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Third quarter 2018 issue 111

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I N T E R N A T I O N A L

The new Aebi MT750 response range Aebi Schmidt is to give a UK premiere to its flexible and versatile MT 750 response range at this year’s Emergency Services Show at the NEC. The 7.5t Aebi MT 750 combines compact design with high performance, thanks to its 156 bhp, six-cylinder VM turbo diesel engine, which is compliant with the latest Euro 6c emissions. The MT 750 emergency response vehicle is particularly suited to narrow streets where access is limited and conventional sized fire engines can struggle to be effective. Featuring an impressive payload of up to 4,800kg, optional four wheel drive, flexible storage and cabin options which allow the vehicle to seat up to 6 people.

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Instructors at risk Research reveals the benefits of pre-cooling in reducing the impact of multiple exposures

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02/08/2018 16:37


CONTENTS

FIRE & RESCUE Editor Ann-Marie Knegt am.knegt@hgluk.com +44 (0)1935 374001 Group sales manager Kelly Francis k.francis@hgluk.com +44 (0)207 973 4666 Sales manager Adrian Hire a.hire@hgluk.com +44 (0)20 8865 0281

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Sales executive Brenda Homewood b.homewood@hgluk.com +44 (0)1732 448717 Production Tim Malone t.malone@hgluk.com +44 (0)1935 374014 Sector head, International Neil Levett Managing director Bill Butler Published Quarterly by

4 News A division of the Hemming Group Ltd,

32, Vauxhall Bridge Road, London, SW1V 2SS, England Tel: + 44 (0) 20 7973 6694

8 Vehicle news 32 Operation Nelson 10 AFOA update

www.hemmingfire.com ©2018 All Rights Reserved Fire & Rescue (ISSN 0964-9727)

12 Events

Subscribe digitally for free at:

14 Power spike

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Annual Print Subscription: Europe £40.00 or €60 (incl. p&p); rest of world £50.00 or US$80.00 (incl. p&p). Subscriptions queries to: m.spillane@hgluk.com FIRE & RESCUE JOURNAL (ISSN No: 0964-972719, USPS No: 003-930) is published quarterly by Hemming Information Services and distributed in the US by Asendia USA, 17B S Middlesex Ave, Monroe NJ. Periodicals postage paid at New Brunswick, NJ and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: send address changes to Fire & Rescue Journal, 17B S Middlesex Ave, Monroe NJ 08831.

Artwork by Graphic Examples Ltd, Sherborne Printed in England by Latimer Trend & Co Ltd, Plymouth DISCLAIMER: The views and opinions expressed in FIRE & RESCUE are not necessarily those of Hemming Information Services. F&R is in no way responsible or legally liable for any statements, picture captions, reports or technical anomalies made by authors in their commissioned articles.

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the current challenges facing fire and rescue services.

A new set of tools based on the science of fire dynamics is set to change the way fires are fought. 18 Practical pre-cooling Fire service instructors are at increased risk of ill health because of the number of fires they are exposed to, but effective use of pre-cooling could help reduce the risk of heat illness. 26 Unmanned aerial systems F&R reviews the evidence for the use of unmanned aerial systems to enhance the outcome of emergency response operations. 28 SAVE approach The new SAVE approach from Hampshire FRS in the UK is designed to combat many of

A training exercise with fire, police, coastguard, and ambulance personnel took place in southwest England in July to test communications interoperability. 36 Fireworks explosion A report on the fire and explosion in a clandestine fireworks storage site in Paramos, Spain, that killed two and injured 35 in May 2018. 38 Proportional response Water-driven positive pressure foam proportioning systems are growing in popularity. F&R explains the practical, environmental, and financial benefits of a proportional response to foam attack. Plus, an automatic extinguishment system for storage tank fires. 40 Furnace fires A process furnace provides the heat that brings many a modern convenience to life, but they are also the source of many potential industrial hazards.

42 Fire engineering Could a holistic approach to fire engineering improve the effectiveness of fire strategies and simplify the approvals process for fire and rescue services and enforcement agencies? 44 Terrific Project A European project to improve the effectiveness of first responders in the initial stages of a CBRNe incident has just launched. 46 Rescue: cordless vs hose tools Ian Dunbar considers the pros and cons of hose vs battery tools. 48 Comment: inspired to rescue Dave Dalrymple recalls the key people and events that influenced his career and inspired him to develop a consultancy dedicated to delivering the very best in vehicle rescue education.

Front cover picture: Fire Service College

AIRPORT FIRE OFFICERS ASSOCIATION

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THIRD QUARTER 2018 < FIRE & RESCUE <

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NEWS

EDITOR’s Comment

A

s wildfires continue to rage around the world in one of the hottest summers on record, you will notice that we don't have a wildfire feature in this issue. That's because our expert contributors are out in the field responding to some of the most violent and intense fires ever seen. I want to highlight what an amazing job they are doing and thank them for their efforts, about which you will no doubt read in more detail in a forthcoming issue. I would also like to welcome two new faces to Fire & Rescue who will be managing additional business development going forward. Brenda Homewood formerly worked on oil and gas magazines and will be focusing mainly on Europe, while Rick Markley, a paid on-call firefighter who serves on the board of directors of the International Fire Relief Mission, a humanitarian-aid organisation that delivers fire and EMS equipment to firefighters in developing countries, will focus on the US and Canada. Finally, this issue continues our campaign for improving firefighter health, this time with a focus on instructors. Repeated fire exposures mean instructors are at a greater risk of ill health but new research has highlighted the benefits of pre-cooling in reducing the physiological strain caused by frequent exposure to live fires. As ever, however, it is up to fire services and firefighters to take these recommendations on board and adopt the latest thinking into operational procedures. Ann-Marie Knegt, editor

‘Sticky science’ saves London school from fire London Fire Brigade has become the first brigade in Europe to use a new glutinous liquid to prevent building damage from fire. LFB crews used PVStop when they were called to a fire at a school in Twickenham. The substance prevented serious damage to the roof by stopping the fire from spreading to the solar panels. PVStop is a black liquid coating designed to cover solar panels like a liquid tarpaulin. It is sprayed onto panels using an extinguisher or from the head of an aerial appliance. After trialling the coating last year, LFB used it for the first time at the Twickenham school fire. Four fire engines and around 25 firefighters attended the fire, which is thought to have been caused by an electrical fault in an extractor fan. There were no reports of injuries. Operational policy watch manager George Mahoney said the fire started on the ground floor and spread into the roof void, where the school had solar panels installed. ‘Incidents involving solar panels can be especially dangerous as it’s difficult to isolate the electrical current they generate if they are damaged or involved in a fire,’ he explained. ‘PVStop works by blocking the sunlight that powers them so the process of converting light into electricity is stopped. The panels are then de-energised and the risk of electrocution is greatly reduced so crews can get closer and prevent fire spreading from a roof to the rest of the building. A combination of science and the quick thinking of firefighters saved this school from significant damage.' PVStop is environmentally friendly and non-toxic. Its use by LFB was the first time it has been used operationally in Europe. It is manufactured in Australia, where it has also been used once. It has now been distributed to eleven of LFB’s aerial appliances.

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peli dual-beam safety light with auto sensor

A safety torch with dual beam and an automatic light sensor is the latest addition to Peli Products’ range of lighting solutions for hazardous working conditions. The Peli 3345Z0 automatically adjusts its brightness level to its surroundings. The sensor measures the ambient light and automatically adjusts the output, providing a low level of brightness at close range but instantly adjusting to full brightness when focusing at long distance. ATEX Zone 0 (Cat 1) certified, the 3345Z0 is an LED light that provides both spot and flood beams. It delivers up to 267 lumens with both beams, or 115 lumens in flood mode and 207 as a spot beam. The dual beam means it is possible to simultaneously illuminate objects at close and long range, and the automatically adjusting brightness levels regulate power output, improving its energy efficiency and helping to achieve a run time of up to 13 hours. IPX7 ingress protection means the torch can be used in inclement weather. It can be used in either hand-held mode or attached to a safety vest.

Nightstick dual tech Light Cuts Through Smoke Nightstick has added four models to its Dual-Light technology range that offer firefighters and industrial workers improved visibility in hazardous locations by combining a 45-degree floodlight with a 90-degree adjustable smoke-cutting beam. The new Intrant Class 1 Division 1, ATEX-approved, intrinsically-safe right-angle lights illuminate the user’s feet while walking in addition to providing an adjustable, sharp, 200-lumen LED smoke-cutting light beam to help reduce the possibility of slips, trips, and falls. The flashlight has a 401-metre ultra-tight beam that is ideal for cutting through smoke and lighting up objects at a distance. The user can select a brightness setting of either 200, 110, or 60 lumens. The floodlight can be set to either 100 or 40 lumens, and also has a survival-mode setting of 20 lumens that provides sufficient emergency situation lighting for a runtime of 33 hours. There are four models in the range, all of which are Culus, ATEX, and IECEX certified as intrinsically safe, and are IP-67 rated dustproof and waterproof. Two models, Intrant XPP-5566, are powered by three AA batteries and come in either green or red. The two Intrant XPR-5568 models are powered using a rechargeable lithium-ion pack and include a low-profile charging base, AC and DC charging cords, and AA battery carrier for backup power. They also come in a choice of green or red. All models have a sturdy stainless-steel clip for attachment.

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news

Dafo creates separate vehicle fire detection and suppression business Dafo Brand AB has separated its vehicle fire detection and suppression operations from its core fire safety equipment business to enable it to more closely focus on the long-term continuous development of the vehicle operation. Dafo Vehicle Fire Protection AB began operating on 1 July 2018 and supplies fire detection and suppression systems for buses and coaches, mining and construction

Women in the fire service

Officers and support staff from East Sussex Fire and Rescue Service attended the Women in Fire Service National Training and Development weekend held at the UK Fire Service College in June. Women in the Fire Service is an organisation dedicated to developing a culture of equality of opportunity for women in the fire service and aims to support all women in achieving their full potential. More than 210 delegates from 25 UK fire and rescue services as well as international delegates attended the 2018 event, for which the theme was ‘Building confidence for a stronger future’. Speakers included Dany Cotton, Commissioner of London Fire Brigade, and Moira Cameron, Yeoman Warder of the Tower of London, the UK’s first female beefeater. In addition to the speakers, the event included practical sessions such as fire behaviour, urban search and rescue, incident command, and first aid. There was also a fitness for women session that covered disciplines such as body balance, yoga and pilates, and a range of sessions covering issues such as reducing stress and sleeping well, authentic conversations, and public speaking. Both men and women attended the event, as delegates and instructors. Assistant Chief Fire Officer Mark Andrews was at the event promoting He For She, an initiative inviting people around the world to stand together to create gender equality. Mark said: ‘It was a great chance to highlight the important issue of gender equality through the He For She campaign, which seeks to encourage us all to take steps to do more for equality. It was great to see so many colleagues – both male and female – bringing equality to life and getting involved in the weekend. Those I spoke to took a great deal of learning and confidence from the experience.’ A number of East Sussex FRS staff attended the event. Many commented on the supportive and inclusive atmosphere as well as the informative and inspiring presentations and practical sessions. Burwash Firefighter Antonia Price, attending for the second year in a row, added that the event provides a great confidence boost. ‘Yet again I come away feeling like I can do anything I put my mind to.’

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equipment, forestry and waste handling equipment, and material and cargo handling. Business unit manager Johan Balstad explained that the move will make it easier for the new business to acquire the skills, resources, and capital it needs to develop to meet the growth in global demand and its customers’ requirements. The US operations will run through subsidiary Dafo US, strengthening the company's position in North America.

Rosenbauer launches two new aerial products A hydraulic platform that can carry up to five people to the ground from a height of 60 metres is among the new products just launched by Rosenbauer. The multifunctional B60 platform has been specially developed for industrial fire service applications including firefighting, rescues at height, and technical operations. It has a payload of 500kg thanks to lightweight construction and an optimised cage, which provides both front and rear access and space for heavy-duty stretchers. A rescue ladder with rung-levelling adjustment running along the telescopic boom sets provides a second rescue route option. The platform’s firefighting capabilities include the delivery of 3,800lpm of water from the cage turret, which is permanently connected to the telescopic waterway. The aerial appliance, cage, and turret can all be remotely controlled in case it is necessary to operate the platform unmanned. The B60 has a five-part telescopic main boom and a two-part cage boom. The secondary element of the cage boom can be telescopically extended and retracted, and the rescue cage moved up or down through 180°. The platform uses a hydraulic horizontal-vertical jacking system for stability with jacks that can be adjusted and extended up to nine metres. Other safety features include an automatic return function for the rescue cage and the ability to store different cage positions and automatically reposition back to them, as well as a safety lighting system. Also new from Rosenbauer is the L32A-XS 3.0 aerial ladder with lowerable cage boom. This third-generation iteration combines the advantages of an articulated ladder with an expanded working range – up to 150cm more horizontal reach. Ideal for limited-space applications, the XS 3.0 requires only 6.15m distance to the ladder object in order to be able to elevate continuously along the facade. It has a road width of 9.50m. The first units are already in use in Frankfurt and Fulda. ‘The XS combines many advantages in one device that otherwise could only be achieved through several different concepts,’ said Sven Lindenfelser, aerials product manager at Rosenbauer. This includes the design of the cage boom, which has a pivot point offset inwards on the ladder set so that it bends away earlier than the cage boom of a conventional articulated ladder. The L32A-XS 3.0 also features a new controller that provides ten times the computing power of its predecessor and maximum connectivity (via five CAN buses) and flexibility through freely programmable inputs and outputs. This means it can be equipped with the latest floodlight and camera systems and automatic functions. It can also be equipped with firefighting equipment and rescue

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nEws

eXpoprotection 2018: the biggest edition yet

Expoprotection 2018 returns to Paris, France, from 6-8 November 2018 with almost 750 exhibitors in two key sectors: occupational and industrial risks, and security and firefighting. The three-day exhibition aims to highlight innovation and best practice in risk prevention and help visitors identifty the right suppliers and solutions for their current and future requirements. Expert Villages in each sector will focus on solutions to specific issues facing businesses in these areas. Suppliers from more than 30 countries are represented in the occupational and industrial risk sector, covering workwear, PPE, and industrial risk prevention. Exhibitors include 3M, Cepovett, Lafont, Honeywell, Mure & Peyrot, Armor Lux, Caterpillar, Haws, and Timberland Pro. Showcasing their products in the security and firefighting sector are companies such as Andrieu Extincteur, Desautel, Eurofeu, Finsecur, and R Pons. The show also aims to highlight current and future societal issues such as the change in scope of private security, increased cooperation between public and private sector operators, and balancing the demands of personal freedom and security. The programme includes more than 100 talks and workshops across four content streams: future trends and innovation, training and careers, sharing experience, and regulations. Finally, the expert jury for the Expoprotection Awards will shine a light on some of the most innovative new products, and the event will also seek to highlight the disruptive start ups unveiling their exciting ideas at the show for the first time. For more information and to view the full line-up for the presentations and workshops, visit the event website on www.expoprotection.com.

cameras on light towers

Command Light has partnered with vehicle camera system suppliers to add cameras to its light towers to improve scene visibility for firefighters. The company has worked with Intec, Safety Vision, and Zone Defense to mount their camera systems on its light towers to give operational crews 360-degree vehicle camera views at height. The addition of cameras to light towers means incident commanders have the ability to survey both fire and kerb-side activity from the pump panel; record firefighter actions for review and training, if opting for this feature; and ensure the safety of their crews as they move in and around the apparatus. Intec Video Systems has provided two high-end camera options – the CVC500AH or the VSC510, which features a motorised 23X optical zoom lens for detailed viewing, and can switch from colour to black and white images to enhance details. Command Light has also partnered with Safety Vision and Zone Defense to offer fire departments two vehicle camera system options, popular on mobile command units. Paired with select Command Light towers, these cameras are designed to provide 360-degree viewing angles at a reasonable price point. ‘Our CL Series tower is able to reach up to 11 feet and has the ability to overhang the side of vehicles, making this one of the most adjustable vehicle cameras,’ said Command Light’s Roger Weinmeister. ‘When you pair that with our new eight-head tower, crews can capture every angle and illuminate it with 240,000 lumens.’

nfpa certification for argus tics The Argus thermal imaging camera range from Avon Protection has achieved NFPA1801:2018 certification. The latest version of the NFPA Standard on Thermal Imagers for the Fire Service includes limitations on cameras with visible light sensors, a battery run-time of at least two hours while capturing video, a refresh rate of at least 25Hz, and new battery locking mechanism requirements. The Argus TIC range includes the Mi-TIC E, Mi-TIC E L, Mi-TIC 320 and Mi-TIC S models. The range certification includes the introduction of the Ignis engine to all Mi-TIC cameras, which offers sensor and lens improvements for clearer scene detail. These improve the identification of critical background details such as exits, obstacles, and casualties, even in the presence of a fully-developed fire. Richard Tweddle, Avon’s thermal imaging product manager said: ‘We have redesigned, redeveloped and redefined thermal imaging and we continue to meet the needs of our customers to ensure they remain safe in the most demanding of environments.’

