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INDUSTRIAL

FIRE JOURNAL F O R P R O F E S S I O N A L S P R OT E C T I N G L I V E S , A S S E T S A N D I N F R A S T R U C T U R E W O R L D W I D E Third quarter 2018 issue no.113

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Next phase of foam tests Lastfire and Dallas/Fort Worth Airport to join forces

Safety comes first Port of Amsterdam takes the lead in major PPP initiative

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INTERNATIONAL INDUSTRIAL FIRE & EXPLOSION HAZARD MANAGEMENT CONFERENCE 2018

Ageing Assets – Use Beyond Expected Life (Environmental Pressures, Global Warming, Cleaner Production, etc.) 08h00 - 08h45

Registration

08h45 - 09h00

Randal Fletcher ( Open Session)

13h00 - 14h00

Lunch

KEYNOTE - 09h00 - 10h15 Admiral Thad Allen Leadership, Response Management, interagency cooperation, Lessons learned Deepwater Horizon, Hurricane Katrina Rita And Other significant events

15h15 -16h00 Gary McFadden The criticality of process safety to minimise impacts of potential major accident hazards. The application of preventative and mitigative barriers.

10h15 - 11h00 Brad Byczynski DeepWater Horizon, other Incidents, Corporate leadership, managing competing agenda's, delivering excellence amidst chaos

16h00 -16h30

11h00 - 11h30

Networking & Comfort Break

THE FUTURE CHALLENGE

KEYNOTE - 14h00 - 15h15 Mark Scoggins Corporate governance, integration to the the line and impacts and implications legal and otherwise

Innovation; Application & Technology – Looking Forward From The Present

16h30 - 17h15 Kevin Deveson Gaining JOIFF credentials for emergency responders from a multi-disciplined team. 17h15 - 18h00 Kevin Westwood Drone technology, an disruptive technology providing situational awareness through application of multiple sensors enhancing decision capabilities.

12h15 - 13h00 Varadendra Koti FEHMP, in the Largest Refinery in the world. Strategy and practical applications and challenges

18h00-18h15

Randy Fletcher Closing Remarks

Registration

08h45 - 09h00

Randal Fletcher (Open Session)

KEYNOTE - 09h00 - 10h15 Jose Torero Translating fire science and engineering theory into real world solutions for the built environment and high hazard industries

Networking & Comfort Break

11h30 - 12h15 Steve Hamblen A view from the Line, Translating policy and strategy to execute at the line, environmental impacts management Deepwater Horizon

08h30 - 08h45

10h15 -11h00 Jeroen Konijnenberg and Raymond Bras Delivering a world class Public Private Partnership, emergency Response Service Meeting today and tomorrows challenges. Practical lessons learned. 11h00 - 11h30

Networking & Comfort Break

11h30 - 12h15 Niall Ramsden LastFire, next generation firefighting foam- large Scale testing recent results and implications

Co Sponsors:

12h15 - 13h00 Eric Lavergne Latest lessons learned, Storage tank firefighting around the world 13h00 - 14h00

Lunch

KEYNOTE : 14h00 - 15h15 Com. Eric Yap Managing the Singapore Civil Defence Force, proactively leading integration of new technology and enhancing service delivery. 15h15 - 16h00 Jim Fletcher Case Study from largest single wildland fire event in recent US history. Managing across organisational authority boundaries, the art of logistics management. 16h00 - 16h45

Networking & Comfort Break

16h45 - 17h15 Pine Pienaar Modernising Industrial fire departments - theory and practice 17h15 - 17h30 Close

Randy Fletcher (Close Session)


CONTENTS TOPPER 4 Editor Jose Maria Sanchez de Muniain j.sanchez@hgluk.com +44 (0)1935 374011 Group sales manager Kelly Francis k.francis@hgluk.com +44 (0)207 973 4666 Sales manager Adrian Hire a.hire@hgluk.com +44 (0)208 865 0281 Sales executive Brenda Homewood b.homewood@hgluk.com +44 (0)1732 448717 Production Tim Malone t.malone@hgluk.com +44 (0)1935 374014 Sector head, International Neil Levett Managing director Bill Butler

10 Storage tank protection Amsterdam unites in the name of safety; the challenges of fire-water mains replacement; facility considers pump-less fixed foam system.

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26 Foam Lastfire and Dallas/Fort Worth Airport partner up; legal ruling dismisses public-office immunity claim; how to stop a contaminated plume.

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33 PPE Minimising the risk of dermal adsorption of toxic chemicals. 36 Training and exercising Project aims to improve CBRNe response.

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16 Offshore Why visual flame detectors are proving a hit with FPSOs. 18 Pumps The different types and latest developments – plus tips.

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News, events & comment

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38 Vehicles Super Pumper breaks records; off-road fire truck launched; firm overcomes challenging specification requirements. 43 Tall buildings Autonomous fire suppression for combustible cladding; trends and tech for safety in mixed-use buildings. 46 Detection The internet of smokedetecting things.

48

Artwork by Graphic Examples Ltd, Sherborne

48 Suppression New clean-agent suppression system – Q&A; groovy sprinkler design finds success. 52 Passive fire protection Fire-barrier duct wrap in focus.

Printed in England by Latimer Trend & Co Ltd, Plymouth DISCLAIMER: The views and opinions expressed in INDUSTRIAL FIRE JOURNAL are not necessarily those of Hemming Information Services. IFJ is in no way responsible or legally liable for any statements, picture captions, reports or technical anomalies made by authors in their commissioned articles.

53 Event review NFPA Conference & Expo. 57 Products and apps NEW REGULAR SECTION

Affiliate associations:

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Front cover: with kind permission of Dallas/Fort Worth Airport.

THIRD QUARTER 2018 < INDUSTRIAL FIRE JOURNAL <

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NEWS

Comment Fire protection is firmly established in our everyday world and even enshrined in codes or regulations, yet fire-related tragedies and fire incidents are still occurring. The reasons – well known – could be down to improperly fitted or unsuitable passive fire systems; that the fire protection elements have become so taken for granted that they have become vulnerable to budget cuts; or that they are simply not there. Jim Pauley’s state-of-the-nation opening of the NFPA’s annual conference and expo (p.53) did not pull its punches in apportioning the blame for this unhappy status quo, and even for some of the tragedies that had taken place over the last year. The causes of many fire-related tragedies, Pauley noted, could be traced back to the failure of one or more of the eight critical elements of the fire safety ecosystem, which include government responsibility, use of reference standards, a skilled workforce, and preparedness and emergency response. Amongst other things, he highlighted that the fire industry has forgotten that safety is a system, not a single piece of equipment. The picture painted by the NFPA president is concerning when placed in the context of the period of transformation that fire safety faces as a result of advancements in technology, such as in the realm of IP integration (p44-47) of building management and fire systems. The potential improvement in safety – managed evacuation, for instance – may indeed constitute a quantum leap. But one wonders whether the long-term challenges will change with these developments. Will the same factors that afflict current technology, be it budget cuts, lack of resources, or the ‘taken-for-granted’ element, return once the new systems lose their shine? And what can be done to ensure this does not happen?

Researchers have developed a practical and inexpensive way to help prevent lithium-ion battery fires. Lithium-ion batteries are commonly used in consumer electronics and are notorious for bursting into flame when damaged or improperly packaged. These incidents have lead to serious consequences, including burns, house fires and at least one plane crash. In a lithium-ion battery, a thin piece of plastic separates the two (Photo: Gabriel Veith) electrodes. If the battery is damaged and the plastic layer fails, the electrodes can come into contact and cause the battery’s liquid electrolyte to catch fire. The latest solution involves inserting an additive in the conventional electrolyte. When the battery is struck, the additive solidifies and prevents the electrodes from touching and causing a fire. Researchers found that the solidifying effect could be achieved by adding silica in the liquid electrolytes because on impact the silica particles clump together and block the flow of fluids and ions. During testing, the researchers used perfectly spherical, 200-nanometer-diameter particles of silica. It is thought that incorporating the superfine sand would require only minor adjustments to the conventional battery-manufacturing process. The results of the latest research were presented at the 256th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society last month. The project is being supported by the US Department of Energy’s Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Jose Maria Sanchez de Muniain, Editor

The European Chemical Industry Council (CEFIC) has published a new set of guidelines for the supply and transport of hazardous materials. The guidelines detail the fundamental requirements of an emergency response service and aim to help companies enhance their internal emergency response provisions or guide the procurement of a professional third-party supplier. Chemical companies in Europe are either advised – or legally obliged – to include a telephone number in the transport documentation for hazardous goods that can be used to provide advice during a chemical incident. Among the core requirements specified by CEFIC is the need to provide robust and reliable telephone infrastructure that can receive and handle calls 24/7, with fast connection to a chemical expert. This restricts the use of mobile phone networks as the sole or primary means of contact. The guidelines state that the emergency responder should have access to the relevant data sheets and be able to provide proportional advice tailored to the circumstances of the incident. According to the new guidelines, this should be provided by a trained technical expert who has knowledge and tactical awareness of chemicals, chemical behaviour, and hazards across a range of incident types. The new CEFIC guidelines have been adopted by all National Intervention in Chemical Transport Emergencies Centres in Europe. The guidance can be downloaded at https://the-ncec.com/en/ resources/guidelines-for-level-1-chemical-emergency-response

double oil tank fire A fire that gutted two crude oil tanks in Terengganu, Malaysia likely occurred during maintenance works, say local reports. The fire occurred at a refinery owned by Kemaman Bitumen Company in the district of Kemaman, around 300km east of Kuala Lumpur, where heavy naphthenic crude oils are turned into naphthenic asphalt, atmospheric gas oil, vacuum gas oil, and naphtha. KBC meets nearly a quarter of domestic asphalt requirement in Malaysia. The fire broke out at about 6.15pm on 5 July in a tank holding 4,800 litres of crude oil. Shortly afterwards a second tank holding 13,700litres of oil became involved and started threatening a third. A fire that broke out in the third tank was reportedly quickly controlled. The three affected oil tanks at the six-tank facility contained a total of around 20,000 litres of crude oil. According to Terengganu Fire and Rescue Department, 8,000 litres of foam concentrate were secured from several industrial companies to add to the fire department’s own 6,000 litres of stock. Around 140 fire and rescue personnel from Terengganu and the surrounding areas worked to control the fire with assistance from members of the Emergency Response Team, the Civil Defence Force, and other partner agencies. At the height of the fire, plans were being put in place to evacuate a nearby village due to concerns around the toxic fumes. The fire was confirmed extinguished on the evening of 7 July. The results of the investigation into the causes of the fire were expected last month.

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battery fires solved?

help – hazmat incident

✜ INDUSTRIAL FIRE JOURNAL ✜ third quarter 2018 Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com


NEWS

False alarms – the cost

A study has been released that aims to establish the cost of false fire alarms in different European countries. Carried out by Euralarm, the European association representing the fire safety and security industry, the study focuses on false alarm data collection and analysis from fire detection and fire alarm systems in Germany, UK, Switzerland, Sweden and Austria. The 62-page study describes how budget cuts and the perceived high rate of false alarms have led to changes in the standard responses of different fire services. In some countries, for example, in order to avoid unjustified costs there is a verification requirement before a response is deployed. The study seeks to establish the true cost of false alarms from country to country, taking into account not only the impact on fire services alone, but also the increased risk to human life. False Alarm Study: False Alarm Data Collection and Analysis from Fire Detection and Fire Alarm Systems in Selected European Countries describes the processes to initiate fire service intervention, formulas to calculate false alarm ratios, as well as a methodology of the overall analysis. Containing recommendations and strategies to reduce false alarms, the publication discusses why false alarms should be integrated into fire protection and fire alarm strategies, and why handling false alarms must become an active part of the management of a site. The study has been published by Eric Schmidt Verlag and is available on Amazon.

minimum exposure New minimum risk levels for PFAS are expected to have a major impact on contaminated facilities across the US. The US Federal Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry has published a draft toxicological profile for a range of PFAS chemicals. The draft report defines the level at which no harm would be expected to people from exposure at 7 parts per trillion for PFOS and 11ppt for PFOA. The limits are significantly lower than the health advisory levels of the US Environmental Protection Agency, which were set at a combined 70ppt in May 2016. The ATSDR is also proposing minimum risk levels for PFHxS and PFNA, for which there are currently no federal standards. In the absence of enforceable rules on acceptable PFAS levels in drinking water, lakes and rivers, regulators have used the EPA level as a standard. The DoD has increasingly been under the spotlight due to its AFFF firefighting foam

containing PFOA; lower safety levels could have significant impact on response and clean-up efforts at contaminated sites around the US. Currently the DoD only supplies long-term water to homes near DoD-owned PFAS-contaminated sites if levels are above 70ppt. The new toxicological profiles were subject to public comment until 23 July.

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third quarter 2018 ✜ INDUSTRIAL FIRE JOURNAL ✜

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NEWS

csb calls for guidance

New owner for dutch fire academy

Arkema chemical plant. (Photo: CSB) The US Chemical Safety Board is calling for guidance to help chemical facilities prepare for extreme weather events as a result of its investigation into the fire at the Arkema chemical plant in Crosby, Texas, on 31 August 2017. Extensive flooding caused by heavy rainfall from Hurricane Harvey last year caused the Arkema plant to lose power and backup power to all its low-temperature warehouses. Workers at the facility moved organic peroxides from the warehouses to refrigerated trailers, which were then relocated to a high elevation area of the plant. Three of those trailers, however, were unable to be moved and eventually flooded and failed. With refrigeration on those trailers lost, there was nothing to stop the chemicals inside from heating up and catching fire. CSB chairperson Vanessa Allen Sutherland said that the investigation found that there was a significant lack of guidance in planning for flooding or other severe weather events. “Based on other government reports, we know that there is a greater likelihood of more severe weather across the country. As we prepare for this year’s hurricane season, it is critical that industry better understands the safety hazards posed by extreme weather events,” she said. The CSB is calling for more robust industry guidance to help hazardous chemical facilities better prepare for extreme weather events. The safety organisation has also published a factual update into its ongoing investigation of the January 22, 2018, blowout and fire at the Pryor Trust Gas Well located in Pittsburg County, Oklahoma, that killed five workers. The CSB has determined the incident occurred shortly after drilling crew members removed the drill pipe from the well in a process known as “tripping.” An animated timeline of the events leading up to the fatal blowout and fire is available on the CSB website. A final report, including facts, analysis, conclusions, and recommendations will be issued at the end of the investigation.

water mist talent search The International Water Mist Association has begun its search for 2019’s water mist talent. Since 2016, the International Water Mist Association has been rewarding young researchers who dedicate their master and PhD theses to water-mist technology. The prize, which is awarded once a year, includes an invitation to the annual International Water Mist Conference; a slot to present the thesis; travel and accommodation expenses; a year’s free IWMA membership; and a prize of 1,000 Euros. The deadline to hand in submissions for the 2019 prize is 30 April 2019. The IWMA Scientific Council will evaluate all entries and will announce the winner on 30 June 2019. For more information, visit www.iwma.net.

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Falck Safety Services and Falck Fire Academy in the Netherlands are to be acquired by a private equity firm. An agreement has been signed by Polaris and Falck whereby Polaris will acquire 100% of the shares in Falck Safety Services Holding A/S and take over all Safety Services activities in Falck, including the Falck Fire Academy in the Netherlands. Torben Harring, who will continue as CEO of Safety Services under Polaris’ ownership, commented: “With the outlook to improve profitability significantly and with Polaris as a new strong owner prepared to fuel our growth, we can now fully focus on accelerating the transformation and development of our business. I’m looking very much forward to start collaboration with Polaris.” The acquisition is expected to be completed this month.

passive fire protection – more regulation needed The European Association for Passive Fire Protection is calling for a greater focus on competence and training for passive fire protection installers and is campaigning for mandatory requirements for both products and installers to be regulated through certification and registration schemes. During two days of discussion at the Association’s latest meeting in Vilnius, Lithuania, EAPFP members highlighted the quality of installation as a key concern, in spite of a number of initiatives under way across Europe that aim to improve installer training and qualification and encourage certification. Training programmes for passive fire protection installers are in place in the UK, Ireland, Spain and the Netherlands, while formal certification and registration schemes are being introduced in Ireland, Denmark and the Slovak Republic. New legislation is expected in Ireland and the UK, while in the Slovak Republic, a pilot project for a new national legal requirement to use approved installed fire-rated constructions is under way. In Ireland registration of all main and specialist sub-contractors, introduced by the Building Control (Amendment) Regulations in 2014, is expected to be made mandatory in coming months. And, in the UK, the Grenfell fire has resulted in long-term reviews of the whole system for specification, design, approval and installation, with an expectation that revisions to the Building Regulations may call for greater evidence of installer competence and mandatory certification of passive fire protection products and installers. For further information visit www.eapfp.com.

✜ INDUSTRIAL FIRE JOURNAL ✜ third quarter 2018 Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com


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personal freedom, particularly in personal data protection. Expoprotection will showcase innovation with over 300 new products, solutions and services expected to be presented on the stands. The best among these will be singled out by an expert jury in the Expoprotection Awards, the results of which will be announced a month prior to the event. For more information visit: www.expoprotection.com

9-11 OCTOBER, NCT ASIA, SHERATON HOTEL, HANOI, VIETNAM With nuclear power plants bordering the country and the IED threat in neighbouring Indonesia and Thailand, Vietnam is continuously developing its CBRNe response capabilities. It has become one of the leading countries in Southeast Asian CBRN, EOD and de-mining defence and is investing heavily in preparation for CBRNe incidents. The NCT Asia conference will be opened by Guy Roberts, assistant secretary of defence for nuclear, chemical and biological defence programmes at the US Department of Defense. He will share his perspective on the current security environment as well as key challenges and priorities. The conference stream will be chaired by Col Henry Neumann, commander of the Bundeswehr CBRN defence command. Speakers include Lt Vincent S Laca, chief of the counter-intelligence group for the Coast Guard, Philippines; Col (ret) Wolfgang Widders, senior advisor for CBRN protection systems, Kärcher Futuretech; and Sanjay Kumar, safety manager of Delhi International Airport, India. The event is organised by the CBRNe Society in collaboration with the Vietnamese Peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Army Military Medical Department and the Vietnamese Agency for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. Fore more information visit: https://www.nct-asia.com/

6-8 NOVEMBER, EXPOPROTECTION, PORTE DE VERSAILLES, PARIS, FRANCE Organised every two years, Expoprotection promises over 750 exhibitors in the field of health and safety at work; safety/security; fire protection and fire fighting; and industrial risk reduction. According to the organiser, a number of trends are emerging, such as taking individual responsibility for prevention, whether as part of the workforce at a company, local authority or government department. The digital revolution is also a highly topical issue with the explosion in big data and the problem of managing the huge volume of information coupled with the emergence of deep learning, artificial intelligence and augmented reality. Finally, Expoprotection intends to highlight current and future societal issues such as the change in scope of private security; increased cooperation between public and private sector operators; and finding a balance between increased safety and

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4-5 DECEMBER, VDS-FIRE SAFETY, COLOGNE EXHIBITION CENTRE, GERMANY The conference for fire protection and security professionals consists of seven conferences and symposiums, a large trade fair and thematic forums in the exhibition hall that are open to all trade-fair visitors. The main theme for the conference is fire extinguishing systems, and amongst the areas to be covered are water-mist extinguishing systems, foam extinguishing systems, and oxygen-reduction systems. In addition, the official results of the Grenfell Tower fire investigation will be examined. Simultaneous German-English translation will be provided for the conference presentations. For more information, visit www.vds.de/fla18.

5-6 DECEMBER, KUWAIT FIRE AND SAFETY SUMMIT, JUMEIRAH MESSILAH BEACH HOTEL AND SPA, KUWAIT Fire safety in high-rise buildings and at petrochemical facilities are two of the main focuses at the forthcoming Kuwait Fire and Safety Summit in December. The event will bring together industrial emergency response leaders with industry associations, government, and civil defence bodies in a networking event that aims to facilitate the discussion of key issues, as well as the sharing of experience, expertise, and case studies. Kuwait is committed to ensuring the highest standards in the fire and safety environment and the country is part of a GCC-wide initiative to examine and highlight current standards of safety and security in high-rise buildings in the region and promote the exchange of ideas between regional industry professionals and international experts. The summit aims to update and equip stakeholders with the latest global standards and developments, regulations, specific requirements and best practices in this field. Kuwait has also taken a lead in introducing fire safety reforms. The Kuwait Fire Safety Directorate has partnered with private petrochemical companies to raise awareness of how fire safety systems, such as fire extinguishers, smoke alarms, gas cylinders, and fire evacuation can reduce the risk of loss of life and property. For more information visit www.wpsummits.com/kfss/.

