Page 1

“Superior performance meets ergonomics - an innovative turntable ladder design is born.“

fourth quarter 2017 issue 108

www.hemmingfire.com www.hemmingfire.com

I N T E R N A T I O N A L

I N D E P E N D E N T

I N T E L L I G E N C E

High flyers Delivering safety at the Red Bull Air Race World Championship

The Magirus Turntable Ladder design. The innovative evolutionary control stand and state-of-the-art construction not only offer many new functions and more space, but also a powerful, glare-free LED lighting concept – for significantly more on-the-job safety and ergonomics. At Magirus, firefighters just like you put their entire experience and passion into building the world‘s best equipment for your operations.

www.magirusgroup.com


Dynax REACH ad final.pdf

1

10/30/17

7:23 PM

All Green for REACH 2020 ...3 Years Early! C6

FIRE PROTECTION FOR PETROLEUM, OIL AND GAS INDUSTRIES

C6 AFFF

FluoroSurfactant C

M

Y

CM

PFOA Impurity

PFOA-Related Impurities

Dynax C6 Fluorosurfactants since January 2017

<12.5 ppb

<500 ppb

REACH EU Regulation effective July 2020

<25 ppb

<1000 ppb

CY

CMY

K

C6 AFFF Concentrates for EN / UL Performance

C6 Fluorosurfactants

MY

PFOA Impurity

PFOA-Related Impurities

6% C6 AFFF 3% C6 AFFF 1% C6 AFFF

~0.25 ppb ~0.50 ppb ~1.50 ppb

~9 ppb ~18 ppb ~54 ppb

REACH EU Regulation effective July 2020

<25 ppb

<1000 ppb

AFFF Foam Solutions from C6 AFFF Concentrates will have a PFOA impurity level of ~15 parts per trillion (ppt). 15 ppt = 0.015 ppb = 0.0000000015% — 15 ppt correlates to 15 seconds out of 32,000 years!

Why Wait? European Commission Regulation (EC) 2017/1000 (June 13, 2017): This new REACH regulation states that PFOA and PFOA-related substances (in products such as C6 Fluorosurfactants, C6 AFFF Foam Concentrates and C6 AFFF Foam Solutions) “shall not, from 4 July 2020, be used in the production of, or placed on the market in a concentration equal to or above 25 ppb of PFOA including its salts, or 1,000 ppb of one or a combination of PFOA-related substances.”

Solberg knows the real-world challenges. C6 based, PFOS-free ARCTIC™ AFFF/ATC™ and RE-HEALING™ authentic fluoro-free firefighting foam concentrates are optimized to fit the individual needs of each customer. You can count on Solberg to work with you and deliver products that perform as needed, when you need them. Looking for global foam solutions to your high-hazard, high-risk assets? Give us a call and experience the Solberg difference. THE SOLBERG COMPANY

1520 Brookfield Avenue Green Bay, WI 54313 USA Tel: +1 920 593 9445

Foam Applications Chemical Carriers Dike Areas ■ Docks / Jetties ■ Drilling & Production Platforms ■ Flammable Liquid Spills ■ Floating Production, Storage & Offtake ■ Hazardous Material Spill Control ■ Heliports & Helidecks

LNG Carriers & Terminals Loading Racks ■ Pumping Stations ■ Refineries ■ Tank Storage ■ Vapor Suppression ■ Warehouse

SOLBERG SCANDINAVIAN AS

SOLBERG ASIA PACIFIC PTY LTD

Radøyvegen 721 - Olsvollstranda N-5938 Sæbøvågen Norway Tel: +47 56 34 97 00

3 Charles Street St. Marys NSW 2760 Australia Tel: +61 2 9673 5300

SOLBERGFOAM.COM

FME Print Ad_Solberg OCT 2017.indd 1

8/7/17 3:48 PM


CONTENTS

FIRE & RESCUE Editor Ann-Marie Knegt am.knegt@hgluk.com +44 (0) 1935 374001 Managing Editor Jose Maria Sanchez de Muniain j.sanchez@hgluk.com +44 (0) 1935 374011 Group Sales Manager Kelly Francis k.francis@hgluk.com +44 (0) 207 973 4666

12

22

35

42

48

54

Production Tim Malone t.malone@hgluk.com +44 (0) 1935 374014 Managing Director Bill Butler Published Quarterly by

A division of the Hemming Group Ltd,

8 The Old Yarn Mills, Sherborne, Dorset, DT9 3RQ, England Tel: + 44 (0) 1935 816 030 Fax: + 44 (0) 1935 817 200 www.hemmingfire.com ©2017 All Rights Reserved Fire & Rescue (ISSN 0964-9727)

Annual Subscription: Europe £40.00 or €60 (incl. p&p); rest of world £50.00 or US$80.00 (incl. p&p). Subscriptions queries to: m.spillane@hgluk.com

TAKE OUT A SUBSCRIPTION AT: http://www.hemmingfire.com/ subscription.php

FIRE & RESCUE JOURNAL (ISSN No: 0964-972719, USPS No: 003-930) is published quarterly by Hemming Information Services and distributed in the US by Asendia USA, 17B S Middlesex Ave, Monroe NJ. Periodicals postage paid at New Brunswick, NJ and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: send address changes to Fire & Rescue Journal, 17B S Middlesex Ave, Monroe NJ 08831.

Artwork by Graphic Examples Ltd, Sherborne Printed in England by Latimer Trend & Co Ltd, Plymouth DISCLAIMER: The views and opinions expressed in FIRE & RESCUE are not necessarily those of Hemming Information Services. F&R is in no way responsible or legally liable for any statements, picture captions, reports or technical anomalies made by authors in their commissioned articles.

Affiliate associations:

4 News 10 Events 12 Safety at the Red Bull Air Race Falck is responsible for securing event safety at the Red Bull Air Race. F&R went along to see how this was achieved. 18 High volume pump exercise Setting up a complex waterrelay system to deal with contaminated run-off from a 25m-diameter tank’s bund was part of the unusual scenario of a training exercise that took place recently at the Dorset and Wiltshire FRS Training Centre. 22 The evolution of nozzles One of the pioneers of the modern firefighting nozzle candidly discusses the state of nozzle technology and the opportunities and barriers for design in the coming years. 26 Training: human factors Why and how human factors should take a prominent role in risk-management training for aircraft rescue and firefighting. 28 Outfitting Schiphol Schiphol Airport has awarded a massive contract for 18 crash tenders.

30 Evolution of TICS The thermal imaging camera might be the single most game-changing piece of technology to enter the modern firefighter’s arsenal, but is it being used to its full potential?

45 BA: the mechanics of breathing An explanation of the mechanics of respiration and the techniques firefighters can employ when using breathing apparatus to maximise their respiratory efficiency.

35 Grenfell Tower The Grenfell Tower Fire in London earlier this year gave rise to some troubling questions regarding the UK’s fire safety regime.

48 PPE: body monitoring Real-time monitoring of heat strain in firefighters is now possible through new wearable technology.

36 Wildfire drones The US Department of the Interior is demonstrating the huge potential of unmanned aircraft systems to assist firefighters with wildfire suppression. 40 Legacy contamination A vehicle decontamination protocol has been devised for fire brigades that want to ensure their firefighting vehicles are free of legacy contamination from per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in aqueous film-forming foam. 42 Testing fluorine-free foams With ongoing concerns about aqueous film-forming foams, F&R looks at the trends, performance, and outlook for fluorine-free foams as a viable alternative in firefighting systems.

51 Rescue: dash replacements Our new rescue columnist David Dalrymple discusses dash displacement in modern vehicles. He urges rescuers to adopt a new mindset and review current and emerging tool evolutions. 54 Ice rescue: tools and techniques It is vital that rescue personnel have the right tools for the job, not just for the victims but also for their own safety. 56 Drone attack F&R explores the potential for a major air accident to occur because of a drone strike on an aircraft.

Front cover picture by Guido Pijper, Twelve Photographic Services

AIRPORT FIRE OFFICERS ASSOCIATION

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com

FOURTH QUARTER 2017 < FIRE & RESCUE <

3


NEWS

EDITORâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Comment

C

n you imagine how excited I was to receive an invitation from Falck to attend the Red Bull Air Race at the Lausitzring in Germany? The event is truly the 'Formula One' of the air. The pilots are the best in the world, and their planes are the fastest, lightest and most agile around. Like Formula One cars, the planes are personalised for the pilots. And like Formula One drivers, the pilots all have a massive fan base. Falck wanted F&R to see how the company manages safety at the event, and I was not only shown around backstage at this incredible event, but I also had a chance to chat to some of the pilots and watch the race itself. The pilots fly through series of inflatable pylons, very low to the ground at speeds of up to 374kph. The races in the series either take place over land or over water, and each presents its own specific challenges to the event safety team. Response time is three minutes from anywhere on the track, so this requires detailed risk and hazard analyses, planning and training. Luckily, nothing went wrong during my visit, and the coordination displayed by Falck was excellent. Well done to the team at Falck and congratulations to the winner of the Red Bull Air Race, Yoshihide Muroya! Ann-Marie Knegt, editor

Cooling all firefighters A new flame-retardant cooling vest that integrates small electric fans within layers of man-made fabrics will be available in Europe from spring 2018. Introduced by Teijin, the vest works to reduce body temperature and heart rate through sweat absorption, quick drying, and moisture permeability. It is designed to support firefighters in maintaining their performance and energy levels while fighting fires as well as helping to reduce the risks of heat stress. The outer layer is made from a heat-resistant, flame-retardant, meta-aramid fibre while the mid and inner layers are polyester. A set of integrated electric fans pull in air from outside for up to eight hours. The cooling vest was launched at A+A 2017 in Germany in October and will be available in Europe through LHD Group Deutschland.

Breakthrough in firefighting technology to reduce wildland fires

A new digital system to detect and monitor large-scale fires is set to revolutionise how firefighters approach wildland fires. New low-power wireless ground sensor nodes (LPWGSN) and accompanying drone technology were developed by the University of Westminster as part of the European Commission-funded Advanced Forest Fire Fighting (AF3) project. They are capable of detecting wildland fires in their early stages and can carry out monitoring of these in real time to enable firefighting efforts to target these fires with precision, day or night. The Advanced Forest Fire Fighting project involves 20 institutions from ten countries and aims to improve the efficiency of current firefighting operations and the protection of human lives, the environment, and property by developing innovative ground and aerial technologies to ensure the integration between new and existing systems. The LPWGSNs in combination with the drone technology represent the pinnacle of the multi-million-Euro AF3 project. The sensors can provide the fire services with invaluable information about environmental factors contributing to the fire, including location, temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed and direction, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and oxygen levels. The complete system enables firefighters to drop pellets â&#x20AC;&#x201C; filled with water or fire-retardant mixtures contained in biodegradable plastic pouches â&#x20AC;&#x201C; from the air quickly and with precision to most effectively extinguish the fire. This can ultimately protect human lives, the environment and property by getting wildfires fires under control and extinguishing them before they spread. The new sensor nodes and drone applications have been tested in real-life fires in Greece, Spain, and Israel, where they have proved effective at helping firefighters get to the heart of the problem and address the fires quickly and more efficiently.

EASA proposes medical and fitness standard for airport firefighters The European Aviation Safety Agency is developing a Notice of Proposed Amendment (NPA) to propose medical and physical fitness standards for rescue personnel and firefighters at aerodromes. The draft document is called RMT.0589 Rescue and firefighting services at aerodromes. A questionnaire has been issued by the EASA to collect information from EU Member States and stakeholders. This will be used by the agency to support the Regulatory Impact Assessment chapter in the NPA, which will assess the potential impact of the proposed rules. A copy of the draft implementing rules and AMC/GM can be downloaded from the EASA website (ec.europa.eu/eusurvey/runner/ RFFSSurvey2) for reference purposes only. Member States and stakeholders will also have the opportunity to comment on the proposed rules during the consultation period of the Notice of Proposed Amendment.

4

< FIRE & RESCUE < fourth QUARTER 2017 Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com


nEws

leader launches flowmatic automatic nozzle in composite material An automatic fire hose nozzle with a body formed from Fibertech composite material has been launched by French firefighting equipment supplier Leader. Leader currently makes four types of firefighting nozzles: selectable variable flow nozzles; automatic nozzles; automatic nozzles with low-pressure mode; and high-pressure automatic nozzles. This is based on extensive research by the company’s R&D team, which conducted an in-depth study into the modern usage of fire hoses and nozzles and their constraints. The new nozzle is an addition to Leader’s Flowmatic automatic nozzles, and is the only nozzle in the range that comes in a composite version – in fact, the company believes it is the only composite nozzle currently on the market. The fibreglass-based material makes it highly durable, with similar properties to aluminium. ‘Initially, based on our conversations with firefighters, we planned to produce this nozzle in an aluminium version only,’ says Jeremy Delerue

from Leader. ‘The advantages of aluminium are well-known in the fire sector. However, our R&D team also developed the nozzle with a composite body that offers the same kind of technical specification as aluminium but with some added benefits.’ The use of the composite material gives the nozzle a combination of lightness and resilience – it is lighter than brass and aluminium and more resistant to the type of corrosion that most often occurs with firefighting equipment, which is caused by extended exposure to a saline environment or from use with foam concentrates. It is equal to aluminium in terms of durability, mechanical strength, and chemical resistance. The Fibertech composite material also has higher thermal resistance and shows no deformation of the mass at high temperatures, unlike aluminium. In addition, the material naturally insulates the user from the cold and offers improved electrical insulation for the nozzle operator. The wide bumper and two notches enable the user to identify and select – by touch alone if necessary – the different streams: straight stream or spray. The head of the nozzle has a strong grip to allow for good handling, even in difficult conditions such as when a firefighter’s gloves are wet, and the lever on the adjustable flow handle is robust and chunky. The handle design is a key aspect of the nozzle. Whether in aluminium or Fibertech, the easy-to-grip, flow-control handle is ergonomically designed to offer a natural fit for the hand. It is wide enough to be held in a gloved hand and is easy to switch between the different flow settings.

hAmPShirE APPointS nEw cfo

ArticlE 11B comPliAnt PPE

Neil Odin has been appointed Chief Fire Officer for Hampshire Fire and Rescue Service and the Isle of Wight Fire and Rescue Service, effective from 1 January 2018. He succeeds Dave Curry, who is stepping down after a decade with the service. Odin said: ‘I am delighted to be taking on the role of Chief Fire Officer for Hampshire and the Isle of Wight. It is a position that I know carries great responsibility, as our service strives to make life safer for every resident. ‘Stepping into the shoes of someone as respected and admired as Dave will be a tough challenge, but I am confident I can bring a new perspective and insight to the role. ‘There is no doubt I take on the job at a time of great change in the fire service but I am looking forward immensely to the challenge of ensuring we continue to supply an exemplary service to our communities and to leading such a great organisation.’ Odin joined the service in March 2012, following more than 20 years at West Sussex Fire and Rescue Service. In his role as deputy chief and director of service delivery, he was responsible for firefighting and frontline response, prevention, safe and well visits, business fire safety, and community self-help plans. Odin has a master’s degree in Business Administration and holds senior posts with the National Fire Chiefs Council (NFCC) and the commercial arm of Hampshire FRS.

UK workwear and PPE supplier Ballyclare has confirmed that its manufacturing process for life-saving workwear supplied to the fire, rail, general industrial, and oil and gas sectors is accredited to Article 11B of the PPE Directive. Currently, manufacturers of PPE garments need to meet the requirements of the PPE Directive. From April next year, these manufacturers will instead need to be compliant with the more stringent requirements of the new, mandatory PPE Regulations. Ballyclare has held Article 11B accreditation since 2011, and is therefore positioned to meet the requirements of the regulatory changes covering complex PPE garments when they come into force in April 2018. ‘Article 11B is an externally-audited accreditation system that monitors the production of complex, life-saving PPE to ensure the quality of the finished garment,’ explained Dawn Scott, Ballyclare's operations director. ‘It provides confidence that products such as our structural firefighter suits and other life-saving garments are produced under our strict quality controls. To achieve compliance, our various manufacturing, design and head office facilities are independently assessed by the British Standards Institute.’ These assessments cover many different aspects of Ballyclare’s operations, including the manufacturing processes, quality control measures, and the manufacturer's technical files.

Retroflex® COFAB Line Visibly safest performing retro-reflective trims!

Now 100 cle : anin cycles g ISO633 0!

Specifically designed for firefighting garments: • High retro-reflective values for greater safety • Strong and durable Aramid construction • The only trim on the market that still delivers safe reflection rates after many cleaning cycles • Flexible, lightweight and breathable! Certified: EN-ISO20471 & EN469 - Wash: 50 x ISO6330 & ISO15797 +31 (0)487 56 03 33

www.retroflex.eu

read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com

fourth QuArtEr 2017 < FIRE & RESCUE <

5


news

NFPA Policy Institute to support fire and life safety The US National Fire Protection Association has announced that it is to launch a policy institute in order to maintain an arm’s-length view on policy issues that impact fire, life, and electrical safety. The NFPA Fire and Life Safety Policy Institute will study a range of issues and provide guidance and information to policymakers on the best approaches for governments to take to improve the safety of their citizens. It will be led by Meghan Housewright from the NFPA’s government affairs office. NFPA statistic show that US fire departments responded to one fire every 24 seconds in 2016, and a structural fire was reported every 60 seconds. Civilians deaths in fires dropped by 54% between 1977 and 2016, but there were still nine fire deaths per day and fires caused almost US$11 billion in property damage in 2016. ‘We have made tremendous progress in reducing loss from fire since NFPA’s inception, but we are painfully reminded every day that there is more to be done,’ said NFPA President Jim Pauley. Citing recent high profile tragedies such as the Grenfell Tower fire in London, Pauley added: ‘It takes a full fire prevention and protection system to reduce loss, and either intentionally or unintentionally that system has been broken. And the public, who believes this system exists and relies on it, has been let down. We can do better.’ Policymakers are key to reducing loss from fire and other hazards. The Fire and Life Safety Policy Institute aims to help them ensure the safety of their communities by providing recommended practices, proposed solutions, and other guidance.

Life-saving first aid kit for public use A former trauma medic has developed a first aid kit of life-saving equipment that can be carried by members of the public for use in the event of a terrorist attack. The Parabag was put together by Steve Bray, MD of medical supplies company SP Services, initially as a medical kitbag he could carry on his travels to enable him to respond in case he was ever at the scene of an attack. Bray believes that the public can save lives in the aftermath of an attack if they have the right equipment to hand and the knowledge of how to use it in an emergency. The Parabag contains items such as a trauma dressing, tourniquet, a dressing to stem heavy blood loss, and treatment for facial burns. ‘I came up with this small med kit idea in 2015, which I wear on my belt while travelling around London, whether in my business suit or casual wear. It's an unassuming, easy-to-wear kit that anyone can carry.’

New mutual-aid system

Elite firefighter hub to be assembled in Hampshire, UK

An elite group of firefighters trained to deal with everything from earthquakes to terrorist incidents is to be based in Hampshire, UK. The firefighters will be made up of the Hampshire FRS Specialist and Technical Team – many are also members of UK International Search and Rescue – and will be based at Eastleigh Fire Station in Hampshire along with 15 specialist vehicles. Currently, the firefighters who will make up the elite group are dispersed across the county and only meet for training or in the case of major incidents. The new base at Eastleigh means they will attend day-to-day incidents as a team. The move to the new station is due to be completed next year. Station manager Chris Roper said: ‘The individual team members have an incredible amount of specialist knowledge in a variety of areas and bringing these together can only serve to make the people of Hampshire safer. The new hub will ensure the firefighters remain skilled in tackling all incidents and get used to working with each other – a factor that may prove vital in an emergency.’ The team will be bringing together expertise in rope and heavy vehicle rescue as well as working at height, in tunnels, in confined spaces, aboard ships, and in extreme weather.

