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AARHUS AIRPORT HELLE DALEN SØRGÅRD

02.06.15 Design Realisation Report Urban Design | Landscape


AARHUS AIRPORT In relation to the ongoing debate concerning a new airport in Aarhus, the students of Studio Urban Design | Landscape of spring 2015 have been asked to look at the needs for new infrastructure systems in Jutland, including possibilities and challenges relating to a potential new aiport. My project is a study on how a new airport, if realised, could be planned in Denmark, without comprimising on sustainability issues. The final design proposal, of which this report is part of, will be looking at how Aarhus wants maximum mobility and accessibility, as well as maximum sustainability, and how these goals could potentially be realised in a new, modern airport. The idea is that the design guidelines proposed in this specific project also could, with some site-specific adjustments, be transferred to other potential development sites elsewhere in Denmark. The analysis and drawings included in this report is the selection of works of which proved to be the most influential in my further design development towards the final airport proposal. The final design proposal is due June 8th 2015.


A section through Mid-Jutland, from Aarhus in the East to Ringkøbing in West, showing the different places’ identities, as perceived by a first time visitor (shown over the section line), as described on an official webpage or similar (shown just under the line), and historic events (down the vertical “timeline”). Søndervig

Ringkøbing

Videbæk

Herning

Hammerum

P 2007

2000 1900 1800 1700 1600 1500 1000 500 0 500 b.c.

Klit: En bakke av sand dannet av vinden. Kan vandre og kveler vegitasjon. 4% av danmarks areal består av flyvesand.

Littorina-flade: Havbund fra steinalderBakkeø: Morænebakke dannet under nest siste istid. havet, som følger av landhevning befinder seg over nåværende havnivå.

Marsk: Lav kystslette som dekkes av havet Bakkeø ved høyvann. Landet bygges opp av slam som legges igjen etter flo. Svært fruktbare.

Hedeslette: Dannet av smeltevannsfloder fra istiden (ca. 18.000 år siden)

Ikast


AARHUS AIRPORT INITIAL ANALYSIS Due to its function, size and user base, an airport must be planned in the context of a much wider area than many other types of public buildings. My initial analysis therefore started by looking at Denmark on a whole - how is the country developing, where are the important transport routes, how is the urbanisation taking place, what is the identity of the country and its different regions, amongst other things. This analysis was developed step by step from the map of Denmark, onwards to a section through and film across Mid-Jutland, and down to the spread city of Aarhus and its immediate surroundings, before I started looking at the need and possibility of a new airport for Aarhus, and for an eventual site for this. This analysis allowed us to gain a thorough understanding of the current situation in Denmark, Jutland and the country’s challenges and paths of development. We gained a view on the identity of Jutlands many towns and regions, as well as Aarhus’ identity, importance and place in Denmark and Jutland today.

Ikast

Bording

Silkeborg

Låsby

Galten

Skovby

Harlev

Århus

Hjuldamperen Hjejlen

Smørhulsfesten

Garrison town

Garrison town

Hovedstilstandslinjen: Skillelinje i det danske landskapet, fra istiden.

Morænelandskap: Betegnelse for en landskapstype bestående av sedimenter avleiret av gletsjere/isbre, i daglig tale; istidslandskap

Littorina-flade: Havbund fra steinalderhavet, som følger av landhevning befinder seg over nåværende havnivå.


DENMARK AS CONTEXT POPULATION

Denmark, with its current 5.655.750 inhabitants (2015), is growing in population, with 80% of its growth over the past year happening in its four largest cities - Copenhagen, Aarhus, Aalborg and Odense. In the map to the right, the municipalities expected to grow over the next ten years are shown in green, with the darkest greens growing the most (at 6% or more). The areas left grey are on the other hand declining in population numbers. The map confirms that urbanisation is strong in Denmark, and that people keep moving to the established bigger cities, like Copenhagen, Aarhus and Aalborg. The result is a completely new map of Denmark, with its inhabitants concentrated in the area around the capital and on the East coast of Jutland. Will all of Denmark’s inhabitants live in the green areas in 50 years time? Most of the growing municipalities are concentrated in MidJutland. Can Aarhus be seen as the centre of Jutland, or even as another capital of Denmark?

