Today, decision-makers, opinion-formers, politicians and citizens in European countries increasingly need to ‘think European’, to transcend national perspectives and empathise with a European mix of national and international cultures. To meet that challenge, 10 leading European university institutions – Oxford, Leiden, Bologna, Bonn, Paris I, Geneva, Prague (Charles), Helsinki, Krakow (Jagiellonian) and Barcelona (UPF), closely supported by Madrid (Complutense and FOM), and Lisbon (Institute of Political Studies) – jointly set up an association designed to serve as an ‘international university without walls’, in which future scholars and leaders of our ‘new’ Europe have an opportunity to share common learning and confront common concerns together. The Europaeum exists to foster collaborative research and teaching, to provide opportunities for scholars, leaders, academics and graduates, through international conferences, summer schools and colloquia, and to enable leading figures from the worlds of business, politics and culture to take part in transnational and interdisciplinary dialogue with the world of scholarship. Our over-arching programmes have included inquiries on The Future of the European University; A TransAtlantic Dialogue; Culture, Humanities and New Technology; and Islam-in-Europe. The association operates flexibly, responsibly and simply – with minimal bureaucracy and complexity. Small internal grants promote the mission of the association. All Europaeum events aim to include professors from three or more partner institutions, while remaining open and ready to work alongside any other bodies or expert, encompassing the Social Sciences and the Humanities. Our core aim is to develop jointly-offered teaching programmes; to promote academic mobility; create linking scholarship and visiting professorships; and develop capacity for new ideas and policies. Above all, the Europaeum aims to add to the sum knowledge about, and for, the new Europe, to help prepare future citizens and leaders of, and for, Europe. We aim to ensure that all partner universities are fully engaged in both explaining and making Europe’s future, and to leave all those involved in our work with an enlarged ‘sense of Europe’.
Contents Organisation Vision..............................................................1 Board of Trustees............................................................3 Brief History.......................................................................4 University Members..........................................................12 Budget....................................................................24 Benefactors & Donors.......................................................25 Academic Council, Steering Group, Secretariat................26
Research Project Groups..................................................................28 Future of European Universities.......................................32 Publications............................................................33 Partners..................................................................36 Classics Colloquia............................................................40 Libraries Project................................................................42
Teaching Joint Courses and Programmes....................................43 Academic Networking......................................................46 Graduate Workshops.......................................................47 Scholarships & Bursaries...............................................50 Summer Schools.............................................................52 Visiting Professors...........................................................56 Europaeum Certificates...................................................59
Programmes TransAtlantic Dialogue......................................................60 Islam-in-Europe.....................................................62 Culture, Humanities & Technology....................................64 International Conferences...............................................65 Europaeum Lectures........................................................69 European Policy-Making Seminars.................................72 New Initiatives Scheme...................................................73 Student Programmes.......................................................76 Small Grants Schemes.......................................................77 2
Board of Trustees
The Board of Trustees provides overall guidance to the organisation; to develop new initiatives; to focus fund-raising efforts; and to provide added visibility. It currently consists of ten members: Dr Pierre Keller Chairman
Senior Partner of Lombard, Odier and Cie Bank
Lord (George) Weidenfeld
Chairman of Weidenfeld & Nicolson Publishers
Sir Ronald Grierson Hon. Treasurer
Former Vice-Chairman of the General Electric Company
Professor Yves MĂŠny
Former President European University Institute, Florence
Lord (Chris) Patten
Chancellor, University of Oxford, Chairman of the BBC Trust
H.E. Karel Schwarzenberg Former Minister of Foreign Affairs, Czech Republic
Professor VĂĄclav Hampl Rector, Professor of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Charles University
Professor Philippe Burrin
Professor of History, Director of the Graduate Institute, Geneva
Dr Erhard Busek
Former Vice-Chancellor of Austria, Head of EU Initiative in the Balkans
Professor Ngaire Woods Dean of the Blavatnik School of Government, Professor of Global Economic Governance
A Brief History
The Europaeum was conceived in the early 1990s by Lord (George) Weidenfeld and Sir Ronald Grierson to give future young scholars and leaders the chance to meet, discuss, and develop together a real ‘sense of Europe’. The idea immediately gained traction at Oxford, winning support from the Vice Chancellor, Sir Richard Southwood, the Chancellor, Lord Jenkins, and academics such as Professor Peter Pulzer, then Gladstone Professor of Politics. The Europaeum was to be the framework within which a group of leading European universities would strive together in search of new kinds of panEuropean thinking, linking the brightest academic minds and young scholars. It was also conceived Lord (George) Weidenfeld as an autonomous and free-thinking body that would seek to add to the sum of knowledge and ideas in the ‘new’ Europe. Its development can be split into various phases: a successful launch period; a key development period; a phase of innovation; Eastward extension; and a phase of renewal.
Phase I: Launch 1992-1996 The mood of the times, including moves towards integration in Western Europe and the re-emergence of Central and Eastern Europe after the collapse of Communism, encouraged a will to promote pan-European ideas, programmes and initiatives, even styles of thinking - and universities clearly had a key role to play. The Europaeum was l aunc hed - f or m a l l y to ‘advance European studies and education’, encouraging ‘the movement of academic staff and students’ and for ‘the study of the languages, history, cultures and professions of the people of Europe’ - by Oxford, Ronald Grierson, George Weidenfeld, Peter Pulzer and Leiden and Bologna, and an Prince Hans Adam II of Liechtenstein at the launch international network was born. Oxford played the lead role, both spearheading a significant fund-raising drive across Europe, and giving the consortium the status of an official university department, supervised by an overarching committee chaired by Roy Jenkins himself. The Europaeum helped spawn two independent centres: the Institute for the Advanced Study of European and Comparative Law (IECL), originally headed by Professor Basil Markesenis, still a flourishing centre with an active relationship with the association; and the Centre for European Politics, Economics and Society (CEPES), originally headed by Professor Jack Hayward, which sadly 4
closed in 2003. Academic posts outside the IECL and CEPES were also funded, most notably a Chair in European Thought, originally held by Professor John Burrows, and a senior post in Law, held originally by Professor Guy Goodwin Gill, now at All Souls. A range of exciting scholarships for European graduates to come to Oxford were set up, and a range of linked, short-term Visiting Chairs, for example in Literature, Opera Studies, and Jewish Studies. European Studies teaching was also boosted with support for a major new MPhil programme. These all now have their own momentum, and have drifted away from core Europaeum work. The launch of collaborative activities such as international conferences, summer schools, and academic mobility – outlined later in this booklet – heralded the association’s current continuing ‘core programme’, and two key early publications from highly successful conferences heralded the association’s commitment to publishing. In this first phase Oxford’s development office helped launch the new consortium, but much depended on a group of committed individual academics.
Phase II: Consolidation 1996-2000 The network gradually expanded to include Bonn University (Rheinische FriedrichWilhelms-Universität Bonn) in 1996; then Paris I (Panthéon-Sorbonne) in 1997; and Geneva HEI - now the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies - in 1998. As activites progressed, Oxford initiated a standard fiveyear institutional review in 1998, headed by Professor David Marquand, a Professor of Politics who had worked in Brussels in Roy Jenkins’ Cabinet and had first arrived at Oxford as head of Mansfield College, with all partners invited to participate. By now the summer schools and conferences were flourishing as annual events, rotated around members, Jacques Delors, with Paolo Pombeni (Bologna) and an international Steering and David Marquand (Oxford) in Bologna Group of key officers was overseeing the growing Europaeum programme. A regular Newsletter was set up from Oxford, alongside a website, and a database aiming to link academics working in European Law, Politics and Economics. Following the review, Oxford agreed to extend its commitment, and an annual ‘subscription’ was introduced to support core consortium costs, while additional funds were raised for individual projects. Each partner was to create its own local Europaeum committee, with ideas and feedback coming to a new international committee, converted into the Europaeum Council with formal representatives from all partners. Group meetings, bringing together leading academics within the lead disciplines of Law, Economics, and Philosophy, helped momentum and promoted moves to set up small international collaborative research groupings. A special Steering Group report then presented the new Council with further 5
reform options which were take up: to simplify the governing structure with the Council becoming the governing body (and the Oxford-based structure ended); and a new Academic Committee to oversee academic priorities and projects, and a Management Committee for day-to-day tasks and links. It was also agreed to appoint a part-time Secretary-General, to focus on the overall growth and development, and to steer a growing association into a new phase of development, emphasizing work on young scholars and continuing links that reached beyond academe.
Phase III: Innovation 2000-2003 The Europaeum was also converted to an independent charity, run as a not-forprofit company, under UK law, while fundraising efforts were renewed again to boost The Joining of Prague in 2001 the Projects Fund, alongside the partner subscriptions used to cover core costs. In 2000, Dr Paul Flather, who had been involved in Europaeum work as Oxford’s Senior representative took up a new part-time as Secretary General. He developed a new Business Plan which laid clear objectives, updated the Mission, outlined strategies for development, and structure, with a financial plan through to 2005. Following consultations, this was approved in 2001 and a part-time assistant was hired. By the autumn, a full-time assistant was needed and the small Secretariat moved to an office in central Oxford on the Banbury Road, leased from the Oxford Voltaire Foundation. Charles University, Prague, joined in 2001, taking membership up to seven. The Europaeum was then ready to embark upon a period of innovation and play a fuller part in the changing European higher education area. At an important meeting in Paris in 2001, the Council determined that the Europaeum should Jan Sokol (Prague), Peter Tschopp (Geneva) and enlarge to a target of 10 Zdzislaw Mach (Krakow) at Berlin Conference university members, develop new ideas for policy research, and focus on joint teaching opportunities for young European scholars. The Europaeum Review, edited by the Secretary-General, was launched in 2001, as a forum for intellectual exchange, and increase the profile. A revived Europaeum Lecture series has also led to several significant publications. Three new ‘small grant’ schemes were established and still continue, though the size and scope of the grants has fallen since the global crisis. These allowed 6
joint research to develop via Europaeum Research Project Groups, bringing networks of scholars together to launch new projects, and designed specifically to draw fresh disciplines within the consortium - including Modern History, History of Science, Classics, Philosophy and Theology. A New Initiatives Scheme was also introduced as a ‘bottom-up’ programme to widen the range of collaborative activities, encouraging appropriate bids for debates, lecture series, mobility grants, policy fora, joint teaching, library links and even technology transfer. Thus, two model European student debates were backed under this scheme, and now graduates regularly participate in debates and study days. Finally, academic mobility was boosted under the Europaeum Visiting Professorships scheme enabling leading academics to teach and research at partner institutions within the association, helping nourish future academic and teaching links. New projects set out to utilise and study the enormous opportunities provided by new technology. A major threeyear international research project examined The Future of European Universities in the ‘Knowledge Society’ during 2002-5, with a substantial grant from DaimlerChrysler Services, a leading German financial corporation. The Hartmut Ihne, David Marquand and Joost van project analysed future trends, Asten at the Council Meeting in Paris, 2001 applications of new Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in learning and research, and the new role of universities today. Meanwhile, the programme of summer schools, conferences and scholarships continued to develop. Keynote speakers at Europaeum events during this period included Tim Berners-Lee, Umberto Eco, Ralf Dahrendorf, Jacques Delors, Timothy Garton Ash, Marrack Goulding, Avishai Margalit, David Marquand, Ben Okri, Chris Patten, Romano Prodi, Mary Robinson, among many others. Most significantly, an Academic Committee working party examined ways of encouraging teaching collaboration, reviewing half a dozen recent Europaeum links, while two innovative programmes, an MA in European Politics, Culture, History and Institutions, linking Bologna, Leiden and Oxford, and a plan for modular programmes in European Business, Culture, and Institutions, initially to link Leiden and Oxford, were run as pilot projects.
Phase IV: Extension 2003-2007 The Europaeum now found itself involved in a burgeoning number of projects, still based on the principles of rotating venues for conferences, meetings and summer schools. A new Academic Business Plan, for this fourth phase of extension, was endorsed with the aims of completing and consolidating the membership target, developing joint teaching initiatives, setting up new scholarships and creating a 7
joint policy institute. In 2004, a major gift was received from the Lisbet Rausing Foundation, which allowed the Europaeum to upgrade its staffing, computers, and support work for its new activities programme. In 2003, Complutense University, Madrid, had joined the Europaeum. The University of Helsinki followed in 2004, and then the Jagiellonian, Krakow, in 2005, achieving the target of 10 partners, although we also reaffirmed an ‘open door’ policy too, to collaborate with appropriate other scholars and experts. Rapid progress was made on joint teaching initiatives: in 2004-5, Oxford, Paris and Leiden launched a new jointly-offered Europaeum MA in European History and Civilisation, while The Leiden-Oxford policy programme was also re-launched over 2004-6 with a series of policy-oriented symposia, with young scholar participation, workshops and events focusing on European concerns. But the programme did not prove sustainable. A successful bilateral Oxford-Geneva Link Programme was also launched within the consortium thanks to a generous benefaction, including study bursaries, lectures and workshops. Meanwhile the process of awards of the universally endorsed Europaeum Certificates, conferred upon students who complete scholarly work to high standard while engaging in Europaeum activities, was established. The new policy forum series proved popular, bringing in media, business and government representatives alongside academics, discussing a range of topics, including Reshaping Europe, Turkey and Europe, Corporate Governance, Islam in Europe, Barriers between Israel and Palestine, and The Future for Europe. To provide over-arching focus, three new major themed programmes were launched, each running with linked workshops, seminars, conferences and lectures: the Cultural Difference and Humanities and New Launch of the MA Programme in Leiden, 2005 Technology Programme in 2003, the Islam-in-Europe programme in 2004, and the US-Europe TransAtlantic Dialogue programme in 2005. The latter opened up opportunities for partnerships with US universities. After widespread consultation, a proposal to create a new Europaeum Public Policy and Governance Institute was approved in 2003-4. Extensive work began on fundraising, linking Europaeum experts and university-based policy units within a ‘virtual cluster’ of policy experts. But eventually, without the commitment from a hoped-for major backer, this project did not materialise. Following the death of Roy Jenkins in 2003, one of the founders of the Europaeum and former Chancellor of the University of Oxford, a memorial fund was set up to raise funds for European scholarships, and these have been directly linked to the Europaeum by the trustees. The first two awards were made in 2004, reflecting early fund-raising success, and from 2005 five or six awards have been 8
made to Jenkins Scholars each year, four or five in-coming to Oxford, and one or two out-going to Europaeum partners. Some 50 gave been made to date. The scheme is now firmly seen as a key element of the Europaeum programme, and in 2005 the Oxford-Geneva study bursaries programme was boosted with a further benefaction. The Europaeum also widened the scope of its workshops – for example supporting a notable cycle of events and seminars relating to the History of European Science and a major event on the Future of the West in Washington DC, and huge efforts Annual awards are made in memory of Roy Jenkins to create a European Studies institute in Turkey, ultimately unsuccessful due to unforeseen complications over politics and bureaucracy. The Europaeum also focused, strongly, on workshop and conference publications, covering a wide range of relevant themes, including Whose Europe?; The Other; E-commerce, Corporate Governance, and Europeanization, as well as continuing its series of Europaeum pamphlets, and the Europaeum Review, which continued to command respect.