6

The International Association of Fire Chiefs, health and safety solutions supplier Intermedix, and spatial analytics supplier Esri, have announced an agreement to build the National Mutual Aid System. The three organisations intend the NMAS to be the next generation version of the IAFC’s Mutual Aid Net tool, which was built in 2008 and is used to identify, request, and deploy resources for mutual aid support. The new NMAS will use the latest technology to improve the speed, efficiency, and accuracy of these tasks and offer improved information sharing, decision support, and situational awareness capabilities to emergency response organisations worldwide. The NMAS will use Esri’s location intelligence platform Arcgis, and Intermedix’s crisis information management software Webeoc, to manage and track emergency services resources during mutual-aid responses. The Webeoc software will enable the IAFC to manage information sharing during large-scale incidents. It will facilitate event reporting and task management in a central, web-based environment that allows IAFC to connect to partner agencies and organisations during response efforts. Meanwhile, the Arcgis platform from Esri means that spatial data can be used to maximise the efficiency of incident response. It brings all mutual-aid management data into a location context, integrating this information into spatial analysis technology. ‘Identifying the status and availability of resources for mutual-aid support has always been challenging,’ said Russ Johnson, Esri global director, emergency response. ‘With increasingly complex multi-jurisdictional incidents, this need is greater than ever. Through the leadership of IAFC and the partnership between Esri and Intermedix, the ability to know the availability of required mutual-aid resources and immediately request them will be realised.’ ‘The only effective way to respond to emergencies is through collaborations and partnerships between public and private organisation,’ said Bob Watson, Intermedix president of preparedness solutions. ‘The National Mutual Aid System takes that principle and puts it into practice.’

< FIRE & RESCUE < fourth QUARTER 2017 Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com

FME P


FIRE PROTECTION FOR PETROLEUM, OIL AND GAS INDUSTRIES

Solberg knows the real-world challenges. C6 based, PFOS-free ARCTIC™ AFFF/ATC™ and RE-HEALING™ authentic fluoro-free firefighting foam concentrates are optimized to fit the individual needs of each customer. You can count on Solberg to work with you and deliver products that perform as needed, when you need them. Looking for global foam solutions to your high-hazard, high-risk assets? Give us a call and experience the Solberg difference. THE SOLBERG COMPANY

1520 Brookfield Avenue Green Bay, WI 54313 USA Tel: +1 920 593 9445

Foam Applications Chemical Carriers Dike Areas ■ Docks / Jetties ■ Drilling & Production Platforms ■ Flammable Liquid Spills ■ Floating Production, Storage & Offtake ■ Hazardous Material Spill Control ■ Heliports & Helidecks

LNG Carriers & Terminals Loading Racks ■ Pumping Stations ■ Refineries ■ Tank Storage ■ Vapor Suppression ■ Warehouse

SOLBERG SCANDINAVIAN AS

SOLBERG ASIA PACIFIC PTY LTD

Radøyvegen 721 - Olsvollstranda N-5938 Sæbøvågen Norway Tel: +47 56 34 97 00

3 Charles Street St. Marys NSW 2760 Australia Tel: +61 2 9673 5300

SOLBERGFOAM.COM

FME Print Ad_Solberg OCT 2017.indd 1

8/7/17 3:48 PM


01_G1

vehicle news

DIGITAL STABILOMETER NOW AVAILABLE FOR FIRE TRUCKS

A digital stabilometer originally developed for the military is now available for use in fire trucks. The Vext Inclisafe provides the driver with a visible and acoustic warning when the vehicle becomes unstable, which allows for corrective action to take place. Fire trucks are at risk of rollover because of their increased weight and high gravity and load centres when in motion. The risk of turnover depends on the design of the vehicle and the kit that it is carrying – for instance built-in ladders appear to increase the risk – and also the terrain that is being covered. These incidents are rare but when they do occur the impact can be considerable. Not only is there the obvious risk to all fire crew and damage to the truck itself, but the collateral damage in the immediate environment, and even more important, the failure to arrive at the fire scene in timely fashion, means that brigades in Germany, Belgium, France, The Netherlands, and the Middle East are currently evaluating the technology on the road. The Vext Inclisafe has already been implemented in Spain, in Madrid and Burgos, and in the forestry and rural firefighting sector. In total some 450 units are currently deployed around the world. The equipment works to process the signals of a series of internal sensors, which in turn provide a series of dynamic parameters (speed, acceleration, angular velocity, and inclination, etc). By using this information, along with the inertial dimensions and properties of the vehicle, the device calculates stability at a rate of ten times per second, which is quantified as a percentage of the maximum stability the vehicle could attain. Based on the calculated stability at each instant – where 100% stability refers to a standing horizontal vehicle and 0% implies potential risk of immediate turnover – the device emits a lighted and acoustic signal of increasing frequency which is proportional to the decrease in stability. A display consisting of two contrasting LED bars indicates the direction and magnitude of the instability of the vehicle to the driver and there are four levels of audible alarm. Inclisafe can be configured for any fire truck and the percentages can be adjusted based on experience and knowledge. This means that not only is the risk of rollover reduced but that drivers can also use the feedback provided by the unit to improve their understanding of the vehicle’s stability. An internal memory, with recording capacity of up to six months, stores all the data related to the vehicle. This information can be extracted and analysed using the Inclisoft software to provide analysis of driver behaviour for use both in training and, in the case of an incident, to establish what went wrong.

8

< FIRE & RESCUE < fourth QuArter 2017

WIRELESS AERIAL CONTROLS A NEW ADD-IN FOR E-ONE US-based fire truck supplier E-One has partnered with HBC-radiomatic to integrate wireless remote controls into its Advanced Aerial Control System (AACS). The company believes the addition of this new functionality can improve the performance of municipal fire departments and their crews. E-One’s AACS is an aerial device control system that has been designed to provide better information and functionality to the operator, including the vehicle’s vital statistics. It now features the integration of the spectrum B bellybox transmitter and FSE 727 receiver from radio control systems supplier HBS-radiomatic. The spectrum B bellybox transmitter is a control for cranes and machines with LCD. It is available with up to three joysticks or eight HBC linear levers and comes in many configurations. FSE 727 is a compact receiver for mobile applications. HBC-radiomatic is an established supplier of wireless control systems to firefighting applications such as automatic water guns and electronically controlled foam mixers. Through the combination of high-performance transmission technology and electronics, the company offers wireless remote control devices that are able to control most machine functions. This enables operators to be able to move freely around the working area and operate equipment from a safe distance. Using wireless remote controls, fire truck operators will no longer be tethered to their vehicles and therefore can position themselves in the optimum location to carry out their duties. Chip Goodson, engineering leader, aerials, E-One, said: ‘We have added wireless to broaden our product line, and chose HBC-radiomatic for its capabilities and everything that it can do. They provided us with a system to our specification based on the spectrum box.’ This includes a customised layout, in which the position of switches with the required functions has been specifically designed to provide a user-friendly interface. Brett Schneider, regional sales manager of HBC-radiomatic said: ‘As this technology becomes more and more accepted in the market, we will look to expand upon our current offerings to E-One and add additional safety features such as live video feedback to the remote – giving the operator a better visual of the situation.’

read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com


01_G1-Mask_Landing-Page_Advert_UK_A4_2017.qxp_Advert Template_DIN A4 08.08.17 14:50 Seite 1

YOUR NEW PERSPECTIVE with your G1 Mask

The G1 Full Face Mask with its wide distortion free field of vision is not only lightweight and compact with overall low profile design, it brings best in class breathing comfort and is built to last. Get your hands on the new G1 mask and experience yourself. http://msane.ws/G1-Mask

MSA (Britain) Limited, Bellshill â&#x20AC;˘ Tel. +44 16 98573357 â&#x20AC;˘ info.gb@MSAsafety.com

MSAsafety.com


E v e n t s

2 0 1 8

16-18 January 2018 Airport Fire Officers Association Annual Conference, London Gatwick Hilton, UK

21-23 January 2018 Intersec 20th anniversary edition, International Convention and Exhibition Centre, DUBAI Security, safety and fire protection trade fair Intersec returns for its 20th anniversary edition on 21-23 January 2018, featuring a number of exhibitors that have attended every exhibition since the show’s inception. Taking place at the Dubai International Convention and Exhibition Centre, Intersec 2018 will once again welcome a number of ‘original’ exhibitors, including Pelco, Teleste, Corodex, Dafoos Fire Protection, NAFFCO, Siemens, Zener Electronics, the British Security Industry Association, Technoalarm, Kidde Fire Protection, Kidde International, and Vicon Industries. The exhibition has grown in size and scope since its launch in 1999 as it keeps pace with the changing regional safety and security market. In 2018, Intersec is expected to attract more than 31,000 visitors from 128 countries. Ahmed Pauwels, CEO of organiser Messe Frankfurt Middle East, said the show’s success is down in part to the long-standing support of its official government partners, which now include the Dubai Municipality. ‘The Dubai Police, Dubai Civil Defence, and Dubai Police Academy have been Intersec’s official partners for many years, and their support is crucial as we continue to expand the show together,’ said Pauwels. ‘We are delighted to also have the Dubai Municipality on board as an official supporter, which becomes even more important with major events such as the Dubai Expo 2020 drawing ever closer, and the need to keep critical infrastructure, assets, and people safe with the latest security equipment and technology.’ Intersec 2018 will offer seven sections: commercial security, fire and rescue, safety and health, homeland security and policing, perimeter and physical security, cybersecurity, and smart home and building automation. New for 2018 are the Drones Pavilion and indoor Drone Zone, while a Wearable Security Pavilion will highlight the latest advances in smart textiles, including head-up displays, body cameras, embedded sensors, and exo-skeleton communications. The Safety Design in Buildings Pavilion will return in the Fire and Rescue section, which will also have an outdoor demonstration zone. The exhibition’s three-day conference will be headlined by Dubai’s Security Industry Regulatory Agency, where the Emirate’s security regulatory body will provide the latest updates on Dubai’s Regulation of Security Industry Law. Intersec 2018 is held under the patronage of His Highness Sheikh Mansoor bin Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum. For more information visit www.intersecexpo.com.

10

The annual conference of the Airport Fire Officers Association starts on 16 January with two workshops. The first will give attendees the opportunity to advance their knowledge of UK National Operational Guidance and UK National Operational Learning. It will be run by Kenny Pearce, content officer, and Bob Rearie, content manager, from the National Operational Guidance Programme. The second workshop, which covers Analytical Risk Assessments, will be delivered by John Lord from Simtrainer UK and AFOA’s Ian Webb. This will focus on the principles learnt by UK and Irish airport fire services in their collaboration to create an analytical risk assessment system. The main conference starts on January 17 and is sponsored by training company Simulation. Keynote speaker Gavin Watts, the new Chief Fire Officer for West Sussex Fire and Rescue, will share his thoughts on how local authorities and RFFS should work together during incident response. Other notable speakers include Airport Fire Chief Bob Palestrant of Fort Lauderdale Hollywood Airport in Florida, who will discuss the Fort Lauderdale Airport active shooter incident on 6 January 2017, including lessons learned. Andy Woodward, on secondment to the College of Policing from Gloucestershire Police as the national DVI and civil contingencies training coordinator, will talk about disaster victim identification awareness and scene management. Neil Gray, aerodrome inspector at the CAA, will update the audience on the latest legislation and standards, and Jon Round, head of airspace, air traffic management, and aerodromes at the CAA, will provide a strategic overview of the interactions between these aviation sectors. Finally, Mark Scoggins, health and safety and environmental law solicitor, will give a presentation on defending organisations and individuals in the construction, chemical, transport, waste and water sectors in regulatory and civil cases. An exhibition will run alongside the conference featuring exhibitors such as: ATACC, KFT, Newcastle International Airport Training Academy and Total Safety, Holmatro, Fire Training Group, Weber Rescue, Texport, Simply Training, eFireservice, Fireblast, International Fire Training Centre, Ballyclare, Lion Apparel, Bristol Uniforms, Fire Control Services, and Angus. For more information visit: www.afoa.co.uk

✜ FIRE & RESCUE ✜ Fourth QUARTER 2017 Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com


BETTER TRAINING, SAFER RESULTS Realistic training improves safety. Atlanta Fire Department added HazSim Pro to its training regimen at HartsfieldJackson International Airport to improve the safety of first responders and millions of travelers each year. Dangerous jobs require hands on interactive training.

WWW.HAZSIM.COM

INFO@HAZSIM.COM

RETTmobil 2018 18. Europäische Leitmesse für Rettung und Mobilität 18th European Leading Exhibition for Rescue and Mobility

RA FACHPROG

MM:

kussion Podiumsdis m he Messe-Foru ngsdienstlic tu t e -R h c is Medizin en Fortbildung Workshops

Fulda | Messe Galerie 16.– 18. Mai 2018 Mittwoch – Freitag 9 – 17 Uhr

Fulda | Fair Gallery 16th – 18th May 2018 Wednesday – Friday 9am – 5pm

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com

www.rettmobil.org Fourth QUARTER 2017 ✜ FIRE & RESCUE ✜

11


Event safety

Defying the ground What does it mean to be responsible for the incident response at one of the world’s fastest aerial motorsport events? Ann-Marie Knegt travelled to Lausitz EuroSpeedway in Germany, to find out how Falck handles the challenge of securing safety at the Red Bull Air Race World Championship.

T

he penultimate race in the 2017 Red Bull Air Race is about to start. It is a clear, sunny day and the view over the Lausitzring in Brandenburg, Germany, is magnificent – a perfect day for flying with hardly a breath of wind. The atmosphere is tense. People are excited for the start of the action as tiny planes whizz through the air at incredible speeds, flying through a predefined racetrack of inflatable pylons until the fastest pilot emerges as the winner. In her control tower, which looks out over the entire racecourse, rescue manager Lidie Van der Minne puts on her headset and prepares for an intense afternoon watching her control screens and ensuring the safety of the participants. For Van der Minne, the day is a culmination of months of planning – and a week of intense preparation at the current race location – that reflect the unique challenges faced by Falck as the rescue coordinator for the event. The Red Bull Air Race World Championship is one of the fastest motorsports event series in the world. Only the most exceptional pilots can take part in this airborne motorsport, which sees pilots traverse the sky in race planes at speeds of more than 300kph under enormous G-force. In 2017, eight races will take place over the course of a year starting in Abu Dhabi and ending at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. Each race is held either over water or over land,

12

< FIRE & RESCUE < Fourth QUARTER 2017

and the pilots race against the clock on specially-designed tracks. The pilot who scores the most points at the end of the season can call him or herself the Red Bull Air Race World Champion. Lidie Van der Minne is responsible for coordinating fire, rescue and safety for the pilots during the event. She explains that to understand the safety requirements, it is important to understand how the Red Bull Air Race works. Each race takes place over a weekend, and there is nearly a week of preparation and practice beforehand. There are two types of pilots: masters and challengers. The Master Class consists of 14 pilots and the Challenger Cup is made up of nine pilots, of which six are competing during a race. The challengers fly two-seater planes, and in the case of the Lausitzring race, they fly from another airport, where another incident commander and rescue team are based – also supplied by Falck. Qualifying rounds take place on the Saturday for both challengers and masters and determine the starting order on race day. On Sunday, the master class pilots are competing for points in the world championship. The first race sees 14 pilots compete in seven heats. The winners of each heat, plus the fastest loser, advance to the round of eight. The winners of these heat then compete for victory based on their time in the final round of four. The challenger class was introduced to help outstanding pilots build their air racing skills to an elite level and potentially race in the Master Class for the World Championship title. On race day, the challengers compete for victory based on time. The best four results from the season will determine which six of the nine pilots will compete for the Challenger Cup in the season finale. The pilots take it in turns to fly the course, each trying to achieve the best time with the minimum number of penalties. Using the fastest, most lightweight and agile race planes, the pilots hit speeds of up to 370kph while enduring forces of up to 10G as they navigate a low-altitude slalom track marked by 25-metre-high, air-filled pylons known as air gates.

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com


The 30° Revolution Simple idea. Strong impact. With its unique tilted jaw, the Inclined Cutter improves ergonomics and maximizes working space. Go to holmatro.com/inclined.


Event safety

Training manager and airport incident commander Harm Neuteboom briefs his team in advance of the first race. © Guido Pijper, Twelve Photographic Services

14

These robust, cone-shaped pylons have been designed so that they can be repaired and reinflated in under three minutes if hit by a plane. ‘It is all about being the pilot with the best skill and the most control over the plane,’ says Van der Minne. ‘Each course has its own challenges. Therefore, you will see more pylon hits in some races than in others. We have only had three pylon hits at this stop of the World Championship so far. In Kazan in Russia earler this year 69 pylons were hit during one race. That caused significant delays.’ At the core of event safety are several highly-trained firefighting and ambulance teams, which are on standby before, during, and after the event. As rescue manager, Van der Minne coordinates everything from her tower. She is supported by airport incident commander, Harm Neuteboom, who is positioned at the runway with his team. ‘Neuteboom oversees four team leaders during the event, including fire and rescue crews and an ambulance team,’ explains Van der Minne. ‘They have one large fire appliance and three fast suppression units strategically positioned on the track, which have all been equipped with foam and rescue tools. Aside from that, we have CO2 extinguishers at our disposal. All team leaders work for Falck, so we all speak the same language, which helps our communications.’

< FIRE & RESCUE < Fourth QUARTER 2017

Falck is only in charge of safety on the air side of the racecourse. The local fire brigade is responsible for any incidents outside the course. The standard response time for any race incident is 30 seconds. However, every course is different, so strategic deployment points have to be identified prior to the race to ensure that the mandated response time can be achieved. Van der Minne and risk consultant Jurriaan Steenaert visit each location in advance. When the track is over water, there are usually three strategic deployment points, from which the 250 hp rescue boats can reach any location within the 30-second response time. Races over land present more of a challenge. Van der Minne explains that the logistics are more complicated for land races because there are usually only a few access roads. ‘For water races, we have a team of 15 people on standby, but we only eight or nine people at the ready for land races. However, if you set your deployment points right, it is still possible to achieve the response times.’ During the 2017 season, there were six water races and two land races. The same rules apply to both. Falck’s response strategy is based on the total safety cycle policy of prevention, preparation, intervention, and aftercare, which is at the heart of Falck’s philosophy and a proven concept. The total safety cycle consists of several phases: setting up the safety policy; conducting the risk assessment; taking care of prevention for legal aspects and training; preparation; response delivery; and evaluation. ‘Falck determines the safety policy, risk assessment, and the prevention and training plans,' says Van der Minne. 'We are training the pilots, but also the task-force guys and the team technicians. We even have to train our own teams in advance of an event, because every new Red Bull Air Race is different. After that, we enter the preparation phase, and that starts a couple of days before the race. We arrive on Monday and the rest of the safety team will arrive over the next few days. We spend two days training on Wednesday and Thursday. The pilots are flying on Friday, Saturday and Sunday, but by then we are fully prepared and equipped.’ This preparation is crucial for getting to know the characteristics of the track, because each one is different and presents its own specific challenges. Van der Minne cites the example of the track in Budapest where there was a water

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com


Event safety

Falck carries out an extensive area analysis to identify the risks and hazards on each track as well as key strategic deployment points for the response teams. © Guido Pijper, Twelve Photographic Services

16

scenario with a flow of 9.5 kph. If a plane were to end up in that water flow, the plane would have to be secured before the pilot could be rescued. ‘It is imperative to avoid a situation where you have to dive and rescue the pilot.’ Falck carries out meticulous research for every location, and Van der Minne explains that there is already a large amount of data available from race organiser Red Bull Air Race, including maps, plans and pictures. ‘We carry out an area analysis, conduct site visits, and have meetings with the local teams. For example, today we are working with ADAC Medical Helicopters, which are based three minutes away from this course, and we met the team during a site visit. If we call, they know exactly what to do.’ After training and preparation, Van der Minne sends her evaluation and feedback, together with recommendations for improvements, to Red Bull Air Race. A key consideration is always how to train the pilots. While pilots are generally skilled in emergency landings and egress from the plane, Falck trains them for any incidents on water. This training takes place once a year, usually at a race location or a swimming pool,

< FIRE & RESCUE < Fourth QUARTER 2017

and the Falck team creates a realistic scenario in which pilots can practise escaping from planes in water. ‘The planes are tiny and they need to learn how to use the air pocket in the plane,’ explains Van der Minne. ‘It is a claustrophobic experience, but in the end we always get there.' The local and medical crews also receive intensive training on how to handle the types of incidents that may be encountered during an event. The planes themselves are precision-engineered and extremely valuable, so Falck has developed a specific extinguishing regime for plane fires designed to cause minimum damage. ‘Our incident commander has stipulated that only CO2 and high-pressure foam can be used,’ says Van Der Minne. ‘Water or powder will ruin these valuable aircraft.’ Even though each course is different, the rescue and ambulance crews always work via a basic method called the Saver system, which provides a step-by-step response structure to follow in case of an incident. Each truck and team has a card with a colour-coded outline of the steps in this system, and Van der Minne finds this works extremely well. Pilots are also provided with a Saver card specific to their type of plane, which outlines features such as the opening of the canopy and specific switches – basically anything that is essential for safe egress of the pilot. In addition, because the planes develop and advance, the safety team needs to stay abreast of technical changes by maintaining a continual dialogue with pilots and their teams. This is particularly challenging, because technical changes to aircraft can take place at nearly every race in a season. Today, all of Falck and Van der Minne’s meticulous planning pays off, and the 2017 Red Bull Air Race at Lausitzring goes ahead without a hitch. The winner is Japanese pilot Yoshihide Muroya, who takes centre stage next to Czech pilot Martin Sonka in second place, and Pete McLoud from Canada in third. The Red Bull Air Race is an exhilarating spectacle, and one that is made possible through excellent cooperation between Red Bull Air Race and Falck. Through its work with the Red Bull Air Race World Championship, Falck has really cemented its position at the cutting edge of incident response planning and delivery.