The population of Denmark Growing municipalities shown in green


1 : 2 000 000


DENMARK AS CONTEXT INFRASTRUCTURE | GROUND WATER

Aalborg Airport / AAL

Aalborg 1x

= 29 x

ro e gsb dbor 6 Svenom 196 fr n

0 t. 30 min. 240 000 1 t. 480 000

1 t. 750 000

00

Tirstrup Airport / AAR 0 t. 30 min. 90 000

-

00

1 t. 1 mill

t. 4

t.

45

m in

.

Aarhus 1x

= 28 x

0m in.

1 t. 2.6 mill

00 t. 30 min. 50 000

Copenhagen

14,7%

Billund Airport / BIL

-

Kastrup Airport / CPH

1x

Vejle Fjord Bridge from 1980

Esbjerg 1x

= 24 x

Drog den tu nn

Lil lebæ

= 31 x

Lillebæltsbr from 1935 oen

ltsbr oen

from

ele n

Ør

es fromundsb 200 roen 0

8,8 % 197

0

1,7 %

4,7 %

9,9%

9 oen rom 19 sbr bridge F ælt reb tern Sto Eas

W

e s t e r n br

idg

eF

rom

8

98 19

Farø

St or s fro trøm m 1 9 Bridge 37

Odense

e

0 t. 30 min 1.3 mill

from Sou th 1984 Brig

00 t. 50 min.

4,2 %

Existing airports in Denmark today, and its customer base within 30 min (dark green) and 1 hour (lighter green).

Transport systems of Denmark, showing nodal points for cargo, harbours and airports, and how many vehicles uses the roads daily (darkest red indicating over 80.000 vehicles a day, while the lightest showing anything less than 5.000).


The existing ground water supply in Denmark, showing the most valuable sources in streaks.

Measured amount of nitrogen in ground water wells, ranging from <1 mg/l (lighest dots) to >50 mg/l (darkets dots).


THE SPREAD CITY AARHUSâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; TRUE SIZE

How far out from the city centre can you get in half hour? Looking at the spread city of Aarhus, we found that the size of the city largely depends on what mode of transport one has available. With a car, you can not only leave the city within half an hour - you can get to several towns outside of the municipality border. Within half an hour of cycling or on a ticket for public transport, you could easily reach the very outskirts of Aarhus, but as for the walking, the city of Aarhus could be restricted to what car-owners would call the very city centre.

The Spread City - Aarhus 30 min by car, bike, public transport and walking.


BY CAR

YCLE

Y BIC

ORT

LIC TRANSP

BY

WA L

KIN

G

30 MIN BY PUB

MIN

IN B

30 M

30

30 MIN

1 : 200 000


THE SPREAD CITY WHAT IF ..?

We know that Aarhus, and other major cities of Denmark, are growing in population, and will thus need to grow in area and/or density. What

areas

should

we

allow

the

city

to

extend

in

to?

Keeping the existing developed areas and infrastructure, and mapping out important qualities like the recreative forests and lakes surrounding the city, as well as existing vulnerable and protected ground water areas and -wells, leaves the remaining lighter areas for potential new developments. In this exercise I wanted to pose the question “Where not to build?” in order to find the answer to “Where to build?”.

Aarhus Municipality Forests, lakes and vulnerable ground water areas and -wells determining where the city can and cannot grow.


1 : 200 000


THE SPREAD CITY WHAT IF ..?

Amplifying the trend of urbanization across Jutland, this study shows how Aarhus could grow if all of Mid-Jutlands’ cities physically moved in to Aarhus. Acknowledging that people often identify with the small place they are from, but still might be tempted or forced into moving to a bigger city, this is a thought experiment questioning if a new suburb can keep the identity of a small, independent town, with its town centre, closeness to recreative areas and semi-clear borders between towns.

RANDERS

LEMVIG

SILKEBORG

VIDEBÆK GRENÅ KJELLERUP VIBORG LYSTRUP LØGTEN HADSTEN SKIVE

SKØDSTRUP

HINNERUP

HAMMEL

HORNSLET HJORTSHØJ LIND

BJERRINGBO

GALTEN

HOLSTEBRO

SØFTEN

TRIGE

SKOVBY

SKJERN

RINGKØBING

SABRO

HARLEV LÅSBY

AARHUS

BRANDE STAVTRUP

HERNING SNEJBJERG KOLT

RY TRANBJERG

HERNING

ODDER BEDER

IKAST MALLING MÅRSLET

SOLBJERG STILLING

STRUER HORSENS

SKANDERBORG

HEDENSTED

Mid Jutland’s towns all relocate in towards Aarhus.

