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Contextual and Theoretical Studies

19/11/2009

Lecture 3. Psychoanalysis and the Gaze. Common Misconceptions of psychoanalysis - Its a mixture of psychology and psychiatry. - It is linked to them - also ʻway of thinkingʼ. Can be applied to society, art and design. - Its all about sex. - It does position the role of sexuality, especially in our infancy as a foundation of our lives as adults. The structure of consciousness - When weʼre unconscious weʼre unaware of our surroundings. - It is how we perceive the world. - Psychoanalysis analyses and structures our consciousness by dissecting the unconscious mind. Iceberg Metaphor - Consciousness - Visible. - Unconsciousness - Not visible.

- Ego - Morals, laws etc. The side we show the world. - Super ego - Lies below the surface. ʻConscienceʼ - (morals, social behaviour.) - ID - Forms our Ego and Super ego - Its our desires and drives (sex, pleasure, pain.) - To live in society, we must repress our instinctual desires - mainly sexual or aggressive. - Process of socialisation (how we are formed) - Repressing desires. - i.e. We learn, when weʼre young not to put some things in our mouths - we donʼt learn this, weʼre told not to, weʼre told that its wrong. Simpsons Episode - Hurricane Neddy - A trauma - not just a physical trauma i.e. a car crash - it is determined by Any part of your super ego that fails you. Why psychoanalysis? - Because - its interested in art, design and the media - it expresses ideas about drives and aggression portrayed through design. In reference to ʻMoses of Michelangelo - Freud asked - why did Michelangelo portray choose to portray moses in this way? - Is he just about to sit down or just about to stand up? - If he is about to think or about to stand up and act aggressive? 1


Contextual and Theoretical Studies

19/11/2009

Psychoanalysis and Surrealism - Dali, Breton, Man Ray - They represent dreams and trauma - places where our super ego canʼt go. Psychoanalysis and Media - Games - The desire to hurt others or be hurt. - Freuds argument - Second death drive. Object-relations - Refers to a persons emotional attachment to an inanimate object. - i.e. Linus in ʻPeanutsʼ always has a blanket with him. - (Security blanket is a popular example for infants.) - When the comfort is taken away, we experience a trauma. - Winnicottʼs theory. Object-relations and Advertising - Fabulous bakinʼ boys ad - Replaces sexual desires for muffins. - We can ʻreplaceʼ and ʻrelateʼ the affection given to us. The Abject - Part of our body that repulses us. - Object that transgresses taste. - It may be natural, but it repulses us. - Quote 2 - see sheet. - Slide with 2 artworks (jars filled with human fluids) - Art work that perfectly represents the human body. - The artist needed a full factory to recreate the system of human stomach - showing how complicated it is. Abject - Something society cannot accept. - That which we find repulsive (bodily fluids) - Even though its natural - we see it as natural. The power of the unacceptable - Power of being disturbed. The Gaze Task - how many difference shots used in one scene? (Notorious - Alfred Hitchcock) - Looking - you can see the man looking - next shot, you become that man, looking into room. - Laura Mulvey - Visual pleasures and narrative (1975). - Hollywood films - largely made by men. Psychoanalytic Theory - Scopophilia - Narcissistic Identification - Jaques Lacanʼs concept - ʻMirror stageʼ - Suture.

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Contextual and Theoretical Studies

19/11/2009

Scopophilia - (Mulvey - quote 4) - The pleasures of looking at others bodies as objects. - Instinctual desire to look at others. Narcissitic Identification - People identify with lead character. - It is a more perfect version of themselves. - Jaques Lacan - The mirror stage. - Children see a projected ʻideal egoʼ in mirror - a more perfect version of themselves. - i.e. Comic book guy (Simpsons) - when he looks in the mirror, he doesnʼt see himself, he sees a super-hero. Contradiction - Mr and Mrs Smith - Enjoy looking at Angelina Jolie - Want to be Brad Pitt. - Mulvey says - men hate being looked at. - Men are disturbed when women look at them. - (See quote 5) - Problem now - womanʼs visual presence disrupts the narrative, ʻfreezingʼ the flow of action. - Men own looking - men are ʻpeepingʼ toms in cinema. - By identifying with the male actor, the man can own the woman. Suture - Spectators look through the eyes of the actors. - Follow ʻtheirʼ gaze without feeling guilty. - When the actor speaks to us, the gaze is broken and we become aware of our gaze - we now feel guilty for finding pleasure in what they look at. - i.e. Peep show - when it goes off to the adverts, we are reminded that we are not that character - makes us somewhat uncomfortable. Intra-diagetic gaze - Degas: Le Viol (Translates to The Rape) - Cropped - We feel guilty, because it seems like we are the rapist. - Un-cropped - We can choose whether to feel guilty or to put the guilt onto the actual rapist that you can see in the image. - Dolce + Gabbana Ad - Gang rape. - We donʼt feel guilty - we might be disgusted / upset / turned on, but we arenʼt committing the rape, so we donʼt feel guilty. BUT we Might identify with the character. - Domestic violence ad - Suture, spectators gaze - we are purposely made to feel guilty. Extra-diagetic gaze - Directly addresses the audience i.e. News readers. - Theyʼre looking at us - i.e. ʻA bar at the folies-bergereʼ - We can be the artist. - Marcel Duchamp - Etant Donnes - mixed media piece. - Peep holes in a door - when you look through the door, 3D image of a model with legs open - inviting you in, ready for sex. - Etant Donnes - translates to ʻBeing givenʼ - being given what? - the power of the gaze possibly. - Hitman game - Choice - 1st person OR 3rd person - Intra-diagetic or suture. - Intra-diagetic - you can see the person killing - donʼt feel as bad. - Suture - Forces empathy, empathetic relationship with the victim. 3


Contextual and Theoretical Studies

19/11/2009

- Call of Duty: Modern Warfare - Choose intra-diagetic / suture. - What motivates us to hurt them? - Do we want to hurt somebody OR watch somebody hurt someone? - What motivates you to be choose to be the killer instead of the victim? - The game gives you the control - of how much you engage with the violence - takes away some of the guilt. Intra-diagetic - Looking at someone looking. Suture - Looking through their eyes. Notorious - Alfred Hitchcock - Intra-diagetic - Suture - Intra-diagetic. (reminds us that we始re not that man, we shouldn始t be looking into the room - puts the guilt on us.) Conclusion - Different forms of 驶gaze始 evoke different structures of power. - Psychoanalysis seek to evaluate and identify the gaze.

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Psychoanalysis and the Gaze.  

Lecture Notes

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