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com


read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com

fourth QuartEr 2017 < FIRE & RESCUE <

17


training

Proactive learning

Setting up a complex water-relay system to deal with contaminated run-off from a 25m-diameter tankâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s bund was part of the unusual scenario of a training exercise that took place recently at the Dorset & Wiltshire FRS Training Centre, reports Jose Sanchez de Muniain

T

ake time to fully assess an incident and a site before beginning operations, prioritise tasks according to importance and do not work in cells. These were some of the learning points that were picked up during Exercise Proactive, which took place on Sunday 17 September 2017. It is a sign of these troubled times that an actual terrorist incident happens in London on the day before the exercise, which is itself simulating a terrorist threat. It results in two fire departments near the UK capital being unable to travel to the training centre, which is located within the confines of a military fuel depot, 120km away in southwest England. The main effect of the terrorist attack is a reduction in participating high-volume pump teams from six to four, which come from Hampshire FRS, Dorset and Wiltshire FRS, Oxfordshire FRS and West Sussex FRS. In todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s scenario, intelligence has been received that a

The 6-inch Y-pieces and two outlets shown here have a 6-inch gate valve connected.

18

< FIRE & RESCUE < Fourth QUARTER 2017

petrochemical site is a current terrorist target. A back-up firefighting main has been requested as well as the means to collect and contain any firefighting media run-off in a nearby lake. The participants are obliged to also consider that the lake is in an area that is designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest, which means the location has legal protection and must not be contaminated. Furthermore, in order to use the lake as a containment area for firewater, it will first need emptying into a nearby (simulated) river. The provision of a firefighting main and run-off containment requires the deployment of a number of HVPs. There are 51 such units shared by 40 fire departments across England and Wales, deployable both locally as well as nationwide. Their first large-scale deployment was to the Buncefield fire in 2005, and since then they have been used mainly for wide-area flooding, coastal tidal surges, and wildfire incidents. Prior to the start of the exercise, each participating fire department is tasked with devising a deployment and recovery plan. During the exercise they have to formulate, agree and implement the plans in coordination with their

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com


training

fellow fire departments on site at the West Moors fuel depot. Sitting in the briefing area are crew manager (Ringwood) Patrick West, Hampshire FRS, who is directing the exercise, and watch manager Matt Kiddell, Dorset & Wiltshire FRS, who is in charge of liaison and safety. They run through the timetable and the exercise amendments that have resulted from the last-minute absence of colleagues. West explains that the water in the containment area will only be temporarily removed, and that instead of being pumped into a river – as would happen in the real event – it will be pumped in a long hose loop back into the containment lake. He adds that on-site hydrants are not to be used; a TETRA radio must be present at each location; and participants should be aware that as a military site there are guard patrols with dogs (‘they do bite but they are on a lead’). West also chooses the incident commander for the day, and designates West Sussex FRS to deal with the supply of water to the fire monitor. The teams then have a few minutes to formulate their plans, identify the locations for the equipment, and ascertain which roads require hose ramps so that they can remain open. After only a matter of minutes the action begins and all personnel deploy to the exercise area, which consists of a 25m-diameter storage tank containing diesel, a pond (the water supply) and a lake (the run-off containment area) situated 800m and 900m away, respectively. The equipment focus of the day is the HVP sets, each of which consists of two modules carried by a prime mover vehicle. The HVP pump module carries the hydrosub submersible pump module and a hose box containing 1km of 150mm delivery hose in 50m lengths. The second HVP

the road, particularly if fuel is leaking into the bund area. You could potentially have a running fuel fire if we are not managing that, so it is about getting that out of the way and dealing with it. 'In any incident we have to protect the environment. If it’s a large-risk incident then the environment becomes a lower priority, but at some point we have to focus on it.' The shadow of Buncefield hangs over the whole exercise, which picks up several learning points from the COMAH report ‘Buncefield: Why did it happen?’ This report outlined the underlying causes of the explosion and fire at the oil storage depot in Hemel Hempstead on 11 December 2015, where bunding arrangements for managing firewater were a major factor in the devastation. When bunds fill to the point of overflowing, burning fuel (which floats on water) can escape over the top of a bund. The bunding at Buncefield had many flaws, which caused large volumes of fuel, foam and firefighting water to leak out of the bunds. Those bunds, which were neither impermeable nor fire resistant, were unable to handle the large volumes of firewater involved in the incident. The pollutants at Buncefield flowed as far as the M1 motorway several hundreds of metres away, and also penetrated the chalk stratum to a potable water aquifer. Walking towards the location of the second working group, which is working on containment, a firefighter is at the halfway point of the twin hose line converting one of the Hydrosubs into a relay – or booster – pump. This is done by simply detaching the strainer and attaching the twin hose (converted into a single line) instead. Highlighting the logistical complexity of organising such training opportunities is

module consists of two individual hose boxes, each containing 1 km of 150-mm delivery hose in 50m lengths. The teams split into two working areas, one for water supply and another for run-off containment. The containment working area involves two HVPs and three hose lines, boosted mid-point at around 700 m. One hose line will empty the containment area at around 4,000 lpm, while the second pump will run a twin line, fulfilling the same task at around 7,000 lpm. These lines will run a 1.4 km loop that simulates the water being pumped out of the containment area into a nearby river. 'One roadway has to be maintained open, so that road will have three ramps, one for a single line and one for a twin. And there’s a ramp section for twin lines that has to be done over the water supply way as well,' explains Kiddell. Just now common is this type of scenario, where the emphasis is not on putting a fire out, but on dealing with contaminated runoff? 'For a large scale incident it will always be a consideration,' says Kiddell. 'We have to manage the environment and we cannot let contaminated water run down

exercise co-organiser Chas McGill of Hampshire FRS. 'The trouble is you don’t get a chance to do this sort of relay if you don’t have two HVPs. You can’t do it without resources.' It is now nearly 11am, around one and a half hours since the exercise started, and the twin-hose water-relay system of the water containment group is nearly ready to charge, with one Hampshire firefighter walking the line to check all the couplings along the 1.4 km loop. 'Operationally, that is a really good lay. If this was a road system on a chemical plant, this could not snake,' observes McGill. Also witnessing the exercise is Colin Falconer, air separation plant manager – process operations, at BOC Gases in Southampton. He is highly aware of the many factors and firefighting technologies that contribute to the successful management of a significant incident in an industrial plant, including the importance of access to a plentiful supply of water. An even cooling of a storage tank is crucial in the event of a fire, in order to avoid the tank shell tearing as a result of the temperature differential between the hot part and the cool section.

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com

The high-volume pumps used during Excercise Proactive are built in The Netherlands by Hytrans Systems.

Fourth QUARTER 2017 < FIRE & RESCUE <

19


training

20

The hose deployment can be carried out at speeds up to 40 kph.

'Many process tanks have sprinkler systems to provide cooling so you don’t get tearing, but the big problem with these systems is that they have to be maintained, tested, and flushed through,' he explains. 'And if it is a facility with salt water, that can be corrosive.' Falconer recounts an incident involving a lighting strike on a crude oil tank, which started a rim seal fire. The industrial brigade applied foam, which collapsed the roof and turned the rim seal fire into a full surface fire. 'Then the localised cooling of the vessel ended with a tear, and the contents spilling into the bunded area – which had 110% capacity of the tank – and then coming out of the bund.' Here, at West Moors, with its wide-open spaces, such a scenario might not be too catastrophic. 'However, if you are in the middle of a chemical plant or refinery, you have congestion of live pipework to other vessels,' says Falconer.

Operationally, West thinks things could have been done more quickly. 'The important thing is what needs to be done immediately, before starting to work, and in this case that is to get that water on the fire, because if that tank catches fire we need to tackle that.' For the water relay, the mid-point should have been established at the start by laying down 700m of hose. 'But this is easy for me to say because I’ve devised it.' West also feels that more time should have been spent assessing the situation before beginning to deploy the equipment. 'Let’s spend a bit more time on command and control, on the pre-briefing. Take an extra ten minutes and do not be afraid to do nothing. Don’t just rush in after having a quick look at a map in a classroom. Maybe drive round the whole site to get a picture in your head. That extra half hour will probably save one and a half hours later.'

The Hydrosub's submersible pumps are being deployed. During the excercise the assessor noted that the proper PPE needs to be worn during deployment.

Exercise director Patrick West arrives at the containment area and immediately picks up on some learning points for the firefighters working near the water. 'They are in the warm zone and it is safety critical that they wear proper gear to go into the water and that they have a safety officer with a throw line. We’ll correct this at lunchtime.' The firefighters realise that something is not right and PPE is quickly donned while red tape is also strung across the area. I ask West if he is happy with what he is seeing and whether the objectives are being met. 'They are communicating but they have shown up some rustiness in working with each other. I think that is highlighted by the fact that a few people are working in cells, which I can understand in terms of accomplishing bite-sized tasks, but there needs to be an overriding aim to bring it all together. We have people now not gainfully employed whilst others have not finished their task. They should be redeployed to carry out this task. And this is the ideal opportunity to introduce these people, so next time this happens for real they will know each other and work together.'

This applies especially to these HVP units, which could be deployed to any part of the country at a moment’s notice. 'They may have driven five hours up the motorway to arrive at the incident. Should they be rushing into the job? That is how mistakes are made. Better to drive the five hours and then take an hour to plan it and do it right.' All these points are addressed during the working lunch, where the firefighters share their thoughts on how the exercise has gone so far. We learn that the single line ran consistently at 2,500 lpm and that the twin line achieved 5,100 lpm, not the 7,000 lpm target, even when running at maximum pressure. 'So either something went wrong with the pump or the calculator,' says West drily: 'All good. Please take on board the safety criticals. Deal with it today, and when ready get back to it.' After the exercise finished, it was confirmed that the flow rate measurement displayed by the HVP control panel had not been accurate. Hampshire FRS is now seeking to purchase a flow meter.

< FIRE & RESCUE < Fourth QUARTER 2017

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com

112 Fi


E BL 18 LA M 0 A I RO Y 2 AV F AR U N

JA

The worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s first plastic aerosol for the fire protection market

ed

ov ppr

a

Spray-Safe is lightweight, robust, easy to use and can be used at any angle with no reduction in flowrate or performance. Unlike many conventional fire extinguisher aerosols, Spray-Safe can be used effectively across many classes of fire, as opposed to just one or a select few. This removes the possibility of using the wrong type of extinguisher on a fire, which can result in devastating consequences, serious injury and even death. Spray-Safe by Firescape is fully approved by London Fire Brigade Enterprises, to be effective on small fires as a first line of defence.

In todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s world we are increasingly reliant on electronic devices and peripherals, including the many adaptors and chargers they require. Faulty or damaged electronics can result in a small fire, which if left unnoticed for any length of time can quickly develop into a home destroying and or life threatening scenario, especially in vulnerable places such as the bedroom or in the car. Spray-Safe has passed a Di-Electric test to 35KVa, ensuring it is safe to be used on live electrical equipment/installations up to 1000v from a distance of 1 meter. Never use Spray-Safe on an electrical distribution or fuse board. Class A - Combustible Materials (wood, paper, fabric etc.) Class B - Flammable Liquids (petrol, oil, paint, etc.) Class F - Cooking Oils & Fats

Electrical Fires - Live electrical equipment up to 1000v from a distance of 1 meter

Effective on small electrical fires

Convenient to store and use in the car

For more information go to www.firescape-global.com

OFFICIAL PARTNER OF, AND APPROVED BY

For use on small fires.

112 Fire & Rescue mag ad NOVEMBER.indd 1

08/11/2017 17:02


nozzles & monitors

Spearheading nozzle design Stewart McMillan from Task Force Tips, one of the pioneers of the modern firefighting nozzle, candidly discusses the state of nozzle technology and the opportunities and barriers for design in the coming years. Rick Markley reports.

W

hile working as a firefighter at a large oil refinery near Chicago in the 1950s, Clyde McMillan was badly burned when he tried to run from a naptha tank boil-over. It was a painful lesson on the limitations of his firefighting nozzle. It was also his motivation to design the first combination nozzle that could control the pressure automatically. The first prototype drawings were made on a bar napkin in 1968. Those drawings eventually led to the formation of Task Force Tips. In 1982, Clyde died and his 28-year-old son Stewart took over the company. Now, TFT is a global business with a 18,600 m2 manufacturing facility and business headquarters. After 35 years of running TFT, McMillian handed over the day-to-day operations to a president but remains CEO. F&R sat down with him to discuss his views on the global firefighting nozzle market.

How would you describe the state of the North American and global nozzle market? Chaotic, especially in North America. Nowhere else in the world do they have this crazy fascination with ‘my nozzle is better than yours’. In the rest of the world it is very standardised and you do not see all of the different types and technologies, nor do you see all the junk science. The low-pressure issue is probably the biggest one, along with the smooth-bore issue, and selectable nozzles versus automatic.

Cars evolved from a Model T with two speeds to a five-speed manual transmission to automatic transmissions. Now, automatic transmissions are regarded as the gold standard. The same evolution should have taken place with nozzles. You had smooth-bores with no controls. You had selectable nozzles with control, albeit they required a tremendous amount of communication between pump operator and nozzle man. They evolved into the automatic nozzle. There is no reason, right now, that automatic should not be the gold-standard nozzle in the fire service. In Europe it is. However, in the US, it depends on which way the wind blows, or which chief takes over. It is great for sales; I cannot complain from that standpoint. Every time they change chiefs, they change nozzles. But where’s the science? Where are the facts? I saw a guy who posted on Facebook that TFT started the trend toward low flow, which is completely backward. We were founded on high flows. The whole Syracuse experiment going to inch and three-quarter, rapid water and pre-connects was all predicated on higher flows, smaller manpower and giving the nozzle man control so he can go in at 200 gallons per minute and not get hurt by being able to throttle back. The whole foundation was higher flows. When people did not pump to them correctly, pressures got lowered, which lowered the flows. The people who didn't understand it threw the baby out with the bathwater. That is how we got to where we are today.

Top: Stewart McMillan, CEO of Task Force Tips. Right: The company headquarters in Valparaiso, Indiana, US.

22

< FIRE & RESCUE < Fourth QUARTER 2017

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com


nozzles & Monitors

Do you see the same things going on in the Asian and South Pacific markets? Australia and New Zealand exclusively use automatic nozzles. We sell manual or selectable nozzles all over the world, but primarily into industry. Industrial customers donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t expect to use these on a fire. They have compliance issues, so they are trying to balance capability with cost and they put the lower-cost nozzle in hoping it never gets used. For structural firefighting, everywhere outside the US is moving toward automatic nozzles.

Will piercing-type nozzles used to cool rooms before firefighters enter or vent become more popular? They could. We have to keep in mind that US construction does not mimic the rest of the world, especially Europe, where they have masonry walls and very tightly contained fires and they can control the oxygen. Therefore, when they put mist in there with a piercing nozzle, they really have an effective knockdown. In the US, we have so many places that air comes in. However, I still think the mist is a better way to attack a fire than to open the front door and let it flashover.

How are nozzle sales spread across municipal and industrial markets? Our sales probably consist of 70% municipal and 5% central government. The rest is industrial. That is the one area we are blocked by specifications because we do not make brass. The US Navy is still buying brass nozzles. Why? They have aluminum ships that sit in salt water, yet they wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t buy an aluminum nozzle? My dad thought that in ten years or so people would see the light in terms of aluminum over brass. However, in the industrial and governmental sectors, it never happened.

THE REEL THAT

WORKS AS

HARD AS YOU Firefighters and rescue squads demand equipment that can deliver top performance under extreme conditions.

Hannay Reels responds with: Durable construction built to outlast other brands Quicker deployment and pick-up features

How do you see those markets shaping up over the next five to ten years? After 45 years in this industry, I have never seen a big growth year. I do not think the market is sensitive to trends. It is clear that the incidence of fires is going down across the world, so if anything, I think sales are going to go down. The world has all the fire nozzles it needs if they are not wearing out. There will be a trend toward higher capability with less manpower. We continue to see increasing sales of the Blitz Fire as it can handle heavy attack with less manpower safely. If there is nobody in the building, why go in and die for it? Surround it, prevent it spreading like they do in Europe, and let it burn itself out. Sending people in there and killing them for a building that is going to be torn down is outrageous.

Small footprint for big performance in tight spaces

Made .S.A. in U.S.A.

What problems have engineers not been able to solve? The education of customers. I watched a guy the other day teach a pump operator class and I almost went to my car to get some Zoloft [depression and anxiety medication] because I was having a fit over some of the things he was saying. The fact is, people hook up the hose, they run the pressure up until somebody screams or they think it feels right, and they quit. I realised that we are teaching improperly at the fire academy. They do not need much water to fight those fires, so they are running off hydrant pressure. What impression does that give? Hey, you can pump this line at hydrant pressure and fight the fire. We should have flow restrictors in those nozzles so that they are pumping at normal pump pressure and the hose line feels the way it is going to feel, but the flow is restricted.

Y Find your local dealer:

hannay.com/Europe

D

or +1-518-797-3791

How difficult is it to have an engineering background, understand those physics, and explain it to people who are not engineers? It should not be that difficult. It is directly analogous to electricity, and people seem to understand that. If they need more current, they need

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com

Fourth QUARTER 2017 < HNY61345 FireAndRescue_275x90mm_HPV_May2017_Mech.indd 1

FIRE & RESCUE 4/5/17<11:3723 AM


nozzles & monitors

What role will nozzles play in low wateravailability areas?

Clyde McMillan drew the design of the first combination nozzle on a bar napkin in 1968. This eventually led to the creation of Task Force Tips.

That is where the automatic nozzle is so beneficial – you instantly have the correct pressure, flow and reach. You can open it, put a five-second burst on the fire and make far more efficient use of water with an automatic nozzle. For efficient use of water, the first drop needs to be at the correct pressure. There are very few places that are affected enough by water to make it of national interest.