Mid Jutland’s towns have all moved Aarhus. Map showing where the city can expand, and what qualities we want to protect and keep.


1 : 200 000


AARHUS AIRPORT WHAT IS AN AIRPORT ? To me, an airport is... • • • • • •

...a starting

point for a trip, and the last stop before coming home again. ...the gateway between ground and air. ...a symbol of the magic of flying. ...international land - a true “non-place” ...a place for waiting - and for moving through quickly ...a logistic hub of different means of transportation

A new airport will mean different things to different people: • Airlines: A “conveyor” between the passengers/customers and the business • Airport operator: A business venture • People living in the area: Opportunities for travel and new jobs nearby, but also increased noise pollution and traffic • Real estate developers: A financial pump, giving life to other projects • Surrounding communitites: An economic engine, for further development and new growth, and new jobs • Passengers: A potentially time-consuming, stressful stop on the way to somewhere far away, a “necessary evil” to be able to travel, or the starting point of a holiday, a multifunctional building with bar and tax-free shopping possibilites, or the moment when you finally reach “home”.


A NEW AIRPORT DO WE NEED ONE?

The problem with Aarhusâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; existing airport seems to be that it is placed too far away from a sufficient customer base, including Aarhus, Randers and the rest of East- and Mid-Jutland. It also provides largely for domestic flights to Copenhagen, which have become increasingly redundant since the bridge connection between Funen and Zealand was completed in 1998. The results are declining passenger numbers, less flights and thereby financial loss. Many locals, politicians, and especially local businesses, are backing the idea of a new, more accessible airport closer to Aarhus and its surrounding cities. They argue that Denmarkâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s second largest city needs to be more accessible for foreign visitors, workers and researchers to stay competitive in relation to Copenhagen and other Nordic cities, and that the international reputation the city aspire to, require a better connection to Europe and the rest of the world.

DISTANCE FROM THE CITY TO THE AIRPORT Aalborg Copenhagen Aarhus

6 km 8 km

44 km

PASSENGER NUMBERS IN 2014 AAL BIL AAR CPH OSL ARN

1.4 mill 2.9 mill 460.000

25.6 mill 22.4 mill 22.4 mill

The existing Tirstrup Airport Destinations marked grey are only available in the summer season.


OSLO

STOCKHOLM GOTHENBURG

1 t. 750 000 30 min. 90 000

COPENHAGEN

LONDON

MADEIRA

TENERIFE

CYPRUS MALLORCA

CRETE

LESBOS


A NEW AIRPORT DO WE NEED ONE?

I think Aarhus could definitely benefit from getting a new airport, as the city, municipality and the surrounding areas are growing in population, and in the globalised world people generally fly more and are more prone to move across borders. But it also goes the other way around - Aarhus needs a new airport because of its aspirations to grow. However, as planning and building a completely new airport is such a massive and long termed project, both in size and economic terms, I think it is important to study the industry to see what will be important for a future airport to function competitively and be in use for many years ahead. I also think it is important to look into how a development of this size can give back to its community, in addition to its main function, and on what impacts it will have on its surroundings.

“AARHUS - DANISH FOR PROGRESS” Aarhus’ new slogan from 2011, failed to catch on and consequently scrapped in 2014

“THE GOAL IS to create the best possible conditions for the city’s business sector and its knowledge and cultural institutions; Aarhus – a city that does not stand still. A strong and internationally competitive business, knowledge and cultural life is a precondition for being able to develop Aarhus and for putting they city on the international map.” From the International Strategy for the Municipality of Aarhus, 2009

What is the airport of the future? What sort of challenges and possibillities can a development like this entail?

The parametres I have set for myself for this project are therefore: 1. It has been decided that a new airport will be built in East-Jutland in the near future 2. The airport should be placed in or immediately outside the municipality border of Aarhus - the “capital” of Jutland. 3. Measures will be made to make the new airport viable and competetive also with future development within the aviation industry and the society on a whole.

A new airport placed just North of Aarhus. Flights to the main airport hubs in Europe, and thereby connecting to the whole world.