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storage tanks

Combining forces The Unified Fire Service Amsterdam is a stepping stone for cooperation in a strongly developing port area, write Marleen van de Kerkhof and Kees Kappetijn.

A

public-private partnership in the largest gasoline port in the world aims to create an unparalleled safety model that is expected to help the Dutch capitalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s future growth. Containing the fifth largest seaport in Western Europe and the third largest airport in Europe, Amsterdam has only one ambition for safety: making it the top priority. When certain risks are clearly caused by industrial organisations, it is only fair that those organisations take responsibility in preventing and minimising those risks by developing and organising response capabilities in case of fires, spills or other industrial incidents. Consequently, the Regional Safety Authority, the Port Authority, and over 20 industrial companies have decided to join forces to develop a safety organisation for Amsterdam's port and industrial areas that aims to be operational at the end of 2019. It is envisaged that the new organisation will start out as a fire service for industrial, maritime and urban fire and rescue and from there grow into a safety platform that encompasses the law enforcement and environmental authorities as well as the port's industrial sector. The Port of Amsterdam is a strong supporter of this initiative and will take the lead in the first years of development, bringing all stakeholders to the table. Why? Because safety is not only a core value for firm spatial and economic development, it also strengthens the position of the port and

attracts new business and investments. Amsterdam is the largest city in the Netherlands with approximately 860,000 inhabitants and a metropolitan area that encompasses close to 1.4 million. A sea lock near IJmuiden connects it to the North Sea and the substantial maritime transport routes beyond. The lock marks the beginning of an industrial zone that starts with the blast furnace facilities of Tata Steel and ends with the various tank storage facilities of Vopak, Oiltanking, and Eurotank in the Port of Amsterdam. The area has more than 25 companies in the Seveso category and 55 in the ISPS category, each with special and specific safety regimes. The port is the largest gasoline port in the world, the second largest coal port in Europe, and houses various business clusters that process agriproducts such as cocoa and potable alcohols. Moreover, in between these industrial activities around 190 sea cruise ships per year thread their way to the passenger terminal in the heart of Amsterdam. That daily transport movement between Amsterdam and IJmuiden is equivalent to a floating apartment building with an average of 2,150 people on board, or 400,000 people a year. The city has its challenges. Though the port and industrial areas are already built up against the city, 70,000 new homes and apartments are planned in the coming years to even begin satisfying the growing market demands; large portions

The Port of Amsterdam has more than 25 companies in the Seveso category and 55 in the ISPS category, each with special and specific safety regimes. The port is the largest gasoline port in the world and the second largest coal port in Europe.

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of the building space will have to be found in the harbour area. This in a city that is very dense in the way it is built, with a charming yet complex system of water management consisting of canals, streams, and lakes. The existing use of the city already takes a toll on its accessibility and on the throughput of transport, and this pressure will only increase in the future with more inhabitants, more tourists, and more economic activities. Moreover, the nature of the industrial activities in the port is to change: the aim is to make the transition from fossil energy sources such as oil and coal to solar, wind and hydrogen, and to develop commercial activities that contribute to a bio-based and circular economy. The task facing Amsterdam has some logical conditions. Whatever might be put in motion, it should be sustainable from a people, planet and profit perspective, with support from the community and compliant with national and European regulatory frameworks. Above all, it should be safe. The construction and development processes should run smoothly and safely, and the structural safety situation that is being aimed for should adhere to the newest insights as well. With regards to safety in the harbour, Amsterdam’s stakeholders – including corporate and governmental – have united. From a shared awareness that the challenges of the future cannot be carried by an individual local authority such as the Amsterdam municipality, the Regional Safety Authority, or even by a singular company or clustered industrial group, stakeholders have joined forces in the form of a public-private partnership. Though the responsibilities per stakeholder are different, safety is the result of interaction and cooperation between those same stakeholders. The Amsterdam municipality, the Regional Safety Authority, the Environmental Service for the North Sea Canal Area, 20 to 40 larger industrial companies from the port area (partly unified in AMAS, the Amsterdam Mutual Aid System) and the Port of Amsterdam are working together to shape safe surroundings to work and live in. The short-term ambition is to have a unified firefighting organisation operational within the coming two years that is prepared for all fires and incident types that might occur in a complex port and industrial area. The long-term aim is to build a platform where these parties, both public and private, can come together to work on further developing the different facets of safety in the region, which include fire, water and environmental considerations, as well as preventing political subversion and cyber-crime. The cooperation consists of: sharing information; learning from evaluation; joint training and exercising; risk-centred supervision; and joint enforcement action. Amsterdam is not unique in the development of a unified fire service for its port area. Other sea ports such as Rotterdam and Moerdijk, as well as Schiphol Airport, have already undertaken similar initiatives, although outside of The Netherlands such cooperation appears to be less common. However, the long-term ambition of a cooperative partnership to establish an integral safety centre for the port does distinguish Amsterdam from other ports in

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third quarter 2018 < INDUSTRIAL FIRE JOURNAL <

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storage tanks

The Unified Fire Service Amsterdam will provide operational strength for incidents in the Port of Amsterdam.

Marleen van de Kerkhof is state harbour master of the Port of Amsterdam and director of central nautical management for the North Sea Canal Area.

Kees Kappetijn is consultant and owner of Kappetijn Safety Specialists. The consultancy helps with the design and establishment of emergency service organisations, and specialises in PPP-cooperative relationships and mutual aid in port and industrial areas.

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the Netherlands and Europe. The same goes for the proposed governance and contribution models of the UFSA: the Regional Safety Authority, the Port of Amsterdam, and industry will establish an organisation with a joint safety goal, in which each of the three parties will pay their third of the bill. Organising together, governing together, responsible together, and contributing together, the Unified Fire Service Amsterdam will be a reality in 2019. The Port of Amsterdam is the driving force of this process and will guide the project with the Regional Safety Authority and the port industry. The UFSA will be a unit that provides operational strength for industrial, maritime, and ‘regular’ fires and incidents in the public space of the harbour area. Tank and bund firefighting will be a specialised task of the unit. The UFSA will be housed in a central location in the harbour and will be manned 24/7 by a basic six-person, two-vehicle staff. The turnout time for almost all organisations in the area will be six minutes, with a maximum of eight. The two primary turnout vehicles will be a TS4i (an industrial water tender, equipped for at least four people) and an AS2 (industrial water tender with a large-capacity pump, roof monitor, and multiple cubic meters of water and foaming agent on board, equipped for at least two people). The UFSA housing will be part of a planned logistics centre with maintenance facilities from the Amsterdam Fire Brigade. This centre will also provide storage space for materials and 60m³ of foaming agent for tank firefighting from the tank storage companies that make up AMAS. The participating companies will incorporate the availability of a corporate fire brigade outside of their own site into their individual safety management systems and into the setup of their personal emergency service. The guidelines laid out by the control room of the Regional Safety Authority will dictate the alarm, turnout, and deployment procedures. The unit's profile as regards training, exercising and drills will be primarily determined by the risks and the credible and normative scenarios of the companies actively contributing to the unit. The quality label for service provider training is likely to be provided by the Joint Oil Industry Fire Forum (Joiff) as the independent association for industrial hazard management and corporate fire brigades. The advantage of the UFSA for the Regional Safety Authority is that operational clout will be made available in an area that currently has noticeably long turnout times. The advantage for industry lies in the availability of a corporate fire brigade with a fast turnout time and secured capacity and expertise in the corporate processes of each of the member companies. It is expected that this will contribute to increasing the resilience of a company after an incident, securing business continuity.

< INDUSTRIAL FIRE JOURNAL < third quarter 2018

The UFSA will be set up as a legal entity in its own right, functioning independently from each of its three parent organisations. Broadly speaking, The Netherlands has three organisational models for this type of safety organisation: part of a public entity (eg a safety authority), part of a private entity (an industrial organisation), or independent. Similarly to the Unified Fire Brigade in Rotterdam and the safety organisation of the Chemelot chemical cluster in SittardGeleen, Amsterdam chose the independent organisational model. Industry members organised themselves through an independent platform that could then be tied to the newly established entity of the UFSA. AMAS will continue to exist as a platform to acquire equipment and foam for tank fire-fighting. The members of AMAS will also become members of the UFSA. The UFSA will be governed by a board of six members. Two seats will be filled by the Regional Safety Authority, two by the unified industry, and two by the Port of Amsterdam. This creates an equally balanced board, where neither the public nor the private partners can push through unwanted developments. The Port of Amsterdam fulfils the role of facilitator in this setup, due to both its entrepreneurial/ commercial (more market-oriented) tasks and its controlling and supervising (more public) functions. Regarding the exploitation of the UFSA, it has been agreed that each of the participants will take on a third of the total budget. In the first years of the start-up phase, the share of the Port of Amsterdam may be a little larger. The goal is to shrink that share to less than one third over the coming years, as more companies become members of the unit. For the Port of Amsterdam, the UFSA is a stepping stone – the first irreversible step towards cooperation between organisations that want to further build on port safety in the most optimal way in the future. The first step organises the operational means to be able to quickly and effectively act during special scenarios. However, the aim is to come together to think of systems and concepts that reduce the probability of various types of incidents and to make information and data available to each other that has predictive value when it comes to the conception of these incidents. The government works with information about all types of criminal activities; the licensing authorities and supervisors know the regulatory frameworks within which companies can and should operate; the road, water, and railway authorities have expertise in the planning of transport movements; and the fire brigade has insight into when and where fires can start. The combination of this information makes incidents and criminal activity almost predictable. Aside from the availability of good and quick operational response methods for port-related incidents, the interest of the Port of Amsterdam lies in the joint commitment of stakeholders to create a climate that is as attractive as possible for potential companies to settle in the port area. Companies that are already present should find it a compelling reason to stay, while for new companies it may be a reason to choose Amsterdam over other ports in the Le Havre-Hamburg region. This is not just because safety in Amsterdam has been made more accessible, but because safety can play a valuable role in the image of a company. Finally, with the Port of Amsterdam fulfilling its role as relationship broker with due diligence, the obstacles regarding the different types of responsibilities for individual organisations should also be low, which means that issues around settlement, investment and construction can be resolved quickly and professionally.

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third quarter 2018 < INDUSTRIAL FIRE JOURNAL <

13


storage tanks

In the loop Technical knowledge, customer service, and a local presence have been vital ingredients for providing an effective fire-fighting system for a major storage tank terminal in the Netherlands.

A

Mueller Super Centurion 220 hydrants and Pratt PIVA butterfly valve. Top: aerial view of Port of Amsterdam. (Shutterstock)

14

s a result of close co-operation between manufacturer, distributor and client, a fire-water main replacement project at a major storage tank terminal in Port of Amsterdam is nearing completion with the installation of 95 butterfly valves and 77 hydrants. Work on the project began around five years ago, when it was identified that the 40-year-old fire-water main was reaching the end of its life. Since its original installation, new national guidance had been introduced with higher-capacity specifications for a fire-fighting system: PGS29 Bovengrondse opslag van brandbare vloeistoffen in vertical cilindrische tanks (Above-ground storage of flammable liquids in vertical cylindrical tanks). Under the new guidance, the existing water main was deemed too small for the risk posed by a fire in the recently-expanded storage-tank facility. The project involved three fire loops with a total length of 5.5km, protecting three areas in the terminal using either water from a fire-fighting water tank or marine water taken directly from the Port of Amsterdam. To ensure a smooth supply, the terminal operator decided to purchase the materials directly and issued two tenders in 2016, one for piping and one for hydrants and valves. The latter was won by Saint-Gobain PAM Nederland and Mueller Co in November the same year. An order for 77 hydrants and 95 butterfly valves is considered significant in European terms, where new installation projects are few and far between when compared to growth areas such as the Middle East. “In Europe, most projects are upgrades, refurbishments, or expansion of existing sites,” explains Ranjit Kanvinde, regional sales manager (Europe) for hydrant/valve manufacturer Mueller Co. “We are noticing a fair degree of focus on tank storage facilities, as countries with large reserves of natural resources look to grow. Also, possibly as a result of changing global trade relations, people are building on what storage they already have in case it is a strategic need.” The hydrant model selected was the three-way, FM-approved and UL-listed Mueller Super Centurion 250 hydrant with a 250psig (17Barg) maximum working pressure. Also selected was the Pratt PIVA butterfly valve (10-inch/DN250 and 16-inch/ DN400), a manually-operated, buried valve with a torque spring that maintains an open position if the valve indicator is damaged. Mueller worked closely with its distributor in the Netherlands, Saint-Gobain PAM Nederland, to fulfil the order. As well as working with the contractor carrying out the installation, the distributor dealt directly with the client: “It’s preferable to have a contract with the final asset owner,” says Esther Lindeman, sales and marketing manager at SaintGobain. A direct relationship with the specialist design team contracted to oversee the project ensures quick decisionmaking and effective project management: “Otherwise, the risk is that the hydrants and valves are delivered too late, which

would impact not only on the actual installation company’s time but also on the specialist design team contracted to oversee the project. And these types of teams tend to move from one project to another very quickly.” I In the Netherlands, adds Lindeman, dealing directly with the client is common. “We are a small country and it is relatively easy to travel to wherever the client is based. In this case, that is only 50km from our headquarters in Almere.” Delivery of a first shipment consisting of 30 hydrants was scheduled for the end of December 2016, which meant the manufacturer was under pressure to deliver. However, Mueller Co managed to turn them around in four weeks, even with Christmas in the way. The balance of the hydrants were delivered at the end of January 2017. The butterfly valves followed in another four shipments over the course of the following months, between February and May last year. One of the main challenges was dealing with the documentation requirements of the client. As well as technical drawings and relevant FM approval certificates, these included full audit trails of all communications as well as weekly progress reports on delivery schedules. “This is not unusual, of course, but often the reporting and documentation side is more onerous than the delivery of the product,” says Kanvinde. As the hydrants and valves were initially warehoused at SaintGobain’s facilities, the equipment was delivered to site as required by the contractor. “From our perspective, SaintGobain added a lot of value to this project by giving the client the flexibility and peace of mind that the equipment was in the country ready for installation,” says Kanvinde. 'As they were in the country, they were also at hand to solve any local issues.” “It was a partnership,” says Lindeman. “We really needed Mueller for the technical knowledge of the products, because it’s not just a matter of sending product to the client, but everything around it.” The first two fire-water mains have been installed and are now operational. Complicating factors included the large amount of pipeline running under the ground. Constraints included the lack of working space as well as the fact that the existing fire-water main had to remain operational during the installation of the new loops. “We are into the snagging now, and sitting with all the relevant parties to ensure everything is finished as the client wants it,” says Kanvinde. Lindeman adds that conversations are also turning towards future maintenance requirements. “Although the system won’t need a lot of maintenance we do need to offer some spare parts, or at least point out which parts may be needed in the future, so that we can sort out the possibility of stocking them.” The final stage of the project was expected to be complete by the end of August 2018.

< INDUSTRIAL FIRE JOURNAL < third quarter 2018 Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com


storage tanks

Expanding protection An automatic extinguishing system must be versatile enough to combat fire wherever it may be, lest the unextinguished flames return with a vengeance, writes Andras T Peller.

A

major storage tank company in Hungary is considering expanding the fixed fire-fighting foam system protecting one storage tank to protect a further three storage tanks plus associated loading/unloading areas and bunds. The Hungarian unit of German energy-logistics firm Oiltanking has relied on the first generation of the PI Foam System to protect a gasoline-storage tank at its Csepel Island terminal on the Danube River since 2001. As part of its renovation plans, the company asked Sarnen-based Swiss Fire Protection R&D to devise a blueprint for expanding the fire-protection scheme. The resulting study, detailed in the following paragraphs, illustrates the relative simplicity of expanding the PI Foam System from a single tank to a facility-wide fire-fighting installation. The PI Foam System is unique because it is built around a pressurised vessel that generates foam without relying on pumps. The vessel is linked to designated areas of an industrial facility through a network of temperature-resistant pipes. When fire strikes, sensors send a signal that opens the vessel’s valves, unleashing a massive wave of foam that inundates the flames within seconds. The PI Foam System’s speed and intensity minimises property damage and keeps firefighters safe. And since it is not limited by the capacity of pumps, it is scalable to any industrial area, regardless of size. Oiltanking Hungary requested a plan for a PI Foam System at its Csepel terminal that could guarantee uninterrupted foam supply for all four of its fuel-storage tanks, their corresponding bund areas, pump stations, and the loading areas for trains, trucks, and barges. The tank farm consists of one ring-walled, fixed-roof gasoline tank with a capacity of 5,000m3 and three fixed-roof insulated diesel-oil tanks with bund areas, two with capacities of 5,000m3 and one with a capacity of 2,000m3. As envisioned by Oiltanking, the system should be able to handle a worst-case scenario of simultaneous fires at the facility’s biggest storage tank and its bund areas. The tank with the largest surface area spans 1,489m2 and its bund covers 389m2, for a combined fire surface of 1,878m2. That is equal to the area of a single storage tank with a diameter of 43.5m. SFPRD’s engineers approached the design by dividing the Oiltanking terminal into four extinguishment zones, the largest of which (5,270m2) comprises all four storage tanks. Each of these zones are linked to two foam-storage vessels, each with a capacity of 38m3, via an independent network of branch pipes. The vessels are located in a tempered area to protect against both freezing temperatures and direct sunlight. The branch pipes’ diameter depends on the surface area of the zone they cover. Should a fire break out, only the flood valve of the corresponding header will open, meaning the other headers remain dry. Within a given zone, valves only open if they are required to extinguish a fire.

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The dispensers introduce the foam directly onto the fire surface. Once extinguishment is complete, any combustible liquid and foam precipitate is collected into a pit that empties into a drainage system separate from the sewage system, to prevent pollution. All foam that remains in the pressure vessel and pipeline is reusable. Supplementary devices such as monitors or hoses can be connected to the PI Foam System’s branches, making it possible to target small-scale fires as well as large ones. System failure is highly unlikely due to the low number of moving parts. In addition, operating expenses are dramatically lower than the cost of maintaining teams of firefighters to protect a plant 24 hours a day. SFPRD is currently designing PI Foam Systems for high-rise buildings and freight ships. The system is so flexible that it can offer total protection to practically any facility. Final approval for the expansion of the PI system at Oiltanking Hungary’s facilities is expected shortly.

A PI Foam system protects the gasoline storage tank at Oiltanking Hungary's terminal on Csepel Island.

Andras T Peller is director at Swiss Fire Protection R&D

A plan to expand the PI Foam system to protect all four storage tanks is under consideration.

third quarter 2018 < INDUSTRIAL FIRE JOURNAL <

15


OFFSHORE

Problem visualised Visual flame detection technology is making an impact in the offshore sector by preventing false alarms and production stoppages, writes Jose Sanchez.

T

The Haewene Brim FPSO (above) and the Aoka Mizu FPSO (below) were both fitted with visual flame detectors to prevent stoppages as a result of false alarms.