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news

bronto launches combined first response unit

A new first response unit from Bronto Skylift combines a fire truck, aerial platform, and a rescue ladder in a compact and manoeuvrable format for quick response times. The first five units are already in use in Asia, with eight more in the pipeline. The F28ALR has a working height of 28 metres and an outreach of 20 metres. It can accommodate a large crew and has substantial locker space for equipment. And, according to Bronto, it has the shortest transportation length in the 28-metre class. Combined with variable jacking, this makes it ideal for use in confined spaces and narrow city streets. The platformâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s water system can discharge water at 3,500lpm. The pump is located at the back of the platform to allow for quick access even in the transport position and to leave plenty of space for equipment storage. This means the F28ALR can also be used as a

regular fire truck/pumper. The primary water and foam tanks can be adjusted to local requirements and any commercial pump can be fitted on the platform. The rescue cage has a 350kg capacity and can be equipped with integrated outlets for water, breathing air, hydraulics, and electricity. It can also be equipped with other accessories such as a stretcher or a detachable winch to provide additional assistance in demanding rescue operations. The cage comes with heavy-duty EN795-compliant safety harness attachment points as standard. The F28ALR first response unit uses Brontoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 5+ control system, which features touchscreens, simple navigation, and a modifiable main menu. It is designed to provide precise, smooth and stable movements even in extreme operating conditions to allow firefighters to concentrate on firefighting and rescue operations

Rosenbauer Tigon industrial off-road fire truck

A flexible, off-road capable, large-tank fire truck designed specifically for industrial use has been launched by Rosenbauer. The Tigon combines concentrated extinguishing power with a robust, lightweight construction, 700hp engine, and an off-road chassis to create a vehicle that can cope with high payloads over even the most extreme terrain, such as deserts, tundra or Arctic conditions. The Tigon has a chassis from Czech manufacturer Tatra that is based on a robust central tube frame that ensures optimal distribution of any forces it

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is subjected to. The tubular construction envelops non-constructively loaded vehicle elements and protects moving drive components from damage. The differential gears are also protected within the tubular frame and can be locked individually. The semi-axles are freely movably mounted, and the wide tyres are equipped with a pressure system that adapts to the condition of the ground. The Tigon can be fitted with built-in pumps with capacities up to 13,000lpm; proportioning systems that can deliver up to 1,200lpm of foam compound and mix foam into the complete pump output; and water turrets for combined extinguishing compound output of up to 15,000lpm. In the standard 8x8 version, the Tigon carries 12,500 litres of extinguishing agent. It is also equipped with a power take-off drive to enable the use of firefighting equipment while driving. The Tigon can also be equipped with a high-pressure pump for rapid attack or a powder extinguishing system. The extinguishing agents are deployed by fast assault and/or high-performance turrets. Turrets with specially developed Chemcore nozzles are available for the combined application of water and powder. The vehicle can be operated via illuminated keypads and small display or it can be installed with the Rosenbauer LCS 2.0 control system, which works via a modern Can bus and 10-inch touchscreen display.

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news

aebi-schmidT uk fiRe debuT

A new fire truck will be introduced to the UK market at the Emergency Services Show on 19-20 September at the NEC in Birmingham. Aebi-Schmidt’s MT750 fire truck, which is used extensively across Europe, will be the focus of the company's stand at the 2018 show. ‘We are sure it will attract a lot of attention from many of the UK’s 52 regional fire and rescue services, thanks to its slim profile, extreme manoeuvrability, off-road capabilities and can-do attitude,’ said Martin Foster, Aebi-Schmidt’s key account manager. The Aebi MT750 features a 156bhp, six-cylinder VM turbo diesel engine, which is compliant with the latest Euro VIc emissions. The vehicle has a top speed of 56mph and generates a maximum torque of 500Nm. The fire truck is already a strong seller in mainland Europe where it was launched three years ago, and is especially popular in Spain, Italy, and France, although it also has a strong following in Germany and Croatia. Most customers are in small town, city, or municipality fire departments or in civil protection. However, its versatility and off-road capabilities mean that the MT750 is also a favoured tool for fighting forest fires, handling pollution or dangerous goods issues, or as an emergency motorway service vehicle. The MT750 fire truck is particularly suited for use on the small, narrow streets of old towns and cities where access is limited and where conventionally-sized fire engines struggle as they are unable to operate efficiently in narrow openings. The Aebi fire truck is also used regularly for fighting wildfires as it brings an extremely valuable off-road capability thanks to optional four-wheel drive, which allows it to tackle even the toughest of terrains and working conditions. The vehicle comes as a single cab variant with seating for two or three operatives, or in a double crew cab configuration, which provides seating for up to six firefighters. Foster sees numerous applications for the MT750 fire truck in the UK, especially for fire and rescue services that operate in remote areas where access is often an issue and where heath or moorland fires are a common occurrence. ‘The MT750 is a highly flexible, manoeuvrable, and versatile piece of equipment. This is the first time we have brought it to the UK, but it has been an outstanding performer on mainland Europe for the last three years,' added Foster. ‘We expect it to make a favourable impression with those services for which off-road capabilities are paramount in dealing with fire outbreaks in remote areas, or those that need to work in narrow or confined spaces. We are very much looking forward to showcasing it at this year’s Emergency Services Show at the NEC in September.'

dubai panTheR conTRacT Dubai Airports has placed an order with Rosenbauer International for 22 Panther 8x8 airport firefighting vehicles and three turntable ladder vehicles for use at Dubai International Airport. Dubai International is the world’s busiest airport for passenger numbers and passenger volumes continue to grow. The airport has had Rosenbauer vehicles since the end of the 1980s, with a fleet of ten currently in use. The decision to enter an exclusive partnership with Rosenbauer across Dubai International and Dubai World Central was taken after an extensive procurement exercise. The agreement also includes a service contract over several years. ‘Our partnership will reinforce Dubai Airports’ commitment to the safety of those travelling through our airports and ensure our operational teams are provided with the very best equipment from a respected global supplier,’ said Darren Williams, vice president for airside service delivery at Dubai Airports.

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Safety above all FOCUS ON YOUR WORK AT HEIGHT AND ALWAYS RETURN HOME SAFELY Meet us at:

Bourg-en-Bresse, 26-29 September

www.brontoskylift.com

third QUArter 2018 < FIRE & RESCUE <

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news

afoa update

John Purdy, vice chairman for AFOA.

This summerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s prolonged heatwave has caused a range of problems for fire services, airports, and our local authority partners in the UK, at times stretching resources and capabilities to the limit. Fortunately, excellent liaison and the sharing of resources between fire services and airports throughout the country has ensured the worst of the situations have been dealt with successfully. AFOA has also been busy this summer with a re-brand and the development of a new website. The committee was conscious that the previous website required improvements, not least to allow our members the ability to communicate via online forums within secure areas. This and many other new features will be available when we launch the new site in September in time for the Emergency Services Show. We will be holding our AGM on 19 September at the Emergency Services Show in the Piazza Suite 3 from 12.30 until 16.00. If you are attending the show, please come along to the AGM and take the opportunity to network with colleagues and committee members. Please let me or Simon Petts know if you do plan to attend. As ever there is a lot going on in our industry, in particular in relation to appliance and equipment technology, which has direct implications on the way we operate our airports and

stations. Additionally, the key issue of European Aviation Safety Agency medical standards is still to be finalised. EASA will publish a draft Notice of Proposed Amendment, and a questionnaire about the effects of implementing this, which will go to Member States and industry. EASA plan to publish the NPA in January followed by a three-month consultation. Finally, the AFOA Annual Conference will be at the Gatwick Hilton Hotel from 15-17 January 2019. The speaker line-up and content is already looking strong and we are confident of another excellent conference. The committee is still reviewing offers from potential speakers, and we are particularly interested in case studies related to specific incidents. As our chairman mentioned in the last issue, we are actively looking for alternative venues for 2020 and beyond. The conference is going from strength to strength and we need to be able to satisfy demand and keep pushing ourselves to provide the best experience for our members. We are also working closely with our colleagues in America (ARFF Working Group) to finalise plans for a joint conference in 2019, details of which we will communicate as soon as its confirmed. We look forward to seeing you in September. John Purdy, vice chairman, AFOA jsp@newcastleinternational.co.uk

AFOA is currently looking for incident case studies to be presented at the association's annual conference, to be held from 15-17 January 2019.

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E v e n t s 19-20 September, International Compressed Air Foam Symposium, Novotel Amsterdam Schiphol Airport, The Netherlands The International Compressed Air Foam Symposium will bring together international specialists in the field to discuss a wide range of topics including CAFS usage, implementation, and application, and the latest scientific research. Speakers include Mark A Cummins, the inventor of the first compressed air foam system in the 1980s, and Dr Niall Ramsden from Lastfire, who will discuss the results of Lastfire’s large-scale tank fire testing that has shown the potential for CAFS in major incidents. Other speakers include Rijk van den Dikkenberg, Fire Chief and senior researcher for the Dutch Fire Service Academy, who will discuss techniques for the offensive exterior attack in fighting ventilation-controlled structure fires, and Dr George B Braga who will tell delegates about the CAFS journey of the Federal District Fire Department, Brazil, from testing to fire truck implementation. The potential environmental and occupational health benefits of CAFS will also be covered at the event. Gary Baum, deputy chief at the Milford Fire Protection District of Greater Chicago and field staff instructor at the Illinois Fire Service Institute, will talk about the potential of CAFS to reduce firefighters’ exposure to carbon-based carcinogens in structure fires, while environmental toxicologist Dr John Gorrie will touch on the environmental considerations for CAFS use. Other topics will include the use of CAFS in rural and urban operations, presented by Leon Smith from the Australian fire and emergency services, and the use of CAFS in industrial fires, presented by Luca Parisi, the deputy crew commander of Trento Fire and Rescue Service. ‘The iCAFS seminar will be a great opportunity for delegates to share good practice and gain a better understanding of the capabilities and practical applications of compressed air foam systems,’ said Graeme Day, fire service regulation and oversight manager at Heathrow, who will cover CAFS from an aviation perspective at the event. Ritchie Trompert, manager emergency response for Schiphol Group, will chair the event. The full programme, including an index of presentations, can be found on www.icafs.com/programma.

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19-20 September, The Emergency Services Show, Hall 5, NEC, Birmingham, UK The Manchester Arena bombing and a nuclear emergency training exercise in Denmark are among the case studies set to be presented at the upcoming Emergency Services Show on 19-20 September 2018 in Birmingham, UK. This year’s free seminar programme covers a number of themes including lessons learnt, collaboration, health and wellbeing, and communications. The expert-led line up includes speakers from the Federation of European Fire Associations (FEU), The Resilience Advisors Network (RAN), International Fire Chiefs, and UKISAR, the UK's international search and rescue team. Key focus areas across the two days include collaboration and the efficiencies through data sharing and technology and the health, safety and psychological needs of individual fire, rescue, and call centre staff when responding to incidents. Other health and wellbeing topics up for discussion include protecting against the dangers of smoke contamination and supporting female firefighter colleagues working through the menopause. The morning session on both days will feature international collaboration case studies from Canada, the US, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Slovakia. European CBRN developments, psychological support for call handlers, and opportunities for UK experts to work within the European Civil Protection Mechanism are among the scheduled topics. The event itself also offers a valuable opportunity to network with other blue light services, enabling vital collaborations and effective co-response. This year’s Collaboration Zone features 80 partner agencies, voluntary groups, charities, and NGOs, which will share details of the support they can offer the fire and rescue services. The British Cave Rescue Council, which played a key role in the Thailand cave rescue operation, is set to exhibit in the UK SAR Zone alongside Mountain Rescue England and Wales, the Association of Lowland Search and Rescue, NSARDA Search Dogs, and the Maritime and Coastguard Agency. The exhibition and seminars are free to attend. To register, visit www.emergencyuk.com.

NESM meets emergency responders at ESS 2017

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✜ FIRE & RESCUE ✜ third QUARTER 2018 Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com


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innovations

Power spike A new set of tools based on the science of fire dynamics is set to change the way fires are fought in North America and worldwide, reports Ann-Marie Knegt.

