )N EACH OF THESE INITIATIVES LOCAL INVOLVEMENT THAT INFORMS AND BUILDS ON NATIONAL EFFORTS HAS BEEN KEY 4HESIMPLETRUTHISTHATRISKREDUCTIONBEGINSATHOME n IN OUR SCHOOLS PLACES OF WORK AND WORSHIP AND THROUGHOUT LOCAL COMMUNITIES )T IS HERE WHERE WE WILL EITHER SAVE LIVES n OR LOSE THEM n DEPENDING ON


.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

!CALLTOACTION 4O PUT THE (YOGO &RAMEWORK INTO ACTION SEVERAL KEYCONSTITUENCIESMUSTBEMOBILISED INCLUDING °0ARLIAMENTARIANS AND POLITICAL LEADERS AT ALL LEVELS WHOSE STRONG VISIONARY LEADERSHIP IS FUNDAMENTAL TO CREATING THE LEGISLATION POLICIES ANDINVESTMENTSTHATPRIORITISERISKREDUCTION °'OVERNMENT MINISTRIES ABOVE ALL lNANCE MINISTRIES TO INTEGRATE PROPERLY RISK REDUCTION MEASURES IN BUDGETARY PLANNING AND PROJECT EVALUATIONPROCESSES °"ILATERALDONORSANDDEVELOPMENTBANKS TOSOLICIT THEIRACTIVESUPPORTINALLOCATINGFUNDSFORDISASTER RISK REDUCTION WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF ALL RELEVANT DEVELOPMENTPROJECTS °#IVILSOCIETY TOCONTINUETHEIRVIGOROUSCOMMITMENT AND CONTRIBUTION TO RISK REDUCTION MEASURES AT THECOMMUNITYLEVEL AND °4HE PRIVATE SECTOR TO WORK CLOSELY WITH GOVERNMENTS THE5.ANDCIVILSOCIETYTODEVELOP SAFER BUILDING AND LAND MANAGEMENT CODES INNOVATIVEINSURANCESCHEMES ANDOTHERFORWARD LOOKING COST EFFECTIVEMEASURES

THE STEPS WE TAKE TODAY TO REDUCE OUR VULNERABILITY $ISASTER RISK MANAGERS NEED TO LISTEN AND LEARN FROM THE GRASSROOTS SO THEY CAN BUILD UPON EXAMPLES OF RISKREDUCTIONTHATHAVEBEENTRIEDANDTESTEDBYLOCAL EXPERIENCE

4HEROADMAPTHE(YOGO&RAMEWORKFOR !CTION .ATIONAL INITIATIVES SUCH AS THOSE DESCRIBED ABOVE HAVE MADE A SIGNIlCANT IMPACT IN THEIR RESPECTIVE COUNTRIES"UTTOIMPLEMENTRISKREDUCTIONMEASURES ON A BROAD SCALE WE NEED A MULTI STAKEHOLDER STRATEGY 4HE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY ALREADY HAS SUCH A HEALTHY FUNCTIONING MECHANISM THE )NTERNATIONAL 3TRATEGY FOR $ISASTER 2EDUCTION AND A COMPREHENSIVEROADMAP THE(YOGO&RAMEWORKFOR !CTIONFORDRIVINGTHERISKREDUCTIONAGENDAFORWARD 4HE(YOGO&RAMEWORK ENDORSEDBYGOVERNMENTS INTHEAFTERMATHOFTHETSUNAMIIN*ANUARY SETS CLEARPRIORITIESFORACTIONSTOSTRENGTHENTHERESILIENCE OF COUNTRIES AND COMMUNITIES TO NATURAL HAZARDS /F THE  #OMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES MORE THAN HALF  HAVE ALREADY ESTABLISHED OFlCIAL FOCAL POINTS FOR IMPLEMENTINGTHE(YOGO&RAMEWORK ANDEIGHTHAVE ORGANISEDNATIONALPLATFORMS 4HE IMPORTANCE OF THE (YOGO &RAMEWORK CANNOT BE OVERSTATED PARTICULARLY GIVEN THE INCREASING CHALLENGES WE FACE FROM GLOBAL WARMING $ISASTER RISK REDUCTION IS FUNDAMENTAL TO HELPING COUNTRIES ADAPT TO A CHANGING CLIMATE !ND JUST AS THE LINK BETWEEN CLIMATE CHANGE AND DISASTER REDUCTION IS CLEAR THE(YOGO&RAMEWORKANDTHETOOLSOFDISASTER

RISK REDUCTION ARE A NATURAL COMPLEMENT TO THE 5. &RAMEWORK #ONVENTION ON #LIMATE #HANGE 5SED TOGETHER THE (YOGO &RAMEWORK AND THE &RAMEWORK #ONVENTION WILL ENABLE US TO RESPOND AND ADAPT MOREEFFECTIVELYTOBOTHTHESHORT TERMANDLONG TERM THREATSPOSEDBYCLIMATECHANGE 7E HAVE NO TIME TO WASTE 4HE MILLIONS OF PEOPLE AT POTENTIALRISK COUPLEDWITHTHEEVER RISINGTHREATPOSEDBY EXTREMEWEATHEREVENTS MEANSWEMUSTACTnANDACT SOBERLYBUTURGENTLYnTOENSURETHE(YOGO&RAMEWORK ISPUTINTOACTION@"USINESSASUSUALISSIMPLYNOTGOOD ENOUGH!MONGOTHERTHINGS SEVERALKEYCONSTITUENCIES MUSTBEMOBILISED ASSHOWNINTHE"OXTOTHELEFT )NSUM PERHAPSTHEGREATESTRISKWEFACEISNOTFROM NATURE BUTFROMHUMANNATUREANDOUROWNPROPENSITY FOR NOT ACTING PRUDENTLY AND COURAGEOUSLY AHEAD OF TIME BEFORE DISASTER STRIKES 7ORKING TOGETHER WE MUST REDOUBLE OUR EFFORTS AND INVEST IN THE SIMPLE LIFE SAVINGMEASURESTHATCANREDUCEOURVULNERABILITY TO DISASTERS AND CLIMATE RELATED RISKS $ISASTER RISK REDUCTION CAN SAVE LIVES SECURE LIVELIHOODS AND ASSETS AND PROTECT OUR GLOBAL INVESTMENT IN DEVELOPMENT4HEREISNOTIMETOLOSE

-R*OHN(OLMESOFTHE5NITED+INGDOMWASAPPOINTED5NDER 3ECRETARY 'ENERAL FOR (UMANITARIAN !FFAIRS AND %MERGENCY 2ELIEF#OORDINATORIN-ARCH(EALSOSERVESAS#HAIROF THE)NTERNATIONAL3TRATEGYFOR$ISASTER2EDUCTION)3$2 SYSTEM -R (OLMES PREVIOUSLY SERVED AS THE "RITISH !MBASSADOR IN 0ARIS FOR SIX YEARS ! CAREER DIPLOMAT (OLMES JOINED THE &OREIGN AND #OMMONWEALTH /FFICE IN  AND HAS SERVED IN NUMEROUS POSTS (E WAS AWARDED A KNIGHTHOOD IN  PRIMARILYFORHISROLEINTHE.ORTHERN)RELANDPEACEPROCESSAND THE'OOD&RIDAY!GREEMENT /FlCE FOR THE #OORDINATION OF (UMANITARIAN !FFAIRS /#(! IS THE 5. BODY MANDATED WITH THE COORDINATION OF INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN ACTION )T ALSO SUPPORTS THE HUMANITARIAN COMMUNITYWITHPOLICYDEVELOPMENTANDSERVESASANADVOCATE ONHUMANITARIANISSUES SEEKINGTOGIVEVOICETOTHEVICTIMSAND SPEAKOUTONBEHALFOFTHOSEINGREATESTNEED 4HE )NTERNATIONAL 3TRATEGY FOR $ISASTER 2EDUCTION )3$2 AIMS AT BUILDING DISASTER RESILIENT COMMUNITIES BY PROMOTING INCREASED AWARENESS OF THE IMPORTANCE OF DISASTER REDUCTION ASANINTEGRALCOMPONENTOFSUSTAINABLEDEVELOPMENT WITHTHE GOAL OF REDUCING HUMAN SOCIAL ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL LOSSES DUE TO NATURAL HAZARDS AND RELATED TECHNOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTALDISASTERS 5.)NTER !GENCY3ECRETARIATOFTHE)NTERNATIONAL3TRATEGYFOR $ISASTER2EDUCTION "RIGITTE,EONI -EDIA2ELATIONS/FlCER )NTERNATIONAL%NVIRONMENT(OUSE)) /FlCE  #HEMINDE"ALEXERT  #( 'ENEVA 3WITZERLAND 4EL  %MAILLEONIB UNORG

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

3PECIAL&EATUREBY3WISS2E

&INANCIALRISKTRANSFERSOLUTIONS THEIRROLEINCLIMATECHANGE ADAPTATION &ROM THE WORST mOODS IN RECENT HISTORY IN THE 5+ THROUGH DROUGHT ACROSS !FRICA AND !USTRALIA UNPRECEDENTED WILDlRES IN #ANADA IRREGULAR AND CHANGING MONSOONS IN THE )NDIAN SUBCONTINENT AND WATER AND FOOD CROP STRESS ACROSSTHE#OMMONWEALTHTHEREISANINCREASING PERCEPTION THAT CLIMATE CHANGE IS ALREADY WITH US AND IT IS HERE TO STAY !N ESSENTIAL ROLE FOR THE #OMMONWEALTH ON BEHALF OF ITS TWO BILLION CITIZENS WILL BE TO HELP MEMBER ECONOMIES EMBARKONALOWCARBONTRAJECTORYANDTOPROVIDE KNOWLEDGE AND SUPPORT FOR ITS MEMBER STATES TO HELP THEM ADAPT AND MANAGE THE WEATHER CHANGES THAT WILL BE AN INEVITABLE PART OF THEIR FUTURE4HISPAPERBRIEmYLOOKSATTHEIMPORTANCE OF ADAPTATION AND CLIMATE RISK MANAGEMENT STRATEGIESANDTHENGOESINTOMOREDEPTHABOUT ANUMBEROFPOTENTIALlNANCIALMARKETSOLUTIONS 3WISS 2E BELIEVES THESE WILL BE IMPORTANT FOR A COMPREHENSIVE RESPONSE TO THE CHALLENGES CLIMATE CHANGE WILL POSE TO #OMMONWEALTH MEMBERSTATESOVERTHECOMINGDECADES

%NORMOUSCONSEQUENCES

4HE #OMMONWEALTHS  STATES ACROSS THE GLOBE ARE A MICROCOSM OF THE WORLD ITSELF REPRESENTING JUST ABOUTEVERYCLIMATE LEVELOFDEVELOPMENTANDWAYOF LIFE4HEREWILLBENOONE SIZE lTS ALLSOLUTIONTOCLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION FOR THE #OMMONWEALTHS MEMBER STATES 4HE GROUPS RICHER STATES n SUCH AS THE 5+ #ANADAAND!USTRALIAnHAVEHIGHLEVELSOFADAPTABILITY ANDLARGERESOURCESTOPROVIDEVICTIMSOFCLIMATEEVENTS WITH SUPPORT -ANY OF THE #OMMONWEALTHS OTHER STATES IN!FRICA THE#ARIBBEAN THE3OUTH0ACIlC AND THESUBCONTINENT ARELESSFORTUNATE

ß!GRICULTUREPATTERNSWILLCHANGERADICALLYACROSS!SIA ASCROPYIELDSRISEIN%ASTAND3OUTH EAST!SIA AND FALLIN#ENTRALAND3OUTH!SIA

4HE#OMMONWEALTH3ECRETARIATITSELFHASSEVERALROLES TOPLAY ß&IRSTLY THEORGANISATIONSHOULDENCOURAGECLIMATERISK MANAGEMENT AMONG ITS MEMBERSHIP IN THE FORM OF ADAPTATIONSTRATEGIESANDPREPARATION



4HECHALLENGESTHATCLIMATECHANGEPOSESWILLBEMANY AND VARIED !CROSS THE #OMMONWEALTH SCIENTISTS PREDICT AMONGSTOTHERTHINGS )N!FRICA ß"Y BETWEENMILLIONANDMILLIONPEOPLE ARE PROJECTED TO BE EXPOSED TO INCREASING WATER STRESS ß!GRICULTURALPRODUCTION INCLUDINGACCESSTOFOOD IN MANY !FRICAN COUNTRIES IS EXPECTED TO BE SEVERELY COMPROMISED BY CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE )N SOME COUNTRIES WITHIN THE #OMMONWEALTH YIELDS FROMRAIN FEDAGRICULTURECOULDBEREDUCEDBYUPTO PERCENTBY ß&ISHINGYIELDSWILLBEUNDERSTRESSDUETOINCREASING TEMPERATURESINLAKESCOMBINEDWITHOVER lSHING )N!SIA ß)NCREASED mOODING WILL OCCUR DUE TO GLACIER MELT IN THE(IMALAYAS ASWELLASFROMTHESEAANDRIVERSIN HEAVILYPOPULATEDMEGA DELTAAREASIN3OUTH!SIA

)N.ORTH!MERICA ß3NOWPACK WILL BE DECREASED WITH MORE WINTER mOODING AND REDUCED SUMMER mOWS EXACERBATING COMPETITIONFOROVER ALLOCATEDWATERRESOURCES ß$ISTURBANCESFROMPESTS DISEASEANDlREWILLIMPACT FORESTS WITHANEXTENDEDPERIODOFHIGHlRERISKAND LARGEINCREASESINBURNEDAREAS )N!USTRALIAAND.EW:EALAND ß7ATER SECURITY PROBLEMS ARE PROJECTED TO INCREASE BY

ß3ECONDLY THEORGANISATIONCANPROVIDEINFORMATION

ß/NGOING COASTAL DEVELOPMENT AND POPULATION GROWTHWILLBETHREATENED

ß4HIRDLY ITCANENCOURAGEITSMEMBERSTOINVESTIGATE OPTIONSFORTHETRANSFEROFCLIMATECHANGERISKTOTHE lNANCIALMARKETS INORDERTOPROVIDElNANCIALSUPPORT FORADAPTATIONSTRATEGIES ANDPOST EVENTSUPPORT

ß0RODUCTIONFROMAGRICULTUREANDFORESTRYISPROJECTED TO DECLINE ACROSS MUCH OF SOUTHERN AND EASTERN !USTRALIA AND ACROSS PARTS OF .EW :EALAND DUE TO DROUGHTANDlRE

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING


.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

&ORSMALLISLANDS INCLUDING3OUTH0ACIlCAND#ARIBBEAN #OMMONWEALTHNATIONS

2ISKMANAGEMENTnADAPTATIONAND PREPARATION

ß3EALEVELRISESAREEXPECTEDTOEXACERBATEINUNDATION STORMSURGERISKS EROSIONANDOTHERCOASTALHAZARDS

!NOUNCEOFPREVENTIONISWORTHAPOUNDOFCURE EMPHASIS SHOULD BE ON PREPARATION FOR CHANGE RATHER THAN ON POST DISASTER RESPONSE 4HERE ARE NUMEROUSSTRATEGIESFORADAPTINGTOCLIMATECHANGE !DAPTIVERESPONSESCANBE

ß7ATERRESOURCESFORMANYISLANDSMAYBEAFFECTEDTO THE EXTENT THAT THEY BECOME INSUFlCIENT TO SUPPORT COMMUNITIESDURINGLOWRAINFALLPERIODS &ORMANYOFTHESERISKS THECONSEQUENCESARESEVERE AND THE IMPLICATIONS PROFOUND FOR THE POPULATIONS INVOLVED )T IS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF MEMBER STATES TO UNDERSTAND THE IMPLICATIONS OF CLIMATE CHANGE FOR THEIRPEOPLE ANDTODEVELOPSTRATEGIESTOMITIGATETHEIR CONSEQUENCESSEEBOX 

ß4ECHNOLOGICAL SUCH AS BUILT SEA WALLS OR NEW CROPVARIETIES ß"EHAVIOURAL FOR INSTANCE CHANGING FOOD PREFERENCESORRECREATIONALCHOICES ß-ANAGERIAL INCLUDING NEW FARMING PRACTICES OR MORESUSTAINABLEBUSINESSPRACTICES OR ß0OLICY BASED FORINSTANCE RESTRICTINGCONSTRUCTION ONmOODPLAINS

&INANCIALRISKTRANSFERSOLUTIONS )NANYDISCUSSIONOFCLIMATECHANGERISKMANAGEMENT LOSSMITIGATIONSTRATEGIESMUSTCOMElRST"UTNOCOUNTRY CAN INSULATE ITSELF ENTIRELY AGAINST EXTREME EVENTS )T IS HERE THAT THE lNANCIAL AND INSURANCE MARKETS PLAY AN INDISPENSIBLE ROLE IN COPING WITH DISASTER -ORE IMPORTANTLY THESE MARKETS HAVE RECENTLY DEVELOPED INNOVATIVE lNANCIAL SOLUTIONS TO A NUMBER OF CLIMATE CHANGERELATEDCHALLENGES HELPINGGOVERNMENTS THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND INDIVIDUALS DEAL WITH THE lNANCIAL CONSEQUENCESOFCLIMATECHANGE4HESEPRODUCTSARE HELPING#OMMONWEALTHGOVERNMENTSANDRESIDENTSIN ANUMBEROFWAYS INCLUDING

0OTENTIALADAPTATIONSTRATEGIESMIGHTINCLUDE ß"REEDINGNEWPLANTSPECIESANDCROPSWHICHARE MORETOLERANTTOCHANGEDCLIMATECONDITIONS ß)MPROVING WATER USE EFlCIENCY PLANNING FOR ALTERNATIVE WATER SOURCES SUCH AS TREATED WASTEWATER AND MAKING CHANGES TO WATER ALLOCATION AND PRICING TO COMBAT LESS AVAILABLE WATER ß-AKING CHANGES TO BUILDING AND INFRASTRUCTURE DESIGN STANDARDS TO PROTECT AGAINST MORE EXTREME WEATHER EVENTS SUCH AS STORM SURGES ANDINCREASEDTROPICALCYCLONEINTENSITY ß!VOIDINGBUILDINGINAREASWHEREmOODINGISLIKELY TOOCCURMOREFREQUENTLY ß)NCREASINGTHEADAPTIVECAPACITYOFNATURALSYSTEMS BYREDUCINGOTHERENVIRONMENTALSTRESSES

ß0ROTECTINGANDSMOOTHINGTHEIRBUDGETS ß'UARANTEEINGTHATFUNDSAREINPLACETOCOMPENSATE VICTIMSOFCLIMATEEVENTS ß/N A MICRO LEVEL SMOOTHING INDIVIDUAL INCOMES TO PROVIDE GREATER lNANCIAL SECURITY IN THE FACE OF CHANGING ECONOMIC CIRCUMSTANCES AND REDUCE DISTRESSANDCONmICT ß0ROVIDINGACCESSTOCREDITFORFARMERSWITHLITTLEINCOME DIVERSIlCATIONWHOCANBORROWAGAINSTINSURANCEAS COLLATERAL 4HE lNANCIAL STRUCTURES MOST USEFUL FOR THESE OBJECTIVES GENERALLY CONTAIN SOME KIND OF CONTINGENT CONDITION n A GOVERNMENT OR A lNANCIAL INSTITUTION WILL PAYANINSURANCE DERIVATIVEORBONDPREMIUM ANDTHE INSTRUMENT WILL PAY OUT IF THERE IS A SPECIlED CLIMATE RELATED EVENT SUCH AS A mOOD A WINDSTORM A COLD SNAPORAHEATWAVE4HECONTRACTMAYBESTRUCTURED AS A BOND A DERIVATIVE OR AS AN INSURANCE CONTRACT BUT HOWEVER IT IS STRUCTURED IT IS LIKELY TO BE INDEXED AGAINST AN OBJECTIVE MEASURE @TRIGGERED BY ACTUAL PRECIPITATION WIND LEVELS OR TEMPERATURE READINGS DEPENDINGONTHERISK"ECAUSEOFTHEVASTLYDIFFERING NATURE OF THE RISK MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES POSED BY CLIMATECHANGE EACHlNANCIALSOLUTIONWILLBEDIFFERENT FROM THE NEXT BUT THE BASIC RISK TRANSFER MECHANISM IS THE SAME n CUSTOMERS PAY UP FRONT FOR CONTINGENT FUTURElNANCEAGAINSTASPECIlEDRISKEVENT 4HElNANCIALVALUEOFANYSUCHCONTRACTWILLDEPENDON THESTRUCTUREOFTHECONTRACT AND INTHEEND WHETHER OR NOT THE EVENT OCCURS 4HE LONGER THE TERM OF THE CONTRACT THEBETTERVALUEITISLIKELYTOPROVIDETOBOTH CUSTOMER AND PROVIDER n WE BELIEVE THESE TYPE OF

CONTRACTS ARE BETTER VALUE FOR ALL WHEN NEGOTIATED TO COVERRISKOVERANUMBEROFYEARS 4HE FOLLOWING CASES ARE EXAMPLES OF RISK TRANSFER STRUCTURES THAT HAVE ADDRESSED CLIMATE ISSUES ON BOTHAMACROANDAMICROLEVEL INBOTHRICHCOUNTRIES AND DEVELOPING ECONOMIES 7E BELIEVE THEY PRESENT ENORMOUSPOTENTIALASlNANCEANDDEVELOPMENTTOOLS AND ENCOURAGE #OMMONWEALTH STATES TO CONSIDER HOWSUCHSTRUCTURESMIGHTHELPTHEMADAPTTOTHENEW CLIMATEREALITIES

!mOODBONDINTHE5+ )N!PRIL THE'ERMANINSURANCElRM!LLIANZ WITH THERISKSTRUCTURINGASSISTANCEOF3WISS2E ISSUEDTHE lRSTCATASTROPHEBONDTOCOVERmOODRISKINTHE5+4HE BONDPROVIDES53MILLIONOFCOVERAGAINSTmOODS BYOFFERINGINVESTORSANATTRACTIVEYIELD UNLESSTHEREIS ACATASTROPHICRISEINTHELEVELOFTHE4HAMESOROTHER mOOD RISKS )F THE BOND IS TRIGGERED INVESTORS WILL LOSE SOMEORALLOFTHISYIELD WHICHWILLFUNDTHEPAYOUTTO THEINSURER &ORTHEBONDTOBETRIGGERED RIVERSEGMENTSCONNECTED WITHATLEASTFOUROFlFTYREFERENCELOCATIONSMUSTBEON SEVEREmOODWARNINGBYTHE5+ENVIRONMENTAGENCY

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

/THERWEATHER RELATEDRISKSWITHASTATISTICALLYSUFlCIENT DATA RECORD SUCH AS HURRICANE HAILSTORM AND PRECIPITATIONHAVEPOTENTIALFORSECURITISATIONINTHEFORM OF CATASTROPHE BONDS @CAT BONDS WHICH PROVIDE A MEANS FOR GOVERNMENTS AND OTHERS FACING CLIMATE RISKSTOTRANSFERSOMEOFTHElNANCIALCONSEQUENCESTO lNANCIALMARKETINVESTORS

7EATHERDERIVATIVESANDINSURANCE #AT BONDS ATTRACT INVESTMENT FROM CAPITAL MARKET PLAYERSINDEVELOPEDCOUNTRIES7EATHERDERIVATIVESAND INSURANCE STRUCTUREDALONGSIMILARLINES HAVEALSOBEEN WIDELYEMPLOYEDACROSSTHE#OMMONWEALTHTOADDRESS A VARIETY OF CLIMATE RELATED ISSUES )N PARTICULAR THEY PROVIDEECONOMICBENElTSTOCUSTOMERSINDEVELOPING ECONOMIES COMPARED TO TRADITIONAL AGRICULTURAL INSURANCETHROUGHLOWERTRANSACTIONCOSTS GREATEREASE OF MONITORING AND AVOIDANCE OF TRADITIONAL INSURANCE PITFALLSSUCHASMORALHAZARDANDADVERSESELECTION )N )NDIA FOR INSTANCE GENERAL INSURER )#)#) ,OMBARD TOGETHERWITHMICROlNANCEINSTITUTION"!3)8DEVELOPED AWEATHERINSURANCEPROGRAMMEFORFARMERSEXPOSED TOTHERISKOFTHEIRCROPSBEINGDESTROYEDBYmUCTUATIONS IN THE WEATHER 3INCE  SMALLHOLDING FARMERS IN SOME DISTRICTS OF !NDHRA 0RADESH HAVE BEEN ABLE TO BUYWEATHERINSURANCEAGAINSTDROUGHT 4HEPRODUCTHASSPREADRAPIDLYFROMITSINITIALPILOTINTO OTHER STATES AND TO WEATHER INSURANCE FOR DIFFERENT AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES )N THE WHEAT MARKET FOR INSTANCE BECAUSE PRODUCTION IS STRONGLY DEPENDENT ON REASONABLE TEMPERATURES DURING THE CRITICAL STAGE OF GRAIN lLLING THE TRIGGER FOR A PAYOUT AGAINST POOR TEMPERATURECONDITIONSFORWHEATCULTIVATIONISRELATIVELY EASILYSTRUCTURED/THERTRIGGERS SUCHASTOOMUCHOR NOTENOUGHRAINFALL TOOHIGHORTOOLOWTEMPERATURES CANBEDEVISEDFOROTHERCOMMODITIES ANDTHEMARKET ALREADYOFFERSAPORTFOLIOOFINSURANCEPRODUCTSTHATCAN BE USED TO COVER WEATHER RISKS FOR APPLES ORANGES CORIANDERANDARANGEOFOTHERCOMMODITIES3WISS2E ISAMAJORRISKTAKERINTHE)NDIANMARKET )N -ALAWI THE 7ORLD "ANK HAS ASSISTED GROUNDNUT FARMERS EXPOSED TO THE RISK OF DROUGHT THROUGH THE CRITICAL GROWING PERIOD OF THEIR CROPS TO DEVELOP AN INDEX BASED WEATHER INSURANCE CONTRACT WHICH PAYS OUT IF THE RAINFALL IN FOUR PILOT AREAS IS INSUFlCIENT FOR GROUNDNUT PRODUCTION &ARMERS THAT PURCHASE THIS INSURANCEAREOFFEREDSEEDlNANCElNANCETOPURCHASE ACTUALSEEDS FROMBANKSACTIVEINTHEREGION PROVIDING ACCESSTOCREDITFORFARMERSOTHERWISEATTHEMERCYOF VOLATILEWEATHERCONDITIONS4HEATTRACTIONSOFWEATHER INSURANCEARECLEARPOLICIESAREAFFORDABLE THEYHAVE WELL DElNED PAYOUTS AND ARE TRIGGERED AGAINST DATA THAT COMES FROM AN INDEPENDENT THIRD PARTY SUCH AS THENATIONALMETEOROLOGICALDEPARTMENT)NBOTH-ALAWI ANDIN)NDIA GOVERNMENTASSISTANCEHASBEENPROVIDED TOMARKETTHEPRODUCTTOASCEPTICALPOPULATION 4HE'OVERNMENTOF-ALAWIHASALSOUSEDOTHERlNANCIAL MARKETINSTRUMENTSTOPROTECTITSFARMERSnIN3EPTEMBER THEGOVERNMENTPROTECTEDITSMAIZEFARMERSFROMTHE CONSEQUENCESOFDROUGHTBYPURCHASINGACUSTOMISED CALLOPTIONFORMAIZEIMPORTS LOCKINGINAMAXIMUMPRICE 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

ANDTRANSPORTCOSTSFORATOTALOF TONNESOFMAIZE AT A COST OF APPROXIMATELY 53 MILLION n ENOUGH TO MEETTHEFOODGAPIFDONORANDPRIVATESECTORCOMMERCIAL IMPORTSDIDNOTREACHANTICIPATEDLEVELS !SMAIZEPRICESCONTINUEDTORISEINTHEPERIODAFTERTHE PURCHASE OF THE OPTION THE GOVERNMENT EXERCISED IT ALLOCATINGTHERESULTINGmOWSOFMAIZETOAIDCHANNELS ANDHUMANITARIANPURPOSES ANDTHUSHELPEDTOAVOID SEVERESHORTFALLSINEMERGENCYRELIEF

2EGIONAL LONG TERMANDMACROSTRUCTURES 4HESEEXAMPLESSHOWTHATlNANCIALRISKMANAGEMENT PRODUCTSCANBESTRUCTUREDTOTHEECONOMICSITUATION OFTHECUSTOMER0OORFARMERSIN!FRICAAND)NDIAWOULD SEEM TO HAVE BEEN THE LEAST LIKELY TO BENElT FROM SOPHISTICATEDDERIVATIVEANDINSURANCESTRUCTURES YET THEmEXIBILITY ADAPTABILITY EFlCIENCYANDEFFECTIVENESS OF THESE RISK lNANCING PRODUCTS ENABLE THEM TO BE CREATEDSPECIlCALLYFORTHESECOMPLICATEDMARKETS 3WISS2EBELIEVESTHATTHEREAREOPPORTUNITIESFORFURTHER INNOVATIONTOMEETTHEEMERGINGCHALLENGESOFCLIMATE CHANGE NOT ONLY ON A NATIONAL OR MARKET BY MARKET BASIS BUTALSOACROSSREGIONSOREVENATTHELEVELOFTHE #OMMONWEALTH AS A WHOLE 2ISK lNANCING PRODUCTS CANBESTRUCTUREDTOSPREADRISKACROSSALARGENUMBER AND BROAD VARIETY OF WEATHER PERILS ACROSS A NUMBER OF COUNTRIES AND OVER SEVERAL YEARS THESE PRODUCTS CANPROVIDEECONOMICSOLUTIONSTOPOTENTIALLYPERILOUS WEATHER RELATED ISSUES 4HESE EXAMPLES SHOW THAT IT CAN BE DONE n WHAT IS NEEDED IS THE FORESIGHT AND POLITICAL COURAGE TO INVESTIGATE THE OPTIONS AND MAKE THINGSHAPPEN

4HIS SPECIAL FEATURE WAS WRITTEN BY 2ETO 3CHNARWILER RESPONSIBLEFORRELATIONSWITHGOVERNMENTS .'/SAND AID AGENCIES AND #HRISTINA 5LARDIC RESPONSIBLE FOR PRODUCTDEVELOPMENTINRESPECTTORURALRISKSOLUTIONS WITH)VO-ENZINGERAND*UERG4RUEB

#HRISTINA5LARDIC #HRISTINA?5LARDIC SWISSRECOM

2ETO3CHNARWILER 2ETO?3CHNARWILER SWISSRECOM


.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

-*-ACE $IRECTOR #LIMATE#HANGEAND%NERGY 0ROGRAMME &)%,$

3MALLISLANDSTATESSEEK EQUITABLEPOST CLIMATE AGREEMENT 4HE AMBITION AND ARCHITECTURE OF THE POST  CLIMATE CHANGE REGIME WILL BE CRITICAL TO THE SURVIVAL AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF MANY #OMMONWEALTHSMALLISLANDSTATES4HEIMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE LONG PREDICTED ARE NOW CLEARLYBEINGSEENINSMALLISLANDNATIONSACROSS THE0ACIlC #ARIBBEANAND)NDIANOCEANS$UETO THEINERTIAINTHECLIMATESYSTEM MANYOFTHESE IMPACTS INCLUDINGSEALEVELRISE WILLCONTINUETO BESEENLONGAFTERGREENHOUSEGASCONCENTRATIONS INTHEATMOSPHEREHAVEBEENSTABILISED

4HIS ARTICLE SETS OUT A SERIES OF ELEMENTS HIGHLIGHTED BY!/3)3INITSSUBMISSIONTOTHEFOURTHWORKSHOPOF THE 5. &RAMEWORK #ONVENTION ON #LIMATE #HANGE $IALOGUE ON LONG TERM COOPERATIVE ACTION $IALOGUE 7ORKING0APER  ANDINITSINTERVENTIONSINTHE FOURTH SESSION OF THE !D (OC 7ORKING 'ROUP !7' ONFUTURECOMMITMENTSFORDEVELOPEDCOUNTRYPARTIES UNDERTHE+YOTO0ROTOCOL WHICHTOOKPLACEIN6IENNA

!T THE CLIMATE TALKS IN 6IENNA IN !UGUST  THE !LLIANCEOF3MALL)SLAND3TATES!/3)3 ANEGOTIATING BLOC OF SOME  VULNERABLE SMALL ISLAND COUNTRIES CALLED UPON THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO USE THE AVOIDANCE OF CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES 3)$3 AS ONE OF THE KEY BENCHMARKSFOREFFECTIVENESSINDESIGNINGTHEPOST CLIMATEREGIME

)NCONNECTIONWITHNEGOTIATIONSONEMISSIONREDUCTION COMMITMENTS FOR THE POST  PERIOD MANY DEVELOPED COUNTRIES HAVE CALLED FOR GLOBAL EFFORTS TO LIMITTHEINCREASEINGLOBALAVERAGESURFACETEMPERATURE TONOMORETHANŽABOVEINDUSTRIALLEVELS(OWEVERITIS INCREASINGLYCLEARTHATEVENTHISLEVELOFGLOBALWARMING WILL LEAD TO DEVASTATING CONSEQUENCES FOR MANY FOR SMALLISLANDDEVELOPINGSTATES

7HATDOESŽ#MEANFORSMALLISLAND STATES

2AROTONGA #OOK)SLANDS 0HOTOCREDIT -*-ACE

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

.UKUORO!TOLL &EDERATED3TATES OF-ICRONESIA

'UIDINGPRINCIPLESFORAPOST  REGIME

0HOTOCREDIT WWW.!3!GOV

3MALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES HAVE DONE LITTLE TO CONTRIBUTE TO THE INCREASING CONCENTRATIONS OF GREENHOUSEGASESINTHEATMOSPHERETHATARENOW AFFECTING THEM DIRECTLY !GAINST THIS BACKDROP IN 6IENNA !/3)3PRESENTEDALISTOFGUIDINGPRINCIPLES FORANYPOST PACKAGEOFINTEGRATEDACTIONSTO ADDRESSCLIMATECHANGE

3)$3AREALREADYEXPERIENCINGTHEIMPACTSOFCLIMATE CHANGE4HESEINCLUDESEALEVELRISEFROMTHETHERMAL EXPANSIONOFTHEWORLDSOCEANSANDTHEMELTINGOFLAND ICE CORALBLEACHINGFROMWARMINGOCEANS DAMAGEFROM INCREASINGLY SEVERE HURRICANES CYCLONES AND TROPICAL STORMS CHANGES IN PRECIPITATION PATTERNS RESULTING IN DROUGHTSANDmOODS COASTALEROSION DECLINESINCROP YIELDS ANDDECREASEDWATERAVAILABILITY !CCORDING TO THE )NTERGOVERNMENTAL 0ANEL ON #LIMATE #HANGES)0## &OURTH!SSESSMENT2EPORT AFURTHER WARMING OF ABOUT ª# BY THE END OF THE CENTURY RELATIVE TO   LEVELS CAN BE EXPECTED EVEN IF ATMOSPHERIC GREENHOUSE GAS CONCENTRATIONS REMAIN AT  LEVELS A Ž# INCREASE IN TEMPERATURE ABOVE   LEVELS WILL IMPLY SIGNIlCANT CORAL BLEACHING INCREASEDLOSSESFROMmOODING ANDSUBSTANTIALSPECIES EXTINCTION)0##7ORKING'ROUP)) 30- 

$ECISIVEACTIONISNEEDED BOTH TOREDUCEGLOBALEMISSIONSANDTO SECURETHERESOURCESNEEDEDTOASSIST VULNERABLECOUNTRIESINMEETINGTHE COSTSANDCHALLENGESOFADAPTATION

°5NDER INTERNATIONAL LAW STATES HAVE THE RESPONSIBILITYTOENSURETHATACTIVITIESWITHINTHEIR JURISDICTIONORCONTROLDONOTCAUSEDAMAGETOTHE ENVIRONMENT OF OTHER STATES OR OF AREAS BEYOND THELIMITSOFNATIONALJURISDICTION °)N KEEPING WITH !RTICLE  OF THE #ONVENTION PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES MUST BE TAKEN TO ANTICIPATE PREVENT AND MINIMISE THE CAUSES OF CLIMATECHANGEANDMITIGATEITSADVERSEEFFECTS AND THE CLIMATE SYSTEM MUST BE PROTECTED FOR PRESENTANDFUTUREGENERATIONS °!CTIVITIES THAT ENHANCE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE #ONVENTION MUST BE DESIGNED TO PROTECT THE MOSTVULNERABLEPARTIESTOTHE5.&### BOTHIN THESHORTANDINTHELONGTERM(ENCETHELEVELOF AMBITIONFORFUTUREEMISSIONREDUCTIONSUNDERTHE #ONVENTION MUST USE THE AVOIDANCE OF CLIMATE CHANGEIMPACTSONSMALLISLANDDEVELOPINGSTATES ASONEOFITSKEYBENCHMARKSFOREFFECTIVENESS °!CTIONS TAKEN UNDER THE #ONVENTION MUST BE URGENT PRACTICALANDAMBITIOUS °4HE@POLLUTERPAYSPRINCIPLEANDTHEPRINCIPLEOF COMMON BUT DIFFERENTIATED RESPONSIBILITIES AND RESPECTIVECAPABILITIESMUSTBEUSEDTODETERMINE THEOBLIGATIONSOFDIFFERENTPARTIESANDGROUPSOF PARTIES °!NY NEW FRAMEWORK MUST BE DEVELOPED WITHIN THE 5NITED .ATIONS FRAMEWORK AND MUST BUILD UPONANDEXTENDTHE+YOTO0ROTOCOL RATHERTHAN REPLACEIT !/3)33UBMISSION $IALOGUE7ORKING0APER.O 

4HESE IMPACTS ON NATURAL SYSTEMS ARE OF ENORMOUS IMPORTANCETO3)$3#ORALREEFSPROVIDENURSERYHABITAT FOR NEAR SHORE lSHERIES AND A BUFFER AGAINST STORM SURGE AND COASTAL EROSION BUT THEY ARE THEMSELVES HAVE LOW ADAPTIVE CAPACITY TO THERMAL STRESS -ANGROVE ECOSYSTEMS ARE ANOTHER KEY COASTAL ZONE BUFFER BUTTHEYMAYBECHALLENGEDTOKEEPPACEWITH ACCELERATINGSEALEVELRISE!NUMBEROFATOLLCOUNTRIES INCLUDING+IRIBATI 4UVALUANDTHE-ALDIVES ANDMANY ATOLLSINOTHER#OMMONWEALTHSMALLISLANDSTATES HAVE MUCHOFTHEIRLANDAREAONLYAFEWMETRESABOVESEA LEVEL3EALEVELRISEISOCCURRINGATAPPROXIMATELYTWO MILLIMETRESPERYEAR4HISTHREATENSSHALLOWFRESHWATER LENSESTHATAREALREADYSUSCEPTIBLETODEPLETIONDURING TIMES OF DROUGHT AND SUSCEPTIBLE TO CONTAMINATION FROM SALT WATER INTRUSION STORM SURGE AND SEEPAGE 3OME COMMENTATORS HAVE GONE SO FAR AS TO SAY THATTHEVULNERABILITYOFCERTAINATOLLNATIONSRAISESTHE POSSIBILITYOFTHElRSTEXTINCTIONOFASOVEREIGNCOUNTRY 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

DUE TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE 7HETHER OR NOT THIS IS HYPERBOLE IT IS CLEAR THAT DECISIVE ACTION IS NEEDED BOTH TO REDUCE GLOBAL EMISSIONS AND TO SECURE THE RESOURCES NEEDED TO ASSIST VULNERABLE COUNTRIES IN MEETINGTHECOSTSANDCHALLENGESOFADAPTATION

,ONG TERMSTABILISATIONGOAL !/3)3 HAS TAKEN THE POSITION THAT ANY PACKAGE OF MITIGATION RELATEDACTIVITIESMUSTBESUFlCIENTTOENSURE THAT GREENHOUSE GAS CONCENTRATIONS ARE STABILISED IN THE ATMOSPHERE AT WELL BELOW  PARTS PER MILLION PPM BY VOLUME AND LONG TERM TEMPERATURE INCREASES REMAIN WELL BELOW Ž# !/3)3 HAS CALLED FORGLOBAL'('EMISSIONSTOPEAKWITHINTHENEXT  YEARS AND FOR ADOPTION OF URGENT AMBITIOUS AND MEASURABLE SHORT TERM ACTIONS TO ENSURE THAT LONG TERMGOALSAREMET


.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

3TARlSH "LACK#ORAL )SLAND &EDERATED 3TATESOF-ICRONESIA

!CCORDING TO )0## 7ORKING 'ROUP ))) TO STABILISE TEMPERATUREINCREASESINTHEŽ#TOŽ#RANGEWILL REQUIRECUTSINGLOBALEMISSIONSBYATLEAST PER CENTBY4HELEVELOFEFFORTREQUIREDTOGOBELOW Ž#ISTHESAMEASTHATREQUIREDTOSTABILISEATŽ#IN THEPERIODUPTOWHATWILLBEREQUIREDISMORE SIGNIlCANT ACTION IN THE PERIOD BETWEEN  AND 4HISONLYEMPHASIZESTHATTHEREISNOSHORT TERM REASONNOTTOADOPTANAMBITIOUSLONG TERMGOAL 4HE )0## ESTIMATES THAT THE COST OF ACHIEVING A STABILISATIONCONCENTRATIONOFBETWEEN PPM WOULDREDUCETHEGLOBAL'$0GROWTHRATEBYONLY PERCENTBYRELATIVETOFORECASTEDGROWTHORLESS THANPERCENTPERYEAR)N6IENNA !/3)3NOTED THATTHISlGUREISEXTREMELYMANAGEABLE INVIEWOFTHE COSTSOFINACTION ANDCALLEDFORASUBSTANTIALLYLARGER INVESTMENTINMITIGATIONMEASURESnWELLBEYOND PER CENT OF GLOBAL '$0 PER YEAR n TO ACHIEVE A STILL LOWER STABILISATION LEVEL 3MALL ISLAND STATES ARGUED THAT GREATER INVESTMENT IS NEEDED AND WARRANTED AS A MATTER OF EQUITY TO MINIMISE THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATECHANGEONVULNERABLECOUNTRIESTHEVALUEOF PRESERVINGISLANDSOVEREIGNTYANDCULTURESCANNOTBE COMPAREDWITHTHEMONETARYCOSTSOFMITIGATION !/3)3 HIGHLIGHTED THAT A MODEST LIFESTYLE CHANGE IN SOME #ONVENTION PARTIES IS A SMALL PRICE TO PAY TO PROTECTSMALLISLANDNATIONSFROMTHELOSSOFTHEIRlNITE LANDAREA AVOIDTHELOSSTOTHEGLOBALCOMMUNITYOF UNIQUEISLANDCULTURESANDECOSYSTEMS ANDAVOIDTHE LOSSOFLIVESFROMEXTREMEWEATHEREVENTSINVULNERABLE COUNTRIES #ERTAINLY TO ALLOW THE ACTIONS OR INACTION OF SOME #ONVENTION PARTIES TO CAUSE THE COMPLETE DISAPPEARANCE OF OTHER #ONVENTION PARTIES CANNOT BE AN ACCEPTED OUTCOME OF THE MULTILATERAL CLIMATE CHANGEPROCESS

3CIENTIlCWORKNEEDEDTOINFORMPOST ACTIONS 4O DATE THE )0## HAS NOT ANALYSED STABILISATION SCENARIOS BELOW  PPM #/ EQUIVALENT OR CONSIDERED THE MEANS AND COSTS FOR ACHIEVING STABILISATIONATLEVELSBELOWPPM!TTHE6IENNA CLIMATETALKS !/3)3EMPHASISEDTHATTHISINFORMATION IS ESSENTIAL FOR DETERMINING AN APPROPRIATE LEVEL OF AMBITIONFORTHEPOST FRAMEWORK!/3)3CALLED FORURGENTWORKBYTHEGLOBALSCIENTIlCCOMMUNITYAND THE)0##INTWOAREAS °4HEIMPLICATIONSFORSMALLISLANDSTATESOFANINCREASE IN GLOBAL AVERAGE SURFACE TEMPERATURE OF Ž# OR GREATER AND °2ESEARCHONTHEMEANSANDCOSTSOFACHIEVINGLOW STABILISATIONCONCENTRATIONSTHATWILLPREVENTSIGNIlCANT NEGATIVE IMPACTS ON 3)$3 AND OTHER VULNERABLE #ONVENTIONPARTIES 4HE PARTIES TO THE +YOTO 0ROTOCOL MEETING IN THE !D (OC 7ORKING 'ROUP 'ROUP ON &UTURE #OMMITMENTS NOTEDTHECONCERNSRAISEDBYSMALLISLANDDEVELOPING STATES ANDTHEPOSSIBILITYFORFURTHERSCIENTIlCWORKIN THISREGARD

0HOTOCREDIT -*-ACE

!/3)3 ADDITIONALLY SUGGESTED THAT AN )0## 3PECIAL 2EPORTON6ULNERABLE'ROUPSMIGHTFACILITATETHELINKING OFVARIOUSMITIGATIONSCENARIOSANDLEVELSOFAMBITIONTO THEIMPACTSONVULNERABLEGROUPSTHATEACHPROPOSED SCENARIOIMPLIES

2ESPONSIBILITYFORMITIGATIONEFFORTS )N RATIFYING THE #ONVENTION ALL PARTIES COMMITTED TO IMPLEMENTING PROGRAMMES TO ADDRESS EMISSIONS BY SOURCES AND REMOVALS BY SINKS $ESPITE THIS COMMITMENT GREENHOUSEGASEMISSIONSAREINCREASING AT AN UNPRECEDENTED RATE IN BOTH DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES

4HELARGESTHISTORICALEMITTERS SHOULDNOWTAKEAGGRESSIVEACTION TOFACILITATETHEREDUCTIONOF GLOBALEMISSIONS !/3)3HASPROPOSEDTHAT CONSISTENTWITHTHEPOLLUTER PAYSPRINCIPLEANDTHE#LIMATE#ONVENTIONSPRINCIPLE OF COMMON BUT DIFFERENTIATED RESPONSIBILITIES AND RESPECTIVE CAPABILITIES THE LARGEST HISTORICAL EMITTERS SHOULD NOW TAKE AGGRESSIVE ACTION TO FACILITATE THE REDUCTION OF GLOBAL EMISSIONS !LL DEVELOPED COUNTRY PARTIES SHOULD TAKE ON QUANTIlED EMISSION LIMITATION OR REDUCTION TARGETS FOR THE POST  COMMITMENT PERIOD)NADDITION MAJOREMITTINGDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES SHOULD BE PREPARED TO PURSUE A CLEAN DEVELOPMENT PATH WITHASSISTANCEFROMDEVELOPEDCOUNTRYPARTIES MEASURED THROUGH DECREASING CARBON INTENSITY AN INCREASINGRELIANCEONRENEWABLEENERGYTECHNOLOGIES ANDORTHROUGHSPECIlCEMISSIONLIMITATIONORREDUCTION TARGETS4HEEFFORTSOFALLMAJOREMITTINGCOUNTRIESMUST CONTRIBUTE TO THE OVERALL REDUCTION OF '(' EMISSIONS INAMEASURABLEWAY SOTHATPROGRESSINACHIEVINGA GLOBALREDUCTIONINEMISSIONSCANBEASSESSED !/3)3HASSUGGESTEDTHATTHEKEYSTRATEGYFORENGAGING DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IN MITIGATION EFFORTS SHOULD BE THROUGHANEXPANSIONOFACCESSTORENEWABLEENERGY AND ENERGY EFlCIENT TECHNOLOGIES -ANY SMALL ISLAND COUNTRIESHAVEALREADYESTABLISHEDRENEWABLEENERGY TARGETS AND REQUIRE INTERNATIONAL SUPPORT TO TRANSLATE

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

"ANANATREE 2AROTONGA #OOK)SLANDS 0HOTOCREDIT -*-ACE

THESE PLEDGES INTO REALITY &OR THESE COUNTRIES RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFlCIENT TECHNOLOGIES CAN CONTRIBUTE TO THE REPLACEMENT OF EXPENSIVE IMPORTED FOSSIL FUELS BOTH REDUCING EMISSIONS AND FACILITATINGENERGYINDEPENDENCE

3OME OF THE ADAPTATION MEASURES THAT WILL BE THE MOSTEFFECTIVEARERELATIVELYINEXPENSIVE DONOTREQUIRE ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND CAN BE IMPLEMENTED IMMEDIATELY4HESEINCLUDE

3EA LEVELRISEWILLEXACERBATE INUNDATION EROSIONANDOTHER COASTALHAZARDS ANDPUTATRISK VITALINFRASTRUCTURE SETTLEMENTS ANDFACILITIES

°-EASURES TO ADDRESS PRESSURES ON FOOD SUPPLY THROUGHDROUGHT RESISTANTANDSALT RESISTANTCROPS

!DDRESSINGADAPTATIONNEEDS #LIMATE CHANGE POSES SIGNIlCANT CHALLENGES TO THE GROWTHOFKEYECONOMICSECTORSOFISLANDECONOMIES INCLUDING TOURISM lSHERIES AND AGRICULTURE 3EA LEVEL RISE WILL EXACERBATE INUNDATION EROSION AND OTHER COASTAL HAZARDS AND PUT AT RISK VITAL INFRASTRUCTURE SETTLEMENTSANDFACILITIES THREATENINGTOUNDERMINETHE OBJECTIVESADDRESSEDINTHE-AURITIUS3TRATEGYONTHE 3USTAINABLE$EVELOPMENTOF3MALL)SLAND3TATES !STHE)0##7ORKING'ROUPHASNOTED INITSCHAPTER ONSMALLISLANDS INTHE#ARIBBEANAND0ACIlCISLANDS MORETHANPERCENTOFTHEPOPULATIONLIVEWITHIN KILOMETRES OF THE SHORE )NTERNATIONAL AIRPORTS ROADS AND CAPITAL CITIES IN THE SMALL ISLANDS OF THE )NDIAN AND 0ACIlC /CEANS AND THE #ARIBBEAN ARE ALMOST WITHOUT EXCEPTION SITED ALONG THE COAST OR ON TINY CORALISLANDS 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

°-EASURESTOMANAGEWATERRESOURCESDURINGPERIODS OFEXTREMEDROUGHT

°"UFFERINGOFCOASTALZONESTHROUGHMANGROVESWAMP PLANTINGANDREEFRESTORATION AND °4HE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL POLICIES WATER MANAGEMENT POLICIES LAND USE POLICIES AND RISK MANAGEMENT POLICIES THAT INTEGRATE THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATECHANGE /THER MEASURES MAY BE MORE COSTLY INCLUDING THE CLIMATE PROOlNG OF INFRASTRUCTURE THE RELOCATION OF VULNERABLECOASTALCOMMUNITIES ANDTHERELOCATIONOF KEYINFRASTRUCTUREWITHIN3)$3

3OMEOFTHEADAPTATIONMEASURES THATWILLBETHEMOSTEFFECTIVEARE RELATIVELYINEXPENSIVE DONOTREQUIRE ADVANCEDTECHNOLOGIESANDCAN BEIMPLEMENTEDIMMEDIATELY $ELAYS IN IMPLEMENTING ADAPTIVE STRATEGIES WILL ONLY CAUSETHECOSTSOFADAPTATIONTOINCREASE9ET WELLOVERA DECADEAFTERTHE#ONVENTIONSENTRYINTOFORCE ADAPTATION FUNDINGTHROUGHTHE#ONVENTIONSlNANCIALMECHANISM


.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

IS VIRTUALLY NON EXISTENT AND PROCEDURES FOR ACCESSING THESELIMITEDFUNDSAREEXCESSIVELYCOMPLICATED3MALL ISLANDCOUNTRIESSEEKANEXPANSIONOFEXISTINGFUNDING FOR ADAPTATION THE IDENTIlCATION OF NEW AND INNOVATIVE SOURCESOFFUNDINGATTHEINTERNATIONALLEVEL ANDEASIER ACCESSTOTHESEFUNDSBYVULNERABLECOUNTRIES )N $IALOGUE 7ORKING 0APER  !/3)3 PROPOSES THAT MORESUBSTANTIALFUNDINGMIGHTBEACHIEVEDBYLINKING ADAPTATIONFUNDINGTOGREENHOUSEGASEMISSIONS5SING ASABASEYEAR DEVELOPEDCOUNTRYPARTIESCOULD BE REQUIRED TO CONTRIBUTE TO A #ONVENTION !DAPTATION &UNDUSINGAFORMULACOMPRISINGTWOCOMPONENTS °4HELEVELOFACOUNTRYSGREENHOUSEGASEMISSIONS REmECTINGRESPONSIBILITY AND

EXTREME EVENTS WHERE EVEN SUBSIDISED INSURANCE MECHANISMS ARE NOT FEASIBLE 0AYOUTS COULD USE AGREEDTRIGGERSBASEDONWINDSPEED mOODLEVELS A DROUGHT INDEX OR SEA LEVEL RISE 4HE #ARIBBEAN #ATASTROPHE 2ISK )NSURANCE &ACILITY ##2)& WAS HIGHLIGHTED AS A PROMISING INITIATIVE AND ONE THAT COULD BE EXPANDED AND EXTENDED TO ALL 3)$3 REGIONS4HE##2)&USESAPORTIONOFDONOR FUNDED CAPITALRESERVESTOASSISTINTHEESTABLISHMENTOFAN INSURANCEFACILITYTHATASSISTSCOUNTRIESINPOOLINGTHEIR RISK AND REDUCING INSURANCE COSTS #ONSIDERATION COULDBEGIVENTOMEANSOFSUBSIDISINGTHECLIMATE RELATED RISK PORTION OF THIS COVERAGE WHICH WILL INCREASEOVERTIME

°!'$0INDEX REmECTINGABILITYTOPAY

#OLLECTIVELOSSSHARING MECHANISMSANDINTERNATIONAL SOLIDARITYFUNDSCANASSISTIN ADDRESSINGHIGHIMPACTEXTREME EVENTS WHEREEVENSUBSIDISED INSURANCEMECHANISMS ARENOTFEASIBLE

4HECREATIONOFA#ONVENTION!DAPTATION&UNDONTHIS BASISCOULDIMPLEMENTTHEPOLLUTERPAYSPRINCIPLEANDTHE PRINCIPLEOFCOMMONBUTDIFFERENTIATEDRESPONSIBILITIES AND RESPECTIVE CAPABILITIES n AND COMPLEMENT THE +YOTO0ROTOCOLS!DAPTATION&UND

2ISKMANAGEMENTINSURANCE !RTICLE  OF THE #ONVENTION REQUIRES ALL PARTIES TO CONSIDER WHAT INSURANCE RELATED ACTIONS MIGHT BE NECESSARYUNDERTHE#ONVENTION TOMEETTHESPECIlC NEEDSOFDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESARISINGFROMTHEADVERSE EFFECTSOFCLIMATECHANGEnANDESPECIALLYTHENEEDSOF SMALLISLANDSTATES!/3)3HASLONGIDENTIlEDINSURANCE RELATEDACTIONSASESSENTIALFORADDRESSINGTHEIMPACTS OFCLIMATECHANGEANDINCREASINGLYFREQUENTANDSEVERE EXTREMEWEATHEREVENTS4HENEEDFORANINTERNATIONAL INSURANCEMECHANISMTOHELPSMALLISLANDDEVELOPING STATESMANAGECLIMATE RELATEDRISKANDBUILDRISK RESILIENT ECONOMIES WAS HIGHLIGHTED AT THE %XPERT -EETING FOR 3)$3ON!DAPTATION HELDINTWOPARTSIN*AMAICAAND THE#OOK)SLANDSIN&EBRUARY )N THE S THE DIRECT COST OF EXTREME EVENTS IN 0ACIlCISLANDSISESTIMATEDTOHAVEEXCEEDED53 BILLION CAUSINGLOSSESTHATEXCEEDEDTHE'$0OFSOME INDIVIDUAL COUNTRIES #YCLONE (ETA IN EARLY  CAUSED DAMAGE TO .IUE THAT EXCEEDED  YEARS WORTHOFTHECOUNTRYSANNUALEXPORTVALUE4HECOST OFRECOVERYEXCEEDEDTIMESTHECOUNTRYS'$0)N THE#ARIBBEAN (URRICANE)VANINDAMAGED PERCENTOF'RENADASHOUSINGSTOCKANDLEFTPER CENTHOMELESS

!/3)3HASLONGIDENTIlEDINSURANCE RELATEDACTIONSASESSENTIALFORTHE ADDRESSINGTHEIMPACTSOFCLIMATE CHANGEANDINCREASINGLYFREQUENTAND SEVEREEXTREMEWEATHEREVENTS )NITSSUBMISSIONTOTHE$IALOGUE !/3)3NOTEDTHAT COLLECTIVELOSSSHARINGMECHANISMSANDINTERNATIONAL SOLIDARITYFUNDSCANASSISTINADDRESSINGHIGHIMPACT

!SMALLWINDOWOFOPPORTUNITY 4HERE IS A SMALL WINDOW OF OPPORTUNITY TO PREVENT RUNAWAYCLIMATECHANGE)N"ALI SMALLISLANDDEVELOPING STATES WILL PRESS FOR AGREEMENT ON A PROCESS LEADING TO AMBITIOUS GLOBAL EMISSION REDUCTION TARGETS NEW INCENTIVES TO BRING ALL MAJOR EMITTING COUNTRIES ON BOARD IN REDUCING THEIR GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS ANDNEWTOOLSANDINNOVATIVElNANCINGFORADAPTATION MEASURES FOR COUNTRIES VULNERABLE TO THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATECHANGE

-*-ACEHEADSTHE#LIMATE#HANGEAND%NERGY0ROGRAMME AT THE &OUNDATION FOR )NTERNATIONAL %NVIRONMENTAL ,AW AND $EVELOPMENT&)%,$  &)%,$ISA,ONDON BASEDCHARITYCOMPRISEDOFPUBLICINTERNATIONAL LAWYERSCOMMITTEDTOTHEPROMOTIONOFENVIRONMENTALPROTECTION ANDSUSTAINABLEDEVELOPMENTTHROUGHLAW&)%,$HASPROVIDED SUPPORT TO !/3)3 IN THE INTERNATIONAL CLIMATE NEGOTIATIONS FOR MANYYEARS &)%,$ %NDSLEIGH3TREET ,ONDON7#($$ 5+ 4EL   &AX   %MAILlELD lELDORGUK 7EBSITEWWWlELDORGUK

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

%DWIN#ARRINGTON 3ECRETARY 'ENERAL #!2)#/-

#LIMATECHANGECHARTINGA #ARIBBEANRESPONSE 4HIS YEAR MAY VERY WELL BE REGARDED AS A WATERSHED FOR THE PROPULSION OF THE CLIMATE CHANGEPREDICAMENTINTOGLOBALCONSCIOUSNESS AT ALL LEVELS OF HUMAN ENDEAVOUR FROM THE INDIVIDUAL HOUSEHOLDS COMMUNITIES NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL LEVELS AND ULTIMATELY TO THE CORRIDORS OF POWER 7E HAVE WITNESSED THE INCREASED VISIBILITY OF CLIMATE CHANGE ISSUES IN THE INTERNATIONAL PRESS AND IN PRONOUNCEMENTS OF THE LEADERS OF SOME OF THE MOST INmUENTIAL GOVERNMENTS THE ' AND LATTERLY AND ENCOURAGINGLY EVEN THE 53! )N THIS ARTICLE THE AUTHOROUTLINESTHECHALLENGESFACINGMEMBERSOF THE#ARIBBEAN#OMMUNITY#!2)#/- ANDCALLS FORAMORECOMMITTEDINTERNATIONALAPPROACHTO BOTHMITIGATIONANDADAPTATION 4WO SIGNIlCANT DEVELOPMENTS MAY HAVE TRIGGERED AN EXPLOSION OF INTEREST AND CONCERN ABOUT THE CLIMATE CHANGEPROBLEMnABOILINGPOTTHATHAS UNTILNOW BEEN BUILDING UP PRESSURE ON THE BACK BURNERS OF INTERNATIONALAGENDA SETTERS4HElRSTISTHEPUBLICATION OF THE 3TERN 2EPORT AND THE OTHER THE PUBLICATION OF THE REPORTS OF 7ORKING 'ROUPS   FOR THE &OURTH !SSESSMENT 2EPORT &!2 OF THE )NTERGOVERNMENTAL 0ANELON#LIMATE#HANGE)0## )NADDITIONTHECLIMATE CHANGE ISSUE WAS CATAPULTED INTO PUBLIC INTEREST BY THE PUBLICATION OF !L 'ORES EXCELLENT EXPOSITION !N INCONVENIENTTRUTH WHICHWASLATERTRANSFORMEDINTOAN /SCAR WINNINGDOCUMENTARY 7ITNESS TOO THE GROUND SURGE OF ACTIVITY IN THE 53 #ONGRESS AND IN STATES LIKE #ALIFORNIA AND .EW 9ORK AND THE ACTIVE ROLE OF A COALITION OF !MERICAN CITY MAYORS TO REDUCE THEIR CARBON FOOTPRINT 4HEY OF COURSE VIEW THIS PROBLEM THROUGH THE EYES OF @STEWARDS OF THE EARTH 7ITNESS ALSO THE CONSTANT REPORTSOFDEVASTATINGmOODS WILDlRESANDSTORMSFROM ALLCORNERSOFTHEEARTHAND SURPRISINGLY ATYPHOONIN THE!RABIAN'ULF!LLOFTHESEHAVECOLLECTIVELYSERVED TO PLACE CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE AGENDA OF A MUCH WIDERCONSTITUENCY4HISINCREASEDVISIBILITYREACHEDITS ZENITH RECENTLY WHENTHEISSUEOFCLIMATECHANGEAND GLOBALSECURITYWASDISCUSSEDATASPECIALMEETINGOF THE5NITED.ATIONS3ECURITY#OUNCIL 4HE 3TERN 2EPORT WAS COMMISSIONED BY THE 5+ 'OVERNMENTTOASSESSTHEECONOMICSOFMOVINGTOA 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

LOWCARBONGLOBALECONOMY)TISTHElRSTCOMPREHENSIVE ATTEMPTTOPUTMONETARYVALUESTOACTIONSNEEDEDFOR COUNTRIESTOBOTHREDUCETHELEVELOFTHEIRGREENHOUSE GAS '(' EMISSIONS MITIGATION AND TO DECREASE THEIRVULNERABILITYTOTHEPROJECTEDIMPACTSOFCLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION  4HE REPORT CALLS FOR IMMEDIATE ACTIONTODEALWITHTHESEISSUES EMPHASISESTHATANY DELAY WILL INCUR SIGNIlCANT INCREASES IN THE COSTS OF RESPONDING ANDWARNSTHATACTIONTAKENINNEXTOR YEARSCANHAVEAPROFOUNDEFFECTONCLIMATEINTHE SECONDHALFOFTHISCENTURYANDTHENEXT4HEREPORT OBSERVES THAT RESPONSE WILL REQUIRE AMONG OTHER THINGS THE PROMOTION OF ADAPTATION n PARTICULARLY FOR DEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES !CCORDING TO THE )0## &OURTH !SSESSMENT 2EPORT WARMING OF THE CLIMATE SYSTEM IS UNEQUIVOCAL AS IS NOW EVIDENT FROM OBSERVATIONS OF INCREASES IN GLOBAL AVERAGE AIR AND OCEAN TEMPERATURES WIDESPREAD MELTING OF SNOW AND ICE AND RISING GLOBAL MEAN SEA LEVEL &OR THE NEXT TWO DECADES A WARMING OF ABOUT Ž# PER DECADE IS PROJECTED FOR A RANGE OF '(' EMISSIONSCENARIOS

4HECONSEQUENCESOFCLIMATECHANGEFOR THE#!2)#/-REGION 4HE INTERLOCKING EFFECTS OF ECONOMY AND ECOLOGY ARE PARTICULARLY EVIDENT IN THE COUNTRIES OF THE #ARIBBEAN REGION0RODUCTIVESECTORSFORMOSTOFTHECOUNTRIES IN THE REGION INVOLVE THE DIRECT EXPLOITATION OF THE COUNTRIES NATURAL RESOURCES AND ARE CONCENTRATED ALONG THE COASTLINES $EGRADATION OF THE NATURAL RESOURCES WOULD GREATLY REDUCE THE COUNTRIES PROSPECTS FOR GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 4OURISM DEVELOPMENT FOR EXAMPLE REQUIRES INFRASTRUCTURE WHICH MAY CAUSE THE DEGRADATION OF CERTAIN NATURAL WEALTH 3IMILARLY LAND CULTIVATION FOR AGRICULTURE SOMETIMES ENCROACHES ON FORESTED LANDS AND OFTEN REQUIRES THE USE OF AGROCHEMICALS THAT CAN CONTAMINATEDOMESTICWATERRESOURCES!TTHESAME TIME IRRIGATION FOR AGRICULTURAL LAND OFTEN DEPENDS ON THE PROTECTION OF WATER CATCHMENT AREAS 4HE COUNTRIESOFTHE#!2)#/-AREEITHERSMALLISLANDSOR HAVELOW LYINGCOASTLINESMOSTOFTHEMARETHEREFORE PARTICULARLY VULNERABLE TO THE HAZARDS AND PROBLEMS FACINGSMALLSTATES


.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

)NTHE#ARIBBEAN MORETHANHALFOFTHEPOPULATIONLIVES WITHINKMOFTHESHORELINE)NLOCATIONSSUCHASTHE NORTHCOASTOF*AMAICAANDTHEWESTANDSOUTHCOASTSOF "ARBADOS CONTINUOUSCORRIDORSOFDEVELOPMENTOCCUPY PRACTICALLYALLOFTHEPRIMECOASTALLANDS/THERFACILITIES SUCHASlSHINGVILLAGES GOVERNMENTOFlCES HOSPITALS ANDCRITICALUTILITIESAREFREQUENTLYLOCATEDCLOSETOTHE SHORE#HANGESINSEALEVELANDTHECHARACTERISTICSOF STORMEVENTSARELIKELYTOHAVESERIOUSCONSEQUENCES FORTHESESETTLEMENTSANDINFRASTRUCTURE!LMOSTWITHOUT EXCEPTIONINTERNATIONALAIRPORTSARESITEDONORWITHINA FEW KILOMETRES OF THE COAST 3IMILARLY THE MAIN ROAD ARTERIESOFTENPARALLELTHECOAST7ITHPROJECTEDSEALEVEL RISE MUCHOFTHISINFRASTRUCTUREWOULDBEATRISKFROM mOODING AND PHYSICAL DAMAGE ALTHOUGH THE DEGREE OFRISKWILLOBVIOUSLYVARYFROMCOUNTRYTOCOUNTRY4HE THREAT FROM SEA LEVEL RISE TO INFRASTRUCTURE IS AMPLIlED WITHTHEPASSAGEOFTROPICALCYCLONESHURRICANES )N THE#ARIBBEAN DAMAGETOCOASTALINFRASTRUCTUREFROM STORM SURGE ALONE IS OFTEN SIGNIlCANT )N .OVEMBER  SURGE DAMAGE IN 3T ,UCIA ASSOCIATED WITH (URRICANE,ENNY EXCEEDED53MILLIONnALTHOUGH THESTORMWASMANYKILOMETRESOFFSHORE -ANYISLANDSINTHE#ARIBBEANARELIKELYTOEXPERIENCE INCREASED WATER STRESS AS A RESULT OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND INSOMEINSTANCES ASINTHECASEOFTHE"AHAMAS !NTIGUA AND "ARBUDA AND "ARBADOS HAVE BEGUN TO INVEST IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ADAPTATION STRATEGIES INCLUDING DESALINATION AND RAINWATER HARVESTING TO OFFSETCURRENTANDPROJECTEDWATERSHORTAGES 3EAWATERWARMINGANDDEGRADATIONOFCOASTALHABITATS MANGROVES CORAL REEFS CAN LEAD TO A DECIMATION OF THElSHSTOCKS WITHDIRECONSEQUENCESFORLIVELIHOODS ANDTHEFOODSECURITYOFTHEREGION #HANGINGWEATHER PATTERNS AND SOIL AND AQUIFER SALINISATION ARE FURTHER THREATSTOTHELATTER)N'UYANATHEYAREALREADYEXPLORING THEDEVELOPMENTOFSALTTOLERANTVARIETIESOFRICETOCOPE WITHBOTHESTUARINEANDSOILSALINISATION 4OURISM IS A MAJOR ECONOMIC SECTOR IN MANY ISLANDS AND THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE WILL BE BOTH DIRECT AND INDIRECT 3EA LEVEL RISE AND INCREASED OCEAN TEMPERATUREAREPROJECTEDTOACCELERATEBEACHEROSION CAUSEDEGRADATIONOFCORALREEFSINCLUDINGBLEACHING ANDDEGRADETHEOVERALLASSETVALUEOFTHECOAST3UCH IMPACTSWILLINTURNREDUCETHEATTRACTIVENESSOFTHESE DESTINATIONSFORCOASTALTOURISM)NADDITIONMOREINTENSE HURRICANESWILLDESTROYTOURISMPLANTANDINFRASTRUCTURE CREATING INSURMOUNTABLE DIFlCULTIES FOR THE SECTOR ESPECIALLYINTHEPERVADINGINSURANCEENVIRONMENTINTHE REGION-OSTINSURANCERATESINTHEREGIONAREINFORMED BYCONDITIONSTHATPREVAILINSOUTHERN53!ASMOSTOF THE INSURED RISKS ARE TRANSFERRED TO OUTSIDE INSURERS THROUGHTHEREINSURANCESYSTEM&ORMANYINTHEREGION THESE RATES ARE UNAFFORDABLE LEADING TO A SITUATION WHERE SEVERAL PROPERTIES AND VITAL INFRASTRUCTURE ARE EITHERUNDER INSUREDORNOTINSUREDATALL4HISEXPOSURE OFVITALTOURISMPLANTPUTSTHESECTORATGREATRISKAND URGENTSTEPSNEEDTOBETAKENTOADDRESSTHIS 4HE#!2)#/-3ECRETARIATISWORKINGCLOSELYWITHTHE #ARIBBEAN $ISASTER %MERGENCY 2ESPONSE !GENCY #$%2! ONACOMPREHENSIVEDISASTERMANAGEMENT

STRATEGYTHATINTEGRATESTHEMANAGEMENTOFALLNATURAL AND HUMAN INDUCED HAZARDS INCLUDING PREVENTION PREPAREDNESS MITIGATION RESPONSE RECOVERY AND RESTORATION )N ADDITION THE RECENTLY ESTABLISHED #ARIBBEAN#ATASTROPHE2ISK)NSURANCE&ACILITYUNDER THE COORDINATION OF THE 7ORLD "ANK n TO PROVIDE #!2)#/-MEMBERSTATESWITHINDEX BASEDINSURANCE AGAINST GOVERNMENT LOSSES CAUSED BY NATURAL DISASTERS n IS A WELCOME STEP IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION BUT NEEDS TO BE EXPANDED AND SUPPLEMENTED WITH OTHER INSURANCE INSTRUMENTS SUCH AS CATASTROPHE BONDS PARAMETRICINSURANCEANDWEATHERDERIVATIVES TO PROVIDE ADEQUATE PROTECTION TO ALL LEVELS OF THE REGIONAL POPULATION AND ESPECIALLY FOR THE POOR AND VULNERABLESECTIONSOFTHECOMMUNITY 4HE 7ORKING 'ROUP REPORT ALSO EMPHASISES THE NEED FOR ADAPTATION MEASURES TO BE IMPLEMENTED IN COUNTRIESSUCHASTHOSEINTHEREGION BUTRECOGNISES THATALACKOFIN COUNTRYADAPTIVECAPACITYISACOMMON CONSTRAINT TO ADAPTATION AND UNDERLINES THE FACT ALSO CONlRMEDINTHE3TERNREPORT THATINMOSTCASESTHE COSTSOFADAPTINGANDIMPLEMENTINGADAPTATIONOPTIONS AREPROHIBITIVEANDWILLREQUIRElNANCIALRESOURCESTHAT AREGENERALLYNOTAVAILABLETOGOVERNMENTS4HEREPORT RECOMMENDS THAT TO OVERCOME THIS DElCIENCY OF HUMAN AND lNANCIAL RESOURCES ADAPTIVE CAPACITY IN SMALL STATES WILL NEED TO BE BUILT UP IN FOUR IMPORTANT AREAS HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTIONAL STRENGTHENING RESEARCH AND SYSTEMATIC OBSERVATION ANDPUBLICAWARENESSANDEDUCATION!SPOINTEDOUT LATER IN THIS ARTICLE THE #!2)#/- COUNTRIES HAVE FOR SOMETIMENOWEMBARKEDONBOLDMOVESTOADDRESS CAPACITYBUILDINGINTHESEKEYAREAS

4HE#ARIBBEANCOMMUNITYRESPONSETO CLIMATECHANGE -OSTOFOUREFFORTSINTHE#ARIBBEAN TODATE HAVEBEEN DIRECTEDATBUILDINGNATIONALANDREGIONALCAPACITYFOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE 4HE REGION HAS BEEN IMPLEMENTINGASUCCESSIONOFPROJECTSTHE#ARIBBEAN 0LANNING FOR !DAPTATION TO #LIMATE #HANGE #0!## PROJECT THE -AINSTREAMING OF !DAPTATION TO #LIMATE #HANGE -!## PROJECT BOTH FUNDED BY THE 'LOBAL %NVIRONMENT&ACILITY'%& ANDTHE!DAPTATIONTO#LIMATE #HANGE IN THE #ARIBBEAN !### PROJECT WHICH WAS FUNDED BY THE #ANADIAN )NTERNATIONAL $EVELOPMENT !GENCY #)$!  !LL OF THESE PROJECTS WERE DESIGNED TO PROVIDE INFORMATION ON THE FUTURE RISKS WHICH THE REGIONWILLBEEXPOSEDTOASARESULTOFCLIMATECHANGE THEEXTENTOFTHEIMPACTSOFSUCHRISKSONOURHUMAN INSTITUTIONAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC SYSTEMS HOW THESE IMPACTS COULD BE REDUCED ADAPTATION THE COSTS OF SUCHACTIONSANDTHEEVENTUALIDENTIlCATIONOFTHEBEST OPTIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION 2ECENTLY THE REGION WAS SUCCESSFULINGETTINGAPPROVALFORANOTHER'%&FUNDED PROJECT THE 3PECIAL 0ROJECT ON !DAPTATION TO #LIMATE #HANGE30!## 4HISPROJECTWOULDADVANCETHEWORK INTHEREGION INTHATITWILLSUPPORTTHEIDENTIlCATIONAND IMPLEMENTATIONOFADAPTATIONOPTIONSINTHETHREEPILOT COUNTRIESOF3T,UCIA 3T6INCENTANDTHE'RENADINES AND $OMINICA $URING THE COURSE OF IMPLEMENTATION