16

he Haewene Brim is the latest floating production storage and off-loading installation to embrace a combination of 3D flame detection modelling and intelligent visual-flame detection technology in order to reduce false alarms and process interruptions. Visual flame detection is regarded as a technology with some significant benefits over the capabilities of triple-IR detection in oil and gas processing facilities. It is specifically used to deal with detection issues around radiative transfer, an electromagnetic radiation transfer that can be caused by sunlight reflecting on rippling water, as well as by vibrating heat sources such as gas turbines, diesel generators or even exhaust pipes. Triple-IR detectors, which are designed to compare three specific wavelength bands within the infrared spectral region, can become desensitised in these environments and even false alarm. Visual flame detectors, however, are immune to the radiative energy transfer effect because they work by processing live video images to detect the characteristic properties of flames visually, through flame-detection algorithms. As a result, the technology is currently experiencing something of a surge in demand in the offshore sector, in particular on FPSO units. This is because these contain large flare stacks, the heat from which can reflect on the surfaces on the deck, causing triple-IR detectors to false alarm. This issue was faced by Bluewater Energy Services, a manufacturer and designer of FPSOs, which wanted to reduce the number of false alarms initiated by existing triple-IR flame detection configurations on the Aoka Mizu FPSO. Looking for a solution, Bluewater initiated a project with Micropack, a company that manufactures intelligent visual

flame detectors and is also known to specialise in fire and gas mapping services. The 3D modelling software Haz Map 3D was used to design a flame-detection layout around the apparatus and process equipment on the FPSO, including the testing of several voting configurations. The voting system determines when a manual or an automatic response is needed: one detector in alarm may only require a manual intervention, while two detectors may lead to an automatic release of extinguishing agent, for example, or the shutting down of a process. Micropack's business development manager Graham Duncan explains that the flame-detector layout is specific to the type, model and sensitivity used. Using the software, Micropack determined the optimum configuration of detector number and types that could provide the required level of safety while potentially saving on cost. As a result of the mapping study, two years ago 26 triple-IR detectors on the Aoka Mizu FPSO were replaced with Micropack’s FDS301 visual flame detectors. The approach was so successful that Bluewater contacted Micropack again, this time to work on the Haewene Brim FPSO, where multiple false alarm episodes were being experienced from the existing IR3 flame detectors. These were leading to costly production stoppages during its deployment in the Pierce field, 265km east of Aberdeen, Scotland. As a result of the modelling work, in 2017 a number of triple-IR detectors were replaced with FDS301 visual flame detectors on the Haewene Brim FPSO. The work was completed on board in just 10 days. Purported to be the most advanced of its type, the FDS301 is the third-generation intelligent visual flame detector made by Micropack. At the heart of the detector is a flame-detection algorithm that has been developed over the course of 22 years to provide high levels of false alarm immunity in the most challenging of environments. It uses a dual-camera system with one camera providing a live colour video feed to the operator while the second uses near-infrared technology to detect flames visually. The unit is able to record a fire 8.5 seconds before and after an alarm, which not only provides ‘black box’ functionality through an SD card, but also enables the operators to implement preventative measures after incident analysis. Building on its experience and growing presence in the offshore sector, Micropack, has recently secured another significant offshore contract. The company will be installing over 200 visual flame detectors on a mega-project in the Gulf of Mexico.

< INDUSTRIAL FIRE JOURNAL < third quarter 2018 Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com


pumps

Critical point As well as examining different types of industrial pumps and outlining technology developments and trends, Robert Avsec makes some recommendations for selecting the right solution.

L Ferrara’s Super Pumper is fitted with an HPV6000 pump from US Fire Pump. It has a flow capability of 6,256 gallons per minute (23,681 lpm) from draft at a discharge pressure of 125psi, exceeding the world record for pump performance.

arger facilities, decreasing fire-related funding, and more remote locations for new industrial plants are just some of the factors that are increasing the levels of fire risk and piling the pressure on fire pumps to fulfil their role at the critical time. Between 2011 and 2015, municipal fire departments in the US responded to an estimated average of 37,910 fires at industrial or manufacturing properties each year, with annual losses from these fires estimated at 16 civilian deaths, 273 civilian injuries, and US$1.2 billion in direct property damage[1]. And those are just the numbers that are reported by the municipal fire departments that regularly report fire incident data to the US Fire Administration using the National Fire Incident Reporting System. Currently, only about 60% of fire departments (career and volunteer) in the US submit that data to the USFA.

Event Number of Incidents Deaths Insured Loss ($ millions) Event Number of Incidents Deaths Insured Loss ($ millions) Major fires, explosions 45 477 $5,439 Major fires, explosions 45 477 $5,439 Oil, gas 15 36 3,056 Oil, gas 15 36 3,056 Industry, warehouses 14 73 1,845 Industry, warehouses 14 73 1,845 Other buildings 11 308 382 Other buildings 11 308 382 Other fire, explosions 3 22 81 Other fire, explosions 3 22 81 Department stores 2 38 76 Department stores 2 38 76 Table 1. Source: Insurance Information Institute. Facts + Statistics: Global catastrophes. Man-Made Disasters, 2017 Table 1. Source: Insurance Information Institute. Facts + Statistics: Global catastrophes. Man-Made Disasters, 2017

Top world property damage losses for land-based hydrocarbon operations (US$ millions) Rank Date Rank Date

Plant Type Plant Type

Event Type Event Type

Location Location

Country Property Country Property Loss (1) Loss (1)

2 2

Oct. 23,1989 Oct. 23,1989

Petrochem Petrochem

Vapour cloud explosion Vapour cloud explosion

Pasadena, Texas Pasadena, Texas

U.S. U.S.

3 3

Jan. 19, 2004 Jan. 19, 2004

Gas processing Gas processing

Explosion/fire Explosion/fire

Skikda Skikda

Algeria Algeria

940 940

6 6

Jun. 25, 2000 Jun. 25, 2000

Refinery Refinery

Explosion/fire Explosion/fire

Mina Al-Ahmadi Mina Al-Ahmadi

Kuwait Kuwait

820 820

88

Sep. Sep.25, 25, 1998 1998

Gas Gas processing processing

Explosion Explosion

Longford,Victoria Victoria Longford,

Australia Australia

750 750

10 10

Sep. Sep.21, 21, 2001 2001

Petrochemical Petrochemical

Explosion Explosion

Toulouse Toulouse

France France

680 680

11 11

May May 4, 4, 1988 1988

Petrochemical Petrochemical

Explosion Explosion

Henderson,Nevada Nevada U.S. U.S. Henderson,

640 640

12 12

May May 5, 5, 1988 1988

Refinery Refinery

Vapour cloud cloud explosion explosion Vapour

Norco,Louisiana Louisiana Norco,

U.S. U.S.

610 610

13 13

Mar. Mar.11, 11, 2011 2011

Refinery Refinery

Earthquake (2) (2) Earthquake

Sendai Sendai

Japan Japan

600 600

15 15

Sep. Sep.12, 12, 2008 2008

Refinery Refinery

Hurricane Hurricane

Texas Texas

U.S. U.S.

550 550

16 16

Jun. Jun. 13, 13, 2013 2013

Petrochemical Petrochemical

Explosion/fire Explosion/fire

Geismar,Louisiana Louisiana Geismar,

U.S. U.S.

17 17

Apr. Apr. 2, 2, 2013 2013

Refinery Refinery

Flooding/fire Flooding/fire

LaPlata, Plata,Ensenada Ensenada La

Argentina Argentina

18 18

Dec. Dec.25, 25, 1997 1997

Gas Gas processing processing

Explosion/fire Explosion/fire

Bintulu,Sarawak Sarawak Bintulu,

Malaysia Malaysia

490 490

19 19

Jul. Jul. 27, 27, 2005 2005

Upstream Upstream

Collision/fire Collision/fire

MumbaiHigh HighNorth North Mumbai Field Field

India India

480 480

20 20

Nov. Nov.14, 14, 1987 1987

Petrochemical Petrochemical

cloud explosion explosion Vapour cloud

Pampa,Texas Texas Pampa,

USA USA

Table Global catastrophes. catastrophes. 1) 1) Inflated InflatedtotoDecember December2013 2013values; values;(2) (2) Table2.2. Source: Source: Insurance Insurance Information Information Institute. Facts + Statistics: Global Loss Preliminary estimate. estimate. Losstoto refinery refinery following following the the Tohuku Tohuku earthquake; and (3) Preliminary

18

< INDUSTRIAL FIRE JOURNAL < third quarter 2018 Rise to to Rise Fireground Fireground 7.6m 7.6m

Impellor Impellor

L/min

Standard Standard

2,650L/min 4,164L/min

Usable Usable Hose Hose Length Length(meters) (meters)

101mm 101mm 823 823 183 183

35kPa 35kPaavailable availableatatend endofofhose hose

127mm 127mm 1,707 1,707 396 396

152mm 152mm 4,420 4,420 1,036 1,036

1,400 1,400

510 510 500(3) (3) 500

480 480

In 2017, there were a reported 45 incidents of major fires and/or explosions in the commercial and industrial sectors worldwide. As shown in Table 1 below, those 45 incidents alone accounted for US$5.4 trillion worth of insured loss in 2017. Table 2 shows data derived from a listing of the top 20 world property damage losses in the hydrocarbon industry, which includes property damage, debris removal and clean-up costs. The extracted data represents damage losses for land-based hydrocarbon operations only (eg refineries or petrochemical manufacturing facilities).

Increasing levels of risk There is an increasing level of fire protection risk in the commercial and industrial sectors brought on by a variety of factors including, but not limited to, the following: • Larger occupancies to protect. • Facilities that are more spread out. • Aging on-site water distribution systems. • Aging municipal water-distribution systems supplying facilities. • New manufacturing processes with fire hazards that ‘out pace’ existing on-site fire protection water supplies and delivery systems. For facility managers and safety managers, this increased level of risk is exacerbated by several factors, such as: • Decreased funding for routine and preventative maintenance on operational processes. Lack of maintenance is frequently cited in post-action reports following a commercial or industrial fire as a significant contributing factor to the damage loss. • Decreased funding for routine and preventative maintenance and appropriate upgrades to existing fire protection systems. • Decreased funding for fire apparatus and associated water-pumping capacity to keep pace with the potential fire risk (eg not enough available litres per minute to overcome the potential BTUs). • Decreased funding for on-site emergency response personnel. Fewer emergency response personnel means that the available fire apparatus and pumps must be able to deliver the required fire flows with fewer people.

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pumps

Furthermore, newer facilities are being built in more remote locations as a result of environmental protection laws and regulations; availability of developable land; and opposition from NIMBY (not in my backyard) citizen groups. In many cases, this also means that the available fire protection resources from ‘outside the fence’ are coming from small career-staffed or volunteer-staffed fire departments whose personnel are unfamiliar with fire suppression operations on commercial or industrial facilities. And who likely lack the fire apparatus and pumping capacity to address fire of the scope and magnitude found on commercial or industrial facilities.

Water-flow requirements When developing the specifications for a fire protection pump, it is important to start by determining the most common water-flow requirements necessary to provide fire suppression services for the facility to be protected. Ask yourself questions such as these to get a good understanding of what the pump needs to be capable of doing. • How good is the available water supply? Is it necessary to pump water through long supply lines because of hydrant spacing? Does your facility depend upon drafting from static water sources? • What kinds of fire flows are required for the occupancies, processes, and storage on your facility? • Is your facility urban, suburban, or rural? • How many lines and what water flow do you expect to operate from your fire apparatus? • What is the available staffing for those hose lines? What is your level of dependence upon outside mutual-aid?

Pumps for fire fighting

Darley's Ultra High Pressure HighVolume pump provides 30 lpm at 8,300kPa.

Pump manufacturers have responded to the fire apparatus pump needs of both municipal and industrial fire protection organisations with an array of new products, such as: • power take-off-driven pumps with higher flow rates than previous generation models; • centrifugal pumps with newer engineering, casting designs, attachments, and light-weight materials that have ‘slimmed-down’ popular pump models so that they fit in smaller spaces; and •

ultra-high-pressure pumps that make more effective use of available water supplies and provide an effective fire stream for fires (eg turbine engine fires) where banned fire suppression agents such as Halon were the former suppression agent of choice.

Centrifugal pumps Centrifugal pumps – both single-stage and multiple-stage – have long been a popular pump option for fire protection, both when incorporated into motorised fire apparatus and when used in conjunction with a fixed fire protection system such as a fire sprinkler system. Pump manufacturers continue to push the upper limits of pumping capability for centrifugal pumps through better designs and engineering and materials. US Fire Pumps touts its High Velocity Pump as the largest engine-driven NFPA 1901-compliant fire pump in the world. The HVP meets NFPA 1901 performance requirements for fire flows up to 23,660 lpm and can take advantage of larger diesel industrial engines up to 700hp. Given enough engine power and a pressurised water system, the HVP’s performance will exceed 37,855 lpm. Other manufacturers producing centrifugal pumps – for fire apparatus mounting or use in a fixed facility – that can pump more than 11,356 lpm include: • Rosenbauer’s Industrial Pumper, which uses a mid-shipmounted pump that is capable of delivering 17,304 lpm. • Darley’s model 2ZSM 6000 mid-ship pump that delivers 22,710 lpm at 689kPa. • The Waterous Cru-2 High Flow series pump that delivers a fire flow ranging from 15,000 lpm at 690kPa to 25,000 lpm at 690kPa.

PTO-driven pumps PTO-driven pumps, with their pump-and-roll capability, are not just for wildland fire-fighting apparatus anymore. Several manufacturers, including Pierce and Rosenbauer, are selling apparatus with PTO-driven pumps rated up to 5,678 lpm. PTO-driven pumps offer several significant advantages: • The cost of the pump is about 50% less than a mid-shipmounted centrifugal pump. • The manifolding on these large PTO-driven pumps is quite simple and custom designed, enabling manufacturers to prefabricate custom suction and discharge manifolds that meet the customer's needs. • The pump can be tucked underneath the cab or located immediately behind the cab, using often-wasted space. • PTO-driven pumps make for compact pump modules, and there may not be a need for a pump module at all, freeing up compartment space in the vehicle. • They have easier operations because the apparatus operator engages the pump by simply pushing a button in the cab, regardless of whether the truck is in drive, neutral, or park. These savings in weight and space dedicated solely to the pump and manifold can be a huge advantage for fire departments when considering the need for a pumper and a rescue truck – one vehicle for all emergency needs. The pump-and-roll capability of a PTO-driven pump increases the fire-fighting capability of the apparatus, particularly during wildland interface operations to protect structures.

Ultra-high-pressure pumps A conventional low-pressure fire apparatus pump delivers between 75 lpm and 7,600 lpm at discharge pressures that

20

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pumps

electric motor or internal combustion engine – can create a tremendous amount of pressure, pressure that can do incredible work. Harrison Hydra Gen, a major manufacturer of hydraulicallypowered equipment for utilities and OEMs (original equipment manufacturers) has brought that experience to the OEMs of fire and emergency services apparatus, helping them to build IHT technology into their products. Any of these names look familiar? • Waterous Water Pumps: Model CPK2-IHT – 1.62 ratio; 18cc hydraulic motor (HM); 5,350rpm impeller speed; 3,300rpm hydraulic motor speed delivering 600 lpm. • Hale Water Pumps: Model HPX200 – 2.56 ratio; 12cc HM; 7,200rpm impeller speed; 2,816rpm HM speed delivering 600 lpm. • Darley Water Pumps: Model 1.5 AGH – 2.70 ratio; 12cc HM; 6,920rpm impeller speed; 2,560rpm HM speed Event Number of Incidents Deaths Insured Loss ($ millions) Majordelivering fires, explosions600 lpm. 45 477 $5,439

The Darley 2ZSM 6000 mid-ship pump.

Oil, gas Industry, warehouses

15 14

Other fire, explosions

3

36 73 308 22 dewatering 38

Other buildings submersible pump 11 Hydraulic

range from 830kPa to 2,100kPa. NFPA 1901: Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus (Chapter 28) defines ultra-highpressure pumps as those that have a minimum rated capacity of 25 lpm and a rated discharge pressure greater than or equal 7,600kPa. UHPs produce incredibly small water droplets with ten times the surface area of water droplets in fire streams produced by conventional low-pressure fire pumps, allowing at least five times less water to be used. With a UHP system, at least 90% of the water either arrives at the burning fuel or converts to steam, which not only takes energy out of a fire but also displaces the oxygen the fire needs to continue burning. The Ultra High Pressure-High Volume from Darley provides a fire stream of 30 lpm at 8,300kPa. HMA Fire’s Hydrus UHP delivers a fire stream of 76 lpm at 9,652kPa through a 19mm hose. When the US Air Force, along with the other US military services, was looking for an extinguishing agent to replace Halon in its aircraft rescue fire-fighting operations it turned to UHP technology. In fire suppression tests at the USAF’s Tyndall Air Force Base, UHPs were used to suppress pool fires of JP-8 jet aircraft fuel in a 325m2 (3,500ft2) test pit with a 1,438-litre (380-gallon) capacity. The best result for a low-pressure pump (360 lpm at 862kPa using 45mm hose) extinguished 90% of the test fire in 59 seconds using 360 litres of water. In contrast, the UHP (76 lpm at 8,275kPa using a 19mm hose) extinguished 100% of the test fire in 31.5 seconds while using only 52 litres of water.

The typical configuration of a hydraulic fire pump that would be installed on a fire apparatus with a PTO drive.

For emergency from Department stores fire water supply and 2for Table 1. Source: Insurance Information Institute. Facts + Statistics: Global catastrophes. Man-Made Disasters, 2017 natural disasters, hydraulic-driven, submersible-pump (HSP) systems provide a solution for getting pressurised water from Rank Date Type Event Type Location static sources.PlantUsing an HSP , personnel can access anyCountry openProperty Loss (1) water at distances Vapour (horizontal approaching 2 Oct.source 23,1989 Petrochem cloud explosion or vertical) Pasadena, Texas U.S. 1,400 3 Jan. 19, 2004 Gas processing Explosion/fire Skikda Algeria 940 60.96m. 6 Jun. 25, 2000 Refinery Explosion/fire Mina Al-Ahmadi Kuwait 820 Once that water supply has been established, a single HSP 8 Sep. 25, 1998 Gas processing Explosion Longford, Victoria Australia 750 can deliver lpm overExplosion 3,000m in a relatively period 680 10 Sep. 21, 2001 3,000 Petrochemical Toulouse short France May 4,using 1988 Petrochemical Explosion Henderson, Nevada U.S.is 640 of11 time only a few personnel. No vacuum priming 12 May 5, 1988 Refinery Vapour cloud explosion Norco, Louisiana U.S. 610 required, improving reliability, minimising set up time, and 13 Mar. 11, 2011 Refinery Earthquake (2) Sendai Japan 600 freeing up available staffing for more important tasks. 15 Sep. 12, 2008 Refinery Hurricane Texas U.S. 550 16HSPs Jun. 13, 2013 Petrochemical Geismar, Louisiana that U.S. can 510 come in a variety Explosion/fire of sizes and configurations 17 Apr. 2, 2013 La Plata, Ensenada Argentina meet any fireRefinery department Flooding/fire or industrial facility’s water supply 500 (3) 18 Dec. 25, 1997 Gas processing Explosion/fire Bintulu, Sarawak Malaysia 490 needs and can be mounted in a heavy-dutyMumbai pick-up truck or 480 19 Jul. 27, 2005 Upstream Collision/fire High North India Field on a trailer. Larger units are typically containerised. The table 20 Nov. 14, 1987 Petrochemical Vapour cloud explosion Pampa, Texas USA 480 below shows the fire flow capability and practical hose Table 2. Source: Insurance Information Institute. Facts + Statistics: Global catastrophes. 1) Inflated to December 2013 values; (2) Loss to refinery following the Tohuku earthquake; and (3) Preliminary estimate. lengths associated with a mid-range HSP. Rise to Fireground 7.6m

Impellor

L/min

Standard

2,650L/min 4,164L/min 3,785L/min 7,950L/min

Hi-Flow

Usable Hose Length (meters) 35kPa available at end of hose

101mm 823 183 305 Not Practical

127mm 1,707 396 640 Not Practical

152mm 4,420 1,036 1,676 61

Figure 2. Representative flow capacity and hose lay lengths for the Standard and Hi-Flow impellor options for the Model HydroSub 150 from Haines Fire Protection

Representative flow capacity and hose lay lengths for the Standard and Hi-Flow impellor options for the Model HydroSub 150 from Haines Fire Protection.

hydraulic-driven, submersible-pump systems can be used in multiple configurations to create water supply systems capable of delivering from 37,854 lpm to 75,708 lpm. When used with 254mm or 305mm hose, these configurations of multiple HSPs can be used to de-water areas that have been flooded due to natural weather events (eg hurricanes or severe thunderstorms) or man-made events (eg water-main break or dam failure).