Phase V: Sustainability 2008-2012 With most targets of the Phase IV ‘extension’ met, membership up to 10, consolidated research groups, developing scholarship schemes, a growing publications list, and a wider presence, this next phase promised much – and one of the goals demanded by the Academic Committee was higher visibility, though this was also recognised as a two-edged sword for a relatively small, active group. A group of three wise men drawn from Oxford, Helsinki and Leiden, was appointed to do a 15-year spot review to help chart a future direction, identifying strengths and weaknesses. What emerged was that there should be a greater focus on younger scholars; on graduate workshops, especially for doctoral and even post-doctoral students who tend to be neglected within HE systems; to extend the current grant schemes; perhaps to expand to 12 members, and to try to simplify the work focus. Ultimately though much of this would depend on funding, and already by 2008-9 the omens were poor. Within a year or two most universities were facing quite severe cuts across Europe, which in turn jeopardises their discretionary work – including programmes such as those of the Europaeum. This meant they could not be expected to increase their subscriptions – unchanged since 1998 – and indeed many are finding it harder to host events and programmes. Additionally, it became much tougher to raise funds from donors and benefactors. While all the key elements of the Europaeum annual programmes were now settled and maintained, including flagship summer schools, bolstered with hugely successful graduate research workshops on such themes as Sacred Spaces, 9
the Green Economy, Leadership in Europe, the Limits to Europe, the Arab Spring, Migration, Racism and Political Rhetoric and so on, there was less funding to go around. In 2009-10 a new Board of Trustees was established, taking over fund-raising, networking and overall supervisory duties, from a more cumbersome Council, which has been converted into the Academic Council to focus on academic matters. Trustees included the two founding Sir Ronald Grierson fathers, George Weidenfeld and Ronald Grierson, as well as the third co-opted member of the former Europaeum Council, Dr Pierre Keller, who was elected as founding Chair, while Dr Andrew Graham from Oxford, was appointed a permanent chair of the Academic Council, again to aid continuity. Council membership has begun to vary due to the busy schedule of rectors. The three over-arching programmes on US-Europe Relations, Islam-in-Europe, and Culture, Humanities and Technology; continued towards as fresh efforts were made to create further joint teaching MAs. The European History MA was flourishing, but explorations in Economic Integration, Political Cultures, International Relations, Community Law, European Philosophy foundered against national and institutional regulations which were in flux, while new tuition fee structures added concern and complex variations.
Phase VI: Reconsolidation 2012-14 The Europaeum has now entered a phase of â€˜re-consolidationâ€™ as it prepares for its third decade. The Trustees are keen to produce a more secure financial basis, in a climate when it is much tougher to attract funding, and to help produce a sharper focus for future work. The consortium has had to face retrenchment in terms of publishing more on the website; reducing staffing in its office, and the level and numbers of small grants available, all the while striving harder to develop partnerships and unlock matching support wherever possible. Dr Paul Flather speaking at a Europaeumsupported International Conference in Lisbon
The association has, though, re-committed itself to maintaining its current annual programme, in addition to running at least four advanced graduate workshops a year, alongside student initiatives, summer schools, lectures and scholarships. It has re-committed to its focus on matters European, to adding value, and to bringing experts and scholars across all partners. The newest member is Pompeu-Fabra University of Barcelona, which hosts the 2013 Summer School on Rights and Citizenship, while a new tier of associate 10
membership has now been introduced, mainly for research or teaching collaborators, and these now stand at three. A new target was also set by the Trustees in 2012 to reach 12-15full members over the coming years to extend our geographic reach, but also seek to add additional members from leading nations such as Germany, France and the UK, to add fresh impetus. All activities have grown in response to energy and commitment from participants. The Classics Colloquia series, now in its second decade, is a case in point: a pioneering event proved such a hit that a network of Classics professors blossomed, and that participants view to come back to future events to present papers, receive constructive feedback, and of course meet fellow scholars. Other informal academic networks have also been spawned over the past decade. For example via a research group such as the European Political Concepts, and the Liberalisms Groups, via a joint teaching initiative such as the European History MA, or the Students join Paul Flather for a drink in Brussels European Policy-Making Brussels after completing the policy session seminars. A new joint academic programme was launched in 2012 by the Universities of Prague, Leiden and Paris, around the theme of European Politics and Society, aiming for about 20 graduates spending their second year of study on a two-year graduate programme, at a partner institution. All this is very much in the spirit of the mission as laid down by the founding fathers and we are delighted that this course together with series of prestigious lectures and workshops, will be known as the Vaclav Havel Programme. This is just one of the highlights of our 20th anniversary year 201213, marked with special events. It was formally launched with a lunch seminar for distinguished Europaeum and Oxford figures at Rhodes House, with Lord Patten, Chris Patten, Pierre Keller, and Erhad Busek Oxford University Chancellor, Launch our 20th anniversary year in Oxford seminar 2013 along with Dr Erhard Busek, a former deputy Chancellor of Austria, both Trustees, debating future prospects for our crisis-riven Europe. In November a major event will be held in London to mark the 10th anniversary of the Jenkins Scholarship Scheme which has backed more than 50 excellent young scholars to study across Europe.
University Members OXFORD
The University of Oxford, comprises 38 Colleges and 6 Private Halls, and dates its foundation officially to 1249, though teaching dates from 1096, and the first overseas scholar arrived in 1190. Students come from more than 140 countries. Colleges also help to foster a keen interdisciplinary approach, while the tutorial system builds critical learning and promotes research achievement. Oxford is usually ranked in the top five of the world league tables and in the top two in Europe. The consortium was conceived in Oxford, and there have been lengthy collaborations with many bodies, notably: the European Studies Centre, St Antonyâ€™s College; the Modern European History Research Centre; the Oxford Institute for European and Comparative Law, born through Europaeum support; The Jenkins Scholarship Scheme; and it supports various joint teaching initiatives, including a joint MA programme. Founded: 1249 Joined: 1993 Academic Staff: 5,400 Students: 21,870
Humanities: 13 departments Social Sciences: 14 departments
The Radcliffe Camera Law Library
Europaeum Academic Council members: Professor Andrew Hamilton (Chemistry), was appointed Vice-Chancellor in 2009, having previously been Provost of Yale.
Dr Hartmut Mayer (Politics) is Fellow in Politics & International Relations at St Peterâ€™s College, Oxford, since 1998. Now on the Steering Group Member. Dr Martin Conway (History) is Fellow in History at Balliol College, and expert on Belgium Europaeum Liaison Coordinators:
Nina Tomlin and Hattie Moody; International Office, University of Oxford, University Offices, Wellington Square, OX1 2JD, Oxford, UK; email: international.strategy@admin. ox.ac.uk; website: www.ox.ac.uk
University Members LEIDEN
Leiden is the oldest university in the Netherlands, founded in 1575, as a gift from William of Orange to the citizens of the city after they withstood a long siege by the Spanish. It was the first in the Netherlands to practise freedom of belief and religion, as reflected in the Universityâ€™s motto, Praesidium Libertatis. It was this freedom of speech that provided the environment for philosophers such as Spinoza and Descartes to develop their ideas. Leiden was a founding member and hosted the first summer school. It has regularly played a leading role in many new initiatives including executives and joint teaching programmes and academic links across law and history. Leiden is usually in the top 100 world universities, and usually in the top two in the Netherlands. Founded: 1575 Joined: 1993 Academic Staff: 2,000 Students: 20,684
Humanities: 7 departments Social Sciences: 5 departments
Main Academy Building
Europaeum Academic Council members: Professor Carel Stolker (Law), took over as Rector Magnificus in 2013. He is a Professor of Law and former Dean of the Leiden Law School. He sat on the Academic Steering Group for three years. Professor Wim van den Doel (History) Dean of the Faculty of Humanities since 2007, and Professor of Contemporary History. He chaired the Academic Committee, and currently convenes the Steering Group.
Wim Van den Doel Dr Joost Augusteijn (History)
is Lecturer in Modern History focusing on modern British and Irish history.
Europaeum Liaison Coordinator:
Dr Eric Beerkens, P.O. Box 9500, 2300 RA, Leiden, The Netherlands,email:h.j.j.g.beerkens@BB.leidenuniv.nl; website: www.leiden.edu 13
University Members BOLOGNA
Alma Mater Studiorum - Università di Bologna, officially constituted in 1158 by Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, as an independent place from other powers, though independent teaching dates back to 1088. Great thinkers in Science and the Humanities are amongst its prominent alumni, such as Dante Alighieri, Francesco Petrarca, Thomas Becket, Erasmus, Nicolaus Copernicus, Albrecht Dürer, Giosuè Carducci and Guglielmo Marconi. The University maintained a central cultural position and ranks among the top two or three universities in Italy. The Europaeum has particularly close links with the University’s Department of Social Sciences and Economics, and the History and Politics Department. Bologna helped pioneer the Summer School programme and early teaching collaborations, until Italian law made it more complex for such participants. Romano Prodi and Fabio Roversi Monaco were early supporters. Founded: 1158 (established 1088) Joined: 1994 Academic Staff: 5,900 Students: 87,418
Humanities: 8 departments Social Sciences: 6 departments The Rectorate in the Palazzo Poggi
Europaeum Academic Council members: Professor Ivano Dionigi(Classics) elected Rector in 2010. He is a Professor of Classics, and has taught Latin and Greek at the university for many years.
Professor Riccardo Rovelli (Economist), a former Oxford graduate, has been Professor of Economics at Bologna since 1997,Steering Group Member.
Europaeum Liaison Coordinator: Riccardo Rovelli Dr Giovanna Filippini, Area Relazioni Internazionali (International Relations Division), Università di Bologna, Palazzina della Viola, Via Filippo Re, 4, I-40126 Bologna Email: firstname.lastname@example.org; website: www.eng.unibo.it 14
University Members BONN
The Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universit채t Bonn was founded in 1818 by Kaiser Friedrich Wilhelm III, preceded though by an Academy established in 1777, in the age of Idealism and the Enlightenment, and furnished with the spirit of Wilhelm von Humboldt. Bonn ranks in the top few German universities. After World War II, a large-scale reconstruction led to many new facilities for the university and a steady increase in student numbers. The Europaeum enjoys a close working partnership with the Centre for Religion and Society (ZERG), and Bonn contributed to the early development of the EARN network project under Dr Hartmut Ihne. Founded: 1818 Joined: 1993 Academic Staff: 4,300; Students: 30,885
International: 1,847 Humanities: 11 departments Social Sciences: 6 departments Main University Building
Europaeum Academic Council members: Professor J체rgen Fohrmann (Literature), elected Rector in 2009. He joined the university in 1991, and was Dean of the Faculty of Arts between 2006-08. Professor Wolfram Kinzig (Theology) is a Professor of Theology and Director of the J체rgen Fohrmann Centre of Religion and Society (ZERG) since 2005, Steering Group Member. Wolfram Kinzig Europaeum Liaison Coordinator:: Violeta Tabus, Am Hof 1, 53113 Bonn, Germany; Email: email@example.com; website: www3.uni-bonn.de/ 15
University Members GENEVA
The Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies emerged in 2008 from the merger of the Graduate Institute of Development Studies with the former Institut Universitaire de Hautes Etudes Internationales (HEI), which had been founded in 1927 to provide â€˜students of all nations the means of undertaking and pursuing international studies, most notably of an historic, judicial, economic, political and social natureâ€™. It remains a world leading centre of teaching and research with strong ties to the international and non-governmental organisations in Geneva, with a highly diverse and vibrant faculty and international student body. A new Maison de la Paix has just been constructed. Geneva students have always played leading roles in Europaeum activities and the Oxford-Geneva Link Programme has supported bursaries, exchanges, high level lectures series and workshops. Founded: 1927 Joined: 1995 Academic Staff: 135 Postgraduate: 785 International: 650 Humanities: 1 department Social Sciences: 5 departments Original Villa Barton Site
Europaeum Academic Council members: Professor Philippe Burrin (History), Director of the Graduate Institute since 2004. Joined HEI in 1988 as Professor of International History and Politics.
Professor Slobodan Djajic (Economics) teaches Economics and Development at the Graduate Institute, having previously taught at Columbia University.
Slobodan Djajic Europaeum Liaison Coordinator: Dr Jasmine Champenois, Head of International Programmes, P.O. Box 136 1211 Geneva 21, Switzerland; email: firstname.lastname@example.org; website: www.graduateinstitute.ch 16
University Members PARIS
Université Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne, created in 1970 in the postMay 1968 reforms, replacing the former Université de Paris - originally founded in the 12th Century, though formally constituted by Papal Bull in 1215. Briefly suppressed by the French Revolution between 1793 and 1808, and reconstituted in 1890. Paris 1 was refounded, in the midst of an ideological shift, bringing together the humanities, law and economics into more specialised units avoiding hierarchical faculties. Paris 1 has been a leading player in joint programmes, led by Robert Frank and Hubert Kempf. The Europaeum has also collaborated closely with the Pierre Renouvin Institute at Paris 1. Founded: 1215 Joined: 1996 Academic Staff: 2,179 Students: 39,876 Postgraduate: 19,315 International: 8,000 Humanities: 5 departments Social Sciences: 6 departments Panthéon Sorbonne
Europaeum Academic Council members: Professor Philip Boutry (History) was elected President of Paris 1 in 2012. He is a Professor of History, specialising in the 19th Century.
Professor Jean-Marc Bonnisseau(Maths) teaches Mathematics with a focus on its application to Economics. He is VicePresident of International Relations, Steering Group Jean-Marc Bonnisseau Member.
Nicolas Vaicbourdt (History), Lecturer in Contemporary History linked to the Pierre Renouvin Institute, Former Member of the French Diplomatic Service.
Europaeum Liaison Coordinator: Nicolas Vaicbourdt, Deputy Director, International Relations Office, 1, rue Victor Cousin 75005 Paris, France; email: email@example.com; website: www.univ-paris1.fr 17
University Members PRAGUE
Charles University, Prague, was founded in 1348 by Charles IV, making it the first university north of the Alps and east of Paris. From 1882 to 1945 it was divided into Czech and German institutions. The Czech section was then revived as Charles University, but it is only since the fall of communism in 1989 that it has fully flourished again. Since then, the university has embraced international cooperation and research collaboration, and now regularly ranks in the world’s top 300 universities. The Europaeum has closely collaborated on various projects including the new joint MA programme with the Centre for European Studies and the Centre for Comparative Law. The Europaeum joint MA Programme Europe in a Global World was launched with Prague playing a leading role in its organisation, and the Europaeum has held many successfully workshops there. Founded: 1348 Joined: 1999 Academic Staff: 4,400 Students: 53,300 Postgraduate: 31,000 International: 7,300 Humanities: 19 departments Social Sciences: 2 departments
The main Carolinum Building
Europaeum Academic Council members: Professor Václav Hampl (Physiology) Rector since 2006. He is Professor of Physiology and Pathophysiology.
Luboš Tichý 18
Professor Lenka Rovná (Politics) founder of the Department of West European Studies, and Deputy Director of the Institute of International Studies, Steering Group Member. Professor Luboš Tichý (Law), Director of the Centre for Comparative EuropeanLaw at Charles University, and Professor of Law.
Europaeum Liaison Coordinator: Ms Ivana Halašková, Director, International Relations Office, Univerzita Karlova v Praze, Ovocny trh 3/5, 116 36 Praha, Czech Republic; email: Ivana.Halaskova@ruk.cuni.cz; website: www.cuni.cz/
University Members HELSINKI
The University of Helsinki was founded in 1640 by Queen Christina of Sweden as the Royal Academy of Turku. In 1828 it moved to Helsinki and the name was changed to The Imperial Alexander University as Finland had become a Grand Duchy of Russia. In 1919 after the Finnish independence in 1917 the official name became the University of Helsinki. After World War II, university research focused on improving Finnish living conditions, and supporting reforms in society and business, and breakthroughs in modern technology. It is a trilingual university and regularly ranks within the top 100 universities in the world. The Europaeum collaborates closely with the Universityâ€™s Network for European Studies, and has run many successful programmes with the University, encouraged by Thomas Wilhelmsson who served on all committees as Vice Rector and Rector. Founded: 1640 Joined: 2004 Academic Staff: 4,820 Students: 36,500 Postgraduate: 5,060 International: 1,825 Humanities: 6 departments Social Sciences: 2 depts.