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yan O’Donnell has had a long career in the firefighting industry. As the former Bullex CEO, drector of Haagen Fire Training Products, and volunteer firefighter in upstate New York, O’Donnell is regarded as one of the most innovative minds in the sector. It will therefore come as no surprise to those who know him to hear that he has embarked on a new venture, one that aims to change the way fires are fought in North America and the rest of the world, and that also focuses on modern firefighting techniques such as the transitory attack principle and gas cooling. O’Donnell co-founded Flashpoint Fire with another fire sector innovator. Todd Nixon is Platoon Chief of Strathcona County Emergency Services in Canada, and founder and lead instructor at AOYS Fire Training, a fire service training organisation dedicated to reducing firefighter injuries and deaths through the delivery of modern, interactive training programmes such as the Blue Card Command Certification Programme. The pair were both members of the NFPA 1700 committee, working on producing a guide for structural firefighting for the NFPA centred on evidence-based practices and research. ‘The committee’s objective was to create a standard that aids the promotion and sharing of tactics that we know work, based on research,’ explains O’Donnell. ‘Todd and I had met before because we taught together. During our NFPA meetings, we started to discuss how we could improve firefighting tactics and equipment, and we also asked ourselves how we could get best practice more widely

accepted. We realised that there are certain factors that are required before innovation can happen in the fire service, and the triggers that are required for firefighters to change their behaviour and operational tactics. It is one thing to have a product but it is another for it to be used properly and in a tactical manner.’ O’Donnell explains that there are around a 100 firefighter line-of-duty deaths annually in the US. ‘Even though this number has decreased recently, every death is still one too many. If you read the line-of-duty death reports, a recurring cause of firefighter fatalities is the rapid change in fire behaviour fuelled by a change in the flow path and the high hydrocarbon load that is present in modern buildings. Fire dynamics change very rapidly in those situations.’ O’Donnell explains that a window can break and change the flow path during an interior scenario. If a crew thought they were on the inlet side, this can suddenly change and they can find themselves on the exhaust side. ‘In North America, training is driven by NFPA standards. However, in my opinion, there is not enough fire behaviour training. Most firefighters only receive a few hours of formal fire behaviour training. If firefighters are better equipped to understand the fire dynamics on scene, they’ll be better prepared to choose the right tactics and tools for the conditions. He adds that while it is encouraging to see more and more departments reading the research studies, investing in training and adopting modern, proven tactics such as

The Shield Tip offers the widest range of droplet sizes to coat fuel, knock down fire, and absorb energy. It is optimised for attic and basement fires where cooling hot gases and wide water reach are both important.

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innovations

transitory attack, but it is a slow process. 'UL Fire Safety Research Institute and the Illinois Fire Science Institute (IFSI) are major drivers of modern firefighting insight and education. They’ve done great work in getting the fire service involved in the research and I think that’s helped drive change on the fireground.' O'Donnell believes that UL’s research on air entrainment, water mapping, and steam production, along with IFSI’s research on the impacts of water application to victims, has been especially insightful, because it has helped to dispel some long-standing myths about when and how to flow water. When O’Donnell and Nixon were brainstorming about how they could put their skillsets together, they identified three key elements that underline what it means to be a firefighter: tactics, training, and tools. On the training and tactics side, they agreed that there was already a lot of work being carried out by IFSI and UL FSRI. However, what they both felt was lacking was the right range of tools to support the new tactics that have developed as a result of research. 'A major insight from the research is that the faster water can be applied to the fire, the better. Water application improves interior conditions and reduces temperatures, which is good for victims, interior crews, and fire control efforts. Another insight is that most fires are ventilation-limited, so limiting the air that gets to the fire before water application limits the fire’s growth. This is what led us to small-diameter piercing nozzles that could be more rapidly deployed,' explains O'Donnell. 'We were aware of the Fognail, which has been quite successful in Sweden over the past few decades, and we had also seen high-pressure water mist lances. Both can accomplish the fast-water-on-the-fire objective, and make use of fine droplets, but neither have seen wide adoption in North America. We wanted to understand why there weren’t more departments using these tools, and what we could do to design a tool that firefighters in North America, and globally, would more readily adopt. 'We conducted market and technical research into nozzle engineering for controlled droplet size and partnered with a research laboratory outside Washington DC to help us design, validate, and test the concepts.' O'Donnell and Nixon set out to develop a nozzle with improved flow rates, durability and strength, that could produce a wider range of droplet sizes. They also needed to ensure it could be deployed quickly by a single firefighter and didn’t require specialised pumps or equipment.

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The Attackspike range of piercing nozzles was born, and Flashpoint Fire Equipment was registered as a company. Ultra-fine droplets are a proven technology and have been in use all over the world over the last few decades. However, the Attackspike nozzles have been engineered differently to conventional fog nozzles, producing both large droplets to get to the seat of the fire, and small droplets to absorb energy and cool superheated gasses. Large droplets have the mass and motion to penetrate superheated gases and smoke and reach the seat of the fire. This water covers walls, floors, ceilings, and the contents of the room. It stops pyrolysis and creates a barrier between the fuel and the fire. Water that reaches the seat of the fire also cools the fire, taking away an element of the fire triangle. Small droplets, on the other hand, evaporate and rapidly absorb energy and reduce temperatures while contracting the superheated gases in the compartment. It is well established that the modern-day fuel load in compartments has increased significantly compared to 20 years ago. There has been an increase in plastic (hydrocarbon-based) materials used in dwellings and offices. Therefore, conditions in interior fires tend to be rich in incomplete combustion products; there is more smoke in these environments, adding more fuel to the fire. This is the reason why O'Donnell and Nixon designed the nozzles with the capability to produce both large and fine droplets. O’Donnell explains that selecting the right droplet size and distributing this strategically onto a fire with limited ventilation, while preventing any additional air from entering, can rapidly cool and control the fire. ‘Flowing at 68 to 87lpm (18 to 23gpm) at 100psi (690 kpa or 6.89 Bar), Attackspike nozzles can knock-down and control the fire while additional crews arrive or initial crews prepare for an interior attack.’ Flashpoint Fire Equipment has developed three different types of nozzles (tips) for a range of applications.

The standard 74cm (29in) length Attackspike can be used from a roof ladder, or the XL 152cm (5ft) version can be used with an aerial device.

The Attackspike enables the application of fast water on interior fires.

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innovations

Attackspike nozzles use a tip design that optimises droplet size. The nozzles are built from stainless steel bodies with hardened, replaceable tips and striking surfaces.

The Mist Tip creates a radial stream pattern consisting of a curtain of ultra-fine droplets. The water mist fills the compartment, absorbing energy, suffocating the fire, and reducing temperatures. Water droplets are small enough to become entrained in the airflow to the fire. The inlet airflow brings water to the fire. ‘One thing that we have learnt in fire school in the USA is that steam expands 1,700 times. There is a big fear of steam in the fire service, particularly over here. What we are not taught is that when you cool super-heated gases, they will contract. In most cases, when you start adding water to a compartment fire and add thermal ballast, the gases will initially contract rather than expand. The Mist Tip has been designed for confined spaces and areas where you do not know where the seat of the fire is.’ The diamond-shaped Attack Tip enables the firefighter to carry out a directional attack with medium to large droplets. The large droplets travel to the seat of the fire and coat the fuel in the compartment, while the medium droplets provide a cooling effect. O’Donnell explains that this nozzle has been specially designed for compartment fires where the seat has already been discovered. He adds that this is the longest reaching Attackspike with a forward-facing directional stream. ‘This is the tip to use when you have established the seat of the fire. Due to the different droplet sizes, the fire will be both suppressed and extinguished.’ However, it is the Shield Tip that O’Donnell and Nixon are most excited about. ‘What we found through our research and testing is that we can create a pattern that simulates the effect of two streams nearly colliding. When they fully collide, you get an extremely fine mist. However, when they don’t collide

Ryan O'Donnell and Todd Nixon hope to change the way fires are fought in North America and further afield.

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the streams go straight out and the air resistance breaks up the droplets, so you get a type of water mist with large droplets, like in our Attack Tip. The Shield Tip has streams which glance off each other, or partially impinge, so that fine mist is created where streams make contact, and large droplets are produced were the streams remain intact. It is having two different nozzles in one tool.’ The Shield Tip provides a wide-angle, 180-degree coverage. It has been designed with patent-pending partialimpingement water jets, which create a wide range of droplet sizes, delivered in a conical pattern. This nozzle can coat fuel, knock down fire, and absorb energy. It has been optimised for attic and basement fires where cooling hot gases and creating a wide water reach are both very important. The nozzles are connected to a conventional 2.5cm (1in) fire hose or a 4.45cm (1.75in) hose, powered by a normal fire engine pump. There are two types of piercing nozzles available: standard which is 74cm long (29in) and XL, which is 152cm (5ft). The XL nozzle is designed to be deployed through a roof from an aerial device or up through a soffit from the ground. O’Donnell explains that it was very important to design tools that work without any specialised equipment and without exceedingly high pump pressure. ‘One application where these nozzles could really help is in high-rise fires, because of their compartmentalised nature. Also, the Attackspikes can be connected to standpipes and they will still work at a pressure of 50 psi. The droplet size will get larger on lower pressure, but at 50 psi it is still beneficial.’ The Attackspikes have been tested with three different fire departments ranging from large metropolitan fire services to smaller rural services, and they are working on white papers right now. ‘The departments are evaluating the equipment as something that they want to add to their front-line practice. They are looking to compile the results, and put their papers together and present them,’ says O’Donnell, who adds that he believes Attackspikes will kickstart a philosophy change in the US. ‘There are a handful of departments that have really embraced this type of attack. They are getting good results, which they are sharing with their neighbours and insurance companies. The insurance companies are noticing there is a significant reduction in the amount of loss when fires are fought like this.’ Of course, the effectiveness of any tool relies on the skills of the person using it, but with knowledge of fire behaviour increasing, these nozzles might just be a key factor in changing the way fires are fought in the future.

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firefighter health: pre-cooling

Pre-cooling to prevent heat illness Fire service instructors are at increased risk of ill health because of the number of fires they are exposed to, according to researchers at the University of Brighton. However, evidence suggests that pre-cooling with ice slurry could help to reduce the physiological strain caused by repeated exposures, reports Lotte Debell.

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rofessional sport has long understood the benefits of pre-cooling to reduce the occurrence of heat illness in athletes, but despite the fact that firefighters are exposed to far higher temperatures while enduring intense physical exertion, pre-cooling is not an established protocol in fire services. In part, this is down to the nature of emergency response – firefighters don’t know when or where they will be

The UK's Fire Service College has implemented special ice machines that dispence ice 'cubelets' to pre-cool its instructors.

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called to an incident, making preparation difficult – but that is not the case for all fire service personnel. There is a group more at risk of heat illness even than firefighters, and that is fire service instructors. Instructors can be exposed to multiple fires in a day, and without adequate preparation and recovery time and procedures, they could find themselves even more susceptible to some of the chronic and acute health conditions that tend to affect firefighters, including heat stress and cardiovascular illness. Around six years ago in the UK, when reports of ill health among fire service instructors raised a red flag with the Health Management Research Project for Live Fire Instructors, the Environmental Extremes Laboratory at the University of Brighton carried out a small pilot study to try to understand what was going on. The small-scale research project involved six instructors and six non-fire service individuals and found evidence that repeated exposure to live fires can cause changes in immune function, a decrease in aerobic fitness, and effects on lung function. A larger-scale study was called for, and this started with a survey of the working practices of both fire service instructors and firefighters across the UK. The results of this survey have just been published. ‘We wanted to find out what fire service instructors are experiencing, and whether this is unique to instructors,’ explains PhD researcher Emily Watkins from the University of Brighton, who designed the study. 130 instructors and 232 firefighters responded to the survey, and the responses enabled the researchers to identify the differences between the two groups. These include variations in the type and frequency of new symptoms reported and highlighted the increased risk faced by instructors. ‘From the survey, we found that 41% of instructors – a huge number – were experiencing new symptoms of ill health since becoming instructors.’

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firefighter health: pre-cooling

Dr Alan Richardson, a co-author of the Brighton studies, presenting at the Fire Fit Conference.

These symptoms include (from most frequently to least frequently reported) fatigue, headaches, broken sleep, musculoskeletal pain, heavy sweating, problems thermoregulating, heart palpitations, coughing and breathing problems, blood-shot eyes, and mood swings. In contrast, the most common symptoms reported by firefighters – 21% reported new symptoms since starting their role as opposed to 41% of instructors – include back pain, PTSD or depression, coughing or breathing problems, and headaches. The survey found an association between the number of times an instructor wears breathing apparatus in a month – divided by type of exposure into BA, BA cold/no smoke, and compartment fire behaviour training – and their likelihood of experiencing new symptoms of ill health. More specifically, the results suggest that instructors who wear breathing apparatus more than 11 times per month are 4.5 times as likely to experience symptoms of ill health compared with those who complete five or fewer wears. It also found that work practices vary widely across the UK with a lack of consistent guidance on number of wears,

preparation and recovery periods, pre- and post-cooling practices, and hydration advice. Almost 40% of instructors who responded to the survey felt that they completed too many wears per week and 45% did not know whether they were subject to a wear limit set by management. Those who did have a wear limit (55%) reported that it ranged from two to ten times per week. The study also found a wide discrepancy in preparation and recovery procedures. Almost three-quarters of respondents said they were not allocated a specific period to prepare for a wear and 70% had no set recovery time. Just over 40% also reported no hydration guidelines prior to a fire exposure. Tellingly, the majority of instructors (65%) reported that they still felt worn out and warm after their recovery period.

Impact of repeated exposure It is well-known that exposure to intense heat and exertion in PPE can lead to heat illness, such as heat exhaustion and heat stroke, the consequences of which can be deadly, particularly in an emergency situation where impaired responses can

3M donates equipment to moorland firefighters UK fire crews tackling moorland blazes have received a donation of PPE from 3M. The technology company donated 150 reusable respirators and 200 FR bump caps to Lancashire Fire and Rescue Service and Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue Service to assist with the response efforts. Around 200 firefighters have been involved in efforts to control two wildfires in Lancashire and a further two in Greater Manchester following a prolonged heatwave across the UK. 3M provided crews with its 7500 series reusable half-masks with particulate filters and its flame-retardant HC23 bump caps, which also offer UV protection. Neil Taylor, service training manager at LFRS, said: ‘Since the moorland fires broke out we have been overwhelmed by the generosity shown by businesses and public, who have gone above and beyond to donate items to us in order for us to focus our efforts solely on tackling the fire. The donation of masks from 3M has provided us with a reserve of resources should they be required by the many crews working on the moors, and the additional feature of sun protection will be a further benefit for our crews. We would like to thank 3M for their generosity.’ A spokesperson for Greater Manchester FRS, where crews have been battling a moorland fire that covered seven square miles at its peak, added: ‘We have been

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overwhelmed by all the donations we have received over the past three weeks as our firefighters have fought to tackle two major moorland fires in extremely challenging conditions. These have been unprecedented circumstances for GMFRS and we are really grateful for all the support.’