BERGEN

OSLO

STOCKHOLM GOTHENBURG

HELSINKI

1 t. 1 500 000

30 min.

LONDON

ISTANBUL

BERLIN AMSTERDAM BARCELONA

PARIS

FRANKFURT


STANSTED AIRPORT STUDY OF THE PROGRAMME

In groups, we analysed a number of existing airports in order to get a better understanding of suitable areas and programme. Stansted Airport just North of London, UK, is with its 19.9 mill. annual passengers (2014) larger than my proposal for Aarhus/Mid-Jutland would be, but with its familiar and clear terminal arrangement, it is a very helpful example to study. The terminal contains all public programme on one level, and it is clear and orderly laid out. Architect Norman Foster + Partners has managed to create a calm, well lit atmosphere, and the simple programme naturally divides the box-like plan up in three main areas - Check-in, Departure and Arrival. The gates are located away from the main building body, and are reached by either a traditional gangway or by a short rail track.

INTERNATIONAL DEPARTURE LOUNGE

However, the airport and its terminal are not very contextual, and could easily be applied pretty much anywhere in the world. This strategy keeps costs down, but could easily fail to connect and give back to its surrounding community. CHECK-IN AND DOMESTIC ARRIVALS

Fuel farm

INTERNATIONAL ARRIVALS

Fuel farm

Fuel farm Fuel farm

Fire station

Forward Fuel Farm

Maintenance Area

RUNWAY Length: 3048 m Width: 46 m

Fedex cargo center

Cargo center Control Tower

Police station

Fire station

Forward Fuel Farm

Maintenance Area

Other functions

Fedex cargo center

Cargo centers Cargo center

Hangars Control Tower

Apron Taxiway

Other functions

Police station

APRON Number of aircraft parking stands: up to 110


GATES

GATES ab. 30 x 235m

GATES ab. 30 x 235m ab. 30 x 275m

DEPARTURE HALL

PASSPORT CONTROL INTERNATIONAL ARRIVALS ab. 195m

DOMESTIC ARRIVALS

CUSTOMS

SECURITY

INTERNATIONAL CONCOURSE

CHECK-IN ab. 300m

ENTRANCES

EXIT


BILLUND AIRPORT STUDY OF THE TERMINAL

Billund Airport here in Denmark has with its 2.9 mill annual passengers (2014) and about 40.000m 2 passenger terminal a size more relatable to my proposed new airport in Aarhus. On the opposite page is an extract of my studies of Billund’s functions and areas, which were in turn used as a template for my own airport proposal.

Cargo Outdoor parking Terminal

Hangars

Check-in: 4452 m²

Security: 1560 m²

Gates/boarding: 5(45x10m) = 2250 m²

Conference/ meeting rooms: 1060 m²

Other: 828 m² Customs: 495 m²

Shops/cafés: 1804 m² + 1194 m² = 2998 m² Baggage: 2860 m²

Parking, indoor: 11 850 m² (footprint) x 3 = 35 550 m² Parking, outdoor: 322 533 m² TOTAL parking: 358 083 m²

Arrivals Hall: 1716 m²

Lounges: 854 m²

Departure Hall: 4629 m²

1:20 000


AREAS - estimated: Total footprint of terminal, incl. terminal/gates/police st: 17 609 m² Gates only: 2250 m² Shops/cafés: 1804 m² + 1194 m² = 2998 m² Lounges: 854 m² Conference/meeting rooms: 1060 m² TOTAL second floor: 4912 m²

1 : 20 000

AREAS - estimated Total footprint, incl. terminal/gates/police st: 17 609 m² Gates only: 2250 m²  heck-in: C Security:

4452 m² 1560 m²

Departure Hall: Shops/cafés: 1804 m² + 1194 m² = 2998 m² Lounges: 854 m² Gates/boarding: 5(45x10m) = 2250 m² Baggage: 2860 m² Customs: 495 m² Arrivals Hall: Conference/meeting rooms: 1060 m² Other: TOTAL:

AREAS - estimated: Total footprint, incl. terminal/gates/police st: 17 609 m² Gates only: 2250 m² Departure Hall: 4629 m² Shops/cafés: 1804 m² + 1194 m² = 2998 m² Gates/boarding: 5(45x10m) = 2250 m²