Main University Building on Parliament Square
Europaeum Academic Council members: Professor Thomas Wilhelmsson (Law), Chancellor (from May 2013) and former Rector. Former Vice-Rector for bilingual and international affairs. He has been Professor of Civil and Commercial Law since 1981. DrJuhana Aunesluoma (Political History), Adjunct Thomas Wilhelmsson Professor in Political History, and the Director for the Network for European Studies since 2010. Juhana Aunesluoma Europaeum Liaison Coordinators: Mr Markus Laitinen & Marie-Louise Hindsberg, International Affairs Office, PO Box 17, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland; email: firstname.lastname@example.org; website: www.helsinki.fi/university/ 19
University Members KRAKOW
The Uniwersytet Jagiellonski (Jagiellonian University) was founded in 1364 in Krakow, then the Polish capital. It boasts Copernicus amongst its alumni. It has expanded, with varying intensities, throughout its history, with two ‘Golden Ages’, in the late 15th Century, and the 19th Century. The university, like Poland in general, was devastated during World War Two, and could only flourish once more after the fall of Communism. It remains the only university in Poland with a medical faculty. The Europaeum has a close collaboration with the Centre for European Studies, and has fielded many successful events in Krakow, of all disciplines, aided by former Rector Karol Musiol and Zdzislaw Mach. Founded: 1364 Joined: 2005 Academic Staff: 3,720; Students: 51,238
International: 3,028 Humanities: 40 departments Social Sciences: 11 departments
Europaeum Academic Council members: Professor Wojciech Nowak (Medicine), was elected Rector in 2012, having previously served as Vice-Rector of the Collegium Medicum. He has been the President of the European Society of Surgery since 2010. Professor Zdzislaw Mach (Sociology) is Founder of the Centre for Wojciech Nowak European Studies. He is a Professor of Sociology and Anthropology. Since 2012 he has been acting as Rector’s Proxy for International Relations. Europaeum Liaison Coordinator:
Natasza Styczyńska, Institute of European Studies, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ul. Jodlowa 13, 30-252 Krakow, Poland Email: email@example.com; website: www.uj.edu.pl/
University Members BARCELONA
The Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF) was established in 1990, on three neighbouring campuses in the centre of Barcelona, as a new model university for Spain. It is noted for quality teaching, proximity to the students, a high internationalisation, and emphasis on research and innovation. It focuses on social sciences and humanities;health and life sciences, and ICT and communication sciences. Indicators have made it a benchmark for the Spanish university system, and it now regularly ranks in the top 200 universities in the world. It is named after Pompeu Fabra, who laid down the foundations of the Catalan language. Barcelona has made a strong start to membership, and hosts immediately the 2013 summer school. Founded: 1990 Joined: 2012 Academic Staff: 556 Students: 12,051 Postgraduate: 5,182 International: 2,300 Humanities: 2 depts Social Sciences: 2 depts
Main campus, Pompeu Fabra
Europaeum Academic Council members: Professor Josep Joan Moreso (Law) has been Rector of UPF since 2005, and is Professor of the Philosophy of Law. Professor Josep Ferrer Riba (Law) is a Professor of Private Law at UPF, and Vice-Rector for International Josep Joan Moreso Relations, Steering Group Member. Josep Ferrer Riba
Europaeum Liaison Coordinator:
Sara L贸pez Selga, Director of International Relations, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Pl. de la Merc猫 10 -12 - 08002 Barcelona; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org; website: www.upf.edu/ 21
Associate Members MADRID (COMPLUTENSE)
Founded: 1293 Joined: 2003 Academic Staff: 6,289 Students: 84,895 Postgraduate: 12,544 International: 7,546 Humanities: 50 departments Social Sciences: 25 depts The Complutense was founded in the ancient town Main Building, Complutense of Complutum (present day Alcalรก de Henares) by a Papal Bull in 1499, though it traces back 1293, when Sancho IV of Castile created the Estudio de Escuelas Generales de Alcalรก. In 1836 it was moved to Madrid, and called the Central University. During the Civil War, however, it became a battle front, with the wholesale destruction of faculty buildings, institutions, and part of its rich scientific, artistic and bibliographical heritage. In 1970 it was renamed the Complutense University, as part of national reforms. Europaeum Academic Council Member: Professor Juan Ferrera Cuesta (Mathematics) is the Vice-Rector for Institutional and International Relations. Europaeum Liaison Coordinator:
Juan Ferrera Cuesta
Ms Mariรกn Lรณpez Fdez. Cao, Oficina de Relaciones Internacionales, Universidad Complutense, Avda. Seneca, 2 Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid. email: email@example.com; website: www.ucm.es
LISBON (INSTITUTE OF POLITICAL STUDIES) Founded: 1996 Joined: 2007 Academic Staff: 90 Students: 300 Postgraduates: 140 Humanities: 0 departments Social Sciences: 3 department The Institute for Political Studies (IEP) serves as a broad, long Lisbon Campus term strategic project, founded in 1996. It is part of the Catholic University of Portugal, founded in 1967, bringing together many of the best scholars and professionals in Politics, 22
International Relations, Security and Defence. It aims to renew the example of the Sagres School, where Prince Henry the Navigator once placed Portugal en route to the 15th century Voyages of Discovery. The IEP collaborates with the Europaeum in many ways - in particular, through an IEP Graduate Debate at the annual international Estoril Political Forum, the Lisbon-Oxford Graduate Exchange Programme, and an annual Brussels EU/NATO Policy-making seminar. Europaeum Academic Council Member: Professor João Carlos Espada (Politics), Director and founder of the IEP, and Professor of Political Studies. He holds the European Parliament / Bronislaw Geremek European Civilization Chair at the College of Europe, Natolin (Warsaw) Europaeum Liaison Coordinator:
Dr. Ivone Moreira, Palma de Cima 1649-023 Lisboa, Portugal Email: firstname.lastname@example.org; website: www.iep.lisboa.ucp.pt
MADRID (FOM) Founded: 1978 Joined: 2011 Academic Staff: 200 Students: 2100 Postgraduate: 1,100 International: 1,750 Humanities: 5 depts Social Sciences: 15 depts The Fundación Ortega Fundación Ortega Marañón Marañón (FOM) was created recently by merging two institutes named after two prominent, liberal intellectuals whose ideas influenced a new generation of Spanish thinkers: Gregorio Marañón and José Ortega y Gasset, once Professor of Metaphysics at Complutense. It is a private, non-profit institution devoted to culture, debate and research in Social Sciences and Humanities. Europaeum Academic Council Members: Professor José Varela Ortega (History), Rector of FOM since 2007. Dr Antonio Lopez Vega (History), Assistant Professor of Contemporary History and Deputy Director of the FOM. Europaeum Liaison Coordinator:
Jose Varela Ortega
Dr Antonio Lopez Vega, Ortega y Gasset University Research Institute, Fortuny 53-28010, Madrid, Spain. Email: email@example.com Website: www.ortegaygasset.edu/ 23
Total Income (actual + in-kind) c. €280,000 p.a. The Europaeum receives its funds in the form of benefactions, grants, and subscriptions from partner institutions. It also relies on many contributions ‘in kind’ from host partner institutions and waived fees from participating academics. Some grants relating to special projects or schemes are held separately, such as the Jenkins Scholarships’ Scheme.
Total Expenditure c. €345,000 p.a. Fixed costs account for around €110,000 p.a. Some 90% of staffing cost is related directly to event preparation and support. Of the scholarship support some €65,000 p.a. is held separately by the Jenkins Memorial Fund. Jointcourse teaching costs are currently mostly funded directly by Leiden University.
Benefactors & Donors PATRON HSH The Prince Hans Adam of Liechtenstein
Since its foundation, the Europaeum has received generous support from the following individuals and organisations, making possible fresh collaboration between our partner universities: APEX ARCO ARTAL (Mr Guy Ullens) The Bertelsmann Foundation BT Mr Friedrich Busse (Firmenich GmbH) Capital Group Clifford Chance The Clore Foundation DaimlerChrysler Services AG The European Commission Mrs Madeleine Feher The Hon Dr Paul Flather Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio The Forte Charitable Trust Count Giuseppe Gazzoni-Frascara The Maniusia and Gidesgame Trust Sir Ronald Grierson Mrs Robin Hambro Sir Emmanuel Kaye M. Pierre Keller Mr Claas Kleyboldt (AXA Konzern AG) Mr Henry Kravis HSH The Prince Hans Adam of Liechtenstein Marcucci Group Mr Jurg Marquard Mrs Maja Oetker Sir Angus Ogilvy The Lisbet Rausing Foundation Mr Wafic Said The Fritz Thyssen Stiftung Mr Paul Fentener van Vlissingen Lord and Lady Weidenfeld The Wolfson Foundation Many of the above have also been involved in the work of the Europaeum, through the advisory Foundersâ€™ Council. 25
The Europaeum functions as a not-for-profit Company, incorporated under UK Law, and as a charity under UK Law (Charity number 110 54 77). It is run from a small office in Oxford, governed by an independent Board of Trustees, working with the international Academic Council, and other mediating bodies.
Academic Council The Academic Council is responsible for all decisions affecting academic policy, strategy, initiatives and links, and consists entirely of academic representatives. An annual meeting is held in the summer to review and set academic policy for the year ahead. The Council is chaired by Dr Andrew Graham, an Economist and former adviser to the UK Prime Minister, and former Master of Balliol College, Oxford University. Each member has up to two senior academic representatives on the Council, including the head of each university institution, ex officio (or a nominated proxy), together representing a wide cross-section of disciplines. This currently Andrew Graham includes Law, Economics, History, Politics, Theology, Philosophy, Classics and Sociology. (See pages 10-21 for individual members)
Steering Group This group, currently with six members, is responsible for guiding the Secretary-General in the Europaeum office in week-to-week matters in between meetings, and to serve as an informal sounding board for policy activities and ideas. Current members include Professor Wim van den Doel (Convenor, Leiden, International History), Dr Hartmut Mayer (Oxford, Politics), Professor Wolfram Kinzig (Bonn, Theology), Professor Jean-Marc Bonnisseau (Paris, Economics), Professor Ricardo Rovelli (Bologna, Economics), Professor Lenka Rovna (Prague, European Politics), and co-opted Josep Ferrer Riba (Barcelona, Law). Wim van den Doel
Central Secretariat Secretariat The Europaeum office and secretariat is based in central Oxford at 99 Banbury Road, where it has been located since 2001. The network is coordinated by a Secretary-General, currently Dr Paul Flather, former head of External and International Relations at Oxford University, former Secretary-General of the Central European University, a former journalist, human rights activist, and politician, who oversees the operation and development of the association, and leads its graduate workshops and summer schools.
His main administrative support comes from two regular short-term graduate interns, usually drawn from partner universities, who are encouraged to attend Oxford seminars and lectures and use University also libraries during their stay, extending the mission of the Europaeum itself. Chad Frischmann, a former staff member now studying at Berkeley, provides longer term support as a consultant, and Gareth Lloyd, a former staff member, have maintained the overall website. Babak Moussavi, a former intern, due to study at Oxford, provides editorial and design support.
Liaison Coordination Group Liaison is carried out by a network of partner liaison coordinators, supporting academics and external colleagues, and past Europaeum Alumni, who serve as vital â€œambassadorsâ€? for the consortium. This group is responsible for regular work, enabling academic initiatives to be implemented and followed up. It holds audio meetings, and meets before Academic Council meetings. It works to follow-up on discussions and decisions from the Academic Council and the Board of Trustees. The committee is convened by the Secretary-General, and comprises the Europaeum officer appointed inside each partner institution. (See pages 10-21 for details of individual officers)
The Europaeum has stimulated many new international research collaboration. Small project grants enable groups to run a research seminar or workshop, co-ordinate a research proposal, or prepare bids to the European Union and other funding bodies as the following Research Project Groups illustrate:
Church and Family in Western Europe (2000 - 02) This project brought together moral theologians from Christian churches in West Europe (Anglican, Roman Catholic, Lutheran and Reformed) to create a common orientation for valuing the family and facing the challenges and changes affecting family life today, looking specifically at conceptual opportunities. It operated through three-day annual meetings over the course of three years. Oxfordâ€™s Divinity School Coordinator: Professor O.M.T.Oâ€™Donovan (Oxford) Linked Institutions: Oxford, Bonn and Leiden
The Kosovo Stability Pact and the Balkans (2000 -01) The Group linked researchers from all Europaeum partners, to synthesize research across a number of disciplines, aimed at exposing and analyzing the heterogeneities and commonalities existent in South East Europe. A successful workshop was held in Geneva. Funding proposals to the EU and other foundations, to focus (on themes including conflict, intolerance, sociolinguistics, law, social inter-relations, demographic trends, regional geography, transport, and political heritage) did not materialise, although individual Keeping the peace projects relating to the Pact developed separately. Coordinator: Professor Michael Kaser (Oxford) Linked Institutions: Oxford, Bologna, Leiden, Bonn, Geneva and Paris
European Economic Integration (2002 - 09) This group assessed the functioning of the Euro and the European Monetary System at both rhetorical and empirical levels since 2002, in a series of seven meetings plus a linked Summer School, contributing to the understanding of the process of financial integration in Europe and to the analysis of currency consolidation processes at the world level, as well as developing a network of linked faculty, young scholars and graduates. Coordinators: Professors Hubert Kempf (Paris), Frantisek Turnovec (Prague); Gianpaolo Rossini and Ricardo Rovelli (Bologna), Tapio Palokangas (Helsinki) Linked Institutions: Paris, Bologna, Prague, Helsinki, Leiden, Oxford. 28
European Identity: Reason, Science, Law (2002 - 05) This project provided a multi-faceted, multidisciplinary approach to the problem of European identity, rooted in philosophical research and drawing on History, Law and Science. Discussions took place on the early history of sovereignty and its relevance for the future of the European Union, with attention paid to Machiavelli Machiavelli and the emergence of European governance. Co-ordinator: Professor Grahame Lock (Leiden/Oxford) Linked Institutions: Oxford, Bologna, Leiden and Prague
The Regulation of e-Commerce (2002 - 03) This research group examined the extent to which the law can content itself with an expectation that what holds good ‘off-line’ also applies ‘online’, through exploring the technological, political and social challenges presented by the burgeoning e-commerce sector. Workshops led to the publication of a volume of essays, E-commerce Law: National Topics and Perspectives (Kluwer Law International, 2003, 144 pages). Coordinators: Professors Stephen Weatherill (Oxford) and Henk Snijders (Leiden) Linked Institutions: Oxford and Leiden
Transmission of Science (2002 - 06) The project examined the passage and ‘transition’ of knowledge and practices between scientific communities, between teachers and pupils, and between professional scientists and laypeople in a cycle of meetings, workshops and seminars held in Paris, Bologna and Oxford. A meeting in Oxford (2002), for example, highlighted insufficient transmission models where communities are treated as passive recipients of knowledge communicated from the ‘Centre’. It concluded that analyses of centre-periphery relations had to take far more account of the active role of individuals and communities on the periphery as well as at the centre. Coordinators: Professors Robert Fox (Oxford), Pietro Corsi (Paris/Oxford)) and Giuliano Pancaldi (Bologna) da Vinci’s aerial screw Linked Institutions: Oxford, Bologna, Paris.