Selecting a fire pump for a fixed facility

Hydraulic pumps Hydraulic power has been used in industrial applications to power generators, pumps, winches and cranes for years. This experience with hydraulic power demonstrates that a relatively small hydraulic pump – powered by either an

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3,056 1,845 382 81 76

When there is an inadequate water supply to support a fixed fire protection system, such as a fire sprinkler system, a fire pump is required to supply the flow and pressure demands to such a system. The need for a fire pump should be decided early – ideally as a project scope is being developed. In a 2017 blog posting on the Consulting Specifying Engineer website, fire protection engineer Robert Kranz outlined a process to determine if a fire pump is needed and explained how to select a fire pump that meets the required

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pumps

to select a pump rated at the flow demand; this would result in an oversized pump. For example, let’s say that a fire protection system requires a flow of 1,117 lpm. For this example, a 757 lpm fire pump can technically supply that flow (757 lpm x 150% = 1,136 lpm). The design point is just under 150% of its rated curve. Typically, using a design point between 115% and 135% of rated flow is preferred. In this example, a 946 lpm pump should be selected. Designing too close to the 150% curve may be problematic, with unseen issues or alterations over the life of the system. Specific pump curves should be analysed for peak efficiency [4].

The Hale HPX 2000 is powered by a Briggs & Stratton 18hp petrol engine.

pressure and flow. The process that Kranz provided for determining if a fire pump is necessary for a fire protection system [3] is outlined below.

How to select a fire pump. (Source: Kranz, R. Selecting a fire pump. Consulting Specifying Engineer)

References 1. Campbell, R. Fire in Industrial or Manufacturing Properties. NFPA Report. April 2018. Quincy, MA. Retrieved From: https://www.nfpa.org/-/media/ Files/News-and-Research/Fire-statistics/Occupancies/osIndustrial.pdf 2. Insurance Information Institute. Facts + Statistics: Global catastrophes. Retrieved From: https://www.iii.org/fact-statistic/facts-statistics-globalcatastrophes 3. Kranz, R. Selecting a fire pump. Consulting Specifying Engineer. April 27, 2017. Retrieved From: https://www.csemag.com/single-article/selecting-afire-pump.html 4. Ibid.

How to determine if a fire pump is needed for a fixed facility application. (Source: Kranz, R. Consulting Specifying Engineer) Fire pumps should be selected based on their rated flow and pressure capacity. Fire pumps are required to operate at 150% of their rated flow capacity. Therefore, it is not required

The Hale HPX 2000 diesel version is powered by a Kubota 24hp engine.

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About the Author Battalion Chief Robert Avsec (Ret.) served with the Chesterfield (Va.) Fire and EMS Department for 26 years. He was an instructor for fire, EMS, and hazardous materials courses at the local, state, and federal levels, which included more than 10 years with the National Fire Academy. Chief Avsec earned his bachelor’s degree from the University of Cincinnati and his master’s degree in executive fire service leadership from Grand Canyon University. He is a 2001 graduate of the National Fire Academy's EFO Program. In his second career, Chief Avsec has worked as a freelance writer for more than six years and has contributed to a number of digital and print publications including FireRescue1.com, EMS1.com, Action Training Systems, and now Industrial Fire Journal.

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Guarantee your Here at Hemming Fire we place great value on our readers and our advertisers. FREE copies As a mark of this respect, we have decided to once more audit our publications today! with the Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC) to guarantee transparency and trust for all.

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foam

New foam testing Lastfire and Dallas/Fort Worth Airport are jointly embarking on the next phase of testing new-generation foams in October. Jose Sanchez de Muniain finds out more.

T

wo fluorine-free foams are to be tested on a large-scale fire using four different application methods at rates in accordance with NFPA 11. The latest series of tests seek to answer some of the issues raised by extensive testing and research previously carried out by Lastfire (see IFJ Q1 2018 and IFJ Q3 2017). Earlier work included a range of tests from small-scale through to large-scale bund and tank fires. These were

The planned tests at Dallas/Fort Worth Airport are based on the findings of previous work. They have been designed to test principles rather than to compare specific foams. (Photos: Lastfire and Gesip)

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conducted with various fuels at critical application rates in accordance with recognised standards, such as NFPA, as well as using other application techniques and rates. Earlier tests found that the new generation of fire-fighting foams, which include high-purity C6 foam and fluorine-free foam, provide a wide range of performance. The results suggested that it is not possible to make performance-based assumptions based on whether a foam is fluorine-free or high-purity C6, because both types extinguished fires in all the range of tests at rates equal to, or below, standard NFPA application rates. The tests revealed some unexpected outcomes, such as that in some cases it seemed more difficult to extinguish Jet A1 fires than gasoline fires with some fluorine-free foams. Other findings included that the use of a well-engineered and optimised CAF system, in the form of either a monitor or pourer, equalised the performance of different foams, suggesting that this system could be a highly efficient method of foam application for tank and spill incidents. One major finding was that further testing of the flow capability over long distances of fluorine-free foams – and CAF-generated foam in particular – was required. The protocols for the work with Dallas/Fort Worth Airport have been established based on this earlier work. The main tests planned for October will include two foams, both fluorine free, with one specifically formulated for spill fires and the other for tank-related incidents. With a fire size measuring approximately 40m x 8m, the two foams will be tested using four application methods: conventional pourer, conventional monitor, CAF pourer and

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DFW Foam Summit 2018 The Summit will take place at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport’s Fire Training Research Centre on 16-18 October 2018. It will focus on balancing fire performance and environmental consequences and, as part of the event, a large-scale test of both C6 and fluorine-free foams is planned. The independently-managed event will also review the current situation related to selection, use, and management of firefighting foam, covering the current status and options for future foam policies concerning poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances. Scheduled speakers include Fay Purvis, past chair NFPA11 Foam Systems Committee, USA; Niall Ramsden, Lastfire coordinator, UK; Chief Brian McKinney, DFW Airport; Chief Randy Krause, SEATAC; Jaco Erasmus on behalf of Rod Rutledge, national process safety and regulatory advisor, Caltex Australia Petroleum; and Ian Ross, partner, global remediation, Arcadis. Dwight Williams is also due to give a presentation on some memories of large tank fires and the importance of getting foam performance right. To register, visit: https://lastfire.regfox.com/dfw-research-summit. For more information, email: info@lastfire.org.

CAF monitor, all at application rates in line with NFPA 11. Some of the tests have been introduced specifically to meet the needs of fixed systems being considered for 80m-diameter tanks. In addition, a C6-based foam meeting the latest high-purity requirements will be tested with one application method as a comparison. The work will be supplemented at a later date with further tests involving other fuels and application methods. According to Lastfire, the foams that have been chosen for the next round of tests were selected based mainly on the previous test results. This includes the results of proportioning tests that were carried out to determine the feasibility of using new generation foams with conventional proportioning systems while still achieving accurate pick-up rates. Niall Ramsden of Lastfire comments: “Lastfire would be pleased to test other foams at a future date in similar large-scale testing but the objective here is to test principles rather than compare specific foams.” The tests are planned for 8–12 October and will be followed by a foam conference on 16-18 October (see box left). The conference, which is being organised in association with Arcadis and DFW, will cover the issues of whole-life foam assurance as well as including two demonstrations using a large fire pit.

No public immunity Germany’s highest court of law has found a German fire service liable for AFFF used at an incident and has dismissed a claim of public-office immunity, reports Jose Sanchez de Muniain.

O

The judgement is in line with the principle that the polluter pays. (Shutterstock)

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n 14 June the German Federal Court of Justice in Karlsruhe, southwest Germany, ruled that the fire service of the city of Baden-Baden could not claim immunity from liability after using PFOS-containing foam during an emergency. The judgement is the result of an eight-year legal battle between the owner of an industrial premises and the city of Baden-Baden. It is widely regarded as an important test case that will affect the fire service’s operations and its use of firefighting foam. Sometime prior to 2010 the local fire service received a donation of old foam stocks from a chemical company on the Baden-Airpark industrial site. Without realising that it contained PFOS, the fire service used around 8,000 litres of this AFFF foam concentrate at an incident on 8 February 2010 involving a major fire that destroyed commercial warehousing and administrative buildings. As a result, the site in the district

of Sandweier became heavily contaminated with fluorochemicals. Baden-Baden took landowner Claus Reformwaren to court for the remediation and clean-up costs in 2010, with court judgements in 2014 and 2017 finding against the landowner. However, the latest judgement from the highest court in Germany has unanimously reversed the previous ruling on the grounds that it was clearly faulty and incorrect. The German Federal Court of Justice judgement dismissed the claim that the actions of the fire service incident commander were covered by immunity to liability (haftungsprivileg) because it was an emergency, but rather that their actions counted as contrary to the obligations of public office (amtspflichtwidrig). The full court judgement* was clear in its denial of the appeal of the defendant, the city of Baden-Baden. It said that the lower court had correctly recognised that the decision of

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foam

the incident commander to use a PFOS-containing foam in order to prevent spread of the fire to an adjoining warehouse, represented a failure of judgement and was therefore a dereliction of duty in a public office, and that the incident commander had behaved negligently. The judgement also ruled that neither the incident commander nor the defendant could claim immunity from liability in accordance with German Civil Code regulation §680 BGB (Security management). Based on the requirements of the obligations of public office under §839 BGB (Liability in the case of official breach of duty), every degree of negligence establishes liability when public-office obligations are violated. This also applies in the case of an emergency incident and when ensuring protection against danger under public law. It also said that a reduction in the level of liability did not apply in such cases. The judgment noted that office holders are obliged to respond professionally to an urgent danger and are typically prepared for the associated emergency situation; they are trained for this and can fall back on established procedures. It said that the risk of a mistake by such emergency personnel was clearly smaller than for others involved by chance, and that public bodies with liability for public-office duty violations by their officers were better protected against the financial risks and costs associated with fire service incidents than private-sector emergency responders. The judgment noted that if a reduced level of liability were to be valid for all public danger protection as regards emergency situations, important areas of state business would be exempt from simple negligence. The judgement said that immunity from liability was neither compatible with the basic rules of

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Baden Baden is a spa town in BadenWurttemberg, southwest Germany. (Shutterstock)

official liability nor was it necessary. The clear message is that any degree of negligence by the incident commander nullifies any defence involving waiving liability in an emergency, removing immunity from liability or the award of civil damages, including the significant costs associated with environmental remediation. The judgement is in line with the principle that the end-user – in this case the fire service and its employer the state of Baden-Baden – is responsible for the pollution caused and with the overarching environmental legal principle ‘the polluter pays’. Legal costs are estimated at around €1.9 million (US$2.2 million). Exact clean-up costs are unknown, but in January this year local reports quoted site remediation works, which include groundwater treatment, as amounting to €2 million (US$2.3 million) and rising. *Bundesgerichtshof Karlsruhe (German Federal Court of Justice) 14 June 2018. “III

ZR 54/17 Amtshaftung aufgrund Feuerwehreinsatzes bei Grosbrand” < http://juris. bundesgerichtshof.de/cgi-bin/rechtsprechung/document.py?Gericht=bgh&Art=pm& Datum=2018&nr=84457&pos=1&anz=106 >

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Risk contained Innovative technology that stops a PFAS-contaminated plume from spreading beyond a site’s boundaries has shown its effectiveness at a facility in Canada where fire-fighting foam was used during training execises in the 1970s and 1980s, writes Jose Sanchez de Muniain.

L

Once the liquidactivated carbon is pumped into the subsurface it coats the walls of the acquifer with a thin layer that stays in place for decades. (Regenesis)

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evels of PFOS and PFOA at the site decreased to lower than the method detection level in all the groundwater samples shortly after treatment using the colloidal activated carbon technology. The technology that has been deployed in Canada is called Plume Stop. It has been developed by the California-based company Regenesis, a remediation company that operates along the same lines as the pharmaceuticals industry by identifying an environmental problem and then attempting to solve it from its laboratory in San Clemente. Regenesis’ Plume Stop technology focuses on widespread low-concentration contaminant ‘plumes’ that have previously been considered impossible or impractical to treat. These sites often rely on hydraulic containment using ‘pump-and-treat’ systems or ‘monitored natural attenuation’, a passive approach whereby natural attenuation processes are relied upon to achieve site-specific remediation objectives over many years. Plume Stop was first developed for dealing with contamination of chlorinated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbons, as found in a wide variety of sectors including manufacturing, petrochemical, and dry-cleaning industries. After a six-year development period, it was launched in the US in 2014 and in Europe in 2015. The technology has been deployed at over 150 sites across the world, including Volvo Car Gent in Belgium, the largest Volvo plant in terms of the

number of cars produced, where it is being used to deal with a range of contaminant plumes. Plume Stop consists of the first true liquid form of activated carbon. Granular activated carbon is widely used for remediation in pump-and-treat systems, however it is too large to be injected into the subsurface. Regenesis has taken the approach to dramatically reduce the size of the carbon particles, which in the Regenesis solution are only one to two microns in diameter. Another key difference is that the small carbon particles are pre-treated with a coating that prevents them from clumping together. The end result is a suspension of particles, or colloidal liquid, very similar to ink. This liquid-activated carbon is pumped into the subsurface, and as it travels, it coats the walls of the aquifer, whether sand or clay, with a thin 1-2 micron-thick layer that stays in place for decades. “What you are left with is an underground activated carbon filter,” says Gareth Leonard, managing director of Regenesis’ international arm. When a contaminant encounters the carbon particles, it is adsorbed and begins biological degradation. Once degraded, the carbon can then begin adsorbing further contaminants, hence the filter regenerates itself ‘in situ’. Previous to its injection, a site is surveyed to locate the so-called flux zones, through which the groundwater carries the contamination. The application of the liquid-activated

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foam

carbon targets these flux zones by injecting through temporary points. “In terms of volume per point, you might apply approximately 1,000 litres per injection point, then you work across the site stitching these points in. You might do five or ten of these a day, depending on the site and the depth,” says Leonard. Regarding PFAS treatment, the technology differs from traditional remediation in a number of ways. The standard pump-and-treat method requires drilling wells, installing pumps, running the water through activated carbon filters, and then disposal of the carbon filters through either landfill or incineration. “As PFAS plumes spread so readily in groundwater, the equipment required is on a very large scale. To put a line of pump-and-treat systems every 10m along a 1.5km of plume is very expensive. Moreover, it has to stay there for a long time, until the source of contamination runs out. The operation and maintenance costs are therefore huge and ongoing,” he points out. Leonard is familiar with fire-fighting foam. Before his 15 years in the remediation industry, he worked offshore on oilrigs and trained with fire-fighting foam. One of his memories is walking across the shallow training tanks that had been extinguished with foam and watching the footprints created in the foam reigniting behind him. A key aspect of Plume Stop is that it does not aim to destroy the contamination itself, but rather eliminate the risk posed by the PFAS. The treatment will stop the PFAS from advancing and thus remove the possibility of exposure to the contaminant. The approach can be applied over entire plumes, but is also flexible and can be targeted on problem areas. “If the plume is not causing a problem, but in one area it’s getting into a stream,

or drinking water, then we can inject around those areas and protect those receptors,” says Leonard. Interestingly, the possibility of using Plume Stop for contaminants other than chlorinated solvents and hydrocarbons had not been considered by Regenesis until after its launch. “We didn’t think about PFAS at all during development. It was only when people started exploring what the product could do, that we started looking into whether it could adsorb PFOS and PFOA.” When the company started carrying out laboratory tests using Plume Stop with PFOS and PFOA, it found that Plume Stop adsorbed them better than some of the typical chemicals it was already treating.

Respondol ATF

The installation of a Plume Stop barrier halts the advancement of PFAS. (Regenesis)

3-3% 3-6%

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foam

PFOS/PFOA monitoring results of the well in Canada at 18 months after the injection of Plume Stop. (Regenesis)

The company then carried out some lab tests to see how Plume Stop performed against PFAS-containing shorter carbon chains, the result of a collaboration with a high-profile site in Italy. “We emulated two barriers by using serial batch tests. We took contaminated groundwater from the site and added Plume Stop, then agitated it for a period of time and analysed. We achieved a 98.5% reduction in the PFAS mass, with all of the large PFAS, such as PFOS and PFOA, being removed. Much of

the remaining contamination was PFBA, a very mobile PFAS compound that only has a four-carbon chain. We then took the treated water and ran it through a second batch test, emulating a second barrier and we achieved an overall 99% reduction, with 84% of the PFBA removed. So we absolutely can treat the shorter-chain carbon molecules, but as they aren’t as quick to adsorb you need more treatment, either using a wider barrier or multiple barriers.”

in-situ COMMERCIAL pfas remediation – A WORLD FIRST? The project that alerted the world to the potential of liquid activated carbon for the remediation of PFAS contamination began in 2016 in Canada, with the results appearing this year in the paper, In situ treatment of PFAS-impacted groundwater using colloidal activated carbon, published by Remediation Journal. It was the first in-situ project carried out by Regenesis with PFAS, and it is believed to be the first commercial in-situ PFAS remediation project ever carried out in the world. The field study was carried out by hydrogeologist Rick McGregor of In Situ Remediation Services. The location in central Canada was a site where fire-training exercises using PFAS-containing foam had been conducted during the 1970s and 1980s, resulting in PFAS contamination in the shallow groundwater. Here, the PFOS and PFOA plumes were estimated to cover an area of 780m2 and 700m2 respectively, both extending from the surface of the water table, 0.9m below ground surface, to approximately 1.7m below ground surface. Prior to the treatment, wells in which PFOS had been detected had concentrations ranging from 280ng/l to 1,450ng/l, and wells in which PFOA had been detected had concentrations from 490ng/l to 3,260ng/l. A total of 290kg of Plume Stop liquid activated carbon and 176kg of oxygen-releasing material were mixed with 3,120 litres of water and injected into 20 temporary locations. The oxygen-releasing material was used to address the dissolved petroleum hydrocarbon compounds also present within the groundwater. Samples for PFOA, PFOS and 12 other PFAS-related compounds were analysed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry during the 18-month sampling event. Eighteen months after the injection, groundwater concentrations of PFOA and PFOS from samples collected from six monitoring wells were all below the method detection limits (MDLs) of 20 and 30ng/l for PFOA and PFOS, with the exception of one site with PFOS detected at 40ng/l in the groundwater. Groundwater samples for 12 other PFAS were also collected, representing a mixture of shorter carbon chain and longer carbonchain PFAS. Although the shorter carbon-chain PFASs were expected

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to break through before the longer chain PFAS, all the PFAS were found to be below their respective MDLs, with the exception of perfluoroundecanoic acid, which was detected at 20ng/l. Encouraged by these results, Regenesis is currently involved with universities in Scandinavia, Italy and USA, and is working on potential projects in Australasia, USA and Europe. “Of course, I would like these sites to go ahead more quickly, however, you have to consider the scale of these issues,” says Leonard. The treatment process is not straightforward because each site is different, with different flux zones, contamination levels and ground conditions, all of which require a site-specific design, application method and product dosage. “We cannot take a design from the site in Canada and apply it to a different site in, say, Germany,” comments Leonard. Nevertheless, interest in the technology is high, as concerns are spreading around the world regarding PFAS. “It was probably only six years ago that this issue started showing its head," says Leonard. "Australia very much led the field and Scandinavia has woken up to it. It looks like the US will be taking this seriously, and once they begin enforcing regulation they will do a good job in ensuring sites are remediated.” Because of the attention, the company is expanding its traditional market of remediation in industrial sites and petrol refilling stations to airports, factories, fire-fighting training centres and chemical facilities. “The American EPA has suggested that six million people may be exposed to PFAS in their drinking water in the USA alone, so world-wide the scale is extraordinary.” For organisations that have used fire-fighting foam, the advantage of Plume Stop is its potential ability to eliminate possible subsequent liability, as Leonard explains. “If an airport has been using AFFF, the potential liability does not lie in human health on site because it doesn’t form vapours. It lies in the fact that PFAS is highly soluble in water and travels a long way through the groundwater. Therefore it will move outside the site boundary into the environment, creating an offsite liability for the polluter. You need to deal with the contamination going off site. You need to close that gate.”

< INDUSTRIAL FIRE JOURNAL < third quarter 2018 Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com


ppe

Clean your kit Dermal absorption of toxic chemicals on PPE is elevating firefighters’ risk of developing cancer, according to a new study from the University of Central Lancashire in the UK. But what can be done to minimise this risk? Lotte Debell looks at research and initiatives from around the world and the challenges faced by fire services in getting to grips with the cancer threat.