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

%FFECTSOFCLIMATECHANGE )NTHE7ORKING'ROUPREPORTON)MPACTSAND!DAPTATION #HAPTERISDEVOTEDTOSMALLISLANDS4HEREPORT EMPHASISESTHATSMALLISLANDS WHETHERLOCATEDINTHETROPICSORHIGHERLATITUDES HAVECERTAINCHARACTERISTICS n SUCH AS LIMITED SIZE PRONENESS TO NATURAL HAZARDS AND EXTERNAL SHOCKS n WHICH MAKE THEM ESPECIALLY VULNERABLETOTHEEFFECTSOFCLIMATECHANGE SEALEVELRISEANDEXTREMEEVENTS3EALEVELRISEWILLEXACERBATE INUNDATION EROSIONANDOTHERCOASTALHAZARDS THREATENINGVITALINFRASTRUCTURE SETTLEMENTSANDFACILITIESTHAT AREPREDOMINANTLYSITUATEDALONGTHECOAST3EALEVELRISEWILLALSOIMPACTNEGATIVELYONCOASTALECOSYSTEMS SUCHASCORALREEFSANDMANGROVEFORESTS ANDCOMMERCIALANDARTISANALlSHERIESWHICHAREBASEDONTHOSE SYSTEMS7EAREALREADYEXPERIENCINGTHEADVERSEEFFECTSOFSOMEOFTHESEIMPACTS °%LEVATED SEAWATER TEMPERATURES HAVE TRIGGERED WIDESPREAD BLEACHING OF CORAL REEFS IN THE REGION AND IS BELIEVEDTOHAVECONTRIBUTEDTOTHEINCREASEDINTENSITYOFRECENTHURRICANES °$URINGTHEPERIOD HURRICANESHAVEHADADEVASTATINGEFFECTONTHE#ARIBBEAN(URRICANE$AVIDHIT $OMINICAINWITHWINDSEXCEEDINGMPH KILLINGPEOPLE DAMAGINGPERCENTANDDESTROYING PERCENTOFBUILDINGS DESTROYINGTHECOUNTRYSBANANACROPANDPERCENTOFTHEFORESTS3IMILARLY HURRICANE )VANWREAKEDHAVOCWITHTHEECONOMYOF'RENADAWITHANESTIMATEDLOSSOFPERCENTOFTHECOUNTRYS '$0.UTMEG 'RENADASMOSTIMPORTANTAGRICULTURALCROP WASDEVASTATEDINAMEREFEWHOURSBYHURRICANE )VAN ANDSINCETHEPLANTDOESNOTREACHCOMMERCIALPRODUCTIONSTATUSUNDERSEVENOREIGHTYEARS 'RENADA WILLEARNNOFOREIGNEXCHANGEFROMTHISSOURCEFORALMOSTADECADE#ONSEQUENTLY THESECOUNTRIES'ROSS $OMESTIC0RODUCT'$0 DECLINED CENTRALGOVERNMENTEXPENDITURESROSEANDlSCALDElCITINCREASED °4HE )-& HAS INDICATED THAT IN THE %ASTERN #ARIBBEAN THE AVERAGE ANNUAL DAMAGE FROM NATURAL DISASTERS OVERTHE PERIODWASABOUTPERCENTOFTHE'$0OFTHOSEISLANDS COMPAREDTOAWORLDWIDE AVERAGEOFPERCENT °2ECENTLY(URRICANE$EANMADELANDFALLONTHE-EXICANCOAST.ORTHOF"ELIZEASA#ATEGORYHURRICANE !LTHOUGH "ELIZE DID NOT SUFFER A DIRECT HIT FROM THIS STORM IT COMPLETELY DESTROYED THE COUNTRYS PAPAYA CROPINmICTINGDAMAGESTOTHEEXTENTOF53MILLIONTOTHEIREXPORTEARNINGS)NADDITIONTOTHISTHEREWAS WIDESPREADDAMAGETOHOUSINGWITHTHECONSEQUENTDISPLACEMENTOFRESIDENTS °7ITHINCREASINGFREQUENCY COUNTRIESINTHEREGIONAREFACINGSITUATIONSINWHICHSCARCERESOURCESTHATWERE EARMARKEDFORDEVELOPMENTPROGRAMMESHAVETOBEDIVERTEDTORELIEFANDRECONSTRUCTIONFOLLOWINGDISASTERS

OF THESE PROJECTS CAPACITY IN SEVERAL RELEVANT AREAS FOR ADAPTATION HAS BEEN BUILDING UP IN THE REGION !T THEINSTITUTIONALLEVELWEHAVESEENTHEESTABLISHMENT ANDFUNCTIONINGOFA2EGIONAL#LIMATE#HANGE#ENTER WHICHBECAMEOPERATIONALIN*ANUARY 4HE LINK BETWEEN ACCESS AND USE OF MODERN ENERGY SERVICESANDHUMANDEVELOPMENTISVERYSTRONG4HE )0## AND THE 3TERN REPORTS HAVE UNDERSCORED THE PIVOTALROLEOFTHEENERGYSECTORINTHETRANSFORMATIONTO ALOWCARBONECONOMYANDTHEDEVELOPMENTPROCESS INEMERGINGECONOMIES!CCESSANDSECURITYOFENERGY SUPPLY HELPS TO PROMOTE BETTER QUALITY EDUCATION BETTER QUALITY HEALTH SERVICES INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY ENHANCED COMPETITIVENESS AND HIGHER LEVELS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH -ANY COUNTRIES IN THE #ARIBBEAN #OMMUNITY ARE HIGHLY DEPENDENT ON IMPORTED FOSSIL FUELSFORENERGYSUPPLIES)N#!2)#/-THESEIMPORTS CONSUMEASIGNIlCANTPERCENTAGEOFFOREIGNEXCHANGE EARNINGS)NADDITION THEUSEOFFOSSILFUELSCONTRIBUTES DIRECTLYTOTHEDEGRADATIONOFTHEENVIRONMENTTHROUGH POLLUTIONANDINCREASEDEMISSIONS )N THE #ARIBBEAN #OMMUNITY THE POTENTIAL TO HARNESS AND DEVELOP RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES SUCH AS BIOMASS HYDRO OCEAN SOLAR AND WIND AND FOR GEOTHERMAL ENERGY IS VAST 3OME #!2)#/- MEMBER STATESHAVEMADEINNOVATIVEUSEOFSOLARANDWINDPOWER AGRICULTURAL BY PRODUCTS AND HYDRO POWER SOURCES )N THE AREA OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SEVERAL ADVANCES WERE MADE IN  4HE #ARIBBEAN 2ENEWABLE %NERGY 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

$EVELOPMENT 0ROGRAMME #2%$0 lNANCED BY THE '%& AND EXECUTED BY THE #!2)#/- 3ECRETARIAT IS A PART OF THE #OMMUNITYS 2EGIONAL %NERGY )NITIATIVE SPEARHEADED THE DRAFTING OF MODEL .ATIONAL %NERGY 0OLICY &RAMEWORKS IN WHICH THERE IS A CHAPTER ON RENEWABLEENERGYFORCONSIDERATIONBYMEMBERSTATES )N THE AREA OF RENEWABLE ENERGY lNANCING THE PROJECT HAS DEVELOPED TO ADDRESS THE HIGH TRANSACTION COSTS ANDRISKFACTORSASSOCIATEDWITHTHECOMMERCIALISATION OFRENEWABLEENERGY NAMELY THE#ARIBBEAN2ENEWABLE %NERGY4ECHNICAL!SSISTANCE&ACILITY#2%4!& WHICHIS NOWACCEPTINGAPPLICATIONSFORFUNDING )N ADDITION THE #!2)#/- 3ECRETARIAT HAS DESIGNED A 3USTAINABLE %NERGY 0ROGRAMME 4HIS PROGRAMME WOULD ADDRESS NOT ONLY RENEWABLE ENERGY BUT ALSO ENERGYEFlCIENCY ENERGYCONSERVATION BIOFUELS CARBON lNANCE TRADE DEVELOPMENTOFANENERGYDATABASEFOR DECISION MAKING AND MOST IMPORTANTLY PARTNERSHIPS FORRESOURCESMOBILISATION4HEPROGRAMMEWOULDALSO PROVIDESUPPORTFORTHEIMPLEMENTATIONOFTHEWORKOF THE#!2)#/-4ASK&ORCEON2EGIONAL%NERGY0OLICY ASWELLASINSTITUTIONALSUPPORTTO#2%4!&AND#2%& WHICHWILLSUPERSEDE#2%$0AFTER!PRIL 4HE #!2)#/- 4ASK &ORCE ON %NERGY IN  PREPARED A $RAFT #!2)#/- %NERGY 0OLICY WHICH WAS PRESENTEDTOTHE)NTER 3ESSIONAL-EETINGOFTHE(EADS OF'OVERNMENTIN&EBRUARY7ORKCONTINUESONTHE POLICY DOCUMENT WITH A VIEW TO INCLUSION OF A NUMBER OF EMERGING ISSUES &URTHER CONSIDERATION OF THE $RAFT


.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

0OLICYWILLBEFACILITATEDATTHE3PECIAL#OUNCILFOR4RADE AND %CONOMIC $EVELOPMENT #/4%$ -EETING ON %NERGY4HEOUTCOMEOFTHE3PECIAL#/4%$WOULDBE SUBMITTEDTOTHE#ONFERENCEOF(EADSOF'OVERNMENT WHICHWOULDAMONGOTHERTHINGSENDORSETHEREGIONS APPROACHTOENERGY(OWEVER ACTIONSONTHESEINITIATIVES ARECONSTRAINEDBYACCESSTOlNANCIALRESOURCES

4OWARDSTHEFUTURE 4HE+YOTO0ROTOCOL RATIlEDIN WASTHElRSTGLOBAL AGREEMENT TO STIPULATE MANDATORY CUTS OF '('S FOR DEVELOPED COUNTRIES 4HE PROTOCOL CALLS ON COUNTRIES WHICHHAVERATIlEDITTOCUTTHEIR'('EMISSIONSBY PERCENTOFTHEIREMISSIONSANDTHISBETWEENTHE YEARS OF  AND  %VEN WITH THE VERY MODEST REQUIREMENT FOR COMPLIANCE THE 53! AND !USTRALIA DID NOT RATIFY THE PROTOCOL 4HE GLOBAL COMMUNITY IS PREPARING TO ENTER INTO NEGOTIATIONS FOR A SUCCESSOR TREATY TO +YOTO %ARLIER THIS YEAR THE 53! INDICATED THATTHEYWOULDPARTICIPATEINTHEDEBATE#HINA )NDIA "RAZILANDOTHERLARGEDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES WITHRAPIDLY INCREASING '(' BUDGETS SEEM GEARED TO AGREE TO VOLUNTARY CAPS ON THEIR EMISSIONS !T THE MOMENT IT DOES SEEM THAT A '(' EMISSIONS REDUCTION REGIME THATWILLRESULTINABOUTAŽ#RISEINGLOBALTEMPERATURES WILLBEAGREEDTO!SAREGION WENEEDTOBEACTIVELY ENGAGEDINTHESENEGOTIATIONS/URPOSITIONSHOULDBE DElNED BY THE FACT THAT WE ARE lNDING IT INCREASINGLY DIFlCULT TO COPE WITH PRESENT DAY CLIMATE MUCH LESS WITH THAT IN A WORLD THAT IS Ž# WARMER -OREOVER WHATEVERREGIMEISAGREEDTOWESHOULDALSOPRESSFORA SIGNIlCANTINCREASEOFRESOURCESFORADAPTATION4HESE SHOULDBETHEPILLARSOFOURSTRATEGYFORTHEUPCOMING DEBATEAGGRESSIVEMITIGATIONBYMAJORPOLLUTERS WITH SEVEREENFORCEABLEPENALTIESFORNON COMPLIANCEAND SUBSTANTIAL FUNDING TO BUILD ADAPTIVE CAPACITY AND TO IMPLEMENTADAPTATIONOPTIONS INDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES ESPECIALLYINTHESMALLISLANDDEVELOPING ANDLOWLYING COASTALSTATESINTHE#ARIBBEAN !T THE SAME TIME THE REGION SHOULD SEIZE THE OPPORTUNITY UNDER THE +YOTO 0ROTOCOL TO CONTINUE TO REFORMITSENERGYSECTOR THROUGHTHEUSEOFTHE#LEAN $EVELOPMENT-ECHANISM#$- ONEOFTHEENABLING MECHANISMS UNDER THE PROTOCOL 5SING THE #$- THE REGION CAN ATTRACT SIGNIlCANT INVESTMENTS IN ACTIVITIES IN ENERGY EFlCIENCY RENEWABLE ENERGY SOLAR WIND GEOTHERMAL BIOMASS BAGASSE RICE HUSKS WOOD WASTE LANDlLLGASANDBIOFUELS)TISANOPPORTUNITY NOT ONLY TO GREEN THE REGIONS ENERGY SECTOR BUT ALSO TO PROVIDE FOR THE MORE EFlCIENT PRODUCTION AND USE OF ENERGYAND ULTIMATELY FOROURENERGYSECURITY%THANOL ASABIOFUEL OFFERSPROMISINGPROSPECTSFORTHEREVIVALOF THESUGARCANEINDUSTRYINTHEREGION,ARGEPRODUCERS LIKE#UBA 'UYANA "ELIZEANDTHE$OMINICAN2EPUBLIC MIGHTTARGETTHEEVEREXPANDINGMARKETFORBIOFUELSIN THE53!AND#ANADA3MALLERPRODUCERSCANREPLACE UP TO  PER CENT OF THEIR PETROL CONSUMPTION WITH ETHANOL IN A BLENDED FUEL AND SAVE VALUABLE FOREIGN EXCHANGE WHILEPROVIDINGLOCALEMPLOYMENT !S WE EMBARK ON GLOBAL NEGOTIATIONS TO AGREE ON A POST +YOTO MITIGATION REGIME WE IN THE #ARIBBEAN

WOULD EXPECT DEVELOPED COUNTRIES TO AGREE TO AN AGGRESSIVEMITIGATIONREGIMETHATWOULDSTABILISEGLOBAL GREENHOUSEGASEMISSIONSATALEVELTHATWILLRESULTIN A LESS THAN Ž# RISE IN AVERAGE GLOBAL TEMPERATURES 4OACHIEVETHISTHERECENT'TARGETOFAREDUCTIONOF PERCENTANDPOSSIBLYPERCENTBYAND PER CENT BY  COMPARED TO  LEVELS THOUGH COMMENDABLE OFFERSNOCOMFORTFOR#ARIBBEANSTATES THE INDUSTRIALISED COUNTRIES NEED TO ASPIRE TO HIGHER MITIGATIONTARGETSINTHATTIMEPERIOD%QUALLYWEEXPECT ALL COUNTRIES TO BE PARTY TO GLOBAL MITIGATION INITIATIVES AND THAT COUNTRIES WITH RAPIDLY EMERGING ECONOMIES WILL BE SUPPORTED TO ENSURE THAT THEIR DEVELOPMENT PATHWAYISSUSTAINABLEWITHAMINIMALCARBONFOOTPRINT &OR#ARIBBEANSTATES GIVENTHEINEVITABILITYOFCLIMATE CHANGEANDITSIMPACTSONTHEREGION ADAPTATIONISAN IMPERATIVE/NEOUTCOMEOFTHEENSUINGNEGOTIATIONS MUST BE A REALISATION OF A SIGNIlCANT INCREASE IN NEW RESOURCESAVAILABLEFORADAPTATION &INALLY THE #OMMONWEALTH FAMILY OF NATIONS HAS A UNIQUE OPPORTUNITY TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF ITS DIVERSE MEMBERSHIP REmECTING EVERY INTEREST GROUP IN THE CLIMATE CHANGE DEBATE TO CHART A COURSE FOR AN EFFECTIVE GLOBAL RESPONSE TO THE CHALLENGE WE NOW FACE4HE#OMMONWEALTHFAMILYWITH' !NNEXAND LARGEDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES 3)$3AND,$#SAMONGITS MEMBERSHIP CANTAKESOMEBOLDCOLLECTIVEMEASURES TODEMONSTRATETOTHERESTOFTHEWORLDTHAT ITISPOSSIBLE TOFORGENEWPARTNERSHIPSBETWEENALLNATIONS RICHAND POORTOMEETTHECHALLENGESOFGLOBALCLIMATECHANGE

%DWIN7ILBERFORCE#ARRINGTON ANATIONALOF4RINIDADAND4OBAGO IS THE CURRENT 3ECRETARY 'ENERAL OF THE #ARIBBEAN #OMMUNITY (E HAS HELD THAT POSITION SINCE !UGUST  MAKING HIM THE LONGESTSERVING3ECRETARY 'ENERALOFTHE#ARIBBEAN#OMMUNITY (ISDISTINGUISHEDCAREERIN$IPLOMACYAND$EVELOPMENTSAWHIM SERVEAS$EPUTY3ECRETARY 'ENERAL ANDIMMEDIATELYTHEREAFTER   AS 3ECRETARY 'ENERAL OF THE !FRICAN #ARIBBEAN AND0ACIlC'ROUPOF3TATES!#0 nTHEONLY#ARIBBEANNATIONAL TOHAVEHELDTHATPOSITIONTODATE)NACKNOWLEDGEMENTOFHIS OUTSTANDING SERVICE #ARRINGTON (ALL AT THE !#0 3ECRETARIAT "RUSSELS ISNAMEDINHISHONOUR 4HE OBJECTIVES OF THE #ARIBBEAN #OMMUNITY #!2)#/- FORMERLYTHE#ARIBBEAN&REE4RADE!SSOCIATION ARETOIMPROVE STANDARDS OF LIVING AND WORK THE FULL EMPLOYMENT OF LABOUR AND OTHER FACTORS OF PRODUCTION ACCELERATED COORDINATED AND SUSTAINED ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND CONVERGENCE EXPANSION OF TRADE AND ECONOMIC RELATIONS WITH THIRD STATES ENHANCED LEVELS OF INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS ORGANISATION FORINCREASEDPRODUCTIONANDPRODUCTIVITYANDACHIEVEMENTOFA GREATERMEASUREOFECONOMICLEVERAGE #ARIBBEAN#OMMUNITY#!2)#/- 3ECRETARIAT 0/"OX 'EORGETOWN 'UYANA 4EL  %MAILINFO CARICOMORG

&AX  7EBSITEWWWCARICOMORG

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

4HE(ON'ARY,UNN -INISTEROF.ATURAL2ESOURCESFOR#ANADA

&ORESTSANDCLIMATECHANGE NEWCHALLENGESTOSUSTAINABLE FORESTMANAGEMENT #LIMATE CHANGE IS ADDING NEW CHALLENGES TO SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT IN #ANADA AND AROUNDTHEWORLD/NECHALLENGEISDETERMINING HOW BEST TO INCREASE CARBON SEQUESTRATION OR REDUCEEMISSIONSINTHEFORESTASPARTOFCLIMATE CHANGEMITIGATIONEFFORTS!NOTHERNEWCHALLENGE IS THE THREAT THAT CLIMATE CHANGE POSES FOR THE WELL BEINGOFOURFORESTS)TSIMPACTSAREALREADY STARTING TO BE FELT WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR TIMBER SUPPLY COMPETITIVENESS AND FOREST DEPENDENT COMMUNITIES "ALANCING THESE NEW CHALLENGES INTHECONTEXTOFSUSTAINABLEFORESTMANAGEMENT ISBECOMINGANIMPORTANTISSUEFOR#ANADA AND BOTH MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION ARE SUBJECTS OF ONGOINGRESEARCHANDPOLICYASSESSMENT 4REES ARE MADE UP OF CARBON AND FORESTS REMOVE SUBSTANTIAL AMOUNTS OF CARBON DIOXIDE FROM THE ATMOSPHEREANDCONVERTITINTOWOOD LEAVESANDROOTS 7HENTREESBURNORDECOMPOSE THEYRELEASECARBON DIOXIDEBACKINTOTHEATMOSPHERE4HISMEANSTHATWE NEEDTOCONSIDERHOWWEMANAGEFORESTSWHENTRYING TO DETERMINE HOW HUMANS ARE CONTRIBUTING TO GLOBAL WARMING AND WHAT WE CAN DO ABOUT IT !T THE SAME TIME THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON FORESTS RAISE CRUCIAL QUESTIONS ABOUT HOW WE MIGHT BEST ADAPT TO IT )N #ANADA THE SIZE AND IMPORTANCE OF OUR FOREST MEANSTHATTHEREISPARTICULARINTERESTINTHESEISSUES

#ANADASFORESTS #ANADA HAS AN ABUNDANCE OF NATURAL RESOURCES n INCLUDING VAST FORESTS THAT PLAY A PIVOTAL ROLE IN OUR ECONOMY HISTORY CULTURE TRADITION AND LIFESTYLE #ANADAS FORESTS AND OTHER WOODED LAND COVER  MILLION HECTARES OR  PER CENT OF THE COUNTRYS LAND AREA ACROSSECOZONES4HESEFORESTSREPRESENT PERCENTOFTHEWORLDSTOTALFORESTCOVER ANDCONTAIN ABOUTPERCENTOFTHEGLOBALBOREALFORESTANDMORE THAN  PER CENT OF THE WORLDS TEMPERATE RAINFOREST 4HEY SUPPORT AN INDUSTRY THAT IS VITAL TO #ANADAS WELL BEING )N  THE FOREST ECONOMY DIRECTLY CONTRIBUTED ABOUT THREE PER CENT OF THE COUNTRYS GROSSDOMESTICPRODUCT ANDWASWORTH#BILLION

IN SHIPMENTS MAKING #ANADA THE WORLDS LARGEST EXPORTEROFFORESTPRODUCTSWITHABOUTPERCENTOF CURRENT TRADE 4HE FOREST SECTOR IN #ANADA EMPLOYS   PEOPLE DIRECTLY AND ANOTHER   IN INDIRECT AND INDUCED JOBS -ORE THAN  RURAL AND REMOTE COMMUNITIES DEPEND ON IT FOR AT LEAST  PER CENTOFTHEIRINCOME

#LIMATECHANGEANDSUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT (OW WE MANAGE #ANADAS FORESTS HAS CHANGED OVER TIME &ROM A FOCUS ON TIMBER MANAGEMENT AND COMMUNITYSTABILITY FORESTMANAGEMENTHASEVOLVEDTO COVERARANGEOFISSUESTHATINCLUDEBIOLOGICALDIVERSITY WATER QUALITY AND RECREATIONAL USES /UR GOVERNMENT AND ITS PROVINCES AND TERRITORIES HAVE SUCCESSFULLY RESPONDEDINANUMBEROFWAYS)THAS °-ADE SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT PART OF ITS POLICIES LAWSANDREGULATIONS °#REATEDACOUNCILOFPROVINCIAL TERRITORIALANDFEDERAL FOREST MINISTERS TO WORK COOPERATIVELY ON ISSUES OF MUTUALINTEREST °,AUNCHED THE #ANADIAN -ODEL &OREST .ETWORK TO EXAMINEWHATSUSTAINABLEFORESTMANAGEMENTCOULD MEANINPRACTICE °!SSISTED OTHER COUNTRIES IN ADOPTING THIS #ANADIAN INITIATIVEANDINFORMINGTHEINTERNATIONAL-ODEL&OREST .ETWORK

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

RATHERPRIMARILYTOWILDlRES3UCHlRESARE IN#ANADA AN INTEGRAL PART OF MANY OF OUR FOREST ECOSYSTEMS )N EXTREMElREYEARS DIRECTEMISSIONSFROMWILDlRESCAN BENEARLYASLARGEASTOTALEMISSIONSFROMTHEBURNING OFFOSSILFUELSIN#ANADA4HEANALYSISALSOSHOWSTHAT THE NET CARBON BALANCE OF #ANADAS MANAGED FOREST HAS BEEN HIGHLY CORRELATED HISTORICALLY WITH THE EXTENT OFTHEBURNEDAREA

&ORESTSANDCLIMATECHANGEMITIGATION

°0ARTICIPATEDININTERNATIONALEFFORTSTOASSESSPROGRESS IN ACHIEVING SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT USING AFRAMEWORKOFCRITERIAANDINDICATORSOFSUSTAINABLE FORESTMANAGEMENT 4HE ISSUE OF CLIMATE CHANGE ADDS NEW AND VERY COMPLEX DIMENSIONS TO THE SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OFFORESTS#ANADAISFOCUSEDONUNDERSTANDINGWHAT AFFECTSTHECARBONBALANCEINOURFORESTS HOWTHATMIGHT CHANGEINTHEFUTURE ANDWHETHERANDHOWMANAGING COULDHELPMITIGATECLIMATECHANGE4HEANSWERISTHAT FORESTSCANINDEEDCONTRIBUTE(OWEVER INCORPORATING CARBON OBJECTIVES IS NOT SIMPLE AND IS THE SUBJECT OF ONGOINGRESEARCH

&ORESTCARBONANALYSIS 4HE #ANADIAN &OREST 3ERVICE OF .ATURAL 2ESOURCES #ANADA DEVELOPED THE #ARBON "UDGET -ODEL A COMPUTER MODEL THAT CAN TRACK HOW THE CARBON IN #ANADAS FOREST CHANGES OVER TIME 7ITH THIS TOOL SCIENTISTS CAN ALSO EXPLORE HOW THE CARBON COULD CHANGEINRESPONSETOMANAGEMENTPRACTICESSUCHAS HARVESTING OR TO NATURAL DISTURBANCES LIKE FOREST lRES ANDINSECTINFESTATIONS ! COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF THE CARBON BALANCE OF #ANADAS MANAGED FOREST SHOWS THAT IN MOST YEARS BETWEENANDOURMANAGEDFORESTREMOVED MORE GREENHOUSE GASES FROM THE ATMOSPHERE THAN IT EMITTED IN OTHER WORDS IT WAS A SINK (OWEVER IN SOMEYEARSOURMANAGEDFORESTWASACARBONSOURCE EMITTINGMORETHANITREMOVEDFROMTHEATMOSPHERE4HIS WASNOTDUETOPOORORUNSUSTAINABLEMANAGEMENTBUT

!DECISION MAKINGTOOL /NE KEY TO MAKING CARBON MANAGEMENT PART OF SUSTAINABLE LAND MANAGEMENT IS TO GIVE FOREST MANAGERS THE TOOLS THEY NEED TO ASSESS THE IMPACTSOFALTERNATIVEACTIONS4OTHISEND .ATURAL 2ESOURCES #ANADA WITH THE SUPPORT OF THE #ANADIAN-ODEL&OREST.ETWORK HASDEVELOPEDA USER FRIENDLYOPERATIONAL SCALEVERSIONOFITS#ARBON "UDGET -ODEL 4HIS TOOL IS FREELY AVAILABLE AND IS ALREADYBEINGTESTEDBYFORESTMANAGERSIN#ANADA AND ABROAD -ORE INFORMATION IS AVAILABLE AT HTTPCARBONCFSNRCANGCCACBMOPERATIONAL? SCALE?EHTML



4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

!LTHOUGH SCIENTISTS PREDICT THAT #ANADAS FORESTS ARE LIKELYTOBEANETSOURCEOFCARBONINTHENEARFUTURE SUSTAINABLEMANAGEMENTCANSTILLCONTRIBUTETOCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION THROUGH ACTION TO REDUCE CARBON EMISSIONSANDINCREASECARBONREMOVALS&ORINSTANCE FORESTlREMANAGEMENTANDPROTECTIONAGAINSTINSECTS CAN REDUCE EMISSIONS FROM THE FOREST !S WELL LONG TERM SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT CAN RESULT IN CARBON NEUTRAL LANDSCAPES ASIDE FROM THE IMPACTS OF NATURAL DISTURBANCES THAT YIELD LARGE QUANTITIES OF HARVESTED lBRE ANNUALLY AND STILL MAINTAIN A STEADY CARBONSTOCKINTHEECOSYSTEM 3USTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT MUST ALSO CONSIDER AFFORESTATIONTHECREATIONOFNEWFORESTWHERENONEHAS EXISTEDFORSOMETIME ANDDEFORESTATIONTHEPERMANENT CONVERSION OF FOREST LAND TO NON FOREST LAND  .EITHER OF THESE IS A MAJOR ISSUE IN #ANADA SINCE #ANADA GENERALLY REGENERATES HARVESTED FORESTS (OWEVER THE EFFECT OF THESE ACTIVITIES ON CARBON HAS GIVEN US A REASON TO LOOK AT THEM CLOSELY SINCE INCREASING FORESTAREAANDSLOWINGTHERATEOFDEFORESTATIONCOULD PROVETOBEEFFECTIVEINMITIGATINGCLIMATECHANGE&OR EXAMPLE CREATING NEW FORESTED LAND ON ABANDONED AGRICULTURALLANDINCREASESBOTHCARBONSTOCKSANDTHE RATEOFCARBONUPTAKE !PORTFOLIOOFMITIGATIONOPTIONSINVOLVINGFORESTCARBON CAN BE DEVELOPED WITH DIFFERING TIME PROlLES )N THE SHORT TERM IT IS MOST EFFECTIVE TO TAKE ACTIONS THAT REDUCE CARBON EMISSIONS FOR EXAMPLE THROUGH A DECREASEINDEFORESTATIONPRACTICES PROTECTIONAGAINST lREANDINSECTS ORPOST HARVESTACTIVITIESTHATCONSERVE CARBON FOR EXAMPLE AVOIDING THE BURNING OF LOGGING DEBRIS)NTHELONGERTERM ACTIVITIESSUCHASINCREASING THEFORESTAREA LENGTHENINGTHETIMEBETWEENHARVESTS AND SPEEDING UP REGENERATION AFTER HARVEST AND DISTURBANCES COULD INCREASE CARBON REMOVALS 7HAT ISMOSTPRACTICALANDMAKESMOSTSENSEECONOMICALLY ISLIKELYTOVARYFROMPLACETOPLACE ANDEVERYDECISION REQUIRESACAREFULCONSIDERATIONOFTHECOSTSANDCARBON IMPACTSOVERTHESHORT MEDIUMANDLONGTERM /UR THINKING ABOUT FOREST CARBON MANAGEMENT MUST GOWELLBEYONDTHEFOREST7EMUSTALSOCONSIDERHOW THE HARVESTED TIMBER IS USED 7OOD PRODUCTS AND FUELSCANPROVIDEAVARIETYOFSERVICESTOMEETHUMAN NEEDS WITHOUT COMPROMISING FUTURE SUPPLY AND CAN ALSOCONTRIBUTETOSTRATEGIESAIMEDATMITIGATINGCLIMATE CHANGE #ARBON NEUTRAL AND RENEWABLE WOOD FUELS CAN BE SUBSTITUTED FOR FOSSIL FUELS IN A WIDE RANGE OF APPLICATIONS WITHSIGNIlCANTREDUCTIONSINGREENHOUSE GASEMISSIONS!NDMANYWOODPRODUCTSSTORECARBON FOR DECADES THUS EXTENDING THE PERIOD DURING WHICH


.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

THE CARBON IS KEPT OUT OF THE ATMOSPHERE 3TRATEGIES THATPROLONGTHERETENTIONOFCARBONINWOODPRODUCTS CANCONTRIBUTETOREDUCINGCARBONEMISSIONS

4HEIMPORTANCEOFADAPTATION %FFORTS TO MITIGATE CLIMATE CHANGE INCLUDING REDUCING EMISSIONSORINCREASINGREMOVALSINTHEFOREST WILLNOT ELIMINATEOURNEEDTOADAPTTOTHEIMPACTSOFCLIMATE CHANGE3CIENTISTSBELIEVE THAT CONTINENTAL INTERIORS AND NORTHERN LATITUDES WILL EXPERIENCESOMEOFTHESTRONGESTCLIMATECHANGEOVER THE NEXT CENTURY SO THE EFFECTS COULD BE EVEN MORE PRONOUNCEDIN#ANADASFORESTS 4HE RECOGNITION OF THE EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON #ANADASFORESTSISMOBILISINGGOVERNMENTS THEPRIVATE SECTORANDRESEARCHERSTOACTIVELYEXPLOREWHATACTIONS CAN BE TAKEN 4HE CHALLENGE OF ADAPTING TO CLIMATE CHANGEADDSAPARTICULARLYCOMPLEXNEWPERSPECTIVE TOSUSTAINABLEFORESTMANAGEMENT&OREXAMPLE WHEN HARVESTINGOCCURS THEUSUALGOALHASBEENTOENSURE REGENERATIONOFAFORESTSTANDTHATISSIMILARTOTHEONE THATWASCUT)NTHEFUTURE THEFORESTBESTABLETOSURVIVE ACHANGEDCLIMATECOULDBEDIFFERENT

4HEUSUALGOALHASBEENTOENSURE REGENERATIONOFAFORESTSTANDTHATIS SIMILARTOTHEONETHATWASCUT)NTHE FUTURE THEFORESTBESTABLETOSURVIVE ACHANGEDCLIMATECOULDBEDIFFERENT 2ECENT EXPERIENCE WITH THE MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE IN #ANADAS MOST WESTERN PROVINCE "RITISH #OLUMBIA MAY BE INDICATIVE OF THE TYPES OF PROBLEMS THAT WILL ARISE4HEBEETLEHASBEENAPARTOFNORMALECOSYSTEM DYNAMICSINTHEREGIONFORTHOUSANDSOFYEARS(OWEVER THECURRENTOUTBREAKISTHELARGESTINRECORDEDHISTORY AND IS NOW SPREADING INTO AREAS THAT HAVE NOT BEEN PREVIOUSLYAFFECTED4HESCALEOFTHECURRENTOUTBREAK HASBEENATTRIBUTEDTOTWOFACTORSANINCREASEINTHE AREA OF MATURE LODGEPOLE PINE WHICH IS PARTICULARLY SUSCEPTIBLETOINFESTATIONBYTHEBEETLE ANDACHANGE INTHEWINTERCONDITIONSTHATUSEDTOLIMITTHEEXPANSION OF THE BEETLE 4HE INFESTATION IS HAVING FAR REACHING IMPACTS INCLUDING THOSE ON SHORT AND LONG TERM TIMBER SUPPLY AS WELL AS INDUSTRY COMPETITIVENESS WHICH IN TURN IMPACTS FOREST DEPENDENT COMMUNITIES INTHEREGIONSTHATAREHARDESTHIT 4HE#ANADIANGOVERNMENTANDPROVINCIALANDTERRITORIAL AUTHORITIESHAVEBEENWORKINGTOGETHERTOTRYTOMITIGATE THEDAMAGEFROMTHEBEETLEANDTOADAPTTOITSIMPACTS IN A SUSTAINABLE WAY 3TRATEGIES INITIALLY INCLUDED AGGRESSIVE PRACTICES TO PROTECT FOREST RESOURCES BUT HAVE NOW SHIFTED TO MINIMISE THE LOSS OF FOREST RESOURCES THROUGH INNOVATIVE USES OF SALVAGE TIMBER ANDTHERETRAININGOFWORKERSINAFFECTEDCOMMUNITIES 4HE LESSONS LEARNED FROM THIS OUTBREAK MAY BE APPLICABLETOFUTUREIMPACTSON#ANADASFORESTS

#ONCLUSION #LIMATE CHANGE IS EMERGING AS WHAT MAY BE THE MOST DIFlCULT CHALLENGE TO DATE FOR BALANCING THE ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENTALANDSOCIALASPECTSOFFOREST MANAGEMENT IN #ANADA AND MANY OTHER COUNTRIES !DDRESSING CLIMATE CHANGE WILL BE A LONG TERM CHALLENGE 4HE #ANADIAN GOVERNMENT WILL CONTINUE TO WORK WITH PROVINCIAL AND TERRITORIAL GOVERNMENTS INDUSTRY COMMUNITIESANDOTHERSTOENABLETHEFOREST SECTORTOADAPTTOCLIMATECHANGEANDTOEXPLOREHOW THENATIONSFORESTSCANBESTHELPWITHGLOBALEFFORTSTO REDUCEEMISSIONS

4HE (ON 'ARY ,UNN IS THE -INISTER OF .ATURAL 2ESOURCES FOR #ANADA%DUCATEDATTHE5NIVERSITYOF6ICTORIA HEISAMEMBER OF THE "RITISH #OLUMBIA ,AW 3OCIETY AND WAS lRST ELECTED TO THE(OUSEOF#OMMONSIN(EISACERTIlEDJOURNEYMAN CARPENTERANDHASWORKEDINTHEMININGANDFORESTRYSECTORS .ATURAL 2ESOURCES #ANADA HELPS SHAPE THE IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTIONSOFTHENATURALRESOURCESSECTOR INCLUDINGENERGY FORESTS MINERALS METALSANDRELATEDINDUSTRIES TOTHE#ANADIAN ECONOMY SOCIETYANDENVIRONMENT4HEDEPARTMENTSMANDATE IS THE RESPONSIBLE DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF THESE RESOURCES .ATURAL 2ESOURCES #ANADA PUTS INNOVATIVE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY TO WORK SO THAT #ANADAS NATURAL RESOURCES SECTOR CANCONTINUETOCONTRIBUTETOTHEQUALITYOFLIFE NOWANDINTHE FUTURE)TALSOREPRESENTS#ANADAATTHEINTERNATIONALLEVELTOMEET THECOUNTRYSGLOBALCOMMITMENTSRELATEDTONATURALRESOURCES .ATURAL2ESOURCES#ANADA 'OVERNMENTOF#ANADA "OOTH3TREET /TTAWA /NTARIO+!% #ANADA 4EL  449 TELETYPEFORTHEHEARING IMPAIRED &AX  %MAILQUESTIONS NRCANGCCA 7EBSITEWWWNRCANGCCA

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

,ENNART"ÍGE 0RESIDENT THE)NTERNATIONAL&UNDFOR !GRICULTURAL$EVELOPMENT)&!$

#LIMATECHANGEAGROWING CHALLENGEFORDEVELOPMENTAND POVERTYREDUCTION )NTHEWORLDFOCUSEDONCLIMATECHANGEAS NEVERBEFORE FOLLOWINGTHERELEASEOFAREPORTBY THE)NTERGOVERNMENTAL0ANELON#LIMATE#HANGE )0## THAT PUT TO REST ANY REASONABLE DOUBT ABOUT HUMAN CONTRIBUTION TO GLOBAL WARMING 4HE PANEL FOUND THAT WARMING IS UNEQUIVOCAL ANDADDEDTHATITWASATLEASTPERCENTCERTAIN THAT HUMAN ACTIVITY RATHER THAN NATURAL CLIMATE VARIATION WASRESPONSIBLEFORTHEHIGHERAVERAGE TEMPERATURESWEHAVESEENINTHEPASTYEARS &OR )&!$ CLIMATE CHANGE HAS A SPECIAL SIGNIlCANCE BECAUSEOURMISSIONISTOENABLEPOORRURALPEOPLETO OVERCOMEPOVERTYANDHUNGER!GRICULTUREISTHEMAIN SOURCE OF LIVELIHOOD FOR MOST POOR RURAL PEOPLE AND IT IS ALSO THE HUMAN ACTIVITY MOST DIRECTLY AFFECTED BY CLIMATECHANGE )N THE MONTHS FOLLOWING THE REPORT THERE HAVE BEEN MANY MILLIONS OF WORDS DEDICATED TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS IMPACT !TTENTION HAS FOCUSED ON MITIGATION SLOWING THE PACE OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND ADAPTATION HELPINGPEOPLECOPEWITHITSEFFECTS2EMARKABLYLITTLE &ISHERMENCARRY NETSBACKTOTHEIR VILLAGEIN-UCOROGE -OZAMBIQUE2ISING SEALEVELSWILLTHREATEN LOW LYINGCOASTAL AREASANDCAUSETHE SALINISATIONOFSURFACE WATERANDGROUNDWATER AQUIFERSINSOME COASTALCOMMUNITIES #REDIT)&!$!LEX7EBB



4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

HASBEENSAIDORWRITTENABOUTTHEPEOPLEWHOWILLFEEL THEIMPACTMOSTnTHEPOORRURALPEOPLEOFDEVELOPING COUNTRIESnANDEVENLESSATTENTIONHASBEENGIVENTO HOWTHEYCANCONTRIBUTETOSLOWINGITSADVANCE

4HEPOORESTWILLSUFFERMOST 4HREE OUT OF FOUR OF THE WORLDS ONE BILLION POOREST PEOPLE LIVE IN RURAL AREAS AND DEPEND ON AGRICULTURE AND RELATED ACTIVITIES FOR THEIR LIVELIHOODS -ORE RAPID AGRICULTURAL AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IS ESSENTIAL TO THE ACHIEVEMENT OF THE -ILLENNIUM $EVELOPMENT 'OALS -$'S 4HEWORLDSPOORESTPEOPLEARESUBSISTENCE FARMERS NOMADICHERDERS DAYLABOURERSANDlSHERS -ANY LIVE ON ECOLOGICALLY FRAGILE LAND MOUNTAINS COASTALAREASANDDESERTS4HEYDEPENDONVULNERABLE SECTORS n AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK lSHERIES AND FORESTRY nFORTHEIRLIVELIHOODS7OMENINRURALAREAS PARTICULARLY THOSE RESPONSIBLE FOR FETCHING WATER AND KEEPING LIVESTOCK AREEXPECTEDTOPAYAPARTICULARLYHIGHPRICE ASTHECLIMATECHANGES 4HE)0##HASSAIDVERYCLEARLYTHATCLIMATECHANGEWILL HIT THE POOREST AND MOST VULNERABLE PEOPLE HARDEST


.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

&ISHERMENSELLTHEIR CATCHATAMARKETIN *ESSORE "ANGLADESH 0OORRURALPEOPLE NEEDBETTERACCESS TOMARKETSANDTHE OPPORTUNITIESFOR ENTERPRISETHATCAN HELPTHEMDIVERSIFYAND INCREASETHEIRINCOME #REDIT)&!$ !LEXANDRA"OULAT

4HERE IS CLEARLY AN ECONOMIC SOCIAL AND MORAL IMPERATIVE TO HELP POOR RURAL PEOPLE ADAPT TO CLIMATE CHANGEINASUSTAINABLEWAY

!MULTITUDEOFPROBLEMS #LIMATE CHANGE MAKES IT MORE DIFlCULT TO PREDICT WEATHERPATTERNSANDTOPLANTCROPSATTHEAPPROPRIATE TIME2ISINGSEALEVELSWILLTHREATENLOW LYINGCOASTAL AREASANDCAUSETHESALINISATIONOFSURFACEWATERAND GROUNDWATER AQUIFERS IN SOME COASTAL COMMUNITIES -ORE FREQUENT mOODING WILL ARISE FROM HEAVY AND ERRATICPRECIPITATIONANDICEMELTS!TTHESAMETIME MOREERRATICWEATHERPATTERNSWILLAFFECTTHERELIABILITY OFWATERSOURCESFORIRRIGATIONANDLIVESTOCK)NSOME REGIONS CLIMATE CHANGE WILL ALSO LEAD TO A HIGHER INCIDENCEOFVECTOR BORNEDISEASES SUCHASMALARIA SCHISTOSOMIASIS AND DENGUE FEVER AS WELL AS PESTS AFFECTINGLIVESTOCKANDCROPS

4HREEOUTOFFOUROFTHEWORLDS ONEBILLIONPOORESTPEOPLELIVEIN RURALAREASANDDEPENDON AGRICULTUREANDRELATEDACTIVITIES FORTHEIRLIVELIHOODS 4HE SERIOUSNESS OF THE SITUATION MUST NOT BE UNDERESTIMATED #LIMATE CHANGE IS EXPECTED TO PUT ALMOST  MILLION EXTRA PEOPLE AT RISK OF HUNGER BY  )N SOME HIGH LATITUDE REGIONS FOOD PRODUCTION MAYINCREASEWITHHIGHERTEMPERATURES"UTINOTHERS YIELDSMAYDROPSIGNIlCANTLY )N !FRICA ABOUT  PER CENT OF FARMLAND SUFFERS TO SOME EXTENT FROM SOIL EROSION AS MUCH AS  PER

CENTOFPASTUREANDRANGELANDSEXHIBITSOMEFORMOF DEGRADATION/VERPERCENTOF!FRICANAGRICULTURE DEPENDS ON RAINFALL -ODELS INDICATE THAT ABOUT  SQUAREKILOMETRESOFAGRICULTURALLANDINSUB 3AHARAN !FRICA CURRENTLY DEEMED CONSTRAINED WILL IMPROVEASARESULTOFCLIMATECHANGE(OWEVER THIS WILL BE MORE THAN OFFSET BY THE ESTIMATED   SQUAREKILOMETRESCURRENTLYCLASSIlEDASMODERATELY CONSTRAINED THAT WILL BECOME EVEN MORE SEVERELY AFFECTED4HISTHREATENSTOFURTHERAFFECTFOODSECURITY ANDEXACERBATEMALNUTRITIONONTHECONTINENT

2ISINGSEALEVELSWILLTHREATEN LOW LYINGCOASTALAREASANDCAUSE THESALINISATIONOFSURFACEWATER ANDGROUNDWATERAQUIFERS #EREAL PRODUCTION IN .ORTH !FRICA COULD DROP BY OVER  PER CENT )N THE TEMPERATE REGIONS OF ,ATIN !MERICA SOYABEANYIELDSAREEXPECTEDTORISE"UT IN DRIER AREAS CLIMATE CHANGE IS EXPECTED TO LEAD TOSALINISATIONANDDESERTIlCATIONOFAGRICULTURALLAND 0RODUCTIVITYOFLIVESTOCKANDSOMEIMPORTANTCROPSARE EXPECTEDTODECLINE(IGHERSEASURFACETEMPERATURES AREEXPECTEDTOCAUSESHIFTSINTHELOCATIONOFSOUTH EAST 0ACIlC lSH STOCKS #OASTAL AREAS ESPECIALLY IN HEAVILY POPULATED DELTA REGIONS WILL BE AT RISK OFmOODING 4HEREWILLBEGREATERCOMPETITIONOVERWATERRESOURCES AVAILABLE FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRY ASARESULTOFCHANGINGRAINPATTERNSANDTHE DISAPPEARANCEOFGLACIERS !GRICULTURAL COMMODITY PRICES ARE RISING PARTLY DUE TOCHANGINGWEATHERPATTERNS ANDITISBELIEVEDTHEY

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

)N%SSONG -INTSANG #AMEROON AWOMAN MEASURESTHEGROWTHOF SEEDLINGSATANURSERY 4HE)&!$ SUPPORTED TREEDOMESTICATION PROGRAMMEHAS HELPEDTHOUSANDSOF FARMERSBENElTFROM THEDOMESTICATION CULTIVATIONANDSALE OFFRUITANDMEDICINAL TREES #REDIT)&!$ 0ASCAL-AITRE

WILLCONTINUETORISEINTHEFORESEEABLEFUTURE4HISWILL HAVEENORMOUSCONSEQUENCESFORPOORRURALPEOPLE &ORSOME ITWILLMEANNEWOPPORTUNITIESnPARTICULARLY POORRURALPRODUCERSWITHACCESSTOMARKETS"UT FOR HOUSEHOLDSTHATARENETBUYERSOFFOODCOMMODITIES RISINGPRICESWILLCAUSESERIOUSPROBLEMS

4HEREWILLBEGREATER COMPETITIONOVERWATERRESOURCES AVAILABLEFORHUMANCONSUMPTION AGRICULTUREANDINDUSTRY "IOFUELSARESEENASANIMPORTANTRESPONSETOCLIMATE CHANGE BUT RISK INCREASING THE COMPETITION FOR AGRICULTURAL LAND n AND COULD CONTRIBUTE TO FOOD PRICE INCREASES!TTHESAMETIME SECONDGENERATIONBIOFUEL CROPS SUCH AS SWEET SORGHUM AND JATROPHA CURCAS WHICH CAN GROW ON MARGINAL LANDS COULD BECOME A NEWSOURCEOFINCOMEFORSMALLFARMERS)NTERNATIONAL EFFORTS MUST FOCUS ON MINIMISING THESE RISKS AND EXPANDINGTHEOPPORTUNITIESASSOCIATEDWITHBIOFUELS

0OORRURALPEOPLECANBEPARTOFTHE SOLUTION )T IS CLEAR THAT CLIMATE CHANGE WILL MAKE REACHING THE -$'S MUCH MORE DIFlCULT UNLESS DONORS AND GOVERNMENTS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES SHARPLY INCREASEINVESTMENTSINAGRICULTURALDEVELOPMENTAND SUSTAINABLELANDMANAGEMENTPRACTICES 0OOR RURAL PEOPLE CAN BE PART OF THE SOLUTION "UT THEY NEED SECURE ACCESS TO LAND AND WATER AS WELL AS TO FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND AGRICULTURAL 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

TECHNOLOGIES AND SERVICES 4HEY NEED ACCESS TO MARKETS AND THE OPPORTUNITIES FOR ENTERPRISE THAT CAN HELP THEM DIVERSIFY AND INCREASE THEIR INCOME 4HEY ALSO NEED EFFECTIVE INSTITUTIONS AND THEORGANISATIONALPOWERANDINFLUENCEREQUIREDTO ADVOCATE FOR THEIR OWN NEEDS AND TAKE ADVANTAGE OFEMERGINGOPPORTUNITIES 4HE )0## NOTES THAT SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CAN REDUCE VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE BY ENHANCING ADAPTIVECAPACITYANDINCREASINGRESILIENCE

!DAPTATIONINCLUDESALLACTIVITIES THATHELPPEOPLEANDECOSYSTEMS REDUCETHEIRVULNERABILITYTOTHEIMPACT OFCLIMATECHANGEANDTHATMINIMISE THECOSTSOFNATURALDISASTERS (ELPINGFARMERSADAPTANDDIVERSIFY )&!$HASYEARSOFEXPERIENCEHELPINGPOORFARMERS TACKLEDESERTIlCATIONANDENVIRONMENTALDEGRADATION AND BUILDING RESILIENCE TO WEATHER SHOCKS -OST OF THE PROJECTS AND PROGRAMMES SUPPORTED ARE IN MARGINAL RAINFED AREAS THAT ARE AT RISK FROM WATER SHORTAGE LAND DEGRADATION AND DESERTIlCATION 4HROUGHLOANSANDGRANTS )&!$ISADDRESSINGSUCH ISSUES AS DESERTIlCATION AND CHANGES IN CROPPING PATTERNS DUE TO CLIMATE VARIABILITY )&!$ WORKS CLOSELY WITH POOR RURAL PEOPLE MOST OF WHOM ARE SMALLHOLDER FARMERS LANDLESS PEOPLE HERDERS AND SMALL ENTREPRENEURS WHO DEPEND ON AGRICULTURE TO SURVIVE )&!$ DRAWS ON THIS EXPERIENCE IN HELPING THEMADAPTTOCLIMATECHANGE


.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

!WOMANUSESZERO GRAZINGTECHNIQUES FORHERCOWSAFTER ATTENDINGAGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATIONSFOR FARMERSIN"ULINDI 5GANDA)MPROVED LIVESTOCKMANAGEMENT ANDCROPPRACTICES COUPLEDWITHADAPTIVE MANAGEMENTOF FORESTS CANCONTRIBUTE TOCLIMATECHANGE MITIGATION #REDIT)&!$ 2ADHIKA#HALASANI

!DAPTATION INCLUDES ALL ACTIVITIES THAT HELP PEOPLE AND ECOSYSTEMS REDUCE THEIR VULNERABILITY TO THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND THAT MINIMISE THE COSTSOFNATURALDISASTERS4HEREISNOUNIVERSALWAY TO ADAPT SPECIlC MEASURES NEED TO BE TAILORED TO SPECIlCCONTEXTS &OREXAMPLE IN-ALAWI AN)&!$ SUPPORTEDPROJECTIS HELPINGREDUCETHERISKSASSOCIATEDWITHRAINFEDFARMING BY REHABILITATING AND DEVELOPING IRRIGATION SYSTEMS RESERVOIRSANDRAINWATERHARVESTINGSTRUCTURES

!DAPTATIONINCLUDESALLACTIVITIESTHAT HELPPEOPLEANDECOSYSTEMSREDUCE THEIRVULNERABILITYTOTHEIMPACTOF CLIMATECHANGEANDTHATMINIMISE THECOSTSOFNATURALDISASTERS )N#AMEROON )&!$SUPPORTSTHE7ORLD!GROFORESTRY #ENTRES TREE DOMESTICATION PROGRAMME WHICH HAS HELPED THOUSANDS OF FARMERS BENEFIT FROM THE DOMESTICATION CULTIVATION AND SALE OF FRUIT AND MEDICINAL TREES 4REE PLANTING ALSO HAS IMPORTANT ENVIRONMENTALIMPLICATIONS4REESCANHELPSTABILISE FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS SUCH AS HILLSIDES 4HE ROOTS PENETRATE DEEP INTO THE SOIL REDUCING THE RISK OF LANDSLIDES"ESIDESTHAT TREEROOTSYSTEMSABSORB LEACHED NUTRIENTS FROM DEEP IN THE SOIL AND MAKE THEM AVAILABLE TO THE GROWING TREES !S THE OLDER LEAVES DROP AND DECOMPOSE AROUND THE TREE THEY RECONSTITUTE THE SOIL STRUCTURE AND ENHANCE ITSFERTILITY

/N THE ISLANDS OF -AURITIUS AND 2ODRIGUES AN )&!$ FUNDED PROGRAMME IS TRAINING MEMBERS OF COMMUNITIESONlSHINGMETHODSTHATDONOTDAMAGE CORAL REEFS OR DEPLETE lSH STOCK 4HE PROGRAMME HAS ALSO HELPED PARTICIPANTS DIVERSIFY THEIR ACTIVITIES SO THAT THEY ARE NOT SOLELY DEPENDENT ON lSHING FOR THEIRLIVELIHOODS4ODAYTHEYAREENGAGEDNOTONLYIN lSHERIES BUTALSOINAGRICULTURE MICRO ENTERPRISEAND SELF HELPCOMMUNITYINITIATIVES

%NVIRONMENTANDAGRICULTUREGOHANDIN HANDINMITIGATINGCLIMATECHANGE 4HE )0## AND THE RECENTLY PUBLISHED  7ORLD $EVELOPMENT 2EPORT !GRICULTURE FOR $EVELOPMENT BOTH UNDERSCORE THE FACT THAT THE ENVIRONMENTAL AGENDA IS INSEPARABLE FROM THE BROADER AGENDA OF AGRICULTURE FOR DEVELOPMENT 4HE REPORT RECOGNISES THATAGRICULTURECANPLAYANIMPORTANTROLEINMITIGATION THROUGH BETTER STEWARDSHIP OF THE NATURAL RESOURCE BASEONWHICHITDEPENDS )MPLEMENTING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES IS MORE IMPORTANT NOW THAN EVER !GRICULTURE AND FORESTRY ARE MAJOR SOURCES OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS "UT THROUGH SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES AND MANAGEMENT BOTH ALSO HAVE GREAT POTENTIAL TO MITIGATE THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE 4HIS MEANS THAT AS MANAGERS OF LAND WATER AND FORESTS POOR RURALPEOPLECOULDHAVEANIMPORTANTROLETOPLAYIN MITIGATIONMEASURES 7HILETHEMAINCONTRIBUTIONTOMITIGATIONMUSTCOME FROMREDUCINGEMISSIONSINRICHCOUNTRIES POORRURAL PEOPLE CAN CONTRIBUTE BY USING BETTER AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES AND BY NURTURING AND PROTECTING FORESTS

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

TO ABSORB CARBON DIOXIDE n SO CALLED CARBON SINKS )MPROVEDLIVESTOCKMANAGEMENTANDCROPPRACTICES COUPLEDWITHADAPTIVEMANAGEMENTOFFORESTS COULD HAVE A VERY SIGNIlCANT IMPACT !DOPTING BETTER LAND USE PRACTICES SUCH AS CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE CONSERVATIONTILLAGE AGROFORESTRY ANDREHABILITATIONOF DEGRADEDCROPANDPASTURELAND WOULDALSOHELPTO MAINTAINSIGNIlCANTAMOUNTSOFCARBONINTHESOIL

!GRICULTUREANDFORESTRYAREMAJOR SOURCESOFGREENHOUSEGAS EMISSIONS"UT THROUGHSUSTAINABLE PRACTICESANDMANAGEMENT BOTHALSO HAVEGREATPOTENTIALTOMITIGATETHE IMPACTOFCLIMATECHANGE 3OILISTHELARGESTRESERVOIROFCARBONINTHETERRESTRIAL CARBONCYCLE4HEEMERGINGMARKETSFORTRADINGCARBON EMISSIONSALSOOFFERNEWPOSSIBILITIESFORSMALLFARMERS TOBENElTFROMLANDUSESTHATSEQUESTERCARBON !FFORESTATION REFORESTATION BETTER LAND MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES CAN ALL CONTRIBUTEENORMOUSLYTOREDUCINGCARBONEMISSIONS &OR EXAMPLE THE RESTORATION OF TWO BILLION HECTARES OF DEGRADED LAND COULD COMPENSATE FOR THREE PER CENT OF GLOBAL ANNUAL CARBON EMISSIONS !VOIDING DEFORESTATION IS EVEN MORE IMPORTANT )N ,ATIN !MERICA ALONE DEFORESTATION AND CHANGING LAND USE ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR  PER CENT OF THE REGIONS GREENHOUSEGASEMISSIONS'LOBALLY DEFORESTATIONIS RESPONSIBLEFORABOUTPERCENTOFCARBONDIOXIDE EMISSIONS

0OORRURALPEOPLECANPLAYA KEYROLEINACTIVITIESTHATCOLLECTIVELY RESULTINSIGNIlCANTEMISSIONSSAVINGS "UTGOVERNMENTSANDPUBLICPOLICIES MUSTPUTTHERIGHTINCENTIVESIN PLACEFORTHISTOHAPPEN )&!$ CURRENTLY HAS REFORESTATION PROJECTS IN THE (IMALAYASAND9EMEN!N)&!$ SUPPORTEDPROGRAMME IN #HINA IS SETTING UP SOLAR POWER SYSTEMS TO HELP POOR HOUSEHOLDS GET ENERGY FROM THE ABUNDANT SUNLIGHT IN THE AREA AND A BIOGAS PROJECT IN #HINA ISTURNINGHUMANANDANIMALWASTEINTOAMIXTUREOF METHANEANDCARBONDIOXIDEGASESTHATCANBEUSED FORLIGHTINGANDCOOKING



4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

,ISTENINGTOTHEVOICESOFPOORRURALPEOPLE 0OORRURALPEOPLECANPLAYAKEYROLEINACTIVITIESTHAT COLLECTIVELYRESULTINSIGNIlCANTEMISSIONSSAVINGS"UT GOVERNMENTS AND PUBLIC POLICIES MUST PUT THE RIGHT INCENTIVES IN PLACE FOR THIS TO HAPPEN PARTICULARLY COMPENSATION AND PAYMENT FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICESPOORWORLDPEOPLEPROVIDE7ITHAPPROPRIATE ANDINNOVATIVEINCENTIVES POORFARMERS FORESTDWELLERS AND INDIGENOUS PEOPLES CAN MAKE AN IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTION TO EMISSIONS REDUCTION AND CARBON SEQUESTRATION #LIMATE CHANGE WILL AFFECT US ALL BUT IT POSES A PARTICULARRISKTODEVELOPMENTANDPOVERTYREDUCTION ANDTOTHEACHIEVEMENTOFTHE-$'S/UREFFORTSWILL BEMOREEFFECTIVEIFWERECOGNISEPOORRURALPEOPLE ASEFFECTIVECUSTODIANSOFTHENATURALRESOURCEBASE ANDENSURETHEYHAVEACCESSTOTHETECHNOLOGYAND lNANCING THEY NEED TO COPE WITH CLIMATE CHANGE ANDBEPARTOFTHESOLUTION"YLISTENINGTOTHEVOICES OFPOORRURALPEOPLEWHENPLANNINGADAPTATIONAND MITIGATION PROCESSES WE CAN REDUCE THE RISKS OF CLIMATECHANGE WHILEACCELERATINGPROGRESSTOWARDS AWORLDWITHOUTPOVERTY

,ENNART "ÍGE WAS ELECTED 0RESIDENT OF THE )NTERNATIONAL &UND FOR !GRICULTURAL $EVELOPMENT )&!$ IN  AND FOR A SECOND FOUR YEAR TERM IN  HAVING PREVIOUSLY SERVED AS #HAIRMAN OF THE 'OVERNING #OUNCIL 4HROUGHOUT HIS CAREER -R "ÍGE HAS FOCUSED ON A VARIETY OF ISSUES CENTRAL TO )&!$S MISSION FOR POVERTY REDUCTION RURAL DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL REFORM CAPACITY BUILDING ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND GENDER (E HAS NEARLY  YEARS OF EXPERIENCE IN INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND SERVED AS (EAD OF THE $EPARTMENT FOR )NTERNATIONAL$EVELOPMENT#O OPERATIONIN3WEDENS-INISTRYFOR &OREIGN!FFAIRS ANDALSOAS3WEDENS$EPUTYFORTHE)NTERNATIONAL $EVELOPMENT!SSOCIATION)$! )N -R"ÍGEWASAPPOINTED BY THE 5NITED .ATIONS 3ECRETARY 'ENERAL AS A MEMBER OF THE (IGH LEVEL0ANELON3YSTEM WIDE#OHERENCE )&!$ IS BOTH A 5. SPECIALISED AGENCY AND AN INTERNATIONAL lNANCIALINSTITUTION&ORYEARS )&!$HASPROVIDEDLOWINTEREST LOANSANDGRANTSFORINITIATIVESTHATENABLEPOORRURALPEOPLETOLIFT THEMSELVESOUTOFPOVERTY)&!$WORKSWITHPOORRURALPEOPLEAND THEIRORGANISATIONSTODEVELOPLOCALLYSPECIlCOPPORTUNITIESTHAT ENABLE THEM TO THRIVE ECONOMICALLY IN THEIR OWN COMMUNITIES )TSINITIATIVESRESPONDTOTHENEEDS PRIORITIES OPPORTUNITIESAND CONSTRAINTSIDENTIlEDBYPOORRURALPEOPLE )NTERNATIONAL&UNDFOR!GRICULTURAL$EVELOPMENT 6IADEL3ERAlCO  2OME )TALY 4EL \&AX  %MAILIFAD IFADORG\7EBSITEWWWIFADORG


Market Driven Agricultural Development As the world is seeking to promote healthy eating for both developed and under developed societies the need has arisen for an organization to research global markets and identify suitable agricultural products and the regions suitable for their production. Market research has shown that specific fruits in their various forms best meet these needs while providing profitable farming prospects for farmers, entrepreneurs and government driven agricultural projects. Alternafruit is a company capable of doing the necessary research thus enabling it to identify 1products, 2varieties, 3 production regions, 4value adding opportunities and 5markets and consequently the following key principles have been put in place by Alternafruit:         

Availability of suitable Varieties and plant propagation material A world class Nursery Formation of Grower Clubs Industry enabling infrastructure Technical Support and Training capacity Research and Development capacity Market Access and compliance systems Value Adding and Processing technology Effective Marketing Strategy with distribution and sales capacity

Alternafruit from the outset has developed the fig and pomegranate industry in South Africa in conjunction with a professional group of experienced fruit farmers, now all members of the Alternafruit Growers’ Association. The Alternafruit varieties of figs and pomegranates are very lucrative crops that are successfully cultivated by our grower base and also provide excellent potential for down stream investment and value adding. The company has further developed a spread of profitable fruit alternatives and has a whole range of new fruit varieties under evaluation, ranging from Sapota and Pitaya to Loquat and Ziziphus. The production and processing of specialty dried fruit, nuts and processed dried fruit products are also proving to provide lucrative alternatives. Effective industry structures are paramount to achieving these goals and therefore Alternafruit is also actively involved in the management of industry functions and frameworks for Integrated Pest Management, Good Agricultural Practice and Global Market Access.

“New niche products with high health properties are the future, not only amongst the world’s consumers, but also amongst growers who are diversifying away from commodity varieties of which the values have been steadily dropping in recent years.” The Alternafruit Managing Director, Johan van Niekerk (B. Comm. Agricultural Economy), who is an experienced grape grower himself, recognized these pertinent facts when he joined the set up of the company in South Africa. “The company mission is, to maximize the profitability of our growers and to honour all our commitments”. The Alternafruit team is fully competent to serve existing and prospective clients. The management comprises of experts in the fields of Marketing, Agricultural Economy, Horticulture, Botany, Microbiology and Entomology.

Alternafruit (Pty) Ltd can be found at the following address: Alternafruit SA Schoongezicht House 52 Main Road PAARL 7620 South Africa

www.alternafruit.co.za johan@alternafruit.co.za +27 21 863 0661 (Tel) +27 21 863 0714 (Fax) +27 83 456 2323 (Mobile)


.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

*OACHIMVON"RAUN $IRECTOR'ENERAL )NTERNATIONAL&OOD0OLICY 2ESEARCH)NSTITUTE)&02)

)NVESTINGINAGRICULTURALGROWTH ANDRURALSOCIALPROTECTIONTHE KEYTOREDUCINGPOVERTY 2APID ECONOMIC GROWTH IN MANY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND AGRICULTURAL GROWTH IN PARTICULAR HAS ADVANCED GLOBAL PROGRESS IN REDUCING POVERTY AND HUNGER "UT EVEN GROWTH THAT REDUCES POVERTY HAS ITS LIMITS IN REACHING AND INCLUDING EXTREMELY POOR AND HUNGRY PEOPLE %SPECIALLY IN ENVIRONMENTS OF HIGH INEQUALITY AND POOR GOVERNANCE GROWTH OFTEN DOES LITTLE TOIMPROVETHELIVELIHOODSOFTHOSEATTHEBOTTOM OFTHEINCOMESCALE!NDWHILEGROWTHISKEYTO CUTTING POVERTY INITIALLY ITS POWER TO REDUCE POVERTYANDTHEDANGERSTOHUMANWELL BEINGn SUCHASCHILDHOODMALNUTRITIONANDPREVENTABLE DISEASES n DIMINISHES AS POVERTY REDUCTION PROGRESSES 4O MOVE FROM THE RELATIVE GOAL OF CUTTING THE PROPORTIONS OF POVERTY AND HUNGER IN HALF TOWARD COMPLETELY ENDING HUNGER AND FURTHERREDUCINGPOVERTYQUICKLYREQUIRESANEW SETOFACTIONS

)N   COUNTRIES n MANY OF THEM MEMBERS OF THE #OMMONWEALTH n ADOPTED THE EIGHT -ILLENNIUM $EVELOPMENT'OALSTHATSETTARGETSFORCUTTINGPOVERTY AND HUNGER IN HALF BETWEEN  THE CHOSEN BASE YEAR AND!LTHOUGHTHATPARTICULARGOALMIGHTVERY WELLBEACHIEVEDATTHEGLOBALLEVEL ATLEASTMILLION PEOPLE WILL STILL BE LEFT IN POVERTY AND  MILLION WILL REMAINHUNGRY 4HIS INTRANSIGENT POVERTY CALLS FOR TWO MAIN POLICY RESPONSES &IRST THERE IS A NEED TO SEEK THE KIND OF GROWTH THAT WILL BRING BENElTS TO THE POOREST PEOPLE !TTENTIONTOAGRICULTUREISCRITICALINTHISREGARD3ECOND THERE IS A NEED FOR ADDITIONAL ACTION INCLUDING SOCIAL PROTECTION POLICIES THAT WILL IMPROVE LIVING STANDARDS FOR THOSE PEOPLE WHO ARE NOT IN A POSITION TO TAKE ADVANTAGEOFTHEBENElTSOFGROWTHnTHEYOUNGESTAND OLDEST THE SICK AND DISABLED ETHNIC MINORITIES AND OTHERVULNERABLEGROUPS"UTISITFEASIBLETOREACHTHE POOREST)FSO WHATISTHEBESTMIXOFPOLICIESFORGROWTH 0OOR+ENYANFAMILYIN FRONTOFTHEIRHOME ¥-ICHAEL 2UBINSTEIN)&02)

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

AND SOCIAL PROTECTION IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES 7HAT KINDS OF STRATEGIES POLICIES AND INTERVENTIONS HAVE BEENSUCCESSFULINREACHINGTHEPOORESTPEOPLE

4HECHANGINGDYNAMICSOFPOVERTY )N GENERAL GLOBAL POVERTY IS DECLINING BOTH AS A SHARE OF THE POPULATION AND IN ABSOLUTE TERMS WITH THE GREATEST PROGRESS IN %AST !SIA AND THE 0ACIlC %CONOMICGROWTHHASCERTAINLYPLAYEDANIMPORTANTROLE IN POVERTY REDUCTION IN SEVERAL COUNTRIES SINCE  BUT ITS RESULTS HAVE BEEN MIXED BETWEEN COUNTRIES AND BETWEEN POPULATION GROUPS WITHIN COUNTRIES (OW ARE THE FORCES OF URBANISATION AND GLOBALISATION AFFECTING THE POOREST PEOPLE $O THESE FORCES OFFER THE PROMISE OF IMPROVED LIVELIHOODS !LTHOUGH THE URBAN SHARE OF THE POOR HAS BEEN INCREASING URBAN AREAS ARE NOT LIKELY TO BE THE MAIN LOCUS OF POVERTY ANY TIME SOON 3EVENTY lVE PER CENT OF THE POOR IN DEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESCONTINUETOLIVEINRURALAREAS AS DOTHEBULKOFTHEWORLDSEXTREMELYPOORPEOPLE

4HEPOORESTPOPULATIONSCONTINUE TOLIVEINGEOGRAPHICALLYADVERSEOR REMOTEAREAS OFTENINCOUNTRIESWITH POORGOVERNANCEANDCIVILCONmICT 4HELINKSBETWEENGLOBALISATIONANDPOVERTYREDUCTION AREMIXED'LOBALISATIONTAKESPLACEINTHREEKEYAREAS n  MARKETS AND TRADE  INVESTMENT AND CAPITAL mOWS AND  INFORMATION AND INNOVATION n AND EACH HAS MIXED IMPLICATIONS FOR POVERTY %VIDENCE SHOWS FORINSTANCE THATLIBERALISEDTRADEINCREASESPOVERTYIN NON AGRICULTURALANDWAGE DEPENDENTHOUSEHOLDSAND REDUCESPOVERTYINAGRICULTURE DEPENDENTHOUSEHOLDS 7HERETHEWORLDS POORnLIVINGONLESS THANADAYnLIVED INAND



4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

4HE IMPACT OF FOREIGN INVESTMENT ON POOR PEOPLE IS ALSOMIXED)NTHELABOUR INTENSIVESECTOR FOREXAMPLE FOREIGNDIRECTINVESTMENTDECREASESPOVERTY WHEREAS INTHECAPITAL ANDKNOWLEDGE INTENSIVESECTOR FOREIGN DIRECTINVESTMENTTENDSTOINCREASEPOVERTY

4HEWIDENINGDIVIDE %VIDENCESUGGESTSTHATTHEPOORESTPEOPLEAREBEING LEFT BEHIND ! RECENT )&02) STUDY OF EXTREME POVERTY CATEGORISESTHEPOORINTOTHREEGROUPS °4HE@SUBJACENTPOORnPEOPLELIVINGONBETWEENONE DOLLARANDTHREE QUARTERSOFADOLLARADAY °4HE@MEDIALPOORnPEOPLELIVINGONBETWEENTHREE QUARTERSANDHALFADOLLARADAY AND °4HE @ULTRA POOR n PEOPLE LIVING ON LESS THAN HALF A DOLLARADAY /F THE  MILLION PEOPLE LIVING ON LESS THAN 53 A DAY IN  HALF WERE SUBJACENT POOR ONE THIRD WERE MEDIALPOOR ANDPERCENTWEREULTRAPOOR-OSTOFTHE SUBJACENTANDMEDIALPOORPEOPLELIVEIN3OUTH!SIA BUT THREE QUARTERSOFALLULTRAPOORLIVEINSUB 3AHARAN!FRICA 4HE NUMBER OF POOR PEOPLE IN ALL CATEGORIES IS DECREASING BUTTHENUMBEROFTHEULTRAPOORDECREASED BYLESSTHANITWOULDHAVEIFEVERYONEHADBENElTEDFROM GROWTHEQUALLY!NDALTHOUGHTHEWELFAREOFULTRAPOOR PEOPLEIMPROVEDINSOMEINDIVIDUALCOUNTRIESBETWEEN ANDIN"ANGLADESH FOREXAMPLE THEULTRA POORFAREDBETTERTHANTHEYWOULDHAVEHADALLTHOSE BELOWTHEDOLLAR A DAYLINEFAREDEQUALLY THESHAREOF THEULTRAPOORINTHEPOPULATIONINSUB 3AHARAN!FRICA AND,ATIN!MERICAOVERALLACTUALLYROSE)N.IGERIA FOR EXAMPLE ALTHOUGHPOVERTYRATESINCREASEDINALLTHREE CATEGORIESOVERTHOSEYEARS THEREWASASUBSTANTIAL INCREASE IN ULTRA POVERTY )N CONTRAST ULTRA POVERTY FELL REMARKABLY IN :AMBIA WHILE SUBJACENT AND MEDIAL POVERTYBECAMEMOREPREVALENT


.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

4HE POOREST POPULATIONS CONTINUE TO LIVE IN GEOGRAPHICALLY ADVERSE OR REMOTE AREAS OFTEN IN COUNTRIES WITH POOR GOVERNANCE AND CIVIL CONmICT 7OMEN ORPHANS THE ELDERLY AND CHILDREN WHO INHERITED POVERTY ARE AMONG THE MOST VULNERABLE GROUPS 5NEXPECTED ADVERSE EVENTS ILL HEALTH AND DISABILITY ANDWEATHERANDECONOMICSHOCKSARELINKED TO SEVERE DEPRIVATION 0OOR AND HUNGRY PEOPLE ALSO OWNFEWERASSETSINCLUDINGLAND HAVELIMITEDACCESS TOCREDITMARKETS ANDAREOFTENEXCLUDEDFROMSOCIAL NETWORKSANDPOLITICALPOWER4HESOCIALANDECONOMIC EXCLUSIONOFCERTAINGROUPSOFPEOPLESUCHASETHNIC MINORITIES OR UNREGISTERED URBAN MIGRANTS IS ALSO A CAUSEOFPERSISTENTPOVERTYAMONGTHESEGROUPS

.EWRISKSANDCHALLENGES )N ADDITION TO PERSISTENT POVERTY AND HUNGER POLICYMAKERS IN MANY #OMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES ARE BEINGCONFRONTEDBYINCREASINGLYCOMPLEXCHALLENGES ARISINGSIMULTANEOUSLY INCLUDINGGLOBALISATION CLIMATE CHANGE AND CHANGES IN ENERGY PRICES !T THE SAME TIME POOR PEOPLE ARE FACING MULTIPLE NEW RISKS RISINGFOODPRICESANDCOSTSOFACCESSTOSAFEWATER THREATS TO HEALTH AND THE LOSS OF TRADITIONAL SOCIAL PROTECTION BASED ON FAMILY AND COMMUNITY IN THE CONTEXT OF RURAL URBAN CHANGE 4HESE RISKS LEAD TO ENORMOUS STRESSES ON POOR POPULATIONS AND MORE mUCTUATIONSINANDOUTOFPOVERTY $ESPITETHESIGNIlCANT POSITIVEPOTENTIALOFBIOENERGY FOR EXAMPLE BIOFUELS ALSO POSE RISKS AND CHALLENGES FOR POOR PEOPLE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES )NCREASED PRODUCTION OF ENERGY CROPS IN RESPONSE TO RISING OIL PRICESHASTHEPOTENTIALTOEXACERBATESOCIOECONOMIC INEQUALITIES BY CONCENTRATING BENElTS ON THE WELL OFF -OREIMPORTANTLY BIOFUELSCOULDINCREASEFOODPRICES

TO REDUCE POVERTY DRASTICALLY AND ELIMINATE HUNGER ESPECIALLY WHEN THE WORLDS POOREST AND HUNGRIEST PEOPLEAREBEINGLEFTBEHIND4HESEPILLARSnPROMOTING RURAL AND AGRICULTURAL GROWTH THAT BRINGS BENElTS TO THE POOREST PEOPLE AND ENHANCING SOCIAL PROTECTION MEASURES n ARE BOTH MORE NECESSARY AND MORE FEASIBLETHANEVERBEFORE

)TISNOWMORECRUCIALTHANEVER TOPURSUEATWO PILLAREDSTRATEGY TOREDUCEPOVERTYDRASTICALLYAND ELIMINATEHUNGER PROMOTINGRURALAND AGRICULTURALGROWTHTHATBRINGSBENElTS TOTHEPOORESTPEOPLE ANDENHANCING SOCIALPROTECTIONMEASURES 7HY SHOULD THESE POLICIES BE ANY EASIER TO IMPLEMENT TODAYTHANTHEYHAVEBEENINTHEPAST-ANYDEVELOPING COUNTRIESHAVEACHIEVEDIMPRESSIVELEVELSOFWEALTHAND IMPROVEDTHEIRCAPACITYTOIMPLEMENTPOLICIESTHROUGH DECENTRALISATION AND OTHER REFORMS .EW INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES NEWINSTITUTIONS ANDNEWPARTNERSLIKE THEPRIVATESECTORANDNON GOVERNMENTALORGANISATIONS ARE BECOMING INCREASINGLY INTERESTED IN AND INVOLVED WITH DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND THE DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY4HEROLEOFTHEPRIVATESECTORINASSISTINGTHE POORCANALSOEXPANDnBYCREATINGFORMSOFHEALTH LIFE ORWEATHERINSURANCEPROGRAMMES FOREXAMPLE WHICH COULDBEPARTIALLYlNANCEDBYGOVERNMENTSORDONORS )NADDITION ADVANCEMENTSINSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGY CAN ADDRESS MICRONUTRIENT MALNUTRITION THROUGH CROP TECHNOLOGYANDOTHERFORTIlCATIONINTERVENTIONS !LTHOUGH THERE IS INCREASING INFORMATION ON WHO AND WHEREPOORPEOPLEARE WHATCHALLENGESTHEYFACE AND HOWTHEYMOVEINANDOUTOFPOVERTY MORERESEARCH AND KNOWLEDGE WOULD HELP POLICYMAKERS IDENTIFY THE MOST APPROPRIATE POLICIES IN COMPLEX AND CHANGING CIRCUMSTANCES