Liberalism in 20th Century Europe (2003 - 07) This project investigated the history of liberal thought in 20th-Century Europe in its national and transnational dimensions, under two broad themes: how different forms of liberalism have reacted to the persistent onslaught of anti-liberal and illiberal ideologies in the 20th Century, and how non-liberal ideologies and traditions have accommodated or taken over liberal Michael Freeden with students arguments, whether as rhetorical devices; or exercises in ideological repositioning and packaging; or as genuine assimilations of liberal ideas. Research workshops were held in Oxford, in Prague, and in Debrecen, Hungary. Many papers emerged from the group. Coordinators: Professor Michael Freeden (Oxford), Professor Paolo Pombeni (Bologna) and Dr Jan-Werner M端ller (Oxford/Princeton). Linked Institutions: Oxford, Leiden, Bologna and Prague
Social Security Law (2005 - 07) This project combined research and teaching at four partner universities studying European social security legislation. As European citizens enjoy increasing job mobility, local and EU initiatives take on increasing significance. Investigating legal handouts The coordinators created a simple panEuropean tool to disseminate research on the differences in national implementation and application processes of common European legislation. Meetings were held in Ghent (2005 and 2007) and Paris (2006). Co-ordinator: Professor Francis Kessler (Paris) Linked Institutions: Paris, Helsinki, Prague plus Ghent
Cultural Difference in Europe (2005 - ) This group was launched at a workshop in Prague in 2005, involving academics, intellectuals, artists and arts managers, and was followed up with successful workshops in Krakow and Madrid. It is planned to hold a future international conference in 2013 in Paris, with the aim of distilling a series of essays to be published in a volume. Participants from outside Europe have given New European Citizens the group additional perspectives. Coordinators: Dr Nicolas Bunnin (Oxford), Professor Jiri Pehe (Prague), Professor Grazyna Skapska (Krakow), Professor Antonio Elorza (Madrid). Linked Institutions: Prague, Oxford, Krakow, Madrid, plus Tamkang (Taiwan). 30
European Political Concepts (2006 - ) This group is investigating how key judicial and political concepts are used across, and within, European nations, linguistic groups and political boundaries. It continues to make excellent progress with annual events taking place in Helsinki, Oxford and Berlin. An editorial board has been set up and the group plans to bring out volumes on different Speaking with one voice? thematic areas, (from 2013 onwards) based on comparative studies of clusters of linked concepts, as differently used by core countries peripheral countries. Co-ordinators: Professors Michael Freeden (Oxford), Henrik Stenius and Bo Str책th (Helsinki), Nere Basabe (Madrid). Linked Institutions: Helsinki, Oxford, Geneva, Bologna, Paris and Madrid
Liberalism & Consensus Building in Europe (2013 - )
sought, and why in others, it is not.
Many of the key actors from the Liberalism group are reviving links, this time focusing on forms and modes of consensus-building within the framework of liberaldemocracies, and researching why, in certain circumstances, and political cultures, consensus is
Co-ordinators: Professors Michael Freeden (Oxford), Paolo Pombeni (Bologna), Henk te Velde (Leiden), and Jo찾o Espada (Lisbon) Linked Institutions: Oxford, Leiden, Bologna, Prague, and Lisbon
Future of European Universities
The Europaeum completed a cycle of events and seminars looking at The Future of European Universities, supported by a major grant from DaimlerChrysler Services AG (as it was then), examining the opportunities, conditions and methods that enable European universities to play a leading role in the current Knowledge Revolution. The project tackled three broad questions, (i) what kinds of partnerships do universities need to make, and with whom ? (ii) What ‘new’ university elements are needed to meet the challenges of an age of globalisation and lifelong learning ? (iii) How does this ‘new’ model compare to and fit in with the existing global leaders ? Three major international expert events, involving policy makers, politicians, media, civil servants, as well as academics and young scholars, were held over two years: (see also page 51) Borderless Education: Bridging Europe, at Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 2001 New Responsibilities for New Times, at the University of Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne, 2002 New Partnerships: Opportunities and Risks, at the University of Bonn, 2003 Keynote participants included: Hon. Prof. Marcello Pera, President of the Italian Senate; Lord Weidenfeld, Chairman of Weidenfeld and Nicolson Publishers; Professor Jürgen Mlynek, President of Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin; Dr Christina von Furstenberg, Head of Policies and International Cooperation in Social Sciences, UNESCO; Dr Dominique Moïsi, French Institute for International Relations and Editor-in-Chief, Politique Etrangère; M Jack Lang, Former Secretary of State for Education, France; Avi Primor, Former Ambassador of Israel in Germany, currently Vice President, Tel Aviv University; and Mary Robinson, Executive Director of the Ethical Globalization Initiative, former UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, and former President of Ireland. The event produced a series of six extended recommendations, aimed at universities, employers, funding agencies and governments, but above all at society as a whole, defending the spirit and role of universities, driving forward the continuing process of adaptation and change. A full report is available on our website and as a policy report from the office, including the proceedings of all three expert conferences, keynote talks and lectures, background research papers, an international survey, and lists of George Weidenfeld & Paul Flather at the Berlin Colloquium participants. 32
Europaeum Lectures have been a key part of the consortium’s work since its foundation, examining key issues confronting Europe today. Many have been published as pamphlets by eminent intellectuals including Hew Strachan, Charles Wyplosz, Adam Roberts, Wim Blockmans, and Vernon Bogdanor.
The Europaeum Essentials
Essentials contains details on the Europaeum’s activities, programmes and plans in a handy pocket-sized guide. This is the fourth edition in 12 years.
Europaeum Review (2000-8)
The Review combined news, opinions and significant essays, and was published twice a year and circulated free to all Europaeum faculty, friends and supporters. (ISSN 1474-8614). It was suspended due to lack of funding. Articles now appear on the website.
A monthly email newsletter filled with up-to-date news, analysis, and humour, forthcoming events and publications, with its popular link of the month, FootNote, and EndNote sections. Sign up to receive it by subscribing via www.europaeum.org
Annual Reports and Summaries
The Annual Report summarises the past year’s activities, with reports on achievements, the budget, and future plans. In recent years we have produced a simplified Annual Summary.
Quarterly update on events, news and opportunities with the Europaeum.
The following publications are based on events sponsored, or cosupported, by the Europaeum, since its foundation in 1993: Élitism, Populism and European Politics, report of the 1993 Europaeum conference, edited by Professor Jack Hayward, published by Clarendon Press. [ISBN 0-19-828035-1] Democracy and the Internet: New Rules For New Times, report of the 2001 Europaeum Policy Forum (Oxford), published with contributions from Professor Sir Tim Berners-Lee and the Prime Minister’s e-Envoy, Andrew Pinder. (Copies available from the secretariat, price €8/ £5.) Edited by Paul Flather. Federalism and the Future of Europe, Report from the 2001 Club of Three conference (Basel, Switzerland). Whose Europe? Collected papers from the event on National Models and the Constitution of the European Union, held in 2003 in Oxford. Edited by Stephen Weatherill and Kalypso Nicolaidis. E-Commerce Law: National and Transnational Topics and Perspectives, (Kluwer Law International, 2003, 144 pages) Papers from European seminar at Leiden, on a wide range of e-commerce legal issues. Edited by Stephen Weatherill and Henk Snijders. We and the Others: Modern European Societies in Search of Identity, (published in Czech by Charles University, Prague,2004) following a 2002 workshop on the theme. Restructuring Corporate Governance: The New European Agenda, (Oxford, 2005) addresses and discussion from the Leiden-Oxford Programme conference. Edited by Paul Flather. The Future of European Universities, (Project report, 2006) introducing papers, talks and debates from three major international experts conferences in Bonn, Paris and Berlin, including key recommendations for future reform and research. America and Europe: Moving towards 2020 (Oxford, 2007) contains essays and commentaries, prepared for the 2007 conference on Does the West still exist? Keynote essay by Stephen Wall and James Goldgeier. 34
Connecting Europe through History: Human Rights in Europe? (Oxford, 2007) Euroclio and the Europaeum reports and conclusions from a series of events and workshops held across Europe. Edited by Paul Flather. Franco-British interactions in science since the Seventeenth Century - Essays based on a cycle of events (2003-7).(College Publications, London 2010) (Edited by Robert Fox and Bernard Joly) Facets of Migration in Contemporary Europe - Essays from a Europaeum Graduate Workshop, held in April 2008. Edited by Paul Flather, Irina Angelescu and Sergiu Gheorgina). Liberalisms in East and West - The 2009 conference in Oxford includes contributions from Timothy Garton Ash, Michael Freeden, Samuel Brittan, Rajeev Bhargava, Ronald Dworkin, and many others. (Edited by Timothy Garton Ash and Paul Flather.) Sovereignty & Integration - Paradoxes and Development within Europe Today (from 2009 Conference ), based on a conference hosted at the Czech Foreign Ministry (Edited by Luboš Tichý and Tomas Dumbrovsky)
Connecting Europe through History: Experiences and Perceptions of Migrations (Oxford, 2011) Euroclio, the Europaeum, and ISHA, based a report and an analysis on a series of events and workshops held across Europe, linking schools and universities. (Edited by Paul Flather.)
Many publications are available on the Europaeum website. Select hard copies may still be obtained from the secretariat. 35
The Europaeum has enjoyed collaborating with various specialist units based with our partner institutions down the years, in delivering its mission and activities. These included the following:
OXFORD: Institute of European and Comparative Law The Institute of European and Comparative Law is a leading research centre of the Oxford University Law Faculty, established in 1995. Its function is to develop and further the work of the Oxford University Law Faculty in the fields of European and Comparative Law, by advancing the research and teaching in these fields, and by developing a structure of specialised staff and relevant activities. It currently en-comprises 16 academic staff members, including annual chairs funded by France and Germany. (www.iecl.ox.ac.uk)
PRAGUE: Jean Monnet Centre for European Studies Charles University founded its Centre for European Studies in 2000 at its Institute of International Studies, under the directorship of Professor Lenka RovnĂĄ, the first such in Central and Eastern Europe. In addition to organizing lectures, seminars and workshops, the Centre runs a journal Inter-grace, hosts the Czech Charles University European Community Studies Association, and runs a training programme in EU matters for Czech officials and civil servants (firstname.lastname@example.org).
OXFORD: Modern European History Research Centre The Modern European History Research Centre (MEHRC), linked to Oxford Universityâ€™s History Faculty, was set up in 1999 by Robert Evans to generate innovative research in European history from the Renaissance to the present, to build international research networks, and to train new generations of research Institute of European and Comparative students. It supports graduate Law workshops held in Paris, Brussels, Berlin, and Geneva. The Chair is currently Professor Lyndal Roper, and Research Director is Dr Tom Buchanan (www.history.ox.ac.uk/mehrc).
OXFORD: European Studies Centre The European Studies Centre at St Antony’s College, Oxford, founded in 1976, with a generous grant from the Volkswagen Foundation, is dedicated to the interdisciplinary study of Europe. It has particular strengths in History, Politics and International Relations, but also brings together economists, sociologists, social anthropologists and students of culture. It has six permanent Fellows, Visiting Fellows from several European countries, and research assistants, seminars, workshops and special lectures. Current director is Professor Othon European Studies Centre Anastasakis. (http://www.sant.ox.ac.uk/esc) St. Antony’s College
OXFORD: Oxford Internet Institute The OII was founded in 2001 at the University of Oxford, as an academic centre for the study of the societal implications of the Internet. Grounded in a determination to measure, understand and explain the Internet’s multi-faceted interactions and effects, the Institute’s research projects bring together some of the best international scholars within a multidisciplinary department in one of the world’s top research universities. It is the only major department in a top-ranked international university to offer multi-disciplinary social science degree programmes focusing on the Internet, attracting top-scoring students drawn from a variety of different disciplines. The OII runs major survey research, a DPhil programme, and visitor programmes. Current director is Professor Helen Margetts. (www.oii.ox.ac.uk)
BONN: Centre for Religion and Society The Centre for Religion and Society (Zentrum für Religion und Gesellschaft - ZERG) was established at Bonn in 2005 as a multi-disciplinary Institute of Advanced Study including Theology, Oriental studies, comparative study of religion (Religionswissenschaft), sociology of religion, education, political science, law etc. It offers a one-year Master’s degree in Ecumenical Studies (MESt), in the three major Christian traditions (Orthodoxy, Catholicism, and Protestantism), and to facilitate students’ engagement with the challenges and possibilities of inter-traditional dialogue and cooperation. The current director is Professor Wolfram Kinzig (www.uni-bonn.de/www/zerg.html)
PARIS: Pierre Renouvin Institute The Pierre Renouvin Institute was founded in 1983 and operates as five research centres, each with its own distinct research area and seminars. The Centres focus upon the history of contemporary Central Europe, the history of Slavic countries, NorthAmerican history, the history of Latin America and the Iberian world, and the history of contemporary International Relations. The Institute federates its work by sharing expertise in international relations, Pierre Renouvin organising a Diplome d’etudes approfondies of history of foreign worlds and international relations, and publishing the Bulletin of the Institute Pierre Renouvin. The current director is Professor Antoine Mares (email@example.com, http://ipr.univ-paris1.fr).
LONDON: Institute for Strategic Dialogue The Institute for Strategic Dialogue (ISD) is an independent think tank, founded by Lord (George) Weidenfeld, working with leaders in government, business, media and academia to develop multi-country responses to the major security and socio-economic challenges of our time and to enhance Europe’s capacity to act effectively in the global arena. Activities include research, specialised task forces, high level policy briefings, scholarships and cross border networks that foster leadership and stability across Europe and its wider neighbourhood, actively bridging inter-communal, religious, socio-economic and political divides. The current Executive Director is Sasha Havlicek (www.strategicdialogue.org).
New York Review of Books Charitable Foundation The NYRB, with a worldwide circulation of over 135,000, set up its own foundation in 2011 to run various international activities and events linked to some of the debates in its pages. The NYRB has established itself, as ‘the premier literary-intellectual magazine in the English language,’ begun during the 1963 publishing strike, when founding editors, Robert Silvers and Barbara Epstein, and their friends, decided to create a new, totally independent voice, ‘one in which the most interesting and qualified minds of our time would discuss current books and issues in depth’. The current head is Simon Head, and joint events have already been held in Paris, London, Oslo, Oxford and New York (www.nybooks.com). 38
KRAKOW: Centre for European Studies
The Centre for European Studies, established in 1993, is an interdisciplinary unit of the Jagiellonian University. In addition to independent research and consulting projects, the Centre offers Masters degrees in European Studies in both English and Polish, with individual study Przegorzaly Castle, Jagiellonian offered at the undergraduate, graduate and doctoral levels. The European Training Centre provides non-degree training courses for civil servants and business people in connection with the EU. The Centre also sponsors conferences, public lectures and discussions, including the European Meeting series with Polish politicians. The current director is Professor Zdzislaw Mach (www. cee.studies.uj.edu.pl)
BOLOGNA: The Department of Political Science
The Department of Political Science (DSP) founded in 1986 as Dipartimento di Organizzazione e Sistema Politico, has now developed into the largest Department of Political Science in Italy, comprising more than one in five political scientists working in Italian universities. The Department has particular strengths in Public Administration, Organization Theory and Public Policy Analysis; in Comparative Politics, with an Political Science Department emphasis on political institutions, parties, elections and electoral systems, legislative-executive relations; and finally, in Comparative Judicial Systems, relationships and judicial representative links. The current head of the department is Professor Fabio Giusberti, Faculty of Politics (firstname.lastname@example.org,www.dosp.unibo.it)
HELSINKI: Network for European Studies The Network for European Studies was founded in 2002 to reinforce and coordinate the study of European issues, across all faculties and disciplines of the University of Helsinki. This multidisciplinary orientation is the defining feature. Helsinki strongly supports European studies, and promotes interaction with key actors in Finnish politics and society. The Network aims to coordinate this study into larger units and to strengthen visibility. The current director is Juhana Aunesluoma (www.helsinki.fi/ nes). The NES building 39
These began as an experiment in 2001 as Classicists are often relatively neglected in terms of international support. They have become an established feature of the calender, upheld by a network of researchers. Please check the website for full report and expert participants. 2001 Oxford: Travel and Tourism in Ancient Times On a chilly November weekend in 2001, graduate students from the universities of Leiden, Prague, Bologna, Bonn, Geneva and Oxford, gathered for what effectively became a three-day festival , which also incorporated tours, informal meetings and seminars, around Oxford and its historic libraries and sites, on travel and tourism in ancient times. 2002 Oxford: Recent Papyrus findings This event, including participants from seven partners, focussed on a recent papyrus find which was still unfamiliar to many students. The publication of 800 previously unknown lines of Greek poetry was bound to be an event. The book contained a decipherment and reconstruction of the unique papyrus, and stimulated a range of literature, historical and methodological questions.