What current nozzle technology is under used? The automatic is under used. Twenty-five years ago among cops, it was pretty evenly split between revolvers and automatic weapons. Now you look around and you are hard-pressed to find a cop carrying a revolver. Time won out. I’m just not seeing time winning out when it comes to nozzle selection because new people keep coming in and coming up with junk science. And manufacturers are not respected for their knowledge.

a bigger wire. The fact that it follows the law of squares is where people get hung up. They think if it is twice as big, it should flow twice as much; if it is twice as big, they think it should have half the loss. It does not work that way. Cut the hose size in half and the friction loss is four times the amount it was for the same flow. Another thing we hear is that smooth-bore has more reach and penetration than a fog nozzle on straight stream – that the fog stream or straight stream going through high heat evaporates and you lose all your water. But there is no evidence for this. It is like passing your finger fast through a candle; you do not get burned. There is no heat transfer. You take a stream – how far is it to a fire when you are inside a house, 30 feet, 40 feet max? This is where pressure makes a difference – the higher the pressure, the higher the velocity. That water is moving through there in a second or two. There is no time for it to absorb heat and evaporate.

What’s the biggest challenge in the monitor/deck gun market? Friction loss and how many of them are not using automatic nozzles. To have a two-inch tip on the top of a pumper pretty much eliminates the possibility of using it on the booster tank. Out of a 3,785 litre-tank (1,000-gallon tank) you can get maybe 300 or 400 gpm (1,364 lpm or 1,818 lpm) through the three-inch tank-to-pump valve. So, on a two-inch tip, which is about 1,050 gpm (4,773 lpm) at 80 psi, if you could get 530 gpm (2,409 lpm) out of the tank you would only have 20 psi nozzle pressure. More likely it will be about 300 gpm (1,364 lpm) and the nozzle pressure will be about 10 psi. You are not going to have a stream that goes more than 40 feet (12 metres). That is still good water – 300 gpm, applied at the right time can put the thing out. My dad once sold ten automatic nozzles to a chief of the Pittsburgh Fire Department. The chief said, ‘I want to tell you one thing, Clyde, I don’t ever want to see a picture of a ladder

The fire stream of the Task Force Tips Hemisphere monitor can be directed in any direction within the range of operation.

24

< FIRE & RESCUE < Fourth QUARTER 2017

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com


nozzles & monitors

on the front page of the paper dribbling a stream in the street. Will this nozzle stop that?’ He was tired of having the first water of a poorly pressured stream on the front page with the headline, ‘Firemen hampered by a lack of water’. Firefighters are never hampered by a lack of water; they are hampered by the lack of the proper sized [nozzle] to use with the water that is available. If, while the guys are getting ready, you can hit an exposed fire with a deck gun, you buy all kinds of time. And even if you don’t buy time, the public’s view of what you did is stellar. When the public sees you taking three minutes to get water on a fire, they are angry. Find me a picture in any magazine where the top stack tips have been taken off, I’ll give you $100 per picture. They buy the tips and say we will take them off when we have more water. But you know what, the stream is flowing, it is pressured to 160 pounds (72 kg) because they have all this extra capability, and nobody shuts down and takes the tip off. If you had an automatic on there, that baby would open up and take that extra flow, keep the pressure at 100 psi and if you blow a line, it would automatically come back and correct. It takes all the calculations out. Have you ever heard of the water triangle? Everybody knows the fire triangle. My dad invented the water triangle for pumping to automatic nozzles. You have three limitations: power, because you can run out of throttle; pressure, because you have reached the maximum SOP of pressure your department wants to use; and supply, because you go to zero on the compound and you are not going to suck any more out of the ground. His water triangle said that as long as you are pumping to one of those three limits with an automatic nozzle, you are doing the best for that condition that you can possibly do. Then under each of those triangle points, he listed: too much pressure, use parallel lines; hitting zero on the compound, use parallel suctions or additional feeds; out of power, need to relay pump. It was a teaching aid for pumping to automatics. You run the speed of the throttle up to where you want it and, like an automatic transmission, it adjusts and delivers the correct stream.

What’s your take on ultra-high pressure pumps and their wand-like nozzles? Like everything else, they are tools. In a confined-space fire, they are fire killers. If you have a structure that is still sealed up, like a transformer, a basement, or any place with restricted airflow, it puts out a hell of a lot of fire. It is the most efficient way to put out a fire in terms of water use. All of these high-pressure systems are on ships now; they are using 1,000-psi sprinkler systems on ships delivering very low flows of atomised water to the compartment. But, it is a closed compartment. The minute you have open venting, with that amount of water, you are peeing in the wind. That is where people can get hurt, and that is where they fell out of favour. A tool should not be blamed when it is misused. That is another education problem.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Rick Markley is the former editor-in-chief of two firefighting publications, a volunteer firefighter and fire investigator. He serves on the board of directors of and is actively involved with the International Fire Relief Mission. He has logged more than 15 years as an editor-in-chief and written numerous articles on firefighting. He can be reached at rick.markley11@gmail.com. read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com

MAXIMUM RESCUE EFFICIENCY LIFT/SHIFT

STABILIZE

SHORE

PLUS

POWERED IMPACT, FORCIBLE ENTRY & BEYOND BROWSE PRODUCTS, WATCH VIDEO & REQUEST A DEMO

paratech.com

CHECK YOUR AIR BAGS NOW

CHECK.PARATECH.COM CHECK SERIAL NUMBERS, GET AIR BAG CARE TIPS AND SCHEDULE AN IN-PERSON BAG INSPECTION

( 8 0 0 ) 4 3 5 - 9 3 5 8 • W W W. PA R AT E C H . C O M MADE IN THE U.S.A . AND USED WORLDWIDE

Fourth QuArter 2017 < FIRE & RESCUE <

25


Only human

FTG's George Taylor describes why and how human factors should take a prominent role in risk-management training for aircraft rescue and firefighting.

G

ood teamwork, effective communications, and the understanding of the full consequences of individual actions cannot be achieved without a training programme that takes human factors into account. The recent release of the most hazardous industries in the UK did not include the fire service. Why is the fire service, which many consider as a high-risk group, not in the top ten? I would argue that the reason is because the fire service is trained not only to follow procedures but also to adapt when faced with unusual circumstances, using sound judgments based on planned training, experience, and the application of safety management practices within a regulatory framework. A growth area in risk management is the field of human factors, where behavioural and organisational psychology form the basis for understanding risk and decision-making. Awareness of organisational risk, regarded by some as a management issue, applies to everyone because the effects of an individual’s action can have a major impact on the business as a whole. It is therefore imperative that risk awareness is instilled as part of the learning process.

Fatal injuries arising from accidents at work in Great Britain 2017, Health and Safety Executive • A total of 137 workers were killed at work in the UK in 2016/17. • The construction sector had the most fatalities (30), followed by agriculture (27), manufacturing (19), waste and recycling (14), and transportation and storage (14). • According to provisional figures, around three-quarters of fatal injuries in both 2016/17 and the combined five-year period 2012/13-2016/17 were accounted for by just six different kinds of accident. • Being struck by moving vehicles, falls from a height, and being struck by a moving object continue to be the three main causes of fatal injury. Between them, these accidents have accounted for over half of all fatal injuries each year since at least 2001/02. • Fatal injuries to workers are predominately to male workers. In 2016/17, 133 (97%) of all worker fatalities were male workers, a similar proportion to earlier years. • The rate of fatal injury increases with age. Workers aged 60-64 have a fatality rate almost double the all-ages rate, and workers aged 65 and over have a rate around four times greater than the all-ages rate.

26

< FIRE & RESCUE < Fourth QUARTER 2017

Within the field of risk management, human factors provide information about why a risk-based decision is made. As an example, take the fact that the travelling public have a greater fear of flying than driving on the road, where statistically there is higher risk of injury arising from accidents involving vehicles. In a training context, it is important that human factors are incorporated into risk assessment during the decision-making process in order to secure a valid outcome with effective control measures. The human tendency for error and wishful thinking can conspire to cloud decision-making; it is therefore imperative that students understand this issue not only when making a dynamic risk assessment but also when conducting analytical risk assessment. Students should be encouraged to realise that we all have limits, and that there are occasions when we have to accept that a task is beyond our capabilities and an alternative appropriate action has to be proposed. The days of blind adherence to a task’s outcome is a thing of the past and not compliant with safe working practices. An ARFF-learning programme should include human factors because this is critical to ensuring that airport firefighters understand the importance of teamwork, communication, and the need for standard operating procedures along with an awareness of the impact of their actions not only on themselves but on others with whom they are working. This is achieved by lessons on health and safety legislation, risk assessment methodology, and exercises that incorporate a mix of analytical risk assessment and dynamic risk assessment, all of which build up to a review of recent or significant incidents where the issues that delegates may face during the course of their career are discussed. This process ensures that a firefighter’s perception of risk does not lead to inappropriate decision-making where time has not been taken to identify the hazards and accompanying risks that exist. In practical terms, we initially challenge students’ understanding with one non-aircraft incident that, as it unfolds, reveals a wider scenario that aims to modify the original perceived risks. This scenario is designed to stress the need for ensuring that the tactical plan is formulated using

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com


sufficient information to achieve the required outcome effectively and safely. Other exercises typically involve an initial in-depth pre-brief session on the scenario with discussions on safety issues and safe working practices, followed by practice runs initially without fire. This is to ensure that delegates have sufficient knowledge of the hazard and awareness of the risk to be able to tackle the scenario safely and effectively as a team. Each phase is followed by a debrief session during which students are encouraged to discuss the event as well as their individual contribution to its outcome. Encouraging the students to identify what went wrong is an important feature of the learning experience as it fosters self reflection and self improvement. The instructor’s role in this process is significant – in essence, encouraging students to ‘bare all’ while contributing to the discussion in an atmosphere of positive development. Whilst to an outsider it may appear that the students are doing most of the talking, the instructor will step in where there is a need for improvement in performance or to make students aware of the consequences of individual or team failings. The subject of risk also covers personal safety, an area that must also be seriously considered by training providers. Whilst modern PPE provides excellent protection from thermal radiation it also retains body heat, which can lead to individuals unknowingly exceeding safe working limits. Data from numerous studies confirms that the physiological impact of heat exposure and hard work can be significant on human performance and, more importantly, on decisionmaking – especially in an environment that would be untenable for someone without the appropriate PPE. A number of steps are taken to address this. The issues related to heat and humidity are discussed as part of the debrief process, including the importance of team members monitoring each other for signs of heat stress. A training programme should be structured to avoid prolonged

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com

exposure to heat and students should be afforded rehydration breaks. This not only reduces fatigue but it also establishes safer working practices on the fireground. Physiological damage as a result of long-term exposure to heat and humidity are risks that are not confined to students. As a training centre, we have sufficient instructional staff to cover the full suite of courses, with courses delivered on a rota. Appropriate PPE along with thermal imaging cameras are used during exercises to monitor conditions, and adherence to the hydration policy is also applicable to the staff undertaking the training. Whilst hydration and fatigue are issues that must be considered, exposure and hypothermia can also be a very real hazard on both the training ground and during firefighting operations. Often overlooked is both the wind chill factor – an ever present characteristic of aerodromes due to their topography – and the fact that harsh weather conditions can increase the personal risk to firefighters. In extreme winter conditions it is imperative that students have access to facilities that provide hot drinks. Access to clean, dry PPE is also important because wet fire kit increases the risk of injury in simulations involving heat and can also drain heat from the body. Dry PPE ensures that students are comfortable, which enhances learning. With change inevitable in the form of emerging hazards and risks as well as new technologies being fitted in ARFF vehicles, the challenge for ARFF training providers is to continue to offer a service that is relevant and that provides a good return on investment. This may involve investing in simulators, classroom facilities, and accommodation, features that are key for the development of students who can spend several weeks away from home while in training. The overriding aim doesn’t change, however, which is to provide students with the skills, knowledge, and confidence to recognise and control the risk to themselves and others – something that is crucial for the safety of all of us.

Fourth QUARTER 2017 < FIRE & RESCUE <

27


Outfitting Schiphol The Royal Schiphol Group has placed an order for 18 new ARFF vehicles from Rosenbauer to improve the effectiveness of its airport fire services ahead of major work to expand the capacity of its airports.

A

Each of the new vehicles will be equipped with a 16.5m Stinger high-reach extendable turret.

28

msterdam, Rotterdam and Lelystad airports in The Netherlands are all set to receive new firefighting vehicles after airport operator Royal Schiphol Group placed an order with international fire service equipment outfitter Rosenbauer for 18 new ARFF vehicles. Each of the new vehicles will be equipped with 16.5m Stinger high-reach extendable turrets and high-end on-board extinguishing equipment. Amsterdam Airport is set to receive 13 Rosenbauer Panther 8x8 ARFF vehicles. Three Panther 6x6 AFRR vehicles are on their way to Rotterdam, while Lelystad will receive two new Panther 6x6 ARFF vehicles. The placement of this order is part of the Schiphol Group’s efforts to equip itself for the further growth of these three airports by significantly increasing the effectiveness of its airport fire services. Rotterdam will in future meet the fire safety requirements of an ICAO and EASA Category 8 airport, while Lelystad will meet Category 7 standards with the new vehicles. Amsterdam Airport Schiphol (ICAO Cat 10) is already one of the world’s largest aviation hubs and has a surface area of 2.8 hectares. The airport welcomes 63 million passengers a year, and in 2016 recorded 479,000 aircraft movements. It serves 322 destinations and handles around 3,000 aircraft of ICAO Category 10, which include Airbus A380 and Boeing 747-800. Work is currently underway to improve the infrastructure at this already busy airport. This includes a new terminal building, which is expected to increase capacity by 14 million passengers per year from 2023. The 13 new firefighting vehicles destined for Amsterdam Airport Schiphol are identical Panther 8x8 appliances. They are all equipped with Rosenbauer’s Stinger HRETs. They were chosen following an international selection process that included a strong emphasis on environmental performance,

< FIRE & RESCUE < Fourth QUARTER 2017

as the Schiphol Group aims to achieve zero-waste status for its airports by 2030. In addition, the group wants to see Amsterdam Airport become the most sustainable in the world. Also important in the decision to award the order to Rosenbauer were the vehicles' technical concept and priceperformance ratio. ‘These vehicles are state-of-the-art in terms of technology, safety, and ease of use, and, equipped with numerous special options, they are perfectly adapted to the conditions at Amsterdam Airport,’ says Steve John, area sales manager at Rosenbauer. 'Also of great importance to the customer was the lowest possible maintenance and service costs over the entire product life cycle.’ The new vehicles can reach a top speed of 140 kph and have special wide tyres. In conjunction with a central tyre pressure control system, this provides greater traction, especially on unpaved terrain. The vehicles also afford improved protection to the fire crews via the ECE R29/3 crash-tested cabs. And drivers are supported by state-of-the-art electronics (EBS, ADM, DWD) and a high-performance airport navigation system (EMEREC DEVS). The vehicles' extinguishing technology's key components include a high-end pump unit with an electronically-controlled around-the-pump foam proportioning system, an additional dry powder unit, two roof turrets, and an extinguishing lance (piercing tool). The main and bumper turrets can be operated with maximum power during driving, while the extinguishing lance can pierce an aircraft wall to deliver water directly into the cabin. The HRET, turret and piercing tool are operated via joysticks from the Panther cockpit. Images from both colour and thermal imaging cameras show on a display where the operators are aiming with the turret and extinguishing jet, and where they are deploying the piercing tool.

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com


Airport Fire Officers Association

Annual Conference 16-18 January 2018 Hilton, Gatwick Airport - London, UK

The key conference for thought leaders in aviation fire and rescue across the world.

IFE CPD accreditation: 11hours

Sponsored by:

If you are an aviation firefighter, ops manager/director, blue light service or anyone who has a significant part to play in emergency planning at airports, sign up now at: www.afoa.co.uk/2018conference

18 & 19 April 2018 Vliegveld Twenthe / The Netherlands ‘The number one expo on disaster, incident and crisis management’

• 50.000 m2 exhibition area • Dynamic conference programme • Over 200 exhibitors

www.exporic.nl Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com

Fourth QUARTER 2017 < FIRE & RESCUE <

29


THERMAL IMAGING CAMERAS

Clarity of view The thermal imaging camera might be the single most game-changing piece of technology to enter the modern firefighter’s arsenal, but is it being used to its full potential? Lotte Debell reports.

I Argus developed its lightweight Mi-TIC range in response to the Shirley Towers fire in the UK in 2012.

n the 25 years or so since thermal imaging camera technology first became available to firefighters, it has transformed from a bulky, high cost, highly specialist piece of equipment with limited applications to what is now considered an essential tool, and an increasingly affordable one. That progress has been made possible by a stream of technological developments, and while costs have been progressively reduced, the market has seen a steady improvement in quality. And the cameras themselves have become lighter, smaller, and more user-friendly. This trend is most graphically illustrated by the launch, just eighteen months ago, of Scott Sight, a hands-free camera integrated into a firefighter’s mask. According to John Graves, global product manager for thermal imaging at Scott Safety, firefighters in the US have been asking for a hands-free TIC for a long time. John explains that Scott Sight gives firefighters a clear, unobstructed view of their surroundings and enhances communications between different team members as everyone has a TIC view. ‘This can speed up the time that firefighters need to be in a dangerous situation and makes doing their job easier. From the firefighter’s perspective, it totally changes how they can do their job.’

Flir believes that current TIC use by fire services represents just the tip of the iceberg in terms of what this technology can do.

30

< FIRE & RESCUE < Fourth QUARTER 2017

The camera itself is, of necessity, smaller than the one used in the company’s hand-held TICs and therefore there is a performance difference. But, as Graves explains, delivering a ‘vision for every firefighter’ approach required a smaller, lighter, and more agile camera. ‘The point about Scott Sight is that it is accessible. The aim is to offer something for everyone in a facemask.’ US manufacturer Bullard has tackled the usability challenge by focusing on ergonomics. Thermal imaging product manager David Frye explains that, following feedback from customers, the company developed a camera that is small and light and fits in the palm of a hand. ‘We have found that a lot of models come in the typical pistol shape but the weight of the camera over an extended period of time can cause fatigue. So, our models are designed to be supported by the whole arm, not just the wrist.' Argus developed its lightweight Mi-TIC in 2012 following the coroner’s report on the Shirley Towers fire in the UK in which two firefighters died. The report found that had thermal imaging cameras being used, fatalities could potentially have been avoided. The Mi-TIC has sold in its thousands and European sales manager Mark Ridsdale says this was a watershed moment for the company – but he believes there is still more to be done when it comes to reducing weight. ‘When you consider what a firefighter has to carry – breathing apparatus, radio, gas sensors, and TICs – you could be looking at 40-60 kg in all. At some point, all this has to be combined to make it easier for firefighters to do their jobs and it will be interesting to see developments in this area over the next few years.’ Flir only entered the TIC market six years ago, and the company’s overriding objective was to make TICs more accessible and more widely used. In addition to its hand-held range, the company has also been developing cameras for use on vehicles and drones. The recently introduced KF6 camera can be mounted on an aerial platform, a development which Flir's Peter Dekkers believes is becoming more relevant in today’s urban environment with the increasing number of high-rise buildings.

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com


FIRETRADE EUROPE

The ONLY print directory to be circulated to both the municipal and industrial fire markets in Europe and linked to a supporting website that meets all needs for the active and passive fire industry. Why advertise in Firetrade Europe? • The only comprehensive buyers’ guide that covers both the passive and active sectors of the fire industry and provides you with a very cost-effective way of reaching the European fire market • You can advertise your products and services for 12 months to 30 European nations for a one-time cost.