#OMMONWEALTHCOUNTRIESAREBEING CONFRONTEDBYINCREASINGLYCOMPLEX CHALLENGESARISINGSIMULTANEOUSLY INCLUDINGGLOBALISATION CLIMATECHANGE 4HEWAYFORWARDINCLUSIVERURALGROWTH ANDCHANGESINENERGYPRICES ANDENHANCEDSOCIALPROTECTION !CCORDING TO RECENT )&02) ANALYSES SUCH PRICE INCREASES COULD RANGE BETWEEN  AND  PER CENT FOR VARIOUS CROPS GIVEN CURRENT PLANS FOR BIOFUELS PRODUCTION !GGRESSIVE GROWTH IN BIOFUELS HOWEVER COULDLEADTOEVENGREATERPRICEINCREASES"Y PRICESFORGRAINCROPSCOULDINCREASEBYTOPER CENT OVER AND ABOVE OTHER CAUSES FOR PRICE HIKES 3UCHPRICEINCREASESWOULDPOSEDIFlCULTIESFORMANY OF THE ONE BILLION POOR PEOPLE IN THE WORLD WHO EARN ONLYADOLLARADAYANDTYPICALLYSPENDTOCENTS OFTHATDOLLARONFOOD

7HATDIRECTIONFORPOLICY 7ITH THESE NEW COMPLEX CHALLENGES IT IS NOW MORE CRUCIAL THAN EVER TO PURSUE A TWO PILLARED STRATEGY

-ANYCOUNTRIESTHATEXPERIENCEDSIGNIlCANTECONOMIC GROWTHINRECENTYEARSHAVEFOUNDTHATTHEOPPORTUNITIES AND BENElTS WERE UNEVENLY DISTRIBUTED )N ADDITION MANY OTHER COUNTRIES SUCH AS AGRARIAN ECONOMIES IN SUB 3AHARAN !FRICA HAVE NOT ACHIEVED THE LEVELS OF GROWTH THAT CAN PULL LARGE PROPORTIONS OF THEIR CITIZENSOUTOFPOVERTY'ROWTHMUSTNOWBEDIRECTED IN WAYS THAT BENElT THE POOREST PEOPLE BY FOCUSING ONAGRICULTUREANDRURALDEVELOPMENT ASWELLASSOCIAL PROTECTION ASMENTIONEDABOVE &IRST AGRICULTURALGROWTHTHATBENElTSPOORPEOPLEMORE THAN GROWTH IN OTHER SECTORS SHOULD BE ACCELERATED 3CIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AND RURAL INFRASTRUCTURE CAN PLAY KEY ROLES "UT POOR SMALL SCALE FARMERS CANNOT JUMP START AGRICULTURAL GROWTH ON THEIR OWN 4O HELP FARMERS EMERGE FROM POVERTY GOVERNMENTS NEED

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

TO IMPROVE INFRASTRUCTURE AND EDUCATION DISTRIBUTE TECHNOLOGIES AND INPUTS AND PROMOTE PRODUCER AND MARKETING ORGANISATIONS THAT LINK SMALLHOLDER FARMERS TO NEW MARKET CHAINS 0RO POOR PUBLIC INVESTMENT RESEARCHAT)&02)SHOWSTHATTOACHIEVEHIGHERGROWTH AND POVERTY REDUCTION GOVERNMENTS SHOULD INVEST MOREINRESEARCHANDDEVELOPMENT EDUCATION HEALTH ANDINFRASTRUCTURE 3ECOND SOCIAL PROTECTION MUST BE IMPROVED AND INTEGRATEDINTOOTHERFORMSOFPUBLICACTIONTOCONFRONT UNACCEPTABLY HIGH LEVELS OF DEPRIVATION AND RISK 3OCIAL AND CULTURAL VALUES HAVE TRADITIONALLY PLACED THEPRIMARYRESPONSIBILITYOFSOCIALPROTECTIONONFAMILY AND ON COMMUNITY TIES 7HILE PUBLIC POLICIES SHOULD COMPLEMENT RATHER THAN SUBSTITUTE INFORMAL SOCIAL PROTECTION ARRANGEMENTS THE MAGNITUDE AND SEVERITY OFNEWTYPESOFSHOCKSSUCHASHEALTHANDECONOMIC RISKSARISINGFROMAVIANINmUENZAAND()6!)$3GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND ARMED CONmICTS HAVE REVEALED THE LIMITATIONS OF INFORMAL INTERVENTIONS AND THE NEED FOR STRENGTHENING PUBLIC AND MARKET BASED SOCIAL PROTECTIONMECHANISMS

0OLICYMAKERSINBOTHDEVELOPED ANDDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESSHOULD REMEMBERTHATPOVERTYANDHUNGER REPRESENTHUMANMISERYONAN ENORMOUSSCALE 3OCIAL PROTECTION POLICIES MAY INCLUDE SOCIAL SAFETY NETS SUCH AS CONDITIONAL TRANSFER AND PUBLIC WORKS PROGRAMMES HEALTH INSURANCE AND SOCIAL SECURITY )N TERMS OF PUBLIC WORKS PROGRAMMES )NDIA HAS SET A SUCCESSFUL EXAMPLE 4HE %MPLOYMENT 'UARANTEE 3CHEME INITIATEDININTHESTATEOF-AHARASHTRA HASBEENSUCCESSFULINEMPLOYINGTHEPOOR ESPECIALLY POORWOMEN ANDHASPROVIDEDPUBLICGOODSSUCHAS IRRIGATIONINFRASTRUCTUREANDRURALROADSASWELL4HISCALL FORRAPIDEXPANSIONOFSUCHPOLICIESINOTHERDEVELOPING #OMMONWEALTHCOUNTRIESISBASEDNOTONLYONAMORAL IMPERATIVE BUTALSOONECONOMICEFlCIENCY)MPROVING THE LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS OF THE POOREST PEOPLE IS AN INVESTMENTTHATWILLALLOWTHEMTOBECOMEPRODUCTIVE PARTICIPANTSINTHEECONOMICLIFEOFTHEIRCOUNTRIES "UTITISNOTSUFlCIENTTOPROVIDESAFETYNETSTOENSURE PRO POOR GROWTH ! DUAL APPROACH THAT IS ADJUSTED TO COUNTRY CIRCUMSTANCES IS NEEDED WHERE POOR PEOPLE ARE SUPPORTED BY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES SUCH AS INVESTING IN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH PROVIDING QUALITY EDUCATION ENHANCING HEALTHCARE FACILITIES AND IMPROVING TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE 'OVERNMENT INTERVENTIONS SHOULD BE INTEGRATED COORDINATED AND



4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

SUPPORTEDBYGOODGOVERNANCEPRACTICES4HEYSHOULD ALSO BE TAILORED TO MEET THE DIFFERENT NEEDS OF POOR PEOPLEINDIFFERENTSITUATIONS#HRONICALLYPOORPEOPLE MAY NEED ACCESSIBLE LABOUR MARKETS WHILE PEOPLE WHO ARE NEWLY POOR MAY NEED HEALTH SERVICES AND HOUSING FOREXAMPLE 5LTIMATELY EXPANDINGSOCIALPROTECTIONANDGENERATING PRO POOR INCLUSIVE GROWTH MUST NOT BE SEEN AS TWO SEPARATEANDEXCLUSIVEAPPROACHES BUTASSYNERGISTIC STRATEGIES#URRENTLY THESOCIALPROTECTIONCOMPONENT OFTHISDUALSTRATEGYISUNDERVALUEDINMANYCOUNTRIES ANDISPHASEDINTOOLATE"UTPEOPLEWHOLIVEHEALTHY AND PRODUCTIVE LIVES CAN CONTRIBUTE TO NATIONAL ECONOMIC GROWTH AND WELFARE 2ESEARCH HAS SHOWN THATINTERVENTIONSTOIMPROVECHILDHOODNUTRITIONPAYOFF ININCREASEDLIFETIMEEARNINGS!TTHESAMETIME PRO POOR GROWTH CAN DIRECTLY AND INDIRECTLY IMPROVE THE LIVESANDLIVELIHOODSOFPOORPEOPLE !S POLICYMAKERS IN BOTH DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES OF THE #OMMONWEALTH CONSIDER THEIR POLICY OPTIONS THEY SHOULD REMEMBER THAT POVERTY AND HUNGER REPRESENT HUMAN MISERY ON AN ENORMOUS SCALE4HETIMEHASCOMETOTAKENEWTYPESOFACTION ANDONALARGESCALE7ITHEFFECTIVE CONCERTEDACTION POLICYMAKERS THROUGHOUT THE #OMMONWEALTH CAN ACHIEVE THEIR COMMON GOAL OF REDUCING POVERTY AND HUNGERINDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES PARTICULARLYAMONGTHE VERYPOORESTPEOPLE

*OACHIMVON"RAUNIS$IRECTOR'ENERALOFTHE)NTERNATIONAL&OOD 0OLICY2ESEARCH)NSTITUTE)&02) WHEREHEGUIDESANDOVERSEES THE )NSTITUTES EFFORTS TO PROVIDE RESEARCH BASED SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONSFORENDINGHUNGERANDMALNUTRITION(EHASPUBLISHED RESEARCH ON INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS TOPICS INCLUDING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ON POLICY ISSUES RELATING TO TRADEANDAID EMPLOYMENT HEALTH ANDNUTRITIONANDONAWIDE RANGEOFAGRICULTURALECONOMICSISSUES 4HE )NTERNATIONAL &OOD 0OLICY 2ESEARCH )NSTITUTE )&02) SEEKS SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS FOR ENDING HUNGER AND POVERTY )&02) IS ONE OF  CENTRES SUPPORTED BY THE #ONSULTATIVE 'ROUP ON )NTERNATIONAL!GRICULTURAL2ESEARCH ANALLIANCEOFGOVERNMENTS PRIVATEFOUNDATIONS ANDINTERNATIONALANDREGIONALORGANISATIONS THATMOBILISESSCIENCETOBENElTTHEPOOR )&02) +3TREET .7 7ASHINGTON $# 53! 4EL  &AX  %MAILIFPRI CGIARORG 7EBSITEWWWIFPRIORG


.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

$R$AVID*3INGH $IRECTOR'ENERAL )WOKRAMA)NTERNATIONAL#ENTRE

3USTAINABLETOURISMOPPORTUNITIES FORDEVELOPMENTINTHE #OMMONWEALTH 4OURISM PLAYS AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN A GLOBALISED WORLD BY BRINGING PEOPLE AND CULTURES CLOSER TOGETHER 7ITH INCREASING ACCESSIBILITY AND EASE OF MOVEMENT ACROSS CONTINENTS AND CULTURES THE TOURISM MARKET HAS EXPANDED TO MEET THE BURGEONING NUMBER OF VISITORS AND EXPANDED IN RANGE TO RESPOND TO WIDER INTERESTS OF TRAVELLERS4HISISMANIFESTEDINBIGGERANDBETTER ACCOMMODATION ANDTHEEXPANSIONOFTOURISMTO LESSERKNOWNREGIONSOFTHEWORLD!STHERANGE OFDESTINATIONSGROWS ANDPEOPLEBECOMEMORE DISCRIMINATING THE URGE TO lND AND EXPERIENCE THE UNIQUE AND DIFFERENT AND ONE OF A KIND IS PLACINGAGREATERDEMANDONTOURISTDESTINATIONS TOFULlLTHESESPECIALINTERESTS)NTHISARTICLETHE AUTHORMAKESAPLEAFORCREATIVEANDSUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENTOFTOURISMRESOURCES BASEDONTHE EXPERIENCEOFTHE)WOKRAMA)NTERNATIONAL#ENTRE 'UYANAMARKETSITSTOURISMPRODUCTASTHE@LASTFRONTIER ANDAPARADISEFORNATURELOVERS4OURISTADVERTISEMENTS CALLVISITORSTOTHELASTUNTOUCHEDWILDERNESSESOFTHE WORLD "UT UNIQUENESS AND DIFFERENCE ARE NOT OFTEN ASSOCIATEDWITHTHEHOMOGENEITYANDACCESSIBILITYTHAT GLOBALISATIONFOSTERS7HILETHE(ILTONSANDTHE3ANDALS OFTHEWORLDWILLCONTINUETOATTRACTACERTAINSECTIONOF THEMARKET AGROWINGPORTIONOFTHETOURISMMARKETIS NOW OPTING FOR A PRODUCT WHERE ONE CAN PARTICIPATE ORBEIMMERSEDINANENVIRONMENTWITHADISTINCTIVELY DIFFERENTSOCIALANDCULTURALFORM

4HEINDIRECTCOSTSOFTOURISM 7HATDOINCREASEDACCESSANDGREATERVISITORARRIVALS MEAN FOR COUNTRIES OF THE #OMMONWEALTH MANY OF WHICH ARE SMALL DEVELOPING AND VULNERABLE 4HESE COUNTRIESAREOFTENCAUGHTINACYCLEOFPOVERTYDRIVEN BYTHENATUREOFTHEIRECONOMIES BUILTONTHEEXTRACTION OF NATURAL RESOURCES OR PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS ANDSERVICES)NMANYOFTHESECOUNTRIES TOURISMISAN IMPORTANTCONTRIBUTORTOTHE'$0 BUTATAGREATCOSTTO THEENVIRONMENTANDSOCIALSTRUCTUREINTHECOUNTRY 4HE MOST COMMON INDICATOR OF TOURISM BUSINESS THE NUMBER OF VISITORS TO A COUNTRY IS NO LONGER AN 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

4HEUNIQUE IDENTITYOFTHE INDIGENOUS PEOPLESOF 'UYANAIS ALLOWEDTO HARMONISE WITHTHENEW TECHNOLOGIES OFMODERN CONSERVATION TECHNIQUES

APPROPRIATELITMUSTESTANDDRIVERFORTHETOURISMINDUSTRY INTHECOUNTRIESOFTHE#OMMONWEALTH3MALLCOUNTRIES NOW PLAY HOST TO SEVERAL TIMES THEIR POPULATIONS IN VISITORS PER YEAR #RUISE SHIPS BRING SEVERAL MILLION VISITORSTOTHE#ARIBBEAN ATLESSTHANONE TENTHOFTHE VALUEPERPERSONCOMPAREDWITHOTHERTYPESOFVISITOR 7E MUST BECOME INCREASINGLY CONSCIOUS OF THE INDIRECT COSTS TO OUR COUNTRIES WITH THE INmUX OF SUCH VAST NUMBERS OF VISITORS 4ODAY EMPHASIS MUST NOW SHIFT TO THE NET BALANCE BETWEEN REVENUE AND THE TOURISM IMPACT 4HE FOOTPRINT OF TOURISM MUST INCLUDE THECUMULATIVEENVIRONMENTALANDSOCIALIMPACTS AND THECAPACITYOFTHESOCIALANDECOSYSTEMTOWITHSTAND ANDABSORBINCREASINGLYLARGENUMBERSOFTOURISTS )N MANY RESPECTS THE TOURISM INDUSTRY THAT WE ARE FAMILIAR WITH IS NO DIFFERENT FROM THE SUGAR PLANTATION SYSTEM THAT IT HAS FOLLOWED n EXTRACTIVE AND LABOUR INTENSIVE WHERE THE VALUE IS EXPORTED OUT OF THE COUNTRY THROUGH VISITOR SATISFACTION LEAVING BEHIND A STRESSEDINFRASTRUCTURE AHEAVILYIMPACTEDECOSYSTEM ANDASOCIALSYSTEMTHATCANNOTREVIVEITSELFBEFORETHE NEXTWAVEOFTOURISTSARRIVE

3OCIALRESPONSIBILITY "UT WE MUST SEE AN ALTERNATIVE EVEN WHEN WE ACKNOWLEDGE THAT THERE MUST BE A CRITICAL VOLUME OF VISITORS BEFORE TOURISM WORKS 0ERHAPS WE ARE NOT


.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

4HE)WOKRAMA PROGRAMMEIS GLOBALLYUNIQUE BYBLENDING LOCALPEOPLES ANDCULTURES WITHSOUND CONSERVATION PRACTICESAND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

4HE SAME CAN BE SAID FOR THE PRESERVATION OF SOCIO CULTURAL SYSTEMS IN COMMUNITIES 6ISITORS SHOULD BE ENCOURAGED TO MAKE CONTRIBUTIONS TOWARDS THE PRESERVATIONOFTHECULTURALHERITAGEANDENHANCEMENT OFSOCIALSYSTEMS&ORTHISREASON COMMUNITYTOURISM ORCULTURALHERITAGETOURISM OUGHTTOFETCHAPREMIUM PRICE )NAWAY GLOBALISATIONHASPROVIDEDTHE#OMMONWEALTH WITHANOPPORTUNITYTHROUGHINCREASINGKNOWLEDGEAND AWARENESSOFEACHOTHERANDOURENVIRONMENT4HISIS ANOPPORTUNITYFORADDINGVALUETOOURTOURISMPRODUCT ENSURING THAT PEOPLE CAN COME AND EXPERIENCE FAR MORETHANSEA SUNANDSAND4HEYSHOULDCOMEAND PARTICIPATE IN THE LIFE AND CULTURE OF A SPECIAL PEOPLE WHILST ENSURING THAT FUTURE GENERATIONS MAY ENJOY SUCHANEXPERIENCE FULLY APPRECIATIVE OF THE CHANGING FACE OF TOURISM CATERING FOR THAT PART OF THE MARKET THAT MAXIMISES REVENUES WHILE MINIMISING ITS IMPACT ON OUR SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL STRUCTURES 4HERE IS THE EMERGING SENSEOFSOCIALRESPONSIBILITYREmECTEDINTHECHARTERS OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY THAT ARE IN VOGUE ANDANINCREASINGCONSCIOUSNESSOFTHEENVIRONMENT ESPECIALLYGLOBALWARMINGANDOTHERIMPACTSOFCLIMATE CHANGE !S WE CONSIDER THE NATURE AND INTERESTS OF POTENTIAL VISITORS THESE NEW AND EMERGING VALUE SYSTEMS SHOULD BE FACTORED INTO HOW OUR TOURISM PRODUCTS ARE MARKETED AND HOW WE CAN ADD MORE VALUE TO THESE PRODUCTS 4HE PRESERVATION OF SOCIAL STRUCTURES PROTECTION OF OUR ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES ANDVULNERABILITYTOCLIMATECHANGEAREKEYPARAMETERS WHICHMAYFORMANIMPORTANTNICHEOPPORTUNITYFORUS INTHENEARFUTURE

!CONTRIBUTORYMODEL 4HEREISASYNERGYBETWEENTHEDESIREFORAVISITORTO HAVE UNIQUE DIFFERENT AND ONE OF A KIND EXPERIENCE ANDTHEDESIREFORPEOPLEOFSMALLDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES TO PROTECT THEIR IDENTITIES THEIR CULTURE SOCIAL NORMS ANDENVIRONMENTALASSETS4HETREASURESTHATWEHAVE FORNOWSHOULDNOTBECASUALTIES CAUGHTINTHECROSS HAIRSOFINCREASEDMARKETACCESS)NDEEDTHESESHOULD FORMTHEASSETBASETOBEVALUEDANDPAIDFORINRETURN FOR VISITOR SATISFACTION )N TIME TO COME WE NEED TO HAVEATOURISMPRODUCTTHATOFFERSTOVISITORSACHANCE FOR THEM TO CONTRIBUTE TO THE PROTECTION OF OUR SOCIO CULTURALIDENTITY TOENVIRONMENTALPROTECTION TOCARBON SEQUESTRATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION THUS ENSURINGTHATTHEYDEPARTOURSHORESHAVINGCONTRIBUTED TOTHEPROTECTIONANDSUSTAINABLEMANAGEMENTOFOUR NATURALANDHUMANRESOURCES7ITHSUCHASYSTEM WE WOULDREDUCETHEASSETSTRIPPINGUNCONSCIOUSLYBEING CARRIEDOUTTODAY ! SIMPLE EXAMPLE OF THIS LIES IN PROGRAMMES THAT ALLOW FOR ORGANISATIONS CONFERENCES AND PEOPLE TO BE @CARBON NEUTRAL /RGANISATIONS ARE NOW INVESTING IN CARBON SEQUESTRATION PROJECTS THAT BALANCE THEIR CARBON EMISSIONS "Y TRANSLATION COUNTRIES OF THE #OMMONWEALTHTHATHAVECARBONSINKPOTENTIALSUCHAS FORESTRESOURCESCANTHEREFOREUSETHESEOPPORTUNITIES FORTOURISTSTONEUTRALISETHEIRCARBONEMISSIONS

$AVID * 3INGH 0H$ WAS APPOINTED $IRECTOR 'ENERAL OF THE )WOKRAMA)NTERNATIONAL#ENTREIN*ANUARY(EISANATURAL RESOURCEMANAGEMENTPRACTITIONEREXPERIENCEDINORGANISATIONAL CAPACITY BUILDING POLICY ANALYSIS QUALITY CONTROL SYSTEMS AND ESTABLISHING ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS )N HIS PREVIOUS CAPACITY AS)WOKRAMAS$IRECTOROF2ESOURCE-ANAGEMENTAND4RAINING $R3INGHWASRESPONSIBLEFORTHEEFFECTIVERESOURCEMANAGEMENT OF THE )WOKRAMA &OREST AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE )WOKRAMA #ENTRE AS AN INTERNATIONAL #ENTRE OF %XCELLENCE FOR TRAINING "EFORE JOINING )WOKRAMA $R 3INGH SERVED AS THE $IRECTOR OF THE %NVIRONMENTAL -ANAGEMENT $IVISION OF THE 'UYANA %NVIRONMENTAL0ROTECTION!GENCY!NATIVEOF'UYANA $R3INGH HOLDSA"3CDEGREEFROMTHE5NIVERSITYOF'UYANA ANDA0H$ DEGREEFROM4EMPLE5NIVERSITYIN0HILADELPHIA 53! 4HE )WOKRAMA )NTERNATIONAL #ENTRE FOR 2AINFOREST #ONSERVATION AND$EVELOPMENTISAJOINTPROGRAMMEBETWEENTHE'OVERNMENT OF'UYANAANDTHE#OMMONWEALTH3ECRETARIAT 4HE MISSION OF THE )WOKRAMA )NTERNATIONAL #ENTRE FOR 2AIN &OREST #ONSERVATION AND $EVELOPMENT INCLUDES hPROMOTING THE CONSERVATION AND THE SUSTAINABLE AND EQUITABLE USE OF TROPICALRAINFORESTSINAMANNERTHATLEADSTOLASTINGECOLOGICAL ECONOMIC ANDSOCIALBENElTSTOTHEPEOPLEOF'UYANAANDTO THEWORLDINGENERAL BYUNDERTAKINGRESEARCH TRAINING ANDTHE DEVELOPMENTANDDISSEMINATIONOFTECHNOLOGIESv )WOKRAMAFULlLSITSMISSIONTHROUGHTHEESTABLISHMENTOFCOMMUNITY INCLUSIVE SUSTAINABLE BUSINESSES 4HESE FOLLOW BEST PRACTICE PRINCIPLESTHATARETESTEDANDFULLYDEVELOPED)WOKRAMAPRESENTLY HAS DEVELOPED BUSINESSES IN SUSTAINABLE TIMBER HARVESTING ECOTOURISM TRAININGANDINTELLECTUALPROPERTYANDSERVICES )WOKRAMA HAS TWO MAJOR FACILITIES 4HE ADMINISTRATIVE OFlCES ARELOCATEDIN'EORGETOWN THECAPITALOF'UYANA4HE)WOKRAMA &IELD3TATIONISATTHENORTH WESTBOUNDARYOFTHEFORESTONTHE %SSEQUIBO2IVER4HEREARECURRENTLYALSOTWORANGERSTATIONSIN THEFOREST WITHMORESTATIONSPLANNED )WOKRAMA)NTERNATIONAL#ENTRE 0/"OX (IGH3TREET +INGSTON 'EORGETOWN 'UYANA 3OUTH!MERICA 4EL  &AX  %MAILIWOKRAMA GENERAL IWOKRAMAORG 7EBSITEHTTPIWOKRAMAORG

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

&RANCISCO3ANTOS#ALDERON 6ICE0RESIDENTOF#OLOMBIA

3HARED2ESPONSIBILITY

4HEENVIRONMENTALIMPACTOF THEDRUGSTRADEACASESTUDY FROM#OLOMBIA /F THE WORLD DRUG PROBLEMS MANY VICTIMS PERHAPSNONEAREASDEFENCELESSANDINCAPABLE OFVOICINGTHEIRPLIGHT ASTHESEPLANTANDANIMAL SPECIES )T IS TIME IS TO MAKE THE UP TO NOW SILENT ENVIRONMENTAL CATASTROPHE CAUSED BY ILLICITCROPCULTIVATIONHEARD SEENANDFELTAROUND THEGLOBE #OLOMBIA IS WORKING HARDER THAN EVER TO FORGE INTERNATIONAL ALLIANCES AGAINST ILLEGAL DRUGS AND THEIR LARGELYUNKNOWNECOLOGICALREPERCUSSIONS BECAUSETHE MAIN WEAPON AGAINST DRUGS IS COOPERATION BETWEEN NATIONS !ND IN ORDER TO MINIMISE THE IMPACT OF ILLICIT DRUGS IT IS ESSENTIAL TO REDUCE NOT JUST THEIR SUPPLY BUT ALSO THEIR DEMAND )T IS A FAIR SUGGESTION THAT IF MOREWEREKNOWNABOUTTHEECOCIDELINKEDTOCOCAINE CONSUMPTION THISDRUGSALLUREWOULDSHARPLYDECREASE

/FTHEWORLDDRUGPROBLEMS MANYVICTIMS PERHAPSNONEARE ASDEFENCELESSANDINCAPABLE OFVOICINGTHEIRPLIGHT ASTHESE PLANTANDANIMALSPECIES

&ORTHISREASONTHEINTERNATIONALCOMMUNITYISINVITEDTO LEARNMOREABOUTCOCAINES#OLOMBIANECOCIDE ANDTO WORKTOGETHERTOINCORPORATEENVIRONMENTALAWARENESS INTO THE DISCOURSE ABOUT THE WORLD DRUG PROBLEM SO THATTHEECOLOGICALDISASTERCAUSEDBYILLICITDRUGSCAN GAINTHEATTENTIONITNEEDSTOBESTOPPED

!SILENTCATASTROPHE #OLOMBIA IN THE .ORTH WEST OF 3OUTH !MERICA HAS COASTSALONGBOTHTHE0ACIlCAND!TLANTICOCEANS IS THEENDPOINTFORTHEGREAT!NDESMOUNTAINRANGETHE REASONBEHIND#OLOMBIASAMPLECLIMATICVARIATIONS HASSOMEOFTHEHIGHESTLEVELSOFANNUALRAINFALLINTHE WORLDANDISALMOSTTHESIZEOF&RANCEAND3PAINPUT TOGETHER /NLYLESSTHANSIXPERCENTOFTHEEARTHSTOTALLANDIS COVERED BY RAINFORESTS AND THEREIN LIE THREE QUARTERS OF THE WORLDS BIODIVERSITY 4HE !MAZON RAINFOREST RESPONSIBLE FOR  PER CENT OF THE PLANETS OXYGEN SUPPLY COVERS  PER CENT OF 3OUTH !MERICA AND  PER CENT OF #OLOMBIA RANKED AMONG THE TOP TEN COUNTRIESINTERMSOFPRIMARYFORESTS #OLOMBIA IS AFTER "RAZIL THE MOST BIODIVERSE NATION ONTHEPLANET)THOLDSPERCENTOFTHEWORLDSBIRD SPECIES AND IS THE RICHEST IN TERMS OF AMPHIBIANS

)N -AY OF  A NEW ADDITION WAS MADE TO THE LIST OF THE WORLDS KNOWN HUMMINGBIRD SPECIES "APTISED AS THE 'ORGETTED 0UFmEG BY THE SCIENTIlC COMMUNITY THIS HUMMINGBIRDSPOTENTIALHABITATCONSISTSOF HECTARES INTHECLOUDFORESTSOFTHE0INCHEMOUNTAINRANGEIN3OUTH WESTERN#OLOMBIA ALTHOUGHITHASONLYBEENSEENmUTTERING ACROSSHECTARES!CCORDINGTOTHEORNITHOLOGISTTHATlRST SPOTTEDTHEPUFmEG PERCENTOFITSTOTALPOTENTIALHABITAT ORHECTARES ARESLASHED BURNTANDCHEMICALLYTREATED EVERYYEARTOGROWCOCA3OON ITSEEMSLIKELY THEPUFmEG WILLGOFROMMAKINGHEADLINESASASTUNNINGNEWSPECIESTO BEING LISTED IN THE 7ORLD #ONSERVATION 5NIONS RED BOOKS ASACRITICALLYENDANGERED STUNNINGNEWSPECIES 'ORGETTEDPUFmEG

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

LANDSLIPWITH COCALABORATORY

3IXTY SIXPERCENTOFTHECOCAGROWERSMUSTTURNTHEIR HARVESTED LEAVES INTO THE MUCH EASIER TO CONCEAL AND TRANSPORT COCA PASTE OR BASE OTHERWISE DRUG TRAFlCKINGGROUPSWILLNOTBUYTHEM4HUS MANYCOCA GROWERSBUILDRUDIMENTARYLABORATORIESTHATARENEARLY ALWAYS LOCATED NEAR WATER SOURCES TO FACILITATE THE DISPOSALOFRESULTINGCHEMICALRESIDUES&URTHERMORE INORDERTOKEEPTHECHEMICALSCOOL FARMERSSUBMERGE THEM USINGNON AIRTIGHTCONTAINERS INNEARBYWATER WHERETHEYINEVITABLYLEAK

!DDITIONALLY #OLOMBIA HAS A POTENTIAL ANNUAL WATER PRODUCTION MEASUREDINCUBICKILOMETERS GREATERTHAN THAT OF COUNTRIES AS LARGE AS )NDIA OR THE CONTINENTAL 5NITED3TATES 4ODAY THEREARENATIONALPARKS ANUMBERLIKELYTO GROWINTHEFUTURE WITHATOTALAREALARGERTHANTWICETHE ENTIRESIZEOF#OSTA2ICA (OWEVER COCAINEPRODUCTION ENCOURAGEDBYCOCAINE CONSUMPTION POSES AN OMINOUS THREAT TO THIS ENVIRONMENT ENDANGERINGUNIQUESPECIESOFmORAAND FAUNA 4HE MAJORITY OF THE  THOUSAND HECTARES OF COCAIN#OLOMBIATODAYARELOCATEDALONGTHE!MAZON RAINFOREST (OWEVER WHAT IS MORE WORRISOME IS THAT THE 7ORLD "ANK ESTIMATES THAT FOR EVERY HECTARE OF COCA PLANTED THREE TO FOUR HECTARES OF FOREST ARE CUT DOWN $UE TO THE FREQUENCY WITH WHICH CROPS SHIFT SOME TO HECTARESOFTROPICALFOREST IN #OLOMBIA ARE SLASHED AND BURNT TO MAKE WAY FOR COCAPLANTSEVERYYEAR)NDEED THESMOKECAUSEDBY THESLASHANDBURNTECHNIQUEISTHEMAINSOURCEOFAIR POLLUTIONIN#OLOMBIANJUNGLEAREAS 77& SAYS THAT ONE HECTARE OF PRISTINE RAINFOREST PRODUCESTONSOFOXYGENPERYEAR SOTHEDESTRUCTION OF FOUR HECTARES PRECLUDES THE ANNUAL PRODUCTION OF TONSOFOXYGEN #ONSERVATIVEESTIMATESCONSIDERTHAT OVERTHELAST YEARS MORETHANTWOMILLIONHECTARESHAVEBEENCLEAR CUTTOPRODUCECOCA ANAREAEQUIVALENTTOTHESIZEOF %STONIA!ND EVENTHOUGHTHISTRENDHASBEENSLOWED DOWNBYEFFECTIVEGOVERNMENTPOLICIESINRECENTYEARS THEDAMAGEHASALREADYBEENDONE

4HERESIDUALEFFECT $UE TO THE UNSUITABILITY OF JUNGLE SOIL FOR AGRICULTURAL PROCESSES AND IN ORDER TO MAXIMISE PLANT YIELDS COCAGROWERSUSETIMESMOREAGROCHEMICALSTHAN THOSE USED BY FARMERS IN LEGAL CROPS 7HEN WORKING WITHPESTICIDES COCAGROWERSUSENOPROTECTION THUS EXPOSINGTHEMSELVESTOGRAVEHEALTHRISKS4OSAVETIME AND MONEY THEY MIX MOST OF THE AGROCHEMICALS INTO A SINGLE BATCH FOR FUMIGATION AMONG THEM ARE THOSE COMMONLYKNOWNASTHE@DIRTYDOZEN 4HESE CHEMICALS ARE PERILOUS NOT ONLY BECAUSE THEY RESIST BIODEGRADATION AND ARE TOXIC BUT ALSO BECAUSE THEYAREHIGHLYMOBILE/NCERELEASEDINTOTHEAIR THEY CANTRAVELGREATDISTANCESTHROUGHAPROCESSOFMULTIPLE CYCLESOFEVAPORATIONANDCONDENSATIONKNOWNASTHE @GRASSHOPPEREFFECT 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

4HElNALSTAGE CARRIEDOUTBYPROFESSIONALCHEMISTS REQUIRES THE USE OF SUBSTANCES THAT ARE EVEN MORE HAZARDOUS THAN THOSE USED IN PREVIOUS STAGES )N ORDERTOREUSETHESECHEMICALS ADISTILLATIONPROCESS ISCONDUCTEDTHATRESULTSINTHEINJECTIONOFTHOUSANDS OF GALLONS OF HOT WATER INTO RIVERS INCREASING WATER TEMPERATURE AND ALTERING ECOSYSTEMS 7HEN THESE CHEMICALS CAN NO LONGER BE RECYCLED THEY ARE DUMPEDUNCEREMONIOUSLYINTONEARBYRIVERS

#OCAGROWERSUSETIMES MOREAGROCHEMICALSTHANTHOSE USEDBYFARMERSINLEGALCROPS !CCORDING TO RESEARCH STUDIES CONDUCTED BY THE 5NITED.ATIONS/FlCEON$RUGSAND#RIME5./$# AND THE #OLOMBIAN #OUNTER .ARCOTICS !GENCY IN ORDER TO TRANSFORM ONE HECTARE OF COCA PLANTS INTO COCAINE  KILOGRAMS OF PESTICIDES HERBICIDES FERTILISERS GASOLINE AMMONIA CEMENT AND SULPHURIC ACIDARENEEDED#OCACROPS ONAVERAGE YIELDFOUR ANNUALHARVESTS4HEARITHMETICISDAUNTINGBUTSIMPLE KGXHARVESTSX HECTARES   KILOGRAMSOR TONSOFCHEMICALWASTEPERYEAR ALL OF WHICH ARE DUMPED ON #OLOMBIAS SOIL OR IN ITS RIVERSTOPRODUCECOCAINE

!TROUBLINGPROSPECT 4HE TIME IS RIPE TO CREATE AWARENESS ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS OF COCAINE PRODUCTION FOR IT IS DIFlCULT TO RECALL A TIME WHEN THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY DECISION MAKERS INCLUDED HAS BEEN AS ENVIRONMENTALLYCONSCIOUSASNOW"YCAPITALISINGON THEPRESENTCONCERNWITHENVIRONMENTALPRESERVATION ESPECIALLY TRUE OF THE YOUNGER GENERATIONS WHO ALSO HAVE A HIGHER GENERAL PREDISPOSITION TO DRUG CONSUMPTION THE CIRCUMVENTION OF TWO HIGHLY WORRYINGSCENARIOSMAYBEACHIEVED "OTHSCENARIOSDEPENDONDEMANDLEVELSFORCOCAINE REMAINING STEADY OR INCREASING 4HE lRST WORRYING SCENARIO CONSISTS OF THE FURTHER DETERIORATION OF #OLOMBIASIMPORTANTECOLOGICALWEALTH4HESECOND SCENARIO EQUALLYTROUBLING INVOLVESTHEGROWTHOFTHE ALREADYVULNERABLENATIONSOF!FRICAANDTHE#ARIBBEAN ASCOCAINETRANSSHIPMENTHUBS #OLOMBIA IS ONLY TOO FAMILIAR WITH WHAT HAPPENS WHEN DRUG TRAFlCKING IMPREGNATES THE ORGANISMS CHARGED WITH KEEPING IT AT BAY #ORRUPTION VIOLENCE


.ATURAL2ESOURCESANDTHE%NVIRONMENT

&ORESTBURNT TOMAKEWAY FORCOCA

3HAREDSOLUTIONS 3IMPLY PUT #OLOMBIA HOPES TO SHOW THAT COCAINE IS BADFORPEOPLESHEALTHBUTALSOBADFORTHEENVIRONMENT !N ENVIRONMENTALLY CONSCIOUS PERSON WHO DRIVES A HYBRIDCARMIGHTASWELLBEDRIVINGA(UMMERIFHEOR SHECONSUMESCOCAINE NOMATTERHOWRECREATIONALLY

AND TERRORISM ENSUE WHILE TIME RESOURCES AND CAPABLEPEOPLEARESYPHONEDAWAYFROMSOLVINGTHE CONDITIONSTHATKEEPCOUNTRIESINPOVERTYnAND THUS VULNERABLE TO DRUG TRAFlCKING -ANY #OMMONWEALTH NATIONS SUCH AS 'HANA AND .IGERIA IN 7EST !FRICA AND *AMAICA AND 'UYANA WITH #ARIBBEAN COASTS ARE ALREADY FEELING THESE AND OTHER SIDE EFFECTS OF DRUG TRAFlCKING n MORE DRUG MULES INCREASING LOCAL CONSUMPTIONANDPOLITICALSCANDALS ! PARTICULAR WORRY IS THAT NATIONS WITH GEOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS SIMILAR TO THOSE OF #OLOMBIAS COCA GROWING REGION WILL BEGIN TO SEE COCA CROPS SPROUT ON THEIR OWN LAND 4ABLE  COMPARES #OLOMBIAS LATITUDE AND ALTITUDE WITH THOSE OF COUNTRIES THAT ARE INCREASINGLY BECOMING COCAINE TRANSSHIPMENT POINTS TOSHOWTHAT PLAUSIBLY COCACOULDBEGROWNINTHESE COUNTRIES4HE5.$0S(UMAN$EVELOPMENT)NDEXIS INCLUDEDBECAUSELIVINGSTANDARDSALSOPLAYAKEYROLE INANATIONSSUSCEPTIBILITYTODRUGPRODUCTION #OUNTRY

,ATITUDE !LTITUDE RANGE

5.$0(UMAN $EVELOPMENT )NDEX

#OLOMBIA

3TO. TOM   COCAGROWINGREGIONS OF-ETAAND'UAVIARE LOCATEDATM

'HANA

.TO. TOM



'UYANA

.

TO M



*AMAICA

.

TO M



+ENYA

.

TO M



.IGERIA

.

TO M



3IERRA,EONE .

TO M



!CCORDINGTOTHE5./$#S7ORLD$RUG2EPORT 0ORTUGAL THESECONDMAINENTRYPOINTFORCOCAINEINTO %UROPE REPORTEDANINCREASEINSEIZURESFROMSEVEN TONNES IN  TO  TONNES IN  TO  METRIC TONNESIN0ORTUGUESEAUTHORITIESATTRIBUTETHIS RISE TO THE INmUX OF COCAINE SHIPMENTS COMING FROM !FRICA WHERE COCAINE SEIZURES INCREASED SIX FOLD FROM  TO  !LSO !MADO 0HILIP DE !NDRES DEPUTYREPRESENTATIVEOFTHE5./$#IN7EST!FRICA MORE RECENTLY SAID THAT OF ALL THE DRUGS SEIZED AT %UROPEAN AIRPORTS LAST YEAR  PER CENT CAME FROM !FRICA AND OF THAT MORE THAN  PER CENT LANDED IN THROUGH7EST!FRICA

3O HOW DO WE PLAN TO CREATE AWARENESS ABOUT THE ECOCIDE ALREADY UNDER WAY IN #OLOMBIA 4HROUGH ACTIVITIES DIRECTED AT THE GENERAL PUBLIC SUCH AS AN ITINERANTPHOTO MUSEUM THEPUBLICSHOWINGOFVIDEOS VIRTUAL GAMES AND A DIVERSE AND STRONG PRESENCE ONTHEWEB ITSHOULDBEPOSSIBLETOSENSITISEAWIDE INTERNATIONALAUDIENCEONETHATISALREADYINCREASINGLY CONSCIOUSOFTHEIMPORTANCEOFENVIRONMENTALPROTECTION  !T THE SAME TIME ) AM COMMITTED TO PARTICIPATING IN HIGH LEVELINTERNATIONALPOLITICALARENASTOBROADCASTTHIS MESSAGEANDHOPEFULLYCATALYSEJOINTACTION 4OHELPREVERSETHEECOCIDE THEEXPANSIONOFALTERNATIVE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS ADVANCED BY THE 0RESIDENTIAL 0ROGRAM AGAINST )LLICIT #ROPS 0#) IS CRUCIAL 3INCE  THESE ALTERNATIVE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS HAVE KEPT OVER TWO MILLION HECTARES FREE OF ILLICIT CROPS CONSERVED OVER   HECTARES AND RECOVERED OVER   HECTARES "UT TO TRULY RIGHT THE DAMAGE WROUGHT BY COCA CULTIVATION MORE WORK NEEDS TO BE DONE n AND THIS MEANS PROVIDING COCA GROWERS WITH ENVIRONMENTALLYSUSTAINABLEALTERNATIVES !LL NATIONS AND THEIR PEOPLES SHOULD LEARN ABOUT COCAINES SILENT ENVIRONMENTAL CATASTROPHE AND JOIN MEANDMYCOUNTRYINOUREFFORTSTOCOUNTERITANDSTOP ITFROMSPREADINGTOOTHERALREADYVULNERABLEAREASOF THEWORLD

&RANCISCO3ANTOS#ALDERONHASBEEN6ICE 0RESIDENTOF#OLOMBIA SINCE  WHEN HE WAS ELECTED TOGETHER WITH CURRENT 0RESIDENT !LVARO 5RIBE ON A PLEDGE TO IMPROVE SECURITY AND ECONOMIC PROSPERITY 0ROOF THAT THIS PLEDGE WAS AMPLY FULlLLED ISTHEFACTTHATBOTH0RESIDENT5RIBEAND6ICE 0RESIDENT3ANTOS WEREAGAINELECTEDINWITHAWIDEMARGINOFSUPPORT 3HARED 2ESPONSIBILITY IS A #OLOMBIA LED INITIATIVE FOR ILLICIT DRUG PRODUCING AND CONSUMING COUNTRIES TO WORK ON SHARED SOLUTIONS TO THE THREAT THAT COCAINE PRODUCTION TRAFlCKING AND CONSUMPTIONPOSESTOTHEWORLD)TSMISSIONISTOCREATEGLOBAL AWARENESS ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENTAL CATASTROPHE CAUSED BY ILLICIT CROP CULTIVATION AND DRUG PRODUCTION AND TO INCORPORATE ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS INTO THE DISCOURSE ABOUT THE WORLD DRUGPROBLEM INTHEHOPETHATTHEECOLOGICALDISASTERCAUSED BYILLICITDRUGSWILLBEPUTTOANEND 3HARED2ESPONSIBILITY /FlCEOFTHE6ICE 0RESIDENTOF#OLOMBIA #ARRERAA  "OGOTÉ #OLOMBIA 4EL  &AX  %MAILMASTER SHAREDRESPONSIBILITYGOVCO 7EBSITEWWWSHAREDRESPONSIBILITYGOVCO

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




Telephone Cost Savings for Government Departments

The MiDAS Telephone Management System logs all calls made from the Department’s PABX providing comprehensive control of telephone expenditure. The budget control module can be enabled to restrict calls and/or e-mail relevant personnel once pre-defined monthly telephone call cost targets have been reached. MiDAS Reports are able to provide information on outgoing, incoming (answered & answered), calling line identity, tie line, cell routers and extension to extension calls. The most frequently dialled external numbers can be identified and monitored. Call reports can be requested on pre-set numbers to review the cost of communicating with regular contacts, such as other governmental offices or suppliers. Individual departments can be monitored for performance against preset budgets and departments exceeding telephone budgeting can be quickly identified. Exception filters can be pre-defined to immediately e-mail the security manager when specific telephone numbers are dialled - for example police/fire/ambulance or other sensitive telephone numbers. Benefits from this management information and statistics, such as operator answer time and identification of ‘busy periods’, allows managers to plan staffing levels efficiently. E-mailed Reports can be produced in PDF, CSV, TXT or HTML formats and may be generated on demand or scheduled to run automatically. MiDAS Management Systems is based in Johannesburg and is a well established market leader with a proven ability to respond to the telecom needs of government departments – and the state-of-the-art technology needed to fulfil those needs. For further information contact us on +27 11 807 5576 Email: sales@midasman.co.za Visit our Website at: www.midasman.co.za P.O.Box 1575, Rivonia 2128, 14 Sunninghill Office Park, Peltier Drive, Sunninghill Ext 71, Sandton, South Africa


#ONNECTINGTHE #OMMONWEALTH

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




#ONNECTINGTHE#OMMONWEALTH

3PECIAL&EATUREBY,550

- PAYMENTSREVOLUTIONISEWORLD COMMERCE /F A GLOBAL POPULATION TOTALLING SIX BILLION ONLY AROUND ONE BILLION PEOPLE HAVE BANK ACCOUNTS 9ET AN ESTIMATED FOUR BILLION PEOPLE NOW OWN A MOBILEPHONE4HESESTARKlGURESHELPTOEXPLAIN WHY M PAYMENTS n lNANCIAL TRANSACTIONS MADE THROUGHAMOBILEPHONEnARERAPIDLYGROWINGIN POPULARITYANDARELIKELYTOREVOLUTIONISETHEWAY THATMONEYCHANGESHANDSINTHECOMINGYEARS &ORACOMPANYSUCHASMOBILEPAYMENTSOPERATOR ,550 SETUPIN.ORWAYINANDNOWACTIVE INTHE5+ 'ERMANY #HINAANDTHE-IDDLE%AST THIS SITUATION PRESENTS A MASSIVE OPPORTUNITY TO BRING BENElTS TO MILLIONS OF PEOPLE THROUGH GIVING THEM ACCESS TO NEW SOURCES OF lNANCE ANDIMPROVEDECONOMICSECURITY

/VER  MILLION &ILIPINOS SEND HOME MORE THAN 53BILLIONEACHYEAR)FPERCENTOFTHISMONEY IS LOST IN AGENCY FEES THE LOSS ADDS UP TO NEARLY PERCENTOFTHECOUNTRYS'$0

4HE PACE OF DEVELOPMENT IN MOBILE PAYMENT IS SPEEDING UP HOWEVER %ARLIER THIS YEAR THE '3- !SSOCIATION REPRESENTING MOBILE PHONE OPERATORS ANNOUNCED A FRAMEWORK FOR A GLOBAL STANDARD FOR MOBILEPHONEPAYMENTS WITHTHETECHNOLOGYEXPECTED TOBEFULLYFUNCTIONINGDURING3EVERALCREDITCARD COMPANIESANDBANKSAREEXPERIMENTINGWITHPAYMENT SYSTEMSOVERMOBILEPHONESSUCHASTHATOFFEREDBY 7HILEITISALREADYPOSSIBLETOPAYFORAPARKINGTICKETIN ,550 AND LARGE RETAIL CHAINS SUCH AS -C$ONALDS (ELSINKI ACANOFCOKEIN3EOULORARINGTONEIN,ONDON HAVEALLIEDTHEMSELVESWITHMOBILEPHONEOPERATORSTO USING YOUR MOBILE PHONE THERE HAS BEEN A SERIES OF OFFERPAYMENTBYPHONE DELAYS AND OBSTACLES BOTH TECHNICAL AND COMMERCIAL 7HILE THIS KIND OF PROGRESS IS SEEN AS INEVITABLE IN TOTHEESTABLISHMENTOFAWIDESPREADSTANDARDFORMOBILE THEDEVELOPEDECONOMIESOF7ESTERN%UROPE .ORTH !MERICA AND THE HIGH TECH MARKETS OF *APAN AND PAYMENTSACROSSSINGLECONTINENTSORAROUNDTHEWORLD &ROMTHE5NITED.ATIONSPOINTOFVIEW THEREARETWO 3OUTH+OREA ITISTHE@UNBANKEDBILLIONSOF!SIAAND ISSUES REGARDING MOBILE PHONE PAYMENTS THAT HAVE !FRICAWHOPOTENTIALLYHAVETHEMOSTTOGAINFROMMOBILE BEENIDENTIlEDASCRUCIALTOIMPROVINGTHEECONOMIES PAYMENTSYSTEMS!LTHOUGHTHESEPEOPLEARERELATIVELY OF DEVELOPING NATIONS 4HE lRST IS CREATING EFlCIENT POOR THESUMSOFMONEYTHATmOWTHROUGHTHEHANDS COMMUNICATIONSNETWORKS!S,550#HIEF%XECUTIVE OFPEOPLEWITHOUTBANKACCOUNTSISCUMULATIVELYVAST 4HOMAS"OSTRÂ’M*Â’RGENSENPOINTSOUT THISFACTORIS %XPATRIATES FOREXAMPLE SENDANESTIMATED53 BILLION HOME TO THEIR RELATIVES EACH YEAR THEVITALlRSTSTEPINDEVELOPINGCOMMERCE OFTEN TRANSMITTED THROUGH CASH REMITTANCE h&OR EXAMPLE A lSHERMAN IN +ERALA IN SYSTEMSSUCHAS7ESTERN5NION4RANSFERRING SOUTHERN )NDIA CAN INCREASE HIS INCOME THESEPAYMENTSTOMOBILESYSTEMS THROUGH ENORMOUSLYIFHECANBEINCOMMUNICATION ,550S SYSTEM OF MOBILE ACCOUNTS FOR WITH POTENTIAL CUSTOMERS AND THEN DELIVER EXAMPLE WOULD BE CHEAPER EASIER AND TO THEM INSTEAD OF GOING BACK HOME MORE SECURE THAN MOST CURRENT METHODS AND HAVING HIS lSH ROT IN THE PORT !LL THE WHERE INTERMEDIARIES ROUTINELY CHARGE  STUDIES OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT SHOW PERCENTOFTHETRANSFERREDAMOUNT THAT COMMUNICATION IS ONE OF THE GREATEST 4HOMAS"OSTRÂ’M*Â’RGENSEN 3UCH CUSTOMERS ARE UNLIKELY TO TAKE OUT FACTORSINPROMOTINGGROWTHv #HIEF%XECUTIVE/FFICER ,550 LARGE MORTGAGES SO THEY HAVE REMAINED 4HESECOND5. IDENTIlEDISSUEISENABLING REMITTANCESTOBEMADE)NACOUNTRYLIKETHE0HILIPPINES BELOWTHERADARFORMANYOFTHEWORLDSMAJORBANKS REMITTANCES MAKE UP A HIGH PERCENTAGE OF NATIONAL 9ETTHEIRSPENDINGPOWERISNOWBEINGRECOGNISEDASA INCOME AS SO MANY MILLIONS OF THE POPULATION WORK SIGNIlCANTECONOMICFORCE4HEREISALSOARECOGNITION ABROADANDSENDMONEYHOME!NESTIMATEDMILLION THATBYFACILITATINGMOBILEPHONEPAYMENTS GOVERNMENTS &ILIPINOS AROUNDPERCENTOFTHEPOPULATION WORKIN AREHELPINGTOPROVIDEANINFRASTRUCTURETHATWILLBENElT MORE THAN  COUNTRIES AROUND THE WORLD AND SEND THEIRCITIZENSANDINCREASELEVELSOFPROSPERITY HOMEMORETHAN53BILLIONEACHYEAR MAKINGUPPER ,550HASRECEIVEDSTRONGSUPPORTFROMGOVERNMENTS CENTOFTHECOUNTRYS'$0)FPERCENTOFTHISMONEY IN THE COUNTRIES IN WHICH IT OPERATES AS A RESULT OF ISLOSTINAGENCYFEES ITADDSUPTO53MILLIONPER FACILITATINGFAST SECUREANDSAFEGOVERNMENTALPAYOUTS TO POOR CITIZENS WHO HAVE NOT PREVIOUSLY HAD THIS YEAR ORALMOSTPERCENTOFTHECOUNTRYS'$0 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING


#ONNECTINGTHE#OMMONWEALTH

&IGURE7ORLDWIDE REMITTANCEDEVELOPMENT   3OURCE$EVELOPMENT 0ROSPECTS'ROUP 7ORLD"ANK

POSSIBILITY,550ISREGULATEDBYTHENATIONALAUTHORITIES SUCH AS THE 5+ &INANCIAL 3ERVICES !UTHORITY IN THE COUNTRIESWHEREITOPERATES 4HE POTENTIAL SIZE OF THE M PAYMENTS MARKET HAS BEEN OPEN TO CONJECTURE BY ANALYSTS AND INDUSTRY COMMENTATORS FOR SOME YEARS )N  AN ALLIANCE OFSEVERALLARGEMOBILEPHONEOPERATORSDEVELOPEDA SYSTEMCALLED3IMPAY PROMPTINGFORECASTSOFBILLIONS OF DOLLARS CHANGING HANDS THROUGH THIS MEANS IN THE FOLLOWING YEARS 7HEN ONE OF THE MAIN BACKERS 4 -OBILE WITHDREW HOWEVER THEPROJECTCOLLAPSED -OST RECENTLY A REPORT FROM RESEARCH GROUP *UNIPER INTHE5+INCLUDEDFORECASTSOFA53BILLIONTOTAL MARKETFORMOBILEPAYMENTSBY COMPAREDWITH 53 BILLION IN  7HAT IS MOST STRIKING ABOUT THE BREAKDOWN OF THIS FORECAST BETWEEN REGIONS IS THAT WHEREAS %UROPE CURRENTLY LEADS THE WORLD IN M PAYMENTS WITH AN EXPECTED TOTAL OF 53 MILLION THISYEAR RISINGTO53BILLIONIN THE&AR%AST AND#HINAISPREDICTEDTORISEFROM53MILLIONTHIS YEARTO53BILLIONIN!HIGHPROPORTIONOFTHIS TOTALWOULDPROBABLYDERIVEFROMPEOPLEWITHOUTBANK ACCOUNTS WHO WOULD BE MAKING MOBILE PAYMENTS INSTEADOFUSINGCASH HAVINGLEAPFROGGEDTHEBANKING PROCESS ALTOGETHER !FRICA AND THE -IDDLE %AST IS FORECASTTOSEE53MILLIONWORTHOFM PAYMENTS BY AMODESTlGUREBYGLOBALSTANDARDSBUTA FOLDRISEONTHE53MILLIONPREDICTEDFOR 7HEREAS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BANKS AND MOBILE PHONEOPERATORSANDINTERNALLY BETWEENEACHOTHER HAS BEEN A SOURCE OF DIFlCULTY IN DEVELOPING M PAYMENTS ,550 HAS SUCCEEDED IN DEVELOPING AN M PAYMENT SYSTEM WHICH IS INDEPENDENT OF BOTH BANKS AND PHONEOPERATORS,550WORKSWITHBANKSANDTELECOM COMPANIES TO DELIVER ITS SERVICE BUT IS NOT OWNED OR CONTROLLED BY ANY OF THEM h4YPICALLY WE ONLY NEED TO INTEGRATEWITHONEBANKANDONEMOBILEOPERATORINEACH COUNTRY v SAYS *Â’RGENSEN h4HIS ENABLES US TO DELIVER THE ,550 SERVICE TO ANYONE WITH A MOBILE PHONE IN THERELEVANTCOUNTRYv,550ALLOWSMOBILEPHONEUSERS TO CREATE THEIR OWN ACCOUNTS JUST LIKE A REGULAR BANK ACCOUNT INTOWHICHTHEYCANPAYMONEYANDTHENUSE THEIRPHONESTOPAYFORGOODSANDSERVICES

3UPPORTFROMCUSTOMERS ,550ALREADYHAS CUSTOMERSIN%UROPE ABLE TO PAY TO MORE THAN  RETAIL OUTLETS AND RECEIVED THElRSTPAN %UROPEANBANKINGLICENCEGIVENTOANM PAYMENTOPERATOR/PERATIONALIN.ORWAYSINCE THE SERVICE HAS SPREAD TO 'ERMANY 0OLAND AND THE 5+ WITHFURTHER%UROPEANCOUNTRIESSCHEDULEDTOBE COVEREDLATERIN !FURTHERAGREEMENTHASBEENSIGNEDWITHTHE.ATIONAL "ANK OF !BU $HABI ."!$ THE lRST NON %UROPEAN INSTITUTIONTOSIGNUPTOTHE,550SYSTEM ALLOWINGTHE BANKSCUSTOMERSTOTRANSFERMONEY DOWNLOADMOBILE CONTENTANDPAYBILLSTHROUGHTHEIRMOBILEPHONEWITHIN SECONDSh,550USERSNEEDONLYSENDATEXTMESSAGE AND WITHIN A MATTER OF SECONDS RATHER THAN DAYS A SECURE TRANSACTION IS COMPLETED AT A FRACTION OF THE COSTOFTRADITIONALFUNDTRANSFERS vSAYS+HALID$EEMAS HEADOFRETAILBANKINGAT."!$2EMITTANCEPAYMENTS FROMPEOPLEWORKINGAWAYFROMTHEIROWNCOUNTRYBACK TO THEIR RELATIVES IS A KEY ELEMENT OF THE DEMAND FOR ,550SSERVICESINTHE-IDDLE%AST

*UNIPER2ESEARCHFORECASTSA 53BILLIONTOTALMARKETFORMOBILE PAYMENTSBY COMPARED WITH53BILLIONIN

h4HERE HAS BEEN VERY HIGH DEMAND FOR THIS KIND OF SYSTEMFROMOURCUSTOMERS vSAYS$EEMASh4HEYARE ALREADY VERY ACTIVE IN ONLINE BANKING AND THIS FEATURE WILL ENHANCE THE POSITION OF OUR BANK IN THE REGIONv ."!$WILLBETHElRSTBANKINTHE-IDDLE%ASTTOOFFER THIS KIND OF SERVICE ACCORDING TO $EEMAS MAKING IT UNNECESSARY FOR CUSTOMERS PHYSICALLY TO VISIT A BANK BRANCHOREVENBEATTHEIRCOMPUTERSCREENh4HEYCAN MAKEPAYMENTSANYWHERE ATANYTIME vSAYS$EEMAS ."!$HASPERCENTOFITSCUSTOMERSBANKINGONLINE

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




#ONNECTINGTHE#OMMONWEALTH

AGAINST AN INTERNATIONAL NORM OF   PER CENT AND HE PREDICTS THAT AT LEAST  PER CENT WILL ADOPT THE NEW M PAYMENTS FACILITY h!LMOST ALL THE POPULATION OFTHE5NITED!RAB%MIRATESHASAMOBILEPHONEAND THEYAREENTHUSIASTICUSERS7EWERETHElRSTBANKTO OFFER ONLINE 6ISA PAYMENTS AND THE lRST TO OFFER CHIP ANDPINSERVICES7EIDENTIlED,550ASAPIONEERIN MOBILEPAYMENTSANDWELIKETHEIRTECHNOLOGYANDTHE BUSINESSMODELTHEYHAVEDEVELOPED)MSURETHISKIND OFSYSTEMWILLSPREADTOOTHERBANKSINTHEREGIONv $EEMASEXPECTSTHAT WITHINTHENEXTFEWYEARS BETWEEN  AND  PER CENT OF HIS CUSTOMERS TRANSACTIONS WILL BEMADEVIAMOBILEPHONES ANDHEINTENDSTOMOUNT WIDESPREADADVERTISINGCAMPAIGNSTORAISEAWARENESS OF THE OPPORTUNITY ONCE IT HAS BEEN ADOPTED BY A PROPORTIONOFCUSTOMERS4HEPOTENTIALCOSTSAVINGSAND EASEOFUSEAREEXTREMELYAPPEALING HEBELIEVES7ITH APOPULATIONOFMILLIONSOFMIGRANTWORKERS THE-IDDLE %ASTISAFERTILELOCATIONFORM PAYMENTTOBEESTABLISHED SAVINGPEOPLESIGNIlCANTAMOUNTSOFMONEYWHENTHEY MAKEREMITTANCESBACKHOME )NMANYPARTSOFTHEWORLD THOUSANDSOFWORKERSRECEIVE THEIRPAYINCASH REQUIRINGTIMECONSUMING INEFlCIENT PROCESSESh!TTHEMOMENT GOVERNMENTEMPLOYEESIN MANYCOUNTRIESHAVETHEIRSALARIESPAIDINCASH vNOTES *Â’RGENSENh4RUCKLOADSOFCASHAREDRIVENTOACENTRAL DEPOTANDTHENTHOUSANDSOFPEOPLELINEUPTORECEIVE THEIRPAY4HEWASTEDTIMEOFEACHOFTHESEEMPLOYEES TRAVELLING FROM THEIR WORKPLACE OR HOME AND QUEUING FORHOURS ISEXTRAORDINARY-OBILEPAYMENTSWILLHUGELY IMPROVE THE SECURITY AND EFlCIENCY OF DISTRIBUTION OF PAYMENTS v HE SAYS h)T WILL MAKE THE WHOLE lNANCIAL SERVICESSECTORMOREEFFECTIVEv )NDEVELOPEDECONOMIES INTERNETBANKINGHASENJOYED ASWIFTRISETOPROMINENCE ALLOWINGMANYTRANSACTIONSTO BEAUTOMATEDANDGIVINGCUSTOMERSMORETRANSPARENCY ANDCONTROLOVERTHEIRlNANCIALAFFAIRS9ETINSOMEPARTS OFTHEWORLD INTERNETACCESSREMAINSPATCHY UNRELIABLE OR EVEN NON EXISTENT )N #HINA FOR EXAMPLE THERE IS CURRENTLYAROUNDPERCENTINTERNETPENETRATIONBUT PERCENTMOBILEPHONEPENETRATION WITHlVEMILLIONNEW SUBSCRIBERS EVERY WEEK h7E ARE SEEING THIS PATTERN REPEATEDAROUNDTHEWORLD vSAYS*Â’RGENSEN 4HE RELUCTANCE OF BANKS TO OFFER THEIR SERVICES TO LESS WEALTHYCUSTOMERSISNOWBEINGCALLEDINTOQUESTIONBY THERISEOFM PAYMENTS)NTHEDAYSWHENABANKHAD DOZENSOREVENHUNDREDSOFBRANCHESSPREADAROUNDA COUNTRYANDEMPLOYEDHUNDREDSORTHOUSANDSOFSTAFF WITH A SIGNIlCANT AMOUNT OF TIME SPENT IN ONE TO ONE MEETINGSWITHCUSTOMERS ITMADEMORESENSEFORBANKS TOTARGETHIGHSPENDINGOREVENBETTER HIGHBORROWING PEOPLE WHO WOULD TAKE OUT EXPENSIVE MORTGAGES GIVINGTHEBANKANINCOMESTREAMFORMANYYEARS 4ODAY ELECTRONIC COMMERCE HAS ALREADY GREATLY REDUCEDTHENEEDFORBANKSTOHAVESOMANYBRANCHES OREMPLOYSOMANY@CUSTOMER FACINGSTAFF!NDWHILE PLENTYOFRESOURCESHAVEBEENSPENTONINTERNETAND TELEPHONEBANKING THEREHASBEENAGENERALRELUCTANCE TOPUSHAHEADWITHMOBILEPHONEBANKING COMBINED WITH DISPUTES BETWEEN RIVAL COMPANIES OVER INCOME SHAREANDNETWORKFEES 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

!MOBILEWALLET ,550SVISIONISTOENABLECUSTOMERSTOHAVEA@MOBILE WALLET WHICHCANBEUSEDASEASILYASCASHORACREDIT CARD BUTISEVENMOREmEXIBLEANDADAPTABLE SINCEIT CAN BE USED AT THE POINT OF SALE OR REMOTELY AT ANY TIMEOFDAY4HESYSTEMCOULDALSOBEAMAJORBOON TOBANKS ACCORDINGTO*Â’RGENSENh)N7ESTERN%UROPE ANDTHE53 ITISVERYHARDFORBANKSTOGROWORGANICALLY BECAUSE THE COST OF ACQUIRING A NEW CUSTOMER IS SO HIGH AND PEOPLE ARE ENTRENCHED IN THE BANKS THEY HAVEUSEDFORMANYYEARS3OTHEYEITHERTRYTOGROW THROUGHMERGINGWITHOTHERBANKS ORTHEYLOOKTOWARDS EMERGINGMARKETS WHERETHEREISLESSCOMPETITIONFOR THEIRPRODUCTSANDSERVICES vHESAYS 7ITH BUYING POWER AMONG THE WORLDS FOUR BILLION POOREST PEOPLE ESTIMATED TO BE 53 TRILLION hTHE BANKS WANT TO GET INTO THIS SECTOR v SAYS *Â’RGENSEN 7ORKING ALONGSIDE ,550 COULD GIVE THE BANKS A USEFUL POINT OF ENTRY INTO THESE MARKETS AS THE COST ANDEASEOFUSEBENElTSBECOMECLEARTOCUSTOMERS h4HE SOLUTIONS WE ARE PROVIDING ARE SIMPLE AND COST EFFECTIVE &OR THE BANKS INSTEAD OF INVESTING A LARGE AMOUNT OF MONEY IN ESTABLISHING A WHOLE MOBILE PAYMENTSDEPARTMENTANDDEVELOPINGTHETECHNOLOGY THEYARENOWLOOKINGTOPARTNERWITH,550v !MONG POORER PEOPLE THE ISSUE OF MOBILITY HAS A PARTICULAREFFECTONTHEIRLIVES BOTHSOCIALANDlNANCIAL )F YOU ARE A REFUGEE FOR EXAMPLE YOUR OPPORTUNITIES TO ACCESS BANKING SERVICES ARE LIMITED ALONG WITH THE POSSIBILITY OF USING THE INTERNET "UT IF YOU OWN A MOBILEPHONE YOUWILLPROBABLYHAVETAKENITWITHYOU WHEREVER YOU GO 4HE SHEER PORTABILITY OF A MOBILE PHONEGIVESITAMAJORADVANTAGEOVERINTERNET BASED BANKING FORMANYPEOPLE -ANYMILLIONSOFPEOPLEHAVETOTRAVELLARGEDISTANCES TO WORK OR TO VISIT THEIR FAMILIES (ERE AGAIN MOBILE COMMUNICATION AND PAYMENTS CAN BE CARRIED OUT WHETHER OR NOT THE PERSON HAS A BANK ACCOUNT OR ACCESSTOACOMPUTER


#ONNECTINGTHE#OMMONWEALTH

)N -EXICO AND )NDIA THE SITUATION IS EXTREME TOTAL REMITTANCESAREINEXCESSOF53BILLIONPERYEARFOR EACHOFTHEM ACCORDINGTOlGURESFROMTHE-IGRATION 0OLICY )NSTITUTE )F THERE IS A CHEAP EASY AND SECURE MEANS OF MAKING THESE PAYMENTS WHICH CAN SAVE MILLIONS OF PEOPLE BILLIONS OF DOLLARS EACH YEAR THE MATHEMATICSOFTHECASEISVERYPERSUASIVE &ROMTHEMOBILEPHONEOPERATORSPOINTOFVIEWTHERE AREALSOPERSUASIVEARGUMENTSFORPROMOTINGPAYMENT SYSTEMS 4HE PRICE THEY CAN CHARGE FOR PHONE CALLS ISDROPPING THROUGHSTIFFCOMPETITIONANDGOVERNMENT REGULATIONTHE%5RECENTLYCALLEDFORROAMINGCHARGES TOBEREDUCED ALONGWITHTHETHREATFROM@FREEONLINE CALLS THROUGH THE VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL 6O)0  (AVINGPAIDMANYBILLIONSOFDOLLARSFORTHEIROPERATING LICENCES THE COMPANIES ARE STILL SEARCHING FOR WAYS TO RECOUP THEIR INVESTMENT AND PRODUCE PROlTS &ACILITATINGMOBILEPAYMENTSCOULDPROVIDEASIGNIlCANT NEWREVENUESTREAM !LTHOUGH THERE HAVE BEEN MANY INITIATIVES FROM BOTH THEMOBILEPHONEOPERATORSANDBANKSANDCREDITCARD COMPANIES THE DIFlCULTIES OF RIVALS WORKING TOGETHER BESIDES THE PROBLEMS OF AGREEING ON COMMON STANDARDS HAVESOFARPROVEDINHIBITINGTOMASSTAKE UP OF M PAYMENTS !S $ANIEL 7INTERBOTTOM ANALYST AT )NFORMA 4ELECOMS AND -EDIA POINTS OUT h4HE PROBLEMSEEMSTOBEGETTINGTHENECESSARYTRACTIONIN THEMARKETPLACEFORTHESERVICETOTAKEOFF ESPECIALLY WHERETHEOPERATORSARETHEPRIMEMOVERS)NCOUNTRIES LIKE3OUTH+OREA WHERESPECIALISTTHIRDPARTYPROVIDERS HAVE TAKEN THE LEAD MARKET DEVELOPMENT HAS BEEN

MUCH MORE SPECTACULAR !S FOR THE BANKS AND CREDIT CARD COMPANIES THE INDICATIONS ARE THAT THEY ARE PLAYINGAWAITINGGAMETOSEEWHICHBUSINESSMODELS PARTNERSHIPS AND TECHNOLOGIES COME TOGETHER TO ACHIEVEASUCCESSFULRESULTv-ANYFEELTHATTHEMODEL OFOPERATOR BASEDMOBILEPAYMENTSWILLNEVERSUCCEED h)TISAFAILINGMODEL vSAYS*Â’RGENSENh4HESOLUTIONIS INDEPENDENTSERVICEPROVIDERSSUCHAS,550v

3ERVICEFORTHEPOOR 7HERE AN M PAYMENTS MODEL HAS ACHIEVED SOME SUCCESS IN A COUNTRY THERE ARE ALREADY SIGNS THAT NON BANKING CUSTOMERS HAVE GRASPED THE CHANCE TO MAKE MOBILEPHONEPAYMENTSANDHAVEADOPTEDTHETECHNOLOGY EAGERLY)N3OUTH!FRICA ARECENTSURVEYLOOKEDATLOW INCOMEPEOPLE OFWHOMDIDNOTUSEMOBILEPHONE BANKING ALONGSIDEWHOUSEANM PAYMENTSYSTEM h4HELOW INCOMECUSTOMERSGIVEM BANKINGHIGHMARKS FOR ITS CONVENIENCE ACCESSIBILITY AND AFFORDABILITY v THE REPORTSTATESh!NM PAYMENTSYSTEMACCOUNTISASMUCH AS ONE THIRD CHEAPER THAN AN ACCOUNT AT ONE OF 3OUTH !FRICASBIGRETAILBANKSFORTHESAMEBASKETOFSERVICESv !TOTALOFMILLION3OUTH!FRICANSDONOTUSEBANKS OR HAVE DIFlCULTY ACCESSING lNANCIAL SERVICES 3INCE ITSLAUNCHIN$ECEMBER THEM PAYMENTSYSTEM HASACQUIREDMORETHAN CUSTOMERS WHOPAY A SIGN UP FEE OF 53 AND THEN PAY CHARGES OF BETWEEN 53 AND 53 PER TRANSACTION 4HERE IS NO MINIMUM BALANCE REQUIREMENT AND NO lXEDMONTHLYFEE

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




#ONNECTINGTHE#OMMONWEALTH

4HESTATEOFTHEMARKET 4HEREARECURRENTLYlVEMAINTYPESOFMOBILEPHONE PAYMENT °0REMIUMRATE3-303-3 WHERETHECUSTOMER IS CHARGED A HIGHER FEE TO SEND A MESSAGE IN RETURN FOR GOODS OR SERVICES 4HIS IS THE MOST USED FORM OF MOBILE PAYMENT AND COMMONLY BUYSDIGITALGOODSSUCHASRINGTONESORGAMES ORPHYSICALGOODSFROMMOBILEWEB ENABLEDM COMMERCESITES °-OBILEPHONEBILLn@DIRECTTOBILL$" PAYMENT nWHEREMOBILEPHONEOPERATORSALLOWCUSTOMERS TOPAYFORGOODSANDSERVICESTHROUGHTHEIRPHONE BILL)TISMAINLYUSEDFORLOW VALUEPAYMENTS AS ANALTERNATIVETOUSINGACREDITCARD °/NLINEnPAYMENTFORMOBILEWEB4HISISASIMILAR METHOD TO PAYING ON E COMMERCE SITES AND ALLOWS CUSTOMERS TO PAY VIA SEVERAL PAYMENT MECHANISMS NOT ONLY THROUGH M COMMERCE #USTOMERSHAVETOENTERTHEIRCREDITCARDDETAILS ONTHEIRPHONES WHICHSOMEPEOPLEARERELUCTANT TODO ESPECIALLYINPUBLIC °3-3 PAYMENT n MOBILE WALLET AND ACCOUNT BASEDPAYMENT4HISISASYSTEMWHEREAMOBILE PAYMENT IS INITIATED USING 3-3 AND FUNDS ARE THEN TRANSFERRED FROM A REGISTERED ACCOUNT OR A MOBILEWALLET WHICHCANBEDEBITORCREDIT BASED 0AY0AL -OBILE AND 3MART0AY IN #HINA BOTH USE THIS SYSTEM -OST CUSTOMERS WHO USE THIS SYSTEMAREYOUNGANDMAYNOTHAVEATRADITIONAL BANKACCOUNT °0ERSON TO PERSON00 PAYMENTS WHEREFUNDS ARE TRANSFERRED BETWEEN MOBILE PHONE USERS AND FUNDS ARE REDEEMED FOR GOODS OR CASH 4HIS CATEGORY INCLUDES REMITTANCE PAYMENTS ANDSOHASAVERYLARGEPOTENTIALCUSTOMERBASE PARTICULARLYINTHEDEVELOPINGWORLD °0HYSICAL MOBILE PAYMENTS 0-0 ARE MADE WHENACUSTOMERUSESTHEIRPHONEATAPHYSICAL LOCATIONTOMAKEAPAYMENT WHETHERTOACASHIER INASTOREORATANUNATTENDEDVENDINGMACHINE 4HERE ARE A NUMBER OF DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES WHICHCANAPPLYHERE INCLUDINGINFRARED @POINT AND BUY 3-3 TEXT AND TEXT AND 0). ! FUTHER TECHNOLOGYUSEDIN0-0ISTHE@CONTACTLESSCHIP SYSTEMWHICHINCLUDESNEARlELDCOMMUNICATION .&# TECHNOLOGY3IMPLEANDQUICKTOUSE THIS SYSTEM IS GAINING WIDESPREAD SUPPORT )T HAS BECOME POPULAR IN *APAN IN A SYSTEM RUN BY .44 $O#O-O AND IN 3OUTH +OREA RUN BY 3+ 4ELECOM ,550STECHNOLOGYEMBRACESONLINE 3-3 PERSON TO PERSON AND PHYSICAL MOBILE PAYMENTS MAKING ITTHEMOSTADAPTABLEANDmEXIBLEMOBILEPAYMENT SYSTEMCURRENTLYINUSE