2003 Oxford: Approaches to Herodotus and Tacitusâ€™s Annals This theme was designed to engender a comparative approach of research methods and study traditions used in the different Classics departments, and to showcase the differences and similarities in the opening chapters of the works of two important ancient historians - one Greek, one Roman, with participants from eight partner universities.
2005 Leiden: Tears in the Ancient World This fourth Colloquium considered how tears in the ancient Greek and Roman era were regarded, depicted and explained â€“ in literature and in visual art, by philosophers, scholars and scientists. An unusual theme, it was deemed a wonderfully productive source. Melancholia 2006 Madrid: The Orient, Greece, & Rome The fifth Colloquium was held at Complutense University, and looked at two main perspectives: Oriental influences on Greece and Rome in religion, literature and philosopy; and personal Greek and Roman attitudes to the Other or the presence of Oriental populations in Greece or Rome.
2007 Oxford: Myth, Culture, Society - in memory of Jean-Pierre Vernant Jean-Pierre Vernant (1914-2007) was a towering figure in the field of classics, both in his native France and internationally. This colloquium combined reflection on Vernantâ€™s crucial contribution to the discipline of Classics by leading scholars in his field, with a broader exploration of themes investigated in his scholarly work, under the various headings of myth, culture and society. 40
2008 Bologna: Metamorphosis between Science and Literature The theme for the seventh in the series was on the classical concept of Metamorphosis, both its literal and metaphorical meanings. It included both scientific subjects such as alchemy and chemistry, and literary themes such as intertextuality, disguising, pastiche, translation, and so forth, and was linked to academic events in Bologna and Ravenna. 2009 Prague: Teaching, Teachers and Students The eighth event was held in Prague, to discuss Greek education and attitudes; sophistry and philosophy; pedagogy; didacticism; Roman education and attitudes; and literary depictions of teaching and learning. Papers given by experts and young scholars, included human as well as history of didactics - the Stoics for example believed attendance should be for free! 2010 Krakow: Death and the Afterlife The ninth event focussed on the apparantly morbid theme of Death and the Afterlife, but again this allowed a broad range of areas of research: linguistics, literature, culture, religion, philosophy, archeology, art history and Graduates discussing the afterlife others, and subjects such as murder, suicide, and the role of the Gods. Additional support came from the Rector. 2011 Helsinki: Strangers and Friends The tenth in our series was hosted at Helsinki, with graduate scholars from eight member universities presenting papers, including themes such as the impact of Roman imperialism, war, city life, culture and religion and myth, not to mention the real meanings of friendship.
The Trojan War
2012 Oxford: Leadership in the Ancient World: Odium or Wisdom? This event, hosted at Ioannou Classics Centre in Oxford, assessed how leadership qualities, and its virtues and vices, were described by poets, thinkers, and leaders themselves in ancient times, and how this affected outcomes in war and peace, and in family and public life, with graduate scholars from eight partners participating. 41
The Europaeum seeks to promote academic and technological cooperation between its member’s partner libraries.
Digitisation Technological progress has gradually changed the way we search and use libraries. Librarians, researchers and students have come to rely on digitisation of journals and of books, raising questions over access, copyright and provision. The Europaeum has contributed to these debates in a variety of ways, including a highly successful international conference looking at the Dilemmas of Digitisation. The event examined how to improve communication between leading libraries to promote shared and linked digitisation projects, and avoid duplication. Participants also relished meeting other colleagues. Discussions highlighted controversy over the alleged power and influence of Google. The company’s decision to digitise major library holdings, at Oxford’s Bodleian Library for some £20 million, also divided opinions. Paris academics working in their library
Web Portal In 2000, the Europaeum investigated creating a single web portal for library access to public, digitised materials, from all of its member universities. The Secretary-General, in cooperation with senior staff at the Bodleian Library, Oxford, proposed cooperation on a joint online search engine, and work began. Subsequent web developments have made the idea largely redundant, thought scope remains for information flows in specialised holdings.
Librarian Exchanges The Europaeum has sought funds to augment its academic exchange programmes, to support specific library exchanges among professionals working in its partner universities. Digitalising the humanities
The development of collaborative, multi-centered courses fulfills a central objective of the Europaeum mission, providing future business, political, social and intellectual leaders with a panEuropean educational experience.
MA in European History and Civilisation The universities of Paris I, Oxford and Leiden launched an innovative joint MA in European History and Civilisation in 2004-05, all offering different perspectives delivered in three different modes. About 100 students will have graduated from this course by 2013. This joint MA course offers graduate students a special opportunity to deepen their knowledge of European history and institutions, their philosophical and historical backgrounds and underpinnings, and their social and economic contexts, through the lens of three different university worlds. Such knowledge plays an increasingly crucial role in practical decision-making and strategic planning, where Europe-wide and global contact and negotiation is required.
The one-year programme is divided into trimesters, each with a local academic coordinator, with the first at Leiden, focusing broadly on state formation and nationalism since Leiden 1200, as well as ideas, methods and philosophy used to interpret European history and civilisation studies. The second at Paris focuses on structures of power and culture, encapsulating communication, public space and relations between history, memory and space. At Oxford, students have a special seminar programme around the idea of the emergence of Europe. In each module, candidates select from a range of topics, and are tutored to support the writing of their dissertation, while affiliated to one of the historic colleges.
MA Europaeum Cohort for 2006-2007
Participants also gain from extensive networking facilities offered by study at three leading higher-education institutions in Europe, and the programme actively stimulates contact between participants, local institutions, and intellectuals and alumni, bridging various academic communities.
This joint programme leads to a MA degree in European History, validated and awarded by Leiden University, together with a Europaeum Certificate. For more information on the modules and lead academics, and on how to apply, see www.europaeum.org. 43 43
MA Programme in: Europe on Politics and Society A new two-year joint Europaeum MA Programme focussed on Politics and Society, was launched in September 2012.
The core participating institutions are Charles University, Prague, which would offer a syllabus largely made up of political theory and institutions modules; Paris 1 which would offer geographic and anthropological elements; and Leiden which would offer international relations and history components, including a focus on the EC and EU. Up to 20 graduates are expected to participate by Year Two, including at least five from each core participating institution.
The full programme, will include the degree course, a series of prestigious Europaeum Lectures, and specialist international workshops, and in time it is hoped to add special Paris bursaries to support student research and mobility. The first of these workshops took place in Oxford in May 2013, when the first of the Europaeum Lectures was given by Professor Margaret MacMillan. The second linked lecture will be given by Professor Sir Adam Roberts from Oxford, in Prague in September. The first student transfers will occur from autumn 2013, and the first EMAP Graduates are expected by August Leiden 2014. The programme is to be known as the Vaclav Havel European Programme. EMAP has been designed to allow graduates to pursue their second year of studies in Politics, International History, and International Relations, at a second Europaeum partner institution. Suitable candidates would be identified early in Year One in their home institutions and then matched with an appropriate partner institution. Participants would also be funded through the Europaeum to attend a special EMAP workshops,when first year and second year students would be able to mingle and present papers and others fruits of their work. It is hoped a select group might spend time at Oxford working on their dissertation, linked to the Europaeum. Final Degree Validation would remain with the home (main) institution, though institutions might wish to explore dual qualifications, in bilateral partnerships.
The scheme is to be funded initially via Erasmus schemes, which would cover student mobility costs, while participating institutions and the Europaeum are supporting academic travel expenses. The current EMAP Academic Directors are Lenka Rovna (Prague, Professor of European Politics), Laure Neumayer (Paris 1, Professor of Political Science), and Joost Augusteijn (Leiden, Professor of History). 44
The Europaeum has forged many joint teaching initiatives over the years, including the following:
Law Studies Since 1992, Oxford, Leiden and Sienna collaborated over European Law Studies, involving joint teaching and study, with dozens of student exchanges and joint programmes. Professor Marcel Brus even had a joint contract between Oxford - Leiden in the 1990s. Discussions have been attempted to revive these links.
MA in European Economic Integration Discussions were undertaken in 2003-5 to develop a new multidisciplinary Europaeum MA, on economic integration, with the aim of linking the universities of Paris I, Helsinki and Prague, to provide a variety of perspectives, with exchanges of students and faculty delivering its modules.
Business and Academe - Leiden-Oxford Programme This partnership offered programmes in the form of symposia, plans for short courses and workshops around the themes of European Business and Culture, with the aim of bridging academia and business, aimed at private and public sector managers, in Europe or elsewhere. It ran from 2002-3.
MA in European Political Cultures and Institutions This ran in 1999 and 2000 as a pilot scheme, validated by Bologna, to provide students with diverse perspectives of European politics and differing cultural and historical contexts. Attempts were made to create a more permanent programme, but failed due to widespread changes in the Bologna Process.
Theology Programmes A new Masters in Ecumenical Studies in Protestant emerged at Bonn in 2009, aiming to study theological traditions, with opportunities at other Europaeum universities planned in the future.
Bonn students studying Theology
Disciplinary Networks In 1997, academics of Law, Politics, and Economics at Europaeum institutions, met at Oxford, Paris and Bologna, to agree strategies for international academic collaborations, academic mobility, and joint degrees. These ideas were pursued by the Academic Committee, but did not solidify into disciplining groups, due to lack of funding. However, in the 2000s, informal Europaeum academic networks emerged in the fields of Economics, History (via the MA Course), and Theology (via a series of events), Classics (via the annual Colloquia), the History of Science (via the cycle of events), to promote collaborative teaching and mobility of academics and research students.
Oxford European Studies In the 1990s, the Europaeum played the key role in the creation at Oxford of the Institute of European and Comparative Law (see page 33), and the Centre for European Politics, Economics and Society (subsequently wound down in 2003), and a number of posts, including the Oxford Chair In European Thought (see page 40) and, most recently, the Europaeum Bertelsmann Visiting Professorship in 20 th Century Jewish History and Politics (see page 41).
European Academic Research Network A proto-type access network of 300 linked academics from across the network was developed in the late 1990s - boosted by inputs from Bonn University - into the Europaeum Academic Research Network (EARN).
Europaeum Academic Register The Europaeum Academic Register is a current feature on the associationâ€™s website, listing academic colleagues with current research interests, to allow colleagues to search for potential joint research partners. Networking tools can be additioned for group Europaeum Interns update the communication. More than 200 Academic Register names are up, with more added each month. It is envisaged that a target of 400 academic researchers, supporters, and experts, from Europaeum partner and linked organizations will feature in due course.
The Europaeum has sponsored graduate workshops since the 1990s, but since 2008 they have become a hub of its work, especially aimed at bringing together young research scholars, who benefit strongly from meeting other likeminded scholars, to present and discuss common issues, and listen to experts. They include expert presentations, debates, working groups, and graduate presentations. For more details and expert speakers see the website. 2008 Prague: European Migration in the 21st Century: a Challenge to Nation-States ? This workshop aimed at creating a better understanding of the international migration processes, its causes, current developments and long term implications, through a multi-disciplinary dialogue. The wider aims include producing new academic outcomes and improving participants’ research and methodological approaches. 2009 Bonn: Thinking about Progress A three-day event to examine the theoretical and practical perspectives of ‘progress,’ its history, and contemporary and future implications. How should we define progress and trace its trails in historical societal, artistic and intellectual development? What are the conditions, causes and effects of progress for societies and individuals? What significant aspects of progress in European culture helped shape the 21st century? Were they incidents or necessary results? Does Europe face future progression – or regression? 2009 Krakow: Europeanisation and ECE region Workshop This three day Graduate Workshop analysed the processes of Europeanisation from different perspectives, including theoretical approaches and various case studies. The participation of Graduates debating Europeanisation graduates from different Europaeum universities allowed for the exchange of experiences and encounters of Europeanisation across the EU, with a special emphasis on the new ECE member states. 2009 Madrid: Democracy without Elections ? Elections without Democracy ? A one-day workshop to examine relations between ‘good’ elections and sound democratic governance; or ‘bad’ elections and the realities of democratic deficits. What can or should Europe do to foster fairer, freer, and more effective, elections? The event also compared and contrasted various case studies, depending on experts involved, including Armenia, Cuba, African experiences, Lebanon and India. 47
2010 Paris: Risks from Climate Change: Lessons in global diplomacy This three-day programme investigated the European and international approaches to climate change politics, focusing on its political economy, geography and diplomacy. In the aftermath of the failure of the 2009 Copenhagen climate change conference (COP15) and in the run up to Cancun (COP16), participants reviewed the key Graduates discussing Climate issues in reaching a binding and global Change in Paris treaty on climate change. 2010 Oxford: Migration, Ethnicity, the Making of Modern Europe A graduate workshop to explore contemporary European themes, based on the movements of peoples, conflicts, and cultural moving and forms of governance. Examples discussed includes the Greek-Turkish crisis of the 1920s; Spain in the 17th century; the movement of Jesus in the 20th century and Europe between the wars. 2010 Leiden: Migration, Political Parties & Public Rhetoric in Contemporary Europe This three-day program investigated relations between Migration and Political Parties in Europe today: the effects of migration and migratory laws and the impact these have on politics and political parties and how political parties respond to migration and migrants. Thus, migration affects the discourse, activities and policy positioning of political parties, as well as patterns of competition and co-operation between political parties. Simultaneously, government policy, political discourse and public opinion, affect processes and rates of migration, as well as relations between migrants and Migrants arriving by ship in the 1950s host communities. 2011 Oxford: Europeanization and the Roots of Modern Europe Today we speak about Europeanization as a process of â€˜changeâ€™. But what does this process actually mean and how does it work? This three-day workshop aimed at analysing the process of E u r o p e a n i z a t i o n f r o m d i ff e r e n t perspectives, including theoretical approaches and various case studies. The participation of graduates from different Europaeum universities allowed free exchange of experiences and encounters across Europe. 48
2011 Leiden: Europe and its “Giants” of Leadership - Past, Present and Future? During this three-day event questions included: Does Europe still yearn for new ‘Giants’ to lead it through its crisis ? What is the role for EC President, Commissioners, Council and Parliament ? What leadership role for Europe in the world ? How has leadership failure contributed to current crises ? How should we balance Brussels and national leadership ? The event explored how Europe can best secure stability and growth based on rational leadership and Leiden Workshop: Participants in the garden decision-making strategies. 2012 Paris: The Arab Spring One Year on: What next ? The Europaeum ran this workshop to take stock of developments in the region, one year after the start of the revolutions, at a time of still great uncertainty and full scale repression in Syria, and to look ahead, to the likely democratic outcomes, with the focus especially on Tunisia and Egypt. It linked to an expert’s seminar at Paris I Sorbonne, with graduate papers and debates following. 2012 Prague: Challenges and Opportunities for Europe in building a Global Green Economy This three-day graduate workshop critically investigated how concepts around a ‘green economy’ can become powerful leverages for sustainable development and poverty eradication at both the European and global scales. Participants met in the run-up to the UN Conference in Rio, to review achievements and key challenges ahead in terms of sustainable development, and to define the roles Europe should play to foster a global green economy, focusing on its political economy, geography and diplomacy. 2012 Oxford: Rousseau and Republicanism Traditions in Europe This three-day workshop revisited some of the key ideas and strands that emanate from Rousseau’s thinking. Rousseau’s work gave rise to a wealth of new ideas – progressive, romantic, participative, democratic, Jacobin, even child-centered education and fictional writing. June 28th marked 300 years since his birth, a timely moment to reappraise his many and varied influences. 2012 Bologna: America: Still a European Power ? This event explored the role and impact of American ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ power in the 20th Century, and reviewed the commitment of the US towards Europe today, after the Balkan Crisis, 9/11, the Iraq War, and Obama‘s socalled Pacific tilt, with US and European perspectives and lively graduate papers. 49
Scholarships & Bursaries
Special scholarship schemes have been an integral part of the Europaeum to promote student mobility across the association and provide exciting new study opportunities for Europaeum university graduates. Steps are also taken to invoke in existing and special Europe-wide schemes run by partner universities.