To Advertise call Mike Coward +44 (0)1732 448717 m.coward@hgluk.com www.firetradeeurope.com


THERMAL IMAGING CAMERAS

Newcastle fire instructors put the Seek Thermal Reveal FirePRO through its paces The Reveal Firepro is the latest thermal imaging camera from Seek Thermal, designed as an affordable, high-resolution personal TIC. With a 320x240 thermal sensor, a 32-degree field of view, durable housing, and intuitive software, the Reveal Firepro is capable of processing one million temperature readings per second. It is the company’s most advanced hand-held personal TIC to date, and has been priced to make it affordable for fire services to equip every firefighter. John Purdy, commercial training manager at the Newcastle International Airport Training Academy, coordinated a review of the Seek Reveal Firepro by instructors at the academy. The camera was used by all instructors over a number of months in a range of testing conditions. Overall he says it was very well received. ‘The camera proved to be very user friendly. It is small and lightweight, fitting easily into an instructor’s pocket, as well as being simple and easy to use,’ says Purdy. ‘The ease with which the instructors could monitor delegates in low or zero visibility conditions was a big plus, as was the camera’s ability to stand up to the usual rough handling by firefighters.’ The instructors also liked the camera’s angled screen, which made for easy viewing and eliminated the fatigue that can accompany the use of larger, heavier thermal imaging cameras. ‘The inbuilt torch also packs a punch for such a small device, and the ease of switching from Fire Mode to Temperature Check Mode meant that a check could be kept on internal environmental conditions.’ Post-training, the camera’s screenshot facility was utilised and the images proved clear enough to be used as part of exercise debriefs. ‘Battery life was also very good, sufficient to last for multiple exercises. Recharging via USB was a quick and simple process. Overall, the the performance was excellent. At times the screen was prone to steaming up during the transition from hot to cooler conditions, but this cleared quickly. On the whole, this is an excellent camera and we found it ideal for training and operational use.’

Scott Sight from Scott Safety is a hands-free camera integrated into a firefighter’s mask designed to give firefighters a clear, unobstructed view and enhance communications between team members.

32

‘More and more crews are using elevated platforms, which often have no TICs on board. When there is lots of smoke or high temperatures, and high risk to both firefighters and people in the building, there are no tools on the platforms to help. The KF6 enables firefighters on the platform, or the commander down below, to gain a better idea of what is happening and aid with tactical decision-making.’ Flir is also working with drone manufacturer DJI to develop cameras optimised for viewing over long distances that can give firefighters an aerial perspective on a fire and how it is developing. ‘This is a new area for us and we are investing a lot of effort into development because there are such clear benefits.’ However, while manufacturers continue to focus on improving product performance and reducing costs, they share the conviction that firefighters are not yet using this technology to its full potential. Dekkers believes there are a lot of additional applications where TICs could be used to improve situation outcomes as well as return on investment for fire brigades, such as wildfire, oil spills or RTCs. Here, they can be used to assess not only how many people are/were in the vehicle and locate thrown passengers in the dark, but also to establish how recently the accident took place. This view is echoed by John Graves from Scott Safety who

< FIRE & RESCUE < Fourth QUARTER 2017

believes we will see TICs being used more frequently at RTCs and adds that they also have a role to play in understanding fire behaviours. ‘This is a really big area for fire services right now, and TICs can help to enhance our understanding of fire behaviours by reading conditions on the scene. They can help firefighters to understand what’s happening in a fire and make tactical decisions accordingly.’ ‘What the market needs is for manufacturers like us to inform customers about what else TICs can do and how they can help firefighters do their jobs more effectively,’ adds Dekkers. ‘We want to break down barriers in terms of cost and educate customers about the true value of TICs whether in smoke, fire or total darkness. TICs can tell us so much more about a fire and, if used properly, can help firefighters make much better decisions.’ Flir works with firefighter training schools because the company believes that use of TICs is part of a complete approach to fighting fires and firefighters need to be trained in how to use them in a real fire situation. This is something that is often lacking in today’s firefighter training, agrees Mark Ridsdale from Argus, who says firefighters often aren’t formally trained in TIC use and that other equipment can take priority. ‘Maybe fire services should come together to develop a training regime – we would be very interested in being involved in something like this.’ Training is such a key point because TIC use, certainly effective and safe TIC use, is not a simple matter. You cannot simply pick up a TIC and know how to use it. Interpreting the camera display is something that requires training and practise, and an awareness of how different environments and changes within the same environment can alter the way the objects, people, and heat sources are displayed. Training also needs to ensure that firefighters don’t become too reliant on TICs. As David Frye from Bullard puts it: ‘A TIC is a tool like any other, and needs to be treated as such.’ And that means learning how to use it effectively in combination with other equipment and the firefighter’s own senses. ‘There is a danger that firefighters can become over-reliant on TICs and ignore everything else,’ says John Graves. ‘They still need to ensure they look up, look around, and take in every aspect of the situation.’ Scott Safety’s X380 TIC, he adds, has a recording function that is used for training purposes, as it records what the firefighter sees and the footage can be reviewed for post-incident analysis. It’s not just training that could be improved, however. Ridsdale argues that procurement teams should consider further evaluations of thermal imaging cameras. ‘A thermal image can look fantastic in an office, but at the fire scene it could be a very different story.’ Ridsdale highlights the risks involved if fire services purchase products that just are not good enough. ‘If TICs can’t stand up to the temperatures inside a fire, or can’t display an image of the whole fire scene, they will put firefighters at risk. Firefighters need to see not just the fire but the exit points, hazards, and casualties, and if the TIC is not specifically designed for a fire situation then it is dangerous.’ There are a number of ways that manufacturers are working to ensure their products are as safe and effective for firefighters are possible. Argus, for example, uses lithium iron phosphate batteries that don’t have the same thermal

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com


runaway risks as lithium-ion. ‘Some airlines are already banning these batteries from the hold. Could they be dangerous in a fire? We don’t want to take the risk that a battery could explode.’ Scott Safety’s X series cameras are designed to withstand extreme temperatures without loss of image clarity. ‘Our cameras also have hot and cold spot trackers, critical for helping firefighters identify the hottest and most dangerous parts of a fire, but also the coolest areas for escape routes or for finding the source of a gas leak,’ explains John Graves. He adds that the technology is all driven by the core, the camera engine. ‘That is what does all the work and the picture the firefighter sees is a direct result of how that core is developed. We make our core specific for firefighters so you won’t see it in the TICs we make for industrial applications.’ Bullard meanwhile, uses its ‘voice of the customer’ facility to find solutions to customers’ problems. This has led to a number of firefighter-specific developments, including the improved image quality and battery life in the company’s new XT series. With a six-hour runtime, firefighters no longer need to worry about changing a battery in the field. And then there’s the ‘single mode’ concept. ‘This differentiates our cameras from others on the market as we have chosen to go for a single mode so that every firefighter who uses the camera knows exactly what to expect,’ explains David Frye. ‘They don’t have to worry that the last person has changed it to a different mode and there is always consistency about what they see when they use the camera. It means that every firefighter knows what the image is showing them. This has been a deliberate decision.’ Together with Flir’s focus on specialist TICs for vehicles and drones – and Dekkers believes there will be a lot more developments in this arena in the coming years – it is clear that TICs are only going to become more and more integral to the firefighter’s job. However, without proper training and

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com

purchasing procedures, this can only go so far. Fire services need to step up and make sure that they are not only purchasing the best equipment for the job but that they are using to its full capabilities.

Parrot launches all-in-one thermal imaging drone An all-in-one quadcopter thermal imaging solution that can be used by construction companies and fire and rescue services has been launched by Parrot. The Parrot Bebop-Pro Thermal is a multipurpose quadcopter with two embedded cameras, a full HD video camera and a thermal imaging camera. The Full HD 14MPx frontfacing stabilised video camera enables visual monitoring of a structure while the Flir One Pro thermal camera captures precise and detailed thermal images using the dedicated Freeflight Thermal app. Designed to be easy to set up, fly and repair, the Bebop-Pro Thermal is a compact, user-friendly and integrated solution to identify thermal activity or thermal loss with accurate data that can be used to support decision making. At any time during the flight, the pilot can switch from a thermal image to an HD image, record video footage, live stream footage, take pictures, and store captured content directly to the drone’s 32GB memory. The lightweight Flir One Pro thermal imaging camera is equipped with two sensors – an RGB sensor that captures exactly what the drone sees, and a thermal sensor that measures differences in temperature. Data from these sensors is combined by the Freeflight Thermal app to create detailed images that enable the instant identification of hot spots or thermal loss. The app transmits and analyses images captured by the quadcopter, which is controlled by the long-range remote control Parrot Skycontroller 2, directly to a connected tablet running Android (an iOS version is in development). There are three thermal imaging modes available. Standard mode displays thermal images from red (160°) to blue (10°) scale for quick identification of thermal loss. Dynamic mode adapts the thermal colour scale to the ambient temperature to provide an accurate view of thermal losses. Finally, hot spot mode is designed for use by fire safety professionals and search and rescue operations.

Fourth QUARTER 2017 < FIRE & RESCUE <

33


fire safety

Gaps in UK fire safety

JOHN GOMEZ-SHUTTERSTOCK

The Grenfell Tower Fire in London earlier this year gave rise to some troubling questions regarding the UK’s fire safety regime, writes Richard Coates.

D

isappearing official guidance on insulated core panels and conflict between assumptions in building regulation and fire-event advice to high-rise residents are just some of the issues that the disaster has highlighted. In the UK, responsibility for inspecting all premises of work for fire safety was transferred from the fire brigades to the people responsible for the buildings in 2005. The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 is the primary fire safety legislation governing all places where people work, reside, or entertain. It was backed by a series of 16 government guidance documents produced by the Department for Communities and Local Government to enable those responsible for buildings to carry out a fire risk assessment without having to employ a fire risk assessor. The first batch of guidance documents produced in 2006 included Fire safety risk assessment: offices and shops. The section on insulated core panels provides a full description of the different types of inner core panels and their flammability, from noncombustible through to highly flammable. A series of bullet points set out what would occur in a fire situation and describe exactly what happened to the exterior cladding panels at Grenfell Tower. It goes on to state: 'In areas where there is a considerable life risk, it may be appropriate to consider replacing combustible panels, providing a fire suppression system, and installing non-combustible fire breaks between panels at suitable intervals.' Later guidance documents, however, were not so comprehensive. By the time additional guidance was published, such as December 2012’s document Sleeping accommodation, the equivalent section on core panels had been cut by 50% and the section on the serious combustible nature of the polymeric flammable cores had been removed. Section 1.12 of this document, which has the same heading as in the offices and shops guidance document, has been watered down significantly. Why? And who deleted it? This has significant implications because the guidance on fire safety provisions for certain types of existing housing, produced by the Local Authorities Coordinators of Regulatory Services and directed at residential blocks such as Grenfell Tower, refers back to the RRFSO and the guidance in the December 2012 document with its watered down section 1.12 on insulated core panels.

34

< FIRE & RESCUE < fourth Quarter 2017

Much has also been made of the fact that Grenfell Tower did not have a sprinkler system installed. Across the Atlantic in Scottsdale, Arizona, a city-wide requirement for sprinkler systems in all new buildings effectively illustrates the considerable impact that sprinklers can have on fire safety. Scottsdale had a population of around 2,000 in 1952 and now has more than a quarter of a million residents. Following a period of industrial issues with the municipal fire department members, the city contracted out its fire service requirements to a private provider, Rural Metro, in 1955. A key step that reduced the number and size of fires in the city was an ordinance requiring all future buildings to have fire sprinklers. This ordinance has been in place for 32 years. The closest comparison in the UK is at Studley Green in Wiltshire where a former chief fire officer managed to get a local bylaw passed that required all social housing to have residential sprinklers. The result has been no subsequent fatalities in fires. It is widely suspected that one of the reasons that the UK lags behind the USA in fire safety is due to pressure placed on government by the construction industry – and even water companies – not to install sprinklers, with the aim of keeping building and water costs down. The situation is not as severe in Scotland, where Scottish building regulations are much stronger and sprinklers are mandated in all buildings over 18m high. Regulations in England and Northern Ireland mean that only buildings constructed since 2007 and which are taller than 30m are required to have sprinklers. This requirement wasn't applied retroactively so did not apply to Grenfell Tower, which was built in 1974. As of 1 January 2016, all new domestic premises in Wales are required to have a fire suppression system installed. Nowhere in the UK is it a requirement to retroactively fit sprinklers in existing buildings. On 19 August sprinklers extinguished a fire in a kitchen in Harbour Ridge, a high-rise block in Portsmouth, prior to fire appliances arriving. Consequently, Hampshire’s chief fire officer Dave Curry repeated his call for sprinklers in such premises: 'Time and again, sprinklers have been proven to prevent the spread of fire in buildings and drastically reduce the threat to life.' The US is way ahead of the UK in terms of sprinkler protection and a true understanding of its role in life safety. Unlike the US NFPA codes, the UK’s Building Regulations 2000 (in the introduction B1.i to the Approved document B) clearly state: 'the regulations assume that, in the design of the building, reliance should not be placed on external rescue by the Fire and Rescue Service, nor should it be based on a presumption that the Fire and Rescue Service will attend an incident within a given time.' How do these regulations square with long-standing instructions to tenants in high-rise properties to stay in place and wait for rescue in the case of fire? I have always been against this policy in such emergencies because most housing in the UK does not have sprinklers. Now is surely the time for a radical overhaul of building regulations in England and Wales. Richard Coates has 50 years of fire experience, including 22 years in UK fire brigades. He has been a firefighter, a chief fire officer and a senior course director at the Fire Service College. He spent 17 years with BP International as worldwide fire adviser, and four and a half years as fire-risk manager at the BBC. He is currently a fire-risk consultant as well as chair of BSI committee FSH/2 Portable fire equipment, and a volunteer first responder and governor with South Central Ambulance Service.

read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com

Future


Future Fleet Forum 2018 Brought to you by LAPV, CILT, The City of London and the City of New York 24 January 2018: Guildhall, City of London 25 January 2018: City of London Corporation Offices, City of London

Brought to you by

Raising international standards for public sector fleet managers The LAPV Future Fleet Forum will bring together Fleet and Transport Managers from the public sector and its contracting organisations, to address key challenges faced by our industry, including procurement issues, compliance, safety, and sustainability.

Future Fleet Awards 2018 Have you got what it takes to be the best in the industry? Wednesday 24 January 2018 | Guildhall, City of London, UK For more information email am.knegt@hgluk.com

Exhibiting and Sponsorship Opportunities Please contact Jason Pidgeon today at +44 (0) 20 7973 4645 | j.pidgeon@hgluk.com Sponsors

FLEET SERVICES LTD

www.futurefleetforum.co.uk Future Fleet18 ad for fire & rescue.indd 1

02/08/2017 15:36


WILDLAND FIREFIGHTING

Above and beyond

The US Department of the Interior is demonstrating the huge potential of unmanned aircraft systems to assist firefighters with wildfire suppression. Michael Davis reports from the Parker 2 Fire in California.

E Above: DOI UAS Pilot Steven Stroud and a technician review the UAS flight data. Below:Stroud points out terrain features while holding a 3DR Robotics Solo Smart Drone.

36

very time I hear the words ‘drone’ and ‘wildland fire’ in the same sentence, an image of the US Forest Services' well publicised 'If you fly, we can't' poster immediately comes to mind. Civilian drone operators have shut down fire suppression activities on a number of wildfires across the US, putting lives and property at risk so that they can capture video footage of the fire or its aftermath. That is why I was intrigued this summer when I learned that the US Department of the Interior (DOI) was using its unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) to assist firefighters on the Parker 2 Fire near Alturas, California. I promptly convinced my superiors that I should be sent out to document the DOI's contribution to suppression efforts. I caught up with the DOI crew on a windy hilltop inside the Parker 2 Fire perimeter. DOI UAS pilot Steven Stroud and a technician were working at a folding table strewn with laptop

< FIRE & RESCUE < Fourth QUARTER 2017

computers and high-tech camera equipment. On the rocky ground around them sat cases holding various UAS. Both Steven Stroud and his partner are DOI-trained UAS pilots and National Wildfire Coordinating Group (NWCG) qualified wildland firefighters. The NWCG certification is important for two reasons. Firstly, as wildland firefighters, they understand their mission and can interpret the data they gather. Secondly, without NWCG wildland line qualifications, they would not be allowed to work within the fire perimeter. Stroud is passionate about his work with the DOI. He recognises that he is a pioneer in a technology that will revolutionise how we fight wildland fires. He explained that in the United States, the Federal Government oversees about 640 million acres of Public Lands. The DOI is responsible for the management of over 500 million of those acres. With this much ground to cover, the DOI has by necessity always been open to creative ways to achieve its management objectives, and has long been at the forefront of the use of aircraft for missions, such as wildlife monitoring, hydrology, geological and geophysical surveys. Today the DOI is using UAS to augment its governmentowned and commercially-contracted aircraft fleet. The department has determined UAS are more suitable for many missions than manned aircraft, achieving superior results without putting pilots at risk, and doing so at substantial savings over conventional aircraft. In large part, credit for the success of the DOIs UAS programme has to go to Steven Stroud's boss, Mark Bathrick, director at the Offices of Aviation Services at the DOI. Director Bathrick served 25 years as a US Navy fighter pilot and was involved with the design, acquisition, and testing of drones for the US Navy. Director Bathrick was recently recognised with an Industry Heroes award from the Commercial Drone Alliance for his contributions toward the broader adoption of drones for commercial applications. Under his leadership, the DOI has become a leader in the domestic use of UAS, employing UAS for more than 25 distinct mission applications and executing in excess of 12,000 flights.

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com


WILDLAND FIREFIGHTING

Even with the DOI's extensive pedigree in UAS operations, the Parker 2 Fire was a milestone in the history of the use of UAS in wildland firefighting. First of all, airspace above major wildfires is restricted to suppression aviation activity. Commercial and civilian aircraft are prohibited from entering the airspace. This prohibition is called a TFR (Temporary Flight Restriction). In an unprecedented show of cooperation between the US Forest Service, DOI and the Federal Aviation Authority, the FAA not only granted permission for DOI UAS pilot Steven Stroud to operate his UAS inside the TFR, but also issued a 24-hour Certificate of Authorisation allowing Stroud to fly his aircraft beyond line of sight. This was the first time the FAA had allowed UAS flight ‘beyond visual line of sight,’ or BVLS as it is referred to in FAA standards on a wildland fire. Stroud had smaller UAS equipment as well – a portable This special permission enabled Stroud to fly his UAS along 3DR Robotics Solo Smart Drone. The Solo and its gear is small a pre-programmed grid pattern, travelling over 19 miles and enough to carry in a backpack and can be deployed from scanning more than 500 acres. The fixed-wing UAS was anywhere. It is piloted using a control panel and an iPad. outfitted with a high-resolution, radiometric infrared, computercontrolled camera. The camera snapped photos at precise intervals as it flew, each photo slightly overlapping the last. When the UAS returned to its launch point, Stroud downloaded the data to a computer and used a specialised geographic information system programme to align and join the hundreds of individual photos to create one, three-dimensional, topographical, infrared map of the 500-acre plot. The high-resolution map is threedimensional. It can be turned on its axis, allowing the user to zoom in, change the angle of view and see fine detail. The system's infrared sensing capabilities catalogue surface temperatures to pinpoint the location of hot spots. The 500-acre scan that Stroud created took only 34 minutes of flight time. The data he was able to gather in just over half an hour would have taken a crew of 20 wildland firefighters days to complete by hiking the mountainous the area. In this case, Stroud's objective was to locate remaining heat sources and gather information on the effects of the fire. His equipment is also capable of accurately determining the perimeter of a fire to provide information used to improve mapping and calculate acres burned. For the mapping operation, Stroud We offer a full range of Internationally Approved, used a Firefly6 Pro from Birds Eye View High Performance, Environmentally Compatible Fire Aerobotics. The Firefly6 is a large Fighting Foams. fixed-wing drone. It can carry a substantial camera and sensor payload STHAMEX®-Class A and can remain airborne for an NEW Induction at 0.5%, EN1568 pt3 Certified, extended period. It can take off and land Perfect for CAF‘s and forest fire fighting vertically, hover and manoeuvre like a multicopter, and transition to efficient 24h Emergency Service +49 40 7361680 www.sthamer.com forward flight. This type of UAS technology is regularly used by the DOI for wildlife monitoring, archaeological www.facebook.com/Dr.Sthamer surveys, and even tracking volcanic activity.