4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

h4HE lNDINGS CONlRM THAT THERE IS A MARKET FOR M BANKINGAMONGTHEPOOR vSTATESTHEREPORTh0ROVIDERS MUST INCREASE AWARENESS OF M BANKING SERVICES HOWEVER ANDOVERCOMESEVERALSTRONGLYHELDBELIEFS IF MORE POOR PEOPLE ARE TO USE THEMv 4HESE BELIEFS INCLUDEPEOPLETHINKINGTHATTHEYWOULDBEINELIGIBLEFOR ANY KIND OF BANK ACCOUNT AND OTHERS WHO CONSIDER M BANKINGTOBEEXPENSIVEANDINSECURE EVENTHOUGH NINEOUTOFTENOFTHEPEOPLESURVEYEDFORTHISREPORT SAID THEY THINK M BANKING IS @INEXPENSIVE FOR THE BENElTSITGIVESTHEM "Y CONTRAST BANKING AT TRADITIONAL BRANCHES HAS MANY DISADVANTAGES THE SURVEY DISCOVERED HIGH FEES TOO MUCH TIME WASTED IN LONG QUEUES POOR CUSTOMER SERVICE AND LACK OF SECURITY BECAUSE OF THE RISK OF ROBBERY h5LTIMATELY ALL POOR PEOPLE NEED lNANCIAL SERVICES TO INCREASE HOUSEHOLD INCOMES BUILD ASSETS AND BECOME LESS VULNERABLE TO CRISES v THEREPORTCONCLUDESh7ITHMILLIONSOFMOBILEPHONES ALREADY IN POOR PEOPLES HANDS THERE IS TREMENDOUS POTENTIAL IN THE POWER OF NETWORK OPERATORS BANKS ANDNEWENTRANTSTODELIVERlNANCIALSERVICESTHROUGH THISCHANNELv !S *Â’RGENSEN AT ,550 POINTS OUT MOBILE PHONE PAYMENTS ARE A NATURAL NEXT STEP IN THE CONTINUED EVOLUTIONOFCOMMERCEh!SASOCIETY WEHAVEMOVED FROMBARTER TOCASH TOCHEQUES TOCARDSANDNOWTO MOBILEPHONES7EAREINANAGEWHEREALOTISHAPPENING TOCHANGEPROFOUNDLYTHEWAYWEDOBUSINESS-OBILE PAYMENTSAREANIMPORTANTPARTOFTHISCHANGEv

,550n#ORPORATE /SLO .ORWAY 3Â’RKEDALSVEIEN 4HOMAS"OSTRÂ’M*Â’RGENSEN #%/ 4EL  %MAILTBJ LUUPCOM ,550n(EAD/FlCE3ALESAND-ARKETING &RANKFURTAM-AIN 'ERMANY -AINZER,ANDSTRASSE 4HOMAS0IETSCH "USINESS$EVELOPMENT$IRECTOR)NTERNATIONAL 4EL     %MAILTHOMASPIETSCH LUUPCOM 7EBSITEWWWLUUPCOM


*AC3TIENEN

#ONNECTINGTHE#OMMONWEALTH

&RANS.EUMAN 7IETSE"RUINSMAAND *AC3TIENEN )NTERNATIONAL)NSTITUTEFOR #OMMUNICATIONAND$EVELOPMENT))#$

(OW)#4CANMAKEADIFFERENCEIN AGRICULTURALLIVELIHOODS !GRICULTURE IS AN IMPORTANT SECTOR WITH THE MAJORITY OF THE RURAL POPULATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIESDEPENDINGONIT4HESECTORFACESMAJOR CHALLENGESOFENHANCINGPRODUCTIONINASITUATION OF DWINDLING NATURAL RESOURCES NECESSARY FOR PRODUCTION4HEGROWINGDEMANDFORAGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS HOWEVER ALSO OFFERS OPPORTUNITIES FOR PRODUCERS TO SUSTAIN AND IMPROVE THEIR LIVELIHOODS )NFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES )#4 PLAY AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN ADDRESSING THESE CHALLENGES AND UPLIFTING THE LIVELIHOODSOFTHERURALPOOR4HISARTICLEEXPLORES THEPOTENTIALCONTRIBUTIONOF)#4TOTHELIVELIHOODS OFSMALL SCALEFARMERSANDTHEEFlCIENCYOFTHE AGRICULTURALSECTORINDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES )N RECENT YEARS THE )NTERNATIONAL )NSTITUTE FOR #OMMUNICATIONAND$EVELOPMENT))#$ INTHE(AGUE THE .ETHERLANDS HAS BEEN ENGAGED IN PROJECTS THAT FOCUSONTHEUSEOF)#4INTHEAGRICULTURALSECTOR4HE EXPERIENCESOF))#$ANDOTHERORGANISATIONSFORMTHE BASIS FOR THE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE ACTION IN #OMMONWEALTHCOUNTRIES

/PPORTUNITIESANDCHALLENGESINTHE AGRICULTURALSECTOR

INTERNET GEOGRAPHICALINFORMATIONSYSTEMS MOBILEPHONES ASWELLASTRADITIONALMEDIASUCHASRADIOOR46!LTHOUGHITIS ARELATIVELYNEWPHENOMENON EVIDENCEOFTHECONTRIBUTION OF)#4TOAGRICULTURALDEVELOPMENTANDPOVERTYALLEVIATIONIS BECOMINGINCREASINGLYAVAILABLE3INCE ))#$HASBEEN INVOLVEDINPROJECTSANDPOLICYTRAJECTORIESANDCONSISTENTLY MONITORSTHEPROGRESSANDIMPACTOFTHEUSEOF)#4

%NHANCINGAGRICULTURALPRODUCTION )NCREASINGTHEEFlCIENCY PRODUCTIVITYANDSUSTAINABILITY OF SMALL SCALE FARMS IS AN AREA WHERE )#4 CAN MAKE A SIGNIlCANT CONTRIBUTION &ARMING INVOLVES RISKS AND UNCERTAINTIES WITH FARMERS FACING MANY THREATS FROM POOR SOILS DROUGHT EROSION AND PESTS +EY IMPROVEMENTS STEM FROM INFORMATION ABOUT PEST AND DISEASE CONTROL ESPECIALLY EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS NEW VARIETIES NEW WAYS TO OPTIMISE PRODUCTION AND REGULATIONSFORQUALITYCONTROL

)MPROVINGMARKETACCESS !WARENESSOFUP TO DATEMARKETINFORMATIONONPRICES FOR COMMODITIES INPUTS AND CONSUMER TRENDS CAN IMPROVE FARMERS LIVELIHOODS SUBSTANTIALLY AND HAVE A DRAMATIC IMPACT ON THEIR NEGOTIATING POSITION 3UCH INFORMATIONISINSTRUMENTALINMAKINGDECISIONSABOUT FUTURE CROPS AND COMMODITIES AND ABOUT THE BEST TIMEANDPLACETOSELLANDBUYGOODS

4HE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IS CONFRONTED WITH THE MAJOR CHALLENGE OF INCREASING PRODUCTION TO FEED A GROWING ANDINCREASINGLYPROSPEROUSPOPULATIONINASITUATIONOF DECREASINGAVAILABILITYOFNATURALRESOURCES&ACTORSOF PARTICULARCONCERNAREWATERSHORTAGES DECLININGSOIL FERTILITY EFFECTSOFCLIMATECHANGEANDRAPIDDECREASE OFFERTILEAGRICULTURALLANDSDUETOURBANISATION

)NMANYCOUNTRIES INITIATIVESHAVEAPPEAREDTHATSEEK TOADDRESSTHISISSUE3IMPLEWEBSITESTOMATCHOFFER ANDDEMANDOFAGRICULTURALPRODUCEAREASTARTOFMORE COMPLEX AGRICULTURAL TRADE SYSTEMS 4HESE SITES TEND TOEVOLVEFROMLOCALSELLINGBUYINGWEBSITESANDPRICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS TO SYSTEMS OFFERING MARKETING ANDTRADINGFUNCTIONS

(OWEVER THE GROWING DEMAND INCLUDING FOR HIGHER QUALITYPRODUCTS ALSOOFFERSOPPORTUNITIESFORIMPROVING THE LIVELIHOODS OF RURAL COMMUNITIES 2EALISING THESE OPPORTUNITIESREQUIRESCOMPLIANCEWITHMORESTRINGENT QUALITY STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION ANDHANDLINGOFAGRICULTURALPRODUCE.EWAPPROACHES AND TECHNICAL INNOVATIONS ARE REQUIRED TO COPE WITH THESE CHALLENGES AND TO ENHANCE THE LIVELIHOODS OF THERURALPOPULATION

4YPICALLY PRICE INFORMATION IS COLLECTED AT THE MAIN REGIONAL MARKETS AND STORED IN A CENTRAL DATABASE 4HEINFORMATIONISPUBLISHEDONAWEBSITE ACCESSIBLE TO FARMERS VIA INFORMATION CENTRES 4O REACH A WIDER AUDIENCE INFORMATION IS BROADCAST VIA RURAL RADIO 46 ORMOBILEPHONE THEREBYCREATINGA@LEVELPLAYINGlELD BETWEEN PRODUCERS AND TRADERS IN A REGION )N 3RI ,ANKA THE'OVI'NANAPROJECTDISPLAYSPRICESONLIGHT BOARDSATMAJORMARKETS

4HEROLEOF)#4TOENHANCEFOODSECURITYANDSUPPORTRURAL LIVELIHOODS IS INCREASINGLY RECOGNISED AND WAS OFlCIALLY ENDORSEDATTHE7ORLD3UMMITONTHE)NFORMATION3OCIETY 73)3   4HIS INCLUDES THE USE OF COMPUTERS

4HESUSTAINABILITYOFTHESESYSTEMSREQUIRESATTENTION WITH AN IMPORTANT ROLE FOR THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND ORGANISED PRODUCER GROUPS 7EB BASED TRADING PLATFORMS OFFERING ONE STOP SHOP FACILITIES ARE

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




#ONNECTINGTHE#OMMONWEALTH

EMERGING ESPECIALLY FOR MAIN COMMODITIES )N )NDIA THE PRIVATE SECTOR LED !GRIWATCH WWWAGRIWATCH COM AND E#HOUPAL PROGRAMME WWWITCPORTALCOM RURALDEVP?PHILOSOPHY ECHOUPALHTM SUPPORT SEVERAL MILLION FARMERS WITH PRICE INFORMATION TENDER AND TRANSACTION FACILITIES )N RECENT YEARS SHORT MESSAGE ANDTEXTSERVICESHAVETAKENUPANDEFFECTIVELYDELIVER PRICES AND TRADING INFORMATION VIA MOBILE PHONE TO FARMERS FORINSTANCEIN3ENEGAL "ENIN AND:AMBIA 4HE SET UP OF PRICE AND MARKET INFORMATION SYSTEMS HASBEENPILOTEDBY))#$IN"OLIVIA 5GANDA 4ANZANIA AND 'HANA 0ARTNER ORGANISATIONS ARE SUPPORTED IN ADDING)#4TOCOREPROCESSES

)T IS GENERALLY ACCEPTED THAT INFORMATION TO SUSTAIN AND INCREASE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IS SPREAD OVER DIFFERENTAGENCIES NOTABLYFARMERS UNIVERSITIES RESEARCH INSTITUTES EXTENSIONSERVICES COMMERCIALENTERPRISES AND NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS .'/S  (OWEVER THIS KNOWLEDGEISOFTENPOORLYDOCUMENTEDORHARDTOACCESS ))#$PROMOTESDOCUMENTATIONOFLOCALAGRICULTURALPRACTICES ININDIGENOUSCOMMUNITIESIN"OLIVIA/THERORGANISATIONS ATTEMPT TO CAPTURE LOCAL KNOWLEDGE SUCH AS THE (ONEY"EEPROGRAMMEIN)NDIA

)N 'HANA ))#$ SUPPORTS THE 3OCIAL %NTERPRISE &OUNDATION OF 7EST !FRICA 3%.$ IN LINKING RURAL SOYBEANPRODUCERSTOMILLS THROUGHTHEUSEOFSATELLITE DATABASES AND MOBILE PHONES THEREBY ENSURING A FAIRINCOMEFORPRODUCERSANDASTEADYSUPPLYOFRAW MATERIALSFORTHEMILLS

)F THE INFORMATION DOES NOT EXIST INTERMEDIARY ORGANISATIONSCANHELPTOGENERATEIT MAKEITACCESSIBLE AND INmUENCE RESEARCH AGENDAS 4HE 4ELE3UPPORT PROJECT ACTIVE IN TWO )NDIAN STATES COLLECTS FARMERS QUESTIONS !NSWERS FROM LOCAL RESEARCH INSTITUTES ANDUNIVERSITIESARETHENREPACKAGEDONVIDEOANDIN LOCAL LANGUAGE STORED ONLINE WWWTELESUPPORTORG ANDFEDBACKINTOTHELOCALCOMMUNITY

#APACITY BUILDINGANDEMPOWERMENT

4IMELYINFORMATIONAVAILABLEINAPPROPRIATEFORMATS

#OMMUNITIES AND FARMER ORGANISATIONS CAN BE HELPEDTHROUGHTHEUSEOF)#4TOSTRENGTHENTHEIROWN CAPACITIES AND BETTER REPRESENT THEIR CONSTITUENCIES WHENNEGOTIATINGINPUTANDOUTPUTPRICES LANDCLAIMS RESOURCERIGHTSANDINFRASTRUCTUREPROJECTS

)NFORMATION ON TECHNOLOGIES IS PREDOMINANTLY ONLY AVAILABLEINHARDCOPYFORMORINSTAND ALONEDATABASES $ATAAREOFTENINCOMPLETEORNOTCOMPATIBLEWITHOTHER SOURCES

)#4 ENABLES RURAL COMMUNITIES TO INTERACT WITH OTHER STAKEHOLDERS THUSREDUCINGSOCIALISOLATION)TWIDENS THE PERSPECTIVE OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES IN TERMS OF NATIONAL OR GLOBAL DEVELOPMENTS OPENS UP NEW BUSINESSOPPORTUNITIESANDALLOWSEASIERCONTACTWITH FRIENDSANDRELATIVES ! ROLE IS ALSO PLAYED BY )#4 IN MAKING PROCESSES MOREEFlCIENTANDTRANSPARENT)THELPSINMAKINGLAWS AND LAND TITLES MORE ACCESSIBLE 'LOBAL 0OSITIONING 3YSTEMS '03 LINKED TO 'EOGRAPHICAL )NFORMATION 3YSTEMS')3 DIGITALCAMERASANDINTERNET HELPRURAL COMMUNITIES TO DOCUMENT AND COMMUNICATE THEIR SITUATION 2URALCOMMUNITIESBENElTFROMBETTERACCESSTOCREDIT AND RURAL BANKING FACILITIES 2ECENT MOBILE BANKING INITIATIVES OFFER FURTHER SCOPE TO REDUCE COSTS AND STIMULATELOCALTRADE)#4ALSOPLAYSAROLEINENSURING EQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF BENElTS 4HE )NDIAN !-5, PROGRAMME AUTOMATES MILK COLLECTION AND PAYMENTS FOR ITS   MEMBERS THEREBY ENHANCING TRANSPARENCYOFTHEMILKVOLUMEANDQUALITYCOLLECTED ANDENSURINGFAIRPAYMENTSTOFARMERS

%CONOMIES OF SCALE CAN BE REALISED THROUGH THE USE OF SHARED PLATFORMS USING COMMON STANDARDS )NFORMATION SHOULD BE PRESENTED IN AN APPROPRIATE FORMAT IN ORDER TO BE EFFECTIVELY USED BY RURAL COMMUNITIES -ESSAGES THROUGH VIDEOS IN LOCAL LANGUAGES HAVE PROVED TO BE EFFECTIVE !T THIS POINT IN TIME COMBINING OLD AND NEW MEDIA IS MOST SUCCESSFUL SUCH AS VIDEOS OF GOOD PRACTICES RURAL THEATRE 46 AND RADIO BROADCASTS WHICH ALL PROVIDE INPUT FOR LOCAL INNOVATION &OR EXAMPLE A 5GANDAN ))#$ PARTNER PROJECT EFFECTIVELY USES A DRAMA GROUP TOCONVEYMESSAGESTORURALCOMMUNITIES))#$ALSO SUPPORTSTHE:AMBIAN-INISTRYOF!GRICULTUREAND#O OPERATIVES IN MAKING RESEARCH INFORMATION AVAILABLE BY COMBINING TEXTUAL AND VISUAL MEDIA IN %NGLISH AND LOCAL LANGUAGES !S INFORMATION IS INCREASINGLY STOREDONLINE ITISACCESSIBLETIMEANDAGAIN

)NSTITUTIONALMECHANISMSANDHUMANCAPACITYTO LINKRURALCOMMUNITIES

)#4INAGRICULTURESECTORPLANS

4HERE IS A HUGE GAP BETWEEN INFORMATION RESIDING IN AGRICULTURALKNOWLEDGECENTRESANDRURALCOMMUNITIES !T LOCAL LEVEL MULTI STAKEHOLDER MECHANISMS ARE IMPORTANT TO MAKE RELEVANT INFORMATION ACCESSIBLE TO ENDUSERS)NTERMEDIARYORGANISATIONSHAVETOCONNECT RURAL COMMUNITIES TO AVAILABLE KNOWLEDGE 5SERS WILL INCREASINGLY WANT TAILOR MADE QUALITY ANSWERS TO THEIRQUESTIONS)NTHE!GRICULTURAL#LINICSIN)NDIAAND #HILES ONLINE ADVISORY SERVICE CUSTOMERS GET ANSWERSWITHINONETOTWODAYS-OBILE1!SERVICES AREBEINGPILOTEDIN)NDIA

)NCREASINGLYGOVERNMENTSREALISETHENECESSITYTOLINK )#4ANDAGRICULTUREANDINCORPORATE)#4INAGRICULTURAL SECTOR POLICIES AND PROGRAMMES ))#$ HAS BEEN SUPPORTING POLICY PROCESSES IN "OLIVIA 'HANA AND *AMAICAINWHICHNATIONAL)#4FOR$EVELOPMENT)#4$ NETWORKSPLAYAKEYROLE

!T NATIONAL LEVEL MECHANISMS NEED TO BE IN PLACE TO ENSURE LEARNING AND INFORMATION SHARING )N NINE COUNTRIES ))#$ SUPPORTS NATIONAL )#4$ NETWORKS THAT PLAY AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN KNOWLEDGE SHARING BRINGINGVARIOUSSTAKEHOLDERSTOGETHER ANDENGAGING INPOLICYDIALOGUE

#ONDITIONSFORACONDUCIVEENABLING ENVIRONMENT &ORINFORMATIONANDKNOWLEDGETOBEEFFECTIVELYUSED BYRURALCOMMUNITIESSEVERALCONDITIONSSHOULDBEMET



.EEDFORRELEVANTAGRICULTURALINFORMATION

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING


#ONNECTINGTHE#OMMONWEALTH

2URALACCESSANDEXCHANGEMECHANISMS CONNECTIVITYANDTELECENTRES 4HETYPEOF)#4USEDBYLOCALCOMMUNITIESISSUBJECT TORAPIDCHANGE(OWEVER BROADBANDINTERNETACCESS IS SEEN AS CENTRAL FOR SOCIETAL INNOVATION BECAUSE STORING OF LARGE DATASETS AND LIVE COMMUNICATION REQUIRESGOODCONNECTIVITY 5NTIL RECENTLY CONNECTIVITY IN RURAL AREAS WAS LIMITED TOSLOWDIAL UPLINES3ATELLITECONNECTIONSNOWMAKE BROADBAND ACCESS POSSIBLE IN REMOTE AREAS 5SE OF MOBILE PHONES HAS SEEN AN ENORMOUS INCREASE IN RECENT YEARS ESPECIALLY IN RURAL AREAS IN !FRICA .EVERTHELESS BIG DIFFERENCES STILL EXIST IN BROADBAND ACCESSBETWEENDEVELOPEDANDDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES WITH !FRICA HAVING ONLY THREE PER CENT OF GLOBAL BROADBAND USERS .EW WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES SUCH AS -%3( AND 7I-!8 AND NEW GENERATION MOBILE PHONE NETWORKS WILL PROVIDE HIGH SPEED INTERNET SERVICESATSHARPLYREDUCEDCOSTS THEREBYDRAMATICALLY INCREASING INTERNET COVERAGE IN RURAL AREAS 6ARIOUS ACCESSTOOLSARECONVERGING BECOMINGCHEAPERAND MOREmEXIBLE .EW GENERATION MOBILE PHONES AND LAPTOPS PROVIDE OMNIPRESENT ACCESS WITH AMPLE FUNCTIONALITY FOR COMMUNICATION TRANSACTIONSANDTRANSFEROFDATA 4HE .ATIONAL !LLIANCE FOR -ISSION  AND THE #OMMON 3ERVICE #ENTRE 3CHEME TO ESTABLISH TELECENTRESCOUNTRY WIDEIN)NDIAARECLEAREXAMPLESOF THEGOVERNMENTSDEDICATIONTOENHANCERURALACCESS )N %CUADOR AND "OLIVIA ))#$ HAS SUPPORTED .'/S TO SET UPTELECENTRESINREMOTEAREASBASEDONVERYSMALL APERTURETERMINALS63!4S WITHSHAREDCOSTOFACCESS 4HISISREPLICATEDANDUPSCALEDATNATIONALLEVEL %NSURING SUSTAINABILITY IS A MAJOR CHALLENGE #OST SHARING ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN LOCAL STAKEHOLDERS SUCHASHEALTHCENTRES FARMERSORGANISATIONS SCHOOLS ANDLOCALGOVERNMENTALBODIES ARETAKINGPLACE!LSO PAYMENTS FOR LOCAL SERVICES CAN GENERATE REVENUES TO SUSTAIN TELECENTRES 0RICE INFORMATION PROJECTS IN )NDIA REPORT THAT FARMERS ARE WILLING TO PAY FOR PRICE INFORMATION FROM THE GAINS MADE THROUGH ACCESS TO IT 2URAL INFORMATION CENTRES ALSO PROVIDE A LEARNING ENVIRONMENT FOR FARMER GROUPS ON THE USE OF )#4 BUT ALSOONJOINTLYSOLVINGPROBLEMSINTHEIRLIVELIHOODS

,ESSONSLEARNEDANDRECOMMENDATIONS 4HESOCIALANDPOLITICALENVIRONMENTWITHINWHICH)#4 PROJECTSOPERATEISCRUCIALANDSUPPORTIVEPOLICIESAND MEASURESAREREQUIRED!WARENESS RAISING DEVELOPING FUNCTIONALSYSTEMSANDCAPACITIESOFSTAKEHOLDERSARE PROCESSES THAT REQUIRE TIME ! GENERAL LESSON FROM INITIATIVESTHATEMPLOY)#4FORAGRICULTURALDEVELOPMENT ISTHATSUCCESSESAREPOSSIBLE BUTTHATPROGRAMMES MUST BE DESIGNED AND IMPLEMENTED WITH CARE 3UCCESS IS NOT DERIVED AUTOMATICALLY FROM INSERTING )#4INTOISOLATED POORCOMMUNITIES )N A  SURVEY ))#$ ANALYSED THE USE OF )#4 IN AGRICULTUREINOVERlFTYSUPPORTEDPROJECTS%NDUSERS CLEARLY INDICATED THAT AWARENESS RAISING AND TRAINING ARE HIGHLY VALUED AND LEAD TO EMPOWERMENT 2APID IMPACT IN TERMS OF INCREASED INCOME IS REGISTERED

IN PROJECTS ON PRICE INFORMATION AND MARKET ACCESS WHEREAS MORE INDIRECT IMPACT WAS FOUND IN PROJECTS FOCUSING ON AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION WHICH IS TO BE EXPLAINED BY THE TIME NEEDED TO GENERATE RELEVANT CONTENTANDINTEGRATETHISINTOTHEPRODUCTIONPROCESS WWWIICDORGARTICLESBOOKLET IMPACT AGRIC  4HERE IS AMPLE POTENTIAL FOR EFFECTIVE USE OF )#4 IN AGRICULTURE AND INITIATIVES ARE PROMISING (OWEVER MUCHSTILLREMAINSTOBEDONE3EVERALFUTURETRENDSOF GREATIMPORTANCEARE °#ONVERGINGOFMEDIAANDTOOLSFORCOMMUNICATION °)NCREASEDWEB BASEDSTORAGEOFAGRICULTURALINFORMATION °#HEAPERANDIMPROVEDCONNECTIVITYFORRURALCOMMUNITIES °)NCREASED RECOGNITION BY GOVERNMENTS OF THE IMPORTANCEOFTHEUSEOF)#4INRURALDEVELOPMENT °)NCREASEDTAILOR MADE QUALITYAGRICULTURALINFORMATION SERVICES "ASEDONEXPERIENCESANDTRENDS THEIMPLEMENTATION OF THE FOLLOWING RECOMMENDATIONS CAN HELP REALISE THEFULLPOTENTIALOF)#4INAGRICULTUREANDIMPROVERURAL LIVELIHOODS &OSTER STRATEGIES AND PROGRAMMES WITH A LONG TERM PERSPECTIVE )#4 SHOULD BE INTEGRATED INTO AGRICULTURAL SECTOR POLICIES AND LEAD TO SUPPORTIVE PROGRAMMES #REATEMULTI STAKEHOLDERMECHANISMSFORLEARNING )NSTITUTIONAL MECHANISMS ESPECIALLY MULTI STAKEHOLDER NETWORKS SHOULD BE IN PLACE TO FOSTER LEARNING AND EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION AT VARIOUS LEVELS  AT LOCAL AND SUB NATIONAL LEVEL LINKING RURAL COMMUNITIES WITH UNIVERSITIES RESEARCH AGENCIES THROUGH INTERMEDIARY ORGANISATIONS AND  AT NATIONAL LEVELS TO SHARE KNOWLEDGE AND LESSONS LEARNED AND SUPPORT THE POLICYPROCESS 2AISEAWARENESSONTHEROLEOF)#4$INPOVERTY ALLEVIATION3INCETHEUSEOF)#4INAGRICULTUREISSTILL A NEW AND RAPIDLY CHANGING AREA THERE IS A NEED TO RAISE AWARENESS AMONG GOVERNMENTS OTHER NATIONAL STAKEHOLDERS AND THE INTERNATIONAL DONOR COMMUNITY ONTHEPOTENTIAL *AC3TIENENHASBEENTHE-ANAGING$IRECTOROFTHE)NTERNATIONAL )NSTITUTEFOR#OMMUNICATIONAND$EVELOPMENT))#$ FOROVERlVE YEARS ALMOSTSINCEITSCONCEPTION 7IETSE"RUINSMAIS#OUNTRY-ANAGERFOR%CUADORANDINFORMATION NETWORKING SPECIALIST FOR "OLIVIA AT ))#$ $EVELOPMENT #O OPERATIONAND%DUCATION &RANS.EUMANIS4HEMATIC.ETWORK3PECIALISTAT))#$ 4HE)NTERNATIONAL)NSTITUTEFOR#OMMUNICATIONAND$EVELOPMENT ))#$ CREATES PRACTICAL AND SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS THAT CONNECT PEOPLEANDENABLETHEMTOBENElTFROM)#4!SANINDEPENDENT NOT FOR PROlT FOUNDATION IT PUTS KNOWLEDGE INNOVATION AND lNANCETOWORKWITHPARTNERSFROMTHEPUBLIC PRIVATEANDNOT FOR PROlTSECTORS 4HE)NTERNATIONAL)NSTITUTEFOR#OMMUNICATIONAND$EVELOPMENT 0/"OX !.4HE(AGUE 4HE.ETHERLANDS 4EL  \&AX   %MAILJSTIENEN IICDORGWBRUINSMA IICDORGFNEUMAN IICDORG 7EBSITEWWWIICDORG

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




#ONNECTINGTHE#OMMONWEALTH

$EVINDRA2AMNARINEAND 4ANIA'ESSI #OMMONWEALTH#ONNECTS 0ROGRAMME

#OMMONWEALTH#ONNECTSAND E(EALTHTHE!FRICANEXPERIENCE 4HE POSITIVE IMPACTS OF ELECTRONIC SUPPORT SYSTEMS FOR HEALTH E(EALTH ARE BECOMING INCREASINGLY APPARENT %LECTRONIC MEDICAL RECORDS PATIENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS GENERAL PRACTITIONER INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND NATIONAL INFORMATION REGISTRIES ARE TRANSFORMING HEALTH TODAY4HEREISNODOUBTTHATMODERNTECHNOLOGIES SUCH AS VIDEOCONFERENCING AND REAL TIME DATA TRANSFERHAVEREVOLUTIONISEDHEALTHCARE4HEMOST TANGIBLEBENElTSOFPURSUINGE(EALTHSTRATEGIES ARETHEOVERALLIMPROVEMENTOFTHEHEALTHSYSTEM ENHANCED HUMAN CAPACITY BUILDING IMPROVED ACCESS TO KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMED DECISION MAKING THAT ULTIMATELY LEAD TO BETTER PATIENT OUTCOMES 5NFORTUNATELY THE MOST CHALLENGING ASPECT REMAINS PERSUADING POLICYMAKERS THAT THE IMPLEMENTATION OF GOOD E(EALTH POLICIES RESULTSINTHESEPOSITIVEOUTCOMES4HISCHALLENGE IS FURTHER COMPOUNDED IN THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES OF THE #OMMONWEALTH WHERE MANY IMMEDIATEANDPRESSINGISSUESCOMPETEFORTHE ATTENTIONOFPOLICYMAKERS 4HE 7ORLD (EALTH /RGANIZATION 7(/ DElNES E(EALTHAShTHEUSEOFINFORMATIONANDCOMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIESFORHEALTHv4HEREISBROADAGREEMENTON ACOREPRINCIPLETHATE(EALTHREPRESENTShACOMMITMENT FOR NETWORKED GLOBAL THINKING TO IMPROVE HEALTHCARE LOCALLY REGIONALLYANDWORLDWIDE BYUSINGINFORMATION ANDCOMMUNICATIONTECHNOLOGYv )N DEVELOPING #OMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGIES )#4S HAVE NOT REALISEDTHEIRPOTENTIALTOENHANCEDISEASEPREVENTION AND TO IMPROVE THE OVERALL HEALTH OF PEOPLE 4HIS DIGITAL FRAGMENTATION IS GENERALLY REmECTED IN OTHER AREAS OF SOCIETY WITH A LACK OF ACCESS TO INFORMATION ON GOVERNMENT DECISIONS AND THE INABILITY TO CARRY COMPLETE PUBLIC SERVICE TRANSACTIONS ONLINE 4HIS SO CALLED @DIGITAL DIVIDE MEANS THAT PEOPLE WITHOUT THE INFRASTRUCTURETOACCESS)#4SORTHECAPACITYTOUSEIT EFFECTIVELY WILL CONTINUE TO BE MARGINALISED 4O TACKLE THEDIGITALDIVIDEWITHINANDBETWEEN#OMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES THE #OMMONWEALTH #ONNECTS PROGRAMME @## WAS CREATED AND IS BEING IMPLEMENTED 4HIS PROGRAMME IS A  #(/'- MANDATE OF THE #OMMONWEALTH (EADS OF 'OVERNMENT WHERE IT WAS RE CONlRMEDTHAT)#4SCANACTASACATALYSTFORCREATING 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

NEWECONOMICSYNERGIESTOOVERCOMETHECONSTRAINTS OF REMOTENESS SMALL SIZE AND OTHER IMPEDIMENTS TO DEVELOPMENT 4HE PROGRAMME WAS CREATED AND IS BEINGEXECUTEDTHROUGHANORGANISATIONALPARTNERSHIP THAT INVOLVES #OMMONWEALTH AGENCIES AND MEMBER COUNTRIES AND A 3TEERING #OMMITTEE UNDER THE CHAIRMANSHIP OF A MINISTER TO GUIDE THE PROGRAMME )T IS THEREFORE IMPORTANT TO CONSIDER HOW ## CAN FACILITATEE(EALTHINDEVELOPINGMEMBERCOUNTRIES ## CAN BE EXPLOITED TO SUPPORT E(EALTH DRIVEN DEMANDSANDINITIATIVESE(EALTHAPPLICATIONSINCLUDE °0UBLIC SERVICES WHICH INVOLVE THE DISSEMINATION OF HEALTHINFORMATIONONLINETHATISPOTENTIALLYACCESSIBLE TOALL °+NOWLEDGE SERVICES CONSISTING OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATIONANDEDUCATIONSERVICESFORTHEHEALTHCARE PROFESSIONALINTRAININGANDPRACTICE AND °0ROVIDER SERVICES WHICH INCLUDE E(EALTH TOOLS AND SERVICESUSEDINTHEDIRECTDELIVERYOFHEALTHCARETO CITIZENS E(EALTHAPPLICATIONSANDINITIATIVESAREMORELIKELYTOBE IMPLEMENTED IN HIGHER INCOME COUNTRIES THAN LOWER INCOMENATIONS)NTHISCONTEXT ASAMPLEOFCOUNTRIES IN!FRICAWILLBEUSEDTOILLUSTRATETHETYPICALCHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FACED BY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IN THE#OMMONWEALTH$EVELOPMENTOFE(EALTHIN!FRICA IS OFTEN HINDERED BY THE HIGH COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH E(EALTH SYSTEMS INCLUDING THE COSTS OF THE TELE COMMUNICATION INFRASTRUCTURE ESPECIALLY FOR RURAL COMMUNITIES ANDTHEHUMANRESOURCESREQUIREDFORTHE DEVELOPMENTOFAPPROPRIATECONTENTANDTHEUTILISATIONOF E(EALTHSYSTEMS,OWLEVELSOF)#4LITERACYINTHEHEALTH SECTOR ITSELF REMAIN A CHALLENGE AS ARE INADEQUATE POLICYFRAMEWORKSANDLEGISLATIONTOSUPPORTE(EALTH

)NFRASTRUCTUREANDACCESS !TTHEINFRASTRUCTURALANDACCESSLEVEL !FRICACONTINUES TO FACE MANY DIFlCULTIES AND CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH CREATING AND MAINTAINING A SOUND INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION INFRASTRUCTURE WHICH CONSTRAINS THE IMPLEMENTATION OF E(EALTH POLICIES AND INITIATIVES ACROSS THE CONTINENT 3AMPLE STATISTICS SHOW THAT LIMITED GEOGRAPHICAL COVERAGE AND BANDWIDTH POOR INTERCONNECTIVITY HIGHCOSTSANDLOWQUALITYOFSERVICE HAVERESULTEDINMUCHOFTHECONTINENTSINFRASTRUCTURE


#ONNECTINGTHE#OMMONWEALTH

&IGURE1UALITY OFINFRASTRUCTURE ENVIRONMENT

WORLD &OR EXAMPLE THE INFORMAL SHARING OF MOBILES AND THE RESELLING OF PRIVATE MOBILE SERVICES HAVE INCREASEDACCESSIBILITYEVENINREMOTEAREAS4HISHAS RESULTEDINSOCIALANDECONOMICBENElTSFORTHEREGION )N FACT MOBILE TELEPHONE CAN BE USED EXTENSIVELY TO PROVIDERELEVANTE(EALTHSOLUTIONS

+EY #OMMONWEALTH!FRICA "/4n"OTSWANA #!-n#AMEROON '!-n4HE'AMBIA '(!n'HANA +%.n+ENYA -!5n-AURITIUS -7)n-ALAWI -/:n-OZAMBIQUE .!-n.AMIBIA .)' .IGERIA 3!&n3OUTH!FRICA 5'!n5GANDA :!-n:AMBIA .ON #OMMONWEALTH!FRICA !.'n!NGOLA %'9 %GYPT %4(n%THIOPIA -,)n-ALI 3%.n3ENEGAL 45.n4UNISIA :)- :IMBABWE

LAGGINGBEHINDTHERESTOFTHEWORLD4HISISEXEMPLIlED IN&IGURE WHICHISBASEDONASAMPLEOF!FRICAN COUNTRIES USING RANKINGS OBTAINED FROM THE 7ORLD %CONOMIC &ORUMS 7%& !NNUAL 'LOBAL )NFORMATION AND4ECHNOLOGY2EPORTS4HESEREPORTSAIMTOMONITOR THE PROGRESS OF NETWORKED READINESS IN MORE THAN COUNTRIES HIGHLIGHTINGTHEPOLICY INSTITUTIONAL AND STRUCTURAL OBSTACLES THAT PREVENT COUNTRIES FROM FULLY CAPTURINGTHEBENElTSOF)#4S $UE TO THE CONSTRAINTS FACED BY THE CONTINENTS VAST TERRAIN AND INADEQUATE ENERGY SUPPLIES SUBMARINE CABLE AND SATELLITE TECHNOLOGIES ARE THE MOST WIDESPREAD MEANS TO TRANSMIT DATA AND INTERNET SERVICES BUT THESE ARE COSTLY AND THUS INACCESSIBLE TOASIGNIlCANTPARTOFTHE!FRICANPOPULATION7ITHTHE EXCEPTION OF -AURITIUS MOST OF THE SAMPLE COUNTRIES AREINTHEBOTTOMHALFOFTHESURVEY 7HILE THE ENTIRE REGION HAS ACCESS TO SATELLITE BAND WIDTH DUETOMONOPOLIESWITHINTHETELECOMMUNICATIONS SECTOR HIGH LICENCE FEES AND THE LACK OF POLICIES ENABLINGLOWCOSTACCESS MANY!FRICANCOUNTRIESHAVE VERYLIMITEDBANDWIDTHACCESS2ANKINGSFORBROADBAND AVAILABILITY SHOW VERY LITTLE VARIATION AMONG COUNTRIES 4HE PROVISION OF AFFORDABLE ACCESS TO BROADBAND TECHNOLOGIES PRESENTS ONE OF THE BIGGEST CHALLENGES FORTHECONTINENTASAWHOLE%FFECTIVEIMPLEMENTATION OF TELECOMMUNICATION POLICIES AND THE LIBERALISATION OFTHESECTORAPPEARTOBETHEMAJORISSUESFACEDBY MOSTCOUNTRIES

)N TERMS OF INTERNET ACCESS &IGURE  ALTHOUGH THERE HAS BEEN CONSIDERABLE GROWTH IN INTERNET USERS OVER THE LAST lVE YEARS THE !FRICAN CONTINENT HAS THE LOWEST PENETRATION OF INTERNET USERS WORLDWIDE WITH  MILLION INTERNET USERS IN  ONLY  PER CENT OF THE REGIONS POPULATION !LL BUT ONE OF THE COUNTRIES SURVEYEDRANKEDINTHELOWERHALFOFTHEWORLDRANKING WITH %THIOPIA OCCUPYING THE TH PLACE 4HE HIGH COST OF INTERNET ACCESS EVEN IN URBAN AREAS WITH ADEQUATE INFRASTRUCTURE MAKES ACCESS UNAFFORDABLE AND INACCESSIBLE TO THE MAJORITY OF THE POPULATION ,OW lXED LINE DIFFUSION AND LIMITED NETWORK CAPACITY TO PROVIDE INTERNET SERVICES ALSO SEVERELY RESTRAIN THE GROWTHPOTENTIAL

(UMANDEVELOPMENT 4HE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGE IN !FRICA IS IMPORTANT SINCE ANY ADVANCEMENT IN E(EALTH WILL REQUIRE E LITERACY AND THE HUMAN CAPACITY TO SUSTAIN E(EALTH APPLICATIONS AND MAKE THEM RELEVANT TO THE LOCAL CONTEXT (ERE HUMAN CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT IS DESCRIBED AS @ADULT LITERACY AS THE EXTENT OF USE OF )#4S IS DIRECTLY INmUENCED BY A NATIONS LITERACY LEVELS &IGURE 4HISISMEASUREDBYTHEPERCENTAGEOFTHE POPULATION OVER THE AGE OF  THAT IS ABLE TO READ OR WRITE IN %NGLISH OR &RENCH 2ESEARCH HAS SHOWN THAT MOSTUSERSOF)#4STENDTOHAVESOMEFORMOF@FORMAL EDUCATIONWHICHWOULDFACILITATETHEUSEOFTHEINTERNET EMAILANDOTHERFORMSOFCOMMUNICATION%FFORTSMUST BEMADETOINCLUDETHOSEWITHOUTFORMALEDUCATION WHO MAYNOTBEABLETOREADANDWRITE IN)#4DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS $IGITAL CONTENT AND SOFTWARE DEVELOPED IN LOCAL!FRICANLANGUAGESISALMOSTNON EXISTENT &IGURE )NTERNETUSERS

/N A MORE POSITIVE NOTE THE GROWTH OF MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS IN THE CONTINENT HAS BEEN DRAMATIC 5GANDA IN  JOINED THE !FRICAN COUNTRIES WHERE THE NUMBER OF MOBILE PHONES OUTNUMBER lXED LINES )N +ENYA AND .IGERIA MOBILE PHONES OUTNUMBER lXEDLINESBY!FRICAHADAPPROXIMATELYMILLION TELEPHONE SUBSCRIBERS IN   MILLION OF WHICH WERE MOBILE SUBSCRIBERS 4HE CONTINENT ALSO HAS THE HIGHESTGROWTHRATEOFMOBILESUBSCRIBERSGLOBALLY AND ISNOWKNOWNASTHE@LEASTWIREDREGIONINTHEWORLD -OBILEPENETRATIONRATESARESTILLLOWWHENCOMPARED WITH DEVELOPED ECONOMIES (OWEVER THE NUMBER OF SUBSCRIBERS DOES NOT CLEARLY REmECT THE HIGH LEVEL OF ACCESSIBILITYTHATEXISTS4HEWAYINWHICHMOBILESARE USEDIN!FRICADIFFERSVASTLYFROMTHATOFTHEDEVELOPED

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




#ONNECTINGTHE#OMMONWEALTH

&IGURE !DULTLITERACY

!S SHOWN FROM THE ABOVE STATISTICS !FRICA IS EXPERIENCINGSERIOUSCHALLENGESATAN)#4INFRASTRUCTURAL ANDHUMANCAPACITYLEVEL

4HE##PROGRAMMEAREAS 4HE##PROGRAMME BYFOCUSINGONlVEWELL DElNED AREAS ASSISTS WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL )#4 STRATEGIES AND HAS CREATED A PORTAL THAT ALLOWS THE SHARING OF )#4 RESOURCES WITHIN THE #OMMONWEALTH 4HESE COMPONENTS WILL MEANINGFULLY ENHANCE AND SUPPORTTHEGLOBALEFFORTOFTHE7ORLD3UMMITONTHE )NFORMATION3OCIETY73)3 ANDTHE-$'S ASWELLAS SUPPORTING#OMMONWEALTH WIDEE(EALTHINITIATIVES !CCORDING TO THE 7(/ 2EPORT hNATIONAL FOUNDATIONS ACTIONSFORMTHEBASISOFE(EALTHINCOUNTRIESv MEANING THATCOUNTRIESNEEDTOCREATEAVISIONANDAROADMAP FORACTION TODEVELOPAFUNDINGFRAMEWORKTOSUPPORT SUCH A VISION AND MECHANISMS TO DEVELOP )#4 INFRASTRUCTUREFORTHEPROVISIONOFE(EALTHSERVICES## ISASSESSINGNATIONAL)#4STRATEGICPLANNINGINMEMBER COUNTRIES AND IS ASSISTING WITH THE DEVELOPMENT AND FORMULATION OF )#4 STRATEGIES THAT WILL ULTIMATELY ENABLE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IN THE #OMMONWEALTH TO EXPLOIT )#4S FOR SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC BENElTS 4HE DEVELOPMENT OF AN E(EALTH POLICY IS AN ELEMENT THAT IS INTEGRAL TO NATIONAL )#4 STRATEGIC PLANNING ## THEREFORECANENSURETHATA NATIONAL E(EALTH POLICYIS EFFECTIVELY INTEGRATED INTO THE NATIONAL )#4 POLICIES OF LESSDEVELOPEDCOUNTRIESINTHE#OMMONWEALTH ## IS BEING IMPLEMENTED THROUGH A FOCUS ON THE FOLLOWINGlVEAREAS °"UILDINGPOLICYANDREGULATORYCAPACITY °-ODERNISINGEDUCATIONANDSKILLSDEVELOPMENT °0ROMOTINGLOCALACCESSANDCONNECTIVITY °2EGIONALNETWORKS LOCALCONTENTANDKNOWLEDGE °%NTREPRENEURSHIP FOR WEALTH CREATION AND POVERTY REDUCTION 4HESEARETHEBUILDINGBLOCKSOFTHE##PROGRAMME ANDAREREmECTIVEOFTHECOMPARATIVEADVANTAGEOFTHE #OMMONWEALTHANDTHENEEDSOFMEMBERCOUNTRIES 4HElRSTFOURFOCUSAREASCOULDINFACTBEEXPLOITEDTO HELPADDRESSTHECHALLENGESFACEDBY#OMMONWEALTH GOVERNMENTSINTHEIRATTEMPTATIMPLEMENTINGE(EALTH SOLUTIONS SUCHASTHENEEDTODEVELOPSTRATEGICPOLICIES ATTHENATIONALLEVELTHATSUPPORTE(EALTHSYSTEMSAND SERVICES ANDTODEVELOPSERVICESTHATAREACCESSIBLE TOALLREGARDLESSOFLANGUAGE CULTUREORLOCATION ##SEESTHEFORMULATIONANDIMPLEMENTATIONOFANATIONAL )#4STRATEGYASANESSENTIALPREREQUISITEIFCOUNTRIESARE 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

TOPRODUCEANDREALISETHEBENElTSOFUSING)#4ASA TOOLFORECONOMICANDSOCIALDEVELOPMENT!CCORDING TOSTATISTICALDATAEXTRACTEDFROM7(/ OFTHEPER CENT OF COUNTRIES THAT HAVE ADOPTED A NATIONAL )#4 POLICY ONLY  PER CENT HAVE AN ESTABLISHED E(EALTH POLICY4HEEFFECTIVEIMPLEMENTATIONOFE(EALTHPOLICIES INEMERGINGECONOMIESTHEREFOREPRESENTSEVENMORE OFACHALLENGEDUETOTHELACKOFACCESSTOTHEPOLICY KNOWLEDGE AND TECHNICAL EXPERTISE NECESSARY TO DEVELOP EFFECTIVE AND RELEVANT E(EALTH POLICIES 4HE #OMMONWEALTH HAS ADOPTED A PROCESS APPROACH TOWARDS THE FORMULATION OF NATIONAL )#4 STRATEGIES IN DEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES WHICHHASSOMEKEYCOMPONENTS INCLUDINGCREATIONOFANATIONAL)#4POLICY DEVELOPMENT OF AN E READINESS @CHECKLIST COMPLETION OF AN )#4 BENCHMARKING ASSESSMENT AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF ANIMPLEMENTABLENATIONAL)#4STRATEGICPLAN 4HE.ATIONAL)#40OLICYDEVELOPEDBYTHE'OVERNMENT OF "OTSWANA IS A USEFUL ILLUSTRATION OF THIS APPROACH 4HE FORMULATION OF THE POLICY INVOLVED A WIDE VARIETY OF STAKEHOLDERS FROM THE PUBLIC PRIVATE SECTORS ACADEMIA AND CIVIL SOCIETY )T WAS DEVELOPED IN lVE STAGES THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A .ATIONAL )#4 6ISION THE EXECUTION OF AN % READINESS AND "ENCHMARKING STUDY THEIDENTIlCATIONOFPROJECTSANDPROGRAMMESIN THE.ATIONAL)#40OLICY THEIDENTIlCATIONOFADETAILED .ATIONAL )#4 -ASTER 0LAN AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN )#4 -ONITORING AND %VALUATION 0ROGRAMME 4HE .ATIONAL )#4 0OLICY ADDRESSED INFRASTRUCTURE AND INTERNET ACCESS ISSUES AND THE HUMAN CAPITAL AND WORKFORCENECESSARYTOMAXIMISETHEBENElTSOF)#4FOR SOCIAL ECONOMICANDCULTURALBENElTSE(EALTHWASAN INTEGRALPARTOFTHE.ATIONAL)#40LAN ANDEFFORTSWERE MADETOEFFECTIVELYINCORPORATE)#4SOLUTIONSTOHEALTH PROBLEMS SUCH AS THE PROVISION OF BASIC HEALTHCARE INFORMATION PARTICULARLY RELATED TO ()6 )#4 TRAINING FOR HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONALS AND )#4 SOLUTIONS THAT CAN TRANSFORMHEALTHCAREMANAGEMENTANDADMINISTRATION PROCESSES !NATIONALPOLICYTOREDUCETHECOSTSFOR)#4INFRASTRUCTURE FORTHEHEALTHSECTORWASEFFECTEDINANDIN A NATIONAL PLAN FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF )#4 IN HEALTH WHICHSETSTARGETSFORHEALTHSECTORCONNECTIVITY WAS IMPLEMENTED )TAPPEARSTHATNODECISIONSHAVEBEENMADEONWHICH ACTIONS TO PURSUE TO PROMOTE THE DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTRONICMULTICULTURALHEALTHCONTENT3O FOREXAMPLE INTHECONTEXTOF"OTSWANA ##CANMAKEACONTRIBUTION THROUGH ONE OF ITS FOCUS AREAS n THE PROMOTION AND CREATIONOFLOCALCONTENTANDKNOWLEDGE 4HE"OTSWANAEXAMPLECLEARLYILLUSTRATESTHEEFFECTIVE FORMULATION OF A NATIONAL )#4 POLICY WHICH INCLUDES IMPLEMENTABLE E(EALTH POLICIES AND APPLICATIONS THAT ARE BOTH RELEVANT TO THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT AND DEMAND DRIVEN

!VOIDINGDUPLICATION /NE OF THE ADVANTAGES OF THE APPLICATION OF )#4S TO ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT IS THAT IT ALLOWS COUNTRIESTO@LEAPFROGTRADITIONALSTAGESOFDEVELOPMENT


#ONNECTINGTHE#OMMONWEALTH

AND WHEN THIS IS COUPLED WITH THE EXCHANGE OF )#4 RESOURCES IT ENABLES DEVELOPING COUNTRIES TO AVOID DUPLICATION AND WASTE )N THIS CONTEXT THE lRST AREA OF FOCUS OF ## BUILDING POLICY AND REGULATORY CAPACITY ALLOWS THE LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES IN THE #OMMONWEALTH TO SHARE THE #OMMONWEALTH )#4 WEALTH IN SUCH FORM AS BEST PRACTICES STRATEGIC PLANSANDCASESTUDIESTHATCANFACILITATEACCELERATED NATIONALPOLICYMAKING&OLLOWINGTHEWORDSOF*3ACHS AT THE #ENTRE FOR )NTERNATIONAL $EVELOPMENT (ARVARD 5NIVERSITY h;= IN ORDER TO MOVE WITH EFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENTSTRATEGIESITISESSENTIALTOFOCUSONTHE COMMONALITIESBETWEENRICHANDPOORCOUNTRIES AND TO CAPITALISE ON THESE COMMONALITIES TO BUILD STRONG COLLABORATIVERELATIONSHIPSv THIS##AREAOFFOCUSCAN HELP ASSIST 3OUTH 3OUTH COLLABORATION AND RESEARCH SHARINGTHATCANHELPADDRESSBASICHEALTHISSUESLIKE E(EALTHSTANDARDSANDOTHERINTEROPERABILITYISSUES )N ANOTHER AREA OF FOCUS MODERNISING EDUCATION AND SKILLS DEVELOPMENT ## IS ENCOURAGING DISTANCE LEARNING TECHNIQUES MODERNISATION OF EDUCATION PROMOTIONOFSKILLSDEVELOPMENT ANDIMPROVEMENTOF ACCESS TO NEW TECHNOLOGIES !CCORDING TO THE 7ORLD (EALTH2EPORT ONEOFTHEMOSTCITEDBARRIERSTOE(EALTH IMPLEMENTATIONISTHELACKOFSUITABLYTRAINEDORQUALIlED STAFF4HISAREAOFFOCUSTHEREFORECANBEEXPLOITEDTO TRAINHEALTHCAREPROVIDERSTOUSEE(EALTHAPPLICATIONS THATARETAILOREDANDRELEVANTTOTHELOCALCONTEXT THUS CREATINGSUSTAINABILITYANDMARKETABLESKILLSWITHINTHE HEALTHSECTOR 0ROMOTING LOCAL ACCESS AND CONNECTIVITY IS ANOTHER SPECIALISEDAREAOFTHE##PROGRAMME WHICHFOCUSES ON IMPROVING ACCESS TO CRITICAL TRANSFORMATIONAL INFORMATION BY A WIDE SPECTRUM OF STAKEHOLDERS NECESSARYTOCORRECTTHEPRESENTIMBALANCEINTHEUSE OF )#4S !FRICA IS THE LOWEST IN THE ADOPTION OF EQUITY POLICIES ACCORDING TO THE 7(/S REPORT 4HIS IS AN IMPORTANT ASPECT IN ANY E(EALTH POLICY AS EQUITY IS RECOGNISED AS A CORE VALUE OF DEVELOPMENT 0OLICIES SHOULDPROMOTEINCLUSIVENESSANDEQUITABLEACCESSTO E(EALTHIRRESPECTIVEOFCULTURE LANGUAGE GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION PHYSICALANDMENTALABILITY AGEANDGENDER 7ORKINTHISFOCUSAREACANASSISTTOWARDSTHEEQUITABLE ACCESSTOVITALHEALTHINFORMATIONONLINE 2EGIONAL NETWORKS LOCAL CONTENT AND KNOWLEDGE IS ANAREAOFFOCUSTHATENCOURAGESTHECREATIONOFLOCAL CONTENT AND THE PROMOTION OF REGIONAL NETWORKING THROUGHTHEIMPLEMENTATIONOFNEWDIGITALTECHNOLOGIES ANDTHECONVERGENCEOFDIFFERENTMEDIA)NE(EALTH ITIS CONSIDEREDCRUCIALTOIMPLEMENTPOLICIESTHATPROMOTE THE AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION IN LOCAL LANGUAGES AND TO RECOGNISE CULTURAL DIVERSITY TO PRODUCE NEW ELECTRONIC HEALTH CONTENT IN MULTIPLE LANGUAGES AND TOTRANSLATEEXISTINGHIGH QUALITYCONTENTCREATEDEITHER LOCALLYORABROAD )N THIS CONTEXT ## RECOGNISESTHAT THE USE OF INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE IS ESSENTIAL AND THAT COMMUNITIES HAVE THEIR OWN COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS WHICHCANBETAKENASABASELINEFOR)#44HE PROGRAMME ALSO PROMOTES THE IDENTIlCATION OF LOCAL AGENTS OF CHANGE TO ENABLE SOCIETAL AND ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATIONTHROUGH)#4S

&INALLY INTHEAREAOFENTREPRENEURSHIP THE##0ORTAL WWWCOMMONWEALTHCONNECTSNET CONTAINS A MODULE CALLED 0ROJECT -ARKETPLACE THAT ENABLES PROJECT OWNERSTOADVERTISETHEIRPROJECTSONLINEFORVIEWINGBY INTERNATIONAL DONORS /NE WAY THAT ## CAN ASSIST IS THROUGH USING THE 0ROJECT -ARKETPLACE AS A PLATFORM TO LAUNCH SMART E(EALTH PROJECTS ## IS ALSO ABOUT FACILITATING A LIMITED NUMBER OF PROJECTS SUBMITTED BY COUNTRIES .'/S AND ACADEMIA THROUGH ITS UNIQUE CAPACITYTOEXPLOITTHE#OMMONWEALTHSADDEDVALUE 4HEKEYSUPPORTTHATWILLBEPROVIDEDTOTHESEPROJECTS IS THROUGH THE PARTNERING WITH AND THE SHARING OF INFORMATIONANDEXPERIENCESBETWEEN PROJECTOWNERS ANDCOUNTRIESAGENCIES ## IS ULTIMATELY ABOUT CHANGING PEOPLES LIVES BY ASSISTING WITH THE MOBILISATION OF KNOWLEDGE AND HUMAN RESOURCES TO ASSIST ENCOURAGE AND FACILITATE GOVERNMENTSTOEXPLOIT)#4SASATOOLFORDEVELOPMENT ## WILL FACILITATE #OMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES TO TAILOR )#4 SOLUTIONS TO THEIR OWN CONTEXT AND MAKE THEM RELEVANT FOR THE @CITIZEN ON THE GROUND )N CONCLUSION SUCCESSFULIMPLEMENTATIONOFTHE##0ROGRAMMEWILL GREATLY FACILITATE THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF NATIONAL AND PROVINCIAL E(EALTH STRATEGIES THAT WILL BENElTTHECITIZENSOFTHE#OMMONWEALTH

$EVINDRA 2AMNARINE BECAME THE !DVISER 0UBLIC 3ECTOR )NFORMATICS IN THE 'OVERNANCE AND )NSTITUTIONAL $EVELOPMENT $IVISION AT THE #OMMONWEALTH 3ECRETARIAT IN *ANUARY  (E MANAGES THE #OMMONWEALTH 3ECRETARIATS 0UBLIC 3ECTOR )NFORMATICS 0ROGRAMME AND MANAGES THE 3ECRETARIAT WHICH SUPPORTS THE #OMMONWEALTH #ONNECTS 0ROGRAMME ! TELECOMMUNICATIONSENGINEER HEWASFORMERLYTHE(EADOFTHE .ATIONAL)#40LANNING3ECRETARIATINTHE'OVERNMENTOF4RINIDAD AND4OBAGO ANDWASDIRECTLYINVOLVEDINTHEDEVELOPMENTOFITS .ATIONAL)#40LANnFASTFORWARD 4ANIA 'ESSI IS A 2ESEARCH /FlCER FOR THE #OMMONWEALTH #ONNECTS 0ROGRAMME IN THE 'OVERNANCE AND )NSTITUTIONAL $EVELOPMENT$IVISIONATTHE#OMMONWEALTH3ECRETARIATBASED IN,ONDON(ERAREASOFINTERESTINCLUDECONmICTRESOLUTION SOCIO POLITICALANDECONOMICDEVELOPMENTOFDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESAND THEROLETHAT)#4CANPLAYINADDRESSINGTHESEPRESSINGISSUES 4HE#OMMONWEALTH#ONNECTS0ROGRAMMEISAMULTI STAKEHOLDER PARTNERSHIPAIMEDATTAPPINGAVAILABLE#OMMONWEALTHRESOURCES TOFASTTRACKPOSITIVECHANGE)TISAUNIQUEINITIATIVETHATENABLES THE TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY AND EXPERTISE ACROSS THE WHOLE #OMMONWEALTH #OMMONWEALTH3ECRETARIAT -ARLBOROUGH(OUSE 0ALL-ALL ,ONDON379(8 5+ 4EL   &AX   %MAILCOMMONWEALTHCONNECTS COMMONWEALTHINT 7EBSITEWWWTHECOMMONWEALTHORG

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




#ONNECTINGTHE#OMMONWEALTH

$R2OBERT7HELAN #ENTREFOR%DUCATIONAL$EVELOPMENTAND 4ECHNOLOGY 0ACIlCE,EARNING/BSERVATORY 0ROJECT 5NIVERSITYOFTHE3OUTH0ACIlC

E,EARNINGINTHE3OUTH0ACIlC CURRENTSTATUS CHALLENGESAND TRENDS 4HE0ACIlCE,EARNING/BSERVATORYRECENTLYSURVEYED  EXPERTS ACROSS THE 0ACIlC ON EDUCATIONAL INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY )#4 ITSCURRENTSTATUS PERCEIVEDCHALLENGESTO DEVELOPMENT AND EMERGING TRENDS 4HE SURVEY INCLUDES @GUESTIMATES OF )#4 ACCESS SHOWING AVERAGESCHOOL)#4ACCESSBELOWPERCENT WITH TERTIARY LEVELACCESSAROUNDPERCENT#APACITY BUILDING CURRICULUMDEVELOPMENT INFRASTRUCTURE AND EFFECTIVE POLICY FRAMEWORKS ARE SHOWN TO BE KEY FACTORS IN EDUCATIONAL )#4 DEVELOPMENT %MERGING DEVELOPMENTS RANGE FROM EARLY STAGE POLICYCONSULTATIONS TOCONSTRUCTIONOFDATABASES ANDONLINEPORTALSTOSUPPORTADMINISTRATIONAND THEDELIVERYOFLEARNING4HEAUTHORASSESSESTHESE TRENDSANDIDENTIlESWHATREMAINSTOBEDONETO @MAINSTREAM)#4INEDUCATIONINTHE0ACIlC )NFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY )#4 IS HAVING A REVOLUTIONARY EFFECT ON SCHOOL PRACTICES GOVERNMENTANDPUBLICSECTORPOLICIES ANDCOMMERCIAL AND ECONOMIC CAPACITY BUILDING OPPORTUNITIES WORLDWIDE 4HE 3OUTH 0ACIlC REGIONS SMALL ISLAND NATIONSARENOEXCEPTION WITHSUBSTANTIALGROWTHINTHE AVAILABILITYOF)#4ANDACCESSTOTHEINTERNETDURINGTHE LASTDECADEINSPITEOFSLOWERUPTAKEINRURALANDLESS DEVELOPEDAREAS !S GOVERNMENTS SEEK TO FORM POLICIES TO FOSTER CONTINUED GROWTH AND INSTITUTIONS AND COMMERCIAL INTERESTS AIM TO TAKE FULL ADVANTAGE OF )#4S POTENTIAL IN EDUCATION AND TRAINING THE AVAILABILITY OF RELEVANT DATA AND MEANINGFUL INFORMATION ON WHICH TO BASE STRATEGICDECISIONSBECOMESINCREASINGLYIMPORTANT)N THENATIONSOFTHE3OUTH0ACIlC HOWEVER THEREISLITTLE ONGOINGEFFORTTOMONITORDEVELOPMENTALTRENDSINTHIS SECTORUSINGSPECIlCINDICATORS

A RANGE OF EDUCATORS POLICYMAKERS AND 530 WHICH CATERSTOOVER DISTANCE BASEDSTUDENTSACROSS THE 0ACIlC REGION 4HE RESEARCH IS AVAILABLE TO THE PUBLIC ON THE INTERNET WWWUSPACFJPELO  &INDINGS FROM A RECENTLY CONDUCTED ONLINE SURVEY ARE USED IN THISPAPERTOPROVIDEASNAPSHOTOF)#4INEDUCATIONIN THE0ACIlCREGION

%DUCATIONAND)#4GOODORBAD 4HE 0%,/ SURVEY lRST ASKED ABOUT THE PERCEIVED BENElTSOF)#4SINEDUCATION7HENASKEDTOAGREEOR DISAGREE WITH THE STATEMENT h%DUCATIONAL )#4 WOULD BEBENElCIALFORSTUDENTSTHE0ACIlC vPERCENTOF RESPONDENTSAGREEDWITHTHESTATEMENT(OWEVER WHEN ASKEDh(OWWELLINTEGRATEDIS)#4INTOYOURCOUNTRYS CURRICULUMvPERCENTRESPONDEDTHATITWASNOT ATALL PERCENTRESPONDEDTHATITWASONLYPARTIALLY INTEGRATED ANDPERCENTSAIDITWASWELLINTEGRATED 7HEN ASKED h(OW WOULD YOU RATE YOUR COUNTRYS EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS OVERALL EFFECTIVENESS ON A SCALE OF  v RESPONSES WERE EVENLY DISTRIBUTED WITH NO RESPONDENTSCLAIMINGATOPRATINGSEE&IGURE  2ESPONDENTS WERE THEN ASKED h7OULD SCHOOLS IN YOUR COUNTRY BENElT FROM HAVING A SCHOOL WIDE )#4 NETWORKv ! VAST MAJORITY  PER CENT AGREED 7HENASKEDh7OULDSCHOOLSINYOURCOUNTRYBENElT FROMANATION WIDE)#4NETWORKvTHESAMERESPONSE EMERGED &INALLY WHEN ASKED h7OULD SCHOOLS IN YOUR COUNTRY BENElT FROM A 0ACIlC REGION WIDE )#4 NETWORKvPERCENTSAIDYES PERCENTSAIDNO ANDTHEREMAINDERSAIDTHEYWEREUNSURE &IGURE2ATINGOF COUNTRYSEDUCATIONAL SYSTEMSOVERALL EFFECTIVENESSONA SCALEOF  BY EDUCATIONAL)#4 EXPERTSINTHE0ACIlC 3EPTEMBER

)N THIS CONTEXT THE 0ACIlC E,EARNING /BSERVATORY 0%,/ WAS ESTABLISHED IN  WITH A GRANT FROM THE 5NIVERSITY OF THE 3OUTH 0ACIlC 530 TO RESEARCH THE DEVELOPMENT OF )#4S IN EDUCATION IN THE  530 MEMBER NATIONS #OOK )SLANDS &IJI +IRIBATI -ARSHALL )SLANDS .AURU .IUE 3OLOMON )SLANDS 4OKELAU 4ONGA 4UVALU 6ANUATU AND 3AMOA 4HE OBJECTIVE IS TO COLLECT STRATEGIC INFORMATION ON EDUCATIONAL )#4 TO

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




#ONNECTINGTHE#OMMONWEALTH

4ABLE%DUCATIONAL)#4ACTIVITIESTHATWOULD BEMOSTBENElCIAL )#4ACTIVITY

4OTALNUMBEROF VOTESN

4RAINING CAPACITYBUILDING



,OCALISEDCONTENTDEVELOPMENT



#REATENEWLEARNINGMATERIALS



3CHOOL@E TWINNING0ARTNERING



0UBLIC PRIVATEPARTNERSHIPS



,OCATINGCURRICULUMSOFTWARE



&ORMNETWORKOFNATIONALEXPERTS #OLLECTIVEMANAGEMENT

 

7HENASKEDHOW)#4CANBEBESTUSEDINEDUCATION RESPONDENTS VOTED FOR UP TO THREE FROM A LIST OF EIGHT OPTIONS 4HE SINGLE MOST BENElCIAL PERCEIVED )#4 ACTIVITYWASTRAININGANDCAPACITYBUILDING FOLLOWEDBY LOCALISEDCONTENTDEVELOPMENTANDTHECREATIONOFNEW LEARNINGMATERIALSSEE4ABLE  4HE SURVEY ALSO ASKED RESPONDENTS ABOUT THE /NE ,APTOP0ER#HILD/,0# INITIATIVE ANEFFORTTOPROVIDE STUDENTSWITHLOWCOSTLAPTOPSTOAIDINTHEIREDUCATION &ORTY FOUR RESPONDENTS  PER CENT AGREED THAT THE /,0# INITIATIVE WOULD BE BENElCIAL FOR STUDENTS IN THE 0ACIlC WHILE   PER CENT SAID MAYBE .O PARTICIPANTS DISAGREED BUT TWO PARTICIPANTS DID NOTANSWER

)NTERNETACCESSINTHE0ACIlC 2ESPONDENTS WERE ASKED TO ESTIMATE THE EXTENT THAT PRIMARY SECONDARY TERTIARY AND TEACHER TRAINING STUDENTSHADACCESSTOCOMPUTERSANDTOTHEINTERNET IN BOTH RURAL AND URBAN AREAS IN THEIR OWN COUNTRIES 4HEAVERAGEVALUESARESHOWNIN&IGURE 4HERESULTSSHOWEDTHATURBANSTUDENTSANDTEACHERS HAVE SIGNIlCANTLY BETTER ACCESS TO )#4 THAN THEIR RURAL COUNTERPARTS 4ERTIARY STUDENTS TEACHER TRAINEES AND &IGURE%DUCATIONAL )#4!CCESSINTHE 0ACIlC2EGION0#SAND 7EBn3EPTEMBER



4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

URBANTEACHERSHAVEGREATERACCESSTO)#4 WHILEPRIMARY AND SECONDARY STUDENTS AND RURAL TEACHERS HAVE THE WORST ACCESS AND STUDENTS AND TEACHERS ARE MORE LIKELYTOHAVEACCESSTOCOMPUTERSTHANTOTHEINTERNET /VERALL THERE WAS A MARKED DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PRE TERTIARYANDTERTIARYLEVELSOFACCESSTO)#4 ANDTHELOW ACCESS RATES OF RURAL TEACHERS WAS A REVEALING FACTOR BEHIND LOW RURAL AWARENESS OF )#4 4HE RESPONDENTS ESTIMATEDTHATANAVERAGEOFPERCENTOFTHEPOPULATION OFTHEIRRESPECTIVECOUNTRIESHASACCESSTOTHEINTERNET

7HATROLEFOR)#4INTHECURRICULUM /VERWHELMINGLY SURVEY RESPONDENTS SAW )#4 AS A @PRIORITY ONE AREA THAT IT @SHOULD BE AN ENABLING MECHANISM THATITIS@CORE @CRUCIALAND@PIVOTAL AND THAT IT SHOULD BE AN @INTEGRAL PART OF THE CURRICULUM 2ESPONDENTS FELT THAT )#4 SHOULD BE CENTRAL TO THE CURRICULUM BOTH AS A SUBJECT AND AS A TOOL FOR LEARNINGANDTEACHING4HEUSEOF)#4ISPERCEIVEDAS VITAL FOR INFORMATION LITERACY ACROSS ALL SUBJECT AREAS ESPECIALLY FOR RURAL CITIZENS 2ESPONDENTS FELT THAT )#4CANBEUSEDFORCLASSROOMINSTRUCTION RESEARCH AND PRESENTATIONS )#4 ALSO PROVIDES IMPROVED ASSESSMENT AND LEARNING SUPPORT 2ESPONDENTS EMPHASISEDTHEIMPORTANCEOFUSING)#4TODEVELOP ANDSHAREDIGITALCURRICULUMMATERIALSTHATHAVEBEEN LOCALISED TO 0ACIlC CONTEXTS AND TO HELP REPATRIATE EDUCATIONASACULTURALASSETINSMALLISLANDNATIONS

4OPTHREE)#4CHALLENGES 2ESPONDENTS WERE ASKED TO DESCRIBE THE TOP THREE CHALLENGESFACINGEDUCATIONAL)#4DEVELOPMENTINTHEIR COUNTRY &INANCE SKILLS AND ACCESS TO INFRASTRUCTURE WERELISTEDASMOSTPRESSING4HETENMOSTCOMMON PERCEIVEDCHALLENGESAREIDENTIlEDIN4ABLE

#URRENTEDUCATIONAL)#4INITIATIVES /VER HALF OF THE RESPONDENTS INDICATED THAT THEIR GOVERNMENTISCURRENTLYTAKINGLITTLEORNOACTIONINTHIS AREA OR IF IT IS THEY WERE UNSURE WHAT WAS INVOLVED


#ONNECTINGTHE#OMMONWEALTH

,EGISLATION 4ABLE4OPCHALLENGESFOREDUCATIONAL)#4 DEVELOPMENT ,ACKOFADEQUATElNANCING ,ACKOFSKILLEDPERSONNEL 0OORACCESSTOINFRASTRUCTUREAND)#4 EQUIPMENT ,OWAWARENESSABOUTTHEBENElTSOF)#4 )NEFFECTIVESECONDARYINFRASTRUCTURESSUCHAS ELECTRICITY ROADSANDRELATEDSERVICES ,OWCONNECTIVITYSPEEDSANDINADEQUATE NETWORKS

2ESPONDENTS EMPHASISED THE NEED TO DEVELOP NEW LEGISLATION ANDREVIEWLEGISLATIONTHATMAYBEHINDERING )#4DEVELOPMENTINEDUCATION!KEYUNDERLYINGFACTOR ISPERCEIVEDTOBETHENEEDTOENDMONOPOLYCONTROLOF )#4INFRASTRUCTURESANDNETWORKSWITHTHEINTRODUCTION OFCOMPETITIONFORLOCALTELECOMMUNICATIONSOPERATORS ,EGISLATION SHOULD BE USED TO LOWER INTERNET ACCESS COSTS OPEN UP COMPETITION FOR INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDERS ANDEVENCREATETAX FREE)#4ZONES

4RAININGANDCAPACITYBUILDING

,ACKOFINTEGRATIONOF)#4INTOTHECURRICULUM ANDOUTDATEDCURRICULA

2ESPONDENTS EMPHASISED THE IMPORTANCE OF )#4 TRAINING AT ALL EDUCATIONAL LEVELS THAT LEADS TO OVERALL CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT 2ESPONDENTS ENVISIONED INITIATIVESTHATCOULDINCREASE)#4TRAININGANDUSAGEIN SCHOOLCLASSROOMS FORIN SERVICETEACHERS ASWELLAS EDUCATION RELATEDANDADMINISTRATIVEOFlCES

,ACKOF@)#4CULTURE

#URRICULUMDEVELOPMENT

,ACKOFTRUSTANDSUSPICIOUSNESSABOUT)#4

!KEYAIMSHOULDBETOMAKE)#4EDUCATIONCOMPULSORY ANDASEARLYINTHESCHOOLCYCLEASPOSSIBLE3TUDENTS SHOULDBETRAINEDININFORMATIONLITERACYnBUTSTUDENT LEARNINGITSELFSHOULDUTILISE)#4WHILELEARNINGMATERIALS AND CONTENT SHOULD BE )#4 BASED AND LOCALISED WHEREVERPOSSIBLE

$IFlCULTIESINMAINTAININGANDREPAIRINGBROKEN EQUIPMENT

4HEFOLLOWINGPROJECTSWERECITEDMOSTFREQUENTLY °%STABLISHING AN EDUCATIONAL )#4 WORKING GROUP TO STUDYANDDRAFTPOLICYDIRECTIONSFORGOVERNMENT °#OLLECTINGDATAABOUTTHENEEDSFOREDUCATIONAL)#4 THROUGHSTAKEHOLDERCONSULTATIONS °4ESTING PILOT PROJECTS CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENTS OR COMMUNITYSCHOOLSERVICES °)NITIATING )#4 TRAINING PROGRAMS FOR TEACHERS )4 PROFESSIONALSORTHECOMMUNITY °2EVIEWINGTHECURRICULUMTODETERMINEHOWBESTTO INCORPORATE)#4 °2EVIEWINGTELECOMMUNICATIONSLEGISLATIONIMPACTING EDUCATION °"UILDING REMOTERURAL CENTRES SUCH AS @E,EARNING #ENTERSFORIMPROVEDSCHOOLANDCOMMUNITYACCESS TO)#4SERVICES °)MPLEMENTING SCHOOLS DATABASES SUCH AS AN EDUCATIONALMANAGEMENTINFORMATIONSYSTEM

!CCESSTO)#4 2ESPONDENTS CITED SEVERAL STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE ACCESS TO )#4 ESPECIALLY IN THE RURAL AREAS 4HESE WOULDINCLUDEPROVIDINGFACILITIESINALLSCHOOLS IDEALLY AT BROADBAND SPEEDS WHERE ACCESS SHOULD BE FREE OR LOW COST %XTENDING EXISTING SCHOOL NETWORKS AND BUILDING MORE INTERNET CENTRES FOR PUBLIC ACCESS WAS ALSORECOGNISEDASIMPORTANT

#OSTREDUCTION 2ESPONDENTS RECOMMENDED PROVIDING FREE OR LOW COST ACCESS TO THE INTERNET AND TO )#4 EQUIPMENT PARTICULARLYFORRURALAREASANDOUTERISLANDS2ELATEDTO THIS APLANNED COLLECTIVEAPPROACHTOTHEREPLACEMENT OFEQUIPMENTWASALSOEMPHASISED

3USTAINABLEDEVELOPMENTOF)#4

°$EVELOPINGSCHOOLS@PORTALSTOACCESSONLINELEARNING MATERIALS

3USTAINABLEANDENVIRONMENTALLYSOUNDPRACTICESWERE ALSOEMPHASISED4HUS ABROADBAND)#4NETWORKWAS PERCEIVEDASIMPORTANT BUTEQUALLYIMPORTANTISTHATIT HASALOWPOWERCONSUMPTIONFROMRENEWABLESOLAR ENERGYSOURCES

4OPSTRATEGIESFORDEVELOPMENT

)NDICATORSANDATTITUDES

°5PGRADINGEXISTING)#4INFRASTRUCTURES AND

2ESPONDENTSWEREASKEDTOIDENTIFYTHEMOSTIMPORTANT STRATEGIESTHATCOULDHELPFURTHERDEVELOPMENTIN)#4 4HE ANSWERS FELL BROADLY INTO THE FOLLOWING SEVEN CATEGORIES

0LANNING ANDPOLICY 2ESPONDENTS EMPHASISED THE STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE OF DESIGNINGANDDEVELOPINGAWORKABLE)#4IMPLEMENTATION PLAN3UCHAPLANORNATIONALSTRATEGYWOULDBEBASEDON CONSULTATIONANDEXPERTINPUT ANDWOULDINVOLVEALLKEY STAKEHOLDERS BEFORE BECOMING LEGISLATION #ONSISTENT TOP DOWNSUPPORTFROMTHEGOVERNMENTISPERCEIVEDTO BEOFFUNDAMENTALIMPORTANCE