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endanger both firefighters and victims. This was highlighted by research published last year by the University of Edinburgh (F&R Q2, 2017), which conducted research into the reason behind the high proportion of heart attacks among on-duty firefighters. It found that dehydration and a rise in core temperature caused firefighters blood to become thicker and more likely to clot after exposure to a fire. The team also found evidence of an inflammatory response within the body that increases the risk of a cardiovascular event. Investigating the body’s inflammatory response to heat exposure was a key aspect of the Brighton study. As the authors explain, ‘numerous inflammatory markers, such as Interleukin-6 (IL-6), platelet number, and C-reactive protein have been documented to increase following fire exposure. Repeated wears may, therefore, have a chronic effect on these markers, increasing an instructor’s risk of a cardiac event.’ Previous research has found that repeated fire exposures can lead to increased levels of Interleukin-6 at rest of up to 17.0pg mL. Median resting values in healthy men are 1.46pg mL (Ridker et al 2000). This is significant because increased IL-6 can lead to the development of atherosclerosis (the narrowing of the arteries due to plaque build-up). As the Brighton study states: ‘Inflammation plays a role in both the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Elevated levels of inflammation, exacerbated by reduced recovery time between wears, suggests that fire service instructors may be at an increased risk of a cardiovascular event as the frequency of heat exposures rises.’ ‘What we found supports the conclusions of the Edinburgh study,’ says Watkins. ‘The difference is that we are looking more at chronic impacts, as this is where research is lacking. Another study we are working on is looking specifically at the chronic impact of repeated fire exposure on instructors. We have taken blood samples from firefighters and instructors in rest conditions and looked at predictors of cardiac risks compared with the number of exposures. We found that instructors have increased risk markers on a daily basis, and those with a higher number of exposures are at greater risk.’ The results of the survey underlined the findings of the initial pilot study and the need to reduce the occupational health impacts on instructors. ‘The need for education and guidance on hydration and pre- and post-cooling is one of the main things that came out of this survey,’ says Watkins. ‘There is a wealth of research about hydration and post-cooling, but there isn’t much in the way of clear advice about pre-cooling, so that’s where we decided to focus.’

BRIStol UnIFoRMS' top-to-toE SolUtIon PPE supplier Bristol Uniforms will be using its biggest-ever stand at this year’s Emergency Services Show to showcase its top-to-toe PPE solution designed for the Central PPE and Clothing Contract collaborative framework. Alongside its existing extensive range of PPE solutions for the emergency services, Bristol’s collection for the CPCC includes the Xflex structural ensembles, layered jackets, rescue jackets and USAR ensembles. A dedicated section of the stand will feature all the structural firefighting and rescue garments and accessories available to members of the contract. Also on display on stand A70 will be other PPE solutions such as Air Ambulance and HART apparel and public order crowd control PPE. The company will also be showcasing its particulate protection firefighting hood, developed using Nomex Nanoflex to filter out harmful smoke particles, and Bell Apparel’s high-vis and wet weather clothing range.

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firefighter health: pre-cooling

Pre-cooling Pre-cooling, as Watkins explains, aims to reduce the risk of heat injury occurring, whereas post-cooling is about reducing the impact of heat illness. If effectively employed, pre-cooling can reduce the body’s core temperature and increase its ‘heat sink’, with obvious benefits for firefighters who are at risk of heat stress from a rise in their core temperature. Up until now, however, pre-cooling research and application has been focused on professional sports rather than occupations, and to be effectively used by fire instructors, let alone firefighters, pre-cooling methods need to be quick and easy. That’s why, when designing the study, the Brighton team investigated methods of pre-cooling already in use by fire services. These include forearm cooling and the use of phase-change vests, as well as consumption of ice slurry, which has been highlighted by previous research as a possible effective and practical pre-cooling method for the fire service. In addition to a reduction in core temperature, the team were also hoping to see a decrease in the body’s inflammatory response. The study was designed to put the three pre-cooling methods to the test alongside a controlled exposure. A 15-minute pre-cooling period – the length of time was determined based on instructor responses about their

London Fire Brigade uniforms to be tracked with RFID

average preparation time – was followed by a 45-minute simulated fire exposure in which participants were dressed in full PPE with a backpack to replicate the weight of breathing apparatus. Researchers tested a number of physiological responses including core temperature, heart rate, physiological strain index, skin temperature, perceptual strain, gas analysis, and IL-6. Forearm cooling, which involved participants submerging their arms up to their elbows in cold tap water for the pre-cooling period, did not result in a reduction in core temperature, but it did make some people feel cooler. But, says Watkins, that is not necessarily a good thing in a fire exposure. ‘A reduction in perceptual strain might result in someone working harder, which could potentially raise their core temperature higher than it might otherwise go.’ Phase-change vests were also found not to be effective at reducing core temperature prior to or during exposure. These vests – the type used was one already in use by fire services for cooling purposes – are made from a material that absorbs heat and turns to liquid at a certain temperature, in this case at a skin temperature of 27.78°C. ‘In the study we asked instructors to put the vests on for the 15-minutes prior to exposure and to keep the vests on during the exposure. However, we found that the extra weight of the vests likely counteracted their cooling benefits.’ The final method tested was ice slurry consumption, and this was found to reduce core temperature by an average of 0.24°C prior to exposure. It was also effective at keeping that core temperature lower during the exposure itself, reducing the core temperature of participants for around 20-25 minutes. ‘By the time the core temperature started to rise, it was therefore lower than it would have been without pre-cooling with ice slurry.’

Impact on inflammation

RFID tags from Vero Solutions will be used to track the uniforms of London Fire Brigade’s 4,800 firefighters. Bristol Uniforms, which supplies the uniforms, already uses Vero RFID tags to track the uniforms of Cambridgeshire Fire and Rescue Service. The tags are sewn securely into a pocket of each garment and are designed to withstand temperatures of up to 150°C. Each garment is scanned using a handheld RFID reader at key points of the managed service process, from point of collection to washing, inspection, repair, and return delivery. ‘The use of RFID readers has reduced the time our drivers take when collecting garments,’ said Edward Shepherd, service operations director at Bristol Uniforms. ‘A bag of items can now be scanned simultaneously without having to take a single garment out of the bag.’ London Fire Brigade is one of the largest firefighting and rescue organisations in the world. Each firefighter will be provided with twelve items of uniform for both structural firefighting and urban search and rescue operations, each fitted with an RFID tag, totalling more than 60,000 pieces of kit. The system is due to go live in October. Bristol Uniforms will also supply more than 5,000 uniform items to Buckinghamshire Fire and Rescue Service, which will also be tracked with RFID tags from Vero Solutions.

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Ice slurry might have a beneficial effect on core temperature, but it didn’t have any impact on the inflammation markers tested as part of the study, such as IL-6. 'However,' says Watkins, 'the study did not test all markers of inflammation and there are many other predictors of cardiovascular events that were not considered in the study. ‘The main thing we looked at was the impact on overall thermal exposure, and how high the core temperature gets throughout the day is linked to those inflammation markers. So, as instructors have multiple exposures, a lower overall thermal exposure throughout the day could reduce inflammatory markers at the end of the day.’ In short, as the study states, ‘it cannot conclusively be claimed that pre-cooling has no effect on the risk of cardiovascular events’. But clearly, more research into the short- and long-term reduction of inflammation is called for.

Practical application Ice slurry is effective because it increases the body’s heat storage capacity as a result of the additional energy required to melt the ice. Its core temperature cooling effect aligns with previous studies into the efficacy of ice slurry, but the Brighton study recorded a lessened impact as it was designed around an easily-applicable method of consumption. Previous studies recommended measuring out ice slurry at 7-7.5g per kg of an individual’s body weight, which would involve firefighters weighing themselves regularly and weighing their ice every time they made up the ice slurry. Instead, Watkin’s team opted for a more practical 500ml of ice slurry – a standard water bottle-sized quantity – consumed 15 minutes prior to exposure to align with the average instructor

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firefighter health: pre-cooling

Heathcoat Pure System fabrics on show at ESS

Heathcoat’s new Pure System with PBI will be the main theme of the fabric manufacturer’s stand at this year’s Emergency Services Show in the UK in September. Also on display will be the company’s PBI TGP fabric. This has been created to provide high-strength yet lightweight protection for technical rescue or

wildland operations. The Pure System offers a range of fabrics that combine the heat and flame protection of PBI with the strength and durability of Kevlar. The system combines the fibres at their most effective blend to provide excellent performance and maximise safety.

To develop Pure System fabrics, Heathcoat re-engineered the optimal PBI blend to eliminate unprotected exposed aramid fibres, which can compromise garments if they come into contact with flame and increase the potential for the fabric to break open. Instead, Heathcoat blended PBI fibre with Kevlar for added strength, creating uncompromised outer shell fabrics optimised for comfort with better strength retention after UV exposure. 'Heathcoat has a history of manufacturing PBI fabrics that have seen garments exceed 10 years of continuous active service,’ said Mark Drysdale, commercial manager of protectivewear at Heathcoat. ‘This range is a significant development advance in our high-performing range. All the fabrics developed are designed for improved breathability and comfort and an increased percentage of strength retention after exposure to UV.’ The company has also announced a new development in the replacement of C8 with C6 in its protective fabric coatings to meet changing environmental regulations. Heathcoat’s Petrogard+ using the company’s C6 technology is now used on all its protective outer fabrics, including the PBI Pure range. It is a safer, greener solution that provides durable chemical repellency combined with a UV inhibitor to retain strength.

pre-exposure preparation period. The UK Fire Service College has already taken this recommendation on board and has installed a machine that produces ‘cubelets’, condensed ice cubes that can be eaten by instructors prior to exposure. East Sussex Fire and Rescue Training Centre has also implemented this pre-cooling method on the back of Brighton’s recommendations. Firefighters are also at risk of heat illness and therefore would also benefit from reducing their core temperature prior to a live fire exposure, but how practical is this in an emergency situation? ‘This is something we have been asked a lot,’ says Watkins. ‘Obviously, our trial was looking at instructors and pre-cooling is logistically more difficult for firefighters from an operational perspective, but we believe the method we have recommended is not incompatible with emergency response.’ Watkins suggests that firefighters could fill a bottle with ice slurry and keep it in a cooling bottle in the fridge. ‘They can then grab this with their kit when they are called to an incident. As they are travelling to the incident, setting up on arrival, and talking to people they can be sipping the drink. They may not be able to drink the whole bottle, but even a small amount is a lot better than doing nothing. It is potentially feasible, we just need to work on getting ice slurry machines into stations and getting firefighters to adopt this behaviour.’

Learning resource It is with the aim of arming instructors and firefighters with the information to inform behaviour changes that can help to protect their health that the Brighton research team has been commissioned by the UK’s Fire Brigades Union to produce a learning resource pack for fire training centres and firefighters in training.

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firefighter health: pre-cooling

PGI Announces the Introduction of FireLine Multi Mission Dual Certified Garments

The leading cause of line-of-duty deaths among firefighters is sudden cardiac arrest, attributed to heat stress, overexertion, and pre-existing medical conditions. The weight of a firefighter's PPE can be a contributing factor in conditions such as heat stress, but even though the vast majority of calls a fire service receives do not involve a fire – they are non-emergency, rescue, good intent or false alarms – the responding firefighters must still be kitted out in full PPE. To help combat this issue, PGI has developed a new range of garments for firefighters. PGI says its Fire Line Multi Mission dual-certified garments are lighter, more flexible, and more ergonomically designed than traditional turnout gear, and have been developed to reduce heat stress and firefighter fatigue. They are designed to maximise protection, comfort, and mobility using proven FR fabrics that combine flash fire, thermal protection, and abrasion resistance in a single-layer garment. Fire Line Multi Mission technical rescue gear features articulated elbows and knees, generous gusseting, radial sleeves, and anatomical patterning for improved freedom of movement. There are also a number of customisable options. UL-classified, Fire Line Multi Mission PPE meets or exceeds both the NFPA 1951 Standard on Utility Technical Rescue for Protective Apparel and the NFPA 1977 Standard on Protective Clothing and Equipment for Wildland Firefighting. The company also claims that its garments are only about a third of the cost of traditional turnout gear. PGI president Jim Sonntag said: ‘We are committed to leading the way in the design and manufacture of high-performance PPE. We pride ourselves on employing the most advanced materials and premium accessories, allowing us to create technical products that can be trusted to perform in the most extreme conditions. Our philosophy is to design and manufacture products that are as good as they can possibly be, performing over time and beyond expectation at the point of extreme need.’

‘Ultimately, the aim is to provide guidance to fire services on the safe maximum number of heat exposures in one month for instructors. The average number of exposures per month is currently 13 but there are no regulations in the UK that govern this, so we want to find out whether this is realistic and what impact it is having. We want to create general guidance that fire services can use to set their own procedures.’ To this end, these studies form part of a larger body of work being carried out by Brighton’s team of researchers into firefighter health, and specifically fire instructors. ‘We are also working on a longer-term monitoring project working with fire instructors and firefighters. This is looking at core temperature changes and contamination risk, and we will examine blood

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samples to try to understand whether the type of exposure changes the risk factors. This study will also look at decontamination procedures and will hopefully start to answer some of the current questions around firefighters’ exposure to chemical contaminants.’ Another project will focus specifically on female firefighters as women respond to heat differently to men. ‘We will also look at female-specific cancer risks. Although with each service there may not be many female firefighters, if you take the worldwide firefighting community there is a significant number of women and they need to be considered.’ The Brighton team has just carried out a female-specific international survey of firefighters to establish areas of concern. ‘From the results, we can see that women in the fire service are concerned about heat exposure, menstrual cycles and menopause, female-specific cancers and fertility impacts.’ In addition to the collaboration with the FBU, Watkins and her colleagues have been working with the Compartment Fire Behaviour Training Instructors User Group, feeding back the studies’ findings, which the user group, in turn, feeds back to the fire services. ‘Everyone is keen to find out what they need to do to stay safe,’ says Watkins. ‘There is a real culture change taking place – I see far fewer dirty kits now than when I first started on this project six years ago. Hopefully, the educational tools we create for training centres will start to see this guidance and advice provided as standard to all new firefighters as they go through their training.’

Heat stress and cancer risk – a conflict? Heart attacks and cancer are the two leading causes of deaths among firefighters. As the drive to minimise the health risks of the job gathers pace, more and more research is being carried out into both areas in an attempt to provide guidance and procedures that can help keep firefighters safe. But what happens if there is a playoff between the two? Pre-cooling is one aspect of preventing heat illness. As the research from the University of Edinburgh highlighted last year, it is also important that firefighters take steps to rehydrate and bring their core temperature down as quickly as possible after coming out of a fire to minimise their risk of cardiovascular events. However, where the reduction of risk from intense heat and exertion requires firefighters to cool down as quickly as possible, by, for example, removing or opening PPE, minimising the risk from potentially carcinogenic contaminants requires firefighters to avoid removing PPE and breathing apparatus until they have completed overhaul. One way of addressing the problem could be through the effective use on-site decontamination when firefighters come out of a fire – the University of Brighton has just had a grant approved to explore decon procedures in the UK – which is already in use at some fire services. On-site decon could allow firefighters to quickly minimise the contaminants risk, allowing them to then find a safe area, preferably in the shade, to remove their PPE, rehydrate with cool water or preferably ice slurry, and take other measures to cool down as quickly as possible. Ultimately, however, the answer is to take a holistic approach to safeguarding firefighter heath. It’s no good developing protocols for each risk in isolation. The quickest way to ensure that advice is ignored is to make it contradictory and confusing. Instead, each fire service should focus on developing best practice that addresses the main risks their personnel face as a result of their operational profile and educate and inform staff about how best to protect themselves.

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UAS response

How effective are drones? Michael Traylor reviews the evidence for the use of unmanned aerial systems to enhance the outcome of emergency response operations.

