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pumps

Critical point As well as examining different types of industrial pumps and outlining technology developments and trends, Robert Avsec makes some recommendations for selecting the right solution.

L Ferrara’s Super Pumper is fitted with an HPV6000 pump from US Fire Pump. It has a flow capability of 6,256 gallons per minute (23,681 lpm) from draft at a discharge pressure of 125psi, exceeding the world record for pump performance.

arger facilities, decreasing fire-related funding, and more remote locations for new industrial plants are just some of the factors that are increasing the levels of fire risk and piling the pressure on fire pumps to fulfil their role at the critical time. Between 2011 and 2015, municipal fire departments in the US responded to an estimated average of 37,910 fires at industrial or manufacturing properties each year, with annual losses from these fires estimated at 16 civilian deaths, 273 civilian injuries, and US$1.2 billion in direct property damage[1]. And those are just the numbers that are reported by the municipal fire departments that regularly report fire incident data to the US Fire Administration using the National Fire Incident Reporting System. Currently, only about 60% of fire departments (career and volunteer) in the US submit that data to the USFA.

Event Number of Incidents Deaths Insured Loss ($ millions) Event Number of Incidents Deaths Insured Loss ($ millions) Major fires, explosions 45 477 $5,439 Major fires, explosions 45 477 $5,439 Oil, gas 15 36 3,056 Oil, gas 15 36 3,056 Industry, warehouses 14 73 1,845 Industry, warehouses 14 73 1,845 Other buildings 11 308 382 Other buildings 11 308 382 Other fire, explosions 3 22 81 Other fire, explosions 3 22 81 Department stores 2 38 76 Department stores 2 38 76 Table 1. Source: Insurance Information Institute. Facts + Statistics: Global catastrophes. Man-Made Disasters, 2017 Table 1. Source: Insurance Information Institute. Facts + Statistics: Global catastrophes. Man-Made Disasters, 2017

Top world property damage losses for land-based hydrocarbon operations (US$ millions) Rank Date Rank Date

Plant Type Plant Type

Event Type Event Type

Location Location

Country Property Country Property Loss (1) Loss (1)

2 2

Oct. 23,1989 Oct. 23,1989

Petrochem Petrochem

Vapour cloud explosion Vapour cloud explosion

Pasadena, Texas Pasadena, Texas

U.S. U.S.

3 3

Jan. 19, 2004 Jan. 19, 2004

Gas processing Gas processing

Explosion/fire Explosion/fire

Skikda Skikda

Algeria Algeria

940 940

6 6

Jun. 25, 2000 Jun. 25, 2000

Refinery Refinery

Explosion/fire Explosion/fire

Mina Al-Ahmadi Mina Al-Ahmadi

Kuwait Kuwait

820 820

88

Sep. Sep.25, 25, 1998 1998

Gas Gas processing processing

Explosion Explosion

Longford,Victoria Victoria Longford,

Australia Australia

750 750

10 10

Sep. Sep.21, 21, 2001 2001

Petrochemical Petrochemical

Explosion Explosion

Toulouse Toulouse

France France

680 680

11 11

May May 4, 4, 1988 1988

Petrochemical Petrochemical

Explosion Explosion

Henderson,Nevada Nevada U.S. U.S. Henderson,

640 640

12 12

May May 5, 5, 1988 1988

Refinery Refinery

Vapour cloud cloud explosion explosion Vapour

Norco,Louisiana Louisiana Norco,

U.S. U.S.

610 610

13 13

Mar. Mar.11, 11, 2011 2011

Refinery Refinery

Earthquake (2) (2) Earthquake

Sendai Sendai

Japan Japan

600 600

15 15

Sep. Sep.12, 12, 2008 2008

Refinery Refinery

Hurricane Hurricane

Texas Texas

U.S. U.S.

550 550

16 16

Jun. Jun. 13, 13, 2013 2013

Petrochemical Petrochemical

Explosion/fire Explosion/fire

Geismar,Louisiana Louisiana Geismar,

U.S. U.S.

17 17

Apr. Apr. 2, 2, 2013 2013

Refinery Refinery

Flooding/fire Flooding/fire

LaPlata, Plata,Ensenada Ensenada La

Argentina Argentina

18 18

Dec. Dec.25, 25, 1997 1997

Gas Gas processing processing

Explosion/fire Explosion/fire

Bintulu,Sarawak Sarawak Bintulu,

Malaysia Malaysia

490 490

19 19

Jul. Jul. 27, 27, 2005 2005

Upstream Upstream

Collision/fire Collision/fire

MumbaiHigh HighNorth North Mumbai Field Field

India India

480 480

20 20

Nov. Nov.14, 14, 1987 1987

Petrochemical Petrochemical

cloud explosion explosion Vapour cloud

Pampa,Texas Texas Pampa,

USA USA

Table Global catastrophes. catastrophes. 1) 1) Inflated InflatedtotoDecember December2013 2013values; values;(2) (2) Table2.2. Source: Source: Insurance Insurance Information Information Institute. Facts + Statistics: Global Loss Preliminary estimate. estimate. Losstoto refinery refinery following following the the Tohuku Tohuku earthquake; and (3) Preliminary

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< INDUSTRIAL FIRE JOURNAL < third quarter 2018 Rise to to Rise Fireground Fireground 7.6m 7.6m

Impellor Impellor

L/min

Standard Standard

2,650L/min 4,164L/min

Usable Usable Hose Hose Length Length(meters) (meters)

101mm 101mm 823 823 183 183

35kPa 35kPaavailable availableatatend endofofhose hose

127mm 127mm 1,707 1,707 396 396

152mm 152mm 4,420 4,420 1,036 1,036

1,400 1,400

510 510 500(3) (3) 500

480 480

In 2017, there were a reported 45 incidents of major fires and/or explosions in the commercial and industrial sectors worldwide. As shown in Table 1 below, those 45 incidents alone accounted for US$5.4 trillion worth of insured loss in 2017. Table 2 shows data derived from a listing of the top 20 world property damage losses in the hydrocarbon industry, which includes property damage, debris removal and clean-up costs. The extracted data represents damage losses for land-based hydrocarbon operations only (eg refineries or petrochemical manufacturing facilities).

Increasing levels of risk There is an increasing level of fire protection risk in the commercial and industrial sectors brought on by a variety of factors including, but not limited to, the following: • Larger occupancies to protect. • Facilities that are more spread out. • Aging on-site water distribution systems. • Aging municipal water-distribution systems supplying facilities. • New manufacturing processes with fire hazards that ‘out pace’ existing on-site fire protection water supplies and delivery systems. For facility managers and safety managers, this increased level of risk is exacerbated by several factors, such as: • Decreased funding for routine and preventative maintenance on operational processes. Lack of maintenance is frequently cited in post-action reports following a commercial or industrial fire as a significant contributing factor to the damage loss. • Decreased funding for routine and preventative maintenance and appropriate upgrades to existing fire protection systems. • Decreased funding for fire apparatus and associated water-pumping capacity to keep pace with the potential fire risk (eg not enough available litres per minute to overcome the potential BTUs). • Decreased funding for on-site emergency response personnel. Fewer emergency response personnel means that the available fire apparatus and pumps must be able to deliver the required fire flows with fewer people.

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Industrial Fire Journal 3rd Quarter 2018  
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