4629 m²

Conference/meeting rooms: 1060 m² Other: 828 m² TOTAL first floor: 11 765 m²

1 : 20 000

1716 m² 828 m²

23 702 m²

Parking, indoor: 11 850 m² x 3 = 35 550 m² Parking, outdoor: 322 533 m² TOTAL parking:

358 083 m²

AREAS - estimated: Total footprint, incl. terminal/gates/police st: 17 609 m² Gates only: 2250 m² Check-in: 4452 m² Security: 1560 m² Baggage: 2860 m² Customs: 495 m² Arrivals Hall: 1716 m² TOTAL ground floor: 11 931 m² Parking, indoor: 11 850 m² (footprint) x 3 = 35 550 m² Parking, outdoor: 322 533 m² TOTAL parking: 358 083 m²

1 : 20 000


AARHUS AIRPORT BRIEF AND FOCUS POINTS

At the beginning of the design process I found six words or focus points that I found important for a new, modern airport in Aarhus. Further into the process these were condensed down to the three most important ones, being Accessibility , Growth, and especailly Future.

FOCUS POINTS

_ nodal point

_ accessibility

_ growth

_ identity

_ people

_ future

- Well connected - connecting Aarhus, and the Jutland regions, to the rest of Europe, and from there to the rest of the world. Good connections between major cities of Jutland and the airport - Transport node - airtravel, lightrail, train, buses, car, bikes ... - Centre of Jutland?

- The airport area as a district in the spread city - the place - The airport as a recognisable typology. - The flight tower? - Aarhus - and Mid-Jutland - Pride in a place - your home, your job, your region...

- Better connection - between Aarhus and the rest of Europe - Easy to get to - even without a car - Proximity - to Aarhus and the most populated areas of Jutland - Openness - the airport as a public space

- The visitor / passenger - top priority - The inhabitants - of Mid-Jutland. - Jobs, possibilities of travel, connections to the rest of the world and between home and airport.

- Aarhus is growing - and therefore needs a bigger airport - Aarhus needs a bigger airport - in order to grow - Planning for the future - Urbanisation and globalisation - Aarhus as a centre for international business, students and tourism

- The future of air travel - Plan for the future - and for what is needed today - Optimism - Realism - What happens after / if airports ever die out? - What values do we want to preserve for the future? - How will Aarhus and Mid-Jutland develop? - Climate change and sustainability challenges


‘ The Future is Now ‘ Aarhus Airport is a future oriented airport, based on Aarhus’ and East Jutland’s realities of today and predictions for the future. How can we design an airport for the future of aviation and travel, while still making it believeable and realistic in its current setting, solving both future and current challenges of our society and the industry ?


AARHUS AIRPORT PROGRAMME TRADITIONAL AIRPORT FUNCTIONS

_ transport / approach - Car Parking - Train / light rail station - Bus stops

_ terminal - Check-in - Ticket / passenger - Luggage - Passport control - Security - Concourse - Shopping / eateries - Gates

_ “back of house”

}

- Offices - Help desks - Sorting / screening - Staff’s way through - Lounges - Toilets, etc.

_ arrivals

}

- Gates - Passport control - Baggage claim - (shopping / tax free) - Customs control - Services (car hire, currency exhange .. )

_ airside - Apron gates (aircraft parking, loading/unloading, fuelling, boarding) - “the tarmac” - Taxiway (the path connecting runways with aprons, hangars, terminals, other facilities) - Holding area (departure) / exit (arrival) - Runway(s)


ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONS:

_”Offices” / flight tower - pilots on the ground , operating automated airplanes

_ Drone “station” - hub for drones for different uses - cargo traffic - with links to other transport modes - food production / fertilizer / agricultural sureveying - environmental surveying (air samples, land measurements ..) - dangerous missions (forest fires, gas leaks ..)

_ Energy production - and Charging stations - aircraft - bio fuel ? - terminal heating / cooling / electricity ? - bio mass plantation - Willow


PLACING WHERE NOT TO BUILD

As a starting point for placing the airport I went back to my method from the earlier â&#x20AC;&#x153;What if?â&#x20AC;?-scenario, looking at where Aarhus city could grow according to what areas I think should be left undeveloped. I mapped out different factors I found especially important for my project, being planned and existing infrastructure, vulnerable ground water areas, existing forests, lakes and recreational areas, and the terrain, and then put all the maps on top of each other. In the resulting map the lighter areas are highlighted as potential sites for a new airport.