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The FDNY used UAS during a recent terrorist control exercise. Š SMG/Sundance Media Group

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nmanned aerial systems are proving to be a necessary response tool for public safety organisations. Their use can greatly enhance the capabilities of such organisations by providing airborne support in a cost-effective way, improving response times, organisation, and command and control as well as the safety of those on the ground. UAS can significantly reduce response times for critical incidents such as hazardous materials spills, search and rescue missions, structure and brush fires, and suspect apprehension searches. They fulfill new roles in crime scene documentation, mapping crime scenes, and critical incident scenes in a manner that was unheard of before, as well as bolstering traditional command and control-related intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance for incident commanders. The primary advantage many agencies find with using unmanned aerial systems is that the operating costs are significantly cheaper than their manned counterparts. An unmanned system can operate at a cost of around $25 per hour versus a manned aircraft at $650 an hour (Benefits and Risks of UAS, 2017). A UAS also does not bring with it any significant fees associated with hangar space or routine inspections. The cost of acquisition is also significantly cheaper. The size of an agency and its budget will have a direct impact on its ability to field an aviation programme. Smaller agencies with fewer than 100 employees will not have the revenue to fund a manned capability and must turn instead to an unmanned system. The missions these systems can carry out for public safety are wide-ranging. Current public safety missions include response and assessment of hazardous materials spills and incidents, search and rescue missions, crime scene documentation and mapping, explosive ordinance disposal,

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barricaded suspect surveillance, active shooter response, disaster response and recovery, training support, damage assessments, forensic photography, and crime scene mapping. With the addition of specialised sensors, these aircraft can be excellent airborne intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance platforms for incident commanders. The use of UAS to improve situational awareness on large fires, whether structural or wildland, can assist commanders in achieving the best possible deployment of assets in their response by determining hot spots and flare-up locations on fire scenes. Significant research has been carried out on the use of UAS in emergency situations. Because of their unique capabilities, UAS can enter an area significantly faster than ground personnel. This is particularly the case for incidents such as radiological responses, where ground personnel would have to put on their personal protective equipment prior to responding to conduct the initial assessment of the scene (Duncan, 2014). An experiment was conducted that showed a small UAS could conduct the initial assessment of a radiological event and start providing useful data within 16 minutes. The data was sent to incident command within 50 minutes, ten minutes before the ground team were able to completely don their personal protective equipment (Duncan, 2014). The aircraft was significantly faster in providing the initial assessment of the scene and assisting in locating the source of the radiation than the ground crew. It didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t eliminaute the need for ground crews to enter the hot zone, but thanks to the initial assessment carried out by the UAS, exposure times can be greatly reduced (Duncan, 2014). Unmanned aerial systems are a growing segment of rescue robotics that can operate in three operational environments, which is a critical consideration when selecting the correct UAS. These three deployment environments are wide-area,

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UAS response

local-area, and interior environments (Murphy & Arkin, 2014). Wide-area operational environments may include searching a large wooded area for a missing person or suspect, or for a damage assessment. This UAS deployment can result in an extended flight time and range, easily involving several miles at low altitude (Murphy & Arkin, 2014) and therefore the capability to operate beyond the line of sight is highly desirable. Local-area operational environments represent specific events confined to one location, such as structure fires, hazardous materials spills, barricaded suspects, or a major sporting event for which it is necessary to provide continual steady coverage (Murphy & Arkin, 2014). Finally, the interior environment involves operation of the UAS in the interior of a structure. Launching UAS into confined spaces presents several challenges, for example connectivity and obstacle avoidance, however, in certain circumstances, such as large-scale rescue operations for earthquakes or active shooter events, rapid assessment within a structure is necessary (Murphy & Arkin, 2014). Each agency will have to determine the public safety uses for UAS within its organisation. They can then determine the type of UAS platform to employ. Each system has its strengths and weaknesses, and choosing the right one means comparing its capabilities to the required mission profile. Agencies need to examine all elements of a UAS system to ensure it will function in the manner they require. For example, it must be able to meet requirements for flight time and payload. In addition to the typical quad or hexacopter VTOL designs, agencies may consider a hybrid VTOL system or a fixed-wing option to obtain extended flight times and heavier payload capacity. The air vehicle may also need to be decontaminated, which means a customised aircraft with specific safeguards to protect it during the decon process. Additionally, if the air vehicle element is going to be operating in hazardous environments, the demands of these environments should be carefully considered. For example, vapours or flammable gases may be present in Class 1, Division 1 environments in sufficient quantities to produce explosive or ignitable mixtures (Title 29 CFR 1926.449, 2018). Therefore the air vehicle component of the UAS needs to be intrinsically safe and compliant with NFPA 30: Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, which provides the electrical systems standards for safe operations in this type of environment. Figures show that unmanned aerial systems have been used successfully to save the lives of people and animals in at least 60 incidents, as well as in more than 100 successful public safety missions, since the FAA's Part 107 rule change in the United States in 2016. These missions include structural firefighting, hazardous materials incidents, wildfire firefighting, search and rescue, critical infrastructure inspections, damage assessments, shore patrols for sharks, SWAT operations, technical rescues, fugitive apprehensions, flooding, hurricanes, bomb threat responses, traffic crash investigations, crime scene investigations and establishing temporary communications (Charles, 2018). UAS were critical in the damage assessment and recovery efforts in both Hurricane Harvey and Hurricane Irma. They allowed emergency services to gain current intelligence on damage assessments, searching for persons in distress, and determining safe evacuation routes, saving responders time and manpower (Charles, 2018). In conclusion, unmanned aerial systems can fulfill a critical need in public safety by providing real-time intelligence and capabilities to incident commanders, first responders, and the

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public. These systems have been proven to greatly reduce the time needed to respond to complex emergencies, completing the initial assessments much faster than a ground team could even don their personal protective equipment and enter the scene. They have been instrumental in saving lives, protecting first responders, and providing real-time damage assessments for disaster recovery. These systems are cost-effective and user-friendly and have proven themselves to be a necessity for any public safety organisation for emergency response and aviation support.

UAS have now become an integral part of response operations, as illustrated by their use during this FDNY terrorism response exercise. © SMG/Sundance Media Group

References

Benefits and Risks of UAS. (2017, July 2). Retrieved from NCJRS.gov: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/250283.pdf Charles, W. (2018, July 12). Drones Soar Following Hurricanes. Retrieved from libproxy.db.erau.edu: https://search-proquest-com. ezproxy.libproxy.db.erau. edu/docview/1966004539?pq-origsite=summon – Duncan, B. A. (2014). Autonomous Capabilities for Small Unmanned Aerial Systems Conducting Radiological Response: Findings from a High-fidelity Discovery Experiment. Journal of Field Robotics, 522-536. – Gettinger, D. (2018, July 7). Public Safety Drones:An Update. Retrieved from Bard.edu: https:// dronecenter.bard.edu/files/2018/05/CSD-Public-Safety-Drones-Update-1.pdf – Murphy, R. R., & Arkin, R. C. (2014). Disaster Robotics. Cambridge, MA : MIT Press .(2015). NFPA 30. Quincy, MA : NFPA. – Title 29 CFR 1926.449. (2018, July 7). Retrieved from GPO.gov: https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title29-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title29-vol8-sec1926-449.pdf..

About the Author Michael Traylor is the training coordinator at the Criminal Justice Training Center at Northwest Florida State College located in Niceville, Florida. With 20 years of law enforcement and investigative experience behind him, Traylor has worked with both large and small law enforcement agencies. During his career, he has served as an instructor, criminal investigator, and crime scene investigator as well as a supervisor and incident commander. Michael has a Bachelors of Science degree from Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University in Aeronautics and Unmanned Aerial Systems and is currently a graduate student at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University in the Masters of Science in Aeronautics Programme specialising in Unmanned Aerospace Systems. For more information, please contact him on traylom1@my.erau.edu.

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response strategy

Improving The new SAVE approach from Hampshire FRS in the UK is designed to combat many of the current challenges facing fire and rescue services. Deputy Chief Fire Officer Andy Bowers explains how a review of operational tactics led to the service transforming its response strategy.

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ike all fire and rescue services, Hampshire FRS has been facing many challenging issues over the last decade. Amongst these are falling experience levels, reduced exposure to incident command, increasing difficulty with recruitment and retention of on-call staff, availability of retained fire appliances, and firefighter contamination at fires. Each of these has its own difficulties, and traditionally each has been dealt with separately. At Hampshire, we decided to take stock of our firefighting tactics after the Shirley Towers tragedy in 2010 and embarked on a process of improvements in our operational effectiveness. We were already employing positive pressure ventilation as

part of a tactical ventilation strategy and using thermal imaging cameras extensively – although at the time there was only one camera on each appliance – but we knew that we needed to improve our firefighting options. This review of tactics led to the development of the SAVE approach – Scan, Attack, Ventilate, Enter/Extinguish. According to traditional firefighting tactics, our default strategy for most fires involved the early deployment of a two-person breathing apparatus crew into a building to search for casualties and/or the compartment of origin with either a hose reel or main jet. This is often described as the ‘Two BA, now what have we got?’ syndrome. This approach had been in use for many years, virtually unchanged, and we realised that we needed to add other options to our commander’s decision making. At around the same time as this review, ultrahigh-pressure lances (UHPL) began to emerge in the UK as a firefighting option, although uptake at this point was minimal.

Knowledge base We concluded that we needed to develop a much more integrated approach based on a number of key areas. We identified five pivotal knowledge areas for firefighters: emergency call handling and mobilising; fire behaviour; fire science; building construction (both traditional and modern); and tactical firefighting options. At HFRS we understand that a solid underlying knowledge base is key to firefighter competence at every level. Therefore, we rewrote all our training materials and redesigned all of the

The SAVE approach from Hampshire Fire and Rescue Service involves the use of thermal imaging cameras at every stage of an incident; the service has also adopted ultra-highpressure piercing lances as a standard part of its response protocol.

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response strategy

g firefighting tactics compartment fire behaviour courses. It was clear that conventional CFBT was not adequately preparing our staff for real incidents and this needed urgent change.

Appliances and equipment At the same time as reviewing our knowledge requirements and training, we also reviewed our vehicles and equipment. It was decided that conventional vehicles promote conventional approaches to firefighting and do not encourage innovation, and it was clear that thinking around both vehicles and pre-determined attendances (PDAs) needed to be updated. One key to achieving the right response for an incident lies in redefining the term ‘weight of attack’. Conventionally this has been used to refer to the number of personnel and standard appliances deployed. However, we realised that ‘weight of attack’ was about getting the right capabilities to an incident, with the right people to carry out the most suitable operations as swiftly as possible. Numbers alone were not the main element, and conventional large-sized fire appliances were not the answer to the wide variety of type and severity of incident we were facing. We began to trial smaller, faster vehicles to get the right capability to a scene, as well as enhancing our largest appliances to carry significant quantities of equipment. In particular, the ultra-high-pressure lance is now a key

component of our strategy. The combination of a stronger knowledge base and improved equipment and capabilities allowed our crews to develop different firefighting options and tactics. We supported this innovation process by developing a programme of live burns in buildings scheduled for demolition across the county. In short, we encouraged our crews to get creative, to experiment, and to become ever better at their roles. The improved capabilities, vehicles, and equipment produced a tiered approach to firefighting. HFRS statistics show that around 40% of calls to fires are false alarms of one kind or another, and around 70% of incidents do not require the use of the full pre-determined attendance plan. Therefore, we have developed a three-level response plan.

First response capability This is the first attack option for every incident, with a crew of at least two up to a maximum of four. For a significant incident our preferred approach is to send a first response capability (FRC), if that is the closest resource, with a crew of four where they are available. FRCs carry BA, a ladder, and have ultrahigh-pressure lances for external attack. Where fewer than four personnel are available on an FRC that is the nearest resource, we will send the FRC to gather

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response strategy

SAVE enables significant temperature reduction and greatly improved visibility prior to BA entry, permitting much more rapid progress to the casualty.

information and begin to implement the SAVE approach. While a crew of two cannot do as much as a crew of four, they can still do a meaningful amount in advance of further resources arriving. In many cases, where the incident is small, a crew of two will be sufficient. We will never send just a crew of two without back-up to what we believe is a significant fire.

Intermediate response capability This involves an appliance with a crew of at least two up to a maximum of five. These appliances carry larger pumps, ladders, BA, RTC equipment, and UHPL. The optimum operating method for the intermediate response is a crew of four, but we have the option of mobilising with fewer personnel for relevant incident types or where we do not have four available. The intermediate response can provide the first-strike capability or be part of the reinforcing and supporting subsequent layers of response.

Enhanced response capability Known as rescue pumps, these appliances have a crew of at least four up to a maximum of six. These vehicles are well established in operations. Equipped with compressed air foam, they will be part of our operations for all significant fires and should be part of every significant PDA given their strategic locations around the county. This new response model is scalable and flexible. The three vehicle types are spread around the county to enable access to all options. We donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t duplicate vehicles at full-time stations or multi-appliance retained duty system stations so that every capability is available at our busiest locations. Lower activity areas have every option available from their own vehicle and from the surrounding stations. Importantly, we have co-designed all new capabilities with our firefighters and our firefighters are leading the development and specification process.

The SAVE approach Having implemented all these developments, what we needed was a way to tie them all together. This answer is the HFRS firefighting strategy SAVE, an integrated approach that includes the following tactical options: use of thermal imaging by the incident commander and crews at every stage of the incident; the use of ultra-high-pressure lances as cutting and

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extinguishing media; water delivered by hose-reels or main jets; compressed air foam; the use of an active ventilation and/ or anti-ventilation strategy including positive pressure ventilation; and controlling the environment in a fire compartment. To create a distinctive and easily memorable approach, we came up with the mnemonic SAVE: Scan, including thermal imaging; observe fire behaviour and development, building design and construction etc. Attack the fire with ultra-high-pressure lances, hose-reels/ jets, CAFS, etc. Ventilate/control the ventilation in the room or building and control the environment. Enter and extinguish the fire, carry out search and rescue, salvage, etc. In terms of the issues outlined at the beginning of this article, SAVE enables the use of smaller vehicles with different equipment and wider tactical options for commanders, creates improved retained duty system availability by utilising smaller crews, and enables more rapid intervention, thereby reducing fire damage. It also creates a safe scheme of work with an external attack prior to entry, thus improving conditions for firefighters and occupants. In addition, SAVE allows for significant temperature reduction and greatly improved visibility prior to BA entry, enabling much more rapid progress to any casualty â&#x20AC;&#x201C; in essence, taking the fresh air to the casualty before we take them out to fresh air. An extra benefit is a significant reduction in firefighter contamination. SAVE and the developments that support it are still evolving, but already it is showing some real benefits and highlighting areas where we need to do more work. It also fits perfectly with the current ongoing national work on evidence-based firefighting and the need for a different approach. SAVE is being trialled by other fire services around the country, and we are encouraging this and working with other services that are carrying out different research to ensure we all share and learn lessons from each other. At Hampshire, we believe that we owe it to the public to provide the best possible response at all times. SAVE is a significant development in delivering that and a positive step forward in firefighting tactics and public and firefighter safety.

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multi-agency exercise

Interoperability test

A training exercise with fire, police, coastguard, and ambulance personnel took place in July in southwest England to test communications interoperability. Jose Sanchez reports.