The portable 3DR Robotics Solo Smart Drone and all its gear can be carried in a backpack and deployed from anywhere.

FOAM

FIGHTS

FIRE

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com

Fourth QUARTER 2017 < FIRE & RESCUE <

37


WILDLAND FIREFIGHTING

Left: The Firefly6 Pro is a large fixed-wing drone that can carry a substantial camera and sensor payload and remain airborne for an extended period. Right: Tracking the progress of the UAS as it travels over fire area.

Wildland fire crews are routinely sent into rough country to investigate lightning strikes with only an approximate idea of where the fire might be. Currently, they look for smoke and then climb and hike their way toward the last sighting. This is difficult, time-consuming, and dangerous work. If these crews were outfitted with one of Stroud's backpack infrared sensing drone kits, they could scan large swathes of forest and mountain from a single vantage point. This technology would increase safety by reducing the amount of time the crew spends hiking in rough terrain, and reduce costs through faster location of hot spots. UAS could also help with aerial ignition activities. Typically, aerial ignition for a burnout operation is carried out with a plastic sphere dispenser (PSD) mounted in a helicopter. The PSD is loaded with one-inch plastic spheres commonly referred to as ping-pong balls. These balls are filled with potassium permanganate powder. The operator sets the PSD to drop the number of ping-pong balls required in a given interval, then just before the spheres are ejected, the PSD machine injects each one with a small amount of glycol. This triggers a chemical reaction, and within 30 to 40 seconds the spheres ignite. Ariel ignition operations require a great deal of experience and skill, both for the helicopter pilot and the PSD operator. The pilot has to fly slowly and low, something any pilot will tell you is a dangerous manoeuvre in a helicopter and leaves the pilot little room for error. The PSD operator must be able to

take the distance to the ground and the speed of the helicopter into account so that he drops just the right number of ping-pong balls into the fuel bed. Too few and he may get a patchy burn and not create an effective fire break, too many and he may trigger more intense fire behaviour than is desired. All these factors combine to make aerial ignition a costly and dangerous job. Today UAS are being designed and tested that are capable of aerial ignition. The drones that have been tested thus far carry only a dozen or so spheres and therefore have limited ignition ability. But, when you consider the cost of traditional aerial ignition, and factor in the mitigation of risk to pilot and crew, operating a swarm of UAS for aerial ignition makes sense both from an economic and risk management perspective. Another way that UAS can help wildland firefighting in the near future is in the critical area of communications. No afteraction report from any modern tragedy fire fails to list communication problems as a contributing factor. Currently, fire teams in remote locations must rely on hilltop radio repeaters. Radio coverage dead spots are created due to terrain masking. High mountains block the radio signals, and they don't reach into narrow canyons. Radio repeater equipment carried by a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;relay droneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; circling at a fixed altitude above the fire area would not be subject to the limitations of hilltop repeaters. Furthermore, these drones could also relay real-time data and video, thereby enhancing the situational awareness of firefighters on the ground. The cost of fire suppression is rising every year, quickly outpacing the budgets of agencies charged with managing these fires. In 1985, the combined cost of fire suppression for the USFS and DOI was just under US$234 million. By 2016 that figure had grown to US$1.9 billion. As more homes are constructed in the urban interface, the cost of fire suppression will continue to spiral upward. We must embrace technologies such as UAS to help us operate more safely, improve efficiency and reduce costs.

About the Author: Michael Davis is a firefighter and public information officer with the Elk Creek Fire Protection District in Conifer, Colorado. He also serves as lead public information officer for the Colorado Wildland Fire and Incident Management Academy, as well as being part of the Jefferson County Type III Incident Management Team (Jeffco Type III IMT).

US Forest Service campaign poster warning civilian drone operators of the risks of interfering with fire suppression activities.

38

< FIRE & RESCUE < Fourth QUARTER 2017

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com


INTRODUCING

THE NEW, PATENT PENDING

SINGLE LANE MAX TANK

MAX CAPACITY FOR SINGLE LANE TANK SHUTTLE OPERATIONS ON NARROW ROADS

The SINGLE LANE MAX gives you 2.5 Xs capacity of a standard tank without obstructing water tender traffic!

Call TODAY to see how the SINGLE LANE MAX TANK can help YOUR department!

STANDARD AND CUSTOM SIZES AVAILABLE


A cleaner future A vehicle decontamination protocol has been devised for fire brigades that want to ensure their firefighting vehicles are free of legacy contamination from perand polyfluoroalkyl substances in aqueous film-forming foam. Lotte Debell reports.

T

Fire brigades that want to operate in a fluorine-free environment need to consider the possibility of legacy contamination in their trucks. © Shutterstock/ Lumppini

40

he new 30-stage decontamination and verification process that is designed to make appliances PFAS-free was presented by Dr Peter Nadebaum during a PFAS contamination seminar in London on 5 July 2017. The protocol is designed for fire brigades that aim to operate in a totally fluorine-free environment. As part of the process, they have to consider the potential for legacy contamination by PFAS chemicals in their fire trucks. Simply transitioning to fluorine-free foams is not sufficient on its own, nor does it deal with the legacy contamination issue quickly enough. Which is why GHD has developed a PFAS decontamination protocol for fire trucks. Dr Nadebaum, senior principal – environment at GHD, explained that the revelations of the contamination at the Fiskville firefighter training facility in Victoria, Australia, and the subsequent inquiry, prompted the Metropolitan Fire and Emergency Services Board in Victoria to decide that it needed to transition to a fluorine-free operation for the protection of its firefighters, the public, and the environment. The problem, however, is that historic use of AFFF containing chemicals such as PFOS and PFOA may not only have already caused contamination in areas where it was used intensively, but it could continue to do so through residual contamination in fire trucks, particularly raw foam tanks in older appliances. GHD has conducted a survey of vehicles across a number of fire services in Australia, and has found that legacy contamination is common. 'Residual contamination in fire trucks will result in traces of PFOS and PFOA in the water, which may be discharged into the environment and may contaminate land and groundwater,' said Dr Nadebaum. He also highlighted the danger to personnel, which extends not only to firefighters, who come into contact with the raw concentrate or the fire water during firefighting activities, but also to maintenance personnel

< FIRE & RESCUE < Fourth QUARTER 2017

servicing the trucks’ engines, pumps, and other components. The first challenge to developing a vehicle decontamination protocol was determining the criteria. GHD worked with fire and rescue organisations to establish levels of PFAS that firefighters may potentially come into contact with during activities such as maintenance, training and fighting fires, determining that maintenance crews and fire training officers have the greatest likelihood of coming into contact with PFAS. Then it was a case of setting the criteria for residual PFOS and PFOA based on tolerable daily intake levels used for public health with an additional safety factor. 'We looked at the human health risks and opted for conservative levels of these chemicals,' said Dr Nadebaum. 'At the same time, we confirmed these levels would be acceptable for discharge into the environment and for fire training, so the criteria was developed to be protective of the environment as well as personnel.' For the decontamination itself, GHD has developed a 30-stage decontamination and verification process designed to ensure that appliances can be made safe and returned to service. The process works through all the internal equipment and vehicle systems including the raw foam tanks – where contamination has been commonly found – pumps and feed lines, delivery systems, removable components such as hoses, connectors, uptake and transfer hoses, and halo, groundspray, and deluge systems. The complex process is further complicated by issues associated with both the chemicals and the workings of the trucks. These include the toxic nature of PFAS foam and the attendant health and safety concerns, and the need to carefully manage waste foam and waste water from the decontamination process. Other issues include the fact that fire trucks come in lots of different configurations and often have raw foam in one

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com


firefighting foams

or both tanks. These tanks are rarely cleaned and usually just topped up, even if the switch to modern foams has taken place. Finally, there needs to be a post-decon test regime and tracking system that documents the process and certifies the vehicle as safe to go back into service. It is also important to find a safe place to carry out the decontamination. Dr Nadebaum explained that in Australia trucks are taken to a specially constructed facility where the removable components such as hoses and ladders can be stripped for separate decontamination, while the trucks go into a bund system so the raw foam can be pumped out and the tanks can be flushed and cleaned. During this process, cross-contamination is avoided through the use of colour-coded pumps and pipelines, while components such as filters are dismantled to enable solidified foam to be removed. The tanks themselves are flushed in a controlled manner to avoid foam creation, using a slow flow of temperaturecontrolled water. The waste water generated from flushing is collected for processing and disposal. The pump systems, lines and foam injectors are flushed clean using a multi-part manifold specially designed for the purpose. On-board components such as truck-mounted hose reels and groundspray systems are also flushed, and where halo system are fitted, the trucks are contained within a polythene sheet while the halo is purged. Meanwhile, components like pick-up hoses and connectors that are detachable are cleaned in the bund using another specially designed tool – a pressure hose with a spinning head. Then the truck itself and its interior voids are pressure washed. Again, waste water from this process is collected.

Truck hoses have to be cleaned both internally and externally. A series of specially designed hose washing units handle the external decon, while a water recycling pod is used for internal decon, which cycles high-pressure water through the hoses for 30 minutes. Dr Nadebaum explained that samples are tested throughout the process to check that the desired levels of contaminants are being achieved. More samples are taken at the end of the decontamination for further testing, including water samples from each tank, the truck-mounted hose reels, and the monitor. 'The waste foam product and waste water that results from the decontamination can be problematic,' explained Dr Nadebaum, because of both its volume – each truck can generate between 6,000 and 8,000 litres – and the residual contaminants it contains. 'This water needs to be treated, and we opted for high-temperature destruction. However, as this is expensive, it is important to minimise the volume of waste water that is sent off for destruction.' The waste foam product has to be destroyed at a high-temperature destruction facility, but the waste water can be re-concentrated by passing it through a series of activated carbon filters. 'This strips out the PFAS foam and can achieve sub part-per-billion results in the treated waste water. This means that it can be disposed of as trade waste at much lower cost. Only the carbon filters then need to go to the destruction facility.' Once properly completed, this decontamination protocol will ensure that any residual PFAS contamination in the vehicles is at a threshold level that subject matter experts have determined will not pose a risk to either personnel or the environment, and is more effective than simply transitioning to modern, fluorine-free foams.

Affordable, High-Resolution Personal TIC Introducing Reveal FirePRO, our newest high-resolution thermal imaging camera for firefighting with a 320 x 240 thermal sensor and intuitive software, priced to equip every firefighter in the world.

320 x 240 Thermal Sensor

IP67 Rating Durable Housing

32° Field of View Wide Angle

thermal.com

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com

Fourth QUARTER 2017 < FIRE & RESCUE <

41


firefighting foams

Fluorine-free foams – a viable alternative?

With ongoing concerns about aqueous film-forming foams, Jan-Erik Jönsson and John-Olav Ottesen from Dafo Fomtec look at the trends, performance, concerns, and outlook for fluorine-free foams as a viable alternative in firefighting systems.

F Is the firefighting industry ready to replace AFFF? John-Olav Ottessen and Jan-Erik Jönsson believe that it is not possible to make recommendations as yet, because there are too many unknowns. ©Shutterstock

42

luorine-free foams are not new. They have been on the market for longer than aqueous film-forming foams, and were first developed from protein sources around 80 years ago. The first synthetic FFFs came about approximately 70 years ago when synthetic surfactants became available. However, as fluorine chemistry developed in the 1960s and fluoro-surfactants became available, AFFFs with very high fire performance were developed. At this time FFFs were mainly used for multipurpose, HiEx, and Class A foam types. As a result of their high fire performance, AFFFs were widely used in many applications, including training. However, this often took place without any protective or containment measures in place, and in some cases led to contamination of ground and water systems in the surrounding areas with fluorinated surfactants. At the time, the most commonly used fluoro-surfactant was PFOS, which is now known to be persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic. Today, only alternative fluoro-surfactants based on C6-chemistry or short-chain fluoro-surfactants are used in AFFFs. While these have a better environmental profile and are not found to be toxic or bioaccumulative, there is still a

< FIRE & RESCUE < Fourth QUARTER 2017

question mark over the persistence of these substances, and the potential consequences of their uncontrolled release into the environment. As a result there is a certain amount of reluctance on the part of authorities to use these compounds, which have also been the subject of increasing restrictions in the last few years. This has led to a marketdriven development of alternatives to aqueous film-forming foams that can still offer high fire performance. The fire performance of FFFs about 15-20 years ago was not very impressive. However, since the ban on PFOS was introduced 2001, significant resources have been put into research and development of fluorine-free foams with fire performance comparable to AFFFs. These days, the best FFFs on the market have a fire performance on a level with AFFFs under test conditions and development is ongoing. So, can fluorine-free foams replace AFFFs? It is not yet possible to make such a recommendation as there are still too many unknowns with today’s FFFs. For a start, modern FFFs with a high fire rating are non-Newtonian liquids, meaning they have high viscosity – frequently above 3,000 MPa – while AFFFs for hydrocarbon fuels have low viscosity, often below 10 MPa. Therefore, switching from a Newtonian

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com


firefighting foams

aqueous film-forming foam to a non-Newtonian fluorine-free foam would require a full system makeover, including the replacement of the injection system. Secondly, the fuel compatibility of AFFFs – the ability to be effective on many different types of fuel – is well documented. This is down to the fluoro-surfactants in the foam. Fluorine-free foams, on the other hand, which do not have fluoro-surfactants, have been found to be more sensitive to different types of fuels. As an example, a fluorine-free foam may have high fire performance on heptane but is not effective against jet fuel or kerosene. A foam of the AFFF-type will work on both types of fuel. Thirdly, the fire performance of fluorine-free foams appears to be sensitive to the expansion of the foam during application. While a number of fire standards, such as EN1568, ICAO and IMO Circ 1312, specify nozzles that provide good expansion – 6-10 depending on the foam type – a lot of applications use foaming devices that give quite poor expansion, typically around 4-5. A high-performance aqueous film-forming foam will offer good extinction burnback resistance at both high and low foam quality, with expansion of between 7 and 3.5, but this is not the case for an FFF. Table 1 shows the difference between an AFFF and an FFF tested according to UL 162 with two different foam qualities (FQ) using heptane as fuel. In UL 162, the foam quality is adjusted to fit full-scale foaming devices and the test is more representative of a real situation. The results shown are from a test carried out by Fomtec at the Research Institute of Sweden in Borås, Sweden, in 2016. It was witnessed and approved by both Underwriters Laboratories and FM Global. Note that the

Table 1

AFFF was applied with 7.6 lpm while the FFF was applied with 11.4 lpm in accordance with UL 162. The results in the table demonstrate that when the foam quality is sufficiently high (expansion at 7.5), the fluorine-free foam passes the test without any problems. However, when the foam quality decreases to an expansion of 4.4, the same foam fails the test. While it does extinguish the fire, it struggles for a long time and fails in the burnback. When the stove-pipe was lifted, it took only a few second before there was a flashover and the thin foam layer was destroyed. It is also worth noting the difference in the amount of foam used to achieve 90% control and extinction. In both cases, roughly half the amount of AFFF premix was required to achieve extinction compared to the FFF. The same pattern has been seen in several other investigations. All in all, this indicates that there is a ‘sweet spot’ in terms of foam quality and application density that needs to be met for a fluorine-free foam to be most effective, whereas this is not the case for an AFFF. It is also the case the many current systems are not suitable for use with FFF, as the application rate is too low and discharge devices give an expansion far below what is required by FFFs. Both of these points need to

When the foam quality is sufficiently high (expansion at 7.5), the fluorine-free foam passes the test without any problems. However, when the foam quality decreases to an expansion of 4.4, the same foam fails the test.

Our employees fight fire and so do our products My name is Magnus. I am working with product development at Fomtec. This picture is from a fire test in Sweden. Follow us if you want to find out more about me, the Fomtec way and all our products.

Follow us

Twitter @ fomtec Facebook Dafo Fomtec AB Webpage www.fomtec.com

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com

Fourth QUARTER 2017 < FIRE & RESCUE <

43


firefighting foams

rigorous foam review The Lastfire Group has completed its testing of the performance capabilities of current fluorine-free and C6 fluorosurfactantbased foam concentrates for storage tank fire applications. This independent, end-user driven review involved almost 200 tests. These have taken place under the control of end users working with foam suppliers. The final phase of testing was carried out at the GESIP training facility in France. It involved the ‘real life’ application of foam to an 11m-diameter tank using NFPA guidelines and industry best practice to allow for foam losses. The application techniques included aspirated and unaspirated monitors, system pourers and a CAFS generator. Drones were used to record the tests in addition to ground level equipment. This was the third phase of testing in the review. The first phase involved the development of test protocols, while the second phase saw tests carried out in a simulated bund fire scenario. This comprehensive and rigorous review has cost in excess of 500,000 Euros (US $580,000) contributed by Lastfire and the foam suppliers involved in the project. Lastfire expects that the results, when combined with its work on Cradle to Grave Foam Assurance, will represent a major step towards developing long-term sustainable policies for storage tank firefighting. The test results will be subject to internal review prior to general publication. To find out more about Lastfire’s work or the details of the companies involved, contact Lastfire at info@lastfire.org or visit www.lastfire.org.uk.

The results of the Lastfire review will represent a major step towards developing long-term sustainable policies for storage tank firefighting.

be taken into account when changing from an AFFF to an FFF. In fixed installations, for example storage tank protection systems, the use of a containment system to handle water run-off is strongly recommended, irrespective of whether the foam is fluorine-free or an AFFF. The run-off water will contain pollutants from the fire itself that are classified as persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic substances, and are frequently considered carcinogenic. Examples of such pollutants include benzene, toluene, phenol, dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These are substances that should not be released into the environment, but instead must be contained for later destruction. In such cases, any

firefighting foam can be used since it will be contained. In conclusion, some contemporary FFFs do have high fire performance and pass international fire test standards – at least on the test fuels. And, if necessary, the implementation of measures such as increased application rate and sufficient expansion, mean FFFs can be used as alternatives or replacement for AFFFs. However, there are still concerns about fuel compatibility and performance on major fires, therefore it is still recommended that well-proven AFFFs are used for critical industrial installations where several different kinds of flammable liquids are used and the foaming devices might deliver low foam qualities.

About the Authors: John-Olav Ottesen (left) has over 25 years of experience with firefighting agents with a special focus on foam. He is the managing director at Dafo Fomtec, which he founded in early 2001. Back then it was a one-man show with a focus on the Nordic countries and northern Europe. Today it is a global company with 20 employees. Jan-Erik Jönsson (right) is chief chemist/R&D manager at Dafo Fomtec and has a PhD in Chemical Engineering from Lund University. He has over 25 years of experience in industrial research and in product development, the last eight of which have been at Dafo Fomtec. He joined the company 2009 and is responsible for product development.

44

< FIRE & RESCUE < Fourth QUARTER 2017

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com


breathing apparatus

BA breathing techniques What is the ideal breathing technique for firefighters on the fireground? Luca Parisi from Trentino Fire School in Italy explains the mechanics of respiration and the techniques firefighters can employ when using breathing apparatus to maximise their respiratory efficiency.