Existing and planned infrastructure in and around Aarhus. Roads (black), railway (green), lightrail (pink) Planned development (dotted)

Lighter areas symbolising potential sites


1 : 200 000


SUSTAINABILITY THE WILLOW FOREST

As I see it, one of the main challenges for the aviation industry today is its sustainability issues. Aircraft developers are already in the process of developing more environmentally friendly aircraft, focusing mainly on the use of more sustainable forms of fuel, minimising aircraftâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s weight and and proving better fuel efficiency. A new, modern airport should be in the lead on sustainability matters, and can for example provide for fuelling of biofuel at its premises, or demand that collaborating airlines and flights to/from their airport are run in the most eco-friendly way possible. But the airport and the terminal itself should also be planned on the basis of sustainability issues, for example by eliminating use of fossil fuels for heating and cooling, taking measures to save energy and cut CO2 emissions in its daily operations. Airport Aarhus will therefore use biomass, planted on site, providing 100 % of the energy needed for heating and cooling its buildings. I am suggesting the use of willow trees for a number of reasons, as described later in the report.

Different types of willow trees, and plantations using willow for energy purposes


SUSTAINABILITY THE WILLOW FOREST

Providing CO2 neutral energy, willow trees grow substantially faster than other types of trees, being ready to be harvested only 4 - 5 years after planting. The harvested wood is dried and chopped up to wood chips, which are then burnt to release energy. 1 hectare of willow can make for about 10 tonnes of wood chips per year, and although it needs a lot of water, it is quite forgiving when it comes to the quality of the soil. Another interesting find with willows is that it is extremely good at absorbing toxins from contaminated soil, and it can thus contribute to purify groundwater. It is actually proven to reduce 93 - 99 % of nitrogen, phosphor and biological oxygen in contaminated soil, in addition to absorbing cadmium and zinc. Miljøstyrelsen in Denmark therefore agree that their identified nitrate sensitive areas advantageously can be cultivated with energy crops of willow, including in the obligatory 10m buffer strips along lakes and streams. In Denmark, the Faculty of Science and Technology at University of Aarhus is heavily involved in researching and supporting a greater use of willow trees for energy production nationally. I think it would be very interesting, and benefitial for both the airport and the university, to make use of their enthusiasm and knowledge to create a big-scale, groundbreaking project which is 100 % fuelled by sustainable willow crops. The willow forest and the accompanying airport would present a live, large-scale “testing site” for researchers and students, and a valuable promotion of Aarhus as a green and forward-thinking city. The decision to plant an extensive amount of willow crops on-site provided me with a clearer indication of where to place the aiport. The site would need to have a lot of water in the ground for the trees to drink, without drying out the landscape, and ideally the forest could help cleaning nitrogen contaminated ground water in a nitrate sensitive area. Adding these measures to my earlier map of potential suitable sites around Aarhus municipality, I eventually landed on an area about 13 kilometres North of Aarhus city centre, at an already widely discussed potential site for a new airport, called Thomasminde.

Nitrate sensitive areas around Aarhus Municipality marked in orange. Proposed site marked in pink.


THE WILLOW FOREST AREAS AND REQUIREMENTS

To find out how big of an area the willow crops would need to be to heat a building about the size of Billund Airport, I have consulted researchers from Aarhus University, and researched Ny Vraa Bioenergi in Denmark and Crops for Energy in the UK. The professionals I contacted found it hard to give me any general guidelines on how to estimate how much willow would be needed to fuel my terminal, without knowing more than building type, estimated area, and site. Of course a buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s energy use also depends largely on its detailing, and ideally one would have to know how much energy a specific building is using from before, before one can calculate how much willow will be needed to partly or fully replace the original fuel. Another factor is the quality and type of the boiler.

East Midlands Airport 26 ha, or 260.000m2, willow crops providing for 25% of energy used for annual heating and cooling (bold corner square). Timed by four to rise up to 100%, we get an area of 104 ha.