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ancer is the leading cause of death for firefighters. A search of the IAFF line-of-duty death database for cancer brings up 1,762 names. The organisation’s Fallen Firefighter Memorial Wall of Honour, erected more than 30 years ago in Colorado to honour firefighters from the US and Canada, has more than 7,600 names in total. 190 names were added in 2017. 167 were deaths caused by cancer. In fact, cancer accounts for more than 60% of the names added in the last five years. Study after study has shown that firefighters are at an increased risk of developing cancer because of the toxins they are exposed to on the job. But for many firefighters it doesn’t take a study to tell them what they already know – that too many of their colleagues have died from, or are fighting, cancer. The studies point to exposures to toxic compounds during fire suppression as the reason for a firefighter’s elevated risk of developing cancer. But what is becoming clearer as more research is coming out is how this exposure is happening. Whereas for a long time, the focus had been on inhalation, current research suggests dermal absorption is the main culprit – and this raises serious questions about how firefighters can protect themselves from this potentially deadly occupational hazard. The most recent study to provide evidence of the dangers of dermal absorption of chemicals from combustion was conducted by the University of Central Lancashire in the UK[1]. Published in February 2018 in Nature’s Scientific Reports, it is the first study of its kind in the country and links a firefighter’s increased risk of cancer to ‘dangerously high levels of harmful chemicals’ on their PPE after exposure to smoke from a fire. It also highlighted the need for government intervention and regulation for the long-term health protection of firefighters. Astonishingly, despite the growing evidence, firefighting is not currently considered a high-risk occupation in Europe. Following a meeting at the European Parliament to discuss fire toxicity and firefighter health, the study’s lead researcher Professor Anna Stec – who has been arguing for years that the risks are much higher than anyone in the fire service acknowledged – realised that more data was required to demonstrate firefighters’ exposure to carcinogenic chemicals.

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"We know that firefighters are exposed to a cocktail of acute toxins – those that have an immediate effect – as well as chronic toxins, which have a long-term effect. Within chronic toxins, not a lot of research has been carried out." For this reason, the study focused exclusively on PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), specifically on 16 that are classed as either carcinogenic, potentially carcinogenic or possibly carcinogenic by the US. "Acute toxins will depend on the fire conditions and fuel for any given fire, but soot is carbon and everything contains carbon. So, we decided to focus on soot because it is always present and it sticks to everything. Soot is a build-up of PAHs." While conversations about exposure have tended to focus on inhalation, Stec took a different route. Since the use of breathing apparatus should limit the inhalation risk, and with studies from the US showing the presence of particulates under firefighters’ clothing, the UCLAN team homed in on clothing contamination and potential exposure on the skin. They also looked at PPE cleaning methods – or lack of them – and their effectiveness. This is really one of the key issues. If PPE is contaminated with carcinogens and is not cleaned effectively or indeed at all between incidents, the chemicals on those garments can cause repeated exposures for the firefighters who wear them, as well as potentially contaminating vehicles and anything else they touch. Working with 136 firefighters from two fire stations during training scenarios, researchers took pre- and post-event wipe samples from firefighters’ skin and PPE as well as from their workspace and fire engines, taking account of differences in PPE storage methods between the two stations. They looked at various roles, from instructors to trainees, and most, if not all, had carcinogens on their clothing and skin. "When we calculated the cancer risk to firefighters within 30 to 40 years of exposure to these contaminants on their clothing – and not washing that clothing – it is very high," said Stec. In fact, she says, it is as much as 350 times higher than the level that would prompt government intervention in the US. "Many firefighters have told us that they don’t have the facility to clean their kit at the station, so they either take it home to wash it or don’t wash it at all. And they often leave it in rooms close to their offices and sleeping areas. Most fire services in

Professor Anna Stec, lead researcher on the UCLAN study.

Dirty gear is still regarded as a badge of honour by some fireighters, but awareness of the health risks is now on the increase. (Shutterstock)

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ppe

The UCLAN study looked at various roles from instructors to trainees, and found that most, if not all, had carcinogens on their clothing and skin after a fire. (Shutterstock)

the UK have no regulations on how they clean their kit and based on the samples we collected, there is clear evidence that clothing is not being effectively decontaminated." This is a story that is being repeated around the world. A study from the US by Kenneth Fent et al[2], published in 2017 in The Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, found PAHs on firefighters’ PPE, necks and hands at varying concentrations depending on their role during an incident, and that levels of the chemicals on PPE increased after each fire. While the study did not measure biomarkers of PAHs, since these are readily absorbed through the skin, the authors concluded that firefighters in the study likely experienced biological uptake of these chemicals. In Europe, researchers in Belgium identified a risk from PPE when firefighters kept isolated in a room wearing their turnout gear for four hours showed evidence of increased toxin levels in urine samples. Belgian company Decontex has since developed a full decontamination programme for fire PPE – chemical, biological and particle (asbestos) decontamination – based on the LCO2 extraction technology, to ensure that harmful compounds are effectively removed. But it’s not simply a case of cleaning PPE. It’s also about persuading firefighters that this needs to happen. And that is not nearly as easy as it sounds. "A few years ago in Belgium, a survey asked firefighters how often they clean their gear, and most said never or once a year," says Tommy Verminck, who set up Decontex. "Why is that? Because they don’t have the facility, or they just don’t want to? Testosterone is a real problem here." Or, as Lieutenant Heather Buren from the San Francisco Fire Department puts it: "The dirtier your gear, the saltier, hardier firefighter you are." For the last few years, Buren has been working to educate firefighters in her department and around the US on the need for post-event decontamination and the risk of cancer as part of her work on the Women Firefighters Biomonitoring Study (WFBS) looking specifically at breast cancer risk. Behaviour change is happening, she says, but it is a slow process – even when it is mandated from the top. "As firefighters, in order to cope with all the things we do and see on the job, we separate ourselves from it. We look at all this death and mayhem and say 'that won’t happen to me'. Especially for those who have been in the service a long time, cleaning kit goes against the grain of what it means to be a firefighter. All these things conspire to make behaviour change difficult." The WFBS made a video using shaving cream to visually

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represent PPE contamination. It’s an extremely effective demonstration of why decon is necessary – and just how easy it is to transfer contamination from PPE to skin, to vehicles, and even to homes. "We also held a memorial for fallen firefighters by putting the boots of all those who have died from cancer on the steps of city hall – 250 pairs of boots. That’s something you can’t look away from and say it isn’t happening. But, fire departments are steeped in tradition. Even when a general order is issued, it’s a slow trickledown. You can mandate change, but that’s just not how it works in the service. It is going to take time." "In Europe, unions have been a driving force behind behaviour change," says Tommy Verminck. "In Belgium, the union published cartoons, organised conferences and produced videos to explain the risks of taking contaminated clothing home. They also lobbied for legislation." In Australia, a campaign by the United Firefighters Union of Australia pushed for the introduction of presumptive legislation that recognises certain cancers in firefighters as having an occupational cause, making them eligible for compensation. In 2011, this campaign contributed to the passing of the Fair Protection for Firefighters Bill by the Australian Federal Parliament. The UFUA is now continuing the campaign at state level. Presumptive cancer laws – laws that contain the presumption that certain cancers are a result of occupation rather than requiring the person to prove this – are hugely important in countries like the US, where they make it easier for firefighters diagnosed with cancer to claim paid medical, disability pensions and benefits for their families after death. The inclusion of breast cancer in presumptive legislation across the US was a motivating factor for the Women Firefighters Biomonitoring Study in San Francisco. In December 2017, the provincial government of Alberta, Canada, became the first Canadian jurisdiction to add two female-specific cancers – ovarian and cervical – to its list of site-specific presumptive cancers for firefighters. It also lowered the exposure period for testicular cancer. Presumptive laws are all very well, and undoubtedly necessary in those countries where lack of them might mean that firefighters with occupational cancers cannot receive the help and benefits they need. But what, if anything, can governments and regulators and the fire service itself do to reduce the risk? "There are now more than enough studies that show the risk is real," says Verminck. "What the industry needs to do now – and what the fire service is notoriously bad at doing – is move from the problem to the solution." But what does that solution look like? Is it behavioural, regulatory, technological, or all three? Verminck’s message, that it is time to stop talking and start doing, is not aimed solely at the fire service. Industry also needs to come together. "Instead of the detergent makers, machine makers, and PPE suppliers all doing their own thing, they should come together to find a solution," says Verminck. "Then they could create the best suits that could be cleaned by the best detergents, using the best technology. And the fire service should undertake to use what they develop because it is not traditionally an early adopter of technology and so industry has been reluctant to invest." The increase in cancer deaths since the 1970s has been blamed on changes in modern building materials and home furnishings, including the rise of synthetic materials and plastics and even flame-retardant coatings for household goods. If the increasing toxicity of the smoke from fires is partly to blame, is this an area where future regulation could make a difference? "There is a gap between the public perception of what a

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firefighter’s job is and the reality," said Peter Maes, firefighter and emergency medical technician with the Brussels Fire Department, speaking at the same European Parliament meeting that Anna Stec attended. "Being a firefighter is never running through fire: it is crawling through thick smoke. The smoke is hot, it is flammable, it is blinding. It is also increasingly toxic, and only a small amount of material can create a huge amount of smoke." Stec said: "The EU needs to admit there is a problem and act to regulate smoke toxicity. I am hopeful that my research, and the research of those feeding into the European Parliament’s roundtable discussions, will be influential in that outcome." However, even if regulations on smoke toxicity did come into effect – and in the EU at least that is not likely to happen any time soon – soot would still be present at every fire and so would PAHs. These chemicals would still adhere to PPE and potentially contaminate a firefighter’s skin. Likewise, while manufacturers and standards agencies are looking into changes to PPE design to reduce chemical exposure, and though these changes might offer some benefits, the PPE would still get dirty and it would still need cleaning. "At the end of the day, firefighting is a risky business. We can’t control what happens in the fire," says Lt Buren. "As firefighters, we are not going to refuse to go into a fire because it looks toxic. But what we do before and after a fire is within our control, and there are things we can do to prevent us from becoming cancer statistics." In San Francisco, cleansing wipes are starting to appear on fire trucks. These can be used by firefighters to wipe down key areas such as the neck, hands, and groin after a fire. The 2017 Fent et al study found that use of cleansing wipes can reduce skin contamination by PAHs on the neck by a median of 54%. The same study looked at three methods of field decontamination and concluded that wet soap decon was the most effective. Then there’s proper decontamination and PPE cleaning procedures. In San Francisco, special washing machines called extractors were installed in stations several years ago and are now in almost half of the city’s firehouses – although it took a while to persuade firefighters to use them. "Even before that we began an effort to get turnout gear out of sleeping dorms and common rooms because people were just wearing their dirty gear all over the station," says Buren. "It’s about individual responsibility. I can sit back and say my department should do this and that to protect me, and that’s certainly true, but it has to start at an individual level." Technology can build on mitigation efforts through behaviour change. There’s a project underway at the Catholic University Leuven in Belgium to create a health-monitoring patch for firefighters that detects when it has become saturated with harmful chemicals, triggering further tests and the potential for firefighters to be taken out of active service for a period to control exposure and risk levels. The project, which is still very much in development, could also include an app that could enable firefighters to monitor their own health, including activity, temperature and chemical exposures, which could encourage individuals to take greater responsibility for their own health. And when there are so many layers of responsibility involved, from government to manufacturers to fire services, Buren is right: firefighters cannot afford to wait on others to change things. Which does not mean that change shouldn’t also come from other directions and for everyone else involved in this fight, the growing awareness and increasing number of conversations about firefighters and cancer are crucial steps in the right direction. But it is going to take everyone working together to turn it around.

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References 1 Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and elevated cancer incidence in firefighters. Anna A Stec et al. http://rdcu.be/GnmR 2 Contamination of firefighter personal protective equipment and skin and the

Integrity

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effectiveness of decontamination procedures Kenneth W. Fent et al. https://www. tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15459624.2017.1334904

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thiRd quaRteR 2018 < INDUSTRIAL FIRE JOURNAL <

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Training and exercising

Terriffic T

The project’s research and innovation efforts will enhance the European response to radioactive and nuclear explosive events through the development of a set of modular technology components in a comprehensive system.

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A European project to improve the effectiveness of first responders in the initial stages of a CBRNe incident has just launched, reports Rob Munro.

he Terriffic project involves ten European organisations that will work together to shorten response time, lessen the health and safety risks for response teams, and develop automated processes and extended mobile detection capabilities to reduce the degree of human intervention required in CBRNe response operations. Funded by the European Commission’s Horizon 2020 programme, the project is designed to counter the growing risks from dirty bombs, speculative radiological weapons that combine radioactive material with conventional explosives and which are increasingly being used by terrorist groups against soft targets. Terriffic is about developing tools for early and effective reconnaissance in CBRNe incidents and providing first responders with faster information and enabling better management of the control zone. The project’s research and innovation efforts will enhance the European response to radioactive and nuclear explosive events (RNE) through the development of a set of modular technology components in a comprehensive system. These include new detectors, algorithms, drones, robots, dispersions models, information management software, and decision support systems. Although not its primary focus, the project will also provide detailed information on the applicability of developments within a chemical and biological context. Performance goals include a significant decrease in the time it takes to start terrain interventions, facilitated by more accurate and close-to-real-time estimates of control and exclusion zones. Advanced mixed-reality technology will be used to provide first responders with continuously updated information during operations. Key performance indicators will measure progress towards these goals. The project’s R&D partners will provide the latest technology innovations, and key components will be developed by SMEs already involved in military or first responder markets. First response practitioner involvement is key, and their operational expertise will be essential throughout the development process, including the

< INDUSTRIAL FIRE JOURNAL < third quarter 2018

assessment of components and the technology trials, to ensure that the project focuses on the right areas.

Project partners Arktis Radiation Detectors is the project coordinator and technology partner. The company will provide low-cost, modular silicon photomultiplier-based gamma and neutron detectors and will be involved in the integration of detection technologies into systems alongside developing an interface that will allow information from its detection system to be transmitted using CBRNe communications standards. Nexter Robotics will adapt its unmanned ground vehicles so they can operate RN detectors mounted on a manipulator arm and provide autonomous exploration capabilities to enable autonomous search for contamination threats inside pre-defined areas. Drones for mobile detectors will be provided by Aeraccess, and the company will focus on a customised interface with the newly designed payloads and connection to the Terriffic system, to enable precise, real-time information for first responders. Bruhn Newtech will provide CBRNe products and product enhancements to the project, while management services firm Arttic will support the project management, communication, dissemination, and exploitation of the project’s activities. Expertise in operational needs assessment, testing, evaluation, and training will be provided by the International Security and Emergency Management Institute. RNE experts TL & Associates will specify and consolidate the technical specifications to develop the necessary evaluation and training tools using virtual reality technologies. The company will also contribute to dissemination activities, presenting the evaluation results to the RNE community. Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology will contribute to the mixed-reality software development, requirements capture, and user evaluation and testing, while the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission will develop an ultra-compact gamma camera for radioactive source localisation, and a beta contamination measurement system able to work in a high gamma background. École Centrale de Lyon will develop the algorithms and software used to predict the location of the source and then the location of the pollutant’s plume and the 3D characterisation of the contaminated area. The Terrific project will also leverage results from previous successful FP7 projects, closely cooperating with Encircle on the CBRN cluster and market aspects, and with Enotice on training and technology testing and assessment. Special attention will be given to standardisation to optimise the integration with future and alreadyapplied solutions.

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vehicles

VEHICLE TECH Pushing flow boundaries

Ferrara’s high-capacity Super Pumper has received UL confirmation for a flow capability of 6,256gpm (23,681 lpm) from draft at a discharge pressure of 125psi (8.6 bar), exceeding the record for pump performance. With this new increased flow capability, fire departments will no longer be limited to the standard industrial rating of 100% capacity at only 100psi (7 bar) net discharge pressure. Breaking the 100-psi ceiling was made possible by the unit’s new HPV6000 pump from US Fire Pump. According to Ferrara, with four 8-inch (20.3cm) and one 12-inch (30.4cm) intake connections, the ability to be remotely supplied from mega hydrants is now feasible. The Ferrara Super Pumper offers a triple-deck gun system with a main gun providing 8,000gpm (30,283 lpm) and a dual rear 2,000gpm (7,570 lpm) configuration. All three monitors are controlled by wireless remote control, which ensures fire-ground safety and efficiency during the application of large streams. Other features include a rear-mount pump configuration that protects from potential supply and discharge lines and facilitates the establishment of supply lines to the pump as well as providing a quieter operating environment. The vehicle carries a foam concentrate tank with a 900-gallon (3,406 litres) capacity as well as a 300gpm (1,135 lpm) multi-point direct injection foam system that reduces increased flow restrictions. Ferrara’s Super Pumper meets the higher flow requirements that industrial hazards firefighters are facing at petrochemical processing and refining plants, and is also ideal for municipalities with large fire load facilities such as warehouse districts, shopping centres, shipping docks, tunnels, tank farms, or for mass disaster response requirements. The vehicle is well suited to industrial facilities where space is an issue thanks to a shorter, more maneuverable 185-inch (4.7m) wheelbase and an overall length of just over 33ft (10m). The latest test was documented and witnessed by both UL and the Louisiana State Fire Marshal’s Office.

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Truck for extreme environments

A flexible, off-road capable, large-tank fire truck designed specifically for industrial use has been launched by Rosenbauer. The Tigon combines concentrated extinguishing power with a robust, lightweight construction, 700hp engine, and an off-road chassis to create a vehicle that can cope with high payloads over even the most extreme terrain, such as deserts, tundra or Arctic conditions. The Tigon consists of a chassis from Czech manufacturer Tatra that is based on a robust central tube frame to ensure optimal distribution of forces. The tubular construction envelops vehicle elements and protects moving drive components from damage. The differential gears are also protected within the tubular frame and can be locked individually. The semi-axles are freely movably mounted, and the wide tyres are equipped with a pressure system that adapts to the condition of the ground. The Tigon can be fitted with built-in pumps with capacities up to 13,000 lpm; proportioning systems that can deliver up to 1,200 lpm of foam compound and mix foam into the complete pump output; and water turrets for combined extinguishing output of up to 15,000 lpm. In the standard 8x8 version, the Tigon carries 12,500 litres of extinguishing agent. It is also equipped with a power take-off drive to enable the use of fire-fighting equipment while driving. The Tigon can also be equipped with a high-pressure pump for rapid attack or a powder extinguishing system. The extinguishing agents are deployed by fast assault and/or high-performance turrets. Turrets with specially developed Chemcore nozzles are available for the combined application of water and powder.

All-round light and vision

A lighting tower manufacturer has partnered with vehicle camera system suppliers to add cameras to its light towers to improve scene visibility during operations. Working with Intec, Safety Vision and Zone Defense, light specialist Command Light has mounted camera systems on its light towers to provide crews with 360° views at height.

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vehicles

The cameras on the light towers enable incident commanders to survey both fire and kerb-side activity from the pump panel; record response actions for review and training; and ensure the safety of crews around the apparatus. Intec Video Systems has provided two high-end camera options – the CVC500AH or the VSC510, which features a motorised x23 optical zoom lens for detailed viewing and can switch from colour to black-and-white images to enhance details. In partnership with Safety Vision and Zone Defense, Command Light also offers two vehicle camera system options, which are expected to be popular on mobile command units. Paired with select Command Light towers, these cameras are designed to provide 360° viewing angles at what the company describes as a reasonable price point. “Our CL Series tower is able to reach up to 11 feet and has the ability to overhang the side of vehicles, making this one of the most adjustable vehicle cameras,” said Command Light’s Roger Weinmeister. “When you pair that with our new eight-head tower, crews can capture every angle and illuminate it with 240,000 lumens.”

Going bespoke in Sao Paulo A fire truck has been especially designed to meet the challenging requirements of an aluminium recycling company in Brazil. Aluminium lamination and recycling firm Novelis required the fire truck for its plant in Pindamonhangaba, São Paulo. "Our factory has very large structures and, due to the aluminium manufacturing process, our internal fire department needs an agile vehicle that reaches the high ceilings in our production plant," said Daniel Forastieri, EHS director at Novelis South America.

The fire truck not only had to be highly manoeuvrable and compatible with fire-fighting accessories but also carry a turntable ladder with a 42m reach. In addition, it had to comply with US NFPA standards. The turntable ladder truck project started in 2012 and was so complex that speciality vehicle maker Triel-HT Group consulted an American firefighter team to assess whether the vehicle met international standards. Triel-HT selected a Scania P440 6x4 commercial chassis and an Allison 4500 fully automatic transmission. According to Triel-HT director Marciano Dalla Rosa, the Allison 4500 enables the chassis, body and pump to efficiently work together. He explained that the company prefers to use Allison transmissions because of the manoeuvrability, safety and performance they provide to firefighters during operations as well as the perfect integration of transmission to the body and the electronic controllers that operate the truck. The truck's specification includes a 7,000-lpm pump, breathable air track for rescue at heights, and inlet and outlet water fittings at the rear of the vehicle.