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multi-agency training exercise involving a small-scale coastguard evacuation from a remote and inaccessible location has been described as a watershed moment for emergency communications in the county of Hampshire. The basic scenario consisted of a fall from height at Hurst Spit, where Lymington Coastguard and South Central Ambulance Service would be deployed to treat, package, and evacuate by helicopter any casualties, with assistance from the fire service. The Coastguard helicopter would then carry the casualties to a landing area, from which they could be taken to hospital. A team from the SCAS Clinical Coordination Centre also attended as a remote control room, to exercise the dispatch and logging process for the ambulance service. The specific objectives were to assess the logistical problems of transferring local personnel and equipment from shore to Hurst Castle. This 16th-century artillery fort was constructed on the Hurst Spit in Hampshire to protect against

French invasion via the western entrance of the Solent waterway. The incident location is reachable only by ferry or using 4x4 vehicles driving on the shingle strip that constitutes Hurst Spit. While overcoming accessibility to the incident was envisaged as a significant challenge, the bigger challenge was the successful operational use of the JESIP communications protocol. This protocol is the result of the Joint Emergency Services Interoperability Programme that was set up in 2012 to attempt to address the difficulties surrounding inter-agency communications during large-scale incidents. It provides guidance for multi-agency response as well as a standard approach to multi-agency working. In theory, its five principles and models can be applied to any type of multi-agency incident: co-locate; communicate; coordinate; jointly understand risk; and share situational awareness.

Operation Nelson kicked off with two 4x4s heading down the shingle strip towards Hurst Castle, where the Coastguard and ambulance crew were greeted by the sight of the casualties, one impaled by a piece of metal protruding from a block of concrete, the other mobile but with an arm fracture.

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The senior coastal officer for the Isle of Wight, Colin Tabor, acted as Bronze Commander for Operation Nelson.

That the staff from SCAS and Coastguard were fully immersed in their medical tasks was an important achievement for the exercise.

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In practice, as large-scale incidents involving a number of emergency services are few and far between, the JESIP protocol is seldom used. Exercise Nelson offered a rare opportunity to prepare Hampshire’s agencies for the worst. At 18:30 on 10 July, the three emergency services plus Coastguard personnel gathered at the Marina Café car park at Lymington for the briefing, while the casualties were being prepared and planted in the incident ground. As everyone gathered together, the senior coastal operations officer for the Isle of Wight, Colin Tabor, acting as bronze commander for the incident, explained the unusual aspect of the gathering. ‘It’s usually ourselves and police, ourselves and ambulance, ambulance and police, or ambulance and fire and police at a road traffic collision.’ Nobody could remember all four agencies being involved in a single incident before. The original scenario had been even more ambitious, involving a wildland fire as well as transportation to the incident ground via ferry. The final scenario is simpler but more realistic. The ambulance crew would go on site and treat the casualties before packaging them in preparation for evacuation by helicopter. The only difference to a real incident would be that the helicopter with the casualty would land at a controlled, pre-arranged site, shared with silver command, doing away with the need for police to evacuate a car park to use as a landing site.

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‘The sequence of events is that Coastguard has been called and told what has happened, and Coastguard has passed it on to everyone else, so you’ve all had calls to your control rooms. And that’s how we’ve all got to where we have to be,’ said Tabor. Just because this was an exercise didn’t mean that the unexpected couldn’t happen, as became clear when the briefing revealed that the Coastguard helicopter didn’t have access to the Airwave talk group that had been pre-selected for the exercise. Simon Moase, tactical communications advisor for Hampshire police, already had options in mind, however. In a real scenario, he explained, it would be his responsibility to allocate the appropriate Airwave talk group channel for an incident involving multiple agencies. ‘I’ll suggest they go on ES1, with direct comms with aircraft, or use coastguard control as the link between them on VHF and us on Airwave,’ he said. The exercise kicked off with two 4x4s heading off down the shingle strip towards Hurst Castle, where the Coastguard and ambulance crew were greeted by the sight of the casualties, one with a leg impaled by a piece of metal protruding from a block of concrete, the other mobile but with an arm fracture. A number of significant boxes were ticked during the short time that the emergency staff were at Hurst Castle. The SCAS bronze commander used his Airwave radio to invoke ‘Methane’, the common model for passing incident information between services and their control rooms. Using this method, information can be shared in a consistent way, quickly and easily, no matter who is passing the information. In addition, SCAS silver command requested the attendance of the SCAS Airwave comms tactical adviser at Woodside, the casualty delivery area. A common channel talk group was consequently set up after liaison with the police Airwave tactical advisor. Another tick in the box was achieved by the staff from SCAS and Coastguard being fully immersed in their medical tasks, treating the casualties as they would do in real life: ‘Can you say the word “hippopotamus”?’; ‘Bandage wrapped, ‘h’ test fine, peripheral vision fine, no neurological deficit from injuries’. With the fire department’s presence limited to Chas McGill as tactical comms advisor, the participants at the incident ground exercise had to imagine that the casualty had been removed from the metal spike by a fire team, in the presence of a doctor. With the help of exercise witnesses, SCAS public governor Bernadette Devine and SCAS chair Lena Samuels, the casualty was safely carried off to the landing area and loaded into the helicopter. Back at Woodside, the site of silver command and casualty offloading, Simon Moase explained what had been taking place in the ether. ‘Initially it was not a police incident, but when it became apparent that police could be required, the ambulance silver commander took some advice from the ambulance tactical Airwave advisor. The ambulance tactical advisor then contacted police control room and asked them to contact the on-duty Airwave tac advisor, which is me. I talked to ambulance and we agreed on a talk group. For the purposes of the exercise this was ES3, which I knew wasn’t being used operationally today. Normally we would have used ES1, but to keep it separate from anything else that may be happening in the county we used ES3.’ The end result consisted of an unprecedented number of agencies using the common interoperability talk group: ambulance control room, ambulance silver command, police control room, police comms tactical adviser, police silver command, fire silver command, coastguard control room and coastguard ground, the helicopter, and the exercise control.

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multi-agency exercise

‘They were all on ES3 conducting tactical operations and establishing communications between each other as far as needed for exercise purposes,’ said Moase. The exercise was declared a groundbreaking success, and it is expected to feed into future improvements of the communications structure. ‘From our perspectives, this is the most agencies we’ve ever had talking with each other,’ said Moase. ‘OK, in reality, it would have been bronze to bronze comms only, and you might not want so many people, but we’ve proved that it can work with this many people.' During the hot debrief everyone had the opportunity to air their views about the exercise. Coastguard representative, Michael Forsyth-Caffrey, highlighted that there had been some confusion regarding the use of the VHF channels to communicate with fire. ‘We were using two channels on VHF, which became complicated because I couldn’t get across to you that we had changed channels with the helicopter. And I didn’t want to talk too much on zero because the helicopter didn’t want us talking, so it was quite difficult. That’s why I used Airwave, which was very handy.’ The SCAS communications tactical advisor pointed out he’d been unsure who from Coastguard was in charge at the incident ground, but this was clarified as being the result of role sharing due to short numbers – the responsible person had been for a period of time preparing the landing site for the helicopter. Simon Moase remarked that he would like to have started the whole exercise earlier in the process. ‘So force the exercise back to that initial 999 call to one agency, and see how that information is passed from agency to agency, agreeing on an RV point, meeting there and going from there. Sometimes that’s where you get the miscommunication.’ Tim Pettis, senior emergency preparedness, resilience and response officer for Southampton and Portsmouth joint emergency planning team, who attended as a JESIP audit reviewer, closed the session by pointing out that for over a decade he had been pushing for such an exercise with multi-agency partners. ‘We can now go back and say we’ve cracked a nut. I think this is a watershed moment for more complex things to be developed, given the complexities of remodelled organisations and changes to the infrastructure across all the agencies.’

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incident review

Up in smoke A fire and explosion in a clandestine fireworks storage site in Paramos, Spain, killed two and injured 35 people in May 2018. George Potter reports.

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Above: Firefighters respond to an explosion in a fireworks storage facility in Paramos, which destroyed several buildings. © Shutterstock, Miguel Vidal

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few minutes before 17:00 on Wednesday 23 May 2018, a violent explosion ripped through a clandestine fireworks storage site in the village of Paramos, a suburb of Tui in the Galicia region of Spain. Two people were killed and the explosion injured 35 others and caused damage to dozens of surrounding buildings, mostly family homes. The plant was located in a large shed adjacent to a home and had been operating for several years, despite being ordered to close a number of years ago by the former mayor. According to reliable sources, the site owner, who also owns a major fireworks factory not far away, had received judicial orders to close the facility and had even been fined. Neither the storage site nor the factory had adequate fire protection measures in place. Tui is a small municipality with some 16,000 inhabitants located on the Miño river, the natural border that separates Spain and Portugal. It is 33km south of Vigo, the major city of the Pontevedra province. Tui itself does not have a fire brigade and must depend on surrounding municipalities for emergency response. The explosion completely demolished the plant and several buildings in a radius of approximately 800 metres. It also damaged structures several kilometres away, causing damage

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mainly to windows. Shockwaves were reported as far away as Vigo, and the smoke cloud was clearly visible for around 10km. More than 30 people lost their homes. The emergency response services in the Galicia region are unique. The region is composed of four provinces – Coruña, Lugo, Pontevedra, and Ourense – each of which has its own provincial capital, while yet another city, Santiago de Compostela, is the regional capital. There are seven municipalities that have full-time public service fire brigades while the remainder of the region is protected by 23 stations managed by three private companies and staffed by some 460 firefighters. These firefighters are recognised as being under-equipped, under-trained, and over-worked. The distribution of personnel is three per station with six 24-hour shifts. The closest fire station to Tui is approximately 5km away, in Valencia de Minho in Portugal. The nearest station on the Spanish side is Porriño, around 15km north of Tui. Both responded to the explosion along with vehicles and personnel from Baixo Miño, Morrazo, and Ribadumia, which are 10km, 40km, and 60km distant respectively. Each of these sent one pump or a tanker with two or three men on board, and while the Portuguese were the first on the scene, Spanish firefighters took from 20 minutes to more than one

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incident review

hour to arrive. The Vigo municipal brigade was not summoned until late into the incident and dispatched two pumps with eight firefighters and an officer. According to reliable sources, the private brigades cannot request professional assistance to incidents until the situation surpasses their capacities to manage. This was the case in the railway incident in 2013 as well as several wildland fires. During the wildland fires in 2017, assistance from the Spanish Military Emergency Units, Portuguese fire services, and several other Spanish fire services was needed to assist the over-extended local services. After more than 17 years, this concept is undergoing extensive viability studies, although because of the particular political situation in the region it appears doubtful that any major improvements will be made. The Paramos fireworks explosion caused extensive structural damage. Fire affected several of the surrounding structures, although the majority of the structural damage was caused by the explosion itself. A few hours after the explosion, the owner of the facility was arrested and charged with homicide, personal injury, and property damage. Reports state that he may have had as much as 1,500kg of explosive materials stored at the site. Spanish police explosives teams spent several hours combing through the debris in search of residues. Several days after the explosion, more than 1,500kg of highlycombustible pyrotechnic material belonging to the owner were found in other sites close to yet more homes in the immediate area. This incident was not unlike the explosion in a pyrotechnic plant near Zaragoza in northeast Spain in 2015. That explosion claimed six lives but the damage to surrounding

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madrid office collapse In June 2018, an eight-storey office and residential building in Madrid that was undergoing a complete renovation collapsed, causing several injuries and two deaths. Dozens of firefighters from the Madrid municipal fire brigade, including urban rescue specialists, worked around the clock for more than three days removing debris in search of the two victims. The incident is still under investigation, but the cause of the collapse has been attributed to an accumulation of building materials on the roof and the weakening of the building's structure following the removal of, or variations to, structural elements that formed part of the renovation project to create new luxury flats.

structures was much reduced. The Zaragoza site was located several kilometres from residential areas, it was a purpose-built site with underground and specific bunker-like storage facilities, and was equipped with various fire protection measures. The Zaragoza municipal fire brigade was able to respond with several vehicles and adequate personnel even though there were several explosions causing several fires. Spain has a global reputation for fireworks production and several Spanish companies are recognised worldwide for excellence. However, while these firms manufacture and assemble their materials under very strict controls, there are many more â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;extra-legalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; producers who do not comply with the obligatory national safety codes for fireworks. It remains to be seen whether the Tui disaster will result in closer scrutiny of this sector.

A firefighter sprays water inside a destroyed house after the explosion. Š Shutterstock Miguel Vidal

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foam systems

Proportional response Water-driven positive pressure foam proportioning systems are growing in popularity. David Owen from Hawkes Fire explains the practical, environmental, and financial benefits of a proportional response to foam attack.

I

Foam proportioners from Firedos are made up of two main elements: the water-powered motor and the mixer pump. No other power source is required other than the water supply.

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t is often said that the fire suppression industry operates on an ‘evolution not revolution’ approach. Game-changing new developments rarely come out of nowhere to shake up the industry. Instead, technology is refined and redesigned to keep pace with modern materials and techniques and changes in operational practices. David Owen from Hawkes Fire believes that the increased use of wind-turbine proportioning for fixed extinguishing systems and mobile fire service units is an example of this evolution. Hawkes Fire is a distributor of Firedos, one of the manufacturers of such systems. Owen explains the Firedos targets those areas of fire suppression it believes can be improved on, and focuses on two main product areas: foam proportioning and water/foam monitors. Foam proportioners from Firedos are made up of two main elements: the water-powered motor and the mixer pump. No other power source is required other than the water supply. There is a proportional relationship between volumetric flow rate and the rev speed of the motor. Changes in the volumetric flow rate have a direct effect on the speed of rotation of the motor drive shaft, and the water-powered motor drives the mixing pump. ‘One of the key benefits of these systems is the flexibility to deal with different flow rates,’ Owen explains. ‘Units can accommodate flow rates from as low as 100lpm up to 22,000lpm and each unit has a turndown ratio of 10:1, providing a range of options in each size. The systems also offer flexibility on the fireground because they can be mounted at various

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points in the supply chain.’ Owen explains that the units can usually be mounted far enough away from the fire that it won’t pose an unacceptable risk to firefighters. 'The run-out of hose or fixed pipework is only limited by the pressure and flow available to mount the foam attack. In addition, because the piston pump is a positivedisplacement pump, it has none of the problems associated with inductors. Nor does it require specialised discharge devices other than those in common use by both municipal and industrial fire and rescue services.' Owen also argues that the flexibility in flow rates means that not all hazards need to be dealt with using large volume firefighting techniques. ‘These techniques certainly have their place, but it is also important to remember that numerous hazards can be dealt with using mid-range flow rates. This kind of situation can be accommodated by using Firedos units of typically around 6,000lpm in conjunction with monitors or fixed pourers.’ Foam proportioning can also be beneficial for environmental reasons as these systems can provide more accurate and less wasteful foam proportioning alongside testing that doesn’t discharge to ground. ‘Accurate mixing can minimise both wasteful rich mixtures and make the best use of modern 1% concentrates,’ Owen explains. ‘With a directly proportional system, stepless variable adjustment is possible so that injection can range from 0.1% to 1%, 0.3% to 3% and 0.6% to 6% and is not subject to the back pressures that affect inductors.’