Finally I found out that East Midlands Airport in the UK recently has planted a 26 ha. forest of willows, providing a quarter of the energy needed for heating and cooling its terminal building, and gathering general area information about this airport and willow crops in general, I was able to calculate a rough estimate of how much willow I think I would need to fuel 100 % of my airport. Even though the numbers and areas might not be completely exact, I see this project as a proposal of what sort of impact a forest of this type could have on an area, a development and a visitorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s experience of this. If the area of willows needs adjusting, the guidelines still apply, and could be applied to a larger or smaller area of forest depending on need.

Aarhus Airport 104 ha of willows provides for 100% of the energy needed to heat and cool the terminal for a year. With harvesting every 5 years (absolute maximum), five crops are needed to make sure there are enough wood pellets every year. The above equals 520 ha, or a staggering 5.200.000 m2.

Calculation of minimum required area of willow crops, after inspiration from East Midlands Airport, UK. Thomasminde as of today, with proposed minimum area of willow crops projected onto in green circles.


1000m


TH E W I L L O W F O R E S T USEFUL NOTES AND NUMBERS

• • • • • • • • •

A willow crop can generally produce 8 - 12 tonnes of dry matter per ha per year Thomasminde has relatively good soil, and it is therefore believed it can produce 1 - 1,4 kg of dry matter per m 2 per year. As a general rule, 2,5 kg dry matter from willow will substitute 1 liter of oil A field can be harvested the first time after only 4 - 5 years, and then repeatedly every 1 - 4 years. A field can manage 6 - 7 harvest rotations from one single planting, before replanting; meaning that one field of willow can be repeatedly harvested for more than 20 years. The energy yield of willow is about 20 times greater than the energy input, and fertilizing and harvesting procedures accounts for the bulk of energy used. Planted in a double-row system, with 750mm between rows, 1500mm between double rows, and 600mm between plants within a row. Slopes in the planted field should not be greater than 8%, or the harvesting machines may slip in snowy or wet weather. Willow crops can be an advantage for the biodiversity of an area (mainly for flora, bees and butterflies) if the plantation is divided up in several areas, creating more perimeter zones. This can be done either with several smaller fields, or by wide, open tracks between rows of trees. Fertilizing can be a challenge as the trees quickly shoot up high.


A willow crop as it is ready to be harvested.

Track between willow rows - creating rigid clearings with a clear direction

Planting willow crop

Harvesting willow


THOMASMINDE SITE CONSTRAINTS

In order to place the large willow crops, I mapped out some important factors on the site in relation to the landscape. With this in mind I simultaneously thought about where the almost 3 km long runway could be placed - ideally a place where no forest was required (see pink map over nitrogen in the ground), and with a reasonably flat terrain.

Protected natural environment - streams, ponds and meadows.

Nitrate sensitive catchment areas


Rather flat terrain around +50.0m, sloping down towards stream, and rising in all directions away from site.

Initial placing of a runway, and the lightrail following the original Randersvej in the North-South direction (pink).


THE WILLOW FOREST DIRECTION OF ROWS

The full extent of the willow crops does not need to be planted in the same direction all over, as they will be harvested on a rotation basis. However, each area that is being harvested at once will benefit from having as long rows as possible, minimising area wasted on turning circles for the harvesting machinery. The different directions of the row system could be used to channel or block views, noise and travel routes and to define spaces. Below is a study of what areas could benefit from what row direction, together generating a patchwork of production forest creating a strong identity for the Thomasminde area and the airport. Green marks potential positive areas for each respective row direction.

Rows planted parallell to runway

Rows planted along North - South axis

STRENGTHS - Possibility of many long lenghts/spans - Possibility of views from motorway to airport/runway - Channeling noise from runway towards motorway to the Wast and road and fields to the East

STRENGTHS - Almost following the lightrail path, creating long lengths along it - Long lengths East of runway, following the direction of the streams

WEAKNESSES - Both lightrail and stream cutting through the long lengths - Short spans West of runway and Spørring Village - Reducing views and paths towards airport/runway - apart from motorway - No consideration for the nitrogen areas in the ground

WEAKNESSES - Short lengths between runway and Hæstvej, and around the cruved motorway - No consideration for the nitrogen areas going NW - SE, north of runway - Channelling views (and noise?) straight between Spørring village and the airport/ runway


Rows planted parallell to motorway, South

Rows planted NW - SE

STRENGTHS - Many long lengths North and West of runway - Largely following nitrogen field to the West and Northwest of runway