4HISSURVEYGENERATEDDETAILEDESTIMATESOFEDUCATIONAL )#4ACCESS ASWELLASEXPERTOPINIONSINTHESECTOR+EY lNDINGSINCLUDEESTIMATESTHATINTERNETANDCOMPUTER ACCESS LEVELS ON AVERAGE FOR PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLSAREWELLBELOWPERCENT WITHTERTIARYURBAN ACCESS LEVELS AS HIGH AS  PER CENT 4HERE IS ALSO A WIDE GAP BETWEEN RURAL AND URBAN ACCESS 4HE ONLINE SERVICE PROVIDED BY 530.ET EXPLAINS THE HIGH LEVEL OF )#4 ACCESS AMONGST TERTIARY STUDENTS WHILE THE GROWING COMMERCIAL INTERNET PENETRATION IN URBAN AREAS MAY HELP TO EXPLAIN THE RELATIVELY HIGH LEVELS OF )#4 ACCESS IN OTHER URBAN DEMOGRAPHICS !CCESS TO )#4INRURALAREASISAKEYCHALLENGE

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




#ONNECTINGTHE#OMMONWEALTH

4HE SURVEY RESULTS ALSO INDICATE THAT TRAINING AND CAPACITY BUILDING CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT INFRASTRUCTUREINCLUDINGELECTRICITY TRANSPORTANDBASIC SERVICES lNANCING RENEWEDPOLICYINITIATIVESANDTOP DOWNGOVERNMENTSUPPORTAREPERCEIVEDASTHEMOST IMPORTANT FACTORS IN EDUCATIONAL )#4 DEVELOPMENT 4HIS IS CONSISTENT WITH "RANDJES STUDY FOR THE #OMMONWEALTH OF ,EARNING 3CHOOL .ETWORKING IN THE 0ACIlC )SLAND 3TATES  AND WITH 5.%3#/S -ETA SURVEYONTHE5SEOF4ECHNOLOGIESIN%DUCATION IN!SIAANDTHE0ACIlC WWWUNESCOBKKORG ELIBPUBLICATIONSMETASURVEY  (OWEVER THECOUNTRIESOFTHE3OUTH0ACIlCVARYWIDELY ACCORDING TO SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND SOCIO ECONOMICS STATUS &OR THIS REASON CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS IN )#4 INEDUCATIONRANGEFROMEARLY STAGEPOLICYFORMULATION ANDLEGISLATIVEREVIEWASISTHECASEINTHE0APUA.EW 'UINEA FOREXAMPLE PILOTTESTINGOFNEWINITIATIVESIN THE 3OLOMON )SLANDS THE CONSTRUCTION OF E,EARNING CENTERSFORRURALAREASANDCOMMUNITYIN3AMOAAND &IJI TOTHECONSTRUCTIONOFDATABASESANDINSOMECASES ONLINE PORTALS TO SUPPORT EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION ANDTHEDELIVERYOFLEARNINGMATERIALSASINTHE#OOK )SLANDS FOREXAMPLE 

4HECOREWORKTOBEDONETO INCORPORATE)#4INTOTHECURRICULUM REVOLVESAROUNDCAPACITYBUILDINGIN EDUCATION )4ANDAUXILIARYSECTORS ANDIMPROVEDINFRASTRUCTURE #ONTINUUMOFDEVELOPMENT )N THIS SENSE THERE IS A CONTINUUM OF DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE 0ACIlC WITH SOME COUNTRIES FORMULATING A VISION OTHER COUNTRIES INTRODUCING )#4 AS AN INFORMATIONLITERACYLEVER ANDOTHERSSEEKINGTOMORE FULLY INCORPORATE )#4 INTO THE DAILY ACTIVITIES OF THE CURRICULUM 4HERE MAY BE A  YEAR GAP BETWEEN THESE PHASES -OREOVER THOSE COUNTRIES THAT HAVE PROGRESSED FURTHER ALONG THIS CONTINUUM AND THAT HAVE INCORPORATED )#4 INTO THE CURRICULUM STILL FACE DAILY PRESSURES TO SUSTAIN THEIR INITIATIVES TO SECURE ONGOING TOP DOWN GOVERNMENT SUPPORT AND TO CONTINUE TO DEPLOY RELEVANT AND EFFECTIVE POLICIES ANDPLANS 4HUS THE CORE WORK TO BE DONE TO INCORPORATE )#4 INTO THE CURRICULUM REVOLVES AROUND CAPACITY BUILDING IN EDUCATION )4 AND AUXILIARY SECTORS AND IMPROVED INFRASTRUCTURE 4HESE EFFORTS REQUIRE TOP DOWN POLICY SUPPORTANDlNANCIALBACKING%STIMATESANDMODELS OF DEVELOPMENT VARY BUT WITH APPROXIMATELY   SCHOOLS IN THE 3OUTH 0ACIlC REGION PROVIDING EACH ONE WITH A COMPUTER LAB OF  0#S AT   PER LAB ANINVESTMENTOFSOMEMWOULDBEREQUIRED FORBASICDEVELOPMENT)#4INEDUCATION7HENFACTORS SUCH AS CAPACITY BUILDING POLICY FORMATION AND PROJECTMANAGEMENTAREFACTOREDIN ANINVESTMENTOF 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

  PER CHILD IS NEEDED DEPENDING ON THE SIZE OF THE COUNTRY AND THE AVAILABLE ECONOMIES OF SCALE (AVING SAID THAT )#4 HAS A @BIG BANG FOR THE BUCKINRURALAREASBECAUSETHECOSTOFPROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IS REDUCED AND HIGHER QUALITY LEARNING MATERIALSCANBEMOREEASILYSHARED &INALLY THE SURVEY SHOWED STRONG SUPPORT FOR FURTHER LOCAL AND NATIONAL SCHOOLS NETWORKING EFFORTS AND PARTICULARLYSTRONGPERCENT SUPPORTFORAREGIONAL 0ACIlC SCHOOLS NETWORK THAT WOULD PROVIDE AND SHARE ORGANISATIONAL SUPPORT FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATIONAL )#4 IN EACH MEMBER COUNTRY AND THE REGIONATLARGE

4HESURVEYSHOWEDPARTICULARLY STRONGPERCENT SUPPORTFORA REGIONAL0ACIlCSCHOOLSNETWORK 4HIS POSSIBILITY WAS DISCUSSED BY "RANDJES FOR #/, BUT THERE HAS BEEN LITTLE OR NO PROGRESS TO DATE )T IS CLEAR HOWEVER THATWITHSOMANYSHAREDCHALLENGES A COLLABORATIVE APPROACH WOULD BRING SUBSTANTIAL DIVIDENDS &OR EXAMPLE RECENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE 3OUTH 0ACIlC )SLANDS .ETWORK 30). FACILITATED BY THE 3ECRETARIAT OF THE 3OUTH 0ACIlC ARE AIMED AT BUILDING A HIGH SPEED INTERNET INFRASTRUCTURE FOR THE REGION THAT WILL GREATLY INCREASE ACCESS SPEEDS WHILE LOWERING COSTS 4HIS PROGRESS WILL HAVE IMPORTANT IMPLICATIONSFOREDUCATION PARTICULARLYIFCOMBINEDWITH THE ROLLOUT OF THE MUCH TOUTED /NE ,APTOP PER #HILD /,0# PROJECT &UTURE WORK BY THE 0ACIlC E,EARNING /BSERVATORYWILLMONITORINDICATORSOFTHEDEVELOPMENT OF)#4INEDUCATIONWHILEBUILDINGNETWORKSOFEXPERTS ANDSTAKEHOLDERSTHATEMPHASISEAREGIONALAPPROACH TOIMPROVINGEDUCATIONWITH)#4

2OBERT 7HELAN IS A LECTURER AT THE 5NIVERSITY OF THE 3OUTH 0ACIlC &IJI(EHASOVERADECADEOFEXPERIENCEINEDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY ESPECIALLYINDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES(ISBACKGROUND ISINPHILOSOPHYANDCOMPUTERSCIENCEANDHEEARNEDHIS0H$AT .EW9ORK5NIVERSITY  ASAN)RISH&ULBRIGHTSCHOLAR 4HE5NIVERSITYOFTHE3OUTH0ACIlC530 ISTHEPREMIERPROVIDER OF TERTIARY EDUCATION IN THE 0ACIlC REGION AND AN INTERNATIONAL CENTREOFEXCELLENCEFORTEACHING RESEARCHANDCONSULTINGONALL ASPECTSOF0ACIlCLIFE 5NIVERSITYOFTHE3OUTH0ACIlC 3UVA &IJI)SLANDS 4EL  &AX  %MAILROBERTWHELAN USPACFJ 7EBSITEWWWUSPACFJ


#ONNECTINGTHE#OMMONWEALTH

,LOYD4IMBERLAKE 7ORLD"USINESS#OUNCILFOR 3USTAINABLE$EVELOPMENT

-OBILITYFOR!FRICANDEVELOPMENT -OBILITYANDTRANSPORTARECRUCIALFORDEVELOPMENT !FRICAN GOVERNMENTS HAVE A PLAN TO USE TRANSPORT LINKS BETWEEN PRODUCTIVE ECONOMIC SITES MINES WELLS PLANTATIONS AND PORTS TO @DENSIFYANDACCELERATEDEVELOPMENT4HEREARE MANY INHERENT MOBILITY PROBLEMS IN !FRICA BUT 4ANZANIAISONECOUNTRYTHATISBEGINNINGTOFACE THEMSYSTEMATICALLY %CONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DEPENDS ON MOBILITY "USINESSESNEEDROAD RAIL SHIPPINGANDAIRNETWORKS TO TRANSPORT GOODS AND SERVICES TO MARKETS WHILE PEOPLE NEED THEM TO GET TO JOBS AND SCHOOLS AND USE BASIC SERVICES "OTH PEOPLE AND BUSINESS NEED TRANSPORTSYSTEMSTHATWORKTOGETHERnSUCHASGOOD PORT ROADANDRAILCONNECTIONS -OBILITY IS NOT SOLELY ABOUT VEHICLES IT IS ALSO ABOUT INFRASTRUCTURE COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY ACCESS TO RESOURCESANDENERGY FACILITATIONOFTRADEANDSIMPLIFYING BURDENSOMEBUREAUCRACY)TSCONCERNSSPREADACROSS MANYAREASOFHUMANLIFEANDHUMANGOVERNMENT )T IS ALSO INTIMATELY LINKED TO THE GLOBAL ENERGY CRISIS 4ODAYTHETRANSPORTSECTORACCOUNTSFORONE QUARTEROF GLOBAL#/EMISSIONSANDISGROWINGBYTWOPERCENT PERYEAR)TISESTIMATEDTHATGLOBALDEMANDFOROILWILL INCREASEBYPERCENTUPTO ANDSOMEPER CENTOFTHISWILLCOMEFROMTHETRANSPORTSECTOR MAINLY INDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES )NCREASEDDEMANDFORMOBILITYRESULTSINHIGHERENERGY DEMANDS BOTH TO FUEL NEW VEHICLES AND MODES OF TRANSPORT AND FOR PRODUCTION AND MANUFACTURING PROCESSES )T ALSO IMPLIES GREATER DEMAND FOR RAW MATERIALS SUCH AS RUBBER INCREASED DEMAND FOR CEMENTANDASPHALTFORROADBUILDING ANDHIGHERRATES OF EXTRACTION OF METALS FROM MINES INCLUDING RARER MORESPECIALISEDMETALS MANYOFWHICHAREFOUNDIN LESSPOLITICALLYSTABLEAREASOFTHEWORLD

$EVELOPMENT TRANSPORTANDMOBILITY 4HE 7ORLD "USINESS #OUNCIL FOR 3USTAINABLE $EVELOPMENT7"#3$ ACOLLECTIONOFMORETHAN OFTHEWORLDSLARGESTCOMPANIES MAINTAINS@FOCUSAREAS &!S ONBOTHENERGYANDCLIMATEANDONDEVELOPMENT 4HEREBEINGOBVIOUSOVERLAPSOFCONCERNBETWEENTHE TWOlELDS THE$EVELOPMENT&!RUNSAWORKSTREAMON -OBILITYFOR$EVELOPMENT-$  4HIS WORK HAS PRODUCED A LOT OF BAD NEWS 4HE DEMAND FOR MOBILITY IS INCREASING RAPIDLY THROUGHOUT 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

THE DEVELOPING WORLD AS POPULATIONS AND MANY ECONOMIESGROW"UTASDEMANDANDTHENUMBEROF VEHICLESINCREASE MOBILITYINFRASTRUCTUREANDTRANSPORT SAFETYPROVISIONSAREDETERIORATINGINMANYDEVELOPING COUNTRIES3OMEPERCENTOFALLROADDEATHSOCCUR IN DEVELOPING OR TRANSITIONAL COUNTRIES ACCORDING TO THE7ORLD"ANK ADISPROPORTIONATEBURDENGIVENTHAT THESE COUNTRIES OWN ONLY  PER CENT OF THE WORLDS MOTORVEHICLES 4HE NEWS BECAME BETTER AS THE 7"#3$ BEGAN TO TRAVEL TO THE DEVELOPING WORLD 7E ARE lNDING A CLEAR UNDERSTANDING OF CHALLENGES A WILLINGNESS TO FACETHEMANDIMAGINATIVETHINKINGABOUTSOLUTIONS 4HE lRST -$ DIALOGUE WAS HELD IN $AR ES 3ALAAM 4ANZANIA /THERS WILL BE HELD IN )NDIA #HINA AND "RAZIL WITHTHEAIMOFLEARNINGMOREABOUTTHEMOBILITY NEEDSANDEXAMININGDIFFERENTSOLUTIONS ! STUDY BY THE 5NIVERSITY OF $AR ES 3ALAAM COMMISSIONEDBY-$ FOUNDTHATBETWEEN$ECEMBER AND$ECEMBERTHEREWASALMOSTAPER CENT INCREASE IN THE LIGHT PASSENGER VEHICLES ON THE ROADS -EANWHILE ONLY lVE PER CENT OF THE COUNTRYS ROADSAREPAVED2AILSTOCKISOLDANDINEFlCIENT -ININGANDCONSTRUCTIONARETHEFASTESTGROWINGSECTORS IN4ANZANIASRECENTIMPRESSIVEECONOMICPERFORMANCE WITHANAVERAGE'$0GROWTHRATEOFALMOSTSEVENPER CENTSINCE!GRICULTURE WHICHCOMPRISESALMOST HALF OF 4ANZANIAS '$0 AND DOMINATES EMPLOYMENT GREWLESSANDISFACEDBYSIGNIlCANTTRANSPORTANDTHIRD PARTYCOSTSTOGETGOODSTOMARKET REDUCINGTHEPRICE PAIDTOTHEPRODUCERS


#ONNECTINGTHE#OMMONWEALTH

3OMEPERCENTOF4ANZANIASPOPULATIONLIVESINRURAL AREASWHEREROADSDOMINATEASTHEMEANSOFACCESS (OWEVER WITH ONLY lVE PER CENT OF THE ROADS BEING ALL WEATHER ITISOFTENDIFlCULT TIMECONSUMINGANDCOSTLY FORPEOPLEANDGOODSTOMAKEITTOTHEREGIONAL NATIONAL ANDINTERNATIONALMARKETSALLYEARROUND

!FRICANCHALLENGESANDOPPORTUNITIES 4ANZANIASCOMBINATIONOFOPPORTUNITIESANDCHALLENGES n AN ECONOMY DRIVEN BY MINING AND OTHER RESOURCE EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES WITH POPULATIONS ROOTED IN AGRICULTUREANDSPREADTHROUGHOUTTHECOUNTRYnMIRRORS THESITUATIONINMUCHOFTHERESTOF!FRICA 'IVEN THE FOCUS ON THE REGIONS RAPID BIRTHRATES IT IS EASYTOFORGETTHAT!FRICAREMAINSARELATIVELYSPARSELY POPULATED CONTINENT )T IS HARD FOR GOVERNMENTS TO DEVELOPMOBILITYTRANSPORTSYSTEMSTOREACHPOPULATIONS WIDELYSCATTEREDOVERVASTAREAS OFTENFARFROMCOASTAL CAPITALS !FRICA LACKS THE SECONDARY CITIES AND TOWNS COMMONINTHE53AND%UROPETHATANCHORAGRICULTURAL COMMUNITIESANDPROVIDEMORELOCALMARKETSTOABSORB HIGHERVALUEPRODUCTION 4HUS IT HAS ALWAYS BEEN HARD TO ECONOMICALLY JUSTIFY THE BUILDING OF ROADS AND RAILS !FRICA IS A LARGE HIGH PLATEAU SO FEW RIVERS ARE NAVIGABLE OVER THE RAPIDS FORMED BY THEIR FALLS TOWARDS THE SEAS 4HE COLONIAL @BALKANISATIONOFTHECONTINENTLEFTMANYLARGECOUNTRIES LANDLOCKED$ESPITEMANYOFTHECAPITALSBEINGONTHE COAST ONLY  PER CENT OF !FRICAN PEOPLE LIVE WITHIN KMOFTHECOASTVERSUSTHE/%#$AVERAGEOF PERCENT ANDONLYPERCENTOFTHECONTINENTSLAND IS WITHIN  KM OF THE COAST VERSUS  PER CENT IN ,ATIN!MERICA  -UCHOF!FRICASECONOMICDEVELOPMENTISBASEDIN MINING !FRICA RANKS NUMBER ONE IN THE WORLD IN ITS RESERVESOFGOLD CHROMIUM MANGANESE VANADIUM COBALT DIAMONDS AND ALUMINIUM )T ALSO HAS LARGE RESERVESOFTHEELEMENTSNEEDEDFORFERTILISERSnNITROGEN POTASSIUMANDPHOSPHATEnANDFERTILISERISCRUCIALTO !FRICA BECAUSE PER CAPITA CROP YIELDS ARE DECLINING %VEN SO EXPORTS OF SOME AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES HAVE INCREASED SIGNIlCANTLY OVER   CACAO BYPERCENTANDCOTTONBYPERCENT

$EVELOPMENTCORRIDORS 4HESE REALITIES HAVE ENCOURAGED THE !FRICAN 5NIONS .EW 0ARTNERSHIP FOR !FRICAS $EVELOPMENT .%0!$ ANDTHE!FRICAN$EVELOPMENT"ANK!F$" TOCOMEUP WITH A DEVELOPMENT SCHEME THAT STARTS WITH !FRICAS REALITIES RATHER THAN WITH THE GRAND PLANS OF !FRICAN GOVERNMENTSORAIDAGENCIES 4HEIR NEW 3PATIAL $EVELOPMENT 0ROGRAMME 3$0 IS BASED ON THE IDEA THAT THERE ARE ALREADY @TRANSPORT CORRIDORSLINKINGINTERIORAREASOFMININGOROILWELLSWITH PORTS THE ROADS OR RAILS ALONG THE CORRIDORS ALREADY EXISTINGTHOUGHOFTENINNEEDOFREPAIR BECAUSETHERE WASSUFlCIENTECONOMICACTIVITYTOJUSTIFYTHEINVESTMENT INTHEM 4HE3$0HASIDENTIlEDSUCHCORRIDORSTHROUGHOUT !FRICA)TSGOALISTO@DENSIFYDEVELOPMENTALONGTHESE

CORRIDORS IMPROVING INFRASTRUCTURE COMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION AND ASSURING THAT THESE ELEMENTS BENElTSMALLFARMERSANDTHEOWNERSOFTHESMALLAND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES 3-%S THAT COULD ADD VALUE TO HARVESTSBYPROCESSINGTHEM ANDCOULDBECOMEPART OFTHESUPPLYCHAINSOFTHEBIGGERCOMPANIESALREADY INPLACE 4HE TRANSPORT INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS LINKS COULD ALSO BENElT THE SMALL FARMERS BY GETTING THEIR PRODUCE TO MARKETS AND GETTING INPUTS SUCH AS SEEDS FERTILISER AGRICULTURAL ADVICE AND MARKET INFORMATIONTOTHEM 4HE TRANSPORT CORRIDORS COULD THUS BECOME DEVELOPMENT CORRIDORS .%0!$ NOTED IN ITS .%0!$ 3PATIAL $EVELOPMENT 0ROGRAMME $ESCRIPTION AND )MPLEMENTATION!RRANGEMENTS IN*ULY hWITHTHE COINCIDENCE OF SIMULTANEOUSLY BUOYANT COMMODITY PRICES AND UNPRECEDENTED RATES OF GROWTH IN #HINA AND)NDIA ADEVELOPMENTOPPORTUNITYISPRESENTEDTHAT !FRICACANNOTAFFORDTOLETPASSv

)NDIGENOUSDEVELOPMENT .%0!$ WHOSESECRETARIATWILLBERESPONSIBLEFORSETTING THE STRATEGIC DIRECTION OF THE 3$0 PROGRAMME AND FOR RAISING PROGRAMME FUNDS SEES THE CORRIDORS AS MUCH MORETHANASERIESOFTRANSPORTLINKS)N.%0!$SVIEW THEY AREMEANTTOBECOMEhTHEREALISATIONOFALINKEDSERIESOF PRIVATESECTORANDKEYINFRASTRUCTUREINVESTMENTSTHATARE INSTRUMENTAL IN KICK STARTING ANDOR ACCELERATING A SELF SUSTAINEDINDIGENOUSECONOMICDEVELOPMENTPROCESSv .%0!$S#OMPREHENSIVE!FRICA!GRICULTURE$EVELOPMENT 0ROGRAMME#!!$0 ISINVOLVEDINPLANNINGTHECORRIDORS TO ENSURE THEY BENElT THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR .%0!$ ENVISIONS DEVELOPMENT BASED ON !FRICAN RESOURCES BUT FOCUSING ON ADDING VALUE TO THOSE RESOURCES AND INVOLVINGALLTYPESOFPARTNERSHIPS -ANYOFTHESECORRIDORSREACHINTOLAND LOCKEDCOUNTRIES SUCHAS5GANDA ALLOWINGTHEMTHEPIGGYBACKBENElTS OF CHEAPER ACCESS TO PORTS AND CHEAPER TRANSPORT OF IMPUTS SUCH AS SEEDS AND FERTILISERS 4RANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE HAS CREATED IMPORTANT DEVELOPMENT CORRIDORSTHROUGHOUTHISTORY WHETHERTHEROADSOFTHE 2OMAN %MPIRE THE CANALS AND RAILWAYS OF 6ICTORIAN %NGLANDORTHE-ISSISSIPPI2IVERAND%RIE#ANALOFTHE EARLY5NITED3TATES 4HECORRIDORSAPPROACHISNOTUNTRIEDTHEREARESEVERAL EXAMPLESINSOUTHERN!FRICA PERHAPSTHEMOST@MATURE BEINGTHE-APUTO#ORRIDOR WHICHLINKSTHE-OZAMBICAN PORT OF -ATOLA-APUTO WITH *OHANNESBURG AND LINKS ALLTHEMINERALANDTOURISTINVESTMENTSTHATLIEALONGIT

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




#ONNECTINGTHE#OMMONWEALTH

4HIS CORRIDOR ATTRACTED OVER lVE BILLION 53 DOLLARS IN INVESTMENT 9ET LESSONS FROM THE -APUTO #ORRIDOR INDICATETHATINSUFlCIENTEMPHASISWASPLACEDONTHE SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND NOT ENOUGH OF THE BENElTS REACHEDTHECOMMUNITIESALONGTHECORRIDORS 4HECORRIDOREFFORTINSOUTHERN!FRICAnTHEREAREABOUT  MORE BEING DEVELOPED THERE n WAS PIONEERED BY 0AUL *OURDAN A 3OUTH !FRICA WHO EMERGED FROM THE FREEDOMlGHTINGTOHEADHISCOUNTRYSMINERALTECHNICAL DEVELOPMENTINSTITUTION -INTEK(EISNOWWORKINGWITH .%0!$ANDTHE!F$"ONTHEIRLARGERPROGRAMME

"ACKTO$AR 4HEHARBOUROF$ARES3ALAAMISAPERFECTENDINGFOR ADEVELOPMENTCORRIDOR ASITISATRANSITGATEWAYFOR SIXLANDLOCKEDCOUNTRIES-ALAWI :AMBIA $EMOCRATIC 2EPUBLIC OF #ONGO "URUNDI 2WANDA AND 5GANDA !ND IN FACT $AR IS AN END POINT FOR A NUMBER OF 3OUTHERN !FRICAN $EVELOPMENT #OMMUNITY 3!$# TRANSPORTCORRIDORS 4HE PORTS CONTAINER TERMINAL HAS BEEN RESTRUCTURED ANDCONTAINERSNOWMOVETHROUGHTHEPORTMUCHMORE QUICKLY4HE4ANZANIA0ORT!UTHORITYISPROMOTINGA MILLIONPROJECTTOUPGRADETHEPORTTOTAKELARGERVESSELS AND HANDLE MORE CRUDE OIL 4HE MAIN CHALLENGE IS IMPROVINGCONNECTIONSFROMPORTSTOROADSANDRAILS 4HERE IS ALSO A PLAN TO IMPROVE TRAFlC mOW IN THE CAPITAL AND REDUCE PEDESTRIAN AND CYCLIST DEATHS BY ESTABLISHING DEDICATED BUS LANES FOR HIGH CAPACITY BUSES 4RANSPORT IMPROVEMENT EVEN INCLUDES ENCOURAGINGMOREMOTORISTSTOTAKEDRIVINGLESSONS 4ANZANIA IS ALSO BENElTING FROM THE BOOM IN MOBILE PHONES WHICH CAN CUT THE NEED FOR TRIPS )N   PER CENT OF PHONE USE WAS THROUGH LANDLINES "Y  PERCENTOFCALLSWEREOVERMOBILEPHONES 6ODAFONEISEXPERIMENTINGIN%AST!FRICAWITHSYSTEMS THAT ALLOW CUSTOMERS TO MAKE BANKING TRANSACTIONS OVERTHEIRPHONES 4ANZANIA HAS MANY PLANS FOR IMPROVING MOBILITY BUT LITTLECAPITAL LIKEMOST!FRICANCOUNTRIES!7ORLD"ANK SURVEY OF PRIVATE INVESTMENT IN INFRASTRUCTURE BETWEEN ANDACROSSTHEDEVELOPINGWORLDREVEALED THATSIXCOUNTRIESACCOUNTEDFORPERCENTOFTHETOTAL INVESTMENT!RGENTINA "RAZIL #HILE #HINA -ALAYSIAAND -EXICO 4HE RESIDUAL  PER CENT WAS SHARED AMONG THEREMAININGDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES WITHTHOSEINSUB 3AHARAN!FRICAAND3OUTH!SIARECEIVINGTHELEAST !NYTHING THAT IMPROVES THE EFlCIENCY OF TRANSPORT TENDS TO LESSEN THE ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE CAUSED BYTRANSPORT9ETINMOSTDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES ENERGY SECURITYISMOREOFACHALLENGETHAN#/EMISSIONS! LONG TERM HOPE IS TO PRODUCE BIOFUELS FROM BIOMASS BUT !FRICA CANNOT AFFORD TO LET SUCH AN EFFORT REDUCE FOODPRODUCTION /NE SOLUTION MIGHT BE THE *ATROPHA NUT WHICH CAN GROWRAPIDLYONPOORSOILSINARIDCLIMATESANDPRODUCE UPTOTWOTONNESOFBIODIESELFUELPERYEARPERHECTARE )TNEEDNOTCOMPETEWITHFOODCROPSINTHATITCANGROW ONPOORLANDSNOTBEINGUSEDFORFOODPRODUCTION 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

3YSTEMICAPPROACHES -AKINGMOBILITYAMOREPOTENTFORCEFORDEVELOPMENT MAY REQUIRE SOME NEW TECHNOLOGIES BUT IT REQUIRES MORENEWWAYSOFTHINKINGANDOFGOVERNING %FFECTIVEMOBILITYANDTRANSPORTREQUIREHEADSOFSTATE TO ASSURE THAT ALL THE KEY MINISTRIES WORK TOGETHER TRANSPORT PLANNING ECONOMIC AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY lNANCE ETC 4HEY REQUIRE THAT GOVERNMENTS WORK TOGETHERACROSSNATIONALBOUNDARIESTOIMPROVETRADING POSSIBILITIES4HEYALSOREQUIRETHATCOMPANIESINVOLVED INTHEMOBILITYANDCOMMUNICATIONSSECTORSTHINKNOT JUSTABOUTSELLINGPRODUCTSBUTABOUTDEVELOPINGTHEIR CORE BUSINESSES IN WAYS THAT ENCOURAGE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT4HISISNOTONLYGOODFORTHEDEVELOPING WORLD BUT IN THE LONG RUN ALMOST ALWAYS SELLS MORE PRODUCTS

,LOYD4IMBERLAKEDIRECTSTHE.ORTH!MERICAOFlCEOFTHE7ORLD "USINESS#OUNCILFOR3USTAINABLE$EVELOPMENT7"#3$ !SA JOURNALIST HEHASREPORTEDFROMMORETHANCOUNTRIES MAINLY ON ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT ISSUES (E HAS SERVED AS SCIENCEEDITORFOR2EUTERS.EWS!GENCYANDWRITER IN RESIDENCE AT THE )NTERNATIONAL )NSTITUTE FOR %NVIRONMENT AND $EVELOPMENT IN,ONDON 4HE 7ORLD "USINESS #OUNCIL FOR 3USTAINABLE $EVELOPMENT 7"#3$ IS A #%/ LED GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOME  COMPANIESDEALINGEXCLUSIVELYWITHBUSINESSANDSUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT)TPROVIDESAPLATFORMFORCOMPANIESTOEXPLORE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SHARE KNOWLEDGE EXPERIENCES AND BEST PRACTICES AND TO ADVOCATE BUSINESS POSITIONS -EMBERS ARE DRAWN FROM MORE THAN  COUNTRIES AND  MAJOR INDUSTRIAL SECTORS 4HE #OUNCIL ALSO BENEFITS FROM A GLOBAL NETWORK OF ABOUT  NATIONAL AND REGIONAL BUSINESS COUNCILSANDREGIONALPARTNERS 7ORLD"USINESS#OUNCILFOR3USTAINABLE$EVELOPMENT7"#3$  CHEMINDE#ONCHES #ONCHES 'ENEVA 3WITZERLAND 4EL  &AX  %MAILINFO WBCSDORG 7EBSITEHTTPWBCSDORG


(+27 12) 564 5250


#ONNECTINGTHE#OMMONWEALTH

$R'ARTH(ARRIS 3ECRETARY'ENERAL )NTERNATIONAL!SSOCIATIONFOR .ATURAL'AS6EHICLES

!LTERNATIVETRANSPORTFUELSTHE ROLEOFGOVERNMENT !LTERNATIVE TRANSPORT FUELS PROGRAMMES ARE BEINGIMPLEMENTEDANDINVESTIGATEDFORAVARIETY OF REASONS INCLUDING IMPROVEMENT OF LOCAL AIR QUALITY REDUCTIONOFGREENHOUSEGASES CONCERN OVER DEPLETION OF FOSSIL FUEL RESOURCES ENERGY SECURITY AND USE OF INDIGENOUS AND RENEWABLE RESOURCES .ATURAL GAS AND BIOMETHANE ARE TECHNICALLYANDCOMMERCIALLYRELIABLEANDPROVEN 4HERE ARE OVER lVE MILLION NATURAL GAS VEHICLES .'6S AROUND THE WORLD 4HIS PAPER DISCUSSES HOW TO IMPLEMENT A SUSTAINABLE ALTERNATIVE FUEL PROGRAMME INCLUDING GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT )T INCLUDES A REVIEW OF .'6 PROGRAMMES IN 0AKISTAN !USTRALIA -ALAYSIA AND "ANGLADESH n INCLUDING THE IMPACT AND IMPORTANCE OF GOVERNMENTACTIVITIES )TISWIDELYACKNOWLEDGEDTHATTHECURRENTRELIANCEON PETROLEUMUSEINTHETRANSPORTSECTORGIVESRISETOMANY PROBLEMS'ROWTHWORLDWIDEINTHETRANSPORTSECTORHAS EXACERBATED THE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH IMPROVING SUSTAINABILITY ENERGYSECURITYANDAIRQUALITY 4HE MOST SERIOUS SHORT TERM PROBLEM IS THAT LOCAL AIR QUALITY IN MANY CITIES HAS DETERIORATED SIGNIlCANTLY AS A RESULT OF VEHICLE EMISSIONS )N MANY CITIES WHERE ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORT FUEL PROGRAMMES HAVE BEEN IMPLEMENTED CLEANER AIR HAS RESULTED PARTICULARLY WHENNATURALGASHASBEENUSED$ELHIISANEXCELLENT EXAMPLE OF AIR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT BROUGHT ABOUT BY INTRODUCTION OF NATURAL GAS VEHICLES .'6S IN THIS CASE BUSES !LTERNATIVE TRANSPORT FUELS COUPLED WITH NEWLYDEVELOPINGVEHICLETECHNOLOGYTOGETHERHAVETHE POTENTIALTOREDUCEHARMFULEMISSIONS

#OUNTRIES CAN IMPROVE THEIR ENERGY SECURITY BY USING INDIGENOUS RESOURCES SOME OF WHICH CAN BEST BE USEDASANALTERNATIVETRANSPORTFUEL2ENEWABLEENERGY RESOURCESSUCHASCROPSANDTREESFALLINTOTHISCATEGORY ANDCANBEUSEDTOMAKERENEWABLETRANSPORTFUELS 4HUSALTERNATIVETRANSPORTFUELSCANBEUSEDTOIMPROVE LOCAL AIR QUALITY REDUCE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FORMTHEPATHWAYFORTHEMOVEAWAYFROMNONRENEWABLE FOSSILFUELSANDIMPROVENATIONALENERGYSECURITY

7HATARETHEALTERNATIVETRANSPORTFUELS #OMPRESSEDNATURALGAS#.' .ATURAL GAS IS WIDELY AVAILABLE THROUGHOUT THE WORLD ANDTHEWORLDRESOURCESOFNATURALGASARECONSIDERABLY GREATER THAN FOR OIL .ATURAL GAS IS NORMALLY DISTRIBUTED IN COUNTRY THROUGH PIPE NETWORKS AND FROM COUNTRY TO COUNTRY AS LIQUElED NATURAL GAS OR THROUGH LARGE TRANSMISSIONPIPES#.'CANBEUSEDINPETROLGASOLINE ANDDIESELINTERNALCOMBUSTIONENGINES ALTHOUGHSOME MODIlCATIONS NEED TO BE MADE ON EXISTING ENGINES FOR THEM TO RUN SATISFACTORILY $IESEL ENGINES REQUIRE EXTENSIVE MODIlCATION #.' IS TRANSPORTED IN THE VEHICLEASHIGHPRESSUREBARORGREATER GASWHICH REQUIRESONEORMORECYLINDERSANDACCOMPANYINGHIGH PRESSUREPIPINGANDCONTROLSYSTEMS #.'COMPLETELYREPLACESTHEORIGINALLIQUIDFUELEXCEPT INSOMEDIESELCONVERSIONSFORWHICHASMALLAMOUNT OF DIESEL IS USED  4HE COMMERCIAL AND TECHNICAL EXPERIENCEOF#.'ISEXTENSIVE WITHOVERlVEMILLION VEHICLES AROUND THE WORLD 4HERE HAS BEEN A RAPID INCREASEINTHEUSEOFTHE#.'OVERTHELASTFEWYEARS PARTICULARLYINSOMEDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES

'LOBAL WARMING CURRENTLY IS RECEIVING CONSIDERABLE WORLDWIDE ATTENTION AND THE TRANSPORT SECTOR IS RESPONSIBLE FOR A SIGNIlCANT CONTRIBUTION TO WORLD GREENHOUSE GASES !LTERNATIVE TRANSPORT FUELS CAN REDUCEGREENHOUSEGASEMISSIONS

#OMPRESSEDBIOMETHANE

)TISACKNOWLEDGEDTHATTHEWORLDHASlNITEOILRESOURCES !LTERNATIVE TRANSPORT FUELS MAY BE DERIVED FROM MORE ABUNDANT NATURAL GAS RATHER THAN OIL OR THEY MAY BE DERIVED FROM RENEWABLE RESOURCES SUCH AS URBAN WASTE AGRICULTURALWASTEANIMALANDPLANTS SEWAGE WOODANDOTHERWASTEMATERIALS

,IQUElEDNATURALGAS,.'

!LARGEPROPORTIONOFCURRENTTRANSPORTFUELSCOMEFROM THE-IDDLE%AST WHICHISNOTASTABLEAREAOFTHEWORLD

4HIS FUEL IS VIRTUALLY THE SAME AS COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS WITH THE BIG DIFFERENCE THAT BIOMETHANE A RENEWABLEFUEL ISDERIVEDBYBIOLOGICALDIGESTIONFROM ORGANICMATERIALINCLUDINGCROPSANDWASTE ,.' IS SIMILAR TO #.' THE MAIN DIFFERENCE BEING THAT THE FUEL IS TRANSPORTED AS A LIQUID AT A VERY LOW TEMPERATURE IN INSULATED TANKS )T IS TYPICALLY USED IN HEAVY DUTY VEHICLES AND WHEN A HIGHER RANGE IS REQUIREDTHANCANEASILYBEPROVIDEDBY#.')NSOME INSTANCES THELIQUIDNATURALGASISVAPORISEDANDTHEN COMPRESSEDAS#.'

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




#ONNECTINGTHE#OMMONWEALTH

,IQUElEDPETROLEUMGAS,0' ,0'ISACOMBINATIONOFPROPANEANDBUTANETYPICALLY OBTAINEDFROMRElNINGOILORBYSEPARATINGITFROMNATURAL GAS ,0' IS STORED AS A LIQUID AT  BAR AT NORMAL TEMPERATURESINSPECIALLYDESIGNEDSTORAGECONTAINERS

7HY#.' /FALLTHEALTERNATIVETRANSPORTFUELSTHATARECURRENTLY BEINGDISCUSSED #.'INCLUDINGBIOMETHANEAND ,.' ISTHEMOSTSUCCESSFULANDATTRACTIVE

4HEREAREABOUTNINEMILLION,0'VEHICLESAROUNDTHE WORLD TAXIS BEING A COMMON USER ,0' IS AVAILABLE ONLY IN LIMITED AMOUNTS AND IS A VALUABLE CHEMICAL FEEDSTOCK

ATURALGASISWIDELYAVAILABLEANDWIDELYDISTRIBUTED . INPIPELINES"IOMETHANECANBEMADEFROMAWIDE RANGE OF RENEWABLE RESOURCES OR WASTE ,.' IS AVAILABLEINSOMESITUATIONS

%THANOL

°4HE TECHNOLOGY IS WELL PROVEN OVER MANY YEARS ANDISSTILLDEVELOPINGTOTAKEACCOUNTOFCHANGING REQUIREMENTS PARTICULARLYEMISSIONS °5SEOF#.'IMPROVESENERGYSECURITYBECAUSE OFREDUCINGTHEREQUIREMENTSTOIMPORTOIL °(IGHQUALITY#.'VEHICLESHAVELOWEREMISSIONS OF AIR POLLUTANTS AND LOWER GREENHOUSE GAS DISCHARGES THAN CONVENTIONAL LIQUID FUELLED VEHICLES °7ITHOVERlVEMILLIONVEHICLESNOWONTHEROAD THE RECENTCOMMERCIALUSEOF#.'FORMORETHAN YEARSMEANSTHEREISAGOODUNDERSTANDINGOFTHE CONDITIONSNEEDEDFORASUCCESSFULPROGRAMME OFIMPLEMENTATION °#.'ISPARTOFTHEPATHWAYTOAFUTUREBASEDON HYDROGENASATRANSPORTFUEL

%THANOLISALIQUIDWHICHISNORMALLYMADEBYFERMENTING SUGAR OBTAINED FROM CROPS %THANOL CAN BE MIXED IN VARIOUSQUANTITIESWITHPETROL TYPICALLY PERCENT OR PERCENT6EHICLESNEEDVARIOUSMODIlCATIONS TOUSEBLENDSOFMORETHANPERCENTETHANOL ! LARGE NUMBER OF VEHICLES AROUND THE WORLD RUN ON ETHANOL BLENDS "RAZIL IN PARTICULAR HAS A LONG HISTORY OF USE OF ETHANOL AS A VEHICLE FUEL %THANOL IS A RENEWABLEFUEL

'ASORCOALTOLIQUIDS .ATURAL GAS OR COAL IS CONVERTED TO PETROL AND DIESEL BY&ISCHER 4ROPSCHSYNTHESIS4HISPROCESSWASUSED WITHCOALBY'ERMANYIN7ORLD7AR))AND3OUTH!FRICA IN THE APARTHEID ERA 4HE FUEL IS COSTLY 3OME LARGE NATURALGASBASEDPLANTSAREBEINGCONSTRUCTEDINTHE -IDDLE%AST

(YDROGEN (YDROGEN CAN BE MANUFACTURED BY SPLITTING WATER BY ELECTROLYSIS OR BY CHEMICAL REACTION "OTH PROCESSES REQUIRE SUBSTANTIAL AMOUNTS OF ENERGY (YDROGEN IS ALSO A BY PRODUCT OF SOME CHEMICAL PROCESSING (YDROGEN ITSELF IS NOT AN ENERGY SOURCE RATHER IT IS ANENERGYCARRIER(YDROGENCANBEUSEDASAFUELIN INTERNALCOMBUSTIONENGINESINAMANNERRATHERSIMILAR TO#.' ORASTHEFUELINFUELCELLS (YDROGEN IS STORED ON BOARD VEHICLES AS A VERY HIGH PRESSURE GAS SIMILAR TO #.' BUT AT MUCH HIGHER PRESSURES4HEREAREDEMONSTRATIONHYDROGENFUELLED mEETSATQUITEANUMBEROFPLACESAROUNDTHEWORLD

&UELCELLS )NFUELCELLS HYDROGENREACTSWITHOXYGENTOPRODUCE WATERANDACERTAINAMOUNTOFELECTRICITYWHICHCANBE USEDTOPOWERANELECTRICMOTOR&UELCELLSARESEVERAL DECADESAWAYFROMBEINGCOMMERCIALLYVIABLE

%LECTRICITY %LECTRICTRAMSANDBUSESRECEIVEELECTRICENERGYFROM WIRESBYWAYOFATROLLEYSYSTEM/THERVEHICLESSUCH AS ELECTRIC CARS STORE ELECTRICITY IN BATTERIES OR OTHER DEVICES )NBOTHCASESTHEELECTRICPOWERISUSEDTO OPERATE ELECTRIC MOTORS 4HE SOURCE OF THE ELECTRICITY MAY BE FOSSIL FUEL lRED POWER STATIONS OR RENEWABLE SOURCESSUCHASHYDROANDWIND

/THERS 4HEREAREOTHERALTERNATIVEFUELSSUCHASMETHANOLAND BIODIESEL WHICH MAY BE VERY ATTRACTIVE IN PARTICULAR SITUATIONSBUTWHICHAREUNLIKELYTOBECOMESIGNIlCANT ATLEASTINTHESHORTTOMEDIUMTERM 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

'OVERNMENTINVOLVEMENT !LL ALTERNATIVE FUELS REQUIRE GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT IF PROGRAMMES ARE TO BE SUCCESSFULLY IMPLEMENTED ON ASUSTAINABLEBASIS!RANGEOFMEASURESAREAVAILABLE TOGOVERNMENTSANDTHOSEWHICHAREUSEDDEPENDON LOCALCIRCUMSTANCESANDTHEALTERNATIVEFUEL&OR#.' THEMEASURESCOMMONLYUSEDARE °-ANDATESORTARGETSTOREPLACEVARIOUSPERCENTAGES OFPETROLEUMFUELS °-EASURES TO ENSURE THAT THE PRICE OF #.' TO THE VEHICLE OWNER IS LOWER THAN THE PRICE OF THE CONVENTIONALLIQUIDFUELTOANEXTENTTHATTHEVEHICLE OWNERRECOVERSHISINVESTMENTIN#.'EQUIPMENTIN LESSTHANABOUTTWOYEARS °3UPPORT FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE REFUELLING INFRASTRUCTUREBY FOREXAMPLE REMISSIONOFTAXESAND DUTIES ON EQUIPMENT PROVIDING SPACE FOR REFUELLING STATIONSINCONGESTEDAREAS ASSISTANCEWITHlNANCING REFUELLINGSTATIONCONSTRUCTION SUPPORTFOREXTENSION OFTHEGASPIPELINESYSTEM °0ROMOTINGTHEESTABLISHMENTOFCODESANDSTANDARDS RELATEDTOBOTHVEHICLESANDREFUELLINGANDENFORCEMENT OFTHEREGULATIONS ESPECIALLYTHOSERELATEDTOSAFETY °%DUCATIONANDTRAININGOFTECHNICIANSANDINSPECTORS TO ENSURE THAT VEHICLE AND REFUELLING EQUIPMENT IS INSTALLED OPERATED AND INSPECTED SATISFACTORILY THEREBY ENSURING OPERATION OF AN INDUSTRY WITH AN EXEMPLARYSAFETYRECORD °,EADING BY EXAMPLE n BY ENSURING GOVERNMENT VEHICLESUSE#.'


#ONNECTINGTHE#OMMONWEALTH

#ASESTUDIESn#OMMONWEALTHCOUNTRIES &OUR#.'CASESTUDIES COVERING0AKISTAN -ALAYSIA "ANGLADESHAND!USTRALIA ILLUSTRATEDIFFERENTAPPROACHES ANDDIFFERENTMEASURESOFSUCCESS

0AKISTAN 4HE MOTIVATION FOR 0AKISTANS .'6 PROGRAMME IS IMPROVEMENT OF LOCAL AIR QUALITY AND THE ECONOMIC BENElTSOFUSINGANINDIGENOUSRESOURCE NATURALGAS 0ROGRAMME DEVELOPMENT FOLLOWING A SUCCESSFUL DEMONSTRATION PROGRAMME IN THE S IN  THE GOVERNMENT ANNOUNCED A TWO YEAR TARGET TO ESTABLISH  REFUELLING STATIONS AND CONVERSION OF   VEHICLES TO #.' !FTER THIS START IN -ARCH THEREWEREABOUT #.'STATIONSOPERATING ANDANOTHER #.'STATIONSUNDERCONSTRUCTION WITH APPROXIMATELY    .'6S ON THE ROADS IN MORETHANTOWNSANDCITIES4ODATETHEREGULATORY AUTHORITY HAS ISSUED MORE THAN   PROVISIONAL LICENCESFORESTABLISHING#.'STATIONS 0AKISTAN IS THE LARGEST #.' COUNTRY IN !SIA AND THE SECOND EQUAL USER OF #.' IN THE WORLD 4HE TOTAL INVESTMENT IN THE INDUSTRY IS 53 BILLION AND MORE THAN NEWJOBSHAVEBEENCREATED 'OVERNMENTINVOLVEMENTTHEGOVERNMENTHASPROVIDED INCENTIVESFORTHEPROGRAMME °%STABLISHMENTOFCOUNTRYWIDEGASINFRASTRUCTURE °&REE MARKET PRICE OF #.' BUT PRICE DIFFERENTIAL BETWEENPETROLAND#.'OFATLEASTPERCENT °$UTYANDSALESTAXEXEMPTIONSONIMPORTOFALL#.' EQUIPMENT FOR MORE THAN SIX YEARS SINCE *ANUARY !TPRESENT #.'CONVERSIONKITS STORAGEAND VEHICLE CYLINDERS ARE EXEMPTED FROM CUSTOM DUTY (OWEVER THEREISlVEPERCENTDUTYONIMPORTOF#.' COMPRESSORSANDDISPENSERS4HEREISPERCENT CUSTOMS DUTY ON DEDICATED #.' BUSES !LL #.' EQUIPMENTANDBUSESAREEXEMPTFROMSALESTAX &UTURE PLANS A PLAN IS BEING IMPLEMENTED BY FEDERAL AND PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENTS FOR THE REPLACEMENT OF DIESELWITH#.'4HISPLANISGIVINGRISETOSUBSTANTIAL NEW INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN THE FORM OF IMPORT LOCAL MANUFACTURING OF #.' BUSES #.' EQUIPMENT ANDESTABLISHMENTOF#.'REFUELLINGSTATIONSFORHEAVY VEHICLES

-ALAYSIA -ALAYSIAHASBEENIMPLEMENTINGAN.'6PROGRAMME SINCE  FOLLOWING lVE YEARS OF PILOT PROJECTS 4HE MOTIVATION FOR USING .'6S CAN BE SUMMED UP WITH THESEFACTS ° PER CENT OF LOCAL AIR POLLUTION IS FROM MOBILE SOURCES ° PER CENT OF CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS ARE FROM FUELCOMBUSTION .'6SARESEENASTHEUSEOFANALTERNATIVEFUELWHICH WILLREDUCEDEPENDENCYONPETROLANDDIESEL ANDWILL DIVERSIFYTHEUSEOFNATURALGAS 0ROGRAMME DEVELOPMENT 4HE DEVELOPMENT OF .'6S IN-ALAYSIAWASUNDERTAKENINSTAGES&IRST APILOTFROM

 TO  INCLUDED CONSTRUCTION OF ONE REFUELLING STATIONANDCONVERSIONOF0ETRONAS OWNEDVEHICLES THEN A DEMONSTRATION PROGRAMME WAS UNDERTAKEN   TO RESOLVE ISSUES THAT AFFECT WIDESPREAD USE OF #.' /NE MOTHER STATION lVE DOOR TO DOOR STATIONS AND ONE CONVENTIONAL REFUELLING STATION WERE COMMISSIONEDSERVICINGBI FUELCITYBUSES#.' AND PETROL AND ONE DEDICATED TO #.' ONLY 3INCE  THE TOTAL HAS GROWN TO   BI FUEL VEHICLES CITYBUSESANDREFUELLINGSTATIONS WITHAFURTHER STATIONSUNDERCONSTRUCTION MAINLYIN+UALA,UMPUR *OHORAND0ENANG 'OVERNMENTINVOLVEMENTTHEGOVERNMENTHASPROVIDED AVARIETYOFINCENTIVES °2EDUCTIONOFROADTAXBYPERCENTFORBI FUELAND DUAL FUEL VEHICLES AND  PER CENT FOR DEDICATED VEHICLES °)MPORTDUTYANDSALESTAXEXEMPTIONFORCONVERSION KITS °!CCELERATEDCAPITALDEPRECIATIONFORDEDICATEDBUSES ANDCONSTRUCTIONOFREFUELLINGSTATIONS °-AXIMUMRETAILPRICEOF#.'ISPERCENTOFPETROL PRICE °!GRANTOF53 FOREACHDEDICATEDBUS NEW ORCONVERTED UNTILTHEENDOF °)MPORTDUTYANDSALESTAXEXEMPTIONONCHASSISAND ENGINES FOR DEDICATED BUSES AND GOODS TRANSPORT VEHICLES )N ADDITION THE GOVERNMENT OWNED OIL COMPANY 0ETRONASHASPLAYEDAKEYROLEINIMPLEMENTATIONOFALL STAGESOFTHEPROGRAMMETODATE &UTURE PLANS BY  ALL TAXIS IN +LANG 6ALEY AND *OHOR "HARU ARE TO BE CONVERTED TO #.' AND FROM ONWARDSTHEFOCUSWILLBEONTHECONVERSIONOF PRIVATE AND HEAVY DUTY VEHICLES IN THOSE AREAS 4HE CHALLENGES ARE TO ACHIEVE MARKET ACCEPTABILITY IN THE PUBLIC TRANSPORT AND HEAVY DUTY VEHICLES SECTORS !MAJORCONSTRAINTISTHELIMITEDGASPIPELINENETWORK IN-ALAYSIA

"ANGLADESH $HAKAHASANAIRPOLLUTIONPROBLEMFROMVEHICLEEXHAUST (ENCETHE7ORLD"ANK THE!SIAN$EVELOPMENT"ANK 53!)$ANDOTHERSHAVESUPPORTEDTHEDEVELOPMENTOF A#.'INDUSTRYIN"ANGLADESH#.'USEASAVEHICLE FUELWASlRSTINTRODUCEDIN"ANGLADESHINTHROUGH A 7ORLD "ANK PILOT PROJECT ,ARGE SCALE CONVERSIONS TOOKPLACEFROMABOUTTHEYEARONWARDS )N  TWO STROKE THREE WHEELER BABY TAXIS WERE IDENTIlED AS ONE OF THE MAJOR CAUSES OF AIR POLLUTION 4HE -INISTRY OF #OMMUNICATIONS BANNED TWO STROKE BABY TAXIS FROM ST $ECEMBER  ! NEW mEET OF #.'THREE WHEELERSWASINTRODUCEDON*ANUARY 3INCETHEN INTRODUCTIONANDGROWTHOF.'6SOFVARIOUS TYPESHASRESULTEDINNOTICEABLYIMPROVEDAIRQUALITYIN $HAKA4HE.'6PROGRAMMEIN"ANGLADESHISSTRONGLY ORIENTEDTOWARDSIMPROVEMENTOFAIRQUALITY 0ROGRAMME DEVELOPMENT BY *ANUARY    PETROL POWEREDVEHICLESHADBEENCONVERTEDTO#.' IN"ANGLADESH4HECONVERTEDVEHICLESARECARS JEEPS

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




#ONNECTINGTHE#OMMONWEALTH

MICROBUSES THREE WHEELER AUTO RICKSHAWS TAXIS AND BUSES 4HE COST OF CONVERSION PER PETROL VEHICLE IS APPROXIMATELY 53 $IESEL CONVERSIONS ARE MORE EXPENSIVE AND ARE NOT AT PRESENT FAVOURED BY THE VEHICLEOWNERS4HE!SIAN$EVELOPMENT"ANKFUNDED THE lRST REFUELLING STATION IN  )N *ANUARY  THEREWEREPUBLICREFUELLINGSTATIONS SEVENPRIVATE STATIONS AND  UNDER CONSTRUCTION 4HE NUMBER OF .'6S WAS   IN  RISING TO   IN  AND IN*ANUARY

4HE!USTRALIANGOVERNMENTSRATIONALEFORSUPPORTING .'6SISBASEDONAMIXOFAIRQUALITY GREENHOUSEGAS ENERGYSECURITYANDCONSUMERPRICEOUTCOMES4HE &EDERAL GOVERNMENT CURRENTLY FAVOURS THE PROVISION OF INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORT FUELS THROUGH REDUCTIONOFEXCISEDUTIES(OWEVER THESEINCENTIVES WILLBEPROGRESSIVELYREDUCED STARTINGIN!TTHAT TIME THENATURALPRICEADVANTAGEOFNATURALGASRELATIVE TO DIESEL AND PETROL SHOULD STILL PRODUCE A REDUCED FUELCOSTFOR.'6S

'OVERNMENTINVOLVEMENT

!TPRESENTTHEREAREABOUT CITYBUSESRUNNINGON #.' HEAVYTRUCKSON#.'ANDHEAVYTRUCKS ON ,.' 4HESE ARE REFUELLED BY  PRIVATE REFUELING STATIONSANDTHREEPUBLICSTATIONS

°% XEMPTIONOFIMPORTEDCYLINDERSANDCONVERSIONKITS FROMALLTYPESOFDUTY °!LLGOVERNMENTVEHICLESWILLBECONVERTEDINTO#.' ALREADYHALFOFTHEmEETHASBEENCOMPLETED °4HEGOVERNMENTHASPROVIDEDCOMMERCIALPLOTS WITHEASYPAYMENTTERMSFORPRIVATEOWNERSFOR#.' REFUELLINGSTATIONSIN$HAKA °4HE#.'PRICEISREGULATEDATABOUTPERCENTOF THEPETROLPRICE °4HE GOVERNMENT OWNED OIL COMPANY 20'#, IS THE KEY PROMOTER OF #.' AND HAS ITS OWN #.' CONVERSIONWORKSHOPANDREFUELLINGSTATIONS

4HEREISCURRENTLYAGROWINGAMOUNTOFPRIVATEINDUSTRY INVESTMENTANDINTERESTIN °,.' VEHICLES FOR PRIME MOVERS BY LARGE mEET OPERATORS °,.'PRODUCTIONANDDISPENSINGINFRASTRUCTURE

°"ANGLADESH SAFETY STANDARDS FOR VEHICLE CONVERSION ANDREFUELLINGSTATIONSWEREINTRODUCEDEARLYIN

°#.' VEHICLES FOR ROUTE BUSES AND RETURN TO BASE HEAVYVEHICLESSUCHASREFUSETRUCKSANDCONCRETE TRUCKS

3AFETY IS THE PRIME CONCERN AND THE "ANGLADESH GOVERNMENT IS DEVELOPING RULES AND PROGRAMMES FOR CYLINDER RE TESTING APPROVAL OF CONVERSION WORKSHOPS SAFETYINSPECTIONS ANDDEVELOPINGANATIONALDATABASE

°! DEPOT BASED #.' REFUELLING INFRASTRUCTURE FOR BUSESANDFORKLIFTmEETS

&UTURE PLANS DUE TO THE POVERTY IN "ANGLADESH AND THE SMALL NUMBER OF MOTOR VEHICLES THE POTENTIAL .'6 MARKET IS CURRENTLY QUITE SMALL WITH A TOTAL OF ONLYABOUT 4HISNUMBERISLIKELYTOINCREASE WITH ECONOMIC GROWTH 7ITH THE PRESENT RATE OF OVER  VEHICLECONVERSIONSPERYEAR THEMARKETMAY BESATURATEDWITHINAFEWYEARS

!USTRALIA !USTRALIAS .'6 PROGRAMME BEGAN IN THE MID S ANDWASCHAMPIONEDBYTHEMONOPOLYGASCOMPANIES THAT DISTRIBUTED AND RETAILED GAS IN EACH CAPITAL CITY 4HERE WAS AN INVESTMENT OF 53 MILLION BETWEEN ANDTOFOSTERTHEGROWTHOFTHE.'6INDUSTRY IN!USTRALIA 4HE TARGET MARKETS WERE ROUTE BUSES FORKLIFTS AND PASSENGERCARS WITHNOTABLESUCCESSINBOTHTHEBUS ANDFORKLIFTSTRATEGIES4HELIGHTDUTYVEHICLEMARKETWAS SUCCESSFULLYTARGETEDBY,0'MARKETERS 0ROGRAMMEDEVELOPMENTANDGOVERNMENTINVOLVEMENT IN THE LATE S THE &EDERAL GOVERNMENT LAUNCHED TWOPROGRAMMESAIMEDATPROMOTINGTHEGROWTHOFTHE !USTRALIAN.'6INDUSTRY °4HE #OMPRESSED .ATURAL 'AS )NFRASTRUCTURE 0ROGRAMME WHICHHASFUNDEDUPTOPERCENTOF THECAPITALREQUIREDTOBUILDPUBLICREFUELLINGSTATIONS °4HE!LTERNATIVE&UELS#ONVERSION0ROGRAMMEWHICH HASFUNDEDUPTOPERCENTOFTHEADDITIONALPRICEOF A#.' ,.'ORETHANOLCOMMERCIALORHEAVYVEHICLE OVERTHEEQUIVALENTDIESELORPETROLVEHICLE 

&UTUREPLANSTHEPREVIOUSLYMENTIONEDPROGRAMMES ARE UNDER REVIEW BY THE &EDERAL GOVERNMENT AND ADDITIONAL PROGRAMMESINITIATIVES ARE ALSO BEING CONSIDERED

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

°$EVELOPMENT OF HEAVY DUTY NATURAL GAS ENGINES EITHERWITHDIRECTCOLLABORATIONWITHTHE/%-SORWITH /%-FACTORYENDORSEMENT

$R'ARTH(ARRISHASBEEN3ECRETARY'ENERALOFTHE)NTERNATIONAL !SSOCIATION FOR .ATURAL 'AS 6EHICLES SINCE ITS FORMATION IN  (E HAS BEEN INVOLVED WITH ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORT FUELS PARTICULARLY #.' SINCE  AND HAS UNDERTAKEN #.' IMPLEMENTATION STUDIES IN .EW :EALAND 0AKISTAN )RELAND !USTRALIA THE 0HILIPPINES AND )NDONESIA (E WAS EXTENSIVELY INVOLVED IN IMPLEMENTATION OF #.' IN .EW :EALAND (E WAS CHIEFEXECUTIVEOFTHEGOVERNMENT FUNDED.:%NERGY2ESEARCH AND$EVELOPMENT#OMMITTEEANDANENERGYCONSULTANT 4HE )NTERNATIONAL !SSOCIATION FOR .ATURAL 'AS 6EHICLES )!.'6 IS THE WORLDWIDE ASSOCIATION FOR THE #.' INDUSTRY )T HAS OVER MEMBERSTHROUGHREGIONALANDNATIONALASSOCIATIONS PLUS INDIVIDUALMEMBERS )!.'6 0/"OX !UCKLAND .EW:EALAND 4EL  &AX  %MAILIANGV IANGVORG 7EBSITEWWWIANGVORG


#ONNECTINGTHE#OMMONWEALTH

'IOVANNI"ISIGNANI #%/AND-ANAGING$IRECTOR

)NTERNATIONAL!IR4RANSPORT!SSOCIATION

!IRTRANSPORTANDTHE ENVIRONMENT !IR TRANSPORT IS AN IMPORTANT CATALYST FOR GLOBALISATION AND WORLD ECONOMIC GROWTH .O INDUSTRYHASDONEMORETOAIDDEVELOPMENT4HE IMPACT ON DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IS INCALCULABLE 4HE INDUSTRY CONTRIBUTES TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT BY FACILITATING TOURISM AND TRADE GENERATING ECONOMIC GROWTH CREATING JOBS ANDINCREASINGTAXREVENUES!IRTRANSPORTOFTEN SERVESASTHEONLYMEANSOFTRANSPORTTOREMOTE AREAS PROMOTING SOCIAL INCLUSION IT FACILITATES THEDELIVERYOFEMERGENCYANDHUMANITARIANAID RELIEF ANDTHESWIFTDELIVERYOFMEDICALSUPPLIES ASWELLASORGANSFORTRANSPLANTATION)NTHISARTICLE 'IOVANNI"ISIGNANIEXAMINESAIRTRANSPORTSROLEIN WORLDDEVELOPMENT ANDPRESENTSFACTSTOCOUNTER THENEGATIVEOPINIONSOFTHEANTI AIRLOBBY 4HEAIRTRANSPORTINDUSTRYSUPPORTSMILLIONJOBSAND FACILITATES53TRILLIONOFECONOMICACTIVITY EQUIVALENT TO AROUND EIGHT PER CENT OF GLOBAL ECONOMIC ACTIVITY !IRLINESCARRYPERCENTOFGLOBALMERCHANDISETRADE BYVALUE4HEINDUSTRYCONTRIBUTESBYMAKINGTOURISM POSSIBLE ANDITBOOSTSECONOMICGROWTH&OREXAMPLE A53MILLIONINVESTMENTINAVIATIONINFRASTRUCTURE AND SERVICES IN +ENYA BOOSTED LONG TERM '$0 BY PERCENTPERANNUM )N !FRICA THE ROLE OF AIR TRANSPORT IS ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT GIVEN THE ABSENCE OF EFFECTIVE GROUND TRANSPORT NETWORKS !IR TRANSPORT GENERATES  THOUSAND JOBS IN !FRICA AND CONTRIBUTES 53 BILLION TO !FRICAN '$0 !FRICAENJOYEDANPERCENTGROWTHINPASSENGERTRAFlCIN AGAINSTAGLOBALAVERAGEOFJUSTPERCENT 

3AFETY 3AFETY AND SECURITY ARE )!4!S TOP PRIORITIES AND  WASTHESAFESTYEAREVER)NADECADE THEINDUSTRYHAS CUTTHEACCIDENTRATEINHALFTOONEACCIDENTFOREVERY MILLIONmIGHTS4HE)NTERNATIONAL!IR4RANSPORT!SSOCIATION )!4! PUTSTHEHIGHESTPRIORITYONSAFETY ANDITSMEMBERS DIDBETTERTHANTHEAVERAGE WITHONEACCIDENTFOREVERY TWOMILLIONmIGHTS!IRISALREADYTHESAFESTWAYTOTRAVEL AND)!4!ISCOMMITTEDTOMAKEITEVENSAFER 4HE )!4! /PERATIONAL 3AFETY !UDIT )/3! IS THE lRST GLOBALSTANDARDFORAIRLINEOPERATIONALSAFETYAUDITING)T ASSESSESAIRLINEOPERATIONALMANAGEMENTANDCONTROL SYSTEMSIMPROVESSAFETYANDREDUCESTHENUMBEROF 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

AUDITSPERFORMED,ASTYEAR)/3!WASMADEACONDITION OFMEMBERSHIP DElNING)!4!ASAQUALITYASSOCIATION PERCENTOFMEMBERSHAVECOMMITTEDTOAN)/3! AUDIT ANDTHETARGETSARETOUGHANDCREDIBLE 3EVERALGOVERNMENTSHAVEINCORPORATED)/3!INTOTHEIR SAFETY OVERSIGHT PROGRAMMES INCLUDING #HILE %GYPT -ADAGASCARAND4URKEY)NADDITION THE!RAB#IVIL!VIATION #OMMISSION!#!# ISMANDATINGITSCARRIERSTOBE)/3! REGISTERED .IGERIA *ORDAN 4UNISIA -EXICO (UNGARY AND THE ,ATIN !MERICAN #IVIL !VIATION #OMMISSION ARE PLANNINGTODOTHESAME/THERGOVERNMENTSSHOULDBE ENCOURAGEDTOFOLLOWSUITTORAISETHEBARONSAFETY )NCERTAINPARTSOFTHEWORLDTHESAFETYRECORDREMAINS AMAJORCONCERN AND)!4!HASTAKENSTEPSTOIMPROVE SAFETY IN THESE REGIONS )!4!S 0ARTNERSHIP FOR 3AFETY 0F3 PROGRAMMEHELPSAIRLINESINDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES PREPAREFORAN)/3!AUDIT!IRLINESIN!FRICA ,ATIN!MERICA AND#)3ARETHEPRIORITYAND)!4!ISINVESTING53MILLION OVERTHETHREEYEARS INTHEPROGRAMME

3ECURITY 0ROGRESSWITHGOVERNMENTSONIMPROVINGSECURITYHAS BEEN PAINFULLY SLOW .EARLY SIX YEARS AFTER THE TRAGIC EVENTS OF  WE ARE MUCH MORE SECURE BUT THE SYSTEM IS STILL A 53 BILLION UNCOORDINATED MESS 4HE COMMON APPROACH TO LIQUIDS AND GELS IS AN IMPROVEMENT "UT WITH MORE CHECKED BAGGAGE THE INFRASTRUCTUREMUSTALSOIMPROVE 'OVERNMENTS HAVE FORGOTTEN THAT SUCCESS IN SAFETY WAS BASED ON GLOBAL STANDARDS AND COOPERATION 7ITH SECURITY THE SAME APPROACH MUST BE TAKEN 7HERESTANDARDSEXISTSUCHASBIOMETRICIDENTIlCATION GOVERNMENTSMUSTBEFASTERTOIMPLEMENT )!4! IS WORKING WITH MEMBER AIRLINES TO IMPLEMENT 3ECURITY -ANAGEMENT 3YSTEMS AND WILL CONTINUE TO REMIND GOVERNMENTS OF THEIR RESPONSIBILITY TO PROVIDE EFFECTIVESECURITYTHATISALSOCONVENIENT0ASSENGERS HAVEBEENHASSLEDFORSIXYEARSnFARTOOLONG

%NVIRONMENT 4HE ISSUE ON WHICH THIS ARTICLE WILL FOCUS ON IS THE ENVIRONMENT4HISISANAREAWHEREGOVERNMENTSHAVE TO LISTEN TO THE AIR TRANSPORT INDUSTRY AND WHERE THEY MUSTTAKEUPTHECHALLENGETOHELPAVIATIONDEALWITHITS GREENHOUSEGASEMISSIONSEFFECTIVELY


#ONNECTINGTHE#OMMONWEALTH

4HERE IS A LOT OF HYPERBOLE CHARACTERISING THE DEBATE ON AVIATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE 7HO SHOULD WE BELIEVE0OLITICIANS%NVIRONMENTALACTIVISTS!IRLINES 3CIENTISTS7EHAVEALLHEARDTHEARGUMENTSAVIATION ISAMAJORCONTRIBUTORTOGLOBALWARMINGITISTHEFASTEST GROWINGSOURCEOFGREENHOUSEGASEMISSIONSmYINGIS ASINmYINGISKILLINGOURPLANET)TISOFTENDIFlCULTTOCUT THROUGHTHEHYPERBOLE SOWESHOULDLOOKATTHEFACTSn ANDTHEFACTSCOMEFROMTHEWORLDSMOSTAUTHORITATIVE BODYONTHISISSUE THE5.S)NTERGOVERNMENTAL0ANEL ON#LIMATE#HANGE)0##  4HE)0##ESTIMATESTHATAVIATIONTODAYISRESPONSIBLE FOR TWO PER CENT OF GLOBAL CARBON DIOXIDE #/ EMISSIONS WITH A TOTAL CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT OF THREE PER CENT 4HESE lGURES HAVE REMAINED LARGELY UNCHANGED OVER THE LAST TWO DECADES DESPITE THE GROWTH OF AIR TRAFlC 0ROJECTING FORWARD TO  THE )0## HAS AVIATION AT THREE PER CENT OF GLOBAL #/ EMISSIONS AND lVE SIX PER CENT OF CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT!VIATIONISANDWILLREMAINASMALLPARTOFTHE BIGPROBLEMOFCLIMATECHANGE .ONETHELESS AVIATIONSCARBONFOOTPRINTISGROWINGAND THAT IS POLITICALLY UNACCEPTABLE FOR ANY INDUSTRY 4HE CHALLENGE IS TO KEEP THE MANY BENElTS OF AVIATION n UNPRECEDENTEDGLOBALMOBILITYTHATSUPPORTSMILLION JOBS AND 53 BILLION WORTH OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITY nWHILEELIMINATINGITSNEGATIVEIMPACTS )N 3EPTEMBER  GOVERNMENT LEADERS RESPONSIBLE FOR CIVIL AVIATION GATHERED FOR THE 4RIENNIAL !SSEMBLY OF THE )NTERNATIONAL #IVIL !VIATION /RGANIZATION )#!/  %NVIRONMENT WAS THE HOT TOPIC OF THE WEEK AND THIS MEETING MIGHT JUST HERALD THE BEST OPPORTUNITY FOR A GLOBAL SOLUTION !LL  )#!/ CONTRACTING STATES RE AFlRMED)#!/SLEADERSHIPONAVIATIONANDENVIRONMENT BY ENDORSING A COMPREHENSIVE STRATEGY ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND EMBRACED )!4!S  PER CENT GOAL TO IMPROVEFUELEFlCIENCYBY "UTUNILATERAL%UROPEANPROPOSALSTOINCLUDEAVIATION INTOITSEMISSIONSTRADINGSCHEMEHAVEPUTECONOMIC MEASURESATTHECENTREOFTHEPOLITICALDEBATEnPARTIALLY FUELLED BY THE UPCOMING +YOTO DEADLINES 3UCH REGIONAL INITIATIVES ARE NO WAY TO SOLVE A WORLDWIDE ISSUE 4HEY WILL HAVE AT BEST LIMITED IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT!NDTHEIRUNILATERALAPPLICATIONTOFOREIGN AIRLINESISACLEARBREACHOFTHE#HICAGO#ONVENTION 4HE RESULTING TRADE AND LEGAL BATTLES WILL DISTRACT GOVERNMENTSFROMMAKINGREALPROGRESS 4HE SOLUTION IS NOT TO RETURN TO THE DAYS WHEN mYING WAS RESERVED FOR THE WELL TO DO BY MAKING IT ARTIlCIALLY EXPENSIVE WITH EVEN MORE TAXES 0UNITIVE ECONOMIC MEASURESSUCHASEMISSIONSTRADINGWILLNOTHAVEABIG IMPACT ON AVIATIONS ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE 7ITH PERCENTOFCOSTSCOMINGDIRECTLYFROMFUEL THEAIRLINE INDUSTRYISTHEONEWITHTHEMOSTINCENTIVESINTHEWORLD TOKEEPFUELCONSUMPTIONLOW0OSITIVEMEASURESnTAX CREDITSTOENCOURAGEFASTERRE mEETING ORGRANTSTOFUND ALTERNATIVEFUELRESEARCHnWOULDDELIVERBETTERRESULTS )F EMISSIONS TRADING IS GOING TO BE IMPOSED ON AIRLINES IT MUST BE EFFECTIVE )#!/ HAS PROMISED TO WORK TOWARDS A GLOBAL EMISSIONS TRADING SCHEME THAT STATES COULD IMPLEMENT ON A MUTUAL CONSENT

BASIS 4HIS IS WHAT THE DRAFTERS OF +YOTO HAD ALWAYS ENVISAGED4HE%UROPEAN5NIONSTATESARETHEmYIN THE OINTMENT BY DECIDING TO PUSH AHEAD WITH THEIR OWNEMISSIONSTRADINGSCHEMERATHERTHANTHEGLOBAL SOLUTIONENVISAGEDBYOTHERSTATES (OWEVER THE INDUSTRY IS PUSHING GOVERNMENTS FOR MUCHLOFTIERGOALS)N*UNE)!4!PROPOSEDAVISION FORTHEINDUSTRYTOAIMFORCARBONNEUTRALGROWTHINTHE MEDIUMTERM ANDTODEVELOPZERO CARBONEMISSIONS TECHNOLOGYWITHINYEARS3INCETHEN)HAVEMETWITH AIRCRAFT MANUFACTURERS ENGINE MAKERS FUEL SUPPLIERS ANDAIRLINES.OBODYHASALLTHEANSWERS BUTNO ONE SAID THE GOAL WAS IMPOSSIBLE /N THE CONTRARY IT IS ABSOLUTELYACHIEVABLE2EMEMBER THISISTHEINDUSTRY THATWENTFROMTHE7RIGHT"ROTHERSTOTHEJETAGEINJUST lVEDECADES

4HECRITICALQUESTIONHOWTOTURNTHE VISIONINTOREALITY 4HE lRST STEP WILL BE FOR AVIATION TO DECOUPLE CARBON EMISSIONS FROM TRAFlC GROWTH TO STOP ITS CARBON EMISSIONSFROMGROWINGINABSOLUTETERMS4HESECOND STEP MUST SEE AVIATION FURTHER REDUCE ITS REMAINING CARBON EMISSIONS TO EVENTUALLY BECOME A TOTALLY CARBON EMISSIONS FREE TRANSPORT MODE 4O ACHIEVE THIS )!4! HAS CHALLENGED THE INDUSTRY TO BUILD AND OPERATE A COMMERCIAL AIRLINER THAT PRODUCES NO NET CARBONEMISSIONSWITHINTHENEXTYEARS !LTHOUGHCOMPLETESOLUTIONSDONOTEXISTTODAY SOME OF THE BUILDING BLOCKS n NEW MATERIALS AND DESIGNS ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES ADVANCED )4 SOLUTIONS nAREALREADYTAKINGSHAPE)!4!ISCONlDENTTHATWITHA COMMITMENTFROMALLPARTIES ANDWITH)#!/LEADERSHIP THIS VISION CAN BE MADE REALITY 4HE VISION IS BUILT ON FOURPILLARS

4ECHNOLOGY 4ECHNOLOGYISAMAINDRIVEROFPROGRESS ANDTHEONLY WAYTOZEROEMISSIONS1UITESIMPLYWENEEDTOBUILD BETTERPLANESANDMOREEFlCIENTENGINESPOWEREDBY NON CARBON SOURCES 3OME POTENTIAL BUILDING BLOCKS ALREADYEXISTnSOLARPOWER HYDROGENCELLSANDBIOFUELS !CCELERATEDDEVELOPMENTOFALTERNATIVEFUELSANDMORE ADVANCEDTECHNOLOGYFORAIRFRAME ENGINEANDAIRTRAFlC MANAGEMENTISABSOLUTELYESSENTIAL )!4! MANUFACTURERSANDFUELSUPPLIERSAREJOINTLYWORKING ONANACTIONPLANFOCUSINGONSHORT MEDIUMANDLONG TERMMEASURES)NTHESHORTTERM THEPOTENTIALEXISTSTO REALISE EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS BY IDENTIFYING AND APPLYING PRODUCT ENHANCEMENTS AND MODIlCATIONS FOR THE CURRENTmEET&ORTHEMEDIUMTERM POSSIBILITIESMUSTBE EXPLOREDTOACCELERATEmEETRENEWALANDTOINTRODUCETHE LATEST TECHNOLOGIES AS EARLY AND AS WIDELY AS POSSIBLE !IRLINESAREINVESTINGBILLIONSOFDOLLARSINNEW MOREFUEL EFlCIENT AIRCRAFT )N THE LAST FOUR DECADES FUEL EFlCIENCY HASINCREASEDPERCENTANDWILLIMPROVEAFURTHER PER CENT BY  $EVELOPMENT OF CLEANER ALTERNATIVE AVIATIONFUELSMUSTALSOTAKEPRIORITY&ORTHELONGERTERM JOINTINITIATIVESSHOULDBELAUNCHEDTOIDENTIFYANDDEVELOP RADICALLYNEWTECHNOLOGIESANDAIRCRAFTDESIGNS

