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FORM INVESTIGATION

Professor Guiseppe RIDOLFI ICAD, International Course of Architectural Design, A.A 2013-2014 Student : Marjan HENDIZADEH - University of Shiraz, School of Art & Architecture/ Iran - Università degli Studi di Firenze, Facoltà di Architettura/ Italy

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ORIGAMI

Origami (折り紙?, from ori meaning "folding", and kami meaning "paper" (kami changes to gami due to rendaku) is the traditional Japanese art of paper folding, which started in the 17th century AD at the latest and was popularized outside of Japan in the mid-1900s. It has since then evolved into a modern art form. The goal of this art is to transform a flat sheet of paper into a finished sculpture through folding and sculpting techniques, and as such the use of cuts or glue are not considered to be origami. Paper cutting and gluing is usually considered kirigami. The number of basic origami folds is small, but they can be combined in a variety of ways to make intricate designs. The best known origami model is probably the Japanese paper crane. In general, these designs begin with a square sheet of paper whose sides may be different colors or prints. Traditional Japanese origami, which has been practiced since the Edo era (1603–1867), has often been less strict about these conventions, sometimes cutting the paper or using nonsquare shapes to start with.

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Origami Types :

- Action Origami Origami not only covers still-life, there are also moving objects; Origami can move in clever ways. Action origami includes origami that flies, requires inflation to complete, or, when complete, uses the kinetic energy of a person's hands, applied at a certain region on the model, to move another flap or limb. Some argue that, strictly speaking, only the latter is really "recognized" as action origami. Action origami, first appearing with the traditional Japanese flapping bird, is quite common.

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- Wet-Folding Origami Wet-folding is an origami technique for producing models with gentle curves rather than geometric straight folds and flat surfaces. The paper is dampened so it can be moulded easily, the final model keeps its shape when it dries. It can be used, for instance, to produce very natural looking animal models. Size, an adhesive that is crisp and hard when dry, but dissolves in water when wet and becoming soft and flexible, is often applied to the paper either at the pulp stage 4


while the paper is being formed, or on the surface of a ready sheet of paper. The latter method is called external sizing and most commonly uses Methylcellulose, or MC, paste, or various plant starches.

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- Pureland Origami Pureland origami is origami with the restriction that only one fold may be done at a time, more complex folds like reverse folds are not allowed, and all folds have straightforward locations. It was developed by John Smith in the 1970s to help inexperienced folders or those with limited motor skills. Some designers also like the challenge of creating good models within the very strict constraints.

- Modular Origami Modular origami consists of putting a number of identical pieces together to form a complete model. Normally the individual pieces are simple but the final assembly may be tricky. Many of the modular origami models are decorative balls like kusudama, the technique differs though in that kusudama allows the pieces to be put together using thread or glue.

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- Origami Tesselations This branch of origami is one that has grown in popularity recently. A tessellation is a collection of figures filling a plane with no gaps or overlaps. In origami tessellations, pleats are used to connect molecules such as twist folds together in a repeating fashion.

During the 1960s, Shuzo Fujimoto was the first to explore twist fold tessellations in any systematic way, coming up with dozens of patterns and establishing the genre in the origami mainstream. Around the same time period, Ron Resch patented some tessellation patterns as part of his explorations into kinetic sculpture and developable surfaces, although his work was not known by the origami community until the 1980s. Chris Palmer is an artist who has extensively explored tessellations after seeing the Zilij patterns in the Alhambra, and has found ways to create detailed origami tessellations out of silk. Robert Lang and Alex Bateman are two designers who use computer programs to create origami 8


tessellations. The first American book on origami tessellations was just published by Eric Gjerde and the field has been expanding rapidly. There are numerous origami tessellation artists including Chris Palmer (U.S.), Eric Gjerde (U.S.), Polly Verity (Scotland), Joel Cooper (U.S.), Christine Edison (U.S.), Ray Schamp (U.S.), Roberto Gretter (Italy), Goran Konjevod (U.S.),and Christiane Bettens (Switzerland) that are showing works that are both geometric and representational.

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- Kirigami This article is about the origami variation. For the documents, see Kirigami (Soto Zen). Kirigami (切り紙?) is a variation of origami that includes cutting of the paper (from Japanese "kiru" = to cut, "kami" = paper). It is also called "Kirie" (切り絵). From "Kiru"= to cut, "e"= picture. Typically, kirigami starts with a folded base, which is then cut; cuts are then opened and flattened to make the finished kirigami. Kirigami are usually symmetrical, such as snowflakes, pentagrams, or orchid blossoms.