STRENGTHS - Making longer lengths covering the nitrogen â&#x20AC;&#x153;armâ&#x20AC;? North of the runway (nitrogen in ground marked in grey) - Several possibilities for long lengths of rows - Follows terrain contours North-East of stream

WEAKNESSES - Slightly random, short lengths South of runway - Lightrail cutting through many lengths

WEAKNESSES - Few views and routes towards runway - Cut by the lightrail track


SITE PROGRAMME USING WILLOW GRID

The patchwork grid made up by the willow crops can be used to help position the airport functions. The runway, with its many constraints and massive size, need to be placed largely according to its own rules on i.e. gradiant, security zones and wind directions, while still being part of the bigger whole both logistically and visually. The rest of the airport programme, including terminal building, lightrail station, hangars and cargo centre, need then be placed in relation to both runway, infrastructure, and its surrounding special forest landscape. I want visitors and staff at the airport, as well as the local community, to experience the production forest, to see the beauty in it as well as the reasoning behind it - it is a production forest which is there to provide us with energy and to clean our drinking water. It will change over the course of the year, and there will always be patches that are empty, creating a completely new view over an area you might not have seen for years. Its appearance will also change with the seasons, and maybe the landscape surrounding the airport will have changed as you were away on holiday. The airport and the willow forest are planned together, working with each other, and should therefore be perceived as a whole. The forest is very much man-made, and should therefore not be perceived or designed to imitate a romantic idea of “wilderness” or “nature” - this is another cultured landscape with nature working together with humans and our technology, and of that the aiport and Aarhus’ community should be proud.


A modern, sustainable airport should have a likewise approach to getting to and from its premises. The already planned lightrail track will provide for a smooth, environmentally friendly way to get to the airport, and should be kept as an important element in the further design process.

Protected natural habitats like Thomasmindeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s streams, meadows and ponds should be kept and watched over.

A grid is developed and laid out for the planting of the willow crops and the further planning of the airport areas.

The willow crops are being planted according to a grid determined by the siteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s constraints, challenges and potentials.

The runway is planned and placed at the same time as, but also in relation to, the crops, requiring a large area and having many special constraints and requirements of its own.

Building elements and other airport functions can now be placed based on many helpful parameters, like the grid, experience of the forest landscape, the runway and lightrail and its own programme and use.


THE WILLOW FOREST PROPOSAL

A proposal for the patchwork grid of willow trees, and the airport in the midst amongst it. Protected streams and meadowlands are kept open, and the existing infrastructure is altered only slightly to meet the airport and its visitors’ demands. Car- and walking routes should largely follow the grid of the tree rows, not to waste too much space from energy production, but also to create exciting ways to move around the landscape on one’s way to the airport’s different spaces.

L IGH TRA IL WILLOW FARM

RO

WILLOW FARM PARKING

UT

ET

OH

AN

GA

RS

HANGAR S

SAFETY ZONE

CAR ROUTE

L IGH T R A IL The proposed patchwork grid for the willow crops, and the placing of runway, terminal building and hangar areas.


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THE TERMINAL AND THE TREES

The terminal building is proposed to be fitted into the grid of willows, and so the route towards, into and maybe also inside the building, will be like a passage through the forest. The willow trees can also get up close to the building body, and be let grown in between building mass where suitable. Having a platform approach between functions on the site would further enhance the experience of walking through the procuction forest, and the rows of trees could also act as elements hiding less welcoming components on the site, like for example security fences. The idea is to incorporate the concept of green energy into the experience of the airport, to advertise for new ways of thinking about the nature around us and our use of energy. The measures one has to take to live and travel in a more sustainable way may seem extreme, but through this project I hope to show that it can be done, and that we can gain something from it also in our daily lives.

Approach through rows of young willow trees

Holy Rosary Church Complex / Trahan Architects

Diagrammatic proposal of terminal programme, with rows of willows growing up close to building bodies


FLIGHT TOWER

/ DRONE CENTRE

CARGO CENTRE

LIGHTRAIL STATION

ARRIVALS

GATES DEPARTURES

FIRE STATION

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Aarhus Airport - design realisation report  

Design Realisation Report for my Aarhus Airport project, Studio Urban Design | Landscape, Spring semester 2015. The analysis and drawings...