I

t is very difficult to find a definitive answer to the question of how firefighters should breathe when using breathing apparatus. There are general indications, but these are rarely specific for rescue operations, and that is because breathing using BA is just not the same as breathing normally. There are a few significant differences that modify the physical responses of users. Using BA, a firefighter has to change the way they breathe. The main differences encountered when using BA include a limited air supply. Cylinders provide us with a specific and finite amount of air and this must be exploited, not wasted. Then there is an increase in energy expenditure. By analysing the combined effects of the BA and EN469compliant PPE, Sykes1 observed an increase of about 33% in energy expenditure. The other things that increase are oxygen uptake, heart rate and air consumption. Borghols et al.2 analysed how carrying heavy weights on the back influences the cardiorespiratory function. This study measured O2 uptake, heart rate, and pulmonary ventilation. The authors reported that they observed minimal variations when at rest and still. The results are very different when walking or climbing a ladder. The study found that for every kilogram of weight carried, oxygen uptake increases by 0.03 litres per minute, heart rate increases by 1.1 beats per minute, and pulmonary ventilation increases by 0.6 lpm. If you consider the fact that PPE and BA together can weigh up to 25kg, these increases are significant. These three points alone illustrate just how important it is

that firefighters learn the correct breathing technique for use with breathing apparatus. This will ensure that every litre of air in the cylinder is fully exploited and it is not simply allowed to ‘come through’ the exhalation valve. With this in mind, it is important to consider a fundamental question – why do we breathe? The answer is that we have to breathe in order to constantly supply one of the reagents of the reaction upon which life is based: cellular respiration.

Respiration Physiologically speaking, respiration refers to both external and internal (or cellular) respiration. External respiration is the process responsible for maintaining the right ratio between oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the cells. Cellular respiration is the process that transforms nutrients into energy. In order to transform the energy of nutrients, cells carry out cellular respiration. Cellular respiration is an exothermic redox process that consists of a series of reactions. Energy production requires a continuous supply of oxygen and creates carbon dioxide.

The importance of CO2

A high level of CO2 is a sign of increased cellular activity and therefore of a higher need for oxygen. This is why the rhythm and depth of breath intensifies. Our receptors often have a very low level of tolerance to CO2 concentration and, as a result, the efficiency of the exchanges between oxygen and carbon dioxide decrease.

Breathing with BA is not the same as breathing normally, so firefighters need to learn to change the way they breathe with using this equipment. © APT

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com

Fourth QUARTER 2017 < FIRE & RESCUE <

45


breathing apparatus

be eliminated – is excessive and harmful if you are not undertaking intense physical activity. Take as an example when firefighters receive an alarm. In this instance, the body reacts according to a primal instinct – the so-called 'fight or flight' response. It is as if you are exposed to some kind of danger that will require intense physical activity. This triggers the impulse to breathe excessively in preparation for an activity that does not actually occur, possibly because it is only a false alarm. However, the frequency of these daily stress events can lead to a phase change in a firefighter’s breathing rhythm, which permanently becomes a little more intense than necessary, even when sleeping.

Breathing techniques that help to conserve air For our own health and safety and that of others, as firefighters we must optimise our respiration when using BA. There are a number of techniques that I have learned in my time as both a firefighter and as an instructor that can be used to optimise respiration.depending on the working conditions and physical effort required.

The combined effects of BA and EN469compliant PPE lead to an increase of around 33% in energy expenditure. © APT

46

Once introduced into our lungs, oxygen has to get into the blood and then has to be absorbed by the cells of the tissues in all our organs. The presence of CO2 helps the release of oxygen from haemoglobin to the cells of tissues.3 The shortage of carbon dioxide, which our low tolerance level made us eliminate, prevents the correct passage of oxygen to our tissues. Thus, carbon dioxide is not only a waste product, but it is also essential to enabling the passage of oxygen from blood to cells. We work at our best when we have a high level of CO2 tolerance and when we also activate our respiratory centre in such a way that by unloading the CO2 in excess it can reduce our heart rate. This seems impossible to achieve. The greatest efficiency is achieved when our body tolerates high levels of CO2, which fosters the release of oxygen from blood to tissues. Yet, at the same time, we need to foster the exhalation phase in order to unload the CO2 that is produced, reducing our heart rate as a consequence. However, we are more likely to find ourselves in a situation where we have a low level of CO2 tolerance, and hyperventilation occurs because of the prevalence of inhalation on exhalation. The result is a chain reaction, which makes sure that CO2 is eliminated before it reaches optimal values. When working on the fireground with breathing apparatus, this means we will ‘throw away’ the entire available air supply – unless the cycle is interrupted. It is important to take this properly into account. It means that, in a situation that requires us to increase our breath rate, we have to act on the depth and efficacy of the exhalation phase in order to reduce our heart rate. More oxygen to accomplish our work and poor tolerance to carbon dioxide = hyperventilation. But what does ‘hyperventilate’ mean? Rather than ‘breathing too much’, it means breathing in a way that is excessive and not adequate for the needs of our body. The breathing technique that would be adequate during physical activity – when the body produces an amount of CO2 that must in part

< FIRE & RESCUE < Fourth QUARTER 2017

In through the nose, out through the nose Breathing in and out normally through the nose allows us to maximise our respiratory efficiency. Breathing in through the nose helps to increase air humidity and temperature and foster diaphragmatic breathing. In turn, the use of the diaphragm allows for deeper breathing that involves the most vascularised part of the bronchi. It also requires less energy as the movement of the diaphragm doesn’t cause any other part of the body to move, in contrast with chest breathing (when the chest moves outwards and the head upwards). Breathing in through the nose also reduces the possibility of shortness of breath, which is the major danger for users of BA. It fosters a deeper breathing, which causes a decrease in the heart rate and an increase in fatigue resistance, which is important on the fireground. Finally, it delivers more blood to the inferior organs. Breathing out through the nose helps reduce the amount of CO2 dispersed because of exhalation and reduces the amount of water dispersed. A firefighter’s PPE means that the sweat produced by our body can’t evaporate and leads to inefficient thermoregulation. It is essential to keep the body well hydrated, and breathing out through the nose reduces by half the amount of water expelled from the body compared with breathing out through the mouth. Always employing this technique allows us to meet two different goals. In the short term, it allows us to achieve the highest efficiency in terms of air consumption and energy production. In the long term, it gets the body used to higher levels of CO2. Little by little, the body’s level of CO2 tolerance will rise. When breathing only through the nose is not enough on its own, there are two options. The first is to reduce your workload. It is often sufficient to simply slow down and maintain high levels of respiratory efficiency. However, if this is not possible, you should change your breathing technique. In through the nose, out through the mouth Known as R-EBT, this technique was developed by Kevin J Reilly4 and R-EBT stands for Reilly Emergency Breathing Technique. Using this technique, you breathe in normally through the nose and breathe out through the mouth, partially opening it and extending the exhalation.

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com


bREAthing AppARAtus

Luca Parisi from Trentino Fire School. He says firefighters need to practise breathing techniques at rest and during training sessions.

As you can see, nothing complicated is required. What is distinctive about this technique is the fact that you breathe in through the nose and out through the mouth. By partially opening your mouth you extend the exhalation phase. The advantages of breathing in through the nose are the same as with the previous technique. Opening the mouth to breathe out allows you to decrease the level of CO2, which would otherwise force your body to increase its rate of respiration. Therefore, in order to react to a higher workload that prevents you maintaining the optimal breathing technique (nose-nose), you can extend the duration of the exhalation phase by using your mouth. In through the nose, out through the mouth. In case of emergency, skip breathing This technique must only be used in an emergency situation. It is an extreme solution. The technique consists of breathing in normally through the nose; taking a short pause (it must not be stressful); breathing in normally through the nose; taking a short pause (it must not be stressful); breathing out through the mouth, partially opening it and extending the exhalation. This technique involves breathing in and holding your breath. When you feel you need to breathe out, you take another breath in and then exhale slowly. After breathing out, hold your breath again until you feel the need to breathe. You must not hold your breath until you feel uncomfortable. The length of the pause varies from person to person. Why should this technique be used only in emergencies? The answer is that the one and only purpose of this breathing

Sykes K (1993). Comparison of conventional and light BA cylinders. Fire International 140, Sept, 23-24;

1

Borghols EAM, Dresen MHW, Hollander AP (1978). Influence of heavy weight carrying on the respiratory system during exercise. EurJAppl Physiol 38:161-169

2

technique is as a life-saving tool, and not as a means of improving work performance. Even if the technique itself is relatively simple, the mental concentration required is considerable.

Conclusions These few simple skills should be understood by all firefighters and practised while at rest and in training. You do not want to find yourself in a situation where you need to put theory into practice without first having mastered these techniques. The knowledge and understanding of just what working with breathing apparatus on the fireground means is the best weapon a firefighter can have.

http://www. pathwaymedicine.org/ bohr-effect

3

http://www. fireengineering.com/ articles/print/ volume-161/issue-4/ features/rethinkingemergency-airmanagement-the-reillyemergency-breathingtechnique.htm

4

SMART FOAMS SOLVENT FREE FLUORO FREE A BRITISH COMPANY MANUFACTURING FOR THE WORLD. +44 (0)1536 202919 Visit us at: Hall 13 Stand C40 8 - 13 June 2015 â&#x20AC;˘ Hannover â&#x20AC;˘ Germany

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com

www.3fff.co.uk FouRth QuARtER 2017 < FIRE & RESCUE <

47


Heat strain monitoring Real-time monitoring of heat strain in firefighters is now possible through new wearable technology, writes Jose Maria Sanchez de Muniain.

A

lready in use by hazmat responders and oil and gas workers, wearable monitoring technology is currently being validated for use in high-hazard environments commonly encountered by firefighters. Heat strain is the body’s physiological response to heat stress and includes an increase in heart rate and sweating. If these responses do not result in the core body temperature decreasing, the result is heat-related illness such as heat stroke, heat exhaustion, heat syncope, and heat rash. In extreme cases, it can result in death. The US Fire Administration has noted that in 2015, 66.7% of fatal injuries to firefighters were caused by stress or overexertion. By far the leading cause of death, this category includes deaths that are cardiac or cerebrovascular such as heart attacks and strokes. It is well established that sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of line-of-duty firefighter fatalities, and that heat stress increases cardiovascular strain.

Above: In addition to physiological data, the Black Ghost system can display an interactive map for location tracking. Right: The HSI shows an individual's heat strain risk in real time.

48

< FIRE & RESCUE < Fourth QUARTER 2017

The latest figures available from the US FA regarding firefighter injuries show that 27% were caused by overexertion/strain, with most taking place during structural fires. Although the exact role played by heat stress in these injuries is not known, a link has long been suspected, leading to a number of studies including Firefighter fatalities and injuries, the role of heat stress and PPE, by the Firefighter Life Safety Research Center, Illinois Fire Service Institute, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. It is perhaps not surprising that current wearable heat-strain monitoring technology owes much of its existence to meeting the needs of the medical world. The latest system started life in 2011 as a way of monitoring physiology, primarily for research communities in academic and medical circles. Its developer, UK-based Equivital, also made inroads into the high-performance sports, military and firefighting markets. The applications and features of the technology were subsequently developed and launched for professional welfare monitoring in 2015 under the system name Black Ghost. In addition to heart rate, breathing rate, and body position, this can monitor internal temperature through the ingestion of a small capsule containing a thermistor and radio. ‘Our customers in the military, fire services or hazardous first response are not going to swallow a pill X hours before a call out, however, so we needed a way to measure core temperature and heat strain without taking this step,’ explains Equivital cofounder and head of product, Ekta Sood. The alternative to the ingested pill recently presented itself in the form of an intelligent algorithm. Validated by the US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine1, the

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com


PPE

The Black Ghost system consists of a body-worn sensor module that slips into an anti-static sensor belt.

algorithm can provide an estimated core body temperature using a non-invasive measurement of heart rate. In its conclusion, the research found that the algorithm’s bias and variance to observed data were similar to that found from comparisons of oesophageal and rectal measurements. Further research by Equivital confirmed that with heart rate measurements of high enough quality, the algorithm could provide accurate core body temperature estimates in applications where encapsulated clothing is worn. The Black Ghost system consists of two elements. The first is the EX EQ02+, a body-worn sensor module that slips into an anti-static sensor belt that wraps around the shoulders and the chest. The sensor module, which is FDA, ATEX, ETL and IECex certified, measures heart rate, respiratory rate, skin temperature, body position, and movement. Powered by a rechargeable battery, it has an operating temperature range of -10 to 50°C and a water ingress protection rating of IPX7. Data from the module is either stored internally for later retrieval or transmitted in real time via Bluetooth to a mobile device. In the case of continuous live monitoring of a firefighter, the wearer is required to carry a Bluetooth-enabled device. Black Ghost is compatible with Android devices, WiFi, Tetra and satellite communications. Having passed through a local/private or cloud server, the data is finally displayed in the Black Ghost application on any web-enabled device. As well as physiological data, the system can display an interactive map for location tracking. It can also be configured to display third-party sensor data which, in the case of firefighters, could be BA data. ‘For the fire services, the big one is BA data, which is a key demand that needs a home right now,’ says Sood. ‘It is our next challenge and one that, although technically speaking is not necessarily that big, would provide even greater situational awareness.’ The latest evolution in the technology has been the development of a heat strain index. Using the index, which is displayed in a format that ranges from zero to 12, a supervisor can see the heat-strain risk of a person wearing the technology in real time. ‘This is meant to be a simple measure not just for medics, but for commanders and others to look at and say, “that person needs to be cycled out,"’ explains Sood. Interestingly, the technology has been further enhanced to provide an estimated future heat strain measurement. ‘We have taken it further to predict forward 15 minutes, so that if the current heat strain index is X, and you carry on working at the same rate, what will the heat strain risk be in 15 minutes? In the kind of applications we are working in, with PPE and breathing apparatus, that is very useful for improving the

50

< FIRE & RESCUE < Fourth QuArtEr 2017

efficiency and safety of the team.’ The system was initially envisaged for use in training as an aid to monitoring the occupational health of instructors and students. However, the potential benefits of real-time physiological data have driven interest further. ‘A number of fire services are interested in the technology on an operational basis, which has meant developing it so that it fits with their standard operating procedures rather than the other way round,’ says Sood. The accuracy of the heat index has so far only been fully validated with wearers in encapsulated PPE and in normal working environments, but Equivital is in the final stages of validating the system for firefighters and firefighting environments. ‘In the fire service, you have quite different environments because the temperatures will be far higher, so the heat exchange becomes impaired further than when just wearing PPE in a normal environment.’ A number of pilot projects are currently taking place in the Middle East, Australia, and the US. A pilot project involving UK fire services is also underway. Here, physiology, estimated core temperature, and heat strain index data are being collected from firefighters wearing the body-worn sensors during training. This data is then being compared with the data collected from radio-containing ingested pills to ascertain the accuracy of a specific algorithm for firefighters. The results are expected in the next few months. 1 Real-time core body temperature estimation from heart rate for first

responders wearing different levels of personal protective equipment. Buller, MJ, Tharion, WJ, Duhamel, CM, & Yokota, M. (2015). Ergonomics, 58(11), 1830-1841.

BRISTOL UNIFORMS LAUNCHES PARTICULATE PROTECTION HOOD A hood for firefighters that filters 99.8% of harmful smoke particles has been launched by UK PPE supplier Bristol Uniforms. The Particulate Protection Hood was developed in response to research showing the potential link between the higher rate of cancer seen in firefighters and their exposure to harmful smoke particles. It has been designed to protect the neck and jaw, which are particularly vulnerable to smoke contamination. The hood is certified to EN13911:2017, the most recent version of the CEN standard for fire hoods. It is made from a knitted fabric that combines Dupont’s Nomex and Kevlar fibres with viscose, and features the innovative Nomex Nanoflex particulate barrier that was developed specifically to protect against contamination by harmful particles. Throughout the development of the new hood, Bristol Uniforms worked hard to ensure that it would offer the highest protection in combination with wearer comfort, and that the fabric combination would not compromise breathability or increase the risk of heat stress. ‘Our primary concern is to offer maximum protection against all potential hazards, whether the danger is coming from fire, heat or smoke particles,’ explains joint MD Roger Startin. ‘In the past, the most effective particle barriers have also been hot and heavy, so it has been a challenge to get the balance right. ‘The new Nomex Nanoflex is a much thinner and lighter-weight alternative, which we have been able to incorporate into a new superior design. The Particulate Protection Hood offers very high particle filtration but is also comfortable, soft, and not too heavy or hot to wear.’

read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com


rescue

Dash displacement evolutions Our new rescue columnist David Dalrymple discusses dash displacement in modern vehicles. He urges rescuers to adopt a new mindset and review current and emerging tool evolutions.

T

o kick start my new series for F&R, in this issue I want to focus on a new methodology – the fender unlock. This is already part of existing tool evolutions but I want to put a different spin on the process and its timing. As rescuers, we need a rapid means of removing vehicle doors to get to our patients. As time has progressed, we have seen door displacement operations go down the route of cutting door hinges, which is better for the patient and the tool operator. Another trend that has developed with modern vehicles is the need to move the dashboard more frequently. So, if these evolutions – removing the door and moving the dashboard – are now commonplace, shouldn’t we set up to perform these from the beginning? So, why the fender unlock? Is this not simply skinning a fender? Yes, and no. Yes, from a practical standpoint if it means the door opens up after you remove the fender section. But I want you to view this process through different eyes and look beyond the simple mechanical aspect of the operation to consider how and why it can contribute to a better patient outcome.

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com

Let’s shift our operational tool focus to first opening up the fender. If the fender is gone from the side of the vehicle that our patient is on, it sets up directions for us to go. Otherwise, let’s move the fender. Reach into the wheel well with your powered hydraulic cutter and make a vertical cut towards the suspension but not into it. Then make a cut at the bottom of the fender at the bottom of the A post. Grab the fender and pull it upwards and fold it over the hood. This exposes the crush/crumple zone.

Vehicle schematic showing a frontal crush/energy absorption zone in an Audi. A cut through this area is required to relocate the dashboard.