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Orgamic Architecture Origamic architecture involves the three-dimensional reproduction of architecture, geometric patterns, everyday objects, or other images, on various scales, using cut-out and folded paper, usually thin paperboard. Visually, these creations are comparable to intricate 'pop-ups', indeed, some works are deliberately engineered to possess 'pop-up'-like properties. However, origamic architecture tends to be cut out of a single sheet of paper, whereas most pop-ups involve two or more. To create the three-dimensional image out of the two-dimensional surface requires skill akin to that of an architect.

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Folding Architecture, Origami-Inspired Buildings: Architects love origami because it achieves what buildings rarely do: frame space through extreme economy of means. Origami artists can produce a panoply of shapes and forms using only a single sheet of paper. Their constructions are inherently structural and can even be engineered to bend, contract, and expand---things that buildings can't do either.

- Tel Aviv Museum of Art Tel Aviv, Israel Designed by Preston Scott Cohen, Inc

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-NestlĂŠ Chocolate Museum Mexico City, Mexico Designed by Rojkind Arquitectos

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-Pante贸n Nube Murcia, Spain Designed by Clavel Arquitectos

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-Park Pavilion Cuenca, Spain Designed by Moneo Brock Studio

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-Festival Hall of the Tiroler Festspiele Erl, Austria Designed by Delugan Meissl Associated Architects

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-Karuizawa Museum Complex Nagano, Japan Designed by yasui hideo atelier

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-Helios House Gas Station Los Angeles, USA Designed by Office dA in Boston and Johnston Marklee Architects in Los Angeles

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- Centre for Sustainable Energy Technologies Ningbo, China Designed by Mario Cucinella Architects

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- Embedded Project Shanghai, China Designed by HHD-FUN

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- Estacao Oriente Lisbon, Portugal Designed by Santiago Calatrava

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- Milwaukee Art Museum Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States Designed by Santiego Calatrava

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- Burnham Pavilion Chicago, United States Designed by Zaha Hadid

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Broad Museum Michigan State University, United States Designed by Zaha Hadid

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Case Study : Barclays Headquarters – Paris, France : Much of the design of this building was influenced by the unusual location of the site (on a 20 meter-wide stripe on the avenue, and an extension in the rear, between two courtyard gardens), which led the architects of Manuelle Gautrand Architecture to develop a project that would embrace and take advantage of the view and immerse into the natural light. An emblematic showcase of the building — the main façade is mostly glass, partially covered with a second — skin of screen-printed marble pattern. The rendered effect is a tremendous origami and the view of this delicate folded marble can be enjoyed both from exterior and interior of the building.

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Pop up Pavilion, BOWOOSS research Project : A cocoon-like temporary summer pavilion in Saarbrücken, Germany, is the result of a research project on biomimicry conducted at the city’s architecture school. Biomimicry, a design approach that takes nature as its guiding principle, is the specialism of Professor Göran Pohl, who headed the BOWOOSS research project.

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Connection to GREEN UP : EXAMPLES : Super Structures to keep Container Inside

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Structure to grow the green on it :

This is the LIVING PAVILION, installed on Governor's Island for the entire summer season. The installation is the winner of the City of Dreams Pavilion Competition 2010, and is designed by Ann Ha and Behrang Behin. The competition sponsors (FIGMENT, The Emerging New York Architects Committee of the American Institute of Architects New York Chapter (ENYA), and the Structural Engineers Association of New York (SEAoNY)) worked with the winning team to have the Living Pavilion on Governors Island for the summer season. Living Pavilion is a low-tech, low-impact installation that employs milk crates as the framework for growing planted surface similar to a green wall. Living Pavilion aspires to create a synthesis of form, structure, light and life. The pavilion’s surface is planted with hanging shade-tolerant plants that will provide an environment maintained at a cooler temperature because of evapotranspiration from the plants. At the end of the season, the pavilion’s modular design will allow easy disassembly and distribution of the planted milk crates to the New York area for use in homes, public places, and community gardens. 35


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Environmentally friendly foldable bamboo houses designed by Ming Tang: Ming Tang came up with this brilliant idea of constructing these varied origamiinspired foldable bamboo houses after China had been struck by a severe earthquake of 7.5 magnitude on the Richter scale, last May killing 69,000 people. After hearing that the Chinese government is planning to invest to build some 1.5 million temporary homes for the least fortunate, Ming Tang decided to design a shelter that was easy to produce, cheap and environment friendly. That’s how he got these beautiful geometrically shaped bamboo houses which are lightweight and easy to install thanks to using basic bamboo poles for the recycled paper covered structure. Because of all these, they are very easily adaptable to any kind of situation. This year’s Re: Construct competition sponsored by San Francisco’s Urban Re:Vision, honored these Origami-inspired Foldable Bamboo Houses. So do we!

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Developing the Idea :

Conclusion : Designing origamic architecture is not hard, but it does take a lot of time and patience. The art form has as many possibilities and our imagination is the limit.

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