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




#ONNECTINGTHE#OMMONWEALTH

/PERATIONS

!VISIONOFPROGRESS

)MPROVED AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS CAN SAVE FUEL AND #/ EMISSIONSBYUPTOSIXPERCENT ACCORDINGTO)0## )!4! IS COMPILING INDUSTRY BEST PRACTICES PUBLISHING GUIDANCE MATERIAL CONDUCTING AIRLINE VISITS AND ESTABLISHINGTRAININGPROGRAMMESTOIMPROVEEXISTING FUELCONSERVATIONMEASURES

)!4!S  MEMBERS ARE COMMITTED TO THIS VISION OF PROGRESS -ANUFACTURERS ARE ALIGNED AND ALL ARE WORKINGHARD)TISNOWTIMEFORGOVERNMENTSTOCOME ON BOARD 4HROUGH )#!/ GOVERNMENTS MUST SET CHALLENGINGBUTREALISTICTARGETSINTWOIMPORTANTAREAS &IRSTWENEEDTARGETSTOIMPROVEAIRTRAFlCMANAGEMENT AND ELIMINATE UNNECESSARY FUEL BURN 4HEN WE NEED TECHNOLOGY TARGETS IN A ROADMAP 4HIS WILL PROVIDE REGULATORYCERTAINTYTOBACKMAJORINVESTMENTDECISIONS BYMANUFACTURERSANDAIRLINES3O LESSHYPERBOLEAND MORECONCRETEACTIONS PLEASE

)N)!4!UPDATEDITSFUELEFlCIENCYGOAL)TEXPECTS AIRLINESTOIMPROVETHEIRFUELCONSUMPTIONPERREVENUE TONNEKILOMETRE24+ ATLEASTPERCENTBY COMPAREDTOLEVELS4HISWILLSAVEAROUND MILLIONTONNESOF#/EMISSIONS )!4! IS DETERMINED FURTHER TO RAISE ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS ACROSS THE INDUSTRY AND IS AIMING TO EXTEND ITS EXISTING FUEL CONSERVATION PROGRAMME TO PROMOTEENVIRONMENTALMANAGEMENTSYSTEMSACROSS ALLAIRLINES

)NFRASTRUCTURE )NFRASTRUCTURE IMPROVEMENTS PRESENT A MAJOR OPPORTUNITY FOR FUEL AND #/ REDUCTIONS IN THE NEAR TERM"YADDRESSINGAIRSPACEANDAIRPORTINEFlCIENCIES SAYS )0## GOVERNMENTS AND INFRASTRUCTURE PROVIDERS CANELIMINATEUPTOPERCENTOF#/EMISSIONSFROM AVIATION 5NFORTUNATELY POLITICS OFTEN GETS IN THE WAY OF GOOD COMMON SENSE 5NITING %UROPES SKIES OFFERS THE BIGGEST SINGLE OPPORTUNITY TO IMPROVE AVIATIONS ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE "UT AFTER  YEARS OF TALKS A 3INGLE %UROPEAN 3KY IS STILL JUST AN IDEA 4HIS POLITICAL FAILURE RESULTS IN  MILLION TONNES OF UNNECESSARYCARBONEMISSIONSEACHYEAR )MPLEMENTATION OF THE 3INGLE %UROPEAN 3KY AND THE 53 .EXT'EN !IR 4RANSPORT 3YSTEM IS A TOP PRIORITY FOR THE PROGRESSIVE HARMONISATION OF GLOBAL AIRSPACE MANAGEMENT &LEXIBLE AIRSPACE ACCESS MUST ALSO BECOME A REALITY ESPECIALLY IN !SIA WHERE TRAFlC GROWTHISPARTICULARLYSTRONG

%CONOMICMEASURES %CONOMIC MEASURES SHOULD BE USED TO BOOST THE RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES RATHER THAN AS A TOOL TO SUPPRESS DEMAND 4HE USE OF TAX CREDITS AND DIRECT FUNDING MUST BE EXPLORED AS INCENTIVES TO DRIVE NEW TECHNOLOGYPROGRAMMES 0UNITIVE TAXES DO NOT IMPROVE ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE %MISSIONS TRADING WOULD BE A MORE COST EFFECTIVE SOLUTION AS PART OF A GLOBAL PACKAGE OF MEASURES INCLUDING TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS AND INFRASTRUCTURE IMPROVEMENT "UT THE TRADING SYSTEM MUST BE PROPERLY DESIGNED AND IMPLEMENTED ON A GLOBAL AND VOLUNTARY BASIS )T MUST ALSO BE AN OPEN TRADING SYSTEM ALLOWING PERMIT TRADING WITH OTHER INDUSTRIES  %CONOMIC MEASURES CAN FURTHER BE USEDTOENGAGEAIRLINECUSTOMERSINCLIMATECHANGE INITIATIVESTHROUGHCARBON OFFSETMECHANISMS



4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

'IOVANNI "ISIGNANI HAS SERVED AS $IRECTOR 'ENERAL AND #%/ OF THE )NTERNATIONAL !IR 4RANSPORT !SSOCIATION )!4! SINCE *UNE  -R "ISIGNANIS AIRLINE EXPERIENCE INCLUDES lVE YEARS AT THEHELMOF!LITALIAAS#%/AND-ANAGING$IRECTOR DURINGWHICH TIMEHEALSOSERVEDONTHE)!4!%XECUTIVE#OMMITTEEANDWAS #HAIRMANOFTHE!%!!SSOCIATIONOF%UROPEAN!IRLINES 0RIORTO JOINING)!4! HELAUNCHEDANDDIRECTED/PODOnTHElRST%UROPEAN AIRLINE OWNEDONLINETRAVELAGENCY$URINGHISBUSINESSCAREER -R "ISIGNANI HAS HELD VARIOUS HIGH LEVEL RESPONSIBILITIES AT THE ENERGYCOMPANY%.)ANDTHE)TALIANINDUSTRIALCONGLOMERATE)2) 'ROUP (E SERVED AS 0RESIDENT OF 4IRRENIA DI .AVIGAZIONE THE LARGEST)TALIANFERRYCOMPANYANDAS#%/AND-ANAGING$IRECTOR OF 3- ,OGISTICS A GROUP OF LOGISTICS AND FREIGHT FORWARDING COMPANIES PARTIALLY OWNEDBY'%#APITAL 4HE )NTERNATIONAL !IR 4RANSPORT !SSOCIATION )!4! HAS OVER  MEMBERS WHO ACCOUNT FOR AROUND  PER CENT OF SCHEDULED INTERNATIONAL TRAFlC 3INCE  )!4! HAS SPEARHEADED AN INDUSTRYAGENDATOENHANCESAFETY IMPROVEEFlCIENCYANDFOCUS GOVERNMENTS ON THE LONG TERM ISSUES FOR INDUSTRY VIABILITY n INCLUDINGLIBERALISATIONANDACOMMONSENSEAPPROACHTOISSUES SUCH AS THE ENVIRONMENT AND TAXATION !S A RESULT TWO MAJOR )!4! INITIATIVES ARE RESHAPING IMPORTANT PARTS OF THE INDUSTRY 4HE )!4! /PERATIONAL 3AFETY !UDIT )/3! IS RAISING THE BAR ON SAFETYWITHTHElRSTGLOBALSTANDARDFORAIRLINEOPERATIONALSAFETY MANAGEMENT !ND )!4!S 3IMPLIFYING THE "USINESS PROGRAMME WILL USE TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE CUSTOMER CONVENIENCE WHILE ELIMINATING53BILLIONINANNUALCOSTS )NTERNATIONAL!IR4RANSPORT!SSOCIATION)!4! -ONTREAL(EAD/FlCE 0LACE6ICTORIA 0/"OX -ONTREAL(:- 1UEBEC #ANADA 4EL  &AX  'ENEVA%XECUTIVE/FlCES  2OUTEDEL!EROPORT 0/"OX 'ENEVAn!IRPORT 3WITZERLAND 4EL  &AX  7EBSITEWWWIATAORG


&INANCINGFOR $EVELOPMENT

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




&INANCINGFOR$EVELOPMENT

%VELINE(ERFKENS %XECUTIVE#OORDINATOR THE5.-ILLENNIUM#AMPAIGN

4HE@GLOBALDEALTOREDUCEPOVERTY PROGRESSANDRESPONSIBILITIES 7HEN  GOVERNMENTS FROM THE .ORTH AND THE 3OUTH SIGNED THE -ILLENNIUM $ECLARATION AT THE 5.S-ILLENNIUM'ENERAL!SSEMBLYIN3EPTEMBER  THEREWASASENSEOFURGENCY5RGENCYTO @FREEOURFELLOWMEN WOMENANDCHILDRENFROMTHE ABJECTANDDEHUMANISINGCONDITIONSOFEXTREME POVERTY TOWHICHMORETHANABILLIONOFTHEMARE CURRENTLY SUBJECTED 4HEY COMMITTED TO WORK TOGETHER TO BUILD A SAFER MORE PROSPEROUS AND EQUITABLEWORLDFORALLITSCITIZENSBYANDTHEY ADOPTEDTHEEIGHT-ILLENNIUM$EVELOPMENT'OALS -$'S THAT PUT PEOPLE CENTERED DEVELOPMENT ATTHEHEARTOFTHEGLOBALANDNATIONALAGENDAS 4HE -ILLENNIUM $EVELOPMENT 'OALS COMMITTED RICH ANDPOORCOUNTRIESTOERADICATEEXTREMEPOVERTYAND HUNGER ELIMINATEGENDERINEQUALITYANDENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION AND ENSURE ACCESS TO EDUCATION HEALTHCAREANDCLEANWATER ALLBY 4HE-$'SBROUGHTTOGETHERFORTHElRSTTIMEASHARED VISION REPRESENTING A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP BASED ON SHARED RESPONSIBILITY BY ALL COUNTRIES RICH AND POOR $EVELOPINGCOUNTRIESPLEDGEDTOIMPROVEGOVERNANCE ANDREFORMPOLICIES CHANNELLINGTHEIRRESOURCESTOWARDS THE lRST SEVEN GOALS 2ICH COUNTRIES FOR THEIR PART PROMISEDTODELIVERMOREANDMOREEFFECTIVEAID AND TOREFORMTHEIRTRADEPOLICIESTOENABLEPOORCOUNTRIES ANDPEOPLETOEARNTHEIROWNWAYOUTOFPOVERTY 4HE-$'SEXPLICITLYRECOGNISETHATERADICATINGPOVERTY CANBEACHIEVEDONLYIFGOVERNMENTSOFBOTHRICHAND POOR COUNTRIES LIVE UP TO THEIR PROMISES 4ERMS FOR THIS @GLOBAL DEAL WERE REAFlRMED AT THE &INANCING FOR $EVELOPMENT3UMMITIN-ONTERREYINANDATTHE 5.3UMMIT 4HE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES HAVE PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY FORACHIEVINGTHElRSTSEVENGOALSTOREDUCEPOVERTY TOINCREASELITERACY TOIMPROVEHEALTHSERVICESANDSO ON "UT RICH COUNTRIES ACKNOWLEDGED IN 'OAL  THAT POOR COUNTRIES CANNOT ACHIEVE THE GOALS UNLESS RICH COUNTRIESINCREASEANDIMPROVETHEEFFECTIVENESSOFAID ANDCHANGETHERULESOFTRADETOFOSTERDEVELOPMENT &ROM A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE PROGRESS IN ACHIEVING THE GOALS IS PROMISING A SIGNIlCANT NUMBER OF COUNTRIES ARE IN THE PROCESS OF ACHIEVING AT LEAST PARTIALLY THE OBJECTIVES SET BY THE GOALS WHILE SOME COUNTRIES IN %AST !SIA AND ,ATIN !MERICA ARE ACTUALLY SURPASSING 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

THE OBJECTIVES SET /N CURRENT TRENDS THE lRST GOAL REGARDINGPOVERTY WILLBEMETATTHEGLOBALLEVELBY 4HIS WOULD BE A STRIKING SUCCESS EVEN IF THIS GOOD PROGRESSATTHEGLOBALLEVELLARGELYREmECTSPROGRESSIN THE POPULOUS COUNTRIES OF )NDIA AND #HINA 0ROGRESS ONTHESECONDGOALEDUCATION HASALSOBEENGOOD EVENIFNOTSUFlCIENT (OWEVER THEREARESOMETARGETSONWHICHWEARELAGGING SERIOUSLYBEHINDANDTHEWORSTOFTHESECONCERNSCHILD MORTALITY-OREOVER THESITUATIONINSUB 3AHARAN!FRICA IS PARTICULARLY WORRISOME )F CURRENT TRENDS CONTINUE THISCONTINENT ONAVERAGE WILLNOTACHIEVETHEGOALSFOR ANOTHERCENTURY"UTEVENHERE SOMEOFTHEPOOREST COUNTRIESAREONTRACKFORACHIEVEMENTOFSEVERALGOALS 3UCCESS STORIES CAN SIMPLY BE EXPLAINED AS CASES WHERETHEGLOBALCOMPACTHASBEENIMPLEMENTED4HE GOVERNMENTCONCERNEDHASREASONABLYGOODPOLICIES ANDRICHCOUNTRIESHAVEBEENRELATIVELYGENEROUSAND HELPFUL WITH AID AND DEBT RELIEF BACKING THEIR POVERTY REDUCTIONSTRATEGIES 3OTHEGLOBALDEALCANWORKxIFBOTHPARTIESLIVEUPTO THEIRCOMMITMENTS

2ESPONSIBILITIESOFDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES !S THE PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY IS WITH DEVELOPING COUNTRIES LETMElRSTFOCUSONTHEIRPARTINTHE@GLOBAL DEAL !CHIEVEMENT OF THE -ILLENNIUM 'OALS WILL NOT HAPPENUNLESSDEVELOPINGCOUNTRYGOVERNMENTSTAKE FULLRESPONSIBILITYFORTHEIRACTIONSANDTHEIRGOVERNMENTS WORK PROPERLY %VEN IN THE MOST AID DEPENDENT COUNTRIES AID IS A MINOR PART OF OVERALL DEVELOPMENT lNANCE4HEWAYACOUNTRYSPENDSITSOWNRESOURCESIS MUCHMORERELEVANTFORTHEACHIEVEMENTOFTHEGOALS 'IVEN THE WIDE DIVERSITY BETWEEN COUNTRIES THERE IS NOONE SIZE lTS ALLRECIPE ANDPRIORITIESHAVETOBESET LOCALLY "UT THE FOLLOWING ISSUES ON WHICH EVEN THE POORESTCOUNTRYCANIMPROVEITSPERFORMANCE AREKEY

4HEBUDGET !CCOUNTABLE TRANSPARENT AND EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF PUBLIC lNANCIAL RESOURCES IS CRITICAL !CCORDING TO RECENT 7ORLD "ANK ESTIMATES APPROXIMATELY lVE PER CENTOFGLOBAL'$0STILLDISAPPEARSTHROUGHCORRUPTION AND MISMANAGEMENT 4HIS lGURE IS MUCH HIGHER IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES THAT ARE LAGGING IN ACHIEVING THEGOALS


&INANCINGFOR$EVELOPMENT

4HEGOALSNEEDTOBEREmECTEDINTHE0OVERTY2EDUCTION 3TRATEGIESOR.ATIONAL$EVELOPMENT0LANSANDTHESE IN TURNSHOULDBEALIGNEDWITHTHEBUDGETPROCESS)NTOO MANY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES PUBLIC SPENDING ACTUALLY BENElTS PRIMARILY THE RICH NOT THE POOR )F THE -$'S ARE TO BE ACHIEVED POLICIES NEED TO BE PRO POOR GENDER SENSITIVE AS WELL AS ALLOW FOR SUFlCIENT PUBLIC EXPENDITURESFORBASICSOCIALSERVICES

4HE0ARIS$ECLARATION 4HE IMPACT OF FOREIGN AID IS TOO OFTEN WEAKENED BECAUSE IT IS DELIVERED BY MANY HIGH COST SMALL INDIVIDUAL BILATERAL PROGRAMMES GOVERNED BY MULTIPLE AND COMPLEX REQUIREMENTS 4HE GOOD NEWSISTHAT ATTHE/%#$ DONORSACKNOWLEDGED THEYWEREPARTOFTHEPROBLEMANDPROMISEDINTHE 0ARIS$ECLARATIONAGREEDINTHE3PRINGOFTO BECOMEPARTOFTHESOLUTION4HEYCOMMITTED

0UBLIC lNANCE IS NOT JUST ABOUT EXPENDITURES )T IS ALSO IMPORTANT TO MAXIMISE REVENUES EG BY FAIR TAX LEGISLATION AND EFFECTIVE TAX COLLECTION $OMESTIC REVENUE MOBILISATION IS THE ONLY SUSTAINABLE LONG TERM OPTION FOR lNANCING DEVELOPMENT 2ESOURCE RICH COUNTRIES NEED TO MAXIMISE THE REVENUES THEY OBTAINFROMTHEEXPLOITATIONOFTHEIREXHAUSTIBLENATURAL RESOURCES !N IMPORTANT STEP THEY COULD TAKE IN THAT DIRECTIONISTOJOINTHE%XTRACTIVE)NDUSTRY4RANSPARENCY )NITIATIVE%)4) ENSURINGDISCLOSUREOFALLREVENUESFROM MULTINATIONALMININGOPERATIONS

s4ORESPECTHOME GROWNDEVELOPINGCOUNTRY STRATEGIES s4OALIGNDONORSUPPORTTOTHESESTRATEGIES s4OWORKTOGETHERTOCOORDINATEANDHARMONISE PROCEDURES AND s4ODOAWAYWITHINDIVIDUALPROJECTS EVALUATIONS ANDMISSIONS 4HE 5+ PLAYED A LEADING ROLE IN FORGING THIS INTERNATIONALCONSENSUS

3ECTORALPOLICIES 3ECTORAL POLICIES NEED TO BE TRANSLATED INTO EFFECTIVE SERVICE DELIVERY IN HEALTH EDUCATION SANITATION WATER ETC FORALLCITIZENSALLOVERTHECOUNTRY)TISALSO IMPORTANTTOENSURETHATALLPOLICIESINCLUDINGTRADEAND TAX DONOTDISCRIMINATEAGAINSTTHERURALPOORANDTHAT THEGOVERNMENTINVESTSENOUGHINRURALDEVELOPMENT 3MALL FARMERS NEED SUPPORT TO GET ACCESS TO CREDIT ANDMARKETS!NDWEMUSTNOTFORGETTHATTRADEPOLICIES NEED TO BE SUFlCIENTLY PRO POOR )N SOME DEVELOPING COUNTRIES PROTECTIVE TRADE BARRIERS IN FACT PROTECT THE RICH ATTHEEXPENSEOFTHEPOOR

,EGISLATION

VISIONFOR NOTJUSTBYTHEGOVERNMENTBUTBYTHE PUBLICATLARGE/NLYTHENCANTHEGOALSBESUCCESSFULLY INTEGRATED INTO NATIONAL PLANS POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGIES SECTORAL POLICIES AND NATIONAL AND SUB NATIONALBUDGETS ONLYTHENCAN THEYBESUCCESSFULLY MAIN STREAMEDINTOTHESINEWSOFGOVERNMENTATEVERY LEVEL ENSURINGTHATALLRESOURCESHUMANANDlNANCIAL EXTERNALANDDOMESTIC CANBEMOBILISEDANDINVESTED INACHIEVINGTHEGOALS

)NMANYDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESINHERITANCE PROPERTYAND TAXLAWSURGENTLYNEEDTOBEREVIEWEDTOENSUREWOMEN CAN FULLY PARTICIPATE AND CONTRIBUTE TO DEVELOPMENT !LSO IN ORDER FOR POOR PEOPLE TO LIFT THEMSELVES OUT OF POVERTY BY UNLEASHING THEIR ENTREPRENEURIAL SPIRIT LEGALREFORMISNEEDEDTOIMPROVETHEBUSINESSCLIMATE PARTICULARLYFORDOMESTICINVESTORS)NMANYDEVELOPING COUNTRIES THE VOLUME OF CAPITAL mIGHT IS ACTUALLY LARGER THANTHATOFAIDRECEIVED

4HE ULTIMATE TEST OF COURSE IS FOR THESE POLICIES AND PLANSTOBETRANSLATEDINTOREALSERVICESANDBENElTSAT THELOCALLEVEL!CTIVEPARTICIPATIONOFCITIZENSANDTHEIR ORGANISATIONSATBOTHTHEPLANNINGANDIMPLEMENTATION STAGESCANHELPTOENSURETRANSPARENTANDACCOUNTABLE GOVERNMENT MECHANISMS THAT ARE RESPONSIVE TO THE NEEDSOFALLSECTIONSOFTHEPOPULATION/NLYTHENCAN CORRUPTIONBEEFFECTIVELYFOUGHTANDTHEHUGE@INTEGRITY DIVIDENDBEREDEPLOYEDFORACHIEVEMENTOFTHEGOALS

'OVERNANCE ,ASTBUTNOTLEASTISTHECROSS CUTTINGISSUEOFIMPROVED GOVERNANCE TO CREATE THE CAPABLE STATE NEEDED TO ACHIEVETHE-ILLENNIUM$EVELOPMENT'OALS!CTIONIS REQUIRED TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY AND EFlCIENCY OF THE PUBLICSECTOR s"YMODERNISINGANDREFORMINGTHEBUREAUCRACY s"Y DECENTRALISATION THROUGH EMPOWERMENT OF LOCAL AUTHORITIES AND s"Y ENSURING THAT POLITICAL PROCESSES ARE INCLUSIVE NOT JUST POLITICALLY REPRESENTATIVE THROUGH ELECTED PARLIAMENTS 2OBUST PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IS ALSO A REQUIREMENT THROUGHTHEMEDIAANDCIVILSOCIETY PARTICULARLYGROUPS THATGIVEVOICETOMINORITIESANDWOMENTHATAREATRISK OFMISSINGTHEGOALS%XPERIENCEHASSHOWNTHATTHE GREATEST SUCCESS STORIES ARE WHERE THE -ILLENNIUM 'OALSHAVEBEENDEBATED ADAPTED ANDOWNEDLOCALLY 4HISMEANSTHATTHEYHAVEBECOMEPARTOFANATIONAL

2ESPONSIBILITIESOFRICHCOUNTRIES .OWTOFOCUSONWHATTHE@GLOBALDEALIMPLIESFORTHE RICH /%#$ MEMBERS OF THE #OMMONWEALTH n THE 5+ #ANADA !USTRALIAAND.EW:EALANDnANDONTHE PROGRESSMADEBYTHESECOUNTRIES ASREPORTEDBYTHE /%#$$!#

1UANTITYOFAID 7HILE /FlCIAL $EVELOPMENT !SSISTANCE /$! TRENDS HAVEIMPROVED THEREALITYREMAINSTHAT/$!LEVELSSTILL FALLSHORTOFTHEPERCENTOF'.)PROMISEDBYMOST COUNTRIES )N  !USTRALIA  PER CENT #ANADA PERCENT .EW:EALANDPERCENT WEREALL WELLBELOWTHEAVERAGEDONORCOUNTRYEFFORTPER CENT 4HESECOUNTRIESHAVEALSOFAILEDTOSETADEADLINE SUPPORTED BY PLANNED ANNUAL /$! INCREASES TO ACHIEVETHEPERCENT4HE5+ THEWORLDSSECOND LARGEST DONOR AFTER THE 53 PROMISED TO DO SO BY  ANDACHIEVEDPERCENTIN

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




&INANCINGFOR$EVELOPMENT

)NABSOLUTETERMS #ANADAGIVESLESSAIDTHAN3WEDEN AMUCHSMALLERECONOMY.EW:EALANDSAIDISSMALLER THAN THAT OF TINY ,UXEMBOURG AND !USTRALIA n A HUGE CONTINENT n GIVES ABOUT AS MUCH AID AS "ELGIUM OR $ENMARK !LL ARE MODEST PLAYERS IN THE INTERNATIONAL DONORCOMMUNITY

1UALITYOFAID )NCREASING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF AID IS AS IMPORTANT AS /$! VOLUME )N  IN HIS REPORT )N ,ARGER &REEDOM +Ol !NNAN URGED DONORS TO DE LINK AID FROM THEIR GEOPOLITICAL AGENDAS WHICH DIVERT AID FROMPOORCOUNTRIESTHATNEEDEXTERNALCONCESSIONAL RESOURCES4HE5+ !USTRALIAAND.EW:EALANDHAVE ASTRONGFOCUSONLOWINCOMECOUNTRIES (OWEVER #ANADA LACKS FOCUS ON THE POOREST COUNTRIES 7HILE IT PLEDGED THAT HALF OF ITS /$! INCREASES WOULD BENElT SUB 3AHARAN !FRICA FOR YEARS TO COME #ANADA WILL CONTINUE TO BE A SMALL DONORTHERE +Ol !NNAN ALSO CALLED ON DONORS TO DELINK AID FROM THEIR ECONOMIC INTEREST 4HE WORST EXAMPLE OF THIS IS @TIED AID n IE AID THAT IS TIED TO THE PURCHASE OF GOODS AND SERVICES FROM THE COUNTRY PROVIDING THE AID 4IED AID PROVIDES POOR VALUE FOR MONEY FOR THE RECIPIENT UNTYING AID COULD INCREASE ITS VALUE BY UP TO  PER CENT MOREOVER IT IS PARTICULARLY PRONE TO CORRUPTION 7HILE THE 5+ HAS TOTALLY UNTIED ITS ENTIRE /$!BUDGET !USTRALIAAND#ANADAHAVEAMONGTHE HIGHESTPERCENTAGESOFTIEDAID "OTH #ANADIAN AND !USTRALIAN AID ARE QUITE SUPPLY DRIVEN WHILE#ANADASAIDPROGRAMMEISONEOFTHE MOST WIDELY DISPERSED AS A RESULT #ANADA HAS NO CRITICALMASSOFASSISTANCEINANYRECIPIENTCOUNTRY

4RADE )NTERNATIONAL TRADE HAS A TREMENDOUS POTENTIAL TO REDUCEPOVERTYWORLDWIDE"UTPRESENTTRADEPOLICIES DISCRIMINATE AGAINST DEVELOPING COUNTRIES $ESPITE SIGNIlCANT LIBERALISATION IN RECENT DECADES TRADE BARRIERSARESTILLHIGHnESPECIALLYONLABOUR INTENSIVE GOODS AND SERVICES IN WHICH DEVELOPING COUNTRIES HAVE A COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE 2EDUCING THESE IS ESSENTIAL FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES TO TRADE THEIR WAY OUTOFPOVERTY



#ONCLUSION 4HE-$'SARESTILLACHIEVABLEIFWEBREAKWITH@BUSINESS AS USUAL AND DRAMATICALLY ACCELERATE AND SCALE UP ACTION !TTHEHALFWAYMARKTO ITISLATE BUTNOTTOOLATEFOR COUNTRIESTORECONCILERHETORICWITHACTION"UTASTHE 5NITED .ATIONS 3ECRETARIES 'ENERAL BOTH +Ol !NNAN AND"AN+I -OON HAVEREPEATEDLYSTATED WHENTALKING ABOUTTHE-ILLENNIUM'OALSh4HELACKINGINGREDIENTIS POLITICALWILLv4HE-ILLENNIUM'OALSWILLNOTBEACHIEVED AT THE 5NITED .ATIONS 7E AT THE 5. CAN CREATE A PLATFORMFORGOVERNMENTSTOMAKECOMMITMENTSBUTWE CANNOTFORCECOMPLIANCEBYOURMEMBERSTATES/NLY THEIR CITIZENS AND PARLIAMENTS CAN HOLD GOVERNMENTS TOACCOUNT ,ETMECONCLUDEWITHQUOTING'HANDIhTHEDIFFERENCE BETWEENWHATWEDOANDWHATWEARECAPABLEOFDOING WOULDSUFlCETOSOLVEMOSTOFTHEWORLDSPROBLEMSv 'OVERNMENTSAROUNDTHEWORLDAREPERFECTLYCAPABLE OFACTINGTOCLOSETHEGLARINGGAPBETWEENCOMMITMENT ANDDELIVERYINFACTMANYOFTHEMAREDOINGSO7EARE THElRSTGENERATIONTHATCANPUTANENDTOPOVERTYAND SHOULDSIMPLYREFUSETOLOSETHISOPPORTUNITY

%VELINE (ERFKENS WAS APPOINTED AS THE %XECUTIVE #OORDINATOR FOR THE -ILLENNIUM #AMPAIGN BY THE FORMER 5. 3ECRETARY 'ENERAL +Ol !NNAN IN /CTOBER 0RIORTOTHISAPPOINTMENT-S(ERFKENSSERVED AS!MBASSADOR%XTRAORDINARYAND0LENIPOTENTIARYAND 0ERMANENT 2EPRESENTATIVE OF THE .ETHERLANDS AT THE 5NITED .ATIONS AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS INCLUDING THE 7ORLD 4RADE /RGANIZATION 74/ n IN 'ENEVA3HEALSOSERVEDASTHE.ETHERLANDS-INISTER FOR$EVELOPMENT#OOPERATIONBETWEENTO  $URINGTHISTIME SHEWASALSOA-EMBEROFTHE7ORLD "ANK AND )-& $EVELOPMENT #OMMITTEE AND A #O FOUNDEROFTHE5TSTEIN 'ROUP0RESENTLYSHEISAMEMBER OFTHE7ORLD#OMMISSIONONTHE3OCIAL$IMENSIONOF 'LOBALIZATION ESTABLISHED BY THE )NTERNATIONAL ,ABOUR /RGANIZATION),/ IN&EBRUARY

4HEMOSTTRADE DISTORTINGPOLICIESAREINTHEAGRICULTURE SECTOR !S TWO THIRDS OF THE WORLDS POOR LIVE IN RURAL AREAS AND DEPEND ON AGRICULTURE PUTTING AN END TO THE DISTORTION OF INTERNATIONAL AND LOCAL AGRICULTURE MARKETS IS A CRUCIAL INGREDIENT TO ACHIEVE THE lRST -ILLENNIUM$EVELOPMENT'OAL

4HE-ILLENNIUM#AMPAIGN LAUNCHEDIN INFORMS INSPIRES AND ENCOURAGES PEOPLES INVOLVEMENT AND ACTIONFORTHEREALIZATIONOFTHE-ILLENNIUM$EVELOPMENT 'OALS!NINITIATIVEOFTHE5NITED.ATIONS THE#AMPAIGN SUPPORTS CITIZENS EFFORTS TO HOLD THEIR GOVERNMENT TO ACCOUNTFORTHE-ILLENNIUMPROMISE

!MONGRICHCOUNTRIES THE%UROPEAN5NIONISTHEWORST OFFENDER ON THIS ISSUE 7HILE THE 5+ HAS FOR YEARS MADESTRONGSTATEMENTSABOUTTHENEEDTOELIMINATE THESE SUBSIDIES IT HAS NOT BEEN VERY SUCCESSFUL IN CONVINCINGTHERESTOFTHE%5MEMBERSHIP!USTRALIA AND .EW :EALAND ACTIVELY lGHT %5 AGRICULTURE PROTECTIONISM#ANADASHOULDTAKEAMOREPROACTIVE APPROACH IN ANALYSING THE IMPACT ON DEVELOPING COUNTRIES OF ITS NON AID POLICIES SUCH AS TRADE ANDAGRICULTURE

-ANDY+IBEL $EPUTY$IRECTOR (EADOF#OMMUNICATIONS -ILLENNIUM#AMPAIGN 5NITED.ATIONS %AST3TREET &&  .EW9ORK .9 53! 4EL  &AX  7EBSITEWWWMILLENNIUMCAMPAIGNORG

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING


Caribbean Remittances: An Inward Investment Source by Brian Stuart-Young, Chairman & CEO, Global Bank of Commerce, Ltd. Antigua,W.I.

www.globalbank.ag The economic implications of global remittances and migration are now better understood, and financial services need to play a key role in levelling the field for the origination of payment systems that support the lifeblood of developing economies. From a Caribbean perspective, the growing number of Caribbean people who have sought work overseas created a significant Caribbean Diaspora. Caribbean workers began to send money home to support their families, starting first as a trickle but soon becoming a flow of over 8.3 billion US dollars in 2006, establishing remittances at about 20% of income per capita and a solid contributor to GDP of the island economies (i.e. Barbados 9%; Jamaica 18%; St.Vincent 26%; Grenada 31%). The traditional means of remitting funds has been the regular sending of small amounts via informal and non-banking channels, which for decades went unnoticed, and its impact on the economy of the recipient country was never recorded as an inward investment. The absence of major support from the formal banking sector encouraged a weak competitive environment in the remittance market, which has kept remittance fees high. Banks tend to focus on large-value transactions as being better suited to their correspondent banking network, and have not been as innovative as money transfer operators to serve the migrant communities who need to remit small but regular payments home. Some Caribbean banks are now investing in technology-based money transfer products, such as internet payment systems, in order to deliver more cost-effective and convenient fund transfers. Financial institutions that are members of an international card association, such as Visa and MasterCard, can offer money transfers through card-based network channels using the association’s security and risk management systems and processing solutions. Global Bank of Commerce, a Caribbean institution operating from Antigua and Barbuda, has followed the path of technology-based money transfer services and as an issuer of stored-value debit cards supports card to card fund transfers to multiple destinations. Cardholders can withdraw cash from an ATM, buy goods and services at merchants, obtain cash advances from banks, and pay bills. Increasingly, the card becomes a virtual bank account to the holder. Governments need to become more supportive of e-commerce initiatives and encourage their banking sectors to develop financial services that meet the demands for micro payments and provide end to end payment solutions for remittances. New fund transfer technologies have become quite user friendly and now include the use of cell phones to replace the internet as a mechanism for micro transfers and payments. Generally, such funds are used to meet immediate family needs but banks can provide assistance by cross-selling services to recipients that will encourage savings, credit mobilization and other investment opportunities. Caribbean banks which identify these niche opportunities and invest in technology to provide modern payment solutions can establish a competitive position in the global remittance market regardless of their geographic location and size and significantly support inward investments.

Global Commerce Centre, Old Parham Road, P.O. Box W1803, St. John's, Antigua,West Indies

Tel: (268) 480-2240 email: customer.service@gbc.ag

Fax: (268) 462-1831 website: www.globalbank.ag


&INANCINGFOR$EVELOPMENT

*ANE.ELSON $IRECTOR "USINESS,EADERSHIPAND3TRATEGY )NTERNATIONAL"USINESS,EADERS&ORUM

"USINESSASAPARTNERINTHE #OMMONWEALTHSDEVELOPMENT 4HEPRIVATESECTORnINCLUDINGBOTHDOMESTICAND FOREIGN COMPANIES AND LARGE AND SMALL SCALE ENTERPRISESnISPLAYINGANINCREASINGLYIMPORTANT ROLE THROUGHOUT THE #OMMONWEALTH IN HELPING TO ACHIEVE ECONOMIC AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT #OMPANIES ARE DRIVING THE EMERGENCE OF NEW MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGIES UNPRECEDENTED CROSS BORDER lNANCIAL mOWS JOB CREATION AND ENTERPRISEDEVELOPMENT AND EXPANDED REGIONAL AND GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS 3OME ARE ALSO EXPERIMENTING WITH INNOVATIVE MARKET DRIVEN APPROACHES PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS AND MULTI STAKEHOLDER ACCOUNTABILITY MECHANISMS TO ADDRESS DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES THAT HAVE TRADITIONALLY BEEN THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE PUBLICSECTOR #OMPANIES ARE INCREASINGLY WORKING WITH EACH OTHER AND WITH GOVERNMENTS AND CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANISATIONS TOHELPPROMOTEGOODGOVERNANCE IMPROVEINVESTMENT CLIMATES UPHOLD HUMAN RIGHTS ENSURE DECENT WORK CONDITIONS AND TACKLE CORRUPTION 4HEY ARE ALSO BECOMING MORE ACTIVE IN EFFORTS TO EXPAND ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY TO MARGINALISED GROUPS SUCH AS WOMEN AND YOUTH DELIVER ESSENTIAL PRODUCTS AND SERVICES TO LOW INCOMECOMMUNITIES FACILITATEREMITTANCES RESPOND TO COMPLEX EMERGENCIES STRENGTHEN HEALTH SYSTEMS MANAGETHERISKOFPANDEMICS ADDRESSCLIMATECHANGE RESPOND TO GROWING WATER SCARCITY SUPPORT EDUCATION REFORMANDBRIDGETHEDIGITALDIVIDE!TTHESAMETIME THEREAREPRIVATEENTERPRISESTHATAREEITHERINTENTIONALLYOR UNINTENTIONALLYHAVINGADETRIMENTALIMPACTONACHIEVING THESEANDOTHERDEVELOPMENTGOALS 5NDERSTANDINGANDENCOURAGINGTHEAPPROPRIATEROLEOF BUSINESSINDEVELOPMENTnANDINPARTICULAR MINIMISING ANY NEGATIVE IMPACTS AND LEVERAGING THE POSITIVE CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE PRIVATE SECTOR n IS A LEADERSHIP CHALLENGE AND OPPORTUNITY THAT NO #OMMONWEALTH GOVERNMENTORBUSINESSLEADERCANAFFORDTOIGNORE

!LEADERSHIPOPPORTUNITYFORBUSINESS ANDGOVERNMENT &ROMTHEPERSPECTIVEOFGOVERNMENTS THEDEVELOPMENT CHALLENGESARETOOGREATANDVARIED ANDRESOURCESTOO SCARCEANDDISPERSEDFORANYONEGOVERNMENTTOTACKLE THEMALONE OREVENFORTHEPUBLICSECTORTOADDRESSTHEM 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

COLLECTIVELY%NGAGINGEFFECTIVELYANDTRANSPARENTLYWITH THEBUSINESSCOMMUNITYANDCIVILSOCIETYORGANISATIONS IS ESSENTIAL TO ACHIEVING THE -ILLENNIUM $EVELOPMENT 'OALS-$'S ANDTOENSURINGAMOREINCLUSIVE RIGHTS BASEDAPPROACHTOECONOMICGROWTH %QUALLY THERE IS A NEED FOR GOVERNMENTS TO ENGAGE MORE PROACTIVELY WITH MAJOR CORPORATIONS IN EFFORTS TO IMPROVE BOTH CORPORATE AND PUBLIC GOVERNANCE 'ROUNDBREAKING INITIATIVES SUCH AS THE %XTRACTIVE )NDUSTRIES 4RANSPARENCY )NITIATIVE +IMBERLEY 0ROCESS %QUATOR 0RINCIPLES )NTERNATIONAL #OCOA )NITIATIVE AND %THICAL 4RADING )NITIATIVE ILLUSTRATE WHAT IS POSSIBLE IN TERMS OF BUILDING INNOVATIVE NEW MECHANISMS FOR GREATERMUTUALACCOUNTABILITY &ROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF BUSINESS THE EMERGING MARKETS ARE TOO IMPORTANT TO BE OVERLOOKED BY MAJOR COMPANIES THAT WANT TO GROW IN THE COMING DECADES4HEBESTCOMPANIESALREADYRECOGNISETHAT ENGAGEMENTINTHESEECONOMIESISNOTONLYAMATTEROF PHILANTHROPYORCOMPLIANCEWITHRESPONSIBLEBUSINESS PRACTICES IN AREAS SUCH AS THE ENVIRONMENT LABOUR AND HUMAN RIGHTS ALTHOUGH THESE ARE ALL ESSENTIAL )NCREASINGLY IT IS ALSO A CASE OF POSITIONING FOR LONG TERM GROWTH AND DEVELOPING NEW PRODUCTS SERVICES ANDBUSINESSMODELSTOPROlTABLYSOLVEDEVELOPMENT CHALLENGESANDSERVEUNTAPPEDMARKETS %MERGING MARKET COMPANIES SUCH AS "HARTI )#)#) "ANK 94, #ELTEL 3!"-ILLER 0ICK N 0AY %SKOM 6ODACOM AND !NGLO'OLD !SHANTI IN ADDITION TO LONG ESTABLISHED GLOBAL PLAYERS SUCH AS #OCA #OLA -ERCK "ARCLAYS 5NILEVER #HEVRON 2IO4INTO .ESTLÏ AND3HELL AREALREADYRESPONDINGTOTHISOPPORTUNITY 4HEYVIEWDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESASVALUABLELOCATIONS FORINNOVATIONANDBUSINESSDEVELOPMENT4HEREARE GROWING OPPORTUNITIES FOR MANY MORE DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN COMPANIES TO GET ENGAGED IN NEW MODELS OF WEALTH CREATION AND SERVICE DELIVERY THROUGHOUT THE#OMMONWEALTH !T THE SAME TIME COMPANIES RECOGNISE THAT MANY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IN THE #OMMONWEALTH AND ELSEWHERE PRESENT NEW TYPES OF RISK THAT NEED TO BE EFFECTIVELY MANAGED 4HIS CALLS FOR THEM TO PLAY A MORE PROACTIVE ROLE IN ADDRESSING KEY DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGESANDENGAGINGINPUBLICPOLICYDIALOGUEAND INSTITUTIONBUILDINGWITHGOVERNMENTS


&INANCINGFOR$EVELOPMENT

!S"RITISH0RIME-INISTER'ORDON"ROWNCOMMENTED INA*ULYSPEECHATTHE5NITED.ATIONS BUSINESS hKNOWS BETTER THAN ANYONE THAT IN THE LONG RUN YOU SIMPLY CANNOT SUCCEED IN PLACES WHERE THE ROADS ARE IMPASSABLE WHERE PEOPLE HAVE NO ACCESS TO MARKETS WHERE EMPLOYEES ARE UNDER EDUCATED OR UNDER FED WHERETHERULEOFLAWISPOORLYESTABLISHED ORPOORLYRESPECTED.OTONLYDOESBUSINESSHAVETHE TECHNOLOGY THESKILLS THEEXPERTISEFORWEALTHANDJOB CREATION THAT IF FULLY MOBILISED FOR GLOBAL PURPOSE WILL HELPMEETOURGOALS ITISALSOINYOURBESTBUSINESS INTERESTTOHELPPOORCOUNTRIESDEVELOPv

3OWHATARETHEMOSTEFFECTIVEANDAPPROPRIATEROLES FOR COMPANIES TO PLAY IN SUPPORTING DEVELOPMENT GOALS WHILE ALSO CREATING LONG TERM VALUE FOR THEIR SHAREHOLDERS

4HEROLEOFBUSINESSINSUPPORTING DEVELOPMENTGOALS 4HERE IS WIDE VARIATION IN THE SPECIlC CONTRIBUTIONS THAT DIFFERENT COMPANIES CAN MAKE TO SUPPORT THE #OMMONWEALTHSECONOMICANDHUMANDEVELOPMENT GOALS 4HEIR CONTRIBUTION DEPENDS NOT ONLY ON THE TYPE OF DEVELOPMENT INTERVENTION NEEDED n SUCH AS

4HECORPORATE CONTRIBUTIONTO DEVELOPMENT

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




&INANCINGFOR$EVELOPMENT

INCREASINGACCESSTOJOBS INCOME EDUCATION HEALTH ENERGY WATER TECHNOLOGY AND MARKETS OR IMPROVING GOVERNANCEANDPUBLICCAPACITYnBUTALSOONFACTORS SUCH AS THE INDUSTRY SECTOR AND THE COMPANYS BUSINESSMODEL OWNERSHIPSTRUCTUREANDSIZE $ESPITETHESEDIFFERENCES ALMOSTALLCOMPANIESHAVE THE POTENTIAL TO MAKE A CONTRIBUTION TO DEVELOPMENT THROUGH THE FOLLOWING THREE SPHERES OF BUSINESS INmUENCE 4HE )NTERNATIONAL "USINESS ,EADERS &ORUM WWWIBLFORG HAS WORKED WITH 5.$0 AND OTHERS TO DEVELOP A &RAMEWORK FOR "USINESS !CTION BASED ON THESETHREEAREAS s#OREBUSINESSOPERATIONSANDINVESTMENTSnINCLUDING THE COMPANYS ACTIVITIES AND RELATIONSHIPS IN THE WORKPLACE THE MARKETPLACE AND ALONG THE SUPPLY CHAIN4HEGREATESTANDMOSTSUSTAINABLECONTRIBUTION THAT ANY COMPANY CAN MAKE TO DEVELOPMENT IS THROUGH CARRYING OUT ITS CORE BUSINESS ACTIVITIES IN A PRODUCTIVE AND RESPONSIBLE MANNER 4HE KEY GOAL FOR ALL COMPANIES SHOULD BE TO MINIMISE AND BE ACCOUNTABLEFORANYNEGATIVEIMPACTSONDEVELOPMENT THATMAYARISEFROMTHESEACTIVITIES ANDTOINCREASEAND LEVERAGE POSITIVE IMPACTS RANGING FROM TECHNOLOGY TRANSFERANDJOBCREATIONTOTHEPAYMENTOFTAXESAND HUMANCAPITALDEVELOPMENT)NPARTICULAR COMPANIES CANAIMTODEVELOPWHAT5.$0DESCRIBESAS@INCLUSIVE BUSINESS MODELS WHICH EXPLICITLY INCLUDE THE POOR AS EMPLOYEES ENTREPRENEURS SUPPLIERS DISTRIBUTORS RETAILERS CUSTOMERS OR SOURCES OF INNOVATION IN ECONOMICALLYVIABLEWAYS s3TRATEGIC PHILANTHROPY AND COMMUNITY OR SOCIAL INVESTMENT n AIMED AT MOBILISING NOT ONLY MONEY BUT ALSO THE COMPANYS OTHER CORE ASSETS AND COMPETENCES SUCH AS ITS PEOPLE PRODUCTS AND PREMISES TO HELP SUPPORT AND STRENGTHEN LOCAL COMMUNITIESANDNON PROlTPARTNERS s0UBLIC POLICY DIALOGUE ADVOCACY AND INSTITUTION BUILDING n EFFORTS BY COMPANIES EITHER INDIVIDUALLY OR COLLECTIVELY TO PARTICIPATE IN RELEVANT PUBLIC POLICY DIALOGUES AND ADVOCACY PLATFORMS WITH BOTH DEVELOPING COUNTRY AND DONOR GOVERNMENTS AS WELL AS HELPING TO BUILD OR STRENGTHEN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS AND ADMINISTRATIVE CAPACITY WITHIN DEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES 4HESETHREESPHERESOFBUSINESSIMPACTANDINmUENCE ARE ILLUSTRATED IN THE DIAGRAM 4HEY CAN ALSO BE ENVISAGEDASACOMPANYS@DEVELOPMENTFOOTPRINTnTHE EXTENTANDIMPACTOFWHICHWILLVARYDEPENDINGONTHE COMPANY INDUSTRYSECTORANDSITUATIONINQUESTION

(YBRIDAPPROACHES @(YBRID APPROACHES ARE BUSINESS MODELS OR PARTNERSHIPS THAT COMBINE THE COMPANYS CORE COMPETENCES AND COMMERCIAL ACUMEN WITH SOCIAL INVESTMENT PHILANTHROPY ANDOR PUBLIC lNANCE 3UCH APPROACHES ARE BEING USED TO SUPPORT PROJECTS THAT MAY NOT IMMEDIATELY MEET COMMERCIAL HURDLE RATES BUTHAVETHEPOTENTIALOFBECOMINGECONOMICALLYVIABLE OVER THE LONGER TERM WHILE EXPLICITLY ADDRESSING A DEVELOPMENTORSOCIALNEED 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

3UCHAPPROACHESAREBEINGUSEDTOSEEDSOMEOFTHE INNOVATIVE@BASEOFTHEPYRAMIDORINCLUSIVEBUSINESS MODELSTHATAREBEINGDEVELOPEDBYCOMPANIESSUCH AS (INDUSTAN ,EVER 3!"-ILLER AND !NGLO !MERICAN ANDBYTHE3HELL 6ODAFONE #OCA #OLA #ISCO3YSTEMS AND 6IRGIN 5NITE FOUNDATIONS )N ALL CASES THESE COMPANIES AND CORPORATE FOUNDATIONS ARE LEVERAGING THEIR IMMENSE TALENT AND CAPACITY IN lELDS SUCH AS MARKETING PRODUCTION SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT AND INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY IN ADDITIONTOTHEIRPHILANTHROPICFUNDSORCORPORATESOCIAL INVESTMENTPROGRAMMES)NAGROWINGNUMBEROFCASES LARGE COMPANIES ARE ALSO PARTNERING WITH INDIVIDUAL SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS TO DEVELOP ECONOMICALLY VIABLE PRODUCTSANDSERVICESFORLOW INCOMECOMMUNITIES

#OLLECTIVEACTION 7HILE IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT MAJOR CORPORATIONS GET THEIR INDIVIDUALOPERATIONSINORDERANDFOCUSONWHATTHEY AREBESTEQUIPPEDTODELIVER THEREISPOTENTIALTOSCALE UPTHEIRIMPACTANDADDRESSMORESYSTEMICCHALLENGES THROUGH COLLECTIVE INITIATIVES WITH OTHER COMPANIES GOVERNMENTS AND DEVELOPMENT PARTNERS 4HESE INITIATIVES CAN BE FOCUSED ON A PARTICULAR COUNTRY OR REGION A SPECIlC DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGE OR A PARTICULARINDUSTRYSECTOR%XAMPLESINCLUDE"USINESS !CTION FOR !FRICA 3OUTH !FRICAS .ATIONAL "USINESS )NITIATIVE AND "USINESS 4RUST 0HILIPPINES "USINESS FOR 3OCIAL 0ROGRESS 6IETNAMS "USINESS ,INKS )NITIATIVE 4ANZANIAS0RIVATE3ECTOR)NITIATIVE THE'LOBAL"USINESS #OALITION !GAINST ()6!)$S 4" AND -ALARIA AND THE 'LOBAL!LLIANCEFOR)MPROVED.UTRITION 4HE FOLLOWING THREE EXAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE#OMMONWEALTHILLUSTRATETHEPOTENTIALFORCOLLECTIVE ACTION IN MORE DETAIL AND HAVE RELEVANCE FOR OTHER COUNTRIESANDREGIONS

4HE!FRICAN)NVESTMENT#LIMATE&ACILITY)#& 4HE7ORLD"ANKS$OING"USINESSINITIATIVEANDlNDINGS OFTHE#OMMISSIONFOR!FRICAHAVEBOTHEMPHASISEDTHE CRUCIALNEEDTOADDRESSISSUESSUCHASPROPERTYRIGHTS AND CONTRACT ENFORCEMENT REGIONAL TRADE PROMOTION TAXATIONANDCUSTOMSREFORM INFRASTRUCTUREFACILITATION LABOURANDCAPITALMARKETRESTRUCTURING REDUCTIONOFRED TAPE AND THE CONTROL OF CORRUPTION AND CRIME IN ORDER TO IMPROVE !FRICAS INVESTMENT CLIMATE 4HE )#& IS AN INNOVATIVENEWPUBLIC PRIVATEVEHICLEAIMEDATAPPLYING BUSINESSPRINCIPLESANDRIGOROUSMANAGEMENTPRACTICES TOADDRESSTHISCHALLENGE,AUNCHEDINASAFORMAL PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN !FRICAN AND DONOR GOVERNMENTS AND THE PRIVATE SECTOR )#& IS BASED IN AND RUN FROM !FRICA )TS PUBLIC PRIVATE COMPOSITION IS REmECTED IN ITS GOVERNANCE FUNDINGANDOPERATIONALSTRUCTURESANDITS RESULTS WILL BE ASSESSED ANNUALLY BY AN INDEPENDENT BOARD #O CHAIRED BY .IALL &ITZ'ERALD #HAIRMAN OF 2EUTERS AND "ENJAMIN -KAPA FORMER 0RESIDENT OF 4ANZANIA THE)#&SCORPORATEPARTNERSCURRENTLYINCLUDE !NGLO !MERICAN #ELTEL -ICROSOFT 3HELL 3!"-ILLER 3TANDARD"ANKAND5NILEVER4HESECORPORATEPARTNERS ARENOTONLYPROVIDINGFUNDINGTOTHE&ACILITY BUTHAVE ALSOCOMMITTEDTOSECONDPERSONNELTOSERVEONTASK


&INANCINGFOR$EVELOPMENT

FORCESANDTOSHAREEXPERTISEINAVARIETYOFAREASSUCH AS PROJECT MANAGEMENT EVALUATION AND REPORTING MARKET RESEARCH AND RISK MANAGEMENT !LTHOUGH STILL ATANEARLYSTAGE THISMODELMAYHAVEAPPLICABILITYIN OTHERREGIONSWWWINVESTMENTCLIMATEFACILITYORG

9OUTH"USINESS)NTERNATIONAL9") 9OUNG PEOPLE MAKE UP ALMOST HALF THE WORLDS UNEMPLOYED -ANY HAVE THE POTENTIAL TO START THEIR OWNBUSINESSBUTLACKTHENECESSARYMEANSTODOSO 4HISREPRESENTSATREMENDOUSWASTEOFTALENTBUTALSO PROVIDES A GREAT OPPORTUNITY 4HE ),/ REPORTED THAT hHALVING THE WORLDS YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT RATE WOULD ADDANESTIMATED PERCENTTOTHEWORLDS'$0v 9")WASCREATEDBYTHE)NTERNATIONAL"USINESS,EADERS &ORUMAND0RINCES4RUSTTOADDRESSTHISCHALLENGE)T ISANETWORKOFLOCALLY BASEDPROGRAMMESTHATPROVIDE SUPPORTTOENTREPRENEURIALYOUTHBYPROVIDINGACCESS TOSTART UPlNANCEANDABUSINESSMENTORWHOWORKS WITHTHEYOUNGPERSONFORTHECRUCIALlRSTFEWYEARSAS THEYDEVELOPTHEIRBUSINESS 9")ISCURRENTLYACTIVEINCOUNTRIES INCLUDINGFROM THE#OMMONWEALTH ANDWILLBEANNOUNCINGTHELAUNCH OF THE LATEST PROGRAMME 9OUTH "USINESS 5GANDA DURING THE  #(/'/- MEETING %ACH LOCAL 9") PROGRAMME WORKS IN CLOSE PARTNERSHIP WITH THE BUSINESSCOMMUNITY&OREXAMPLE IN3RI,ANKA WHERE THE LOCAL 9") PROGRAMME RECENTLY CELEBRATED ITS TH ANNIVERSARY THEREHASBEENCONSIDERABLESUPPORTFROM THE LOCAL #HAMBER OF #OMMERCE AND IN "ARBADOS STRONG SUPPORT FROM LOCAL AND INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS HAS ENABLED MANY YOUNG PEOPLE TO START SUCCESSFUL BUSINESSES4ODATETHE9").ETWORKHASENABLEDOVER  NEWBUSINESSESTOSTARTANDTHEY INTURN HAVE PROVIDED EMPLOYMENT FOR MANY THOUSANDS OF OTHERS WWWYOUTH BUSINESSORG

4HE0UBLIC(EALTH&OUNDATIONOF)NDIA 4HE QUALITY AFFORDABILITY AND REACH OF PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES IS A CRUCIAL FOUNDATION FOR BOTH ECONOMIC ANDHUMANDEVELOPMENT YETINMANY#OMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES THERE ARE SERIOUS INSTITUTIONAL AND HUMAN RESOURCECONSTRAINTSTODELIVERINGGOODSERVICES)N)NDIA A GROUP OF MAJOR CORPORATIONS AND FOUNDATIONS HAVE JOINEDFORCESWITHTHEGOVERNMENTANDDONORAGENCIES IN A PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP AIMED AT STRENGTHENING THE COUNTRYS PUBLIC HEALTH CAPACITY !S WITH THE )#& THEBUSINESS GOVERNMENT PHILANTHROPICANDACADEMIC PARTNERS IN THIS FOUNDATION PLAY A SHARED ROLE IN THE GOVERNANCE STRUCTURE AS WELL AS JOINTLY PROVIDING FUNDING EXPERTISEANDOTHERRESOURCES4HEFOUNDATION AIMS TO ESTABLISH UP TO SEVEN NEW INSTITUTES OF PUBLIC HEALTHIN)NDIAINADDITIONTOSTRENGTHENINGEXISTINGPUBLIC HEALTHTRAININGANDRESEARCHINSTITUTIONSANDNETWORKS GENERATINGPOLICYRECOMMENDATIONSANDESTABLISHINGAN INDEPENDENTACCREDITATIONBODYWWWPHlORG

3UPPORTINGDEVELOPMENTGOALS !S THESE AND MANY OTHER EXAMPLES ILLUSTRATE THE PRIVATESECTORHASANINCREASINGLYIMPORTANTROLETOPLAY INWORKINGWITHGOVERNMENTSANDOTHERSTOACHIEVEKEY DEVELOPMENT GOALS THROUGHOUT THE #OMMONWEALTH

4HREE AREAS OF ACTION ARE ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT FOR LEADERSINBUSINESSANDTHEPUBLICSECTORTOCONSIDER s%FFORTS TO MOBILISE REWARD AND SCALE UP THE POSITIVE CONTRIBUTIONSTHATCOMPANIESCANMAKETODEVELOPMENT EITHER INDIVIDUALLY THROUGH THE CREATION OF INCLUSIVE BUSINESS MODELS AND COMPETENCE LED PHILANTHROPY AND COMMUNITY SOCIAL INVESTMENT PROGRAMMES OR COLLECTIVELY THROUGH GROUPS OF COMPANIES WORKING TOGETHERTOSOLVEDEVELOPMENTCHALLENGES s%FFORTSTOIDENTIFY MITIGATEANDMONITORANYNEGATIVE IMPACTS AND EXTERNALITIES ARISING FROM CORPORATE ACTIVITIES THROUGH INITIATIVES SUCH AS INDUSTRY WIDE STANDARDSANDGUIDELINES INTEGRITYPACTS ANDMULTI STAKEHOLDER MONITORING ACCOUNTABILITY AND DISPUTE RESOLUTIONMECHANISMS s%FFORTSTOENABLETHEPRIVATESECTORTOPLAYALEGITIMATE ROLE IN IMPROVING THE BROADER ENABLING ENVIRONMENT ATANATIONALORREGIONALLEVELnINPARTICULARTHROUGH INITIATIVESTOSTRENGTHENPUBLICGOVERNANCEANDPUBLIC INSTITUTIONS NOTONLYINTHEECONOMICSPHEREBUTALSO INAREASSUCHASANTI CORRUPTION ANDSTRENGTHENING PUBLICHEALTHANDEDUCATIONSYSTEMS !GROWINGNUMBEROFBUSINESSLEADERS COMPANIESAND INDUSTRYASSOCIATIONSTHROUGHOUTTHE#OMMONWEALTHARE STEPPINGUPTOTHEPLATEINALLOFTHESEAREASTOSUPPORT ECONOMICANDHUMANDEVELOPMENTGOALS4HECENTRAL CHALLENGEFORLEADERSINBUSINESSANDGOVERNMENTALIKE IS TO DEVELOP NEW BUSINESS MODELS MARKET DRIVEN MECHANISMSANDCROSS SECTORALLIANCESTHATSERVETHE PUBLIC INTEREST WHILE MAKING SOUND BUSINESS SENSE ANDTHATHARNESSTHECOMPETENCES TECHNOLOGIESAND NETWORKS OF THE PRIVATE SECTOR WITHOUT REPLACING OR UNDERMININGTHEROLEOFGOVERNMENTSORDESTROYINGTHE ABILITYOFBUSINESSTOCREATELONG TERMVALUE3UCCESS IN MEETING THIS CHALLENGE WILL BE ESSENTIAL TO FUTURE PROGRESSANDPROSPERITYINTHE#OMMONWEALTH

*ANE .ELSON IS THE FOUNDER $IRECTOR OF THE #ORPORATE 3OCIAL 2ESPONSIBILITY )NITIATIVE AT (ARVARD 5NIVERSITYS +ENNEDY 3CHOOL OF'OVERNMENT AND$IRECTOR "USINESS,EADERSHIPAND3TRATEGY AT THE )NTERNATIONAL "USINESS ,EADERS &ORUM ! FORMER BANKER WITH #ITIGROUP WORKING IN !SIA %UROPE AND THE -IDDLE %AST SHE HAS WORKED IN THE OFlCE OF FORMER 5. 3ECRETARY 'ENERAL +Ol!NNAN PREPARINGAREPORTON5. BUSINESSPARTNERSHIPSFOR THE'ENERAL!SSEMBLY ANDWITHTHE7ORLD"USINESS#OUNCILFOR 3USTAINABLE$EVELOPMENTDURINGTHE2IO%ARTH3UMMIT 4HE )NTERNATIONAL "USINESS ,EADERS &ORUM )",& WORKS WITH BUSINESS GOVERNMENTSANDCIVILSOCIETYTOENHANCETHECONTRIBUTION THATCOMPANIESCANMAKETOSUSTAINABLEDEVELOPMENT)",&ISAN INDEPENDENT NOT FOR PROlT ORGANISATION CURRENTLY SUPPORTED BY OVER  OF THE WORLDS LEADING BUSINESSES PROVIDING STRATEGIC COUNSELTOCOMPANIESTOENABLETHEMTOUNDERSTANDANDRESPOND TO THE DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES THAT THEY FACE PARTICULARLY WHEN OPERATINGINTRANSITIONANDEMERGINGECONOMIES )NTERNATIONAL"USINESS,EADERS&ORUM  #ORNWALL4ERRACE 2EGENTS0ARK ,ONDON.710 5+ 4EL  \&AX   %MAILINFO IBLFORG\7EBSITEWWWIBLFORG

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




&INANCINGFOR$EVELOPMENT

3PECIAL&EATUREBY2ENAISSANCE'ROUP

4HEROADTOSUCCESSCAPITAL MARKETSINSUB 3AHARAN!FRICA !FRICA HAS OVER  PER CENT OF THE WORLDS POPULATION ON  PER CENT OF ITS LANDMASS YET ACCOUNTS FOR ONLY TWO PER CENT OF ITS GLOBAL OUTPUT /F THE WORLDS POOREST  ECONOMIES BYPERCAPITA'$0 AREIN!FRICA!CROSSSUB 3AHARAN !FRICA THE AVERAGE LIFE EXPECTANCY IS  AND RANGES AS LOW AS  !S LATE AS  #HINAS '$0 WAS 53BN AND !FRICAS 53BN4ODAY ONABASISOFPURCHASINGPOWER PARITY000 THE#HINESEECONOMYISROUGHLYlVE TIMESBIGGERTHANTHATOF!FRICA$URINGTHELAST QUARTER OF THE TH CENTURY ARGUABLY HISTORYS FASTEST PERIOD OF GLOBALISATION !FRICA WAS THE CONTINENTTHATTHEWORLDECONOMYIGNORED &OR THE PAST lVE YEARS THERE HAVE BEEN STRONG SIGNS THATSUB 3AHARAN!FRICAISNOWPLUGGINGINTOTHEGLOBAL ECONOMY'$0HASGROWNONAVERAGEBYSEVENPERCENT PERANNUM THEFASTESTSUSTAINEDGROWTHRATEFORTHELAST  YEARS )N  EIGHT OF THE TOP  FASTEST GROWING GLOBAL ECONOMIES WERE FROM THE SUB 3AHARAN REGION ANDTHREEWEREINTHETOP7HILETHERESTOFTHEWORLD IS IMPORTING FROM #HINA SUB 3AHARAN !FRICA HAS BEEN INCREASINGEXPORTSTO#HINAATANAVERAGEGROWTHRATEOF PERCENTPERYEARSINCE&ROMCOMPANIES LISTEDACROSSTHEAVAILABLELOCALEXCHANGESIN TODAY THERE ARE  AN INCREASE OF  4HERE IS A PIPELINE OF LOCAL COMPANIES FROM THE REGION LOOKING TO TAP INTERNATIONAL CAPITAL MARKETS AND THERE IS PLENTY OF APPETITEAMONGTHEGLOBALINVESTMENTCOMMUNITY !S HAS BEEN ILLUSTRATED AT VARIOUS TIMES BY THE 53 *APAN 3OUTH EAST !SIA %ASTERN %UROPE #HINA AND 2USSIA THE EARLY PERIOD DURING WHICH A REGION EMBRACES THE MAJOR TENETS BEHIND GLOBALISATION CAN BE INCREDIBLY VALUE CREATING !ND AS THESE REGIONS ALSODEMONSTRATE THEREARENOCOMMONGEOGRAPHICAL SOCIAL OR HISTORICAL CONDITIONS NECESSARY TO UNDERPIN THETRANSFORMATION /FCOURSE THEREAREALSOMANYEXAMPLESWHENABRIEF PERIODOFECONOMICGROWTHANDASUDDENRUSHOFCAPITAL INmOW HAVE RESULTED IN LITTLE MORE THAN INmATION AND A BOOST TO 3WISS PRIVATE BANKING )NDEED SUB 3AHARAN COUNTRIES HAVE PERHAPS SUFFERED MORE THAN MOST FROM THE DESTABILISING EFFECTS OF THESE BRIEF PERIODS OF MISGUIDEDGLOBALEXUBERANCE4HEARGUMENTSUNDERLYING THISCURRENTRESURGENCE HOWEVER ARECOMPELLING



4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

4HE!FRICANECONOMICRESURGENCE 4HE HISTORICAL REASONS FOR !FRICAS CALAMITOUS ECONOMY ARECOMPLEX BUTINVOLVETHEINTERACTIONOFFOURELEMENTS &IRSTLY THE SUSTAINED DECLINE IN REAL COMMODITY PRICES BETWEEN  AND  CAUSED A PROTRACTED PERIOD OF TRADE DETERIORATION 3ECONDLY SHORT TERMIST NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS AND THE #OLD 7AR CREATED THE CONDITIONS FOR UNSUSTAINABLE FOREIGN BORROWING TO COMPENSATE FOR THEWORSENINGTERMSOFTRADEPOSITION4HIRDLY ASARESULT OF EXCESSIVE FOREIGN BORROWING PRIVATE CAPITAL MARKETS EFFECTIVELY CLOSED THEIR DOORS TO !FRICA SHUTTING OUT THE FORCES OF GLOBALISATION &INALLY THE COMBINATION OF POOR GOVERNMENT UNSUSTAINABLE DEBT OBLIGATIONS AND LOW OR NEGATIVEGROWTHINEXORABLYLEDTOTHEDOWNWARDSPIRALOF HYPER INmATION ECONOMICMELTDOWNANDPOLITICALTURMOIL &ORMUCHOFSUB 3AHARAN!FRICA ALLOFTHESECONDITIONS ARE IMPROVING SIMULTANEOUSLY #OMMODITY PRICES ARE HIGH AND SUPPORTED BY LONG TERM AND HIGHLY VISIBLEDEMANDGROWTH&OREIGNDEBTHASlNALLYBEEN CLEARED PRESENTING A WINDOW OF OPPORTUNITY WHERE PRIVATE CAPITAL WILL NOT BE CROWDED OUT #HINA HAS ALREADY PROVIDED A BRIDGEHEAD INTO THE REGION WITH INVESTMENT OF OVER 53BN IN THE LAST THREE YEARS ANDPROMISESOFANOTHER53BNINTHENEXTlVE4HE GLOBAL APPETITE FOR RISK IS HISTORICALLY HIGH AND IT IS A LACKOFOPPORTUNITYRATHERTHANLACKOFINTERESTWHICHIS PREVENTINGGREATERlNANCIALmOWSTOTHEREGION&INALLY AND PERHAPS MOST CONTROVERSIALLY THERE SEEMS TO BE A POSITIVE DEMONSTRATION EFFECT ACROSS THE REGION FROM THOSE COUNTRIES BENElTING FROM MARKET BASED ECONOMICGROWTHTOTHELAGGARDS

4HE.IGERIANEXAMPLE .IGERIA IS ARGUABLY THE FASTEST GROWING CAPITAL MARKET IN THE WHOLE OF 3UB 3AHARAN !FRICA IF NOT THE ENTIRE CONTINENT )TS CAPITAL MARKET AND lNANCIAL SYSTEM ARE SHAPING UP TO BE THE MOST VIBRANT AND EXCITING IN THE WORLD ANDAREILLUSTRATINGTHEKEYROLETHEYCANPLAYIN lNANCINGGROWTHANDINHELPINGTOMODERNISEBUSINESS &IRST OF ALL MARKETS ARE BECOMING RELENTLESSLY MORE EFlCIENT AND ARE REACTING FASTER TO NEW OPPORTUNITIES 4HE SPEED OF DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL MARKET DEVELOPMENTIN.IGERIAOUTSTRIPSANYTHINGEXPERIENCED IN OTHER MARKETS 4HUS IF THE RIGHT ENVIRONMENT IS ESTABLISHED THE REWARDS FROM THE .IGERIAN CAPITAL MARKETSWILLBEVERYLARGEANDVERYRAPID


&INANCINGFOR$EVELOPMENT

3ECONDLY THE INDIRECT IMPACT OF CAPITAL MARKETS ON INCENTIVES AND BEHAVIOUR IS AT LEAST AS IMPORTANT AS THE DIRECT IMPACT IN lNANCING INVESTMENT AND GROWTH 4HE MARKETS WILL MASSIVELY REWARD n THROUGH HIGH VALUATIONSANDLOW COSTCAPITALnTHOSEWHODEMONSTRATE SUPERIOR SKILLS IN BUILDING BUSINESS VALUE AND WHO ADHERE TO INTERNATIONAL CORPORATE GOVERNANCE PRACTICE ANDTRANSPARENCY4HEREWARDS ANDBYIMPLICATION THE COSTSFORPOORPERFORMANCE WILLBEMASSIVE%VENTUALLYIT WILLBEIMPOSSIBLETOBEABUSINESSLEADERINANYINDUSTRY WITHOUTMEETINGTHESEBASICREQUIREMENTS

ANDTOHELPTOBUILDWORLD CLASSCAPITALMARKETSWITHIN THISREGION7EAREALSOHELPINGTODEVELOPLOCALCAPACITY ASWEBUILDOUROWNFULL SERVICEDOMESTICINVESTMENT BANK HEADQUARTERED IN ,AGOS AND .AIROBI MANAGED ANDSTAFFEDBY.IGERIANSAND+ENYANS7EARECREATING COMPETITIONWITHLOCALPLAYERSBUTWEAREALSOHELPING TOCREATEAVASTLYLARGERANDMORESOPHISTICATEDMARKET FOR EVERYONE n JUST IMAGINE WHAT HAPPENS TO THE AVERAGE DOMESTIC BROKER WHEN DAILY MARKET TURNOVER GOESFROM53MILLIONTO53BILLION

4HIRDLY DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL CAPITAL WILL PLAY DIFFERENTROLES BUTBOTHWILLMAKEVITALCONTRIBUTIONSTO THEDEVELOPMENTOF.IGERIASMARKETS"USINESSESARE BEINGBUILTANDDEVELOPEDBY.IGERIANENTREPRENEURS WHO WILL INAUGURATE AN AMAZING ARRAY OF EXCITING NEW SECTORS AND BUSINESSES )NTERNATIONAL CAPITAL CAN PROVIDE CHEAP RESPONSIVE MEANS TO lNANCE THISGROWTHBUTWILLLARGELYSHYAWAYFROMCONTROLLING OR MANAGING THESE INVESTMENTS DUE TO PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS4HUS THEVASTMAJORITYOFSUCCESSFUL .IGERIAN BUSINESSES WILL BE LED MANAGED AND CONTROLLEDBY.IGERIANS ASILLUSTRATEDBYTHEINCREDIBLY DYNAMICDEVELOPMENTINTHEBANKINGSECTOR

4IMEFORAlRMCOMMITMENT

4HEVITALINTERPLAYOFDOMESTICAND INTERNATIONALCAPITAL $OMESTIC CAPITAL MARKETS HAVE THE POTENTIAL TO PLAY AN INCREASINGLY LARGE ROLE IN SUB 3AHARAN !FRICAS DEVELOPMENT )N .IGERIA DOMESTIC CAPITAL IS ACCUMULATING DRAMATICALLY AS DEMONSTRATED BY THE LARGE AND HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL PLACEMENTS BEING UNDERTAKENBYTHEMAJORBANKS"EFORELONG MOSTLARGE ANDMID SIZEEQUITYPLACEMENTSWILLBEDOMINATEDBY DOMESTIC CAPITAL n CAPITAL THAT IS CLOSE TO HOME AND WELLINFORMED $ESPITETHIS .IGERIAWILLSTILLNEEDINTERNATIONALCAPITAL FOR A COUPLE OF REASONS &IRST IT WILL AND ALREADY IS DRIVING VALUATIONS TO INTERNATIONAL LEVELS GIVING .IGERIANCOMPANIESACCESSTOTHECHEAPESTPOSSIBLE CAPITAL 3ECONDLY .IGERIA WILL NEED THE CAPACITY OF THE GLOBAL MARKETS WHEN IT COMES TO ITS OWN MULTI BILLION DOLLAR DEALS 4HIS WILL ONLY BE POSSIBLE IF THE GLOBAL MARKETS ALREADY HAVE A DEEP ENGAGEMENT WITH .IGERIA 4HIRDLY AND PERHAPS MOST IMPORTANTLY INTERNATIONAL AND DOMESTIC MARKETS ARE NOT PARALLEL UNIVERSES4HEYRAPIDLYINTEGRATE ANDTHISWILLFORCETHE CONVERGENCE OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS TECHNIQUES ANDPRACTICES THEREBYSTIMULATINGTHESIZEANDPOWER OFTHEDOMESTICMARKET )N ORDER TO MAXIMISE THE BENElTS OF THIS INTEGRATION INTERNATIONALINVESTORSMUSTBECOMMITTEDTOFOSTERING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCAL MARKETS OVER THE LONG TERM&ICKLEMONEY WHICHCOMESANDGOESWITHMINOR MARKETCORRECTIONSORTHELUREOFTHELATESTHOTMARKET ELSEWHERE WILLHINDERRATHERTHANHELPTHISPROCESS 4HIS IS THE CORNERSTONE OF 2ENAISSANCE 'ROUPS OWN INVESTMENTINSUB 3AHARAN!FRICA/URGOALSARETWO FOLDTOGIVELOCALCOMPANIESFULLANDOPENACCESSTOTHE LOWESTCOSTANDMOSTSTABLECAPITALAVAILABLEGLOBALLY

3UB 3AHARAN !FRICA STILL FACES HUGE CHALLENGES BUT ENABLEDBYASUPPORTIVEGLOBALBACKDROPFORCOMMODITY EXPORTERS HUGELY IMPROVED BALANCE SHEETS AND A POLITICALCOMMITMENTTOBETTERECONOMICPOLICIES THE CONTINENTHASPROBABLYTURNEDTHECORNERONITSRELATIVE ECONOMICDECLINE4HEPACEOFCHANGEANDECONOMIC GROWTHINTHEREGIONISNOWONTRACKTOACCELERATETOBE AMONGTHEHIGHESTGLOBALLY 4HE TIME HAS COME FOR INTERNATIONAL PLAYERS TO MAKE A lRM INVESTMENT COMMITMENT BY CREATING LONG TERM PARTNERSHIPS WITH LOCAL STAKEHOLDERS 4HE PROSPECTS ARE TREMENDOUS PERHAPS THE ONLY OPPORTUNITY OF COMPARABLE MAGNITUDE IN THE LAST  YEARS WAS THAT WHICHEMERGEDWITHTHEBREAK UPOFTHE3OVIET5NION 2ENAISSANCE 'ROUP COMPRISES INVESTMENT BANKING ASSETMANAGEMENT MERCHANTBANKINGANDCONSUMER lNANCE COMPANIES SPECIALISING IN HIGH OPPORTUNITY EMERGINGMARKETS)TBEGANOPERATIONSIN3UB 3AHARAN !FRICA IN  AND IS ESTABLISHING THE LEADING PAN REGIONALBANKINGPLATFORMTHROUGHOFlCESIN,AGOSAND .AIROBI 2ENAISSANCE 'ROUP HAS INVESTED 53 MILLION IN !FRICA INCLUDING A SHARE IN %4) A LEADING BANKING FRANCHISE OPERATING IN  COUNTRIES )N  ITLEDINTERNATIONALEQUITYOFFERINGSBY.IGERIAS5NITED "ANKFOR!FRICAAND!CCESS"ANK