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foam systems

AUTOMATIC EXTINGUISHMENT FOR STORAGE TANK FIRES Fires at industrial facilities for flammable liquids are among the most dangerous conflagrations that firefighters can attend. Potential hazards include explosions, toxic fumes, and liquid jet fires, and it can take hours if not days to bring a blaze under control. Many such sites rely on the services of local fire brigades, but there are built-in systems that can deliver foam to a fire automatically within minutes of a fire breaking out. Swiss Fire Protection R&D is one manufacturer of such systems, and the company claims that its Pressurised Instant (Pi) Foam System can put out any storage-tank blaze in three minutes or less. The system is constructed around a pressurised vessel in which foam is stored well in advance of any fire event. When a storage tank ignites, sensors send a signal that opens the vessel’s valves, unleashing large quantities of foam that inundate the tank surface. It smothers the flames within three minutes without needing to put a single firefighter’s life at risk.

The system is suitable for any facility that relies on foam to extinguish fires and doesn’t require any external energy source. A system of pipes guides the foam around the facility and applies it inside the tanks through apertures in the pipework. It doesn’t use pumps, foam chambers, foam generators, or proportioning systems. The vessel is pressurised by the introduction of a gas mixture that dissolves inside the premix foam solution. This gas mixture will vary according to the features of the stored product and local environmental factors such as temperature, which will affect the pressure requirements. And, as the volume of foam in the system is pre-calculated, there is no possibility of the foam overflowing the tank or of foam being lost during application. Swiss Fire Protection R&D has tested the performance of a number of commercial, off-the-shelf foams with Pressurised Instant Foam System and has also developed a fluorine-free alternative. This is currently undergoing various approvals.

The relatively high viscosity of many 1% foams isn’t a problem for a water-driven positive-displacement piston pump. ‘Wetted parts are either ceramic or highly resistant plastics so aggressive foam concentrates don’t affect the mechanism. If the unit will be used with seawater or in harsh environments, alternative materials such as titanium are available.’ When compared with traditional bladder tanks, a foam proportioner also significantly reduces wastage in testing. Where bladder tanks require a certain amount of foam solution to be run through the discharge device in order to test the foam proportioning rate via a refractometer, a Firedos proportioner, for example, returns foam concentrate to the atmospheric

storage tank and flow meters are used to check water throughput. Firedos also makes proportioning units for fire appliances or trailers, which are so compact they can fit in a locker. Owen says that these are particularly useful for when foam or a wetting agent is used on Class A fires to reduce the surface tension of the water. ‘The aim is to improve adhesion, penetration and retention time of the agent on the burning material, transferring more energy and improving the cooling effect of the firefighting media. The ability to accurately proportion these products saves money, especially as they are used in very low concentrations, from 1% down to 0.1%.’

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industrial firefighting

Fire in the furnace A process furnace provides the heat that brings many a modern convenience to life, but they are also the source of many potential industrial hazards. Ryan Henry tells F&R how a better understanding of the risks can improve the effectiveness of the emergency response to incidents involving furnaces.

A To fight furnace fires effectively, crews must use pressure to their advantage for master stream cooling and keep apparatus at a distance of 1.5 times the height of the stack.

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process furnace incident is a high-risk/low-frequency event that requires a unified response from the emergency services and plant operations personnel. But tackling it effectively requires that everyone understands what is going on inside the furnace and how the fire is likely to progress. Furnaces are generally used to raise the temperature of a product for processing. It is not uncommon for temperatures inside these furnaces to exceed 500°C, and the heat is usually provided by burners fuelled by natural gas or other fuel sources. The product flows into the furnace through tubes, absorbing the heat and flowing on down the line. The moving liquid wicks the heat away from the tube itself, reducing the stress on the metal. The walls of the furnace are commonly lined with a refractory brick or another type of insulation to

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hold the heat in and maintain the efficiency of the process. Any excess heat is routed through the top stack and into the atmosphere. This type of industrial equipment presents many potential hazards, from the natural gas fuelling the red-hot burners to the oil and other petroleum products flowing through the tubes. The fluids in the pipes can range from common crude oil to crude distillates or other harsh chemicals. The rupture of a furnace tube can happen for many different reasons, but the outcome always has the potential to be very serious and requires the assistance of the fire service. While the fire is already somewhat contained inside the furnace, its fuel load has significantly increased. However, over time the furnace skin can begin to crack or melt, allowing the fire to escape and creating the potential for exposure impingement. Once a tube rupture has been detected, the typical progression of events starts with the plantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s operational response crews attempting to bring down fuel loads and reduce the heat of the fire as quickly as possible. If flames have already breached the outer skin of the furnace, defensive water streams can be placed as water curtains between the furnace and other critical equipment while operational crews cut fuel to the burners, eliminating the initial and main ignition source. While this is going on, industrial fire crews will begin to arrive on site, begin their initial assessment, and work out how they can assist plant crews with the shutdown process of the ruptured tube. Apparatus placement is just as vital in this situation as in high-rise operations in downtown municipal departments. Furnace stacks can rise well above three storeys, making them a potential collapse hazard. To fight the fire effectively,

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industrial firefighting

fire crews must use pressure to their advantage for master stream cooling and keep apparatus at a distance of 1.5 times the height of the stack. As plant crews manipulate valves to control the fuel sources, the main focus of fire departments should be on exposure protection. The processing unit will have miles of utility pipes and protecting these lines and vessels from excess heat will significantly decrease the chance of a secondary explosion or fire. In combination with assisting operational responders, this will improve the chance of a positive outcome. Tackling a furnace fire is a mainly exterior firefighting operation that relies heavily on water placement to suppress radiating heat from the furnace, but it is important not to cool down other exposures in the area too quickly. Cooling water on a processing unit running at temperatures exceeding 500°C can cause movement and shrinking of flanges and

other fittings, resulting in product loss and leaks. This is why it is critical that operational personnel and industrial fire crews remain in constant communication. The plant's operational crews can aid in identifying the critical exposures that require direct or rapid cooling and those that require a less direct cooling method that will act as a shield against radiant heat. Preparing for an event like this requires the same kind of preparation as a structural fire. Just as for a structural fire, where an understanding of building construction is essential to help predict how a fire is likely to behave, when responding to industrial incidents it is important to understand the different types of equipment and the hazards that are likely to be encountered. This then forms the basis of what I call the 'roadmap for industrial building construction’ and will help both municipal and industrial fire crews to work together effectively and achieve a positive outcome.

About the Author Ryan Henry serves as the training officer for two volunteer fire departments in Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana. He also works in operations at a major gulf coast oil refinery and serves as an ERT firefighter as well as their hazardous material response team training coordinator. Henry holds an AAS degree in process plant technology and serves as an LSU/FETI lead evaluator for Louisiana.

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fire engineering

A holistic approach Could a holistic approach to fire engineering improve the effectiveness of fire strategies and simplify the approvals process for fire and rescue services and enforcement agencies? Paul Bryant reports on a new concept that aims to do just that. Enforcement agencies will be able to register free of charge on the scheme's website where they will be able to view all projects in their jurisdiction using HFE.

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ire and rescue services and civil defence authorities around the world are often tasked with rubber stamping the fire safety design of new building projects. In an age where budget cuts are the norm and building design is increasingly elaborate, it is becoming more difficult for authorities to spend the time and resources to properly check complex fire strategies. A new process aims to combine the latest thinking in fire strategies with online connectivity in order to improve the consistency and coverage of a typical fire strategy and make that strategy easier to assess and approve. Currently in development, the objective is to create a quick and effective method of reviewing a fire strategy against an ‘ideal’ baseline strategy for any given building risk profile. A building fire can be the outcome of an increasing array of threats, but many fire strategies don’t include a proper analysis of threats at the early stages. Phrases such as ‘extreme events are not considered…’ are still included in many current fire strategies. However, many fires could be avoided if potential threats are properly considered when the building’s fire strategy is formulated.

Objectives setting Compliance with national regulations and standards is still seen as the key objective for most fire safety solutions. Most derive from the US NFPA or UK BSI codes, but all include their own ideas and issues, resulting in subtle variations. Furthermore, national fire codes have traditionally concentrated on life safety. They rarely adequately address issues such as property and asset protection, business continuity, and the protection of the environment. In a world where these issues are becoming much more important, limited objectives setting is a wasted opportunity.

Holistic fire engineering The holistic fire engineering concept was developed by Paul Bryant and Dr Dorota Brzezińska. HFE does not aim to change fire science or the application of fire engineering principles but instead aims to provide a highly auditable framework, a consistent approach and format regardless of building location, and to widen the scope of fire strategies to include threat

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assessment and objective setting. HFE will follow certain guiding principles. Firstly, it will ensure that a fire-engineered solution properly accounts for the real and perceived threats affecting the building, its occupancy, and processes. Extreme events may or may not be included based on a risk evaluation. Secondly, it will consider all objectives, not just those applicable to national regulations, although comparison with national regulations will still be necessary. Finally, it will use all existing recognised means to develop holistic fire strategies. The analysis and design process will be controlled by a measurement system to allow full auditability and comparison at any stage of the process. The process and metrics must also be transferable on a global level.

How will it work? All the complexity is contained in the HFE metric template, which will guide fire engineering teams through a series of questions prepared by fire strategy experts. Once completed, the results can be reviewed and the strategy submitted for approval. Enforcement agencies will be able to register free of charge on the scheme's website igni.online, where they will be able to view all projects in their jurisdiction using HFE, grouped into three categories: ongoing, passed for approval, and signed off. Fire engineering project teams will be able to check that the building process falls within the jurisdiction of an HFE-registered enforcement agency. They can then register online and pay a small fee to access the metric template for that project. The application will allow for uploading drawings, calculations, and fire models, etc. The metric template is divided into six boxes that present fire engineers with a series of questions covering different aspects of the fire strategy. Box one covers general information including building use, occupancy, and details such as height, number of floors, area, and construction materials, etc. Box two covers the main body of the strategy, including questions to determine the design criteria for the building using performance and/or prescriptive requirements. Relevant national fire codes can be referred to as well as how the design may deviate from these requirements. This will consider structural and internal passive fire protection, means of escape, fire detection and warning systems, fire suppression systems and smoke control systems, and fire safety management. Box three will consider all objectives including life safety, property protection, business continuity, and protection of the environment. Box four determines if there are threats that could lead to an uncontrolled fire and whether the design criteria adequately allows for these. Box five determines the fire (strategy) risk index. This can be compared to a typical risk index for the building type. If the risk index is higher than the baseline, the design criteria will need to be revisited.

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fire engineering

Box six is a mock-up exercise using the information determined in the previous boxes to ensure the requirements provide for both consistency and an effective fire strategy. Once complete, the strategy is submitted to the relevant enforcement agency and there is an option for a peer-review service for added confidence. Enforcement agencies can review the information online or print it off in an appropriate format. For example, in the UK this would be the Building Regulations â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Approved Document B format. If the peer-review option had been used, any areas of concern will be highlighted. The agency can then approve the strategy online, request modifications, or reject it.

The metric template is divided into six boxes that present fire engineers with a series of questions covering different aspects of the fire strategy.

Who could benefit from HFE? The system is designed to benefit all stakeholders. It gives project teams a consistent framework and ensures that the strategy is submitted in an acceptable format. The metric template also quickly identifies areas of concern, saving enforcement agencies time and resources in assessing strategies from first principles. Building owners and operators can be confident that projects are following a trusted and universal approach to fire strategy preparation. And the audit trail should satisfy any legislators and local/national government that best practices have been followed.

Current status of the project The methodology is in development in Poland, supported by the university, the Polish fire industry, a leading Polish insurance company, and local fire authorities. The development team has completed box five, a semi-quantitative measurement system

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for the fire strategy risk profile index. The findings were presented at the SFPE conference in April 2018. Trials are planned in Poland for Autumn 2018 and Spring 2019. It is already envisaged that the site will learn from major fires, further improving the metric template. It is also conceivable that continuous improvement of the algorithms behind the metric template could link directly to Building Information Modelling (BIM) systems so that the building design development automatically incorporates the fire safety requirements for the country and building type in question.

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CBRNE

TERRIFFIC T

The project’s research and innovation efforts will enhance the European response to radioactive and nuclear explosive events (RNe) through the development of a set of modular technology components in a comprehensive system.

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he Terriffic project involves ten European organisations that will work together to shorten response time, lessen the health and safety risks for response teams, and develop automated processes and extended mobile detection capabilities to reduce the degree of human intervention required in CBRNe response operations. Funded by the European Commission’s Horizon 2020 programme, the project is designed to counter the growing risks from dirty bombs, speculative radiological weapons that combine radioactive material with conventional explosives and which are increasingly being used by terrorist groups against soft targets. Terriffic is about developing tools for early and effective reconnaissance in CBRNe incidents and providing first responders with faster information and enabling better management of the control zone. The project’s research and innovation efforts will enhance the European response to radioactive and nuclear explosive events (RNe) through the development of a set of modular technology components in a comprehensive system. These include new detectors, algorithms, drones, robots, dispersions models, information management software, and decision support systems. Although not its primary focus, the project will also provide detailed information on the applicability of developments within a chemical and biological context. Performance goals include a significant decrease in the time it takes to start terrain interventions, facilitated by more accurate and close-to-real-time estimates of control and exclusion zones. Advanced mixed-reality technology will be used to provide first responders with continuously updated information during operations. Key performance indicators

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A European project to improve the effectiveness of first responders in the initial stages of a CBRNe incident has just launched, reports Rob Munro. will measure progress towards these goals. The project’s R&D partners will provide the latest technology innovations, and key components will be developed by SMEs already involved in military or first responder markets. First response practitioner involvement is key, and their operational expertise will be essential throughout the development process, including the assessment of components and the technology trials, to ensure that the project focuses on the right areas.

Project partners Arktis Radiation Detectors is the project coordinator and technology partner. The company will provide low-cost, modular silicon photomultiplier-based gamma and neutron detectors and will be involved in the integration of detection technologies into systems alongside developing an interface that will allow information from its detection system to be transmitted using CBRNe communications standards. Nexter Robotics will adapt its unmanned ground vehicles so they can operate RN detectors mounted on a manipulator arm and provide autonomous exploration capabilities to enable autonomous search for contamination threats inside pre-defined areas. Drones for mobile detectors will be provided by Aeraccess, and the company will focus on a customised interface with the newly designed payloads and connection to the Terriffic system, to enable precise, real-time information for first responders. Bruhn Newtech will provide CBRNe products and product enhancements to the project, while management services firm Arttic will support the project management, communication, dissemination, and exploitation of the

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cbrne Funded by the European Commission’s Horizon 2020 programme, the project is designed to counter the growing risks from dirty bombs, speculative radiological weapons that combine radioactive material with conventional explosives and which are increasingly being used by terrorist groups against soft targets.

project’s activities. Expertise in operational needs assessment, testing, evaluation, and training will be provided by the International Security and Emergency Management Institute. RNe experts TL & Associates will specify and consolidate the technical specifications to develop the necessary evaluation and training tools using virtual reality technologies. The company will also contribute to dissemination activities, presenting the evaluation results to the RNe community. Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology will contribute to the mixed-reality software development, requirements capture, and user evaluation and testing, while the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission will develop an ultra-compact gamma camera

THE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON COMPRESSED AIR FOAM

for radioactive source localisation, and a beta contamination measurement system able to work in a high gamma background. École Centrale de Lyon will develop the algorithms and software used to predict the location of the source and then the location of the pollutant’s plume and the 3D characterisation of the contaminated area. The Terrific project will also leverage results from previous successful FP7 projects, closely cooperating with Encircle on the CBRN cluster and market aspects, and with Enotice on training and technology testing and assessment. Special attention will be given to standardisation to optimise the integration with future and already applied solutions.