Fourth QUARTER 2017 < FIRE & RESCUE <

51


rescue

About the author: David Dalrymple, AIETecRI, is an FF/EMT/rescue technician for Clinton EMS/Rescue in Clinton, NJ, and has been actively involved in emergency services for 34 years. Dalrymple is certified as a level extrication assessor and has taught and assessed in North America, Europe, UK and South Africa. In 2007 he received the Harvey Grant award for excellence in rescue education. Dalrymple is also a member of the Society of Automotive Engineers task force on hybrids and electric vehicles for first and second responders. Dalrymple was the team captain when Clinton’s team won the World Rescue Challenge in 1998. He has also delivered educational programmes and seminars as well as published articles on transportation rescue. You can reach Dalrymple at: carslayer@roadwayrescue.com Now, let’s go back to the door. First off, this exposes the front door hinges to facilitate cutting them with our power hydraulic cutter. This door removal technique is by far the fastest and the least intrusive to the patient. Think about what happens when we cut those door hinges – the door drops to the ground at an angle since the door latch is still engaged. But this is ok since it is already becoming unlatched. How? Well, because of the angle of the door, the latch has started to rotate the striker. If we simply try the door handle inside or outside or both, or better yet try the trick of the stress ball wedged into the outside door handle, the door will simply come off. Now we have access to our patient. The faster the access to the patient, the greater their chance of a positive outcome. Also, faster access means we can more quickly determine what our patient needs in terms of care, disentanglement, and management. This method gives us the benefit of immediate access, but what else does it give us? Well, we are better able to assess whether we need to perform a dash/footwell space creation procedure – something that needs doing more and more often today – and earlier access means we are better able to work out a tactical action plan. The patient always drives such action plans, and accurate information is key. So, if we need to move the dash or the footwell or both, we are in a great position to go to work. Now let’s focus on moving the dash area via a relief cut. First off, let’s break down what actually occurs in a frontal collision. Broadly speaking, it doesn’t matter if the collision is head on or off-set of some type. Vehicles today are designed to absorb energy in a crash to protect the occupants. They do this in different ways. There are engineered areas in the front of the vehicle to absorb energy and crumple and crush. The whole front engine/transmission drivetrain unit will also absorb a certain amount of energy, and when that limit is met it will break away, in theory dropping to the ground below the occupants’ feet and legs. Even tyres absorb some of the energy as they flatten. So when rescuers show up, what are we faced with? What is left of a vehicle with a fairly intact occupant ‘cell’ with a front end that’s basically balled up into a mass of plastic and metal alloy? Previously we have not seen this amount of damage, this confined, on such a consistent basis. And, strengthening the forward part of the occupant cell today is the dashboard cross brace and the upscaling of the floor reinforcements of

52

< FIRE & RESCUE < Fourth QUARTER 2017

the floorplan and firewall area. A traditional dash roll on its own will probably fail for this reason.The front of the vehicle is already on the ground and it doesn’t have room to convert roll into lift. If you make relief cuts into the base of the A posts and the crumple/crush zones on each side, the dash roll has a better chance of success. Why? To start with we have separated the A posts from the lower floor area, but, more importantly, by severing the crush/ crumple area we have effectively ‘disconnected’ the dash/ firewall from the front of the vehicle and created a fulcrum point so that the dash, when pushed, can pivot upwards. The same applies to the dash lift technique, but this is easier as we are going to focus on only one side at a time. The keys to achieving a good dash lift are the cuts you make and how effectively you apply the spreader in a straight line. Many people make the relief cut on a dash lift in the same location as a dash roll, but a better practice is to make the cut above the bottom door hinge. Even better, use the hole for the wiring boot from the dash to the door. We can use the reinforcement of the bottom door hinge as a platform on which we can place one of our spreader tips. This relief cut needs to be deep into the footwell area, hence the preference for the boot hole. If we make a relief cut by using the boot hole, one cut snips the small piece forwards toward the occupant cell, while with the second cut we can slide the blade through the hole and allow the cutter to ‘seat’ the notch right against the boot hole facing forward, enabling a very deep relief cut. Finish the evolution with an A post cut up high, then lift the dash with the spreader. The other main aspect of the dash lift evolution is the same as the dash roll – the severing cut into the crush/crumple zone. This cut is important to a dash displacement since it will allow the dash to be moved in the direction our tools wish to move it. Many people believe that performing a fender squeeze with the spreader is the same or just as good, but it is not even in the same ballpark. Same goes for squeezing the fender rail. Crimping the area is not severing. In fact, crimping the area might actually impede your evolution. In conclusion, while sometimes you might be able to squeak by without making relief cuts in your tool evolutions, this approach should be reserved for when time is short. Such cuts, if planned for, don’t cost you time, help produce a safe working environment, and ensure that the operation goes more smoothly, because the bottom line is always producing a better patient outcome.

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com


rescue

Holmatro launches 5000 series cutter range Holmatro has launched its new cutter range, the 5000 series, which consists of four main models. Each model is available with Greenline EVO battery technology or with Core technology, Holmatro’s tool-hose-pump system. New to the 5000 series is the ability of the customer to select the type of cutter jaw: traditional (straight) or inclined. With their 30-degrees angled jaw, Holmatro’s Inclined Cutters improve user comfort and maximise working space. 'Inclined cutting is a new revolutionary cutting technology,’ says Holmatro’s marketing manager Nadine Emmerik. ‘Extricating patients under challenging conditions has just become safer, quicker and easier than ever.’ Equipped with the unique 30-degrees angled jaw, the Inclined Cutters offer two important user advantages. The first is ergomonics. The body of a car often needs to be cut high up in a rescue scenario. This means that the operator needs to lift the cutter to shoulder level or above and from a physical perspective this is extremely demanding. Conversely, cutting low down on the car forces the rescuer to bend down, which puts undue strain on a firefighter's back. The Holmatro Inclined Cutter solves both of these problems because the angle of the jaw enables the operator to cut well above or below waist level in a much more comfortable position. The second key advantage is maximised working space. The Holmatro Inclined Cutter also offers 30 degrees more working space between the tool and the car when cutting pillars from the side. This enhances patient safety and eliminates the need for repeated cutter repositioning. The same principle applies when the need arises to make a perpendicular cut in the rocker channel – once again there is more space between an Inclined Cutter and the ground, which avoids unwanted leverage and vehicle displacement. The new 5000 series range of cutters offers a number of weight options. The lightest cutter is the compact version (CU 5030 CL), which comes in at just 9.5 kg

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com

(20.9 lbs). At the other end of the scale is the heavy-duty cutter (CU 5060), which has the NFPA ‘all 9’ classification. Then there are two models in between, the CU 5040 and the CU 5050. All the new cutters can be powered by battery or by Core technology and they are all available with either straight blades or the inclined cutter jaw. This results in a choice of 16 different versions.

Fourth QUARTER 2017 < FIRE & RESCUE <

53


rescue

Boarding on thin ice It is vital that rescue personnel have the right tools for the job, not just for the victims but also for their own safety, argues Lillemor Stolt from Mayday Scandinavian International.

A

fire brigade in Slovenia was recently called to rescue a man who had fallen through ice. The first fire truck on the scene had only a small rescue board, but this proved insufficient for the task. When the firefighters went out onto the ice with the board to rescue the victim, the ice kept breaking under their feet. As the board was not strong enough to bear them on open water, they were unable to reach the victim. A second truck arrived. This one was equipped with a Mayday Hansa Board, which can bear up to 300 kg in weight. Lying on the board, another firefighter was able to pull himself along the ice using ice picks, and paddle with his arms through sections of open water to reach the victim. Once there, he was able to position the front of the board under the man and pull him out of the water. They were both pulled safely back to shore by other rescue personnel using the 300m rescue line attached to the board. ‘Luckily for the victim, this story had a happy ending, thanks to the presence of trained rescue personnel who had access

to dependable equipment for this kind of accident. This rescue operation is an important lesson in having the right tools for the job,’ says Lillemor Stolt, vice president of Mayday Scandinavian International AB, maker of the Mayday Hansa Board. He adds that this is not only important for victims, but also for the personnel risking their lives in dangerous situations. 'We want rescuers to feel safe and confident in their equipment so that they can work quickly and safely even in the harshest of conditions.' With natural disasters increasing in frequency and severity, Stolt argues that it is more important than ever for rescue services to be equipped with a range of devices for different types of accidents. 'Rescue boards, helicopters, boats – these can all complement each other.' The Mayday Hansa Board is a surface rescue board specially designed for use on ice and open water. It was developed more than 15 years ago by Mayday Scandinavian International and is in use all around the world, from Asia to Canada, the US, Scandinavia and elsewhere in Europe by fire

The Mayday Hansa Board is designed specifically for use on ice and open water and maintains buoyancy up to 300 kg.

54

< FIRE & RESCUE < Fourth QUARTER 2017

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com


rescue

and rescue services and coast guards and in rescue training schools. Stolt explains that the board has a number of carefullydesigned features that make it so effective. Made from environmentally-safe, foam-filled, rotation cast polythene, it weighs 30kg, is 3.35m in length and 63cm wide. And it maintains buoyancy up to 300kg. ‘The board is equipped with a 300m shore line and a peep hole, which enables the rescuer to search for victims that may be under water,’ says Stolt. ‘It also comes with a handle and hand straps so multiple victims can hold on at once, a safety belt for securing casualties, a double paddle to propel the board through water, and a waterproof and thermal bag that contains ice picks and a light stick. The ice picks can be used by the rescuer to move the board over ice.’ The Slovenian incident is far from the only time the Mayday Hansa Board has proven its worth in an ice rescue scenario. A recent Swedish documentary on helicopter rescue operations featured an incident during which a fire brigade was called to rescue another man who had fallen through ice, this time in a remote forest lake. The fire service sent a helicopter as it was the only rescue vehicle capable of reaching the scene of the accident. On arrival, rescue personnel put a harness around the man and tried to lift him out of the water and onto the ice with the help of the helicopter, but the ice continued to break under the victim and it was not possible. The decision was made to return to base to fetch the Mayday Hansa Board. On the helicopter’s return, the board was thrown out of the helicopter to the rescuers, who used it to pull the now dangerously man1up on the board, out of Mayday 9/10/07 14:55 cold Page the water and onto the ice where the rescuers could work to

save his life. Thanks to professional rescue personnel and the medical equipment on the helicopter, it was possible to save his life – but without the Hansa board this story could have turned out very differently. Rescue captain Alf Alexandersson from the Stockholm Fire Department was one of the first rescuers to test the Mayday Hansa Board, and the fire service has been using it for more than 15 years. The Stockholm fire service has one as standard on every vehicle and they are taken to each rescue operation. Alexandersson believes the reliability and versatility of the Mayday Hansa Board make it an essential tool for rescue personnel and one that can improve outcomes in a wide range of rescue situations. ‘With the Mayday Hansa Board as life insurance, I can focus on the rescue operation without anxiety for my own security,' says Alexandersson. 'It is essential that rescue personnel feel confident in their equipment when they are asked to go out into dangerous situations to save lives.'

The board has a handle and hand straps so multiple casualties can hold on at once, and is equipped with a number of accessories, including ice picks and a double paddle.

Using the MAYDAY-HANSA-BOARD, a rescuer can quickly and safely save someone in distress. The board is lightweight and handy and can easily be carried the shortest route to the scene of the accident, regardless of types terrain and water — through undergrowth, snow, open water, over ice that holds and ice that does not carried, to the edge of the ice, along quays and embankments etc. Once at the scene of the accident, the rescuer readily pulls the person in distress up onto the board which can then be pulled ashore by assisting personell. The board can also be used as a sleigh or stretcher. The MAYDAY-HANSA-BOARD functions as unique combination of devices for simple, swift and safe rescue in water and on ice.

Box 182, SE-821 22 Bollnäs, Sweden Telephone +46 278 12350 • Fax +46 278 39454 e-mail: info@mayday-hansa-board.com

www.mayday-hansa-board.com

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com

Fourth QUARTER 2017 < FIRE & RESCUE <

55


Terrorism

Drone strike Dr Dave Sloggett explores the potential for a major air accident to occur as a result of a drone strike on an aircraft.

I

A Transport Canada 'No Drone Zone' sign affixed to a fence at Calgary International Airport. © Shutterstock

56

n Pakistan, Afghanistan, Yemen, and Somalia, the West has used drones to strike and kill thousands of people in faraway places in order to maintain the pressure against so-called Islamic State and its progenitor Al Qaeda. These are known as ‘upstream’ operations. However, such has been the impact of drone strikes on international terrorist groups that they have begun to build their own improvised versions. Although they are yet to master the technology of launching rockets from drones, they have improvised other ways of using drones to deliver death and destruction. For example, simple hand grenades have been carried by drones and dropped on unsuspecting targets. Pictures that emerged from the fight for Mosul showed Iraqi forces spotting drones launched by IS and firing wildly at them to try and shoot them down. But what if this is taken still further? What if IS and other groups start to use drones in terrorist attacks in the West? After all, the technology is readily available. In the United States in the run up to Christmas 2016, more than 670,000 drones were registered with the Federal Aviation Authority. Rates of drone sales continue to grow all over the West. It seems that everyone wants to own a drone, and they are not expensive. What kind of targets might terrorists armed with drones be interested in? Crowded places are an obvious concern. Drop a small bomb from a drone flying over Trafalgar Square on a busy day in London, for example, and the media impact is

< FIRE & RESCUE < Fourth QUARTER 2017

going to be obvious and immediate. An attack on a major outdoor event would be similarly dramatic. Not that these forms of attack would kill many people. They are likely to result in fewer deaths than the Manchester Arena bombing, for example. But the visual impact and the knowledge that the attacker could easily strike again would quickly create the kind of atmosphere that terrorists aim for – a sense of fear that an attack could, quite literally, appear out of the skies. But is that where a terrorist group would logically focus? Are there not more obvious targets that could create even greater headlines? The answer to that is complex. Terrorists have a plethora of options available to them to strike in Western societies. Given the ability to strike at random from the air, anything might be possible. The list of potential targets that are covered by what is known as Critical National Infrastructure is endless. However, terrorist groups have a long history of striking at aviation targets. From the ultimately fruitless attempts by the Palestinians to hijack planes in the 1970s to the events of 9/11 and the ongoing attempts to bring down planes using explosives smuggled on board, terrorists have aviation firmly in their sights. That is not about to change. This poses an interesting question. Could terrorists use a drone, armed with a small explosive device, to target a plane either in the air or on the ground? If recent reports are to be believed, such a scenario is not impossible, it’s just a question of imagination – something that occasionally terrorists lack,

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com


Terrorism

A drone flying near a commercial aircraft. © Shutterstock

58

preferring to stay with tried-and-tested approaches to achieve mayhem. But for the so-called lone wolf, someone who does not intend to die but plans to escape and mount further attacks in a campaign, the calculus is somewhat different. Buy a drone, use information that is readily available online to build a simple explosive device that can be detonated remotely, and you have the capability to strike at a time and place of your choosing. Such a scenario is not outside the bounds of probability. Incidents of near misses with drones at airports are on the increase. In the six months leading up to March 2016, there were 23 near misses reported across the United Kingdom. Twelve of these were so close that they were given an ‘A’ rating by the Air Proximity Board. In one incident, a military Lynx helicopter had to take evasive action to avoid colliding with a drone in the county of Hampshire. The pilot reported that the drone had come within one rotor’s width of hitting the helicopter. Other events have occurred as aircraft are on approach or taking off from major UK airports, such as Southampton, Stansted, Manchester, London City, and Heathrow. More recently events have also occurred at Birmingham Airport. Similar stories are emerging in other western countries. Given this pattern, how might a terrorist use a drone to attack an aircraft? The good news is that trying to deliberately fly a drone into an aircraft is very difficult. It would be unlucky for a drone to be sucked into an engine, although should this occur, it might create the conditions for a catastrophic failure that could see the engine catch fire. The effectiveness of such an attack would be hugely dependent upon the phase of flight that the aircraft was in. For a fully-fuelled aircraft on take-off, it could be very serious. On landing, a sudden drone strike that smashed into the cockpit windscreen or entered an engine would create major problems for the pilot and co-pilot. Both could be blinded at a critical moment. While windscreens have been developed to withstand a bird strike, the mass of a drone is different. Its lithium battery is a significant weight, and the drone is compact and solid, not at all like the body of a bird. This is a very different scale of problem.

< FIRE & RESCUE < Fourth QUARTER 2017

However, this is only one possible mode of attack. Deliberately trying to fly a drone into an engine of an aircraft travelling at over one hundred knots on approach is not easy. It would involve a lot of luck. But drone research is ongoing and military developments in swarming drones – so they act as a unit even though they are separate platforms – could change the nature of the threat if it filters down into the public domain. Placing a ‘hunting group’ of drones into the pathway of a civilian jet is an altogether different and scarier prospect. For those tempted to dismiss such ideas, it is worth reflecting on how often technologies built for the military world later appear in civilian forms. And a high percentage of the work currently underway on multiple drone technology is taking place in unguarded university laboratories. How to address such potential threats? Regulators need to start thinking innovatively. If we are to avoid a major tragedy, where hundreds of people are killed in an air crash caused either accidentally or deliberately by drones, some enforcement of the current regulations concerning flying drones near airports needs to occur. This is because other options are limited. Trying to shoot down a drone when aircraft are in the vicinity is not an option. Jamming the control links might also have unpredictable effects, making a drone veer suddenly and potentially creating an even more dangerous situation. So, the answer lies in detection and regulation. Airports need to deploy emerging technologies that can detect drones, and law enforcement authorities must be ready and available to arrest those who are ignoring drone regulations, whether they are aviation enthusiasts or terrorists. No drone should be operated near a major airport. When pilots report a drone, it also needs to be followed up effectively, which is not always the case currently. Today’s detection technologies mean that a drone can be detected, tracked back to its landing site, and the pilot arrested. The sanctions for flying near an airport need to be severe. Imprisonment and fines should send a message. Deterrence is an important aspect of a comprehensive approach to the problem. As ever in such a situation, the ‘do-nothing’ option is simply not viable. This stable door has to be kept shut before the horse bolts.

Read our e-magazine at www.hemmingfire.com


Dynax REACH ad final.pdf

1

10/30/17

7:23 PM

All Green for REACH 2020 ...3 Years Early! C6

FIRE PROTECTION FOR PETROLEUM, OIL AND GAS INDUSTRIES

C6 AFFF

FluoroSurfactant C

M

Y

CM

PFOA Impurity

PFOA-Related Impurities

Dynax C6 Fluorosurfactants since January 2017

<12.5 ppb

<500 ppb

REACH EU Regulation effective July 2020

<25 ppb

<1000 ppb

CY

CMY

K

C6 AFFF Concentrates for EN / UL Performance

C6 Fluorosurfactants

MY

PFOA Impurity

PFOA-Related Impurities

6% C6 AFFF 3% C6 AFFF 1% C6 AFFF

~0.25 ppb ~0.50 ppb ~1.50 ppb

~9 ppb ~18 ppb ~54 ppb

REACH EU Regulation effective July 2020

<25 ppb

<1000 ppb

AFFF Foam Solutions from C6 AFFF Concentrates will have a PFOA impurity level of ~15 parts per trillion (ppt). 15 ppt = 0.015 ppb = 0.0000000015% — 15 ppt correlates to 15 seconds out of 32,000 years!

Why Wait? European Commission Regulation (EC) 2017/1000 (June 13, 2017): This new REACH regulation states that PFOA and PFOA-related substances (in products such as C6 Fluorosurfactants, C6 AFFF Foam Concentrates and C6 AFFF Foam Solutions) “shall not, from 4 July 2020, be used in the production of, or placed on the market in a concentration equal to or above 25 ppb of PFOA including its salts, or 1,000 ppb of one or a combination of PFOA-related substances.”

Solberg knows the real-world challenges. C6 based, PFOS-free ARCTIC™ AFFF/ATC™ and RE-HEALING™ authentic fluoro-free firefighting foam concentrates are optimized to fit the individual needs of each customer. You can count on Solberg to work with you and deliver products that perform as needed, when you need them. Looking for global foam solutions to your high-hazard, high-risk assets? Give us a call and experience the Solberg difference. THE SOLBERG COMPANY

1520 Brookfield Avenue Green Bay, WI 54313 USA Tel: +1 920 593 9445

Foam Applications Chemical Carriers Dike Areas ■ Docks / Jetties ■ Drilling & Production Platforms ■ Flammable Liquid Spills ■ Floating Production, Storage & Offtake ■ Hazardous Material Spill Control ■ Heliports & Helidecks

LNG Carriers & Terminals Loading Racks ■ Pumping Stations ■ Refineries ■ Tank Storage ■ Vapor Suppression ■ Warehouse

SOLBERG SCANDINAVIAN AS

SOLBERG ASIA PACIFIC PTY LTD

Radøyvegen 721 - Olsvollstranda N-5938 Sæbøvågen Norway Tel: +47 56 34 97 00

3 Charles Street St. Marys NSW 2760 Australia Tel: +61 2 9673 5300

SOLBERGFOAM.COM

FME Print Ad_Solberg OCT 2017.indd 1

8/7/17 3:48 PM


“Superior performance meets ergonomics - an innovative turntable ladder design is born.“

fourth quarter 2017 issue 108

www.hemmingfire.com www.hemmingfire.com

I N T E R N A T I O N A L

I N D E P E N D E N T

I N T E L L I G E N C E

High flyers Delivering safety at the Red Bull Air Race World Championship

The Magirus Turntable Ladder design. The innovative evolutionary control stand and state-of-the-art construction not only offer many new functions and more space, but also a powerful, glare-free LED lighting concept – for significantly more on-the-job safety and ergonomics. At Magirus, firefighters just like you put their entire experience and passion into building the world‘s best equipment for your operations.

www.magirusgroup.com

Fire & Rescue 4th Quarter 2017  
Fire & Rescue 4th Quarter 2017