Jenkins Memorial Scholarships (2004- ) This programme, linked to the Europaeum, was created in 2004, in honour of the late Lord (Roy) Jenkins, former president of the European Commission, Chancellor of the University of Oxford and Chair of the Europaeum Board for its first eight years. Up to six awards given annually to graduates from Europaeum universities, including one or two awards available for Oxford graduates to study abroad at Europaeum institutions. Each award is currently worth c. â‚Ź12,000. The first Jenkins Scholars began their studies in 2004. First Jenkins Scholar, Michal Bobek, receives his certificate By 2012, more than 50 scholars have been awarded the scholarship. from Sir Anthony Kenny
Oxford-Geneva Study Awards (2000- ) Bursaries enabled students from the Graduate Institute of International Studies, Geneva, to pursue postgraduate studies at Oxford, and for Oxford students to study in Geneva. 26 Students have already benefited from this programme from 2000. The scheme was renewed for further Pierre Keller with four bursary winners pictured in Geneva periods and now continues annually. Awards are currently worth â‚Ź500 for a 2-3 week study visit.
Europaeum Scholars Scheme Discussions are underway to create a special Europaeum Scholars support scheme, linked to the Europaeum association, whereby graduates can participate in a range of Europaeum activities around the year, and study at least at two partner institutions for a full degree qualification.
Scholarships & Bursaries
The following schemes supported past Europaeum students at courses at Oxford University, but have now completed their cycles:
Bursaries in Jewish Studies This scheme supported more than 20 students registered for postgraduate studies, at Europaeum institutions, to study for the Diploma in Jewish Studies at the Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies. It completed its term in 2002. Up to five awards a year were available between 1995-2002.
The Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies, Yarnton
This scheme specifically supported a number of Belgian scholars who studied for either the MPhil in European Politics and Society, or MJur in European and Comparative Law, at Oxford.
Henry R Kravis Scholarships This scheme supported several students from Central Eastern Europe who studied for an MPhil in European Politics and Society or an MJur in European and Comparative Law at Oxford.
Thyssen Scholarships This scheme supported students on the MPhil in European Politics and Society at Oxford, set up under the auspices of the Europaeum, now thriving independently with more than 20 graduates a year.
Scatcherd Scholarships This scheme was set under the auspices of the Europaeum, managed by the University of Oxford, with a generous legacy from Mrs Jane LedwigRowohlt, to fund graduate students of any European country (excluding the UK and Turkey), at the University of Oxford. Scholarships cover University and College fees, as well as a maintenance grant for the duration of the course. The scheme is very popular, and regularly supports 10 or more scholars per year. See the Oxford University site for full details (www. oxford.ac.uk).
The Europaeum has run highly successful week-long annual summer schools for graduates on themes of current European interest. These are multi-disciplinary, including about 30 at postgraduate / research level students, held at a different Europaeum university each year. Three places are allocated to each member institution, with lecturers and tutors drawn from Europaeum faculty. (Details of the various expert speakers can be found on our website) 1994 Leiden: Concepts of Europe Coordinated by the Oxford-Leiden Student Committee, including a key role played by Prince Constantijn of the Netherlands, this pioneering event also drew participants from Central Europe to discuss the ideas of Europe, integration, and federalism, and set out the case for what became a key annual event. 1995 Bologna: Political Leadership in History and Social Science This brought together 26 graduate students, 15 lectures and 13 discussants to examine the nature of political leadership in theory and practice, in history and social science and in a Participants gather at the Bologna event (1995) variety of institutional and national contexts. 1996 Bologna: The Civic Nation and the Ethnic Nation Discussion focused on the political systems and traditions of Holland, France, Italy and Britain. The introduction of workshops directed by the students themselves was a very successful innovation, leading to vigorous debates between so-called Euro-realists and Euro-idealists. 1998 Budapest: Risk Policy Analysis This ‘Spring’ school, held at the Central European University in Budapest, brought together participants from 15 countries in a multi-disciplinary analysis of risk from the legal, social, political, economic and medical points of view, with opportunities for hands-on ‘crisis management’ and ‘scenario planning’ modelling, with support from AXA Colonial; which allowed 12 ECE graduates to participate. 1998 Oxford: Human Rights This was part course, part debate, and brought together a multidisciplinary group of philosophy, law, politics, and international relations scholars, who took part in sessions on the politics, historical background, and domestic importance of Human Rights, with additional focus on freedom of religion, refugees, the democratic deficit, and relations to the law and to the media.
1999 Paris I: NATO and European Defence This course brought together 50 graduate participants and academics to discuss future security against the background of the NATO air campaign over Kosovo, which was a key focus for discussion, as well as relations with the US and the implications of Eastward NATO enlargement for the WEU, OSCE and EU. Headquarters NATO
2000 Bologna: European Policy and Enlargement This focused on a different public policy theme each day, against a background of European enlargement. Themes included public policy, the EMU, social policies and agricultural policy. The event was extended with a second week of discussions at nearby Trento University, under the theme of Europeanisation of National Politics. 2000 Oxford: Church as Politeia: the Political Self-understanding of Christianity This three-day course investigated the role of Christian religion on culture, and religious institutions within the historical development of European society and politics. 2001 Oxford: Human Rights and the Movement of People Held against a backdrop of increasing political concern over migration, asylum and the activities of anti-immigrant political factions in European countries, the week looked at ways of meeting the challenges of racism, migration and displacement, covering international refugee law, economic migration, and integration between populations. 2002 Oxford: Economics of European Integration This event (switched from Prague due to the Cityâ€™s floods) examined the economics and politics of the enlargement of the EU, regionalisation, and the implications of economic integration, monetary union, convergence and institutional reform. The event brought together Research papers are discussed at a workshop graduates, presenting their own research papers - many receiving Europaeum Certificates. 53
2003 Prague: New and Old Ideas of European Federalism The programme examined t he r oot s of Eu r o p e a n federalism, contrasting these with current trends and the drive towards a new constitution, bringing together history, economics and politics. Graduates and lecturers from five European partner institutions were Group discussions in Prague involved in a lively and innovative public debate on whether the new Europe will also mark the end of the nation-state. 2004 Leiden: Islam and Europe: Building Bridges The week brought together students and academics, focusing on various concepts of Islam in Europe, practical applications, and Europe’s reception of Islam. Seminars covered history, politics, international relations, culture, and law, and there was a role-play on building a mosque in a European city. 2005 Geneva: Effective Multilateral Governance? This provided an opportunity to explore ‘real world’ international diplomacy and solutions to long-term, international problems, with access to key actors and institutions involved in global policy processes in Geneva, and to think critically about the contemporary international system and its future. 2006 Krakow: Building Bridges: EU-US Relations After 9/11 ? The 2006 event, on the theme of US-Europe Relations, was held at the Jagiellonian University, Krakow, linked to the European Studies Centre, with lively discussions about the significance of the transatlantic relationship and how it could and should be improved. 2007 Helsinki: The Borders of Europe Helsinki hosted this event examining the impact and aftermath of EU Enlargement, the planned accession of other ECE countries (notably Bulgaria and Romania), questions over the accession of Turkey, and beyond. An exciting role-playing exercise was A chance for scholars and graduates to debate introduced alongside the now regular debate sessions. 54
2008 Bonn: Sacred Buildings in the Modern City Bonn organized a Summer School to challenge students to think about ‘Sacred Buildings’, not just as examples of a particular faith or denomination, but as cultural repositories posing potential difficulties in a modern, secular, and increasingly globalised Europe. Thus, town planning, sociological, psychological, Bonn Skyline with ‘ sacred’ buildings rising ? historical and cultural aspects were all under the spotlight. 2009 Paris: Ethics and European Policy-Making This event looked at the role of ethics in the subject and practice of Law and lawyers; Politics and politicians; Economics and economists, sociologists and societal workers, as well as the wider implications on science and medicine, to assess how well, and how keenly, Europe was steering to deliver ethical outcomes int its policies and work. 2010 Bologna: The Media, Europe, and Democracy This six-day programme reflected on relations between the processes of democracy and the role and operation of the media, and questions of identity and public space across Europe, looking in addition at charisma, celebrity, accountability, power, and whether there should be more Europe-wide media. 2011 Santander: The Futures of Europe: Which way towards 2030 ? This Summer School explored the complexities of relationships between European nations and the EU, the future of the Euro, the problems of political and economic integration, and courses of action to ensure that Europe retains global influence in the face of great challenges. Themes emerged from the 2010 Reflexion Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga spoke on Group report on Europe to 2020. the future of Europe
2012 Oxford: Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Europe This multi-disciplinary event studied key European conflict zones such as the Balkans, the Caucasus, the Basque region, and Cyprus, and asked what lessons were learned, and if they can be transferred to other current or emergent areas of conflict, linking History, IR, Politics and Law students, among other disciplines, including media experts, practicioners, politicians, former diplomats, academics and NGO leaders speaking also from direct experience, and a role-playing exercise to build peace in Northern Ireland. 55
The movement and exchange of academic staff, especially between Europaeum member institutions, supports the development of broader intellectual perspectives, as well as promoting the exchange of ideas and providing an opportunity for new collaborative projects to be formulated and discussed. Europaeum universities can apply for a Europaeum Visiting Chair (EVP), to be filled by a distinguished scholar from another partner institution. Typically, EVPs offer a seminar, lecture and/or supervise research students, pursue personal research, work with collaborators, or plan collaboration opportunities.
2001 Guy Goodwin-Gill of Oxford visited Geneva (Law).
2002 Bernard Michel of Paris 1 visited Prague (History). Catherine Redgwell of Oxford visited Geneva (Law). Robert Frank of Paris I visited Oxford (History).
Michael Wolter of Bonn visited Oxford (Theology). Tiziano Bonazzi of Bologna visited Oxford (History). Herman Phillipse of Leiden, to Oxford (Philosophy). Hubert Kempf of Paris I visited Prague (Economics).
Guy Goodwin-Gill of Oxford visited Geneva (Law). John Barton of Oxford visited Bonn (Theology). Godfrey Hodgson of Oxford visited Leiden (History).
Robert Evans of Oxford visited Leiden (History). Michael Freeden of Oxford visited Bologna (Politics). David Robertson of Oxford visited Krakow (Politics). Iain McLean of Oxford visited Prague (Politics).
Annie Cot of Paris I visited Prague (History). Iain McLean of Oxford visited Krakow (Politics).
Piotr Mikuli of Krakow visited Oxford (Law). David Marquand of Oxford visited Krakow (History). David Marquand 56
Visiting Professors 2008
John Darwin of Oxford visited Leiden (History).
Iain McLean of Oxford visited Prague (History) Michael Broers of Oxford to Bonn (History)
2009 Iain McLean
Oswyn Murray of Oxford visited Prague (Classics). Robert Fox of Oxford visited Prague (History of Science).
2011 Alessandro Zironi of Bologna visited Prague (Linguistics). Annie Cot of Paris I visited Prague (History).
2012 Adam Roberts of Oxford visited Geneva (International Relations). Iain McLean of Oxford visited Prague (History).
Other Chairs Down the years, various other Visiting Chairs have been linked to the Europaeum. Thus, Professor Umberto Eco of Bologna University was appointed to the post of Weidenfeld Visiting Professor of European Comparative Literature, by Oxford, and delivered a series of eight lectures in Oxford on Translating and Umberto Eco Being Translated. The post-holder for 2003 was the late Professor Nike Wagner, from Vienna, who spoke on themes related to theatre and psychoanalysis, with Europaeum support, and again, in 2004, Oxford hosted Mario Vargas Llosa, the distinguished Nobel Prize winning author, who has links to Complutense University, Madrid. The Chair of European Thought at Oxford was also linked directly to the Europaeum, originally supported by the Flick Foundation but ultimately supported by Peter Johnson, attached to Balliol College. It was held by the late Professor John Burrow from 1994 to 1999. He was author of many articles and books including Whigs and Liberals: Continuity and Change in Political Thought (The Carlyle Lectures, OUP, 1988) John Burrow and The History of Histories (Knopf, 2008). A Europaeum linked Senior Research Fellow was also created in Law, at Oxford, held for five years by Professor Guy Goodwin-Gill, an expert in refugee law, who is now Senior Research Professor at All Souls College, Oxford. 57
Bertelsmann Europaeum Visiting Chair at Oxford The Bertelsmann Europaeum Visiting Professorship in 20th Century Jewish History and Politics ran annually from 2002-7, linked to Mansfield College, Oxford, with generous support from the Bertelsmann Foundation. It was awarded to a distinguished scholar to deliver a series of lectures and seminars. The election board was chaired by then Professor (now Emeritus) of Political Ideology, Michael Freeden, at Mansfield College, Oxford.
2001 - 02 Professor Avishai Margalit, Schulman Professor of Philosophy at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, lectured on Betrayal and Trust, and gave an additional graduate seminar on the Middle East crisis, which was very well attended.
2002 - 03
Professor Dan Diner, Director of the Simon Dubnow Institute for Jewish History and Culture at the University of Leipzig, and History Professor at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, lectured on Jewish and General History in the 19th and 20th Centuries: Narrations and Interpretations.
2004 - 05 Professor Robert Gellately, Professor of History at Florida State University, lectured on Hitler and Stalin: Dictatorship and Social Catastrophe.
2005 - 06 Robert Gellately
Professor Aaron Shai, Professor of History at Tel Aviv University, lectured on Sino-Israeli Relations and Historical Perspectives within Israel.
2006 - 07 Professor Chris Browning, Professor of Modern History at the University of North Carolina, lectured on Hitler’s death squads in Poland an Nazi Germany, with first hand testimony of why they did what they did. This material has since been published in a book. Chris Browning
Europaeum Certificates are awarded to students who satisfactorily complete a recognised academic activity under the auspices of the Europaeum. They specifically recognise a pan-European experience, and an additional incentive to Europaeum collaboration. This is in addition to other qualifications and degrees from their home university. The award is endorsed by the Europaeum Academic Council, which represents all member universities.