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vehicles

Fire risks on electric vehicles

Panthers for Dubai Airport

Dubai Airports has placed an order for 22 Panther 8x8s and three turntable vehicles model E8000/3000 from Rosenbauer. The large order also includes additional equipment and a multi-year service contract. The 25 vehicles will be deployed at Dubai International Airport, the world’s busiest international airport for passenger volumes. Rosenbauer ARFF vehicles have had a presence at Dubai Airport since the 1980s, and a fleet of ten Panthers is already located there. The 52-t Panther 8x8 has a top speed of over 135kmph and carries 19,000 litres of extinguishing agent comprising 16,800 litres of water, 2,200 litres of foam compound, and 500kg powder or CO2. Its two 700hp Euro 5 engines enable it to accelerate from 0 to 80kmph in less than 25 seconds – even faster with the Euro 6-engine option. The new Panther 8x8 features a pump that provides 10,000 lpm at 10 bar with a range of monitor options. These include the new RM80 roof turret with an output rate of up to 9,000 lpm and a throw of 100m for water and 90m for foam, and the new RM35 with up to 4,750 lpm and throw of 85m for water and 76m for foam.

A new research project focusing on the fire risks presented by electric and hybrid vehicles powered by lithium-ion batteries has been launched. The project is being funded by Sweden’s innovation agency Vinnova with support from fire sector partners including Dafo Vehicle Fire Protection and Fogmaker. Current levels of knowledge regarding the risks associated with these types of vehicles are limited in spite of their growing numbers on the road. While vehicle fires can be extremely intense and have significant safety and environmental consequences, these can be even more severe when they take place in road tunnels and underground car parks. The project, which has been initiated by Rise Research Institutes of Sweden, will focus on how fire risks posed by lithium-ion batteries in vehicles should be managed. "With this new project – in which Rise, Scania, the Swedish Association of Vehicle Workshops, NEVS, and Fogmaker are also participating – we will map the fire risks associated with lithium-ion batteries and as well as mitigating the consequences of fires in electric and hybrid vehicles. The big increase in electric vehicles and the transition to renewable fuels means that this is a very important and exciting project,” said Johan Balstad, business area manager, Dafo Vehicle Fire Protection. He continued: “This work will lead to future safety solutions, including system design and battery placement. Our focus of this project will be to investigate the extent to which fixed/integrated fire suppression systems, that are widely used to protect engine compartments on heavy vehicles, can be applied to vehicles powered by lithium-ion batteries, as well as how the systems should be designed.”

THE DIFFERENCE — NIGHT AND DAY. With new LEDs on the market, it’s tempting to equip trucks with only corner light fixtures, but don’t be fooled. Command Light’s illumination study shows how truck-mounted perimeter LEDs stack up against a light tower.

VIEW THE STUDY AND COMPARISON PHOTOS AT COMMANDLIGHT.COM/WHY-LIGHT-TOWERS

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vehicles

180°. The platform uses a hydraulic horizontal-vertical jacking system for stability with jacks that can be adjusted and extended up to 9m. Other safety features include an automatic return function for the rescue cage as well as the ability to store different cage positions and automatically reposition back to them.

Rising to the challenge

Military-grade coach protection

A hydraulic platform that can transport up to five people from a height of 60m has been developed for industrial fire service applications including fire-fighting and rescue at height. Rosenbauer’s multifunctional B60 platform has a payload of 500kg thanks to lightweight construction and an optimised cage, which provides both front and rear access and space for heavy-duty stretchers. A rescue ladder with rung-levelling adjustment running along the telescopic boom sets provides a second rescue route option. The platform’s fire-fighting capabilities include the delivery of 3,800 lpm of water from a cage turret that is permanently connected to the telescopic waterway. The aerial appliance, cage, and turret can all be controlled remotely. The B60 has a five-part telescopic main boom and a two-part cage boom. The secondary element of the cage boom can be telescopically extended and retracted, and the rescue cage moved up or down through

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A fire suppression solution for engine compartments in coaches has been developed that complies with new regulations that came into force this summer. Bus Shield is fully compliant with the new UNECE R107 regulations that become mandatory in July 2018, and which require Class III coaches to be fitted with fire warning and suppression equipment. Class I and II vehicles are set to follow in 2020. Class III coaches are defined as vehicles constructed exclusively for the carriage of seated passengers. The new system that has been introduced by Lehavot consists of a linear heat detection system, a command and control unit, and a suppression agent and delivery mechanism. The whole system, which draws on technology developed for war zones, has been designed for integration into bus engine compartments. Lehavot says that the heat detection element, which is based on its Delta 6-series of linear heat detectors, offers lightning-fast detection of any issues within a second, plus a high degree of reliability and low false alarm rates. Should a fire be detected, suppressants primed in 25-bar pressurised dry chemical agent containers are able to swiftly smother and put out a range of fire types before they can take hold. Mounted straight in the dashboard, the control unit provides pre-alarm and fire alarm warnings. The system is set to automate responses to threshold heat parameters, thereby ensuring safety even in the event that a driver has been incapacitated. A manual mode also enables the driver to manually activate suppressants. Sensitivity can be tailored to individual vehicles and user requirements and, in addition, all alarms, fire events, and responses are recorded in the detector, enabling users to download and monitor conditions at any point. Lehavot says that it developed Bus Shield by leveraging its experience as a primary supplier for all of the in-service military mine-resistant ambush-protected vehicles developed to counter the IED threat over the last 10 years. This included the development of an advanced fast-release valve that is able to rapidly counter blossoming explosions and keep military operators safe. As well as compliance with UNECE R107, Lehavot and Bus Shield are certified to ISO 9001:2008, FM-approved, and also bear Rise Institute’s P Mark. In addition, the Delta detectors are rated to MIL-STD 810, 461 and 1275.

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Tall buildings

Fires on facades New autonomous fire suppression technology that identifies and contains fires on high-rise buildings with combustible cladding materials has been tested.

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argeting and large-scale tests in Dubai have shown that a new system is capable of detecting, locating and containing fire spread on the external facade of buildings. Johnson Controls partnered with a third-party consulting firm and research group to successfully test the new technology, which could potentially save lives with early fire identification and intervention for rapid fire protection. The standalone system is designed to quickly identify and accurately pinpoint the location of the fire and deliver water to that exact location within seconds. In addition, the system can use existing building fire protection infrastructure to minimise the need for additional water supplies, pipework and pumps. A full-scale fire test programme was carried out to assess the performance of the Spraysafe Autonomous Fire Suppression technology by Thomas Bell-Wright International Consultants in cooperation with the Research Institute of Sweden. Testing occurred from January to March of 2018 at the TBWIC facility in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The purpose of the test was to validate the ability of the new Spraysafe AFS technology to autonomously detect and locate an early-stage fire, distribute water to its location and prevent it from spreading on the exterior surface of a building with combustible facade materials. Two tests were conducted – a targeting test series and a largescale fire performance test – using combustible fire cladding. The objective of the targeting tests was to verify that the system could automatically detect and accurately direct water spray at small target fires within the limits of the coverage area at both minimum and maximum operating pressures. The large-scale fire performance test was conducted to verify the system could adequately prevent fire spread on a simulated full-scale facade. Three different attack types were assessed – vertical downward, diagonal downward, and horizontal. A free-burn test was also performed to verify the combustibility and response of the facade material without suppression. The testing confirmed that the new Spraysafe AFS technology has the capability to rapidly and autonomously fight an early-stage fire anywhere within its coverage area. Additionally, the system also effectively contained flashover fires, prevented fires from spreading via the exterior of the facade surface and limited severe fire damage to the point of origin. “As buildings continue to reach new heights, the need for early fire detection and intervention of the facade is critically important,” said Fredrik Rosen, marketing manager, Rise Research Institutes of Sweden. “This revolutionary technology from Johnson Controls can quickly and effectively fight fires in high-rise buildings, which is a major challenge in today’s environment.”

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Tall buildings

Quantum leap The key challenges, current trends and technologies required for achieving end-to-end fire security in mixed-use high-rise buildings are outlined by Stefan Haug.

M Stefan Haug is regional marketing manager EMEA for Bosch Building Technologies.

Top right: the Plac Unii building in Warsaw, Poland contains a shopping centre as well as offices, bars, restaurants and a car park. (Shutterstock)

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odular IP-based fire systems are the only answer for establishing fire safety in modern multi-purpose buildings that require adaptability for change of use. While stricter legislation regulating sprinklers, building materials, and fire alarm systems has greatly improved overall safety standards in high-rise buildings, incidents still occur. According to a recent report from the National Fire Protection Association, an average of 40 people are killed and 520 are injured every year in high-rise building fires, mostly apartment buildings, in the US. The report also notes that thanks to stricter security, only 4% of high-rise fires spread from room to room, and only 2% to another floor. In low-rise buildings, these numbers are twice as high. Compared to low-rises, achieving end-to-end fire security in high-rise buildings poses a unique set of challenges. The most significant is the risk to human lives, as 73% of all high-rise building fires occur in building types that contain large numbers of people: hotels, apartments, or multi-family housing, dormitories, facilities that care for the sick, and office buildings. In addition, as the level of technology and automation in buildings increases, so does the potential for cable fires and other electrical fires. As a result, security systems need to be able to detect and localise the source of a fire as fast as possible, while facilitating a coordinated evacuation approach to lead people on all floors to safety. With these requirements in mind, IP-based fire alarm systems are emerging as the way forward. Networked on digital infrastructure, addressable systems of panels and detectors provide fire detection at an early stage, plus exact localisation of the fire source. They integrate with other key systems such as sprinklers, video surveillance and access control and can be combined with voice evacuation to direct people out of dangerous areas as quickly and precisely as possible. Most of all, IP-based fire alarm systems are easily scalable and adjustable to changing customer demands, for instance in mixed-use buildings. On the subject of scale, high-rise buildings require alarm systems that can bridge long distances vertically – not horizontally like a campus or factory building. From the standpoint of an IP-based system, however, there is no significant difference between vertical and horizontal distances, since these systems have been built for the very purpose of connecting panels, sensors, and controls over extended areas. Panels in modern IP fire systems such as the modular fire alarm panel 5000 Series by manufacturer Bosch can be placed 40km apart and allow for management in separate zones, also across tall buildings. A typical network can encompass 20 panels with up to 32,000 detection points. In day-to-day operations, IP-networked fire alarm systems provide integrated solutions for the five main challenges facing fire security in modern high-rise buildings: evacuation,

false alarm management, resilience, interfacing, and futureproofing and scalability. Today’s high-rise buildings can contain over 100 floors and hold several thousand occupants at the same time. This calls for a carefully organised approach to evacuation to avoid panic and prioritise evacuation of people near immediate danger zones. In this context, IP enablement is not simply a technical evolution, but a quantum leap in human safety. Fully integrated alarm and voice evacuation systems operate in unison and allow dynamic, multi-stage evacuations in the event of emergency. Providing security personnel with a direct view of the location of a fire or danger source, IP-based systems ensure that safety responses are targeted logically, enabling those immediately affected to escape the building first. Next, those on adjacent floors above and below evacuate, and finally those at the top and bottom floors of the building. The management of false alarms is a key concern for safety. Security experts agree that more than three false alarm per year may undermine the credibility of a hotel’s fire system and make guests perceive alarm evacuations as less serious. Experts estimate that around 20% of today’s false alarms have an undetermined cause. Consensus exists that analogue systems are prone to false alarms from electromagnetic radiation. In that light, IP-based systems have proven highly resilient against false alarms due to their capacity for using multi-point verification of an actual fire. In the event of an actual fire, the fire alarm system needs to be able to accommodate for loss of panels and cable infrastructure. A breakdown of cables also causes erroneous signals from devices on the network that need to be filtered out. A distributed system, ideally IP-based, can test its own integrity and offer built-in redundancy to deal with emergency situations. The fire system in a high-rise building also needs to interface with systems such as video surveillance, access control, and voice address for evacuation. Studies have demonstrated that voice alarm with clear instructions significantly improves fire evacuation time compared to mere noise alarms and presents a significant time gain of up to 30% for emergency response teams. At Bosch we have developed our Smart Safety Link to further improve safety by creating a

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Tall buildings

single IP-based interface (or multiple interfaces) between the company’s alarm and voice evacuation systems. Finally, before making an investment in new fire safety systems, building operators would be well advised to consider the future-proofing of their systems. Again, IT-based architectures emerge as the only way forward. Current legislation such as the 2015 edition of the International Fire Code already mandates addressable systems in which connected devices can signal their device type, location, and alert status, which is a built-in feature for IP-based networks. The process of digital transformation is reshaping the business landscape and changing the previous separation between spaces designated for living, working, and shopping. From the standpoint of fire security, the trend towards multipurpose buildings has two consequences. First, the overall building management system needs to be able to communicate with the specific systems of individual businesses and venues in the same building. For this reason future-proof building management systems are designed to integrate into a variety of third-party solutions. Second, the fact that many spaces in multi-purpose buildings are only leased for limited periods of time requires systems to be easily adjustable to the requirements of the new tenants. This holds true both on a physical level with walls being moved and floor layouts rearranged – necessitating the rewiring of detectors and panels – as well as on a software level to realign the security architecture as needed. As a direct response to these issues, Bosch’s addressable fire alarm panels use a modular concept. The system adapts to the nature and size of the facility and user-specific applications, providing the opportunity to configure a system

tailored to the security needs of each tenant. One such project, the new Plac Unii building in Union Square, Warsaw, was completed in May 2014. Raising the bar for state-of-the-art architecture in the Polish capital, the Plac Unii building features a 23-storey tower with two seven-storey bars in a triangular alignment as well as a shopping centre, offices, restaurants and a large car park. The fully IP-based fire alarm system here has a modular architecture with eight networked modular fire panels 5000 Series, which support more than 14,000 fire detectors, controls and external devices. In the event of an alarm, evacuation instructions can be distributed to different zones and to any of the system’s 3,200 loudspeakers via the digital public address and voice evacuation system. This system is also used to broadcast music and advertisements in the shopping centre during business hours. Based on Bosch technology, the local partner installed fire detection, access control, video surveillance and voice evacuation systems, all networked and integrated through the IP protocol and the building integration system. Looking ahead, high-rise buildings are at the forefront in the evolution of urban working and living environments. As we speak, investments in fire safety systems are consequently at an all-time high. Grand View Research expects the market to increase from US$52.19 billion in 2016 to US$93.46 billion by 2022, at a compound annual growth rate of 9.7% between 2017 and 2022. When making investments into fire protection systems for high-rise buildings, buyers should focus on overall integration into building management systems while aiming for centralised control over fire emergency response and evacuation. IP-based systems are emerging as the only logical way forward.

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DETECTION

Internet of smokedetecting things While the past few years have seen rapid developments in smoke-alarm device technologies their potential could not be fulfilled because standards had not kept apace – until now, writes Ulrich Rabe.

V Ulrich Rabe is head of customer service for fire detection systems at VdS and is the lead author of new guidelines VdS 3438-3. The guidelines for the EN-compliant integration of smoke-alarm devices in smart building systems are freely available at vds-shop.de/en.

The current EN standard considers smoke-alarm devices as independent units rather than as network components.

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dS has harmonised standard EN specifications in line with modern technology with new standard VdS 3438-3. It aims to provide industry with practical, standard-compliant support for making full use of the opportunities offered by the Internet of Things shaping this future market. More and more countries are making it a legal requirement for private homes to install smoke alarm devices with the primary aim of protecting human life, something that many studies have shown leads to significantly positive results. A side-effect of these requirements has been – and will be – the creation of an enormous market for smoke alarm devices. Another important aspect is differentiation, for example through integration in smart-home systems or connection with other devices, which is crucial for gaining market share in a sector where the typical optical signalling principle has been in existence since 1976. According to various studies, this industry will see a double-digit growth in the next years worldwide. Within the European Union, smokealarm devices are categorised as construction products and are therefore covered by the construction products regulation. According to this directive, an independent body has to test the products and confirm compliance with

the requirements of the harmonised standard EN14604. The fact that this standard dates back to 2005 is clearly a challenge for developers. As we all know, the last 13 years have seen a rapid development in the networking of devices and in the creation of new applications. Keep in mind that the first smartphone was sold two years after the standard was published, changing user behaviour significantly. The current EN14604 standard explicitly allows the interconnection of smoke-alarm devices but remains vague on all further function possibilities. Up to now, all additional functions have been viewed with suspicion and only accepted if they have no repercussions on the smoke-alarm device, specifically not impairing correct functioning. Only crosslinked smoke alarm devices are allowed to – or have to – transmit alarm and fault signals to each other. Today's smoke-alarm devices can be cross-linked within a network that can transmit fault and alarm signals to all participants. This ensures that within an opportune time, in case of fire, all those affected and possibly in mortal danger are alerted, even when the fire breaks out in infrequently accessed areas such as an attic or basement. While this is not a legal requirement in the EU, users often opt for this function. It is also currently possible to monitor smoke alarm devices via an application that allows, for example, checking battery status or transmitting an alarm signal to a mobile terminal. In this context, smoke alarm devices are also integrated into a network with other building technology components, which avoids having to equip each network participant with an individual application. However, current guidelines and standards do not include any requirements or tests methods for these applications. The obvious next step is to enable

smoke-alarm devices to emit alarm signals from other network participants. If intruder protection is integrated into the building management system, the smoke alarm could be triggered to acoustically signal a burglary. Furthermore, many countries are discussing the use of smoke-alarm devices for civil protection. In the event of disasters, an additional chip could enable the smoke-alarm device to emit a different alarm, a function that may even be improved with voice output. As voice control technology has become more and more sophisticated, the application of such modules in smoke-alarm devices is a foreseeable next step. Unlike other building technology components, smoke-alarm devices already have a sound-emitting component, which is essential for a voice control-based dialogue. It is therefore more cost-efficient to use a smoke-alarm device than to retrofit other components – a fact that should also boost this market. However, connection to the internet involves, as we all know, the risk of external interference. How do these developments impact guidelines? The detection and warning of fire, the primary and mandatory function, is a matter of life and death. All other possibilities and components are secondary. Compared to any other part of smart-home systems, smoke-alarm devices always have the highest safety relevance. As described above, the existing standard is not of much help if we want to strengthen smoke-alarm device abilities beyond their core function. In its current version, the EN standard regards them as independent functional units and none of the above-described developments are taken into consideration. However, it is clear that smoke-alarm devices now often take on the function of a network component.

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As a component in a network, the device receives a wealth of additional information, such as fault or alarm signals from other network participants, which needs to be processed. Not all information can be processed simultaneously, but must be arranged in a sequence. For smoke-alarm devices, the detection and warning of fire always has the highest priority, so this also applies to the processing of information. Smoke-alarm devices must be able to differentiate between incidents and ensure fire alarms always take precedence over other information. Those life-saving alarms must never be displaced by other signals and a current burglar alarm signal must be overruled by a fire warning, alerting everyone present, including burglars, of this mortal danger. Fire alarms must always be clearly distinguishable from all other acoustic signals because an alarm signal that is mistaken could, in a worst-case scenario, induce people to go into the danger zone instead of evacuating it. Furthermore, smoke-alarm devices must continue to function independently. This means that even if the whole network collapses, is hacked, flooded by malware, or falls to a power surge, the smoke alarm devices must remain operational. In some fire detection and alarm systems, as per EN54-13, the detector is only responsible for providing data, and not for its evaluation with regard to the existence of fire, which is realised via control and indicating equipment. This, however, is not allowed for smoke-alarm devices that are integrated within smart-home systems. As smart-home systems are not required to have a redundant power supply, a power failure could lead to a complete breakdown of the entire network. In such a scenario, only smoke-alarm devices that have their own independent and verifiable power supply can remain operational. Another consideration is the lack of exclusive transmission paths in smart-home systems, which mean it is not possible to guarantee that information can always be received. Smoke alarm devices are increasingly used

as components in a network – but what kind of network? Clearly not a fire detection and alarm system in accordance with EN54-13, because, as shown above, some decisive characteristics are lacking, such as an exclusive transmission path. In fact, it is a building network that can be accessed from anywhere in the world via the Internet. This also means that the potential for sabotage vaii hacking or malware has to be addressed. While a disabled burglar alarms system primarily puts material assets at risk, the consequences of a disabled smoke-alarm device can be fatal. It is therefore vital that standards and guidelines keep up with rapid technological change. However, already today there is a wide gap between the theoretical world of the guidelines and fast-moving actual practice. We will all need guidelines in line with technical possibilities to guarantee that the smoke-alarm device that consumers purchase for fire protection still fulfils this function and can be relied on. VdS has addressed this important task and has published part three of its guidelines 3438, specifically dealing with the integration of smoke-alarms devices in home-protection management systems. These new guidelines not only look at networked smoke-alarm devices as providers of information, but also take into account the possibility of using the devices' alarm transmitter for intrusion protection. The precise requirements, as already outlined, are that the detection and signalling of fires always has the highest priority; that the fire alarm must always be clearly distinguishable from all other signals; and that smoke-alarm devices must continue to function independently under any circumstances. The basic product requirements as stipulated in EN14604 or the corresponding VdS guidelines 3131, remain unaffected. What VdS is doing, in accordance with its innovation focus, is supporting manufacturers by combining the opportunities of modern technical development with the demands of maximum safety – at all times in accordance with the relevant EU standard.