.EIL(ARVEY #%/!FRICA 4EL   %MAIL.(ARVEY RENCAPCOM /YINKAN!DEWALE -ANAGING$IRECTOR#HIEF/PERATING/FlCER !FRICA 4EL   %MAIL/!DEWALE RENCAPCOM !MISH'UPTA $IRECTOR  (EAD OF %AST !FRICA )NSTITUTIONAL 3ECURITIES 'ROUP 4EL  %MAIL!'UPTA RENCAPCOM WWWRENAISSANCEGROUPCOM

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




&INANCINGFOR$EVELOPMENT

3PECIAL&EATUREBY#&3'ROUP

&INANCINGPRIVATEINVESTMENT IN!FRICA (ELPED BY DRAMATIC INCREASES IN COMMODITY PRICES THEREHASBEENAGENERALIMPROVEMENTIN !FRICAS OVERALL INVESTMENT LANDSCAPE PUNCTUATED BYINCREASINGPOLITICALSTABILITY lRMERCURRENCIES AND FALLING INTEREST RATES 4HIS HAS LED TO A RISE IN CROSS BORDER PAN !FRICAN INVESTMENTS FOR INSTANCEACQUISITIONSINTHETELECOMMUNICATIONS SECTOR BY #ELTEL AND -4. )T HAS ALSO SPAWNED SEVERAL ENTREPRENEURS OF !FRICAN DESCENT PROMOTINGNEWVENTURESTHATINVESTIN!FRICA ! MEMBER OF THE #&3 'ROUP 0IVOT #APITAL 0ARTNERS OFFERS INVESTMENT BANKING SERVICES ACROSS !FRICA !S ADVISORSTOVARIOUSCORPORATEANDINSTITUTIONALINVESTORS ANDFROMDIRECTEXPERIENCEFROMTHE#&3'ROUPSPRIVATE EQUITYDIVISION WECANIDENTIFYSEVERALFEATURESOFRECENT PRIVATEINVESTMENTIN!FRICA DESCRIBEDINTHISFEATURE

)NVESTMENTFOCUS +EYDETERMINANTSOFINVESTMENTIN!FRICAINCLUDETHESIZE OFTHEDOMESTICMARKET SCALEANDCAPITALINTENSITYOFA PROJECT2ECOGNISINGTHATTHEREAREMANYlXEDCOSTSTO BUSINESSIN!FRICAUNAFFECTEDBYPROJECTSIZE INVESTORS GRAVITATE TOWARDS LARGE PROJECTS PREDOMINANTLY IN THE MINING OIL AND GAS AND ENERGY SECTORS $UE TO GREATER CONlDENCE IN !FRICAS LONGER TERM PROSPECTS AND A SUBSTANTIAL RISE IN TOURISM INVESTORS ARE ALSO INCREASINGLYINVESTINGINREALESTATEANDHOTELS 5NFORTUNATELY LIMITED INFRASTRUCTURE REMAINS A GREAT INHIBITOROFINVESTMENTIN!FRICA#HALLENGESINSECURING CONSISTENTELECTRICITYSUPPLIESORCOMMUNICATIONLINKS AS WELL AS EXORBITANT TRANSPORT COSTS WITHIN !FRICA FORCE INVESTORS TO DEVELOP PROJECTS THAT ARE RELATIVELY SELF SUFlCIENT IN ALL THESE AREAS THEREBY INCREASING THEOVERALLFUNDINGREQUIRED!SSUCH PROJECTSONTHE CONTINENTTENDTOBESIGNIlCANTLYMORECAPITALANDlXED ASSETINTENSIVETHANSIMILARPROJECTSELSEWHERE

%QUITYFUNDING 'IVENLIMITEDLOCALCAPACITYTOINVESTINSUCHPROJECTS EQUITY IS PRIMARILY SOURCED FROM LARGE MULTINATIONALS OR INSTITUTIONAL INVESTORS TAPPED THROUGH ESTABLISHED INVESTMENTVEHICLESANDORINTERNATIONALCAPITALMARKETS %QUITYFUNDINGISALSOAVAILABLEFROMESTABLISHEDPAN !FRICAN PRIVATE EQUITY PRACTITIONERS LIKE !CTIS AS WELL AS AN INCREASING NUMBER OF DOMESTIC PLAYERS FROM COUNTRIESLIKE3OUTH!FRICA BRANCHINGOUTINTOFAMILIAR SECTORSINTHERESTOFTHECONTINENT 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

!SIDE FROM THE MUCH PUBLICISED INVESTMENT IN !FRICA BY #HINESE AND )NDIAN lRMS THERE IS ALSO GROWING INVESTMENTFROMLOCALANDREGIONALINVESTORS PARTICULARLY FROMTHE-IDDLE%ASTAND3OUTH!FRICA!LTHOUGH3OUTH !FRICASINVESTMENTRECORDIN!FRICAISWELLDOCUMENTED OTHERTHAN-4#S53BILLIONBUYOUTOF#ELTEL LESS ATTENTIONHASBEENPAIDTOACTIVITYFROMTHE-IDDLE%AST 3UCHINVESTORGROUPSFROMTHE-IDDLE%ASTINCLUDE(2( 0RINCE !LWALEEDS +INGDOM (OTEL )NVESTMENTS WHICH SINCEHASACQUIREDORISCOMPLETINGHOTELSIN NINECOUNTRIESACROSS!FRICA)NDEED 2ENAISSANCE!FRICA !DVISORY AN ASSOCIATE OF THE #&3 'ROUP RECENTLY EXCLUSIVELY ADVISED THE SELLER WHO SOLD THE (OTEL )NTERCONTINENTAL,USAKATO+INGDOM(OTELS)NVESTMENTS

$EBTlNANCING &ORLARGEROILANDGASORMININGPROJECTSWITHARECOGNISED SPONSOR PROJECTlNANCINGFROMCONSORTIAOFINTERNATIONAL lNANCIERS STRUCTURED USING POLITICAL RISK COVER AND INSURANCE WRAPS IS INCREASINGLY COMMONPLACE 4HERE HAS ALSO BEEN A RISE IN STRUCTURED lNANCE FOR RELATED PROJECTS SUCHASTHE53MILLIONOILSERVICESFACILITY FROM !FREXIMBANK AND 3TANDARD #HARTERED "ANK IN .IGERIATHATWASCO ARRANGEDBY0IVOT#APITAL0ARTNERS 2EGIONAL DEVELOPMENT lNANCE INSTITUTIONS SUCH AS !FRICAN$EVELOPMENT"ANKAND$EVELOPMENT"ANKOF 3OUTH!FRICA HAVEALSOBECOMEIMPORTANTSOURCESOF PROJECTFUNDING ESPECIALLYFORINITIATIVESDEVELOPEDBY LOCALPROMOTERSWITHLESSCAPITALTHANTHEIRMULTINATIONAL COUNTERPARTS

'OVERNMENTINITIATIVES 3OVEREIGNRATINGS 4HEGLOBALTRENDISTOWARDSARATINGS BASEDAPPROACH TO RISK ASSESSMENT 7ITH THE ADVENT OF HEDGE FUNDS ANDOTHERINSTITUTIONALINVESTMENTVEHICLESTHATRELYON SUCHRATINGS INTERNATIONALCAPITALISINCREASINGLYLIMITED TOTHOSEDESTINATIONSWITHSOVEREIGNRATINGS/BTAINING A SOVEREIGN RATING FROM KEY RATING AGENCIES LIKE &ITCH 2ATINGSAND3TANDARD0OORSISTHUSBECOMINGTHE INTERNATIONALLY ACCEPTED PREREQUISITE TO ATTRACTING AND PRICINGINTERNATIONALCAPITAL !FRICAN STATES HAVE TRADITIONALLY SHIED AWAY FROM BEINGRATED EXPECTINGTHATTHEYWILLFAREPOORLYWHEN BENCHMARKED AGAINST A GLOBAL STANDARD (OWEVER SINCE5.$0PROMOTEDITSRATINGSCAMPAIGNIN!FRICA


&INANCINGFOR$EVELOPMENT

,ESSONSFROM'HANA 'HANA IS AN INCREASINGLY POPULAR DESTINATION FOR PRIVATE INVESTMENT AS EVIDENCED BY #&30RIVATE%QUITYSACQUISITION OF+INGDOM4RANSPORT3ERVICES ,IMITED +43 IN .OVEMBER  !S 'HANAS LEADING CONTRACT BUS COMPANY +43 ASSETS MAINLY COMPRISE VEHICLES AND WORKSHOPS (ISTORICALLY FUNDED BY SHORT TERM LOANS +43WORKEDCONCURRENTLYWITHTHE4RUST"ANK'HANA TO RElNANCE MUCH OF THIS DEBT TO EXTEND ITS DEBT MATURITY PROlLE!SARESULT +43HASBEENABLETOUPGRADEITSmEET AND WORKSHOP FACILITIES ACROSS 'HANA IN THE PROCESS BECOMING AN AUTHORISED SERVICE CENTRE FOR COMMERCIAL VEHICLESMANUFACTUREDBY"-# "LUE"IRDAND4ATA

3TANDARD  0OORS HAS RATED OVER  COUNTRIES WITH THEIRRATINGSCOMPARINGFAVOURABLYAGAINSTTHEIRPEERS WORLDWIDE #OUNTRIES LIKE %GYPT .IGERIA AND 3OUTH !FRICA WITH RATINGS COMPARABLE TO #HINA )NDIA AND 2USSIA HAVEBENElTEDFROMTHEENHANCEDINTERNATIONAL CREDIBILITY AND CAPITAL mOWS 4HE REMAINING UNRATED COUNTRIESMAYSIMILARLYBENElTFROMARATING

2EGIONALHARMONISATION !LTHOUGH !FRICA CONSISTS OF  INDEPENDENT STATES MANYINTERNATIONALINVESTORSTENDTOVIEWTHECONTINENT AS A SINGLE EMERGING MARKET 4HEREFORE TO ENSURE THE REGION REMAINS ATTRACTIVE TO INTERNATIONAL CAPITAL !FRICAN GOVERNMENTS SHOULD WORK TOGETHER TOWARDS REGIONAL INTEGRATION n HARMONISING INVESTMENT LEGAL AND TAX REGIMES WHENEVER POSSIBLE )NITIATIVES SUCH ASEXPANDINGTHE%AST!FRICAN#OMMUNITY RATHERTHAN PROPOSALSTHATCOUNTRIESSHOULDNOTJOINMORETHANONE REGIONAL GROUPING EG #/-%3! AND 3!$# SHOULD BEENCOURAGED !S!FRICASINFRASTRUCTURELAGSTHATOFMANYOFITSPEERS CONCERTEDREGIONALEFFORTSHOULDBEMADETOIMPROVE THIS&OREXAMPLE TRANSPORTINGFREIGHTBYROADANDRAIL WITHIN!FRICAISALMOSTPROHIBITIVELYEXPENSIVE WITHCOSTS COMPOUNDEDBYDIFlCULTIESWITHTRANSHIPMENTBETWEEN NEIGHBOURINGCOUNTRIESARISINGFROMDIFFERENCESINTHE GAUGESOFTHERAILWAYLINES ANDORTHEMAXIMUMLOADS ALLOWABLEBYTRUCK!LTHOUGHUNIFORMITYININFRASTRUCTURAL PLATFORMS IS NOT ESSENTIAL SIMPLIlED TRANSPARENT AND CONSISTENTLYAPPLIEDREGULATORYENVIRONMENTSWOULDBE VERYBENElCIAL

#APITALMARKETS #APITAL MARKETS CAN PROVIDE FUNDING FOR THE GROWTH OF LISTEDCOMPANIES EITHERTHROUGHARIGHTSISSUEORTHELISTING OFOTHERCORPORATESECURITIESSUCHASBONDS!LTHOUGH THESESECURITIESACCOUNTFORASUBSTANTIALPORTIONOFTHE OVERALLCAPITALISATIONOFGLOBALCAPITALMARKETS THEUSEOF SUCHINSTRUMENTSIN!FRICAISLIMITEDOUTSIDEITSPRIMARY MARKETS4HISISPARTLYDUETOANINABILITYTOISSUELONG DATEDINSTRUMENTS ASTHEREISLITTLEFAMILIARITYWITH ORYIELD CURVESDEVELOPEDFOR LONGERTENORS 'OVERNMENT DEBT TYPICALLY PROVIDES THE BENCHMARK AGAINST WHICH YIELD CURVES ARE DEVELOPED TO PRICE CORPORATE DEBT OF SIMILAR TENORS 5NFORTUNATELY MANY !FRICANGOVERNMENTSDONOTBORROWLONG TERMFROMTHE DOMESTICMARKETS PREFERRINGTORELYONDONORFUNDING

)NGENERAL +43DISCOVEREDTHAT53DOLLARFUNDINGTOMATCH ITS LONG TERM 53 DOLLAR CONTRACTS WAS LIMITED !LTHOUGH LOCAL CURRENCY FUNDING WAS MORE READILY AVAILABLE SUCH FUNDINGISLIMITEDTOTHREEYEARSANDISTYPICALLYPRICEDOFF THEOVERNIGHTBANKLENDINGRATE$EVELOPINGABENCHMARK FOR LONG TERM lNANCING WOULD THEREFORE CLEARLY ASSIST BUSINESSESWITHSUBSTANTIALINVESTMENTSINlXEDASSETS )MPROVINGLOCALCAPACITYTODEALINEQUITYINSTRUMENTSWOULD ALSOHELP ASEVIDENCEDBY+43SUSPENDINGACONVERTIBLE LOANINITIATIVEAFTERALOCALPRIVATEEQUITYlRMSDUEDILIGENCE PROCESS EXCEEDED  MONTHS 4HE LOAN IS NOW BEING COMPLETEDWITHANOFFSHOREGROUPMOREFAMILIARWITHSUCH TRANSACTIONS

FORSUCHNEEDS!CCORDINGLY PROSPECTSOFABENCHMARK FORLONGER TERMlNANCINGARELIMITED RESTRICTINGFUNDING OFRELATEDTENORS !TTEMPTS ARE THEREFORE BEING MADE BY OTHER PLAYERS ESPECIALLYDEVELOPMENTlNANCEINSTITUTIONSLIKETHE%AST !FRICAN$EVELOPMENT"ANKAND04!"ANK TOSTIMULATE LOCALDEBTCAPITALMARKETSBYISSUINGLONGER TERMLOCAL CURRENCY DEBT )NDEED MY COLLEAGUES AND ) WORKED CLOSELY WITH 04! "ANK ON 4ANZANIAS lRST SEVEN YEAR lXEDRATE LOCALCURRENCYBOND3UBSEQUENTLYLISTEDON THE $AR ES 3ALAAM 3TOCK %XCHANGE THIS BOND ISSUE PROVIDEDVALUABLEDEPTHTOTHEDEVELOPMENTOFALONG TERMBENCHMARKIN4ANZANIA

#ONCLUSION )NSHORT !FRICASINVESTMENTCLIMATEHASVASTLYIMPROVED WITH SEVERAL INDIGENOUS lNANCIAL INSTITUTIONS LED BY BANKS FROM .IGERIA AND 3OUTH !FRICA FOLLOWING THEIR CLIENTS ACROSS THE CONTINENT THEREBY CREATING GREATER INTEGRATION OF !FRICAS lNANCIAL SYSTEMS IN THEIR WAKE )NVESTORCONlDENCEISHIGH BUOYEDBYSEVERAL!FRICAN GOVERNMENTS IMPLEMENTING STABLE PREDICTABLE POLICIES WITH CLEARLY ARTICULATED OBJECTIVES !S !FRICA IS NOT A SINGLESTATE DEVELOPMENTISNATURALLYATDIFFERENTSTAGES ACROSSTHEREGION BUTTHEGENERALTRENDREMAINSONEOF PROGRESSTOWARDSMEETING!FRICASDEVELOPMENTGOALS

4HIS ARTICLE WAS WRITTEN BY 3ULEIMAN ) +IGGUNDU *R $EPUTY #HAIRMANOF0IVOT#APITAL0ARTNERS(EADQUARTEREDIN"OTSWANA WITHOFlCESINCOUNTRIESACROSS!FRICA 0IVOT#APITAL0ARTNERS ISTHEADVISORYANDSPECIALISEDlNANCEARMOFTHE#&3'ROUP 4HE#&3'ROUPISADIVERSIlEDlNANCIALSERVICESGROUPENGAGED IN INVESTMENT BANKING SPECIALISED lNANCE AND PRIVATE EQUITY ACTIVITIESTHROUGHOUT!FRICA-OREDETAILSATWWWCFSHOLDINGSCOM -ORE DETAILS ON 0IVOT #APITAL 0ARTNERS CAN BE OBTAINED FROM WWWPIVOTCPCOM BY EMAIL TO INFO PIVOTCPCOM OR BY CONTACTINGTHEFOLLOWINGOFlCES +GALE#OURT -ILLENNIUM /FlCE0ARK -ILLENNIUM/FlCE0ARK 0/"OX 'ABORONE "OTSWANA 4EL  &AX 

'LENEAGLES &AIRWAY/FlCE0ARK 'ROSVENOR2OAD "RYANSTON 0"AG8 3ANDTON 3OUTH!FRICA 4EL  &AX 

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




&INANCINGFOR$EVELOPMENT

$R7OLFGANG0ALZ #HAIRMAN 7ORLD#OUNCILFOR2ENEWABLE%NERGIES

2ENEWABLEENERGIESONTHEIR WAYTOCONQUERWORLDMARKETS %NERGY IS A BASIC NEED OF OUR ECONOMY 9ET THE WORLD RELIES PRIMARILY ON THE POLLUTING AND EXHAUSTIBLE FOSSIL ENERGIES #ONSEQUENTLY WE AREFACEDTODAYWITHTHREEESSENTIALGEOPOLITICAL CHALLENGESSECURITYOFENERGYSUPPLY DEPLETION OF CONVENTIONAL FOSSIL ENERGY RESOURCES AND CLIMATE CHANGE THAT IS BY AND LARGE A RESULT OF CURRENT ENERGY CONSUMPTION PATTERNS 4HE OVERARCHINGSOLUTIONFORALLTHESEPROBLEMSISTHE SPEEDYDEVELOPMENTOFTHERENEWABLEENERGIES 2% n THOSE DERIVED FROM THE SUN THE WIND AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY WATER mOW AND OTHER SOURCES 7HAT USED TO BE AN ECOLOGISTS DREAM JUST  YEARS AGO HAS RECENTLY BECOME AN ECONOMIC REALITY IN A DECADEOFDOUBLE DIGITGROWTHRATESREACHINGINMANY SECTORSPERCENTPERYEAR RENEWABLEENERGIESHAVE BEENASHININGSTAR INSOMENATIONAL ECONOMIES AND STOCK MARKETS 'LOBAL INVESTMENTS ARE EXCEEDING 53BILLIONPERANNUMANDHUNDREDSOFTHOUSANDS OF NEW JOBS HAVE BEEN CREATED 7ALL 3TREET BANKERS HAVEBECOMEEXPERTSINWINDANDSOLARTECHNOLOGIES "EING AN EMERGING MARKET SEGMENT RENEWABLE ENERGIES ARE STILL DEPENDENT ON POLITICAL SUPPORT 4HE %UROPEAN 5NION CURRENTLY LEADING THE WORLD IN THIS lELD ISTARGETINGSHARESOFOVERPERCENTRENEWABLE ELECTRICITY IN THREE YEARS TIME AND  PER CENT RENEWABLEENERGIESIN%UROPESOVERALLCONSUMPTIONBY nTHREETIMESMORETHANTODAY%XPERTSBELIEVE THAT IN THE LONG RUN THESE INEXHAUSTIBLE AND CLEAN ENERGIES HAVE THE POTENTIAL TO PROVIDE THE WORLD WITH NEARLYALLOFITSENERGYNEEDS 7HAT IS STILL IN ITS INFANCY IS THE DEPLOYMENT OF THE RENEWABLEENERGIESINTHEDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESTHISIS IMPORTANTSINCE2%AREPARTICULARLYSUITEDFORPROMOTING PROGRESSANDPEACEFORTWOBILLIONPEOPLELACKINGTODAY ANYFORMOFMODERNENERGYSUPPLY

)NTRODUCTIONANDRATIONALEFORRENEWABLE ENERGYPROMOTION 3INCE THE 7ORLD 3UMMIT IN *OHANNESBURG IN  WHERE THEY DOMINATED THE AGENDA 2% HAVE AT LAST GAINEDGENERALRECOGNITIONOFTHEIRPOTENTIALTOPROVIDE THEWORLDWITHCLEAN INEXHAUSTIBLE ANDDECENTRALISED ENERGYTHATISACCESSIBLETOALL 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

!T PRESENT THE WORLD IS BEING ALARMED ANEW BY THE PROSPECT OF A DANGEROUS AND COSTLY CLIMATE CHANGE FORWHICHFOSSILENERGYCONSUMPTIONISTHEMAINDRIVING FORCETHE5.)0##REPORTPRESENTEDATTHEBEGINNING OFCALLSFORIMMEDIATEACTIONTOALLEVIATECLIMATE CHANGE AND THE COSTS IN HUMAN LIVES AND ECONOMIC GROWTHTHATGOWITHITAFTERITMAYHAVEBECOME IRREVERSIBLE 4HE ONLY ENERGIES THAT QUALIFY TO AVOID THATDISASTERFORMANKINDARETHE2% ASTHEYEMITNO GREENHOUSEGASES -OREOVER MOST EXPERTS AGREE THAT BY THE MIDDLE OF THISCENTURYMOSTFOSSILRESOURCESOFTHEGLOBE WITHTHE EXCEPTIONOFCOAL WILLHAVEBEENUSEDUP(EREAGAIN 2%OFFERTHERIGHTSOLUTION BECAUSETHESUNWILLCONTINUE TOSHINE"UTTHECHALLENGEISTREMENDOUSTHECHANGE OFPARADIGMFROMFOSSILTORENEWABLERESOURCESIMPLIES INNOTMORETHANYEARSTHECOMPLETERESTRUCTURING OFTHECURRENTENERGYSYSTEMTHATREPRESENTSAGLOBAL BUSINESSOFTRILLIONSOFDOLLARSANDWEARERUNNINGOUT OFTIME)NTHATRESPECTTHERENEWABLESHAVETHEEDGE OVERCONVENTIONALSOLUTIONS)TMAYTAKEAWHOLEDECADE TOGETANEWCONVENTIONALPOWERPLANTONSTREAM BUT ONLYWEEKSTOBUILDAWINDORSOLARPLANT

"EINGANEMERGINGMARKET SEGMENT RENEWABLEENERGIESARESTILL DEPENDENTONPOLITICALSUPPORT 4HELIMITSONFOSSILRESOURCESANDTHERESTRICTIONOFTHEIR AVAILABILITYTOAFEWREGIONSALREADYHAVEANEFFECTON TODAYSMARKETPRICES NOTONLYINYEARSTIMETHEOIL PRICETHATLEADSTHEMARKETPRICEOFALLFOSSILENERGIES STANDSNOWATnSIXTIMESMORETHANAFEWYEARS AGO4HEPRICEOFlSSILEURANIUMHASINCREASEDINTHE LASTSIXYEARSBYAFACTOROFTEN/NTHEOTHERHANDTHE PRICESFOR2%ACROSSTHEBOARDAREDECREASINGTHANKS TOTHEECONOMIESOFSCALEFACILITATEDBYTHEGLOBALISATION OF THE ENERGY MARKETS -ARKET BASED COMPETITION WILLINAFEWYEARSTIMEALREADYSWINGINFAVOUROFTHE 2% AND THE POLITICAL INCENTIVES THAT ARE NECESSARY TODAY CAN BE PHASED OUT )NVESTMENT DECISIONS ON NEW POWER PLANTS THAT OPERATE FOR  YEARS SHOULD TAKE THIS PERSPECTIVE INTO ACCOUNT 3TICKING SIMPLY TO INVESTMENTS IN CONVENTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES WILL NOT BE


&INANCINGFOR$EVELOPMENT

!YOUNGWOMAN REPAIRINGSOLAR PANELS

SAFEASITMAYLOOKEVEN7ALL3TREETFEELSALARMEDAND ISGETTINGSERIOUSABOUTTHERENEWABLES ,ASTBUTNOTLEAST WESEEANEXTRABENElTFOR2%THAT RATESHIGHONTHEAGENDAOFANYENERGYPOLICYnENERGY SECURITY WITH LESS DEPENDENCE ON IMPORTS 4HE SUN SHINESEVERYWHEREANDWINDRESOURCESAREWIDESPREAD ASWELLWHEREASnJUSTASANEXAMPLEnPERCENTOF THEWORLDSRESERVESOFNATURALGASAREINTHEGROUNDOF TINY1ATARINTHE'ULF

4HEPRICESFOR2%ACROSSTHE BOARDAREDECREASINGTHANKSTOTHE ECONOMIESOFSCALEFACILITATEDBYTHE GLOBALISATIONOFTHEENERGYMARKETS 4HERENEWABLEENERGIESSHAREINTODAYS ENERGYMARKETS 2%FORPOWERGENERATION )NTHEGLOBALPOWERSECTOR PERCENTOFALLINVESTMENTS GO CURRENTLY TO 2% POWER ,ARGE HYDRO AND THE @NEW 2%INORDEROFMARKETSHAREWINDPOWER SMALLHYDRO BIO POWER PHOTOVOLTAICS AND SO ON TOGETHER SLIGHTLY EXCEED THE OVERALL CAPACITY OF ALL NUCLEAR PLANTS )T IS IMPORTANTTONOTETHATTHE2%DEVELOPCURRENTLYMUCH FASTER THAN THE ATOMIC POWER PLANTS IN  SIX ATOMICPOWERPLANTSWERERETIREDFROMTHEGRIDANDNO NEWONESADDED WHEREASGIGAWATTS'7 OFNEW WINDCAPACITYWASINSTALLEDWORLDWIDE ABUSINESSOF 53BILLION 'LOBAL WIND CAPACITY HAS REACHED '7 A TENFOLD INCREASEOVER'ERMANYOWNSPERCENTOFTHAT CAPACITY FOLLOWEDBYTHE53! 3PAIN )NDIA #HINAAND OTHERS #ANADA AND &RANCE WERE LAST YEAR DOUBLING THEIRWINDMARKETGROWTHRATES !PPROXIMATELY'7OFSMALLHYDROINSTALLATIONSWEREIN OPERATIONLASTYEAR4HEWORLDMARKETLEADERIS#HINA "IO POWER REPRESENTS TODAY OVER '7 OF GLOBAL CAPACITY )T COMPRISES SUCH DIFFERENT SECTORS AS CO lRING OF WOOD IN COAL PLANTS OR DEDICATED BIO POWER PLANTS SMALLCO GENERATIONPLANTSEMPLOYINGVEGETABLE OILS BIOGASPLANTSFEEDINGINTOPOWERGENERATORS ETC 4HE TWO LATTER SECTORS ARE DEVELOPING MOST RAPIDLY IN 'ERMANY THEWORLDLEADERINTHESEAREAS 4HEMOST@NOBLEAMONGTHE2%ISSOLARPHOTOVOLTAICS 06 THE SEMICONDUCTOR PLATES THAT CONVERT RADIATION DIRECTLYINTOELECTRICITYWITHOUTANYMOVINGPART'7OF 06ARECURRENTLYINOPERATION ASEVENFOLDINCREASEWITH RESPECTTO/NE THIRDOFTHATCAPACITYISINSTALLEDIN 'ERMANY FOLLOWEDBY*APANAND#ALIFORNIA4HEGLOBAL 06BUSINESSEXCEEDS€BILLIONAYEAR-OSTOFTHE06 PLANTSINSTALLEDINTHEINDUSTRIALISEDCOUNTRIESAREGRID CONNECTED THEY COME IN ANY SIZE FROM MICROWATTS IN WATCHES KILOWATT PLANTS FOR BUILDINGS AND LARGER GROUND MOUNTED INSTALLATIONS UP TO  MEGAWATTS #OMBINEDWITHBATTERYSTORAGE06ISIDEALLYSUITEDFOR INDEPENDENTPOWERGENERATION FORINSTANCEINREMOTE

VILLAGESFORLIGHTINGANDCOMMUNICATIONPERCENTOF WORLDPRODUCTIONGOESTOAPPLICATIONSOFTHISKINDINTHE DEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESFORTHEBENElTOFTHEPOOR /VERALLAWEALTHY2%POWERINDUSTRYHASDEVELOPEDWITH BILLIONS IN EURO INVESTMENTS -OST OF THE PARTICIPANTS ARESMALLORMEDIUM SIZECOMPANIESABOUT  NEWJOBSHAVEBEENCREATEDINTHELASTFEWYEARSINTHIS NEWINDUSTRY

2ENEWABLEBIOFUELSFORTRANSPORT 4HE WORLD RELIES TODAY FOR THREE PER CENT OF ITS FUEL CONSUMPTION ON LIQUID BIOFUELS MORE THAN THREE QUARTERSOFGLOBALBIO ALCOHOLFORTRANSPORTISPRODUCED AND USED IN "RAZIL AND THE 53 )N "RAZIL ITS SHARE IN PETROLCONSUMPTIONISPERCENTnITISUSEDPUREOR BLENDEDINTHECOUNTRY4HE53CURRENTLYPRODUCES MILLION TONNES OF ETHANOL PER YEAR SLIGHTLY MORE THAN "RAZIL4HE53DEVELOPMENTISBREATHTAKINGPRODUCTION HASTRIPLEDOVERTHELASTTHREEYEARSANDISSUPPOSEDTO DOUBLEINAYEARSTIME4HE53INVESTED53BILLIONIN ANDCREATED NEWJOBSINTHESECTOR %THANOL IN THE 53 IS CORN BASED AND SUBSIDISED "RAZIL EMPLOYS SUGAR CANE AS A FEEDSTOCK THAT IS MORE ECONOMIC AND NEEDS NO SUBSIDY 4HERE ARE DISAGREEMENTS WITHIN THE 53 AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON A POSSIBLEOVER RELIANCEONALCOHOLIMPORTANT53PLAYERS SEETHERISKOFPRESSURESONFOODANDFEEDSUPPLYAND INCONSISTENCIESWITHMARKETDEMAND

#OMBINEDWITHBATTERYSTORAGE06IS IDEALLYSUITEDFORINDEPENDENTPOWER GENERATION FORINSTANCEINREMOTE VILLAGESFORLIGHTINGANDCOMMUNICATION 4HE %5 HAS lXED A TARGET OF SIX PER CENT BIOFUELS CONTRIBUTION IN THE TRANSPORT MARKET BY  &OR %UROPEAN AGRICULTURE PLAGUED AS IT IS BY OVER PRODUCTIONOFFOODANDSET ASIDEREGIMES BIOFUELSARE SEENASAWELCOMENEWOPPORTUNITY !N EMERGING MARKET SEGMENT OF BIOFUELS ARE THE VEGETABLE OILS AND THE DERIVED BIODIESEL 4HEY ARE CULTIVATED WITH THE HIGHEST PRODUCTIVITY AS PALM OIL IN 3OUTH EAST!SIAnWITHTHERISINGCONCERNTHATFORESTS AREBEINGCLEAREDTOGIVEWAYFORNEWPLANTATIONS

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




&INANCINGFOR$EVELOPMENT

%RECTINGSOLAR ELECTRICPANELS 4ANZANIA

4HE%UROPEAN5NIONHASADOPTEDTHEAMBITIOUSGOAL OFTRIPLINGTHE2%SHAREOVERTHENEXTYEARSTOPER CENTPERCENTOFPOWERGENERATIONFROM2%WILLBE ACHIEVEDBY/NTHEOTHERHAND THE53nLEAVING ASIDE THEIR CONTROVERSIAL  PER CENT BIOFUEL TARGET IN TRANSPORT BY  n HAS TODAY A 2% POWER SHARE OF PERCENTANDDOESNOTTHINKITCOULDGETTOPERCENT WITHINTHENEXTTWODECADES*APANHASJUSTDECIDEDIT WANTSTOACHIEVE2%ELECTRICITYSALESOFAMEAGRE PERCENTBY 7HATISNEEDEDMOSTNOWISTORAISEAWARENESSABOUT 2%FACTSANDlGURES ANDTHEUNIQUEROLEOFRENEWABLES IN CONTROLLING CLIMATE CHANGE !S THE CLIMATE EXPERTS HAVE JUST MADE CLEAR THE ALTERNATIVE IS TO LEAVE OUR CHILDRENAWORLDINJEOPARDY

2%FORHEATINGANDCOOLING #HINAISTHEMARKETLEADERFORSOLARHEATCOLLECTORSTHE #HINESEMARKETISNOTSUBSIDISEDANDHASREACHEDA VOLUMEOFMILLIONSQUAREMETRESOFNEWCOLLECTORS EVERY YEAR  MILLION SOLAR WATER HEATERS ARE NOW IN OPERATIONINTHECOUNTRY )N %UROPE THE MARKETS FOR WOOD PELLET STOVES AND GEOTHERMALHEATPUMPSAREBOOMINGWITHGROWTHRATES OFMORETHANPERCENT

@0ASSIVESOLARARCHITECTURE COUPLEDWITHSOLARCOLLECTOR INTEGRATIONHASONEOFTHEHIGHEST POTENTIALSFOR2%UTILISATION ,ASTBUTNOTLEASTnTHETREMENDOUSEFFORTS PARTICULARLY IN %UROPE TOWARDS LOW ENERGY HOUSING AND SOLAR ARCHITECTURE MUST BE MENTIONED @0ASSIVE SOLAR ARCHITECTURECOUPLEDWITHSOLARCOLLECTORINTEGRATIONHAS ONEOFTHEHIGHESTPOTENTIALSFOR2%UTILISATION

/UTLOOK 4HE 2% BENElTED IN THE LAST FEW YEARS FROM A SIGNIlCANT MARKET DEVELOPMENT THAT IS ENCOURAGING FORTHEFUTURERENEWABLESHAVEDElNITELYENTEREDTHE MAINSTREAM OF GLOBAL ENERGY MARKETS 4HE NEW 2% MASS MARKETS WILL RAPIDLY GAIN IN COMPETITIVENESS AGAINST CONVENTIONAL ENERGIES 4HEIR PROGRESS IS UNSTOPPABLE "UTTHECHALLENGESAHEADARETREMENDOUS#HINAIS AGGRESSIVELY DEVELOPING NEW COAL PLANTS FOR POWER GENERATION AND WILL IN TWO YEARS TIME BECOME THE COUNTRYEMITTINGTHEMOSTCARBONDIOXIDEANDTHERE ISEVERYCHANCETHATTHEWORLDWILLTRYTOCONSUMETHE REMAINING OIL AND NATURAL GAS RESOURCES TO THE VERY LASTDROPLET



4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

7HATISNEEDEDMOSTNOW ISTORAISEAWARENESSABOUT2% FACTSANDlGURES ANDTHEUNIQUE ROLEOFRENEWABLESINCONTROLLING CLIMATECHANGE 7OLFGANG 0ALZ 0H$ IS #HAIRMAN OF THE 7ORLD #OUNCIL FOR 2ENEWABLE %NERGIES )N THE MID S HE PUBLISHED 3OLAR %LECTRICITY AN %CONOMIC !PPROACH TO 3OLAR %NERGY 5.%3#/ 0ARIS &ORYEARS  HEWASINCHARGEOFTHE%UROPEAN 5NIONS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF ALL RENEWABLE ENERGY )N HEDEVELOPEDTHETARGETlGURESFOR2%IMPLEMENTATIONIN %UROPE BY  THAT WERE ADOPTED BY THE %5 #OMMISSION IN ITSlRST7HITE0APERPUBLISHEDTHATYEARHEWASTOOPESSIMISTIC MOST OF THESE GOALS WILL ACTUALLY BE EXCEEDED  (E HAS BEEN CHOSEN AS A WIND ENERGY PIONEER BY THE "RITISH 7IND %NERGY !SSOCIATION AND WON %UROPEAN AWARDS FOR HIS WORK IN PHOTOVOLTAICS WINDPOWERANDBIOMASS(EHASALSORECEIVED THE/RDEROF-ERITFROMTHE&EDERAL2EPUBLICOF'ERMANY 4HE7ORLD#OUNCILFOR2ENEWABLE%NERGY7#2% ISTHEGLOBAL VOICEFORRENEWABLEENERGY)TOPERATESINDEPENDENTLYANDFREE OFTHEVESTEDINTERESTSOFTHEPRESENTGLOBALENERGYSYSTEM!SA NON PROlTANDNON GOVERNMENTALGLOBALLYWORKINGORGANISATION ITISFOCUSEDONDEVELOPINGPOLICIESANDSTRATEGIESFORRENEWABLE ENERGY)TSMISSIONISTOBRING2%INTOTHEMAINSTREAMOFWORLD ECONOMY AND LIFESTYLE )T SEEKS TO CONVINCE GLOBAL OPINION OF THEPOTENTIALOFRENEWABLEENERGY WHILESHOWINGTHEUNDESIRABLE DEVELOPMENTS DANGERS HIDDENCOSTSANDDAMAGETOCIVILIZATION CAUSEDBYCONVENTIONALENERGYSUPPLY 7ORLD#OUNCILFOR2ENEWABLE%NERGY7#2% CO%52/3/,!2E6 +AISER &RIEDRICH 3TR "ONN 'ERMANY 4EL   &AX   %MAILINFO WCREORG 7EBSITEWWWWCREORG


&INANCINGFOR$EVELOPMENT

"ENET.ORTHCOTE #HIEF0OLICY!DVISER 'REENPEACE5+

%NERGYFORDEVELOPMENTANON NUCLEARFUTURE !CROSSTHE#OMMONWEALTH COUNTRIESAREBUILDING NUCLEAR POWER STATIONS )T SEEMS A NUCLEAR RENAISSANCE IS UNDER WAY THAT THE TWIN THREATS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY SECURITY MEAN GOVERNMENTSAREGIVINGAGREENLIGHTTOAMASSIVE EXPANSIONINNUCLEARPOWERACROSSTHEGLOBE4HE AUTHOR POINTS OUT THE MAJOR DIFlCULTIES WITH THIS ENERGYSTRATEGYANDOFFERSANOTHERAPPROACH )N TRUTH NUCLEAR POWER SIMPLY CANNOT MAKE A BIG ENOUGH CONTRIBUTION TO THE WORLDS ENERGY NEEDS TO BEGIN TO MEET THE CLIMATE CHANGE CHALLENGE 7HILE SOME OF THE BIGGER #OMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES MIGHT EMBRACE IT )NDIA PLANS TO BUILD NEARLY  IT WILL STILL MAKEONLYATINYCONTRIBUTIONTOGLOBALENERGYNEEDS !ND A MASSIVE INCREASE IN NUCLEAR POWER WILL MAKE THEWORLDAMUCHMOREDANGEROUSPLACE 4HE GRAVE DANGER IS THAT NUCLEAR POWER WILL DISTRACT FROMTHEDEVELOPMENTOFMOREEFlCIENT DECENTRALISED ENERGY SYSTEMS THAT CAN PROVIDE THE SOLUTIONS WE NEED7EKNOWTHATATRUEENERGYREVOLUTION BASED ON RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFlCIENCY CAN DELIVERCARBONDIOXIDE#/ CUTSWHILEENSURINGWE MEETOUR-ILLENNIUM$EVELOPMENT'OALS

)FWEDONOTTAKEURGENTAND IMMEDIATEACTIONTOSTOPGLOBAL WARMING THEDAMAGECOULD BECOMEIRREVERSIBLE 4HE SCIENCE TELLS US AN INCREASE IN TEMPERATURES OF MORE THAN  DEGREES # WILL LEAD TO SOME SHOCKING CLIMATE CONSEQUENCES BE IT THE MELTING OF THE 'REENLANDICESHEET ORTHECOLLAPSEOFTHE!MAZON RAINFOREST)MAGINETHATTHEVERYFORESTTHATACTSASA LUNGFORTHEWORLDANDISHOMETOABEWILDERINGVARIETY OFSPECIESBEINGWIPEDOUTWITHINAGENERATION #LIMATE CHANGE IS ALREADY HARMING PEOPLE AND ECOSYSTEMS)TSREALITYCANBESEENINDISINTEGRATING POLAR ICE THAWING PERMAFROST DYING CORAL REEFS RISING SEA LEVELS AND FATAL HEAT WAVES )T IS NOT ONLY SCIENTISTS THAT ARE WITNESSING THESE CHANGES &ROM THE )NUIT IN THE FAR NORTH TO ISLANDERS NEAR 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

%NERGYFORDEVELOPMENT #LEAN ENERGY IS ESSENTIAL TO DEVELOPMENT (ALVING HUNGER WILL NOT COME ABOUT WITHOUT ENERGYFORMOREPRODUCTIVEGROWING HARVESTING PROCESSING AND MARKETING OF FOOD )MPROVING HEALTHANDREDUCINGDEATHRATESWILLNOTHAPPEN WITHOUT ENERGY FOR THE REFRIGERATION NEEDED FOR CLINICS HOSPITALS AND VACCINATION CAMPAIGNS 4HEWORLDSGREATESTCHILDKILLER ACUTERESPIRATORY INFECTION WILL NOT BE TACKLED WITHOUT DEALING WITH SMOKE FROM COOKING lRES IN THE HOME #HILDREN WILL NOT STUDY AT NIGHT WITHOUT LIGHT IN THEIRHOMES#LEANWATERWILLNOTBEPUMPEDOR TREATEDWITHOUTENERGY -AKENOMISTAKE WENEEDTOBEAMBITIOUSIFWE ARETOTACKLETHISMOSTCRITICALOFCHALLENGES7E MUSTNOTBEAFRAIDOFTAKINGTHETOUGHDECISIONS ANDINTRODUCINGREALSTRUCTURALREFORM)FWEDONOT THENTHEWORLDISINSERIOUSTROUBLE FORTHETHREAT OFCATASTROPHICCLIMATECHANGEISVERYREAL

THE %QUATOR PEOPLE ARE ALREADY STRUGGLING WITH THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE !N AVERAGE GLOBAL WARMINGOFDEGREES#THREATENSMILLIONSOFPEOPLE WITH AN INCREASED RISK OF HUNGER MALARIA mOODING ANDWATERSHORTAGES .EVER BEFORE HAS HUMANITY BEEN FORCED TO GRAPPLE WITHSUCHANIMMENSEENVIRONMENTALCRISIS)FWEDO NOTTAKEURGENTANDIMMEDIATEACTIONTOSTOPGLOBAL WARMING THE DAMAGE COULD BECOME IRREVERSIBLE 4HIS CAN ONLY HAPPEN THROUGH A RAPID REDUCTION IN THE EMISSION OF GREENHOUSE GASES INTO THE ATMOSPHERE /F COURSE IT WOULD BE NAIVE TO THINK THE RUSH FOR NUCLEAR WAS SIMPLY ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE %NERGY SECURITY HAS CLIMBED UP THE AGENDA RAPIDLY IN THE PASTFEWYEARSASTHEOILPRICEHASINCREASEDANDAS GASSUPPLIESBECOMEMOREVOLATILE4HEBEHAVIOUROF 2USSIAASAMAJORGASSUPPLIERHASADRAMATICEFFECT ONWORLDSUPPLYANDPRICES'OVERNMENTSKNOWTHAT THEYMUSTKEEPTHEIRPOPULATIONSWARMANDTHELIGHTS ON ORFACEMAJORPOLITICALUPHEAVAL


&INANCINGFOR$EVELOPMENT

3ECURITYRISKSOFNUCLEARENERGY 'IVENTHEDUELCONSIDERATIONSOFENERGYSECURITYAND CLIMATECHANGE YOUCOULDBEFORGIVENFORTHINKINGTHAT NUCLEARPOWERWASTHEONLYOPTION4HEONLYTECHNOLOGY AVAILABLERIGHTNOWTODELIVERSECUREENERGYSUPPLIES "UTTHESIMPLETRUTHISTHATNUCLEARISNOANSWERATALL ANDITCOMESATENORMOUSRISKTOGLOBALSECURITY &IRSTLY THEREISADIRECTRELATIONSHIPBETWEENTHESPREAD OFNUCLEARPOWERANDTHESPREADOFNUCLEARWEAPONS -OSTNUCLEARREACTORSUSEURANIUMASAFUELANDPRODUCE PLUTONIUM DURING THEIR OPERATION )T IS IMPOSSIBLE TO ADEQUATELYPROTECTALARGEREPROCESSINGPLANTTOPREVENT THEDIVERSIONOFPLUTONIUMTONUCLEARWEAPONS!SMALL SCALEPLUTONIUMSEPARATIONPLANTCANBEBUILTINFOURTO SIXMONTHS SOANYCOUNTRYWITHANORDINARYREACTORCAN PRODUCENUCLEARWEAPONSRELATIVELYQUICKLY

!SPARTOFITSCAMPAIGNTOBUILDNEWNUCLEARSTATIONS AROUND THE WORLD THE INDUSTRY CLAIMS THAT PROBLEMS ASSOCIATEDWITHBURYINGNUCLEARWASTEARETODOWITH PUBLICACCEPTABILITYRATHERTHANTECHNICALISSUES4HE INDUSTRY OFTEN POINTS TO NUCLEAR DUMPING PROPOSALS IN&INLAND 3WEDENORTHE5NITED3TATESTOUNDERLINE ITSPOINT 4HE MOST HAZARDOUS WASTE IS THE HIGHLY RADIOACTIVE WASTE OR SPENT FUEL REMOVED FROM NUCLEAR REACTORS WHICHSTAYSRADIOACTIVEFORHUNDREDSOFTHOUSANDSOF YEARS)NSOMECOUNTRIESTHESITUATIONISEXACERBATED BY @REPROCESSING THIS SPENT FUEL n WHICH INVOLVES DISSOLVING IT IN NITRIC ACID TO SEPARATE OUT WEAPONS USABLEPLUTONIUM4HISPROCESSLEAVESBEHINDAHIGHLY RADIOACTIVELIQUIDWASTE

4HEMOSTHAZARDOUSWASTEISTHE HIGHLYRADIOACTIVEWASTEORSPENT FUELREMOVEDFROMNUCLEARREACTORS WHICHSTAYSRADIOACTIVEFORHUNDREDS OFTHOUSANDSOFYEARS

3INCE INTERNATIONAL CONTROLS ON NUCLEAR PROLIFERATION BEGAN )SRAEL )NDIA 0AKISTAN AND .ORTH +OREA HAVE ALL OBTAINED NUCLEAR WEAPONS DEMONSTRATING THE LINK BETWEENCIVILANDMILITARYNUCLEARPOWER "OTH THE )NTERNATIONAL !TOMIC %NERGY !GENCY )!%! ANDTHE.UCLEAR.ON PROLIFERATION4REATY.04 EMBODY AN INHERENT CONTRADICTION n SEEKING TO PROMOTE THE DEVELOPMENT OF @PEACEFUL NUCLEAR POWER WHILE AT THE SAMETIMETRYINGTOSTOPTHESPREADOFNUCLEARWEAPONS

&IRSTLY THEREISADIRECTRELATIONSHIP BETWEENTHESPREADOFNUCLEARPOWER ANDTHESPREADOFNUCLEARWEAPONS )SRAEL )NDIA AND 0AKISTAN USED THEIR CIVIL NUCLEAR OPERATIONS TO DEVELOP WEAPONS CAPABILITY OPERATING OUTSIDE INTERNATIONAL SAFEGUARDS .ORTH +OREA DEVELOPED A NUCLEAR WEAPON EVEN AS A SIGNATORY OF THE .04 ! MAJOR CHALLENGE TO NUCLEAR PROLIFERATION CONTROLS HAS BEEN THE SPREAD OF URANIUM ENRICHMENT TECHNOLOGYTO)RAN ,IBYAAND.ORTH+OREA4HE$IRECTOR 'ENERAL OF THE )NTERNATIONAL !TOMIC %NERGY !GENCY -OHAMED %L"ARADEI HAS SAID THAT hSHOULD A STATE WITHAFULLYDEVELOPEDFUELCYCLECAPABILITYDECIDE FOR WHATEVERREASON TOBREAKAWAYFROMITSNON PROLIFERATION COMMITMENTS MOSTEXPERTSBELIEVEITCOULDPRODUCEA NUCLEARWEAPONWITHINAMATTEROFMONTHSv

4HEWASTEISSUE 4HESECONDISSUEFORNUCLEARPOWERISTHEVASTAMOUNTS OFLETHALRADIOACTIVEWASTEITLEAVESBEHIND4HENUCLEAR INDUSTRYCLAIMSITCAN@DISPOSEOFITSNUCLEARWASTEBY BURYING IT DEEP UNDERGROUND BUT THIS WILL NOT ISOLATE THERADIOACTIVEMATERIALFROMTHEENVIRONMENTFOREVER ! DEEP DUMP ONLY SLOWS DOWN THE RELEASE OF RADIOACTIVITYINTOTHEENVIRONMENT4HEINDUSTRYTRIESTO PREDICTHOWFASTADUMPWILLLEAKSOTHATITCANCLAIMTHAT RADIATIONDOSESTOTHEPUBLICLIVINGNEARBYINTHEFUTURE WILL BE @ACCEPTABLY LOW "UT SCIENTIlC UNDERSTANDING ISNOTSUFlCIENTLYADVANCEDTOMAKESUCHPREDICTIONS WITHANYCERTAINTY

4HEREAREABOUT TONNESOFSPENTNUCLEARWASTE FUELINSTORAGE MUCHOFITATREACTORSITES3PENTFUELIS ACCUMULATING AT AROUND   TONNES PER YEAR WITH AROUND A QUARTER OF THAT GOING FOR REPROCESSING .O COUNTRYINTHEWORLDHASASOLUTIONFORHIGHLEVELWASTE 4HE LEAST DAMAGING OPTION FOR WASTE ALREADY CREATED ATTHECURRENTTIMEISTOSTOREITABOVEGROUND INDRY STORAGE AT THE SITE OF ORIGIN ALTHOUGH THIS OPTION ALSO PRESENTS MAJOR CHALLENGES AND THREATS 4HE ONLY REAL SOLUTIONISTOSTOPPRODUCINGTHEWASTE

!NOTHERSOLUTION %VEN IF THESE ISSUES WERE DEALT WITH SATISFACTORILY THE SIMPLE TRUTH IS THAT NUCLEAR POWER CANNOT DEFEAT CLIMATECHANGEONAGLOBALLEVEL4HE/XFORD2ESEARCH 'ROUP IN THEIR REPORT 4OO (OT TO (ANDLE CALCULATED THAT THERE WOULD NEED TO BE   NUCLEAR REACTORS WORLDWIDEBYIFWEWERETOGENERATEJUSTATHIRDOF OURGLOBALELECTRICITYREQUIREMENTS4HATMEANSANEW NUCLEARFACILITYWOULDNEEDTOOPENPRETTYMUCHEVERY WEEK FROM NOW ON )F NUCLEAR FACILITIES WERE BUILT ON THIS SCALE THEN URANIUM SUPPLIES BECOME A SERIOUS CONSIDERATION 4HE WORLD WOULD MOVE TO 'ENERATION )6DESIGNS POWEREDBYPLUTONIUMSUITABLEFORNUCLEAR WEAPONS 4HE CONSEQUENCES FOR PROLIFERATION AND INTERNATIONALSECURITYSHOULDBEOBVIOUS 3O WHAT IS THE SOLUTION (OW CAN WE MEET THE TWIN THREATS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY SECURITY AS WE MOVETHROUGHTHESTCENTURY(OWCANWEMEETTHE -ILLENNIUM$EVELOPMENT'OALOFHALVINGGLOBALPOVERTY BYWITHOUTDESTROYINGTHECLIMATE(OWCANWE INCREASE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCOME AND EDUCATION CREATE JOBS AND REDUCE THE DAILY GRIND INVOLVED IN HAVINGTOJUSTSURVIVE WITHOUTREACHINGFORFOSSILFUELS ORDANGEROUSNUCLEARPOWER

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




&INANCINGFOR$EVELOPMENT

4HEREISGOODNEWS4HEREARESOLUTIONSTHATWILLENABLE USTOCUTOURGLOBAL#/EMISSIONSBYPERCENTOVER THECOMINGYEARSANDGENERATETHEENERGYWENEED 4HEREARETECHNOLOGIESTHATWILLMEANWECANLIMITTHE GROWTHINTEMPERATURESTOSEEOFFTHEWORSTEFFECTSOF CLIMATECHANGE"UTTHEYDOREQUIREAMAJORCHANGEIN THINKINGANDAMBITIONANENERGYREVOLUTION

BEPOWEREDBYEITHERGAS ORBIOMASS$ECENTRALISED ENERGY AS A CONCEPT ALSO SUPPORTS THE USE OF MICROGENERATIONTECHNOLOGIESSUCHASMALL SCALESOLAR ANDWINDINSTALLATIONS ORGROUNDSOURCEHEATPUMPS AND SOLAR THERMAL "Y EMBRACING THESE TECHNOLOGIES ITALSOCREATESAPLATFORMTHATWILLBESUITABLEFORFUTURE IMPROVEMENTSANDINNOVATIONS

4HERE IS NO REASON WHY THIS REVOLUTION CANNOT BE AN EVOLUTION OF EXISTING TECHNOLOGIES AND APPROACHES &IRSTLY THERE HAS TO BE A MASSIVE COMMITMENT TO ENERGYEFlCIENCY

'OVERNMENTS MUST ALSO COMMIT TO LARGE SCALE RENEWABLE ENERGY 4HERE IS NO QUESTION THAT THERE IS MASSIVE POTENTIAL FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY ON A GLOBAL SCALE FROM CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWER PLANTS IN THE SUNNIEST REGIONS OF THE WORLD TO LARGE OFFSHORE WIND FARMS )N THE 5NITED +INGDOM FOR EXAMPLE THERE IS ENOUGH ENERGY IN JUST ONE PART OF THE SEAS n THE 3EVERN%STUARYnTOPROVIDEELECTRICITYFORPERCENTOF THECOUNTRYSELECTRICITYNEEDS4HESERESOURCESMUST BEEXPLOITEDONANINTERNATIONALSCALE

4HIS CAN START IN THE HOME AND IN INDUSTRY FROM INVESTING IN THE LATEST ENERGY EFlCIENT PRODUCTS AND SERVICES THROUGHTOINSISTINGONTHEHIGHESTSTANDARDS FOR NEW BUILDINGS 4HIS IS ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES #LEAN DEVELOPMENT WHATEVER THEMECHANISM WILLBEESSENTIALFOROURPLANETSFUTURE ANDISONEOFTHEMOSTIMPORTANTFACTORS 4HECONCEPTOFENERGYEFlCIENCYNEEDSTORUNTHROUGH ALLTHETHINKING ESPECIALLYINENERGYGENERATION)TIS VITALTHATWEDONOTMEETGROWINGELECTRICITYANDHEAT REQUIREMENTS BY REACHING FOR THE WASTEFULSOLUTIONS THAT HAVE BEEN REJECTED PREVIOUSLY 4HE SOLUTION IS ADECENTRALISED RATHERTHANACENTRALISED APPROACH TOENERGY 5NDER A TRADITIONAL CENTRALISED SYSTEM A RELATIVELY SMALL NUMBER OF POWER STATIONS ARE CONNECTED TO A GRID WHICH SUPPLIES ELECTRICITY TO HOMES AND BUSINESSES 4HESE STATIONS ARE CONTROLLED CENTRALLY SOTHATTHEYCANBETURNEDONANDOFFATAPPROPRIATE MOMENTSTOENSURETHEREISENOUGHCURRENTAVAILABLE FOR CONSUMERS NEEDS (OWEVER THIS SYSTEM IS MASSIVELYWASTEFUL ASITONLYSUPPLIESELECTRICITYWHILE WASTINGSIGNIlCANTAMOUNTSOFHEAT

4HECONCEPTOFENERGYEFlCIENCY NEEDSTORUNTHROUGHALLTHETHINKING ESPECIALLYINENERGYGENERATION #ONSIDERATRADITIONALCOALORGAS lREDPOWERSTATION WHICHBURNSVASTAMOUNTSOFFOSSILFUELTOGENERATE ELECTRICITY %VEN THE MOST EFlCIENT AND MODERN DESIGNS THROW AWAY OVER HALF OF THE ENERGY THEY CONSUMEASLOSTHEAT4HINKABOUTTHEVASTCOOLING TOWERS WITH STEAM mOATING AWAY TO BE DISPERSED IN THE ATMOSPHERE 4HAT IS ALL WASTED HEAT FROM FOSSIL FUELS GENERATING UNNECESSARY #/ EMISSIONS )F TRANSMISSION LOSSES LOST ENERGY AS ELECTRICITY IS MOVED ACROSS THE GRID ARE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT AS MUCH AS TWO THIRDS OF ALL THE ENERGY CONSUMED IN GENERATIONISLOST4HEREISABETTERWAY $ECENTRALISEDENERGYWORKSONTHEPRINCIPLEOFPROVIDING HOMESWITHBOTHELECTRICITYANDHEAT6ERYSIMPLYTHIS MEANSELECTRICITYISGENERATEDMUCHCLOSERTOTHEPOINT OF USE 4HE SPARE HEAT LEFT OVER FROM THE GENERATION PROCESS IS SUPPLIED TO LOCAL HOMES AND BUSINESSES $URINGTHEWINTERTHESPAREENERGYISUSEDFORHEATING IN THE SUMMER IT CAN BE USED TO PROVIDE COOLING THROUGHHEAT EXCHANGERS4HEGENERATINGSTATIONSCAN 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

7HENLOOKINGATCLIMATECHANGEANDTHETHREATOFGLOBAL WARMINGITISALLTOOEASYTOBEDEFEATIST4OTHINKTHEREIS NOHOPEANDNOSOLUTIONTOTHEPROBLEM ORTHATIFTHERE ISITINVOLVESREACHINGFORINHERENTLYDANGEROUSNUCLEAR POWER PLANTS "UT THAT IS SIMPLY NOT TRUE ! GENUINE ENERGY REVOLUTION INVOLVING DECENTRALISED ENERGY AND RENEWABLETECHNOLOGY CANHELPTHEWORLDDEVELOPINA TRULYSUSTAINABLEWAY

"ENET.ORTHCOTEIS#HIEF0OLICY!DVISERFOR'REENPEACE5+(E HASALONGTRACKRECORDINTHEENVIRONMENTALMOVEMENT(ESAT ON THE BOARD OF THE #ONSERVATIVE 0ARTYS 1UALITY OF ,IFE 0OLICY 'ROUP AND HAS ADVISED MANY COMPANIES AND ORGANISATIONS ON ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES )N  HE WORKED WITH 5.$0 TO DEVELOPTHE6IRTUAL%XHIBITATTHE7ORLD3UMMITON3USTAINABLE $EVELOPMENT(ISCAREERSTARTEDASA""#TRAINEE BEFORESPELLS AT#APITAL2ADIOAND)4. 'REENPEACEISANINDEPENDENTGLOBALCAMPAIGNINGORGANISATION WITH NATIONAL AND REGIONAL OFlCES IN MORE THAN  COUNTRIES )T ACTSTOCHANGEATTITUDESANDBEHAVIOUR TOPROTECTANDCONSERVE THEENVIRONMENTANDTOPROMOTEPEACEBYCATALYSINGANENERGY REVOLUTION TO ADDRESS CLIMATE CHANGE DEFENDING OUR OCEANS BY CHALLENGING WASTEFUL AND DESTRUCTIVE lSHING AND CREATING A GLOBAL NETWORK OF MARINE RESERVES PROTECTING THE WORLDS ANCIENTFORESTSANDTHEANIMALS PLANTSANDPEOPLETHATDEPEND ON THEM WORKING FOR DISARMAMENT AND PEACE BY TACKLING THE CAUSES OF CONmICT AND CALLING FOR THE ELIMINATION OF ALL NUCLEAR WEAPONS CREATING A TOXIC FREE FUTURE WITH SAFER ALTERNATIVES TO HAZARDOUSCHEMICALSINTODAYSPRODUCTSANDMANUFACTURINGAND CAMPAINING FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE BY REJECTING GENETICALLY ENGINEEREDORGANISMS PROTECTINGBIODIVERSITYANDENCOURAGING SOCIALLYRESPONSIBLEFARMING&ORFURTHERINFORMATIONPLEASEREAD %NERGY;2=%VOLUTION 'REENPEACE)NTERNATIONAL  'REENPEACE5+ #ANONBURY6ILLAS ,ONDON .0. 4EL   &AX   %MAILBENETNORTHCOTE UKGREENPEACEORG 7EBSITEWWWGREENPEACEORGUK


Geology of southwestern Ghana, Showing gold-bearing structures (gold belts) and the location of known of known gold mines and prospects.

ACCELERATING DEVELOPMENT OF GHANA THROUGH MARINE MINING Development costs in tropical countries are much higher than in the temperate countries due to shortages of the sands and gravels required to make concrete. As a result, most tropical countries have fallen behind in infrastructural development despite the influx of foreign aid. Marine aggregate production may be a way of accelerating the development of those tropical countries which possess such resources.

MARINE MINERAL EXTRACTION The sea covers over 65% of the world’s surface, and it is logical to expect that the sea covers a like amount of the world’s mineral resources. Seeking mineral wealth in the sea is a new pursuit—and mining operations in the shallower waters of the continental shelf are now of worldwide significance. Gem-quality diamonds are mined from marine gravels in the seas off Namibia. Other marine operations worldwide extract gold, tin, and aggregates (sands and gravels). Marine sands and gravels have been mined for about a century. Some 20 million tonnes per year are landed in both Britain and the Netherlands. Other countries reporting marine aggregate mining include Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Poland, Russia, and Spain. Over 76 million m3 of marine aggregates were extracted from the sea in 2005 (according to the Working Group on the Effects of Extraction of Marine Sediments on the Marine Ecosystem), not including Japan, which is known to be the largest extractor of marine aggregates worldwide. Marine aggregates can be used for any application common to standard aggregates, including housing and road construction, pipeline construction, and land reclamation or beach replenishment. Marine aggregates can be used in fashioning concrete block or roofing tiles. Typically, marine operations target aggregates which are most suitable for quality construction products, which consist of varying gradations of clean sands and gravels formed from relatively hard granite and quartzite bedrock.

GHANA Ghana is an English-speaking country, recognized as one of the most politically stable nations of Africa. It has a parliamentary democracy in which a peaceful transition of power has recently occurred. Ghana is actively encouraging foreign investment in all sectors, particularly mining. Ghana has tremendous mineral potential as its geology is very similar to the prolific gold belts of northern Ontario. Ghana, the former Gold Coast, supplied much of the gold of medieval Europe. Ghana is among the world’s leading gold producers and is favored by mining companies because of its well established legal system and mining law based upon English common law. For these reasons, Ghana is expected by many to move up the list of the leading gold producers in the world. Diamonds are known in the southern part of the country, and there are known deposits of bauxite and manganese, but at present gold is the main mining product in Ghana.

AGGREGATE INDUSTRY AND DEVELOPMENT IN GHANA The bedrock in the southern part of Ghana is excellent source material for aggregates, but the local aggregate industry is poorly developed and unable to supply large amounts of material for construction. One reason for this is that a tropical climate degrades exposed aggregate materials, breaking them down rapidly into clay minerals. The local construction industry consists of numerous small builders and contractors and European contractors bidding on large-scale housing and commercial developments, mainly in Accra and Tema. A major push to develop housing and infrastructure around the country has led to an explosion in demand for cement block and other building materials. The majority of aggregate produced comes from land-based small quarries around the major market areas. Aggregate is crushed by hand, using sledgehammers and small chip hammers, an extremely time-consuming and labor-intensive method. Production of a single truckload may take as long as six weeks, adding to the cost of construction, as work crews are left waiting for their next truckload of aggregate. The products of the quarry are limited to crushed stone and dust, posing environmental concerns. There are social impacts due to land-based quarrying. Quarries frequently displace local villages. As many quarries are operated only for the duration of an underlying construction project, the jobs created at the quarry tend to last only a short time. Significant truck traffic creates noise and dust which are disruptive to local villages. Some aggregate production comes mined from beaches and seasonally from prograding spits, but both of these methods are limited because the amount of material available is small, and the activities are of questionable legality. Within the past five years, Marine Mining Corp. has documented the appearance of numerous offshore aggregate extraction operations, using simple dragline and screening equipment from the beach. These approaches add to coastal erosion, which is already a problem at many points along the Ghanaian coastline.


Locally manufactured blocks at a construction site in Ghana.

Gravel sample from the Ghanaian continental shelf. The width of the photo is about 25cm.

Gold grains from Ghanaian beach sands mounted on a scanning electron microscope stub. The width of the photo is about 1cm.

RESOURCES ON THE GHANAIAN CONTINENTAL SHELF Extensive uplift, which occurred during the rifting of the Atlantic Ocean, coupled with up to 1.5 km of erosion, has resulted in the liberation from bedrock and transport to the sea of vast quantities of rock materials, which have been deposited in the sea. These gravels also contain gold and industrial minerals. Aggregate materials which have been deposited in the sea are unaffected by tropical climate extremes, and so are preserved. The Ghanaian continental shelf is literally blanketed with sands and gravels, and Marine Mining Corp. has delineated marine aggregate resources at two separate offshore sites, and is proposing to exploit marine aggregate from the Ghanaian continental shelf. The uplift and erosion responsible for transporting aggregate materials offshore has also eroded and transported gold and other minerals from innumerable inland sources. Gold mining from the river sediments at the mouth of the Ankobra River was reported in the 17th century, and gold has been mined from beaches and rivers all over Ghana since before the arrival of the Portuguese in the 15th century. Marine Mining Corp. has confirmed the presence of recoverable gold in both beach sands and in offshore sands and gravels. The beach gold grains are well rounded by transport, however the gold offshore is frequently angular, and shows signs of minimal transport. Much of the offshore gold has eroded from nearby gold-bearing bedrock, possibly during times of lowered sea levels. In some areas, where the local bedrock supports ultramafic minerals, Marine Mining Corp. has documented occurrences of natural concentrates of chromite sands with small amounts of platinum. Diamond indicators, industrial minerals, including garnet, rutile (titanium) and zircon, have also been found. Gold and industrial minerals are likely to add to the rates of return of the proposed marine aggregate operation.

BENEFITS OF MARINE AGGREGATE PRODUCTION IN GHANA Aggregate extraction from the continental shelf will bring great benefits to Ghana. It will increase the rate of production of aggregate around the country, reduce costs and allow project completion in a timely fashion. Transport costs, which are normally the limiting factor for aggregates on land, are minimized, as the aggregates can be loaded and transported by barge. Reduced cost of transport extends the delivery range, so that marine aggregate can be used to supply distant markets, even in other countries. Inland quarries, instead of producing aggregate, can instead produce higher-valued products, such as dimension stone. Offshore aggregate materials represent an entire range of materials from sands to boulders, which can be processed into a variety of value-added products. The material has been naturally washed and sorted and is of high quality, and the various byproducts (specialty aggregate products, gold, industrial minerals) can be separated entirely by mechanical means, requiring no chemical processing.

POSSIBLE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS The potential environmental impacts of ocean floor mining are threefold: disruption of the ocean floor ecosystem due to physical disturbance of the seabed; increased turbidity affecting local nutrient and light levels; and local (and possibly regional) coastal erosion. Of these three issues, the first and the last are of greatest concern to Ghanaian coastal villages, particularly because of the importance of fishing to the local economy. These concerns are especially sensitive at present as the local fish stocks appear to be in decline. International protocols for marine mining have been developed to minimize these impacts. Disruption to ocean floor ecosystems can be reduced through a combination of judicious exploitation of the seafloor combined with remediation. As the distribution of seafloor species are dependent on the granulometry of the seafloor, thorough mapping of the seafloor (using acoustic methods backed up by sampling) enables the mining to be tailored to the areas with the best granulometry, and to leave refuges from which life may spread into the remediated areas. Coastal erosion problems are minimized by moving the operations sufficiently far offshore to reduce beach erosion and noise.

CONCLUSION Ghana enjoys a market-based free-enterprise economy which has shown itself to be capable of tremendous innovation, and the Ghanaians are able to make the most of new opportunities as they arise. Marine aggregate mining in Ghana presents the opportunity for maximum entrepreneurial innovation with minimal environmental impacts.