Qualifications for the award include: Doctoral students who spend at least three months working with an academic supervisor from another Europaeum partner institution; Graduate students participating in a Europaeum Summer School or advanced research workshop and completing a presentation or an original essay (c 3500 words of sufficient standard) Andreas Krebs is awarded one of the first linked to the themes of the Europaeum certificates by Professor Elke Brüggen in Bonn Summer Schools; Graduate students taking part in a Europaeum joint study or teaching programme (spending at least 150 hours in academic study), such as those who pass on the joint Europaeum MA Programme in European History. Each Europaeum Certificate specifies the particular activity that the student has completed, allowing different types of academic activity to be recognised. The Europaeum’s Academic Council is the arbiter for the Certificate, usually issued in English, and signed by a representative of the network. Each year since 2000, on average 20 Europaeum Certificates have been awarded each year, for the joint MA or to those who successfully gave papers at one of the various events and joint programmes, such as the annual summer schools, regular graduate workshops. and Classics Colloquia. For more information, please see the website.
The Europaeum launched a major initiative to promote a TransAtlantic Dialogue between leading European and US academics, intellectuals and policy-makers. This took the form of lectures, research workshops, policy studies and debates. The programme built on past work in including lectures by Professor Tiziano Bonazzi (The Labyrinth of Euro-American Relations, at Bologna, 2002) and Professor Christian Hacke (Challenges for German Foreign Policy at the Beginning of the 20th Century, at Leiden, 2003). The aims were to add to the sum of knowledge, and create greater understanding, and collaboration, across two regions of global influence. The Europaeum has worked in partnership with the Rothermere American Institute at Oxford, opened in May 2001, hosting Professors Tiziano Bonazzi and David Ellwood Transatlantic gifts: ideas of liberty (Bologna) at Oxford, and a panel debate on US-Europe Relations in March 2006. The US-Europe Programme culminated in an international conference, organised with the Institute of Strategic Dialogue, at the Woodrow Wilson Centre, in Washington, DC, on The Future of The West, with keynote speakers including Henry Kissinger, Chris Patten, and others. An accompanying report, looking at how Transatlanticism would fare if America and Europe were forced â€˜ to go it aloneâ€™, was published called American and Europe: Moving Towards 2020. Most recently, the group reviewed current trends: in US relations with Europe in the wake of Obama, and how actively involved the US still is in Europe. Linked Institutions: Geneva, Oxford, Lisbon, Bologna, Krakow and Leiden. Advisory Coordinators: Professor Wim van den Doel (Leiden) and Professor David Ellwood (Bologna/Johns Hopkins)
Trans-Atlantic Dialogue Events June 2004:Professor Sir Adam Roberts (Oxford) lectured at Leiden on International Law and the Use of Military Force: The United Nations, the United States and Iraq. November 2004: Godfrey Hodgson (Oxford), Europaeum Visiting Professor at Leiden University, lectured at Leiden on The Other American Presidential Election: Choosing a President and Psychoanalyzing a Nation.
April 2005: Conference on Europeanisation and Americanisation, Rival Projects or Synonyms was held at Oxford, run by European Studies at Oxford, with Europaeum support. Participants included representatives from eight Europaeum partner universities. September 2005: Summer School on Effective Multilateral Governance in Geneva. Touched on the influence and diplomatic tactics of the US and Europe, with 30 Europaeum students. March 2006: Europaeum Panel Discussion in Oxford, on US-Europe Relations, Beyond the Cold War: Can the New Europe create Transatlanticism? With Professors Jan Zielonka (Oxford), David Ellwood (Bologna) and Lenka Rovnรก (Prague). September 2006: Europaeum Summer School on Europe and America: Indispensable Partners or Rivals, at Krakow, discussing transatlantic relations in the new global agenda, with 30 Europaeum graduates. April 2007: Is there still a West? at the Woodrow Wilson Center, Washington, DC, with keynote speakers Lee Hamilton, Chris Patten, Joschka Fischer, Henry Kissinger, Nicolas R. Burns, and others.
Still special allies ?
December 2012: Europaeum Graduate Workshop on America: Still a European Power ? held at Bologna University, with Professor David Ellwood (Bologna) and scholars from SAIS at the Johns Hopkins University (Bologna). 61
Islam-in-Europe The Islam-in-Europe Programme was launched in September 2004 at a Europaeum Summer School, Europe and Islam: Building Bridges, held at Leiden University.
The programme focused on a variety of questions, including how Islamic communities have settled and integrated in different European countries; the meaning and impact of Political Islam in Europe; understanding and interpreting Islamaphobia in Europe; tracing past and current perspectives of The Other with regard to Muslims in Europe; the impact of terrorism, the Middle East crisis, and Balkans crisis on European foreign policies; and, not least, European relations with Turkey. After confirmation of Turkey’s candidate status as a member of the EU, interest in Turkey, especially academic and intellectual links, grew enormously and following a successful symposium on Turkey in 2004, the Europaeum worked hard to promote an initiative in support of an independent Institute for European Studies to be attached to a leading Turkish university. A Europaeum Lecture was delivered by P r o f e s s o r Ta r i q Ramadan, the eminent I s l a m i c s c h o l a r, a t Oxford, linked to a Europaeum conference on Cultural Difference in Europe, in Warsaw, 2006.
Participants at the Social Cohesion Conference, St Antony’s College Oxford
Also in 2006, the University of Bologna hosted an international workshop on Islam and Citizenship in Europe, and in 2007 an international conference took place in Oxford, on Social Cohesion - The Oxford Paradigm. Advisory Group: Professors Wim van den Doel (Leiden), Philip Robins (Oxford), Erik-Jan Zürcher (Leiden), Pier Cesare Bori (Bologna), Wolfram Kinzig (Bonn) and Jaakko Hämeen-Anttila (Helsinki).
August 2004: Summer School in Leiden: Europe and Islam: Building Bridges, with 25 Europaeum graduates and sessions on politics, economics, international relations and history. December 2004: Symposium on Turkey in Leiden: Moving the Frontiers of Europe, Leiden-Oxford Programme. March 2005: Europaeum Lecture in Madrid: Professor Geoffrey Lewis (Oxford) on Turkey, Islam and Europe, in Madrid. June 2005: Islam in Europe Graduate study day in Oxford., reviewing Political Islam, Islamophobia, otherness, etc. May 2006: Conference in Oxford on MiddleSummer School in Leiden, 2004 Eastern and North African Immigrants in Europe, at St Antonyâ€™s College, supported by the Europaeum with participants from Madrid, Leiden and Oxford. June 2006: Europaeum Lecture in Krakow by Tariq Ramadan, Visiting Professor at Oxford, as part of Europaeum Conference on Cultural Difference in Europe. Autumn 2006: Workshop in Bologna, looking at Islam and Citizenship in Europe, with participation from Leiden, Oxford et al. May 2007: Conference in Oxford on The Challenge for Social Cohesion, bringing together policy-makers, academics, intellectual leaders and city leaders. How should we respond to protests?
May 2010: Graduate Workshop in Oxford on Migration, Ethnicity & the Making of Modern Europe. Speakers included Regius Professor of History, Robert Evans. June 2010: Graduate Workshop in Leiden on Political Parties, Migration & Public Rhetoric in Contemporary Europe. Professor Vernon Bogdanor was the keynote speaker, with a lecture on protecting minorities in Europe. March 2012: Graduate Workshop in Paris on The Arab Spring: One Year On, bringing together policymakers and academics from both Europe and North Africa, including Professor Mustapha Kamel Al-Sayyed (Cairo University) and Professor Slim Laghmani (Tunis University), to discuss the implications of the Arab Spring and the role for Europe. 63
Culture, Humanities & Technology
The programme was launched to study how the Humanities (and Social Sciences) were being changed in the light of the ICT revolution, and what role Humanities still hold, and how European Culture was being reformed. The Mission: To review conflicts between the value of the Arts and Humanities – explaining a complex, globalised world – and devaluation of Humanities inside universities; To assess how new technologies change the very methods of scholarship with new processes, new time-saving methods and new databases; To show how the Humanities demonstrate success, share data, promote interdisciplinary work, and bridge the “two cultures” divide; To help promote international collaboration to enable new ideas and avenues for successful outcomes; To help identify and examine new ways to promote funding of the arts; Key events: In 2003, at Oxford, a conference was held on The Future for European Humanities (linking Oxford, Paris and Prague). Professor Tariq Ramadan was the keynote speaker. In 2005, a Prague workshop looked at New Information Technologies and the Future of the Humanities. Keynote speakers included: Professor Annie Cot (Paris) and Professor Luda Klusakova (Prague). Petrarch - father of the Humanities? In 2006, a Krakow workshop looked at sociology of cultural difference, with particular reference to faith and migration. In 2008, in Oxford, librarians met to discuss the digitisation of archives and library holdings. In 2009, a Madrid workshop looked at cultural difference caused by federal, regional and philosophical differences. The keynote speaker was Professor David Marquand. In 2013, a Paris international conference will examine cultural division and difference across Europe fueled by the current global and Eurozone crisis, on top of two decades of labour mobility, migration and the recent rise of far-right extremist politics and Islamophobia. 64
The Europaeum has held annual academic conferences, covering a wide variety of themes, since its foundation, drawing on the interests and abilities of its scholars. These events draw in policy-makers, media, civil servants and think-tanks, alongside professors and other experts. (Printed publications are available from events marked . ) 1993 Oxford: Are European Elites Losing Touch with their Peoples? Keynote speaker: Lord Dahrendorf, Warden, St Antony’s College, Oxford. Jack Hayward, Professor Emeritus of Politics, Oxford, coordinated the event. 1994 Oxford: Europe and America after the Cold War: End of the West? Keynote speakers: Admiral Ulric Weisser, Head of Planning Staff, German Defence Ministry; and Professor Maarten Brands, Netherlands Scientific Council for Oxford Participants discuss the future Government Policy. 1995 Bonn: The integration of East Central Europe into the EU Keynote speaker: Dr Hans van Ploetz, Secretary of State of the German Foreign Office, plus officials from several Central European embassies. 1996 Geneva: Defining Europe’s Identity: Issues and Trade-Offs Keynote speaker: Rt. Hon. Lord Denis Healey, former UK Chancellor of the Exchequer and Secretary of State for Defence. 1997 Paris I: Europe and Money Keynote speakers: M. Jacques Delors, former President of the European Commission, Rt. Hon. Lord Norman Lamont, former Chancellor of the Exchequer, UK, and Robert Frank (Paris 1). 1998 Leiden: Human Rights and the Plight of European Immigrants Keynote speakers included: Dr Reinhard Marx, Netherlands Home Office, and Professor Guy Goodwin-Gill, Oxford University. 2000 Bonn: The Implications of the New Knowledge and Technology Wissenschaftsnacht (Night of Science), focusing on the ‘Global Brain’ and the evolution of Knowledge and Action, mixing lectures, talks, and hands-on participatory events. 2001 Oxford: Democracy and the Internet: New Rules for New Times Keynote speakers: Professor Sir Tim BernersLee, inventor of the World Wide Web; Andrew Pinder, UK Government’s e-Envoy; Stuart Hill, Board member BT; and Predrag Vostinic, ANAM and Radio B92, Belgrade.
Tim Berners-Lee & Paul Flather 65
2001 Berlin: Borderless Education: Bridging Europe Keynote speakers: Professor Marcel Pera, President of the Italian Senate; Professor Peter Scott, Vice-Chancellor of Kingston University; and Professor Piet Akkermans, Rector of the College of Europe. 2002 Paris: New Responsibilities for New Times Keynote speakers: Professor Tomas Halik (Prague), Mr Jack Lang (Former Education Minister, France), Mr Ben Okri (poet and writer), and Professor Dominique Moïsi (Deputy Head, French Institute for International Relations). 2003 Oxford: Whose Europe? National Models & Constitution Organised by European Studies at Oxford, and St Antony’s College, with Europaeum support. Keynote speakers: Professor Bronislaw Geremek, former Polish Minister of Foreign Affairs), and Denis MacShane (MP, Minister for Europe), plus representatives from the EU constitutional convention. 2003 Bonn: New Partners: Opportunities and Risks Keynote speakers: Mary Robinson (former President of Ireland, Director of UNHCR and head of Ethical Globalisation Initiative), Gerd Schulte-Hillen (former Board Member of Bertelsmann), Avi Primor (Former Ambassador of Israel Talking shop at the Bonn Conference to Germany), and Lord Moser (former Education Advisor to the UK Prime Minister and former Warden of Wadham College, Oxford). 2004 Leiden: Europe- Shaping the Future Keynote speakers: Wim Duisenberg (first President of the European Central Bank), Antonio Martins da Cruz (Former Foreign Minister of Portugal), Professor Vernon Bogdanor (Oxford University), Ben Verwaayen (CEO of BT), and Professor Michael Kaser (Oxford University).
2004 Leiden: Moving Europe’s Frontiers: Turkey, Risk or Opportunity? Keynote speakers: Maarten Elgersma (Dutch Foreign Ministry), Soli Özel (Professor of Economics at Bilgi University), John McCarthy (Country Manager for ING Bank), Erik Zürcher (Professor of Turkish Studies, Leiden), and Geoffrey Lewis (Professor Emeritus of Turkish, Oxford).