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suppression

Pushing the limits August 2018 saw the introduction of a new clean agent fire suppression system to the Americas, following its debut in Europe and APAC in May. Jose Sanchez de Muniain caught up with Miguel Coll from Johnson Controls during the NFPA Expo in Las Vegas to find out more about Sapphire Plus.

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he Sapphire Plus system from Johnson Controls is a gaseous fire suppression system that consists of cylinder containers filled with suppressing agent and pressurised to 70 bar – a pressure not seen before in an approved suppression system that contains the clean agent Novec 1230. The new system has been designed for the protection of high-value equipment in power plants, museums and telecommunications facilities, as well as aviation, transport, IT, and medical facilities.

Miguel Coll is product director for engineered systems at Johnson Controls.

Based on research from Dynamic Systems Laboratory of Michigan Technical University, Johnson Controls developed a range of acoustic nozzles to protect against noiserelated data loss in hard disk drives.

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What are the main benefits of the new Sapphire Plus system? You can install your containers more than 100m away from the risk, while with the standard 25-bar systems, you may be limited to 20m or 25m. By increasing the nominal charge pressure to 70 bar, the container can be filled with Novec 1230 fluid to a higher fill density of up to 1.4kg per litre. This has not been possible for 25-bar systems, because the headspace required in the container for the nitrogen gas used to propel the agent out of the system would be insufficient. The high pressure means that, for conventional systems, it is possible to fill the

containers with 20-30% more clean agent, which in practical terms means a reduction in the number of containers for multi-container systems or a smaller container for singlecontainer systems. Additionally, for extended pipe runs, containers can be filled at lower fill densities, down to 0.3kg per litre, for centralised storage locations. Another breakthrough feature is the addition of UL-listed/ FM-approved selector valves, which mean that different risks can be protected with the same bank of containers, reducing the quantity of containers and agent required, thus saving space and cost. And if another room needs protecting in the future, it may be just a case of adding another selector valve. The bulk of the system doesn’t need changing.

Does the higher pressure have logistical consequences? Not really, because as an industry we are used to handling high-pressure containers of up to 300 bar and with Sapphire Plus we are at 70 bar.

What else has been changed, in comparison to the rest of the systems in the Sapphire range? Many things have changed! We’ve changed the [valve] internals, the pressure gauge (which is now a combined pressure gauge switch), the discharge hoses, and even the containers, which are seamless rather than welded, to take account of the increased working pressure. The valve forging is the only thing that has stayed more or less the same. In addition, we have developed our own software, which allow us to easily integrate this into our Suppression Design Centre, a new piece of software that will be extended across our complete gaseous suppression portfolio.

You’ve gone to 70 bar, why not 90? The fluid wouldn’t take it. 70 bar is the physical limit. It cannot be compressed any further. We also pushed to the limits with the operating temperature. Typically, these types of systems operate up to 54°C, but there are many requirements in the warmer regions that require more than this, so we offer 65°C. At 20°C the pressure may be at 70 bar, but if the temperature rises to 65°C, the developed pressure can increase to over 100 bar, so everything has to be engineered very carefully.

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suppression

Was it developed with data halls in mind? Data halls certainly, yes, but there are other applications. A power plant, for instance, typically has control rooms and other risks that are long distances away from the preferred container location, and this is perfect for that scenario.

replacing after six months. So solid-state is great, but it still has some way to go to reach the cost effectiveness of rotating devices. And on top of that, disk drives are improving, so the industry estimates it will probably be another ten years before the equivalent reliability in solid state is achieved.

Does the system take into account potential data  loss in hard disk drives from the noise of release? 

So what benefits do all these features bring to  the end user?

This is a well-known problem. In 2016 we partnered with the Dynamic Systems Laboratory of Michigan Technical University, which specialises in acoustics, to research this area. Based on the results of that study, we have developed acoustic nozzles that perform identically as our standard nozzles and protect the same area. We are currently retrofitting hundreds of systems all over the globe and we will have an acoustic solution available for our fire protection systems where the need arises. We have also just developed a smaller acoustic nozzle for inert systems that fits in sub floors and false ceilings. It is around half the size of the acoustic nozzle and will be launched in November. It is likely that this smaller acoustic nozzle will also be used for the main areas in data halls in some countries. That’s because in Europe some local regulations state that a single nozzle cannot cover more than 50m2, so having a large one that can cover 100m2 doesn’t help anyone.

The combination of features allows much more flexibility in the way that systems are designed, configured and installed. This offers opportunities to reduce installation costs as a result of smaller pipe sizes, the availability of selector valves to encourage central banking, reducing the number of containers, as well as utilising the higher fill densities to reduce the size or even the quantity of containers used. We recognise that space is a valuable commodity and this system gives us the ability to reduce the amount of space required for the system and hand that valuable space back to the customer.

Isn’t the issue with nozzle acoustics disappearing  as data moves to solid-state drives? We have had that discussion with hard-drive manufacturers. There are two issues: cost per terabyte stored and life cycle. In the professional use of hard drives, the end of life is reached in two years, after which the disk is replaced. Solid-state drives are three or four times the price per terabyte, and may need

SAPPHIRE PLUS - IN BRIEF Sapphire Plus delivers Novec 1230 fire protection fluid, a clear, colourless agent that vaporises on discharge, absorbing heat and flooding the hazard area to suppress the fire. Novec 1230 has an ozone-depletion potential of zero and a global-warming potential of just one, which means it is also a safe choice for people and the environment. With automatic detection and an extended temperature range of up to 65°C, the new system is suitable for use in the protection of high-value assets. The system is UL listed and FM approved, and the components also meet the stringent requirements of EN 12094. The system complies with the major national and international standards, including EN 15004, ISO 14520 and NFPA 2001.

We help suppression system OEMs meet regulatory standards with superior electromagnetic solutions. Call us with your challenge. ULTRA-FAST RESPONSE HIGH DURABILITY RESETTABLE ROTATES FOR EASY INSTALLATION

NEW FOR 2018: Designed for systems with operating pressures up to 300 bar.

UL RECOGNIZED COMPONENTS ACTIVE MONITORING MEETS UL & NFPA WIRING CODES AND STANDARDS MEETS REQUIREMENTS OF NFPA 2001: SEC. 4.3.4.1 INTEGRATED SUPERVISION FUNCTION FULLY ENGAGED INSTALLATION DETECTION INTERFACING OPTIONS AVAILABLE TO MEET SYSTEM DIMENSIONAL DIFFERENCES

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suppression

Groovy design The performance and ease of installation of a newly launched innovative sprinkler head and sprinkler coupling has impressed following a first project in North America, writes Jose Sanchez.

N The new sprinkler coupling and sprinkler became available in North America in July; Southeast Asia will follow in October and Europe in November.

one of the 2,250 new grooved sprinklers that were installed in a warehouse in Ankeny, Iowa leaked during testing and no issues were reported during the following three months. The new technology that was first showcased at the National Fire Protection Association Conference & Expo in Las Vegas, Nevada in June included the first installation-ready sprinkler that is UL-listed and FM-approved, according to manufacturer Victaulic. The Firelock IGS Style V9 sprinkler coupling and Firelock IGS grooved sprinklers have been designed not only to enable fire systems to be installed quickly, but also to enable them to be easily reconfigurable in line with the demands of the storage and distribution market. The technology replaces threads on outlets and sprinklers with a coupling that connects 1" (2.5cm) grooved outlets to

The system manufacturer claims that the reduction in leaks is due to the lessening in torque applied to the sprinkler frame through a mechanical connection rather than a traditional friction connection.

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sprinklers with a grooved connection size of 0.5" (1.25cm), 0.75" (1.9cm) or 1" (2.5cm). Des-Moines-based fire sprinkler installer Summit Fire Protection volunteered to install the Firelock IGS Style V9 sprinkler coupling and V4702 Grooved SI 24.25 (K16.8) for the protection of the new 18,500m2 warehouse in Iowa. The installation, which started in April this year, consisted of a sprinkler fire system with 5,800m of 50mm-diameter pipe and nearly 1km of main piping fed by a 6.25 bar pump running at 5,600 lpm. According to Brett Carley, division manager at Summit Fire, the new coupling technology enabled the work to be completed two weeks ahead of schedule, with on-site work taking just eight weeks. What was most welcomed by Carley was the ease with which the new sprinklers could be installed. The traditional method for installing sprinklers involves the time-consuming use of tape/sealant, after which a wrench is used to tighten the sprinkler into place. The use of sprinkler wrenches is not only physically demanding to the fitter because of the strenuous repetitive motions, but also potentially damaging to the sprinkler frame due to the applied torque. In contrast, the mechanical connection of the new system only requires a power tool to tighten the bolt. “On the installation side, I’ve been in discussion with the field guys, and they said that they were not as tired at the end of the day. In an industry where a lot of people have shoulder issues, they could feel the benefits of not using a wrench,” says Carley. “There’s a distinctive fit with the sprinkler head so you know it’s in the right position. It almost pops into position, and when you feel that pop you know you are good to tighten it down.” One of the most interesting aspects for Carley, who has been in the industry for 19 years, was the fact that when the system was tested there were zero leaks. “It was very surprising. Normally you would have around ten sprinklers leaking, but we didn’t have any. It is also usual to have two or three leaks pop up after you’ve pulled offsite, but we haven’t been back in three months.” This is ascribed by the manufacturer to the reduction of the torque that is applied to the sprinkler frame through a mechanical connection rather than the traditional friction one, which reduces the likelihood of leaks when the system is pressurised. Daniel Wake, product manager at Victaulic, says that the market has been very receptive to the new technology. “This is particularly true in the warehouse space, where bigger sprinklers are installed, which require more force and torque to install – and nobody installs in the same way. What we have been doing with this is ensuring installation is consistent and dependable.” The technology also takes into account that if warehouse usage changes, the fire protection system can be adapted without major rework. “The straight-through couplings are one-inch on the outlet side, while the sprinkler side can be reduced to a three-quarter or half-inch, depending on the sprinkler size. So you can reconfigure the system without changing the whole branch line,” says Wake. The fact that the sprinkler is FM-approved is particularly important for Summit Fire, adds Carley, because around 20% of its customers demand FM-approved fire system components. The technology will soon be used again by Summit Fire locally on two warehouses totalling 152,000m2, the construction of which was due to be completed at the time of going to press with this issue.

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Wrap it up The European introduction of a fire barrier duct wrap by 3M for galvanised steel ducts is being accompanied by a training programme for contractors to ensure the final performance – and quality – of the final installation, writes Jose Sanchez.

A The 3M Fire Barrier Duct Wrap 615+.

References • BS 476 Fire tests on building materials and structures: Part 24 (1987) Method for determination of the fire resistance of ventilation ducts. • EN 1366 Fire resistance tests for service installations.

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new European product standard for fire rated ducting that is expected to be ratified at any moment will specify the performance, installation and maintenance requirements for the fire protection of ventilation ducts and kitchen extracts. The new EN 15871 standard (Fire rated ducting) will put an end to the existing situation that allows fire-rated duct wrap to be specified either to local standards such as BS 476 part 24(1) or to EN 1366(2) test standards. These provide a method of testing and reporting as well as present the field of application for the test results. The absence of the harmonised EN product standard has had the effect of discouraging the market from testing to the more rigorous EN 1366 test standard. The long-awaited new product standard, however, is expected to change this as specifiers move towards products that have been tested to EN 1366 for the protection of ducts in kitchens rather than local standards. "As with many standard-related products, however, the devil is in the detail," says Alex Nixon, product manager construction markets, at 3M’s industrial adhesives and tapes division. He says specifiers should be aware that a passive fire protection product may be said to be tested to the new standard, but that because the test is not pass or fail, the results should be looked at in terms of performance, such as fire-resistance time. “It’s an education process. At the moment, people may say, ‘I had something tested to EN 1366 and passed’. But what are the results in terms of time that the product will remain intact? That's what people should be asking.” As well as testing for smoke travel during Type A fire testing, which was not a requirement of BS 476 part 24, EN 1366 rigorously tests by the shape of duct (rectangular or circular) as well as orientation (vertical or horizontal). “In addition, there are three types of tests. Type A measures the fire resistance from outside in, Type B from the inside out, and Type C is a smoke test,” explains Nixon. “We are finding that it is easy for existing products to achieve decent results in Type A, but not for Type B. Our system on the other hand, which is a two-layer system, achieves a two-hour rating. We would therefore recommend specifiers request information about Type B results, fire from inside out, because they are much more onerous and, as such

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they may not appear in sales brochures.” The new duct wrap that 3M is introducing to the European market seeks to address not only any confusion as regards performance against the EN standard but also practical issues such as ease of installation. The 3M Fire Barrier Duct Wrap 615+ comes as a roll that is 7.6m long, 61cm wide and 49mm thick. It can be cut to length prior to installation, which means that site work can be limited to the actual wrapping, shaping, and taping. Two layers are applied to achieve the required fire integrity which, depending on the orientation and test, ie fire inside out or outside in, varies from 60 to 240 minutes. Once installed, metal banding is applied to retain and compress the wrap below its approximately 5cm thickness and provide a smart finish. “It’s a fairly simple system. Over a certain duct size it would be necessary to put in some pins because as a wrap it will start to sag,” says Nixon. In contrast, a comparable two-hour rated fire system made from mineral-wool board would be around 9cm thick, estimates Nixon, and require a much more laborious installation process and higher use of mechanical fixings. As a flexible solution, the newly CE-certified wrap can be easily threaded around existing equipment during refurbishment projects. “And on a new build consisting of a straight run of ducts, it does not take any longer than board.” Another reason for the CE certification of the Fire Barrier Duct Wrap 615+ and its introduction to Europe is demand from the market. “We’ve had people from as far as New Zealand saying that they had been using it because of its UL listing and were happy with it, but that they were seeing increasing requests for EN 1366-tested fire barriers, so that standard is becoming a reference point,” explains Nixon. 3M is currently developing a training programme for contractors, and those who have completed the course will figure in a publicly available installers list, he adds. “So, when we go to design consultants, we can not only highlight the performance of the system but also provide a list of 3M-accredited trainers and installers. So we are approaching it from both ends, performance and installation.” The training programme is due to be rolled out in Q4 2018.

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EVENT REVIEW

NFPA IN VEGAS J

im Pauley, president and CEO of the NFPA, opened the annual conference and expo by cataloguing some of the major tragic events that have taken place in the last year around the world, from Grenfell Tower in the UK and wildfires in Portugal, to the Las Vegas shootings that took place just across the street from where he was speaking. “It all begs the question, how can all this be possible in this day and age? And what should we be doing?” Statistically, there may be fewer fires but, he pointed out, statistically if there was a fire people would be more likely to die from it than 20 years ago. “We have the tools to prevent these fires today – sprinklers, detectors, fire codes, enforcement – but they are met with resistance. They are underused, ignored, not updated. And this is happening at a time when there are new challenges growing all around us. Each of these examples, when taken

together represents a catastrophic failure of what I call the fire and safety ecosystem.” The fire industry has forgotten that safety is a system, not a single piece of equipment, declared Pauley. “We tell people to follow the building life safety code, but we don’t spend time talking to them about the importance of reference standards that also play a critical role. We want to ensure that the building is built to the code, but we don’t ensure the fire safety whilst it is under construction. We teach people about the requirements of the electrical code, but we forget to teach them about the limitations of the product they have selected because of its design or listing.” The NFPA’s goal is therefore to tackle the breakdown of the fire safety ecosystem, which includes eight critical elements to protect people and property. These are government responsibility; development and use of

current codes; reference standards; investment in safety; skilled workforce; preparedness and emergency response; and an informed public. “Time after time we’ve seen calamities where we can trace the cause to the breakdown of one or more of the elements of the safety ecosystem.” He outlined a number of NFPA initiatives in each of the eight elements. These include the launch of the NFPA Fire Life Safety Policy Institute to provide policy makers with guidance; the development of the Code Finder, a visual map of key codes and standards in use in North America and beyond; the NFPA 3000 active shooter standard, which provides a holistic approach for communities to better prepare, respond and recover from mass casualty events; and the construction of the 9,000m2 NFPA Heroes Experience, the first public fire and life safety education attraction of its kind in the world, which is planned for Pelham, Alabama.

Jim Pauley, president and CEO of the NFPA

INTUMESCENT FIRESTOP SYSTEMS Mixed-, cable- and pipe penetration sealings Joint seals with movement capability

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EVENT REVIEW

Department of Fire Services said that the key for responders is to contact these facilities as soon as possible to prepare a fire plan. The facilities are typically highly secure, heavily guarded, and with areas sealed with airlocks. “Another thing is the vaults. It surprised me how heavily guarded they are, like Fort Knox,” said Nunnemacher. In addition, radio coverage may also be problematic due to the stainless steel equipment prevalent throughout these facilities.