19 & 20 september 2018 Novotel Amsterdam Schiphol Airport The two-day symposium with speakers like: Gary Baum Deputy Chief, New Milford Fire Protection District (US) Dr. George Cajaty Barbosa Braga Colonel, Federal District Fire Department Brasília (BR) Leon (Alfy) Smith Australian Fire and Emergency Services (AU) Dr.-Ing. Stefanie Schubert Otto-von-Güricke University Magdeburg and many others.

more info & registration: icafs.com

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English spoken

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Tools for every occasion Ian Dunbar considers the pros and cons of hosed vs battery-powered tools and how to choose the right tools for the job every time.

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Battery-operated tools and hose tools each have their own advantages and limitations.

here really has never been a better moment to be a technical rescue operator when you consider the huge choice of hydraulic equipment available on today’s market. There was a time when technical rescue was limited to vehicles, but as more and more first responders are trained in a wider array of skills and have far greater expectations placed on them, there is now a tool and a system for every application. The tool application is not the only thing that has to be considered. The environment for the technical rescue operation is another critical factor. Hydraulic rescue tools are used in practically every environment on earth, from the snow-capped mountains of Switzerland to underwater in Hong Kong, in 50°C heat in the Australian outback, and in the rain in the UK. With all this in mind, is it possible to choose a tool and operating system that meets every operational need? In recent years, the first decision for most rescuers has centred on whether to ‘go cordless’ or stick with hose-based

systems. Both systems will do what is required of them, but each have their own operational advantages and limitations. All of these must be considered when evaluating rescue equipment prior to purchase.

Battery tools: pros and cons Rescuers and rescue organisations are, by their nature, very forward thinking. Therefore, it would be natural to assume that they would opt for the new kid on the block: cordless rescue tools. These offer immediate deployment, ultimate freedom (no hose attached), a safer working environment (no trip hazard) and clean air (no fumes from a pump). They use the latest generation of lithium-ion battery technology, which provides excellent operational capacity. And, when not in use, they are silent, thus promoting a more patient-centred rescue. On the other hand, when cordless tools are in operation they do generate noise, and this will be near your patient. They also tend to have larger dimensions which may, in some cases, prove restrictive, and their self-contained design means they are heavier and therefore place a greater burden on the operator. Like hose tools, battery-powered rescue tools can be used in the heat, cold, and rain. However, they cannot be used underwater. Although this type of incident is not an everyday occurrence, only having battery-powered rescue tools at your disposal would, in such event, seriously limit your effectiveness on scene.

Hose tools: pros and cons Hosed tool systems have been around for nearly 50 years. As such, although they are a proven technology and have been the mainstay of rescue operation for generations, it is only natural to see them as outdated compared with the new generation of cordless rescue tools. But, in fact, they do still have their place and can offer advantages over the latest battery technology. In the first instance, they offer increased tool speed. As

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Ian Dunbar advises rescuers not to limit themselves to either battery or hosed tools to ensure they can meet every need, 100% of the time.

these tools deliver a higher volume of oil, they operate faster. Hose tools are also smaller, lighter, and more ergonomic and therefore easier to use, especially above or below waist height, which is often required during rescue operations. Unlike battery tools, they can be used underwater as long as the hydraulic motor pump is not submerged. On the downside, hosed-tool systems take up more storage space, have a longer set-up time and are limited by their hose length (less freedom of movement). There’s also the risk that rescuers could trip over the hoses. In addition, if the tools are connected to a petrol pump, this will emit fumes, which makes the system less suitable for indoor and underground use. The use of battery-powered pumps can eliminate this problem.

Other considerations Use in confined spaces can present a challenge to both hose and battery tools. Battery tools have larger dimensions, but a hose at the back of a tool will affect its total insertion length. Both systems also require a degree of management. In the case of cordless tools, this is battery management. For hosed systems, this means more items to check after each use (tool, hose, and pump). While annual maintenance costs will be lower for a set of battery tools compared to a set of hose tools, there may be additional costs for battery replacement during the lifetime of a battery tool set. This depends on tool operating and battery management conditions.

Conclusion Twenty-five years ago, rescuers had a limited choice of tools. Things are completely different now. Manufacturers have

provided such a wide variety of tools that rescuers are genuinely spoiled for choice, not only in the choice of individual tools but also in how they operate. For decades rescue services have made tool selections based on design, use, advantages, and limitations and that very much holds true today. When it comes to choosing between cordless or hosed, it is important to look not just at what the tools can do, but also at what they can’t. Understanding the limitations of each piece of equipment will enable you to make the most informed choice and ensure you choose tools that can meet every need. So, in answer to the questions of whether to go cordless or hosed, my advice is not to limit yourself to one system. Have a selection of both to ensure that you meet every need 100% of the time. Because, let’s face it, when it comes to rescue operations, no one wants limitations.

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Mr. M. ALI

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Inspired to rescue In this issue of F&R, Dave Dalrymple recalls the key people and events that influenced his career and inspired him to develop a consultancy dedicated to delivering the very best in vehicle rescue education across the world.

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Dave Dalrymple, owner of Roadwayrescue, and contributor to Fire & Rescue.

here’s a rather different focus to my column this month. Rather than addressing issues of technology or technique, I want to tell you how I got to where I am today. And maybe my story will help to inspire others to take up the rewarding career that is vehicle rescue. My father was a police officer, and both he and my mother volunteered at my local rescue squad in Clinton, New Jersey, which is how I became involved with the emergency services – I didn’t actually join until I finished school. My focus was cars, so the rescue side of the squad really hooked me. One of my best and life-long friends Frank Setnicky was of the same mindset, and early on we spearheaded a committee that developed and eventually purchased for the squad and the area its first HD rescue truck. Our response area was notorious for its motor vehicle crashes, and still is today, and this is one of the things that motivated us to find newer, better tools and training methods for vehicle extrication. Extrication challenges have had a huge role in shaping my career. The first extrication challenge I experienced was the International Extrication Competition and Learning

Symposium in 1989 in Rockville, Maryland. A group of us from the Clinton squad attended and it was a truly mind-blowing weekend. It was facilitated by the Transportation Emergency Rescue Committee, then part of the IAFC, and we met everyone who was anyone in the world of vehicle extrication. We attended the following year as well, at Orlando in Florida, for another weekend of vehicle destruction and life-saving instruction. We even got to watch the space shuttle take off. Inspired by the event – and coming from an area that experienced a lot of crashes – we decided to take part. Back then, teams were chosen on the basis of their resumes, and in 1991 we were selected to compete in the competition, which was held that year in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. We didn’t do very well, but that that didn’t hold us back. In fact, as the challenges grew into regionals, nationals, and now world events, we kept at it. Teams from my squad have won many awards at many levels, including international champions in 1998, when I was the team captain. The best bit of taking part in these events is being able to share what we learn as a result, and this has made a difference in the lives of

Roadwayrescue has a 900kg (one-tonne) 3-metre (10ft) rescue body Ford crew cab rescue truck that houses everything the organisation needs to run its educational programmes.

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people in our community and our patients. Participating in these challenges also inspired me to join the TERC committee, which was the organiser of the rescue challenges.

Research and development TERC was originally formed by the International Association of Fire Chiefs and its mission was to research and develop educational materials for the fire service on vehicle extrication. But joining the committee was easier said than done. To qualify you had to be an officer of the fire service and a member of the IAFC. Then you had to be nominated by a regional chief and by someone on the national board. Then it was down to the decision of the committee chair. I owe my place on the TERC committee to Chief Bill Neismith from Hillsborough County, Florida (Ret), who took a chance on me in 1994 and let me join. The people who make up TERC, both now it is independent and back in its IAFC days, are some of the very best examples of fire service leaders and educators. These are people who genuinely enjoy educating fellow responders in all the various aspects in vehicle rescue. Membership of TERC opened the door for me to make contact with fellow rescue instructors around the world and as an internationallevel assessor, Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve attended challenges in the UK and South Africa as well as presenting educational programmes. Another large part of my background as a rescue professional was with ICET (the International Centre for Emergency Techniques), which is based in The Netherlands. I was introduced to ICET by a TERC contact. The organisation

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had an interesting programme called International Saver Instructor, which I decided to take. The really interesting thing about ICET is the truly international nature of their programmes and students, and not only did I make two lifelong friends during this course, with whom I have been able to exchange experiences and educational information, but I also became an instructor for ICET for their masterclass programmes. Closer to home, I started out actually teaching extrication for our local EMT programme. At that time, EMT students had a three-hour lecture and an eight-hour practical session. This eventually rolled into our local county emergency services training centre. They had never had an extrication programme before and the county fire marshal who oversaw it thought it would be a good idea. I put together some ideas, asked some of my co-workers to pitch in, and together we developed a decent class. As things progressed, we started to build a better and better programme. Word started to get around and we began to pull in students from near and far. Other departments began to ask if we would come out to do training for them, and the popularity of this course eventually led me into the next stage of my career.

Consultancy In 1999 I decided to set up an educational consulting team that would deliver the very best vehicle rescue educational programmes to departments. Linked to this was the idea that we would have the latest and best gadgets and equipment for rescuers to try without a sales pitch. We would also have patient care-focused, vehicle technology-oriented

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programmes for every skill level. And so Roadwayrescue was born. Today, we have a 900kg (one-tonne) 3-metre (10ft) rescue body Ford crew cab rescue truck that houses everything we need to run our educational programmes. This can also perform as a fire rescue truck for motorsports events. It hasn’t always been easy, but I would not give up the company for anything. Roadwayrescue has delivered programmes in vehicle and motorsports rescue all over North America. One of my proudest experiences with Roadwayrescue has been teaching HOT practical programmes at FDIC. One of the most recent aspects of my professional life is working in motorsports and my involvement with the International Council of Motorsports Sciences. I have been a member of the council for over a decade now and once again it was TERC and its extrication challenges that got me involved in motorsports rescue in the first place. I have always loved fast cars and my first car, back in 1982, was a 1967 Camaro, but what really hooked me was a Tamiya radio-controlled version of a 1983 Audi Quattro rally car. However, it took me until the 1990s to find a way into working at a rally. I joined the SCCA, the Sports Car Club of America, got my fire/rescue and medical license and started to work at the closest Pro Rally to me as well as road racing events in my

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region. These experiences gave me new ideas and ways to push the envelope on street extrications and vice versa. As for rally, well, I developed an educational programme that has grown into a tiered Rally Safety Educational Pathway. Of all my achievements as a rescue professional, however, the one that really stands out is highlighted in an email I received in 2008 from a former student of one of my international courses. I still have it framed in my office at home. The email was from a student who attended a class I gave in Cape Town, South Africa, in 2006. He wrote that he had taken my class and he enjoyed it very much but that wasn’t the reason he was reaching out to me. He was now working in a new job as a flight paramedic in a different country. The week before he was at the scene of a very bad motor vehicle crash and one person was badly trapped. Nothing the rescue team did to try to free the patient was working. Then he remembered a technique that I had demonstrated on the course he had attended, and he explained it to the rescue team and it worked. The technique he learned from me helped to free that patient from the vehicle and ultimately saved his life. He wanted me to know this because it made an enormous difference. That’s why I’ve kept his email. We can all make a difference.

2 0 1 8

2 October 2018, International Fire Safety Standards Summit, Oman Convention and Exhibition Centre, Oman

5-6 December 2018, Kuwait Fire and Safety Summit, Jumeirah Messilah Beach Hotel and Spa, Kuwait

The International Fire Safety Standards Summit in Oman will bring together regional and international senior officials and experts in the fields of civil defence, industrial emergency response, and fire and safety to share best practice on the latest global trends and standards in fire safety. The international conference will focus on promoting understanding of the various international standards in relation to fire and safety equipment. The event will see participation from a range of stakeholders including government bodies, industry associations, research partners, and equipment specialists covering the entire fire safety sector, making it an essential meeting place for the industry. IFSSS will provide first-hand insights into the latest developments, regulations, and specific safety requirements of the government and fire authorities in the Sultanate of Oman and the region. It will also provide an opportunity to network with senior staff from the civil defence division, see live demonstrations and be part of an interactive panel discussion. IFSSS will be the most important gathering of the fire professionals, HSE professionals, civil defence authorities, investors, manufacturers, and architects/consultants in Oman to share best practices, tackle challenges, and explore breakthroughs for the integration of fire safety technologies. It is the ideal platform to bring together regional and global solutions and technology providers to demonstrate cutting-edge innovative solutions that can ensure the safety of citizens and buildings. For more information visit www.ifss-summit.com.

Fire safety in high-rise buildings and at petrochemical facilities are two of the main focuses at the forthcoming Kuwait Fire and Safety Summit in December. The event will bring together industrial emergency response leaders together with industry associations, government, and civil defence bodies in a networking event designed to facilitate the discussion of key issues, and the sharing of experiences and case studies. Kuwait is committed to ensuring the highest standards in the fire, health and safety environment and the country is part of a GCC-wide initiative to examine and highlight the current standards of safety and security in high-rise buildings in the region and to promote the exchange of ideas between regional industry professionals and international experts. The summit aims to update and equip stakeholders with the latest global standards and developments, regulations, specific requirements, and best practices in this field. Kuwait has also taken a lead in introducing fire safety reforms. The Kuwait Fire Safety Directorate has partnered with private petrochemical companies to raise awareness of how fire safety systems, such as fire extinguishers, smoke alarms, gas cylinders, and fire evacuation can reduce the risk of loss of life and property KFSS is a place for professionals in the region to communicate and share ideas and stay abreast of the latest global trends. It will offer opportunities to network and explore new products, technologies, and business opportunities. For more information visit www.wpsummits.com/kfss/.

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Third quarter 2018 issue 111

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I N T E R N A T I O N A L

The new Aebi MT750 response range Aebi Schmidt is to give a UK premiere to its flexible and versatile MT 750 response range at this yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Emergency Services Show at the NEC. The 7.5t Aebi MT 750 combines compact design with high performance, thanks to its 156 bhp, six-cylinder VM turbo diesel engine, which is compliant with the latest Euro 6c emissions. The MT 750 emergency response vehicle is particularly suited to narrow streets where access is limited and conventional sized fire engines can struggle to be effective. Featuring an impressive payload of up to 4,800kg, optional four wheel drive, flexible storage and cabin options which allow the vehicle to seat up to 6 people.

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I N D E P E N D E N T

I N T E L L I G E N C E

Fire & Rescue 3rd Quarter 2018  
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