Marine Mining Corp. Is a Toronto-based exploration company which has been working on its principal concession, the marine concession in Ghana, for many years Marine Mining Corp.856 Millwood Road, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4G 1W6 Tel: +1 416 421-2277 E-mail: info@marinemining.com Web site: www.marinemining.com


&INANCINGFOR$EVELOPMENT

%MMANUEL*IMENEZ $AVID-C+ENZIE -AMTA-URTHIAND!NNETTE2ICHTER 4HE7ORLD"ANK

)NVESTINGINYOUTHIN #OMMONWEALTHDEVELOPING COUNTRIES MILLIONIN)NDIAPERCENTOFTHEPOPULATION INTHE-ALDIVES AYEARHITTINGTHELABOUR MARKET IN 0APUA .EW 'UINEA n THERE ARE MORE YOUNG PEOPLE AGED   IN THE #OMMONWEALTH THAN EVER BEFORE 4HEY ACCOUNT FOR A THIRD OF THE DEVELOPING WORLDS YOUTH COHORT OF  BILLION !MONG THE #OMMONWEALTHS DEVELOPING COUNTRIES THENUMBERSOFYOUNGPEOPLEAREATA HISTORICALPEAKANDTOGROWFURTHER5.0OPULATION $IVISIONlGURES 4HEAUTHORSSHOWHOWTO MAKETHEMOSTOFTHISLIVINGRESOURCE 3OMESEETHELARGENUMBERSOFYOUNGPEOPLEINTHE DEVELOPINGWORLDASATHREAT BECAUSEOFTHENEEDTO EMPLOYTHEMANDKEEPTHEMFROMSPREADINGMISCHIEF "UT THEY ARE ALSO AN UNPRECEDENTED OPPORTUNITY FOR COUNTRIESTOGROWFASTERANDMAKEFURTHERPROGRESSIN POVERTY REDUCTION IF THEY FACE THE RIGHT POLICIES AND INSTITUTIONS4HISISFORATLEASTTWOREASONS &IRST THISGENERATIONOFYOUNGPEOPLEISMOREEDUCATED ANDHEALTHIERTHANEVERnASTRONGBASETOBUILDONIN AWORLDTHATDEMANDSMORETHANBASICSKILLS3ECOND BECAUSE OF FALLING FERTILITY THE LARGE NUMBER OF YOUTH TODAY WILL TRANSLATE INTO HIGHER PROPORTIONS OF PEOPLE

OF WORKING AGE RELATIVE TO THOSE NOT WORKING CHIEmY CHILDREN AND ELDERLY MAKING MORE INCOME AVAILABLE PERDEPENDENT4HISDEMOGRAPHICDIVIDENDCANBOOST ECONOMICGROWTH)NARECENTSTUDY $AVID"LOOMAND $AVID #ANNING ARGUE THAT MORE THAN  PER CENT OF THEHIGHERGROWTHINTHE%AST!SIAN@TIGERECONOMIES DURING   IS ATTRIBUTABLE TO THEIR ABILITY TO TAKE ADVANTAGEOFTHISDIVIDEND&ORREFERENCESSEE7ORLD $EVELOPMENT2EPORT$EVELOPMENTANDTHE.EXT 'ENERATION7$2 PUBLISHEDBYTHE7ORLD"ANK 4HISPUBLICATIONISTHEMAINSOURCEFORWHATFOLLOWS 4HE DIVIDEND WILL NOT BE AVAILABLE FOR EVER BECAUSE AGEING WILL EVENTUALLY CLOSE THIS DEMOGRAPHIC WINDOWOFOPPORTUNITY(APPILY ITISSTILLOPENFORMOSTOF THE#OMMONWEALTHSDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES&IGURE  &OR MIDDLE INCOME COUNTRIES SUCH AS 3RI ,ANKA AND "OTSWANA THEWINDOWOFOPPORTUNITYWILLCLOSEWITHIN YEARS IMPLYINGTHATINVESTINGINYOUTHISEVENMORE PRESSING &OR OTHER COUNTRIES ESPECIALLY THE POOREST THEWINDOWWILLREMAINOPENFORMUCHLONGER 4HE DIVIDEND IS ALSO NOT AUTOMATIC 3OME ,ATIN !MERICANCOUNTRIESLOWEREDFERTILITYEARLYANDFAILEDTO REAP THE GROWTH DIVIDEND BECAUSE THEY DID NOT HAVE THE APPROPRIATE POLICIES AND INSTITUTIONS THAT DEVELOP &IGURE $EMOGRAPHICWINDOWS OFOPPORTUNITYIN #OMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES 3OURCE5.0OPULATION $IVISION

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




&INANCINGFOR$EVELOPMENT

ANDDEPLOYHUMANCAPITALEFFECTIVELY7HATARETHOSE POLICIESANDINSTITUTIONS 4HE RECENT 7$2 MAINTAINS THAT POLICIES AND INSTITUTIONSTHATDEVELOPYOUNGPEOPLESSKILLSASTHEY UNDERGO lVE LIFE TRANSITIONS ARE KEY 4HESE TRANSITIONS ARELEARNINGBEYONDPRIMARY SCHOOLAGE GOINGTOWORK FORTHElRSTTIME GROWINGUPHEALTHY FORMINGFAMILIES AND EXERCISING CITIZENSHIP 4HE 7$2 PROPOSES THREE LENSES TO ASSESS THE ADEQUACY OF PRESENT POLICIES $O THEY OFFER OPPORTUNITIES FOR YOUNG PEOPLE TO DEVELOP THEIR HUMAN CAPITAL AND USE IT PRODUCTIVELY $O THEY HELP YOUNG PEOPLE DEVELOP THEIR CAPABILITIES AS DECISION MAKING AGENTS TO CHOOSE WISELY AMONG OPPORTUNITIES$OTHEYPROVIDESECONDCHANCESWHEN CHOICESAREUNAVAILABLEORMISSED4HESELENSESARE CONSISTENT WITH THE EMPHASIS IN THE #OMMONWEALTH 0LANOF!CTIONFOR9OUTH%MPOWERMENT0!9%   ON EMPOWERING YOUNG PEOPLE SO THAT THEY CAN HAVEORCREATELIFECHOICES ANDSUPPORTINGANENABLING ENVIRONMENTFORYOUNGPEOPLE )N WHAT FOLLOWS WE DISCUSS THESE LENSES FURTHER FOCUSING ON THREE OF THE lVE TRANSITIONS LEARNING GROWINGUPHEALTHY ANDGOINGTOWORK

"ROADENINGOPPORTUNITIESFORYOUNGPEOPLE 9OUNG PEOPLE HAVE BENElTED IMMENSELY FROM THE GROWTHOF#OMMONWEALTHCOUNTRIESTHATHAVElNANCED SOMANYSCHOOLPLACESANDHEALTHCLINICS7HILETHERE ARESTILLMANYWHONEVERENTERSCHOOL PRIMARYSCHOOL ENROLMENTRATESARENOWATUNPRECEDENTEDHIGHS"UT THEREAREALSOEMERGINGANDLASTINGCHALLENGES /NEISQUALITYOFEDUCATION#HILDRENARENOTLEARNING ASMUCHASTHEYSHOULD-ANY EVENTHOSEWHOREACH LOWERSECONDARYSCHOOL CANHARDLYREADORWRITEAND AREUNPREPAREDTOCOPEWITHTHEPRACTICALITIESOFDAILY LIFE)N'HANAAND:AMBIA FEWERTHANHALFOFALLYOUNG WOMENAGED CANREADASIMPLESENTENCEAFTER SIXYEARSOFPRIMARYSCHOOL !NOTHERCHALLENGEISTHEINEQUALITYINOPPORTUNITIESTO WORKANDWITHIT GROWINGCONCERNSFORSOCIALCOHESION 7HILE YOUNG PEOPLE EVERYWHERE EXPERIENCE HIGHER UNEMPLOYMENT RATES THAN ADULTS TWICE HIGHER IN RICH COUNTRIES FOR EXAMPLE THE PROBLEM IS A PARTICULAR CONCERN FOR COUNTRIES LIKE &3- AND 4ONGA WHERE OPEN YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT EXCEEDS  PER CENT )N OTHER COUNTRIES SUCH AS .IGERIA AND )NDIA ADULT UNEMPLOYMENTRATESARELOWBUTYOUTHUNEMPLOYMENT ISlVETOEIGHTTIMESTHATOFADULTS

)MPROVINGTHEQUALITYANDRELEVANCEOFEDUCATION "ASICEDUCATIONMUSTEQUIPCHILDRENWITHSKILLSNEEDED FORFURTHERLEARNING WORKANDLIFEnINCLUDINGNUMERACY AND LITERACY AS WELL AS PERSEVERANCE SELF DISCIPLINE AND SELF CONlDENCE 3CHOOL CURRICULUM NEEDS TO BE ADAPTED ACCORDINGLY STANDARDS NEED TO BE SET AND EVALUATION SYSTEMS NEED TO BE SET UP TO MONITOR PERFORMANCE4HESUCCESSOFTHEMEASURESULTIMATELY RELIESONHAVINGWELL PREPAREDANDMOTIVATEDTEACHERS ANDSCHOOLSTHATAREACCOUNTABLEFORPERFORMANCE)N )NDIA A LARGE CIVIL SOCIETY INITIATIVE HAS TAKEN THE lRST STEPTOWARDSHOLDINGSCHOOLSACCOUNTABLEFORSTUDENT 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

PERFORMANCE4HE!NNUAL3URVEYOF%DUCATION2EPORT REGULARLY COLLECTS AND DISSEMINATES DATA ON LITERACY NUMERACYANDTEACHERABSENTEEISM THEREBYMOTIVATING CIVILSOCIETYINVOLVEMENTINSCHOOLACCOUNTABILITY !SCHILDRENLEAVEPRIMARYSCHOOL COUNTRIESALSOHAVE TOEXPANDLOWERSECONDARYLEVELSOFEDUCATION,ABOUR MARKETSAREINCREASINGLYDEMANDINGWORKERSWHOHAVE STRONG CREATIVE AND CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS SKILLS WHICH ARE LARGELY UNMET BY CURRENT EDUCATION SYSTEMS 4HE CURRICULUM REMAINS TOO THEORETICAL AND FACT CENTRED ANDPROVIDESLITTLEVARIETYANDmEXIBILITY.ORISITTAUGHT INAWAYTHATKEEPSSTUDENTSENGAGEDINSCHOOL)TCAN BEMODERNISEDBYTEACHINGPRACTICALSUBJECTS THINKING SKILLS AND HIGHER ORDER BEHAVIOURAL SKILLS AS WELL AS BLENDING THE ACADEMIC AND VOCATIONAL EMPHASIS IN THEUPPERSECONDARY4HERECENTSECONDARYEDUCATION CURRICULUMREFORMIN-ALAYSIAPROVIDESAGOODEXAMPLE HEALTH AND CIVIC EDUCATION ARE INCLUDED AS CORE SUBJECTS IN THE UPPER SECONDARY AND MORE PRACTICAL SUBJECTSSUCHASSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGY %NGLISHAND ECONOMICSHAVEBEENINTRODUCED

'ENERATINGJOBOPPORTUNITIESATHOMEANDABROAD "ROADENING OPPORTUNITIES FOR YOUNG PEOPLES EMPLOYMENTISBESTACHIEVEDBYECONOMY WIDEGROWTH THATSTIMULATESDEMANDARISINGTIDETHATLIFTSALLBOATS INCLUDING THOSE OF YOUNG PEOPLE 7HILE ENSURING THAT ECONOMICGROWTHTAKESPLACETOINCREASEDEMANDFOR WORKERSOFALLAGES ITISIMPORTANTTOENSURETHATYOUNG PEOPLECANCOMPETEFORJOBSONAMOREEQUALBASIS )N MANY COUNTRIES LABOUR MARKET INSTITUTIONS PENALISE NEW ENTRANTS &OR EXAMPLE 3RI ,ANKAS RESTRICTIVE EMPLOYMENT PROTECTION LEGISLATION SUCH AS HIGH lRING COSTS MAKESITFARMOREDIFlCULTFORYOUNGWORKERSTO ACCESSGOODJOBS )N SOME COUNTRIES THESE ECONOMIC REFORMS WILL TAKE TIMEANDYOUNGPEOPLEWILLSEEKOPPORTUNITIESABROAD 9OUNG PEOPLE ARE THE WORLDS MIGRANTS  PERCENT OFALLIMMIGRANTSARRIVINGIN3OUTH!FRICAAREAGED  AND  PER CENT   )NTERNATIONAL MIGRATION IS PARTICULARLYIMPORTANTFORMANYOFTHE#OMMONWEALTHS ISLAND NATIONS !T LEAST  PER CENT OF THE POPULATION OF $OMINICA 3T +ITTS AND .EVIS 3AMOA AND 4ONGA AREMIGRANTS WITHMANYEMIGRANTSHAVINGLEFTASYOUTH (OWEVER MANYOFTHE#OMMONWEALTHSYOUNGPEOPLE HAVE LIMITED OPTIONS TO MIGRATE WITH IMMIGRATION POLICIES IN MANY LARGER ECONOMIES TYPICALLY FOCUSED ONATTRACTINGHIGHLYSKILLEDWORKERSWHOAREUNLIKELYTO BEYOUNG#OUNTRIESSUCHAS0APUA.EW'UINEA THE 3OLOMON)SLANDSAND6ANUATUWITHLARGEANDGROWING YOUTHPOPULATIONSHAVEFEWERTHANTWOPERCENTOFTHEIR CITIZENSABROAD 7HAT CAN BE DONE TO ENABLE MIGRATION TO PROVIDE MORE OPPORTUNITIES FOR YOUTH TO STUDY AND WORK ABROAD2ECEIVINGCOUNTRIESCANEXPANDOPPORTUNITIES THROUGHBILATERALWORKARRANGEMENTS SUCHASTHENEW 2ECOGNIZED 3EASONAL %MPLOYER PROGRAMME THROUGH WHICH .EW :EALAND WILL EMPLOY   0ACIlC )SLAND SEASONAL WORKERS EACH YEAR !S DEVELOPED COUNTRIES IN THE #OMMONWEALTH CONTINUE TO AGE THERE WILL BE AN INCREASING POOL OF YOUNG PEOPLE ELSEWHERE IN THE #OMMONWEALTHFROMWHICHTODRAW4HECHALLENGEFOR


&INANCINGFOR$EVELOPMENT

THE#OMMONWEALTHMEMBERNATIONSISTODESIGNPOLICIES TOTAKEADVANTAGEOFTHESEDEMOGRAPHICDISPARITIES

$EVELOPINGCAPABILITIESOFYOUNGPEOPLE ASDECISION MAKINGAGENTS %XPANDING OPPORTUNITIES IS CRITICAL n BUT IT IS NOT ENOUGH )T IS ALSO IMPORTANT TO HELP YOUNG PEOPLE CHOOSE AMONG THEM $URING THE AGE RANGE   THE FOCUS OF DECISION MAKING ABOUT DEVELOPING AND DEPLOYING HUMAN CAPITAL TYPICALLY SHIFTS FROM PARENTS TOTHEYOUNGPEOPLETHEMSELVES ALBEITWITHVARIATIONS ACROSSCOUNTRIES&IGURE  -ANY YOUNG PEOPLE MUST MAKE THESE DECISIONS WITHOUTTHEINFORMATION lNANCIALRESOURCES ORDECISION MAKING SKILLS THEY NEED TO CHOOSE WELL AMONG LIFES OPPORTUNITIES4AKETHEEXAMPLEOFSAFEGUARDINGONES HEALTH 9OUTH IS A TIME FOR EXPERIMENTATION n WHEN PEOPLEBEGINSMOKING CONSUMINGALCOHOLANDDRUGS ENGAGING IN SEX AND HAVING MORE CONTROL OVER THEIR DIETANDPHYSICALACTIVITY4HECHANCESOFMAKINGTHE WRONG CHOICES ARE HEIGHTENED BY THE FACT THAT THE COSTS OF RISKY HEALTH BEHAVIOUR IN YOUTH MAY NOT BE EVIDENTUNTILONEISANADULT 4HE BEST WAY TO AVOID THE FUTURE LOSS OF PRODUCTIVE HUMAN CAPITAL IS TO ENCOURAGE HEALTHY BEHAVIOUR IN YOUTH WHEN HABITS ARE STILL BEING LEARNED 4WO APPROACHES TO ACHIEVING THIS HARD TO REACH GOAL OF BEHAVIOURAL CHANGE ARE DISCUSSED BELOW INFORMING YOUNGPEOPLEANDGIVINGTHEMTHERIGHTINCENTIVES

)NFORMINGYOUNGPEOPLE 7HILETHEYMAYBEWELLINFORMED MANYYOUNGPEOPLE LACKINFORMATIONONKEYISSUESTHATWILLAFFECTTHEIRHEALTH AND FUTURE PRODUCTIVITY 7HAT CAN BE DONE TO BETTER INFORM YOUTH ABOUT THE BENElTS AND COSTS OF HUMAN CAPITALINVESTMENT 4HE"ETTER,IFE/PTIONS",0 PROGRAMMEPROVIDESA COMBINATIONOFVARIOUSSERVICESTOYOUNGWOMENAGED   IN PERI URBAN SLUMS AND RURAL AREAS IN )NDIA 4HE PROGRAMME COMPONENTS INCLUDE DISSEMINATION OF KNOWLEDGE ON REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AND SERVICES PROVISIONOFVOCATIONALTRAINING ANDPROMOTINGWOMENS EMPOWERMENT THROUGH RECREATIONAL EVENTS 4HOSE WHO WERE IN THE PROGRAMME WERE SIGNIlCANTLY MORE

INVOLVEDINKEYLIFEDECISIONSnSUCHASONSPENDINGIN THEHOUSEHOLD WHENTOMARRYANDWHETHERTOCONTINUE EDUCATION n THAN THOSE WHO WERE NOT )N .AMIBIA THE -Y &UTURE IS -Y #HOICE PROGRAMME PROVIDED YOUNGPEOPLEWITHBASICINFORMATIONABOUT()6!)$3 SUBSTANCE ABUSE COMMUNICATION AND DECISION MAKINGSKILLS0ARTICIPANTSDISPLAYEDSTRONGKNOWLEDGE ABOUT ()6!)$3 AND REPORTED STRONG ATTITUDES AND COMPETENCE TOWARDS CONDOM USE BOTH SIX MONTHS ANDAYEARAFTERTHISRANDOMISEDINTERVENTION

0ROVIDINGINCENTIVES #ONDITIONALCASHTRANSFERS##4 THATPROVIDECASHTO POOR YOUNG PEOPLE CONDITIONAL ON SCHOOL ATTENDANCE HAVEPROVEDEFFECTIVEINRAISINGSCHOOLENROLMENT4HE "ANGLADESH 3ECONDARY 3TIPEND PROGRAMME TARGETS GIRLSAGED  TRANSFERRINGAMONTHLYPAYMENTTOBANK ACCOUNTSINTHEGIRLSNAMES CONTINGENTONTHEIRREMAINING UNMARRIED AND PERFORMING WELL ENOUGH TO PROGRESS THROUGHSCHOOL!SIMILAR ALBEITSMALLER PROGRAMMEIS BEING TRIED IN THE )NDIAN STATE OF (ARYANA THROUGH THE !PNI "ETI !PNA $HAN MEANING /UR $AUGHTERS /UR 7EALTH SCHEME7HILESUCHPROGRAMMESHAVEYETTO BE RIGOROUSLY EVALUATED THE LONGSTANDING "ANGLADESH PROGRAMME HAS BEEN ASSOCIATED WITH THE ENORMOUS INCREASEINGIRLSENROLMENT

0ROVIDINGSECONDCHANCES )NVARIABLY POORCHOICESWILLBEMADEnYOUNGPEOPLE MAY DROP OUT OF SCHOOL OR ENTER WORK TOO EARLY OR END UP WITH JOBS THAT LEAD NOWHERE 4HIS CAN RESULT IN AN ENORMOUS MISSED OPPORTUNITY NOT JUST FOR THE YOUNG BUT ALSO FOR SOCIETY AS A WHOLE 0OLICIES THAT HELPYOUNGPEOPLERECOVERFROMBADCHOICESORPOOR CIRCUMSTANCES CAN PROVIDE A SAFETY NET THAT BENElTS SOCIETYWELLINTOTHEFUTURE"UTBECAUSEREMEDIATIONIS COSTLY PROGRAMMESMUSTBEDIRECTEDTOTHENEEDIEST BEWELLCOORDINATEDWITHTHEMAINSTREAM ANDGIVETHE RIGHTINCENTIVESTOBENElCIARIES 'RADUATEEQUIVALENCY FOREXAMPLE ALLOWSDROPOUTSTO TAKECLASSESTHATWILLEVENTUALLYGETTHEMTHEEQUIVALENT OF A PRIMARY OR SECONDARY DIPLOMA %VEN WITHOUT THE PAPER CERTIlCATE GETTING THE EQUIVALENT SKILLS WOULD HELP 4HE 5NDERPRIVILEGED #HILDREN %DUCATION 0ROGRAMME 5#%0 IN "ANGLADESH HELPS   YEAR &IGURE7HOHAS THElNALSAY4HE PERCENTAGEOFYOUNG WOMENWHOFEELTHEY HAVEHADTHEMOST INmUENCEONTHEIROWN KEYLIFETRANSITIONS VARIESGREATLYACROSS SOCIETIES

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




&INANCINGFOR$EVELOPMENT

OLDS WHO HAVE DROPPED OUT OF PRIMARY SCHOOL n THE AIM IS TO SCHOOL THEM FOR THREE YEARS AND FEED THEM INTO5#%0 RUNVOCATIONALPROGRAMMES3TUDIESSHOW THATTHEPROGRAMME WHICHSERVED STUDENTSIN  HASCOSTSPERSTUDENTROUGHLYTHEEQUIVALENTOF THEREGULARSCHOOLSYSTEMAROUND53PERYEAR 

THEMSELVES IN PUBLIC FORUMS 9OUNG PEOPLE NEED TO BEENCOURAGEDTOPARTICIPATEMOREFULLYINPUBLICLIFE!T THESAMETIME GOVERNMENTSANDOTHERAGENCIESNEED TOLEARNTOCOMMUNICATEWITHYOUNGPEOPLE MAKETHEIR PROGRAMMESATTRACTIVETOTHEM ANDDEPLOYTHEIMMENSE TALENTSOFYOUTHSASPARTNERSINSERVICEDELIVERY

-OREGENERALLY THOSE WHO DROP OUT OF SCHOOLWITHOUT BASICSKILLSNEEDACOHERENTSYSTEMOFSECONDCHANCE PROGRAMMES TO MEET THEIR DIVERSE NEEDS !DDRESSING DIVERSITY WHILESCALINGUPENROLMENTS ISGREATLYFACILITATED BYREACHINGOUTTOTHEPRIVATESECTORAND.'/S+ENYAS *UA+ALITRAININGVOUCHERPROGRAMMERELIEDONTHEPRIVATE SECTORTOIMPROVETRAININGPOSSIBILITIESFORDISADVANTAGED YOUTHINTHEINFORMALSECTOR WHOUSEDTHEIRVOUCHERSTO ACCESSTRAININGFROMMASTERCRAFTSMEN

)N THE #OMMONWEALTH YOUTH CAUCUSES PARTICIPATE IN THE DECIONS MADE BY 9OUTH -INISTERS AND THE #OMMONWEALTH"OARDOF'OVERNORS4HESEVOICESNEED TOBEMADEMOREEFFECTIVEWITHAPARTICULAREMPHASISON THENEEDSOFDISADVANTAGEDANDMARGINALISEDYOUTH

!NY REMEDIATION PROGRAMME CONFRONTS WHAT ECONOMISTSCALL@MORALHAZARD)FSOMEONEKNOWSTHAT THE CONSEQUENCES OF POOR CHOICES ARE MITIGATED BY A GOVERNMENT PROGRAMME OR INSURANCE THAT PERSON MIGHT MAKE POORER CHOICES THAN WARRANTED 3OME EXPRESSED FEAR THAT THE AVAILABILITY OF ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY COULD CAUSE YOUNG PEOPLE TO TAKE FEWER PRECAUTIONS)N+ENYACONDOMUSEFELLAFTERGOVERNMENT ANNOUNCEDREPORTED@CURESFOR!)$34HESOLUTIONTO SUCH PROBLEMS IS NOT TO DENY SECOND CHANCES SUCH AS TREATMENT n WHICH WOULD BE UNETHICAL AS WELL AS WASTEFUL)NSTEAD ITISTOBUILDININCENTIVESCHEMESTHAT ENCOURAGE THE CARE TAKING BEHAVIOUR TO PERSIST EVEN ASTHEYUNDERGOTREATMENT0ROGRAMMESTHATENHANCE BOTH THE CAPABILITY FOR DECISIONS AND PROVIDE SECOND CHANCESHAVEABETTERCHANCEOFSUCCESS



%VALUATION 4HE DEARTH OF RIGOROUSLY EVALUATED YOUTH ORIENTED PROGRAMMES AND POLICIES THAT CAN SERVE AS EXAMPLES FOR OTHERS HAS SERIOUSLY UNDERMINED THE CREDIBILITYOFMOSTOFTHEM EVENIFMANYAREPROMISING !DDRESSING THIS GAP REQUIRES CAPACITY BUILDING IN GOVERNMENT AND INCENTIVES TO USE EVIDENCED BASED CRITERIAINDECIDINGAMONGPROGRAMMES"UTBECAUSE SUCH KNOWLEDGE IS A PUBLIC GOOD IT ALSO REQUIRES INTERNATIONALFUNDING

%MMANUEL *IMENEZ IS $IRECTOR FOR (UMAN $EVELOPMENT %AST !SIA AND 0ACIlC 2EGION 4HE 7ORLD "ANK AND WAS THE 3TAFF $IRECTORFORTHE7ORLD$EVELOPMENT2EPORT

-OVINGFORWARD

$AVID -C+ENZIE IS A 3ENIOR %CONOMIST IN THE 7ORLD "ANKS $EVELOPMENT 2ESEARCH 'ROUP AND A CO PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR ONTHE0ACIlC )SLAND.EW:EALAND-IGRATION3URVEY

-OBILISING THE REQUISITE ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL RESOURCES TO STIMULATE REFORM WILL REQUIRE COUNTRIES TO RESOLVETHREEISSUES

-AMTA -URTHI IS 3ECTOR -ANAGER FOR %DUCATION IN THE %UROPE AND#ENTRAL!SIA$IVISONOFTHE7ORLD"ANK

#OORDINATIONANDINTEGRATIONWITHNATIONALPOLICY9OUTH ISSUESBYNATURECUTACROSSSECTORSWHILEMOSTPOLICIES THAT INmUENCE THEM ARE SET WITHIN SECTORS ! RECENTLY CONCLUDED RANDOMISED TRIAL IN +ENYA EVALUATED A MULTISECTORPROGRAMMETHATGAVEINCENTIVESTOYOUNG PEOPLE BY PROVIDING THEM WITH SCHOOL UNIFORMS A SIGNIlCANTEXPENSEFORYOUNGPEOPLEANDTHEIRFAMILIES)T SHOWEDTHATLOWERINGTHECOSTOFEDUCATIONBYPROVIDING THESEUNIFORMSHADASTRONGEFFECTNOTJUSTONMALEAND FEMALEDROPOUTRATESnITALSOLOWEREDTHEPERCENTAGE OFTEENAGEFEMALESWHOHADSTARTEDCHILDBEARING4HIS EFFECT WAS GREATER THAN THAT OF A PROGRAMME AIMED SPECIlCALLY AT THE EARLY CHILDBEARING 3UCH SPILLOVER EFFECTS MIGHT NOT lGURE IN IF ONE WERE TO TAKE ONLY A SECTORALPERSPECTIVE3O THECHALLENGEOFCOORDINATION LOOMSLARGE#OUNTRIESTHATHAVEEXPERIENCEDSUCCESS ARE THOSE THAT HAVE DRAWN UP A COHERENT NATIONAL FRAMEWORKFORYOUTH SUPPORTEDBYALLMINISTRIES4HIS FRAMEWORKNEEDSTOBEWELLINTEGRATEDINTOTHENATIONAL POLICYPLANNINGANDBUDGETINGPROCESSES

!NNETTE 2ICHTER IS A CONSULTANT IN THE 7ORLD "ANKS (UMAN $EVELOPMENT .ETWORK 3HE SPECIALISES IN YOUTH EMPLOYMENT ANDEDUCATION

6OICE 9OUNG PEOPLES LACK OF VOICE MEANS THEY ARE A WEAK CONSTITUENCY FOR REFORM 0ARENTS DO NOT REPRESENT THE VIEWS AND ASPIRATIONS OF YOUNG ADULTS AS THEY DO YOUNGER CHILDREN 9ET YOUTH MAY STILL LACK THE OPPORTUNITIES OR SELF CONlDENCE TO REPRESENT

4EL  &AX  %MAILPIC WORLDBANKORG 7EBSITEHTTPECONWORLDBANKORG

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

4HE 7ORLD "ANK IS A VITAL SOURCE OF lNANCIAL AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AROUND THE WORLD )T IS NOT A BANK IN THE COMMON SENSE )T IS MADE UP OF TWO UNIQUE DEVELOPMENTINSTITUTIONSOWNEDBYMEMBERCOUNTRIESnTHE )NTERNATIONAL "ANK FOR 2ECONSTRUCTION AND $EVELOPMENT )"2$ AND THE )NTERNATIONAL $EVELOPMENT !SSOCIATION )$!  %ACH INSTITUTIONPLAYSADIFFERENTBUTSUPPORTIVEROLEINOURMISSIONOF GLOBALPOVERTYREDUCTIONANDTHEIMPROVEMENTOFLIVINGSTANDARDS 4HE )"2$ FOCUSES ON MIDDLE INCOME AND CREDITWORTHY POOR COUNTRIES WHILE THE )$! FOCUSES ON THE POOREST COUNTRIES IN THEWORLD4OGETHERWEPROVIDELOW INTERESTLOANS INTEREST FREE CREDITANDGRANTSTODEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESFOREDUCATION HEALTH INFRASTRUCTURE COMMUNICATIONSANDMANYOTHERPURPOSES 4HE7ORLD"ANK (3TREET .7 7ASHINGTON $# 53!


&INANCINGFOR$EVELOPMENT

(ON3YDA.-"BUMBA -INISTEROF'ENDER ,ABOURAND3OCIAL $EVELOPMENT 5GANDA

&INANCINGGENDEREQUALITYFOR DEVELOPMENTANDDEMOCRACY 'ENDER EQUALITY IS A GOAL THAT EMBRACES EQUAL OPPORTUNITIESANDENJOYMENTOFRIGHTS RESOURCES AND REWARDS BY WOMEN AND MEN GIRLS AND BOYS (ENCE lNANCING GENDER EQUALITY MEANS PROVIDING GOODS AND SERVICES n INCLUDING INFRASTRUCTURE n THAT IMPROVE OUTCOMES FOR WOMEN AND GIRLS !CHIEVING GENDER EQUALITY REQUIRES THAT PUBLIC RESOURCES ARE ALLOCATED FOR INTERVENTIONS PROGRAMMES AND PROJECTS THAT DIRECTLY REDUCE GENDER INEQUALITY EMPOWER WOMENANDIMPROVESOCIALDEVELOPMENT &INANCINGGENDEREQUALITYINTHECONTEXTOFDEVELOPMENT AND DEMOCRACY REQUIRES SPECIlC AND FOCUSED ATTENTION TO ALLOCATING BUDGETARY RESOURCES FOR THE EDUCATION HEALTHCARE TRAINING SKILLSANDENTREPRENEUR DEVELOPMENTTHATISNECESSARYTOIMPROVETHELIVESOF GIRLS AND WOMEN AS WELL AS TO PROMOTING THE OVERALL ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN )T IS ASKING GOVERNMENTSTO@PUTTHEIRMONEYWHERETHEIRMOUTHIS 4HE SUBJECT IS IMPORTANT TO ALL #OMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES AS THERE ARE GLARING DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WOMENANDMEN ASWELLASBETWEENGIRLSANDBOYS ESPECIALLY IN TERMS OF HEALTH EDUCATION THE CARE FOR ()6!)$3 PATIENTS AND THE LEVEL OF POVERTY 5NLESS COUNTRYPROGRAMMESARElNANCEDINAWAYTHATTAKES GENDER BIASES INTO ACCOUNT THERE WILL CONTINUE TO BE FEMINISATIONOFPOVERTYINMOSTMEMBERSTATES 4HE ISSUES RELATED TO lNANCING GENDER EQUALITY FOR DEVELOPMENTARESONUMEROUSTHATTHISARTICLEOBVIOUSLY CANNOTDISCUSSALLINDETAIL4HEARTICLEWILLHOWEVERTRY TOHIGHLIGHTSOMEOFTHOSEAREASTHATPOSECHALLENGES AND REQUIRE THE #OMMONWEALTH GOVERNMENTS TO RE EXAMINETHEIRPRIORITIESTOACHIEVEGENDEREQUALITY 4HE #OMMONWEALTH HAS DElNED ITS STRATEGY TO ADVANCINGGENDEREQUALITYINTHE#OMMONWEALTH0LAN OF !CTION 0O! FOR 'ENDER %QUALITY   4HE 0LAN OF !CTION IDENTIlES FOUR CRITICAL AREAS FOR ACTION BASEDONTHECURRENTANDEMERGINGCHALLENGES4HESE AREASARE °'ENDER DEMOCRACY PEACEANDCONmICT °'ENDER HUMANRIGHTSANDLAW °'ENDER POVERTY ERADICATION AND ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT AND °'ENDERAND()6!)$3 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

'ENDEREQUALITYANDTHEBUDGETS &INANCINGGENDEREQUALITYREQUIRESTHATGOVERNMENT AGENCIES RESPONSIBLE FOR BUDGETING IN ANY COUNTRY TAKE A KEEN INTEREST AND ADOPT A GENDER MAINSTREAMING APPROACH THAT CALLS FOR GENDER TO BEWOVENINTOMAINPROGRAMMES APPROACHESAND PROCEDURES OF GOVERNMENT )N THIS THE BUDGETING ANDPLANNINGAUTHORITIESMUSTPLAYAPRINCIPALROLE ASTHEYARERESPONSIBLEFORDESIGNING LEADINGAND MONITORING BUDGETING IN THE COUNTRY /F COURSE THIS REQUIRES THAT THESE AGENCIES AND INSTITUTIONS HAVE THE CAPACITY AND DEVELOPMENT SKILLS IN GENDER ANALYSIS 5NLESS GENDER IS CONSIDERED THE GOVERNMENTS OVERALL OBJECTIVES IN RESPECT OF DEVELOPMENT ARE LIKELY NOT TO BE FULLY ACHIEVED 4HEREFORE lNANCING GENDER EQUALITY REQUIRES NEW SKILLSANDKNOWLEDGEBYTHOSEINVOLVEDINPLANNING BUDGETINGANDOVERALLNATIONALDEVELOPMENT )N MOST CASES GENDER IS WELL INCORPORATED OR DISCUSSED IN POLICY DOCUMENTS n BUT SUCH COMMITMENTS DISAPPEAR AT THE TIME OF IMPLEMENTATION ANDBECOMEINVISIBLEATMONITORING ANDREPORTING

4HUS #OMMONWEALTH GOVERNMENTS MUST MOBILISE RESOURCES BOTH NATIONALLY AND EXTERNALLY AND BUDGET FOR GENDER EQUALITY AND WOMENS RIGHTS IF REAL PROGRESS IS TO BE MADE IN IMPLEMENTING THE 0LAN OF !CTION ACHIEVINGTHE-ILLENNIUM$EVELOPMENT'OALS COMPLYING WITH THE #ONVENTION FOR %LIMINATION OF ALL &ORMSOF$ISCRIMINATION!GAINST7OMEN#%$!7 AND OTHER EQUALLY IMPORTANT DEVELOPMENT COMMITMENTS SUCHASTHE"EIJING0LATFORMFOR!CTION

'ENDER2ESPONSIVE"UDGETING 3OME #OMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES HAVE TAKEN ON THE 'ENDER 2ESPONSIVE "UDGETING '2" )NITIATIVE n A COLLABORATIONBETWEENTHE5NITED.ATIONS$EVELOPMENT &UND FOR 7OMEN 5.)&%- THE #OMMONWEALTH 3ECRETARIAT AND #ANADAS )NTERNATIONAL $EVELOPMENT 2ESEARCH#ENTRE)$2# nBECAUSEITASSISTSANDASKS THATGENDERBEEXPLICITLYDISCUSSEDANDREPORTEDON


&INANCINGFOR$EVELOPMENT

IN BUDGETS AND RELATED IMPLEMENTATION 4HEREFORE IT ISIMPORTANTTHATTHENEWPUBLIClNANCEMANAGEMENT METHODSTHATAREBEINGINTRODUCEDINMANYDEVELOPING AND #OMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES ADOPT THE '2" APPROACHBECAUSEITADDSVALUETOANDQUESTIONSTHE EXTENTTOWHICHTHEGOODINTENTIONSENCOMPASSEDIN POLICYDOCUMENTS@FALLOFFTHETABLEWHENITCOMESTO ALLOCATIONOFBUDGETSANDIMPLEMENTATIONPROCESSES (ENCE ITISRECOMMENDEDTHATGOVERNMENTSDESIGN '2" TO lT IN WITH THEIR BUDGETING PROCESSES 4HE NEED FOR TAILORING TO A PARTICULAR COUNTRYS APPROACH MEANSTHATTHEREARENOSIMPLERECIPESANDFORMULAS FOR'2" !BOUTTENYEARSAGO THE#OMMONWEALTHMEETINGOF -INISTERSRESPONSIBLEFOR7OMENS!FFAIRSRECOGNISED THEIMPORTANCEOF'2"ASANAPPROACHFORTRUCKING FUNDS AND ENHANCING RESOURCES THROUGH GENDER BUDGETING 3INCE THEN #OMMONWEALTH 3ECRETARIAT HASSUPPORTEDATLEAST#OMMONWEALTHCOUNTRIES TO INITIATE '"2 #OUNTRIES SUCH AS 5GANDA AND 4ANZANIA 3OUTH!FRICAAND!USTRALIA '2"HASBEEN INSTITUTIONALISED

4HATOVERCOUNTRIESHAVE NATIONALACTIONPLANSFORADVANCEMENT OFWOMEN(OWEVER THESEPLANSARE USUALLYNOTPROPERLYINTEGRATEDINTO NATIONALDEVELOPMENT '2"INITIATIVESHAVEOVERRECENTYEARSENGAGEDWITHTHE BUDGETREFORMSTHATAREONGOINGINMANYDEVELOPMENT COUNTRIES INCLUDING MEDIUM TERM EXPENDITURE BUDGET FRAMEWORK -4%4 AND PERFORMANCE ORIENTED BUDGETING4HE-4%4PROCESSESPROVIDEOPPORTUNITIES FORGENDERADVOCATESFORLOBBYINGANDADVOCACY4HE CIVILSOCIETYANDWOMENSORGANISATIONSHAVEPLAYEDA SIGNIlCANTROLEINTHISCASEEXAMPLESINCLUDETHE&ORUM FOR 7OMEN IN $EMOCRACY &/7!$% IN 5GANDA AND THE4ANZANIA'ENDER.ETWORKING0ROGRAMME4'.0  #IVIL SOCIETY HAS LAID THE FOUNDATION OF AN EFFECTIVE CONSENSUS BUILDING CAMPAIGN TO INmUENCE THE PUBLIC DECISION MAKERS LAWMAKERS AND TECHNOCRATS ON THE NECESSITY TO INCREASE RESOURCES BUDGETED TOWARDS SECTORS WHERE WOMEN AND OTHER LESS FORTUNATE MEMBERSOFSOCIETYAREDISADVANTAGED

2ELATIONSHIPOF.ATIONAL'ENDER!CTION 0LANSTOOTHERNATIONALDEVELOPMENT DOCUMENTS !SAFOLLOW UPTOTHE"EIJING5.#ONFERENCEON7OMEN ANDINANEFFORTTOIMPLEMENTTHE#OMMONWEALTH0LAN OF!CTIONONWOMEN MANYCOUNTRIESHAVEDEVELOPED NATIONAL GENDER ACTION PLANS -OST COUNTRIES HAVE TAKEN ON GENDER EQUALITY WOMENS EMPOWERMENT OR SIMILARGOALSAMONGTHEISSUESTOBEACHIEVED5.)&%- NOTED IN  THAT OVER  COUNTRIES HAVE NATIONAL ACTION PLANS FOR ADVANCEMENT OF WOMEN (OWEVER THESE PLANS ARE USUALLY NOT PROPERLY INTEGRATED INTO

NATIONALDEVELOPMENTPLANSANDNOADEQUATEBUDGET ISPROVIDEDFORTHEIRIMPLEMENTATION 4HIS POINTS TO THE FACT THAT lNANCING GENDER EQUALITY MAY REQUIRE ADOPTING THE GENDER MAINSTREAMING APPROACH OR ELSE THE AFlRMATIVE APPROACH WHERE BUDGET ALLOCATION SHOULD BE PROVIDED FOR GENDER IN GENERAL NATIONAL BUDGET PROVISIONS AND ALSO IN TARGETEDORSEPARATEBUDGETSTOSPECIlCALLYIMPLEMENT THENATIONALGENDERACTIONPLAN%ACHAPPROACHHASITS ADVANTAGE AND DISADVANTAGES IN THAT THE AFlRMATIVE ACTIONCLEARLYSHOWSWHATISBEINGDONEANDACHIEVED INALLOCATIONOFRESOURCESFORGENDEREQUALITY WHILETHE MAINSTREAMINGAPPROACHMIGHTBEMORESUSTAINABLE IN LINEWITHTHENEWAIDMODALITIES WHEREDONORFUNDING HAS SHIFTED TO BUDGET SUPPORT AWAY FROM FUNDING OF SPECIlCPROJECTS

&INANCINGGENDEREQUALITYANDTHENEW AIDMODALITIES 5.)&%-INASSERTEDTHATGENDEREQUALITYOUTCOMES WILLBEIMPORTANTINDICATORSOFTHEEFFECTIVENESSOFTHE NEW APPROACH TO AID DELIVERY AND PARTNERSHIP 4HE MODALITIES CALL FOR PRINCIPLES OF OWNERSHIP ALIGNMENT HARMONISATIONANDMUTUALACCOUNTABILITYANDTHEYMUST BE RESULT ORIENTED 7OMEN STAND TO BENElT AS MUCH AS OTHER SOCIAL GROUPS FROM DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE THAT IS NATIONALLY OWNED OR SUPPORTS ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEMSTHATCANTRACKPROGRESS)TISALSOPOSSIBLETHAT PREDICTABLE AID mOWS MAY ADVANCE GENDER EQUALITY BY ENCOURAGING INVESTMENT IN ACTIVITIES THAT PROMOTE GENDEREQUALITYINTHELONGTERM4HISMAYHOWEVERNOT HAVEIMMEDIATESHORT TERMRESULTSONGENDEREQUALITY )NSTITUTIONALCHANGETHATISGENDERSENSITIVEISKEYFOR GENDEREQUALITY ASARECHANGINGATTITUDESANDBUILDING PUBLIC AWARENESS 7OMEN WILL ONLY BENElT FROM THE NEWAIDMODALITIESAPPROACHESIFGENDEREQUALITYISAN INTEGRATED PART OF POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGIES WHICH THENEWPROGRAMMEAIDADOPTEDBYMANYCOUNTRIESIS USUALLYINTENDEDTOSUPPORT /N THE OTHER HAND 5.)&%- HAS OBSERVED THAT IF AN INCREASING PROPORTION OF AID lNANCING HAPPENS THROUGH DIRECT BUDGET AND SECTOR SUPPORT GENDER IS LIKELY TO RUN AN EVEN GREATER DANGER OF @FALLING OFF THE TABLEASTHEREWILLBELESSOPPORTUNITYFORTHESPECIAL DONOR GENDER FUNDED PROJECTS THAT HAVE BEEN USED TO ADDRESS AT LEAST SOME PARTS OF THE NATIONAL ACTION PLANS )N THIS CASE THE NEW AID MODALITIES ARE LIKELY TO WORSEN THE SITUATION IN RESPECT OF FUNDING GENDER EQUALITY4HEREFORE #OMMONWEALTHCOUNTRIESANDTHEIR DONORSCOULDCONSIDERRETAININGSOMEPORTIONOFTHEIR FUNDINGOUTSIDEGENDERBUDGETSUPPORTTOPROVIDETHE OPPORTUNITYFORGENDER TARGETEDlNANCING

-ICROlNANCEATOOLFORWOMENS ECONOMICEMPOWERMENT )N MANY COUNTRIES MICROlNANCE IS CONSIDERED AS HAVINGITSROOTSINWOMENSMOVEMENTS ANDYETTODAY ITHASMOREOFlNANCEANDLESSOFGENDERINITSOVERALL SCHEMEOFPRODUCTS9ET THEMAJORITYOFPEOPLEWHO LACK ACCESS TO lNANCIAL SERVICES ARE WOMEN AND

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




&INANCINGFOR$EVELOPMENT

ANY ATTEMPT TO TACKLE POVERTY AND ADDRESS THE MOST IMPORTANT -ILLENNIUM $EVELOPMENT 'OALS MUST FOCUS ONTHEM

#OMMONWEALTHCOUNTRIES ANDTHEIRDONORSCOULDCONSIDER RETAININGSOMEPORTIONOFTHEIR FUNDINGOUTSIDEGENDERBUDGET SUPPORTTOPROVIDETHEOPPORTUNITY FORGENDER TARGETEDlNANCING 7HILEMICROlNANCEPROGRAMMESHAVEBROUGHTWOMEN TOGETHER AND ALSO EMPOWERED THEM BASICALLY VERY LITTLE IS KNOWN ABOUT WHAT THEY HAVE ACHIEVED IN TERMS OF CLOSING THE GENDER GAP ON ASPECTS SUCH AS WOMENS OWNERSHIP OF AND CONTROL OVER ASSETS WOMEN HOLDING CUSTODY OF INCOME AND WOMEN GAININGACCESSTODOMESTICANDCOMMUNITYECONOMIC ANDOTHERRESOURCES 4HEREFORE MICROlNANCEHASTOUNDERGOAREVOLUTIONOF BEINGGENDER RESPONSIVE WHICHMEANSTHATTHENATURE OFTHEPRODUCTSBEINGOFFEREDANDTHEINSTITUTIONSTHAT DELIVER THEM WILL HAVE TO CHANGE FUNDAMENTALLY 4HE MICROlNANCE INDUSTRY HAS TO MOVE BEYOND PROVIDING STANDARDCREDITSFORSMALL SCALEENTERPRISESANDOTHER BASIC lNANCIAL SERVICES AND OFFER A WIDE RANGE OF TAILOR MADElNANCIALSERVICESTHATCANREALLYEMPOWER WOMENANDALSOENABLETHEMTOREDUCETHEIRRISKSAND VULNERABILITY

4HEMICROlNANCEINDUSTRYHAS TOMOVEBEYONDPROVIDINGSTANDARD CREDITSFORSMALL SCALEENTERPRISES ANDOTHERBASIClNANCIALSERVICES ANDOFFERAWIDERANGEOFTAILOR MADE lNANCIALSERVICESTHATCANREALLY EMPOWERWOMEN !LL THIS CALLS FOR VARIOUS STAKEHOLDERS INCLUDING GOVERNMENTS BILATERAL AND MULTILATERAL DONORS MICROlNANCE INSTITUTIONS NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS CIVIL SOCIETIES AND THE PRIVATE SECTOR TOJOINHANDSTOENABLEDELIVERYOFSOUNDRESPONSIVE AFFORDABLE AND GENDER SENSITIVE lNANCIAL SERVICES TAILORED TO THE SPECIAL AND UNIQUE NEEDS OF LOW INCOMECLIENTS 4HEREFORE IT IS IMPORTANT THAT STRATEGIES LEADING TO WOMENS ACCESS TO ECONOMIC RESOURCES EDUCATION ANDEMPOWERMENTAREDEVELOPEDTOGETHERWITHTHOSE TO COMBAT THE STRUCTURAL CAUSES THAT LEAD TO FEMALE POVERTY THEINEQUALITYANDSUBORDINATIONSUCHASTHE DISCRIMINATORY LAWS CULTURAL NORMS AND PATRIARCHAL MODELSTHATEXISTINMANY#OMMONWEALTHCOUNTRIES 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

#ONCLUSION 4HE#OMMONWEALTHHASCLEARLYIDENTIlEDTHEISSUESOF CONCERNINTHE#OMMONWEALTH0LANOF!CTION0O! FOR 'ENDER%QUALITY 4HISPLANWASENDORSED BY THE #OMMONWEALTH (EADS OF 'OVERNMENTS IN -ALTA .OVEMBER  AND AGREED TO ALLOCATE ADEQUATERESOURCESATTHENATIONALLEVELFORITSFULLAND EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION -ORE EFFORT IS SUBSTANTIALLY REQUIRED BY THE #OMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES TO lNANCE THE ACHIEVEMENT OF GENDER EQUALITY AND WOMENS EMPOWERMENT AS DEMONSTRATED BY THE POOR RESULTS SOFAR °/NLYPERCENTOUTOFCOUNTRIESHAVEACHIEVED  PER CENT REPRESENTATION OF WOMEN IN NATIONAL PARLIAMENTS ° MILLION CHILDREN ARE NOT IN PRIMARY SCHOOL THE MAJORITYOFWHOMAREGIRLS ° PER CENT OF ()6 AND !)$S CASES GLOBALLY ARE IN THE #OMMONWEALTH AND A GROWING PROPORTION ARE WOMENANDGIRLS °4HEREARE MATERNALDEATHSPERANNUM AND °3OME #OMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES ARE AMONG THOSE WITHHIGHESTINFANTANDMATERNALMORTALITYRATES #OMMONWEALTH GOVERNMENTS THEREFORE SHOULD AS A CRITICALPRIORITY ENSUREADEQUATERESOURCESFORFULLAND EFFECTIVEIMPLEMENTATIONOFTHE.ATIONAL!CTION0LANFOR 7OMEN &INANCING PRIORITIES FOR THE ACHIEVEMENTS OF GENDEREQUALITYANDWOMENSEMPOWERMENTPROVIDES THE FOUNDATION FOR MEMBER STATES TO PROMOTE AND ACHIEVE ECONOMIC GROWTH DEVELOPMENT PEACE AND DEMOCRACYANDTHEFULLENJOYMENTOFALLHUMANRIGHTS

4HE -INISTRY OF 'ENDER ,ABOUR AND 3OCIAL $EVELOPMENT IS THE LEAD AGENCY IN THE 3OCIAL $EVELOPMENT 3ECTOR )N COLLABORATION WITH OTHER STAKEHOLDERS IT IS RESPONSIBLE FOR SOCIAL MOBILISATION FOR COMMUNITY EMPOWERMENT PROMOTION OF RIGHTS AND SOCIAL PROTECTION FOR MEANINGFUL PARTICIPATION OF THE POOR AND VULNERABLE GROUPS IN THE PROCESS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT WHICH SHOULD ULTIMATELY LEAD TO SOCIALTRANSFORMATIONOFOURSOCIETY !S THE LEAD AGENCY IN THE 3OCIAL $EVELOPMENT 3ECTOR 3$3 THE -INISTRY PLAYS A KEY ROLE OF EMPOWERING COMMUNITIES AND MOBILISING THEM TO PARTICIPATE IN THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS ACCESS SERVICES AND DEMAND ACCOUNTABILITY IN PUBLIC AND COMMUNITYBASEDINITIATIVES -INISTRYOF'ENDER ,ABOURAND3OCIAL$EVELOPMENT ,UMUMBA!VENUE +AMPALA 5GANDA 4EL  %MAILPS MGLSDGOUG


&INANCINGFOR$EVELOPMENT

$ANIEL0LATZ %CONOMIC!FFAIRS/FlCER 5.$EPARTMENTOF %CONOMICAND3OCIAL!FFAIRS

&INANCINGACCESSTOWATERAND ELECTRICITYFORALLnEXPERIENCESOF #OMMONWEALTHMEMBERSTATES &IGURE !CCESSTO ELECTRICITYBY REGION

)NCREASINGACCESSTOBASICUTILITIESISFUNDAMENTAL TOTHEACHIEVEMENTOFTHE-ILLENNIUM$EVELOPMENT 'OALS9ET RESOURCESmOWINGINTOTHEELECTRICITY ANDTHEWATERANDSANITATIONSECTORSFALLFARSHORT OF WHAT IS NECESSARY 4HE CHALLENGE IS TWOFOLD /N ONE HAND THERE IS A SHORTAGE OF LONG TERM lNANCINGINSTRUMENTSTOFUNDMAJORINVESTMENTS INTO UPGRADING AND EXTENDING EXISTING SYSTEMS AND EXTEND ACCESS TO THE POOR /N THE OTHER HAND OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE COSTS NEED TO BE RECOVERED TO ENSURE SUSTAINABILITY OF SERVICES4HISARTICLEREmECTSONTHEEXPERIENCE OF #OMMONWEALTH MEMBER STATES IN APPLYING INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO MOBILISE ADDITIONAL RESOURCESFORUTILITIESATTHELOCALGOVERNMENTAND COMMUNITY LEVEL 4HE AUTHOR ARGUES THAT THESE EFFORTS NEED TO BE SUPPLEMENTED BY INCREASED SUPPORTBYTHEINTERNATIONALDONORCOMMUNITY -ORE THAN ONE BILLION PEOPLE IN THE WORLD TODAY LIVE WITHOUT ACCESS TO CLEAN DRINKING WATER ABOUT  BILLION PEOPLE DO NOT HAVE ACCESS TO BASICSANITATION AND NEARLY  BILLION LACK ACCESS TO ELECTRICITY !S ILLUSTRATEDBELOW IN BOTH SECTORS THE RURAL POPULATION ISDISPROPORTIONATELYAFFECTED4ARGETOF-ILLENNIUM $EVELOPMENT 'OAL  ON ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY IShTOHALVEBYTHEPROPORTIONOFPEOPLEWITHOUT SUSTAINABLE ACCESS TO SAFE DRINKING WATER AND BASIC SANITATIONv 4OTAL CURRENT INVESTMENT IN THE WATER AND SANITATION SECTOR IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES EXCLUDING WASTEWATER TREATMENT IS ESTIMATED AT A MERE 53 BILLION TO  BILLION ANNUALLY )N ORDER TO REACH -$' 4ARGET  MOST EXISTING ESTIMATES CALL FOR DOUBLING THISAMOUNT,IKEWISE ADDITIONALINVESTMENTISNEEDED TO MEET THE GROWING DEMAND FOR ELECTRICITY 4HE TOTAL CUMULATIVEINVESTMENTREQUIREDFORELECTRICITYTOACHIEVE THE-$'SINSUB 3AHARAN!FRICAALONEISESTIMATEDAT 53BILLIONBETWEENAND )NCREASINGACCESSTOBASICUTILITIESREQUIRESMOREEFFECTIVE lNANCINGANDREVENUEMECHANISMS4HELASTDECADEHAS SHOWNTHATFOREIGNDIRECTINVESTMENTISNOTlLLINGTHEGAP 0RIVATEINVESTMENTININFRASTRUCTUREPROJECTSINDEVELOPING COUNTRIESDIPPEDTO53BILLIONINAFTERREACHING ITSPEAKAT53BILLIONIN ACCORDINGTOTHE7ORLD 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

3OURCE )%! 

&IGURE !CCESSTO IMPROVED DRINKINGWATER SOURCESBY REGIONAND SEGMENTOF POPULATION 3OURCE 5.)#%& 

&IGURE !CCESSTO IMPROVED SANITATION FACILITIESBY REGIONAND SEGMENTOF POPULATION 3OURCE 5.)#%& 

"ANK &OREIGN EXCHANGE RISK HAS PERHAPS BECOME THE KEYDISINCENTIVEFORINTERNATIONALINVESTORS!7ORLD"ANK SURVEYREVEALEDTHATOFPRIVATEPOWERlRMSSURVEYED  PER CENT WERE RETREATING FROM THE ELECTRICITY SECTOR IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND ONLY THREE CONTINUE TO BE INTERESTED0UBLIC PRIVATEPARTNERSHIPSWERERATEDAS@NOT IMPORTANTFORALLlRMSSURVEYED!TTHESAMETIME IT ISESTIMATEDTHATIN THEBULKOFINVESTMENTSINTOTHE WATERSECTORCAMEFROMDOMESTICSOURCES4HEDOMESTIC


&INANCINGFOR$EVELOPMENT

PUBLIC SECTOR PROVIDED NEARLY  PER CENT WHILE THE DOMESTICPRIVATESECTORPROVIDEDPERCENTOFTHETOTAL MULTI LATERALANDBILATERALDONORFUNDSPROVIDEDPERCENT ANDTHEINTERNATIONALPRIVATESECTORJUSTlVEPERCENT !S A STARTING POINT IT IS THEREFORE IMPORTANT TO REALISE THATTHEOVERWHELMINGMAJORITYOFUTILITIESINTHEWATER ANDELECTRICITYSECTORSOFDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESREMAIN IN PUBLIC HANDS AND CONTINUE TO RELY ON DOMESTIC FUNDS2ATHERTHANENGAGINGINANIDEOLOGICALDEBATE ON THE BENElTS OF PRIVATE VERSUS PUBLIC OWNERSHIP OF UTILITIES THEDISCUSSIONSHOULDTHEREFOREPUTEMPHASIS ON THE IMMEDIATE lNANCING CHALLENGES PUBLIC UTILITY PROVIDERSARECONFRONTEDWITHINFUNDINGANDIMPROVING THEIRSERVICES 4HIS DOES NOT IMPLY THAT MARKET MECHANISMS CANNOT PLAYAROLE)NORDERTOlNANCECAPITALEXPENDITURESTHAT CANNOT BE FUNDED THROUGH CURRENT REVENUES OR lSCAL TRANSFERS THE UTILITY PROVIDER MUST TAKE INTO ACCOUNT ALLAPPROPRIATEOPTIONS WHETHERMARKET BASEDORNOT &INANCING MECHANISMS CAN RANGE FROM DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE COMMERCIALORDEVELOPMENTBANKLENDING MUNICIPALBONDS TOPOOLEDlNANCINGARRANGEMENTSOR EQUITY lNANCE IF THE PRIVATE SECTOR IS INVOLVED 3INCE MOST UTILITIES ARE PUBLICLY OWNED PARTICULAR FOCUS SHOULD BE PUT ON HOW CITIES STATES AND MUNICIPALLY OWNEDCORPORATIONSCANMAKEUSEOFTHESEOPTIONS /NCE lNANCE IS RAISED THE UTILITY HAS TO GENERATE ITS OWN @INTERNAL REVENUE TO PAY OFF ITS DEBT AND lNANCE RECURRENT EXPENDITURE !T THE SAME TIME IF FULL COST RECOVERY CANNOT BE ACHIEVED THE UTILITY WILL DEPEND ON @EXTERNAL SOURCES OF FUNDS SUCH AS TAX REVENUE AND TRANSFERS FROM THE GOVERNMENT !NY SUSTAINABLE STRATEGYTOIMPROVEACCESSTOBASICUTILITIESFORALLMUST THEREFORE FOLLOW A MULTI PRONGED APPROACH AND FOCUS ONIMPROVINGlNANCINGASWELLAS@INTERNALAND@EXTERNAL REVENUEGENERATINGMECHANISMS

-OBILISINGINVESTMENTINNOVATIVE lNANCINGMECHANISMS )T IS IMPORTANT TO PROVIDE A CAUTIONARY NOTE BEFORE ELABORATING ON INNOVATIVE lNANCING MECHANISMS 4HEY ARE NOT A PANACEA 4HEIR POTENTIAL FOR SUCCESS DEPENDS ON THE DEPTH OF THE LOCAL CAPITAL MARKET THE LOCAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT AND THE VIABILITY OF THE UTILITY ITSELF -OREOVER BORROWING MONEY CARRIES RISKS &OREIGN EXCHANGE RISK CAN BE SUBSTANTIAL IN PARTICULAR IN CASES WHERE THE LOAN IS DENOMINATED IN FOREIGN CURRENCY AND REVENUES ARE COLLECTED IN LOCAL CURRENCY $IRECTED CREDIT SCHEMES ANDGOVERNMENT SUBSIDISEDlNANCEHAVEAROLETOPLAY WHEREAPPROPRIATEMARKETMECHANISMSARENOTREADILY AVAILABLE.EVERTHELESS ITCANBEINSTRUCTIVETOTAKEA CLOSERLOOKATSOMEINNOVATIVElNANCINGAPPROACHESAT THEMUNICIPALANDCOMMUNITYLEVEL$EPENDINGONTHE LOCAL CONTEXT SOME OF THESE EXPERIENCES MAY BE AT LEASTPARTIALLYAPPLICABLEINOTHERSETTINGS

)NNOVATIVEMUNICIPALlNANCINGMECHANISMSIN 3OUTH!FRICAAND)NDIA 4HECITYOF*OHANNESBURGOFFERSANINSPIRINGEXAMPLEFOR GENERATINGLONG TERMlNANCENEEDEDFORTHEPROVISION

OFPUBLICUTILITIES)N THECITYEXPERIENCEDACAPITAL EXPENDITUREBACKLOGOF2BILLIONABOUT53BILLION WITH SIGNIlCANT ADVERSE IMPACTS ON INVESTMENTS IN ELECTRICITY INFRASTRUCTURE AND WATER PROVISION 4O AVOID THEBREAKDOWNOFPUBLICSERVICES THECITYWASBAILEDOUT BYTHENATIONALTREASURY)NORDERTOGENERATENEWFUNDS THECITYDECIDEDTOPREPARETHEISSUEOFTWOINSTITUTIONAL BONDSTOBElNANCEDOUTOFOPERATIONALSURPLUSESFROM WATERANDELECTRICITYREVENUES"OTHBONDSWEREWELL RECEIVED BY THE MARKET AND AS A RESULT THE lNANCIAL STANDING OF THE CITY IMPROVED DRAMATICALLY !CCORDING TO THE TREASURER OF THE CITY THE FOLLOWING STEPS WERE IMPORTANT IN ESTABLISHING THE BONDS ESTABLISHING THE #ITY 4REASURY EMBARKING ON A STUDY TOUR TO -EXICO TOLEARNABOUTBESTINTERNATIONALPRACTICEINMUNICIPAL BONDS ELICITING POLITICAL SUPPORT FOR THE MOVE AND DEVELOPINGAYEARlNANCIALPLANTAKINGINTOACCOUNT INmATION INTEREST RATES TARIFF INCREASES FOR MUNICIPAL SERVICESANDMECHANISMSTOSECURECHEAPCAPITAL )N)NDIA MUNICIPALITIESHAVECOMETOGETHERINPOOLED lNANCING SCHEMES THAT CAN HELP DIVERSIFY RISK AND ENABLED LESS CREDITWORTHY MUNICIPALITIES TO TAP THE CAPITAL MARKET 4HE 7ATER AND 3ANITATION 0OOLED &UND730& ISACOMMONlNANCINGARRANGEMENTOF FOURTEENMUNICIPALITIESANDTOWNSINTHE)NDIANSTATE OF 4AMIL .ADU "Y POOLING THE WATER AND SANITATION REQUIREMENTS OF THESE MUNICIPALITIES THE 730& HAS RAISED 2S MILLION 53 MILLION WHOSE PROCEEDSAREDESIGNATEDTOlNANCESMALLWATERAND SANITATION PROJECTS 7ITH A  YEAR TENURE IT IS THE lRST SUCCESSFUL BOND ISSUE OF ITS KIND OUTSIDE THE 53 USING A POOLED lNANCING STRUCTURE FOR lNANCING WATER AND SANITATION PROJECTS OF SMALL AND MEDIUM MUNICIPALITIES 4HE BOND RELIED ON MULTIPLE LAYERS OF CREDIT ENHANCEMENTS INCLUDING A NO LIEN ESCROW ACCOUNT BY THE THIRTEEN URBAN LOCAL BODIES 5,"S A"OND3ERVICE&UND ANDA53!)$#REDIT!UTHORITY GUARANTEEFORPERCENTOFTHEPRINCIPALAMOUNT)T RECEIVED A SOLID CREDIT RATING FROM &ITCH 2ATINGS AND THE )NDIAN #REDIT 2ATING !GENCY AND WAS PRIVATELY PLACED WITH DOMESTIC INVESTORS IN $ECEMBER  3UBSCRIBERS CAME FROM THE BANKING POWER AND INSURANCESECTORSANDINCLUDED+ARNATAKA"ANK #ITY 5NION "ANK 'UJARAT )NDUSTRIES 0OWER #O ,TD AND -ETLIFE)NSURANCE

)NNOVATIVECOMMUNITYlNANCINGIN'HANA "OTH)NDIAAND3OUTH!FRICAHAVEVERYACTIVEANDDEEP CAPITAL MARKETS THAT ARE HARD TO lND IN MANY OTHER DEVELOPING COUNTRIES #APITAL MARKET DEVELOPMENT IS CRITICAL TO INCREASE THE INVESTOR DEMAND FOR LONG TERM INFRASTRUCTURE lNANCING INSTRUMENTS )SSUING BONDS IS HOWEVER NOTAPRACTICALOPTIONFORMUNICIPALITIESINMOST LOW INCOMECOUNTRIESWITHSHALLOWCAPITALMARKETS9ET THISDOESNOTMEANTHATINNOVATIVElNANCINGSCHEMES CANNOT EXIST IN THESE COUNTRIES 3OME OF THE MOST INTERESTINGEXAMPLESINLOW INCOMEECONOMIESCANBE FOUNDATTHECOMMUNITYLEVEL&ORINSTANCE INTHE5PPER %AST2EGIONOF'HANA WOMENHAVEDEVELOPEDASO CALLED @SOU SOU GROUP AN INFORMAL SAVINGS SCHEME TOPOOLRESOURCES4HESOU SOUTRADITIONISBASEDON THEREGULARCOLLECTIONOFlXEDAMOUNTSOFMONEYFROM

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




&INANCINGFOR$EVELOPMENT

&IGURE.UMBER OFCITIES STATESAND MUNICIPALLYOWNED CORPORATIONSINLOW ANDMIDDLE INCOME COUNTRIESTHATARE RATEDBYATLEASTONE OFTHETHREEMAJOR CREDITRATINGAGENCIES 3OURCE$ATABASED ONINFORMATIONON RATEDSUB SOVEREIGN ISSUERSPROVIDEDBY 3TANDARD0OORS -OODYS)NVESTORS 3ERVICEAND&ITCH 2ATINGS*UNE 

PEOPLEPARTICIPATINGINTHEARRANGEMENT4HECOLLECTED AMOUNT IS PAID OUT AS A LOAN FOR PRODUCTIVE VENTURES FORONEPERSONATATIMEUNTILEACHMEMBERISSERVED 4HE COLLECTED INTEREST OF THESE LOANS TOGETHER WITH WATER LEVIES AND OTHER INCOME SOURCES IS PLOUGHED BACKINTOTHEFUND WHICHISUSEDFORMAINTAININGAND OPERATINGTHEWATERHANDPUMPSINTHEREGION3IMILAR MECHANISMSHAVEBEENSUCCESSFULLYAPPLIEDINOTHER DEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES

FOR EFlCIENCY #ONNECTION SUBSIDIES WERE BASED ON THE RESULTS OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPED HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS AND POVERTY CRITERIA DEVELOPED BY VILLAGE REPRESENTATIVESANDCOMMUNECOUNCILMEMBERS4HE RESULTSOFTHE/"!APPROACHIN#AMBODIASTILLHAVETO BEASSESSED(OWEVER AGOODREGULATORYENVIRONMENT ANDCORPORATETRANSPARENCYAPPEARTOBECRITICALFORA SUCCESSFUL/"!ARRANGEMENT

/UTPUT BASEDAIDIN#AMBODIA

!CTUAL CREDITWORTHINESS IS CRITICAL IN SUSTAINING OPERATIONS lNANCED THROUGH CREDIT /NLY A lNANCIALLY SUSTAINABLE UTILITY WILL BE ABLE TO MAKE REPEATED USE OF MARKET LENDING INSTRUMENTS 9ET HOW CAN ONE ENSURE THAT THOSE MUNICIPALITIES WITH SOUND lNANCES AREACTUALLYPERCEIVEDASSUCHBYPOTENTIALINVESTORS 0ERCEIVEDCREDITWORTHINESSISCRITICALFORTHECITIESAND STATES ABILITIES TO RAISE lNANCE WHETHER IT IS THROUGH BONDORBANKLENDING3OUTH!FRICAAND)NDIAARETHE ONLYTWODEVELOPINGNATIONSWITHINTHE#OMMONWEALTH THATHAVERECEIVEDRATINGSFROMATLEASTONEOFTHETHREE MAJORCREDITRATINGAGENCIESATTHESUB SOVEREIGNLEVEL &IGURESHOWSTHAT WITHTHEEXCEPTIONOF-EXICO THE OVERWHELMINGMAJORITYOFCITIESANDSTATESINDEVELOPING COUNTRIESHAVENOTBEENRATEDBYANYONEOFTHETHREE AGENCIES(OWCANRATINGSBEMADEMOREACCESSIBLE AND AFFORDABLE TO CREDITWORTHY MUNICIPALITIES IN POOR COUNTRIES/NESTRATEGYCOULDBETOPROMOTELINKAGES BETWEENLOCALANDINTERNATIONALCREDITRATINGAGENCIES )NDIAHADSOMESUCCESSINTAPPINGDOMESTICSAVINGS THROUGH MUNICIPAL BONDS RATED BY )NDIAN RATINGS

/UTPUT"ASED!ID/"! ISARELATIVELYNEWAPPROACH BASED ON EITHER A GRANT SUBSIDY OR A CONCESSIONARY LOAN #ONSEQUENTLY EXPERIENCE WITH IT IS LIMITED $ONORS AND INTERNATIONAL lNANCIAL INSTITUTIONS SUCH AS THE 7ORLD "ANKS 'LOBAL 0ARTNERSHIP FOR /UTPUT "ASED!ID'0/"! HAVEDEVELOPEDTHEINSTRUMENTTO SUPPORTTHElNANCINGEFFORTSOFGOVERNMENTSORSERVICE PROVIDERS INCLUDING UTILITIES OR SMALL SCALE PROVIDERS /"!SAREPERFORMANCE BASEDSUBSIDIESDESIGNEDTO BETTERTARGETTHEPOORBYIDENTIFYINGWHOWILLBENElT THE TYPESOFACTIVITIESTHATQUALIFYFORTHESUBSIDY ANDHOW MUCHSUBSIDYWILLBEPROVIDED)N#AMBODIA EIGHTlRMS WEREINVITEDTOPARTICIPATEINANINTERNATIONALCOMPETITIVE BIDDINGPROCESSFORTHElRSTBATCHOFA53MILLION /"! GRANT TO SUPPLY WATER TO FOUR TOWNS 5NDER THE /"!ARRANGEMENT SERVICEPROVIDERSWEREOBLIGATEDTO CONNECTANYHOUSEHOLDWITHINTHEIRSERVICEAREASTHAT REQUESTSACONNECTION!TTHESAMETIME THEUTILITYWAS PAIDTHEAGREEDBIDAMOUNTREGARDLESSOFTHEEXPOST CONNECTION COSTS WHICH SHOULD CREATE AN INCENTIVE 

4HE#OMMONWEALTH(EADSOF'OVERNMENT-EETING

)MPROVINGACTUALANDPERCEIVEDCREDITWORTHINESS


&INANCINGFOR$EVELOPMENT

AGENCIES!SOF ATLEASTNINECITIESHAVERAISED FUNDS SOME 2S BILLION FROM THE )NDIAN CAPITAL MARKETTHROUGHMUNICIPALBONDS

%NSURINGSUSTAINABILITYREVENUE GENERATINGMECHANISMS &INANCINGMECHANISMS WHETHERMARKET BASEDORSTATE SUBSIDISED ARELOANSANDLOANSNEEDTOBEREPAID USUALLY WITHINTEREST!NEFFECTIVECOLLECTIONSYSTEMOFTAXESAND USER FEES PROVIDES THE BASIS FOR SUSTAINABLE REVENUE GENERATION)TISVITALTOSTRENGTHENCAPACITIESOFUTILITIES TO HELP ENSURE EFlCIENCY EFFECTIVENESS TRANSPARENCY ACCOUNTABILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY 7HEREAS FULL COST RECOVERY SEEMS UNREALISTIC FOR MOST UTILITY PROVIDERS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES MANY UTILITIES HAVE GONE A LONG WAYINIMPROVINGEFlCIENCYOFTHEIROPERATIONS

)NCREASINGEFlCIENCYINCOSTRECOVERYIN 5GANDA 4HE EXPERIENCE OF THE 5GANDAN .ATIONAL 7ATER AND 3EWERAGE#ORPORATION.73# INOPTIMISINGREVENUES THROUGHCOSTEFlCIENCY ENHANCINGMEASURESMAKESFOR ANILLUMINATINGCASESTUDY!SOF THEOPERATIONAL EFlCIENCYOFTHEOLD.73#WASLOW3UBSEQUENTCOST RECOVERY INTERVENTIONS FOCUSED ON THE POLICY LEVEL THROUGHACHANGEOFTHEBOARDANDACHANGEINSTRATEGY AS WELL AS ON OPERATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS THROUGH A COMPREHENSIVE MANAGEMENT REFORM ! REDUCTION IN ADMINISTRATIONANDOVERHEADCOSTS ASTRICTERAPPRAISAL OF CAPITAL PROJECTS AND A SIMPLIlCATION RATIONALISATION ANDINDEXATIONOFTARIFFSLEDTOMAJOROPERATINGEFlCIENCY GAINSANDRESULTEDINSIGNIlCANTLYINCREASEDCOVERAGE #ROSS SUBSIDIESWEREAPPLIEDACROSSCUSTOMERGROUPS ANDACROSSAREASBYAPPLICATIONOFAUNIFORMTARIFF!T THESAMETIME DISCONNECTINGUSERSFROMTHEIRSERVICES UPONNON PAYMENTCOULDBEAVOIDED)TISIMPORTANTTO NOTE HOWEVER THATEVENDESPITESIGNIlCANTEFlCIENCY GAINS FULL COST RECOVERY WAS NOT AN ATTAINABLE GOAL FOR .73# 4HE UTILITY HAD TO RELY ON GRANTS FOR CAPITALINVESTMENTS

#APACITYBUILDINGANDTECHNICAL ASSISTANCETHROUGHPARTNERSHIPS 4HERE IS A NEED TO STRENGTHEN TECHNICAL lNANCIAL MANAGERIALANDINSTITUTIONALCAPACITIESOFWATERUTILITIES INCLUDINGUTILITYOPERATORSANDREGULATORS4HEEMERGING CONSENSUS SEEMS TO BE THAT CAPACITY BUILDING PROGRAMMES SHOULD FOCUS ON EDUCATIONAL TRAINING MONITORING OF RESEARCH AND FORECASTING LEGISLATION ANDREGULATIONASWELLASlNDINGSUSTAINABLElNANCING MECHANISMSFORINFRASTRUCTUREINVESTMENTS$EVELOPING PARTNERSHIP MECHANISMS BETWEEN UTILITY OPERATORS SUCH AS THE 'LOBAL 7ATER /PERATORS 0ARTNERSHIP MECHANISM7/0 RECENTLYINITIATEDBYTHE5.3YSTEM CANHELPIMPROVETHEPERFORMANCEANDEFFECTIVENESS OF UTILITIES "Y ESTABLISHING NETWORKS AT THE REGIONAL SUB REGIONAL AND NATIONAL LEVELS LESS EFlCIENT UTILITIES MAYBENElTFROMTHEEXPERIENCESOFCOMPETENTUTILITIES ONAREGULARBUTNOT FORPROlTBASIS

)NCREASINGBUDGETARYALLOCATIONSTO WATERANDELECTRICITY )NORDERTOINCREASEACCESSIMMEDIATELYTOBASICUTILITIES TOTHEPOOR ALLOCATIONSFORUTILITIESFROMNATIONAL STATE ANDMUNICIPALBUDGETSMUSTINCREASE-OSTUTILITIESIN DEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESFALLSHORTOFGENERATINGSUFlCIENT FUNDSTOATTRACTOUTSIDEINVESTORS)NCREASINGBUDGETARY ALLOCATIONS TO THESE SECTORS IS A JOINT RESPONSIBILITY OF THE DEVELOPING AND THE DEVELOPED WORLD PARTICULARLY INLOW INCOMECOUNTRIES!TTHELEVELOFTHEDEVELOPING COUNTRY lNANCIAL ALLOCATIONS TO THE TWO SECTORS HAVE TO COMPETE WITHIN A VERY TIGHT BUDGET WITH OTHER PRIORITYAREASSUCHASHEALTHSERVICESANDEDUCATION !T THE SAME TIME OVERALL TAX REVENUE IS LOW IN LOW INCOME ECONOMIES WITH HIGH POVERTY RATES AND LARGE INFORMAL SECTORS )N MANY CASES A PARADIGM SHIFT MIGHT BE NECESSARY WHEN IT COMES TO PICKING THE APPROPRIATE MACROECONOMIC POLICIES 'OVERNMENTS SHOULD REEVALUATE lSCAL CONSTRAINTS AT THE SOVEREIGN AND SUB SOVEREIGN AS TO WHETHER THEY UNNECESSARILY LIMITMUCH NEEDEDINVESTMENTININFRASTRUCTURE!TTHE DONOR LEVEL /FlCIAL $EVELOPMENT !SSISTANCE /$! FALLS SHORT OF WHAT IS NEEDED 3INCE THE  5. #ONFERENCEON&INANCINGFOR$EVELOPMENTIN-ONTERREY -EXICO THEDECLININGTRENDOF/$!HASREVERSED/$! ROSETO53BILLIONIN ORPERCENTOF '.) OF DEVELOPED COUNTRIES (OWEVER IN  /$! DECREASEDTOPERCENTOF'.)!CCORDINGTOMOST ESTIMATES 53BILLION NETOFDEBTRELIEF TECHNICAL ASSISTANCEANDEMERGENCYRELIEF ARENEEDEDTOREACH THE-$'SBY5. A 

$ANIEL 0LATZ IS %CONOMIC !FFAIRS /FlCER AND FOCAL POINT FOR CIVIL SOCIETY ENGAGEMENT IN THE &INANCING FOR $EVELOPMENT /FlCE OF THE 5. $EPARTMENT OF %CONOMIC AND 3OCIAL !FFAIRS WHICH MONITORS THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE -ONTERREY #ONSENSUS (IS CURRENTFOCUSAREAISTHElNANCINGOFBASICUTILITIESINDEVELOPING COUNTRIES 4HE VIEWS EXPRESSED IN THIS ARTICLE ARE THOSE OF THE AUTHORANDDONOTNECESSARILYREmECTTHOSEOFTHE5NITED.ATIONS 4HE $EPARTMENT OF %CONOMIC AND 3OCIAL !FFAIRS OF THE 5NITED .ATIONS3ECRETARIATISAVITALINTERFACEBETWEENGLOBALPOLICIESIN THE ECONOMIC SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SPHERES AND NATIONAL ACTION4HEDEPARTMENTCOMPILES GENERATESANDANALYSESAWIDE RANGEOFECONOMIC SOCIALANDENVIRONMENTALDATA ANDFACILITATES THE NEGOTIATIONS OF MEMBER STATES IN MANY INTERGOVERNMENTAL BODIES )T ALSO ADVISES INTERESTED GOVERNMENTS ON TRANSLATING POLICY FRAMEWORKS INTO PROGRAMMES AT THE COUNTRY LEVEL AND THROUGHTECHNICALASSISTANCE HELPSBUILDNATIONALCAPACITIES &INANCINGFOR$EVELOPMENT/FlCE 5NITED.ATIONS 4WO5.0LAZA $#  .EW9ORK .9 53! 4EL   &AX   %MAILPLATZ UNORG 7EBSITEWWWUNORGESAFFD

5GANDA  .OVEMBER




&INANCINGFOR$EVELOPMENT

-AHVASH1URESHI 5NIVERSITYOF#AMBRIDGEAND $IRK7ILLEMTE6ELDE /VERSEAS$EVELOPMENT)NSTITUTE

0ROMOTINGKNOWLEDGE BASEDAND SERVICEINDUSTRIESINSMALLSTATES 3ERIOUS CHALLENGES TO DEVELOPMENT ARE EXPERIENCED BY SMALL STATES DUE TO THEIR SMALL SIZE REMOTENESS AND VULNERABILITY 4HE SMALL STATESAGENDAPROPOSEDINTHE#OMMONWEALTH 7ORLD "ANK *OINT 4ASK &ORCE 2EPORT OF !PRIL  AND THE REVIEW OF THIS AGENDA 4OWARD AN OUTWARD ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY FOR SMALLSTATESISSUES OPPORTUNITIES ANDRESILIENCE BUILDING OF !UGUST  BOTH CLEARLY CONlRM THIS 4HE REVIEW SUGGESTS THAT OVER THE PAST FEW YEARS THE PROSPECTS FOR SMALL STATES HAVE DETERIORATED FURTHER DUE TO PREFERENCE EROSION AND THE EMERGENCE OF NEW LARGE COMPETITORS )TPROPOSESTHATSMALLSTATESNEEDTOREPOSITION THEMSELVESINTHEGLOBALECONOMYANDMOVEINTO KNOWLEDGE BASED AND OTHER SERVICE INDUSTRIES 4HIS BRIElNG DISCUSSES THE CHALLENGES FACED IN DOINGTHISANDHOWTHEYMIGHTBEOVERCOME

#ONSTRAINTSANDLEADERSHIP $EVELOPINGTRADEINKNOWLEDGEINTENSIVESERVICESIS ACOMPLICATEDPROCESS-ANYCOUNTRIESDONOTHAVE ANEXPLICITPOLICYFORTRADEINSERVICESORADETAILED OVERALLPLANTODEVELOPTHIS4HECONSTRAINTSTOTRADEIN SERVICESARECOMPLEXANDGOBEYONDTRADITIONALTRADE CONSTRAINTS!POLICYRELEVANTAPPROACHDISTINGUISHES AMONGTHREETYPESOFCONSTRAINTS4HESEINCLUDE °3UPPLY SIDEORDOMESTICCAPACITYCONSTRAINTS °4HE DOMESTIC REGULATORY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK °% XTERNAL CONSTRAINTS FOR EXAMPLE INTERNATIONAL TRADEINSERVICESAGREEMENTS ORPRESSURESDUE TOCOMPETITION  4HIS APPROACH IS PARTICULARLY USEFUL IN THE SERVICES CONTEXTFORSEVERALREASONS)TPROVIDESANANALYTICAL LENS TO DEVELOPING TRADE IN SERVICES n TRYING TO MAKESENSEOFTHEMYRIADOFCONSTRAINTSTOTRADEIN SERVICES )T ALSO DELINEATES CLEAR RESPONSIBILITIES FOR DIFFERENT ACTORS IN DIFFERENT SECTORS MINISTRIES AND OTHER STAKEHOLDERS 4HAT SAID TRADE IN SERVICES A CATALYST TO PROMOTE ECONOMIC DIVERSIlCATION AWAY FROMTRADITIONALSECTORS INVOLVESAFUNDAMENTALSHIFT INMINDSETTHROUGHOUTTHEWHOLEECONOMYINVOLVING DIFFERENT TYPES OF ACTIONS TO OVERCOME THESE CONSTRAINTS ANDFORTHISLEADERSHIPORCO ORDINATION FROMTHETOPISCRUCIAL3MALLCOUNTRIESMIGHTBEATAN ADVANTAGEBECAUSETHEYMAYHAVEMOREmEXIBILITYTO INTRODUCECHANGESTHANTHEIRLARGERPEERS

3MALLSTATESDIFFERnSOMEARELANDLOCKEDWHILEOTHERS AREISLANDSORCOASTALSTATES SOMEAREREMOTETOKEY MARKETS OTHERS HAVE THE BENElT OF LARGE NEIGHBOURS n AND INCOME LEVELS VARY 3ERVICES ARE ALREADY AN IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTOR TO INCOME AND EMPLOYMENT IN SMALL STATES 4HE POOREST SMALL STATES FACE SEVERE CONSTRAINTS TO SERVICES DEVELOPMENT BUT EVEN THEY ARE HEAVILY DEPENDENT ON THE SERVICES SECTOR 4HE SMALLSTATESINTHEMIDDLEANDPARTICULARLYHIGHINCOME GROUP HAVE ALREADY MOVED SIGNIlCANTLY INTO SERVICES ANDSOMEHAVESPECIALISEDINHIGHSKILLED KNOWLEDGE BASEDSERVICESMORETHANTHEIRLARGESTATEPEERS &OR MANY SMALL STATES TRADE IN SERVICES ESPECIALLY TOURISM RELATED SERVICES IS ALREADY AN IMPORTANT F