2005 Oxford: Europeanisation & Americanisation: Rivals or Synonyms? Organised by European Studies at Oxford, and St Antony’s College, with Europaeum support. Keynote participants included: Professor Timothy Garton Ash and Dr Kalypso Nicolaidis (Oxford), Professor Jan-Werner Muller (Princeton), Professor David Ellwood (Bologna), and Dr Jacques Rupnik (Director of Research, FNSP/CERI, Paris I). 2006 Oxford: Restructuring Corporate Governance: new European agenda Keynote speakers: Alastair Ross Goobey, (Chairman of the International Corporate Governance Network and Chairman of Hermes Focus Funds), Sir Ronald Grierson (European Chairman of Blackstone Group and former Vice President of GEC), David Jackson (Company Secretary of BP), George Dallas (Managing Director at Standard & Poor’s), Guy Jubb (Head of Corporate Governance at Standard Life), and Antonio Borges (Vice President of Goldman Sachs). 2007 Washington DC: Is there still a West? Keynote speakers: Henry Kissinger, Lord (Chris) Patten (former EU Commissioner and Chancellor of Oxford), Richard Haass (Chair of the Council for Foreign Relations), Lee Hamilton, (former chair of the US Senate Foreign Relations Committee), Keynote speaker: Henry Kissinger Joschka Fischer (former German Foreign Minister), Nicholas R Burns (Under Secretary for Political Affairs), Professor Joe Nye (Kennedy School, Harvard), General Guthrie, (former head of the UK joint chiefs of staff) and many others. 2008 Oxford: The Dilemmas of Digitization Organised with the Maison Française d’Oxford, the Bodleian Library, and the Oxford Internet Institute, for librarians, technologists, academic researchers, archivists and policy makers. Keynote speakers: Hans Walter Gabler (University of Munich); Luca Martinelli (European How does technology change us? Commission); Alain Giffard (Ministère de la Culture), Minna Kaukonen (National Library of Finland) and Dame Lynne Brindley (Chief Executive, British Library). 2009 Lisbon: NATO at 60: On a global alliance of Democracies? Keynote speakers: Anthony O’Hear (Royal Institute Of Philosophy), Raymond Plant (King’s College, London), Marc F. Plattner (Director, IFDS, Washington DC), and Susan Shell (Boston College), among many others. 67
2009 Oxford: Constitutional Pluralism in the European Union and Beyond Organised with the Institute for European and Comparative Law, Oxford, held at St Anne’s College. Keynote speakers: Zdenek Kühn (Supreme Administrative Court of the Czech Republic, and Charles); Monica Claes (Tilburg University); René Barents (European Court of Justice, and Maastricht); Miguel Poiares Maduro (Advocate General, European Court of Justice, and European University Institute). European Court of Human Rights 2010 Oxford: Federalisms East and West: India, Europe, North-America This conference compared and contrasted federalist ideas and structures across three continents. Keynote speakers: Peter Sutherland (Chairman, Goldman Sachs International), Professor Meghnad Desai (LSE); Lord Hannay (former UK Diplomat); Gary Hart (US Senator); Professor Yves Meny (former president EUI, Florence); Roger Liddle (former advisor to President Barroso); Anthony Barnett (founder of opendemocracy.net); John Palmer (former Europe correspondent of The Guardian) and Martin Wolf (Financial Times columnist). 2011 Santander: The Futures of Europe: Which way towards 2030? Policy-makers, academic scholars, business, political and community leaders, and Europaeum graduates as representatives of the next generation discussed the Reflections group report on the future of Europe. Keynote speaker: Vaira Vike-Freiberga (former President of Latvia) deputy head of the EC Reflections Group which produced a report on the future of Europe. 2012 Lisbon: Open Societies, Open Markets and Common Identities Organised with the Institute for Political Studies, Catholic University Lisbon. Keynote speakers: João Carlos Espada (IEP-Lisbon), Anthony O’Hear (Royal Institute Of Philosophy and Editor, Philosophy), Raymond Plant (former master, St Catherine’s College, Oxford), Marc F. Plattner (Director, IFDS, Washington, D.C.) 2013 Paris: Is Europe Fragmenting? The past 25 years of the European Project have thrown up new stresses and strains from labour and capital mobility to migration, the rise of Islamophobia, the far right, xenophobia and racism, all exacerbated by the European financial crisis. Keynote speakers were due to be announced. 2013 New Delhi: Federalisms, Localisms and Power - East and West This event will bring together experts from Europe, India and the Americas to discuss how power is distributed from the centre to the regions. Keynote speakers will include Mani Shankar Aiyar MP, Lord Professor Meghnad Desai (LSE), Professor David Marquand (Oxford), Mel Cappe (Canadian Institute for Research on Public Policy), Sachin Pilot MP, and many more. 68
Europaeum Lectures have been held since the association was founded, as part of its mission to encourage international exchange of ideas and academic mobility. Since 2000, the Europaeum has published many lectures examining key issues confronting Europe. (Published lectures are marked * while those published in the Europaeum Review are marked.) October 2000, Prague Dr David Robertson, Oxford, on A Common Constitutional Law for Europe: Questions of National Autonomy versus Universal Rights.* November 2000, Oxford Dr John Temple Lang, former Competition Director at the EC, on The Commission and the European Parliament – an uncertain relationship.* February 2001, Geneva Professor Ian Brownlie CBE QC, Emeritus Professor of International Law, All Souls, Oxford, on International Law and the Use of Force by States.* John Temple-Lang May 2001, Oxford Professor Philippe Burrin, Director HEI Geneva on Strands of Nazi Anti- Semitism, followed by a round-table discussion. * June 2001, Paris Raymond Barre, Professor of Economics and former Reymond French Prémier, on Quelle Europe pour Demain? Barre December 2001, Berlin Professor Peter Scott, Vice-Chancellor of Kingston and former Times Higher Education Editor, on The European University – What is its Future? April 2002, Geneva Lord Professor Dahrendorf, former Warden, St Antony’s College, Oxford, on Global Security Interlinked. * April 2002, Bonn Professor Michael Meyer-Blanck, Professor of Theology, Bonn, on Reflections of Religious Education. Ralf Dahrendorf June 2002, Bologna Tiziano Bonazzi, Professor of USEurope Relations, Bologna, on The Labyrinth: EuroAmerican relations. November 2002, Oxford Professor Charles Wyplosz, Professor of Economics, Geneva, on Fiscal Discipline in the Monetary Union.* Charles Wyplosz November 2002, Oxford Professor Robert Frank, Professor of Modern History, Paris I, on France and the UK in the Construction of Europe. April 2003, Geneva Sir Marrack Goulding, Warden, St Antony’s College, Oxford, on The UN and Peace since the Cold War: success, failure or neither?* 69
June 2003, Leiden Professor Sir Adam Roberts, Professor of International Relations, Balliol College, Oxford, on International Law and the Use of Military Force.* March 2004, Geneva Sir Alan Budd, Provost, Queen’s College, Oxford, on A Tale of Two Economies.* June 2004, Prague Professor Sir Anthony Kenny, Emeritus Professor of Philosophy, Oxford, on What is it to be European? November 2004, Leiden Professor Christian Hacke, Professor of Politics, Bonn, on Anthony Kenny Challenges for German Foreign Policy. * November 2004, Leiden Dr Godfrey Hodgson, Rothermere American Institute, Oxford, on The Other American Presidential Election.* January 2005, Oxford Dr Grigory Yavlinsky, Chairman of the Russian Democratic Party (Yabloko), on Russia: Where do we go? How do we get there?* February 2005, Oxford Professor Victor-Yves Ghebali, Professor of Political Science, Geneva, on The OSCE and European Grigory Yavlinsky Security?* March 2005, Madrid Professor Geoffrey Lewis, Emeritus Professor of Turkish, St Antony’s College, Oxford, on Europe, Turkey and Islam. June 2005, Helsinki Professor David Robertson, Professor of Politics, Oxford, on Where Next? Europe After the Recent Referenda. September 2005, Leiden Professor Jean-Philippe Genet, Professor of History, Paris 1, on European History: Union or Disunion? October 2005, Krakow Professor David Robertson, Professor of Politics, Oxford, on the EU Constitution. Jean-Philippe October 2005, Prague Genet Iain McLean, Professor of Politics, Nuffield College, Oxford, on Why the British Left Matters for Europe. June 2006, Geneva Hew Strachan, Chichele Professor of the History of War, All Souls College, Oxford, on Diplomacy and CivilMilitary Relations. June 2006, Krakow Professor Tariq Ramadan (Oxford Visiting Professor in Tariq Ramadan Islamic Studies, St Antony’s College) on Islam in Europe. 70
November 2006, Oxford Professor Wladyslaw Strozewski, Professor of Philosophy, Krakow, on Human Being and Values February 2007, Oxford Professor Wim Blockmans from Leiden, on The Medieval Origins of European Democracy October 2007, Krakow Professor David Marquand from Oxford, on The Challenges for Democracy in Europe
March 2008, Geneva Professor Vaughan Lowe from Oxford, on The Double Helix of Terrorism and Tyranny: can civil liberties survive the war on terror?
February 2009, Oxford Professor Vera Gowlland-Debas from Geneva, on The Middle East and the Challenges for International Law May 2009, Geneva Professor Margaret MacMillan, from Oxford, on 90 Years on - lessons for Vera Gowland-Debas peacemakers from 1918? June 2010, Leiden Professor Vernon Bogdanor, from Oxford, on Overcoming the legacy of the 20th Century: Protecting Human Rights in Modern Democracies
November 2010, Prague Professor Robert Fox, from Oxford, on Science and the travails of Modernity in Fin-de-siĂ¨cle France November 2010, Oxford Professor Richard Baldwin, from Geneva, on The Great Trade Collapse: What happened ? What happens next ? March 2011, Geneva Professor Ngaire Woods, from Oxford, on Bypassed in the New Economic Order? The EU and Global Governance after the Crash
May 2011, Prague Professor Archie Brown, from Oxford, on Why did Communism end in Europe? Why did it mutate in Asia?
November 2011, Oxford Professor Keith Krause, from Geneva, on The End of War: Political Violence in the 20th Century May 2012, Geneva Professor Sir Adam Roberts, from Oxford, on A Kind of Madness: JeanJacques Rousseau on International Relations
European Policy Making
The Europaeum has been in cooperation with the IEP-Catholica in Lisbon to mount now annual European Policy-making seminars, interacting with MEPâ€™s, senior EC officials, experts, thinktank members, academics and the media, open to graduates, usually over three days, hosted in the European Parliament, with a day at NATO, where possible. 2007 Brussels: Policy-Making in Europe This three-day event, organised with colleagues in Lisbon and Leiden, allowed 30 students to interact directly with those at the sharp end, on a range of topics on policymaking at foreign, economic and institutional levels. European Parliament
2008 Brussels: NATO & Policy-making Topics included the role of EU Foreign Policy; The impact of EU Economic Policy; Thinking Europe?; How Policy is made in Brussels; and the role of European institutions. 2009 Brussels: Policy-Making This third event of talks, discussions, interviews and special visits, included the Making of EU Foreign Policy; Economic Policy; The Lisbon Treaty; the EU as a Major Foreign Policy Actor & Internal Market. Participants gather at the Parliament building
2011 Brussels: Policy-Making A fourth annual seminar looked at the highly topical issue of the Revolts in the Arab World, European Economic Governance, EU in the World: trade & cooperation, and the Europe 2020 agenda. 2012 Brussels: EU and NATO Policy-Making This annual seminar looked at the effects of the Eurozone crisis on Participants with Martin Shulz, PresiEuropean policy-making; the Arab dent of the European Parliament Spring; EU relations with the BRICS, and harmonisation in the single-market.
New Initiatives Scheme
The New Initiatives Scheme, launched in 2001, complements support for research and scholarships and aims to provide recognition and support for new and innovative projects that further the aims of the Europaeum, by strengthening the pan-European academic community. These might involve new disciplines, new student-related participation, new link institutions, new programmes such as the UN student assembly, or preparing new forms of collaboration such as a new joint degree level programme.
2001 Law staff exchange on e-Commerce (Leiden) Round table on Roots of Anti-Semitism (Oxford) Seminar on European Telecommunications Law (Bonn) Summer lecture series on Antiquity and Christianity (Bonn) Research project linking Graduates at Bonn conference Anglo-Czech historians (London) Conference on The Third Way (Oxford) Workshop on Russia and Europe (Moscow)
2002 European student debate on EU-Africa Policies (Geneva) Policy transfer seminar on EU Regulation and Corruption (Prague) International conference on Meeting the Other (Prague) International conference on Russia and Europe (Oxford) Conference on Medieval European History (Oxford) European student debates on global issues (Bonn) Seminar on The Future of the European Union (Oxford)
2003 Classics Colloquium on Herodotus and Tacitus (Oxford) Colloquium on Church Relations In Social Context (Bonn) Workshop on German Foreign Policy (Leiden)
2004 Steering board on joint MA in European History (Oxford/Leiden) Six graduate international law conference bursaries (Geneva) Symposium on Europe: Shaping the Future (Leiden) Symposium on Turkey – Risk or Opportunity? (Leiden) Steering Group meeting on Economics MA (Bologna) Europaeum MA student debriefing meeting (Bologna) Graduate seminar on Eastern Christianity in Context (Leiden) 73
New Initiatives Scheme
Seminar on Russia and Europe (Oxford)
2005 Symposium on Corporate Governance (Oxford) Panel discussion on Israel’s Security Barrier (Oxford) Lecture series on Rousseau on Inequality (Oxford) Graduate study day on Islam in Europe (Oxford) Advisory board meeting on Islam-in-Europe (Leiden) Conference on Multilingual Universities (Helsinki) Conference on Ecumenism (Prague)
2006 Seminar on Population Ageing (Oxford) Workshop on Italy, UK and Europe (Oxford) Six graduate law conference bursaries (Paris) Research workshop on Islam and Citizenship (Bologna) Workshop on Global Governance (Oxford) European Philosophy Meeting on John Paul II as Philosopher Workshop on Cultural Difference (Krakow) Symposium on Technology Transfer and Spin Offs (Krakow) Europaeum students converse Conference on Ecumenism (Bonn) Seminar on Anglo-French History (Oxford) Seminar on Early Christianity (Oxford)
2007 European Values Network Graduate Forum (Brussels) International Conference Re-Making Europe- Which Way now (Prague) EU@50 Commemoration of the 50th Anniversary of the Treaty of Rome (Oxford) Social Cohesion Conference (Oxford) Causation in Law International Conference (Prague) Training Programme on Leadership Innovations in Governance (Leiden) Seminar on European Theology (Bonn) European Voices: Actors and Witnesses of European Integration HEIRS Colloquium (Geneva) Dinner and Lecture in honour of Roy Jenkins’ Scholars Scheme (Oxford) 74
New Initiatives Scheme 2008
National and transnational law – Europe workshop (Leiden) Graduate Workshop on Ending Empires – India, Britain and Spain (Oxford) ‘Challenge from the East: is the West ready for China? Seminar discussion on Challenge from the East: Is the West ready for China? (Oxford) Childhood Conference (Oxford) Unfinished Transitions Debate (Oxford) Alumni Meeting’s Lecture Europe in the New World (Oxford)
2009 Law Conference on Constitutional Pluralism in the EU and Beyond (Oxford) Sovereignty and Integration Conference (Prague) Workshop on Peace of Westphalia (Lisbon) Liberalisms East and West International Conference (Oxford) Conference Poland 20 Years on (Oxford)
2010 20 years after Berlin Wall falls (Berlin & Prague) Graduate Workshop on Migration, Political Parties and Rhetoric in Contemporary Europe (Leiden) Political Dimensions of the Economic Crisis Conference(Lisbon) MA Advisory Group Planning Meeting (Prague)
2011 Studies in Eastern Christianity Graduate Workshop (Leiden) Graduate bursaries for ECE event (Krakow) Infringement of EU Law Conference (Prague) 20th Century Ideas Conference (Paris) Human Rights Workshop (Oxford) Graduate Bursaries for World Leadership Graduate Workshop (Lisbon)
2012 New MA advisory group meetings (Prague, Oxford Paris) Ideas of Prevention in European Law (Prague) Advisory Group meeting on new joint teaching programme (Paris) Media and Rhetoric Debate (Oxford) Conference on Multicultural Challenges (Oslo) Effect Utile Law Conference (Prague)
The Europaeum encourages graduate participation in its activities, and supports specific graduate initiatives that promote collaboration across Europaeum universities. Examples include: 1994: Annual Summer School Series, launched successfully, with participant Prince Constantijn of the Netherlands as pioneer. 2001: Graduates from all Europaeum institutions meet in Geneva for a week of discussions on crisis management in Africa. 2001: Classics scholars brought together to present papers and research at Oxford conference, launching annual colloquia. Prince Constantijn Europaeum students join 100 participants from 38 countries at a Europaeum-backed event at Bonn, on Human Rights - a UN-style debate. 2002-4: 30 graduate students participate in the Future of European Universities Project, delivering their own expert papers at each of the international conferences in Berlin, Paris and Bonn. Their recommendations are discussed and included in final project report. 2002: Support for 10 Europaeum graduate participants in an international graduate conference on medieval history, The Contours of Legitimacy in Central Europe, encouraging new perspectives. 2003: First of series of Theology and Eastern Christianity research events designed to allow students to network. The Bonn FEU event 2003: Graduate workshop series aimed at young MPhil, PhD and post-doctoral scholars launched, amid great success, and now four a year. 2004-6: The Leiden-Oxford Programme puts a special focus on graduate participation in a new series of symposia on European issues, with doctoral students giving papers. 2005: Special Islam in Europe Graduate Study Day brought together more than 20 Europaeum graduates and academics from Oxford and Leiden, debating how European societies are coping with the emerging self-consciousness of European Muslims. 2010: Special research study bursaries extended to support bright young scholars at a conference in Oxford on Federalisms East and West. 2011: Study bursaries awarded for World UN dialogue event in Lisbon run as a ‘hub’ programme creating networks and opportunities for academic presentations; and for graduate event looking at Europeanisation in Krakow. 2012: New Europaeum MA Programme aims to promote graduate mobility and collaboration. 76