Fire-related incidents can usually be traced back to the breakdown of one or more elements of the safety ecosystem. (©2018 NFPA)

Pre-plans

Marijuana and fire

A session dealing with the challenges of fire-safety code enforcement for marijuana plant cultivation was perhaps the most well-attended session of the conference. The NFPA was first alerted to the issues in 2015 when a fire marshall in Colorado called seeking assistance with a gap analysis; cannabis had been legalised and there were no related fire codes. The presentation by Raymon Bizal of NFPA focused on how the NFPA had brought together extractors, growers, extractor manufacturers, and regulators to close the knowledge gap, which resulted in Chapter 38 in NFPA 1 on marijuana growing, processing, or extraction facilities. Currently the NFPA is working on a new code in this area, NFPA 420. The NFPA is focusing on licensed facilities as opposed to unlicensed operations, which are mainly in residential property and are "a whole new ballgame". A typical grow room has multiple hazards, ranging from lighting, HVAC, electrics, room subdivision, CO2 enrichment, and fertilisation systems. Emergency egress in particular is a major issue. Plants are often placed on racks on wheels so they can be moved according to their growth stage. In some cases there could be 16 different

environments, each with different lighting, which means room configuration is constantly changing. The extraction process also brings significant challenges for fire code enforcement. It takes place in a closed-room system and uses liquefied petroleum gas to strip off the waxy turbulent. “So, in the extraction room you have fuels, electrical issues, and ventilation issues. You should have a gas detection alarm, you should look at the combustibles, egress, you want sprinklers and third-party engineer review on the extraction,” said Bizal. However much the NFPA focuses on fire protection around the extraction process, the fact is that it is a moveable feast, explained Kristin Bigda of the NFPA. “When we wrote the requirements, this was a snapshot of the technology and techniques used at the time. It is changing on a daily basis. The end product they want to produce is changing and there are different extraction methods not addressed.” The industry is so new that there are no listings for the equipment used in the extraction. Fire inspectors are faced with conducting inspections with no reference documentation for verifying set-ups. Highlighting some of the emergency response challenges, Jacob Nunnemacher of the Massachusetts

The legalisation of marijuana in many US states has created a whole new set of challenges for the NFPA. (Shutterstock)

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John Welling of Bristol-Myers Squibb began his presentation on pre-incident planning with a quote by the CEO of Philips following an explosion that killed 23 people at a plant in Pasadena in 1989: “It’s too late to start planning after an explosion. You have to have a plan at the time.” Welling proceeded to share how Bristol-Myers Squibb carried out preplans and interacted with communities and facilities, including some lessons learned “the hard way”. When a hurricane hit two facilities managed by Welling’s company on an island, they were able to continue operating on emergency power thanks to a US$7-million investment in preparedness. “Where we failed in our plan was with business continuity. There were probably eight or ten fire companies on the island, and we were all using the same hotels as emergency operating centres when the big one hit. When FBI and homeland security took over those hotels, we had no place to go,” he said. A pre-plan should be functional, easy to understand, manageable, easily changeable, dynamic, and evergreen. Bristol-Myers Squibb involves multiple parties in its development, ranging from all the emergency responders and health and safety staff to contractors, subcontractors and clean-up companies. “We want them to have former knowledge of the site. We give instructions on water supplies, multiple staging areas, and we go into each building where we have hazmat. This facility deals with 40,000 different chemicals. I can’t put them all in – we can list them – but we hit the big ones that are going to cause firefighters’ problems so they can protect themselves as well as the neighbours and the properties.” The level of information includes structural details, water supplies, fire pumps, water tanks, and different staging areas depending on the type of event. “Anything we can think of that

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High Efficiency Mist Systems

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EVENT REVIEW

The comprehensive pre-planning of Bristol-Myers Squibb meant one of its pharma clients did not have to shut down during Hurricane Maria, in spite of widespread devastation across Puerto Rico and Dominica. (Shutterstock)

could have an adverse impact on our facilities, responders, our neighbours or any of our business units… we average 50 pages in our pre-plans depending on the complexity of a building. All laid out so the responder clicks on the box and [the software] takes them to the detail.” Welling also described how the company interacted with the community regularly, sharing plans online and also setting up mutual aid agreements across the state of New Jersey. “Lots of times municipalities and industry don’t talk. We have made a point as a company to interact with the communities where we operate.” This is particularly important in communities where responders are mainly volunteers more used to responding to single-dwelling fires than incidents in warehouses containing thousands of litres of flammable liquids. “The bottom line is we answer to people, neighbours and shareholders, so we spend a lot of time being prepared so the impact of an event is less on our operations, and we can start quickly. During Hurricane Maria we were the only pharma company that didn’t shut down on the island. Plan, plan, train, train, communicate,” concluded Welling.

Around the exhibition floor

Johnson Controls was focusing on two life-safety areas: wide-area mass notification and emergency notification – plus a novel way of using a fire alarm speaker in a non-fire related manner. Thomas Connell, senior manager, life safety systems, Johnson Controls Global Fire Detection, explained the plans for the company’s Detect 360 family of solutions, which will in essence become the core building blocks of a scalable, multi-purpose system. “From a holistic standpoint we are looking at all the things that may impact your safety, health and productivity in a building. And from that, introduce technologies that can

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either detect or monitor ambient surroundings threats and do something to mitigate them, or help get you out of the area.” As part of this initiative Johnson Controls has partnered with a number of companies, each with a particular specialism that ties in to different aspects of the holistic concept. A new feature planned for the Detect 360 system is the ability to integrate emergency communications in areas designated as shelters, such as landings in stairwells and elevator lobbies. This has been driven mainly by the American Disabilities Act, coupled with NFPA 72 and International Building Code 2016. Previously, these communications were enabled by point-to-point wire communications. “But now the standard requires survivability aspects and system supervision so we know the components are working correctly,” said Connell. “What is unique is that when you press the button not only does it open the comms line, but it also opens a computer screen at the command centre and identifies exactly where a person is. And you can run the software on any computer as long as it’s connected to the internet. An incoming engine company with a Toughbook can talk to trapped people whilst responding, and rapid intervention teams can respond immediately without having to go to the fire panel first,” said Connell. A partnership with an acoustic technology company has also resulted in a series of highly intelligible, highly powerful fixed or portable speakers. “The old way is to use cluster speakers but the sound bounces around and can be inefficient. In a building like this convention centre, with this new approach we can use fewer speakers and cover the entire area. From a customer perspective, there can be savings in terms of wires and amplifiers,” explained Connell. Also in development is a feature that threatens to take fire alarm technology to places never before explored. The idea

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is to embed a sound-masking generator into the audio panel, which will then feed white noise though fire alarm speakers. One potential application is in hospital wards, where hospitals are obliged to protect patient confidentiality even when rooms are occupied by multiple patients. The capability to produce white noise would not require any additional equipment, explained Connell, because it would already be present in the audio panel. Should the feature be required by an organisation, it could be activated remotely by Johnson Controls, whose next generation audio panels will have the capability to be connected to the internet. Over at Honeywell’s stand, the focus was on achieving building connectivity through fire detection and safety solutions. The highlight here was the launch of a new code-compliant bi-directional amplifier that is designed to boost first responders’ radio signals. The problem is widespread, as shown by a 2017 survey by the International Association of Fire Chiefs, which found that 56% of fire departments had experienced a communications failure within a building during an emergency incident within the last two years. Consequently, in recent years local jurisdictions have started requiring buildings to have a public safety distributed antenna system either to NFPA 72 or IFC 510 standards. Susan Adam, marketing director, Honeywell Fire Americas, explained that this requirement has resulted in demand for these types of systems to take off. “It is a new space for us, because up till now it has been serviced by radio shops, and they don’t know fire systems,” she explained. Honeywell’s new BDA solution has been hailed as the first and only all-inclusive, fully-integrated system on the market that not only meets but exceeds NFPA/IFC specifications and UL standards. “The amplifier takes public safety radio from the air, brings it into a building and redistributes it, so that the radio communications of first responders are reliable,” said Adam. Significantly, the system ties in with the fire alarm system, which monitors and supervises the amp to ensure it is still functioning correctly. The system achieved its UL-listing just days before the Expo event, and Honeywell will next be concentrating on informing the market of the requirements and training its dealers on new skills related to the installation of radio technology. Jose Maria Sanchez de Muniain

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NEW TECHNOLOGY

PRODUCTS AND APPS Fire detection management A software solution that provides building managers with full control over fire detection and monitoring will be launched this autumn. The Ockular software system by Kentec has been designed for use in complex buildings and enables the creation of a site map to monitor fire safety and detection and quickly locate the source of a fire. Suitable for medium to large systems, it automatically highlights a fire device activation in a particular area to enable immediate viewing and investigation. The software provides an additional layer of detail to fire protection systems through a graphical representation of the building and its detection devices. “A control panel will tell you there is a fire and give you a location message, but if it is a complex building, such as a heritage building, it can be difficult to pinpoint the exact location of the activation,” explained Kevin Mears from Kentec. “What Ockular does is provide a floorplan and highlight both the room and detector. It’s a management tool for the fire system.” Ockular was developed for use in medium to large infrastructure with complex layouts such as shopping centres, railway stations and even stately homes. Ockular is fully configurable on site using an administrator login and a separate application that interfaces with the existing fire system(s) via an IP connection. It supports dual screens allowing for a dedicated screen for the 2D graphic map and a separate screen for system management and configuration error reports. This ensures that the system is maintained and updated whenever the panel configuration is revised. System features include programmable macro buttons for panel control operations and map navigation; the ability to enable or disable devices in a particular area via the graphical interface; and event reporting and log filtering with an automatic archive facility. It will also display the relevant emergency assembly and fire control points.

“Using the event filter, you can review data specific to incident type, location, or time frame, and carry out basic diagnostics by checking the health status of individual detectors,” added Mears. “Each detector has an analogue value, which is a representation of how much smoke it can sense. This information can be pulled from the graphics to allow you to identify detectors that are not functioning properly and take corrective action.” An intuitive interface enables system users to import image files of the building’s floorplan, as well as drag and drop detector information from the existing fire system. Kentec can provide training to system users and the system is available worldwide.

concentration reaches a pre-set threshold. The system features a two-stage alarm, with the alarm LED simultaneously activating the alarm relay of the ASD system. The system also includes a menu-assisted configuration where calibration is accessed from just three keys, with an Autocal feature that automatically adjusts the measurement signal of the test gas during calibration. A large display continuously provides information relating to the gas concentration levels and the operation status. The integrated solution was a joint effort by Patol with gas detection specialist GFG.

Cerberus Pace is fully compliant with EN 54-16 and European local codes. It can cover all redundancy levels from individual backup components to complete double structures. Moreover, the network can be made redundant by expanding the EN 54-16 standard single-loop topology to a double-loop or double-tree topology, or combinations thereof. In case of short circuits, 100V-loop isolators keep the speaker line functional and end-of-line modules report any malfunctions. For public address system announcements, advertisements or background music, the system offers high-quality sound and low audio latency. The voice alarm overrides these applications in an emergency. Cerberus Pace comes with dedicated configuration software. It can be configured while live and controlled via remote access for maintenance and public address applications.

Evacuation controlled

Gas and smoke detection combined Gas detection capability has been added by Patol to the Securiton range of aspirating smoke detection. The new detection capability has been achieved by attaching a wall-mounted gas monitor housed in a Perspex enclosure to the pipework of the aspirating system. Air that is drawn from the pipework by the ASD system pump then passes through the gas monitor before entering the ASD chamber. The monitor checks for the presence of toxic or flammable gases such as carbon monoxide, oxygen or hydrogen in a single unit that combines a transmitter and a controller. The monitor features pluggable smart sensors and a large LCD display for ease of reading, and the alarm is triggered if the gas

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A highly flexible public address and voice alarm system has been developed that can be customised for buildings of any size or type. The Cerberus Pace (public address and controlled evacuation) system is modular and scalable and offers a full range of components, including control panels, call stations, digital audio matrix, and network switches. Made by Siemens Building Technologies, it can be used in any location where narrow escape routes might require a phased evacuation. Pre-recorded evacuation messages can be initiated by the fire detection system, manually or by other emergency systems. Emergency responders can also make live announcements through a fire brigade call station to the entire building or selected zones. The system can be connected to any fire detection system from Siemens or a third-party system that has a compatible I/O interface. It accommodates legacy speaker line structures through the use of smart end-of-line modules.

Pulsing fast A range of visual alarm devices and visual indicating devices designed to improve the functioning of fire detection systems and speed up evacuation responses in a real-fire event has been launched by Johnson Controls. The company used the findings of independent research into the effect of light patterns on triggering human reactions to inform the design and functionality of the range. As a result, the visual alarm devices flash at a pulse width of less than 20 milliseconds when activated, which has been shown to be more effective for alerting people to an emergency. The devices also use Johnson’s self-testing technology, which the company says enables real light and sound output levels to be checked and recorded in a fraction of a second for each device. The test data is sent to the

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NEW TECHNOLOGY

fire control panel to highlight any problems, speeding up testing and maintenance tasks for facility managers, avoiding disruption to occupants and reducing desensitisation of a genuine activation. The devices can be used across a range of environments and project sizes, and thanks to their low power consumption, more sounders, VIDS and VADs can be accommodated on a single loop, making the system more cost effective and energy efficient.

Cost-effective gas detection A new modular gas detection system enables businesses to tailor detection functionality to their project requirements and reduce costs by eliminating features that are not needed. Silversafe 500 is ATEX-approved and is designed for use in the oil and gas and petrochemical industries. The system from Silvertec can be adapted to meet the specific parameters of gas detection systems by the addition or removal of functions and features. Module options include display, communication, and output such as 4-20mA and relay contact. Since all these options are not required in every system, they can be removed as necessary, reducing the overall cost of the system.

sprinklers can be used in storage facilities with a ceiling height of up to 45ft (13.7m) and a storage arrangement of up to 40ft (12m) without requiring in-rack sprinklers. The system has a maximum deflector-to-ceiling distance of 18 inches (45.7cm). Also new from Johnson Controls in the Tyco sprinkler portfolio are the TY-B and TY-FRB series poly-stainless sprinklers for commercial applications where there is a risk of corrosive conditions. The TY-B and TY-FRB have heat-sensitive glass bulbs rated standard and quick response respectively. These bulbs contain fluid that expands when exposed to heat, shattering the glass bulb when the rated temperature is reached and activating the sprinkler system. The sprinklers come in upright and pendant or horizontal sidewall versions. The upright and pendant applications provide standard coverage spray and are available with a K-factor of either 5.6 or 8. The horizontal sidewall sprinklers are designed for installation along a wall or the side of a beam and beneath a smooth ceiling, usually when piping across ceilings is not possible or desirable. While the sprinklers have passed standard corrosion tests, Johnson says that this testing does not cover all possible corrosive atmospheres, which may be affected by a range of factors such as ambient temperature, the concentration of chemicals and their corrosive nature, and the gas/chemical velocity; all of which should be considered prior to installation.

Sprinkling of solutions Early suppression fast response pendant sprinklers have been added to the Tyco range of storage sprinklers. The sprinklers are designed primarily for ceiling-only protection of most encapsulated and non-encapsulated common materials, including cartoned and exposed unexpanded plastics, and some storage arrangements of rubbers tyres, roll paper, flammable liquids, and aerosols. Compliant with NFPA and FM Global installation standards, the ESFR-22

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The two new fabrics, Kermel KTS 210 and Kermel GM 10, have been engineered to provide improved performance and a higher quality appearance. Kermel is a high-performance aramid fibre that doesn’t melt, shrink or burn when exposed to heat and flame. The integration of a para-aramid fibre into a micro-ripstop grid in and a specific weave structure gives Kermal KTS 210 its high mechanical performance. It also offers better breathability thanks to an optimum fabric weight that allows for increased sweat removal. Finally, use of long-staple Kermel fires and a smooth surface provide increased durability and abrasion resistance. Solution-dyed fibres preserve a garment’s original colour even after multiple washes. Kermel GM 10, meanwhile, is a doublesided outer fabric with an integrated para-aramid fibre structure on the hidden face that the company says makes it virtually tearproof. Dope-dyeing and long-staple fibres give the fabric a high-quality appearance and superior colour retention, while the combination of the double-sided structure, fine Kermel yarns in the outer layer, and the para-aramid hidden layer result in improved thermal protection and durability. Both new fabrics comply with the requirements of EN469.

Atex-approved beacons and horns

Looking good, performing better A new generation of outershell fabrics for fire-fighter turnout gear has been developed by aramid fibre producer Kermel.

< INDUSTRIAL FIRE JOURNAL < third quarter 2018

The D2x range of beacons and combined alarm horn/beacon units from E2S Warning Signals has been certified for use in public fire systems in hazardous locations. Compliant to UL464 and UL1638/ UL1971, the beacons enable automatic fire detection systems to be extended into hazardous locations, and all versions automatically synchronise multiple beacons on the same circuit to

reduce system cost and installation time. The range includes the D2x1BLD2-H, which uses high-power Cree LEDs to optimise visibility in any direction. The D2xB1XH1 5-joule and D2xB1XH2 10-joule Xenon strobe beacons provide low inrush and operating currents to optimise cable selection and reduce power requirements. Meanwhile, the D2xC2LD2-H combination unit offers complete audio-visual notification with a sound output of up to 116dB(A), 64 alarm-tone frequencies, and four remotely selectable stages/channels for safe signalling for multiple scenarios from one device. The D2x units are approved to UL/cUL for Class I Div 2, Class II Div 2, Class I Zone 2/22 and IECEx and Atex Zone 2 and 22. The products are housed in marine-grade aluminium enclosures with ingress protection of IP66, NEMA Type 4 and 4X.

Not just an ID badge A lone-worker device has been introduced with the ability to stream video during a live red alert. Weighing just 103g, it is designed as an ID badge holder and can be incorporated into clothing. In combination with event audio, the video functionality provides operators with a full picture of an event and speeds up incident response. The ID Pro by Solo Protect also offers the ability to receive geographicallytriggered risk messaging using the indoor-location capability powered by Bluetooth and wifi. The device is a low-end privacy impacting body-worn video product because of its user-defined recording deployment, which is based primarily on a threat within the lone worker’s personal space. In addition, management and storage of video data is handled by Solo Protect. The company only supplies clients with video relating to genuine red alerts and redacts, stores, and deletes video data in line with data privacy requirements. To improve the location of lone workers indoors, the device uses Bluetooth beacons and is enabled with wifi sniffing.

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INTERNATIONAL INDUSTRIAL FIRE & EXPLOSION HAZARD MANAGEMENT CONFERENCE 2018

Ageing Assets â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Use Beyond Expected Life (Environmental Pressures, Global Warming, Cleaner Production, etc.) 08h00 - 08h45

Registration

08h45 - 09h00

Randal Fletcher ( Open Session)

13h00 - 14h00

Lunch

KEYNOTE - 09h00 - 10h15 Admiral Thad Allen Leadership, Response Management, interagency cooperation, Lessons learned Deepwater Horizon, Hurricane Katrina Rita And Other significant events

15h15 -16h00 Gary McFadden The criticality of process safety to minimise impacts of potential major accident hazards. The application of preventative and mitigative barriers.

10h15 - 11h00 Brad Byczynski DeepWater Horizon, other Incidents, Corporate leadership, managing competing agenda's, delivering excellence amidst chaos

16h00 -16h30

11h00 - 11h30

Networking & Comfort Break

THE FUTURE CHALLENGE

KEYNOTE - 14h00 - 15h15 Mark Scoggins Corporate governance, integration to the the line and impacts and implications legal and otherwise

Innovation; Application & Technology â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Looking Forward From The Present

16h30 - 17h15 Kevin Deveson Gaining JOIFF credentials for emergency responders from a multi-disciplined team. 17h15 - 18h00 Kevin Westwood Drone technology, an disruptive technology providing situational awareness through application of multiple sensors enhancing decision capabilities.

12h15 - 13h00 Varadendra Koti FEHMP, in the Largest Refinery in the world. Strategy and practical applications and challenges

18h00-18h15

Randy Fletcher Closing Remarks

Registration

08h45 - 09h00

Randal Fletcher (Open Session)

KEYNOTE - 09h00 - 10h15 Jose Torero Translating fire science and engineering theory into real world solutions for the built environment and high hazard industries

Networking & Comfort Break

11h30 - 12h15 Steve Hamblen A view from the Line, Translating policy and strategy to execute at the line, environmental impacts management Deepwater Horizon

08h30 - 08h45

10h15 -11h00 Jeroen Konijnenberg and Raymond Bras Delivering a world class Public Private Partnership, emergency Response Service Meeting today and tomorrows challenges. Practical lessons learned. 11h00 - 11h30

Networking & Comfort Break

11h30 - 12h15 Niall Ramsden LastFire, next generation firefighting foam- large Scale testing recent results and implications

Co Sponsors:

12h15 - 13h00 Eric Lavergne Latest lessons learned, Storage tank firefighting around the world 13h00 - 14h00

Lunch

KEYNOTE : 14h00 - 15h15 Com. Eric Yap Managing the Singapore Civil Defence Force, proactively leading integration of new technology and enhancing service delivery. 15h15 - 16h00 Jim Fletcher Case Study from largest single wildland fire event in recent US history. Managing across organisational authority boundaries, the art of logistics management. 16h00 - 16h45

Networking & Comfort Break

16h45 - 17h15 Pine Pienaar Modernising Industrial fire departments - theory and practice 17h15 - 17h30 Close

Randy Fletcher (Close Session)


INDUSTRIAL

FIRE JOURNAL F O R P R O F E S S I O N A L S P R OT E C T I N G L I V E S , A S S E T S A N D I N F R A S T R U C T U R E W O R L D W I D E Third quarter 2018 issue no.113

INTRODUCING

THE NEW, PATENT PENDING

SINGLE LANE MAX TANK

MAX CAPACITY FOR SINGLE LANE TANK SHUTTLE OPERATIONS ON NARROW ROADS

The SINGLE LANE MAX gives you 2.5 Xs capacity of a standard tank without obstructing water tender traffic!

Call TODAY to see how the SINGLE LANE MAX TANK can help YOUR department!

STANDARD AND CUSTOM SIZES AVAILABLE

Next phase of foam tests Lastfire and Dallas/Fort Worth Airport to join forces

Safety comes first Port of Amsterdam takes the lead in major PPP initiative

www.hemmingfire.com

Industrial Fire Journal 3rd Quarter 2018  
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