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D I S H O N E S T Y I N O U R C O M M U N I T Y


major final

CONTENT

By Helene H. Devold Tutor Nick Long


Glossary

INTERVIEW AT BODØ POLICE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE

05-07 THE MISSING POSTER Poster and photos

Interrogation techniques

08-14

15-16

Statistics

17-18

19-20

Fun Facts

21-22

23-26

27-28

29-30

THE BRITISH PRISON

WHY DO CHILDREN LIE

HOW TO SPOT A LIAR Facts & Tips

THE IIIRG

Infographic and network

THE SOCIAL MEDIA Quotes from students

QUESTIONING THE PUBLIC Infographics

EMOTIONAL ASPECTS Facts & Quotes

project

03-04 WHAT IS DISHONESTY?


is

dishonest y DISHONESTY IS TO ACT WITHOUT HONESTY. IT IS USED TO DESCRIBE A LACK OF PROBITY, CHEATING, LYING OR BEING DELIBERATELY DECEPTIVE OR A LACK IN INTEGRITY, KNAVISHNESS, PERFIDIOSITY, CORRUPTION OR TREACHEROUSNESS. DISHONESTY IS THE FUNDAMENTAL COMPONENT OF A MAJORITY OF OFFENCES RELATING TO THE ACQUISITION, CONVERSION AND DISPOSAL OF PROPERTY (TANGIBLE OR INTANGIBLE) DEFINED IN CRIMINAL LAW SUCH AS FRAUD. (references: www.wikipedia.org/dishonesty)

Dishonesty has had a number of definitions. For many years, there The decision of whether a particular action or set of actions is were two views in English law. The first contention was that the dishonest remains separate from the issue of moral justification. definitions of dishonesty (such as those within the Theft Act 1968) For example, when Robin Hood robbed the Sheriff of Nottingham described a course of action, whereas the second contention was he knew that he was, in effect, stealing from the Crown, was acting that the definition described a state of mind. A clear test within dishonestly and would have been properly convicted of robbery. the criminal law emerged from R v Ghosh (1982) 75 CR App. R. 154. His argument would have been that he was morally justified in The Court of Appeal held that dishonesty is an element of mens acting in this way but in modern legal terms this could only have rea, clearly referring to a state of mind, and that overall, the test been brought to the court by way of mitigation of sentencing and that must be applied is hybrid, but with a subjective bias which would not have affected the inference of dishonesty.[neutrality “looks into the mind” of the person concerned and establishes is disputed] what he was thinking. The test is two-stage: Where dishonesty is an issue in civil cases, the trend in English “Were the person’s actions honest according to the standards of Law is for only the actions to be tested objectively and not to apply reasonable and honest people?” If a jury decides that they were, any test as to the subjective state of mind of the actor. then the defendant’s claim to be honest will be credible. But, if

the court[citation needed] decides that the actions were dishonest, the further question is:

“Did the person concerned believe that what he did was dishonest

what

at the time?”

03


04

[BAD FAITH] Main article: Bad faith (existentialism) As defined by Sartre, “bad faith” is lying to oneself. Specifically, it is failing to acknowledge one’s own ability to act and determine one’s possibilities, falling back on the determinations of the various historical and current totalisations which have produced one as if they relieved one of one’s freedom to do so. [BAREFACED LIE] A barefaced (or bald-faced) lie is one that is obviously a lie to those hearing it. The phrase comes from 17th-century British usage referring to those without facial hair as being seen as particularly forthright and outwardly honest, and therefore more likely to get away with telling a significant lie. A variation that has been in use almost as long is bold-faced lie, referring to a lie told with a straight and confident face (hence “bold-faced”), usually with the corresponding tone of voice and emphatic body language of one confidently speaking the truth. Bold-faced lie can also refer to misleading or inaccurate newspaper headlines, but this usage appears to be a more recent appropriation of the term. [BIG LIE] Main article: Big Lie A lie which attempts to trick the victim into believing something major which will likely be contradicted by some information the victim already possesses, or by their common sense. When the lie is of sufficient magnitude it may succeed, due to the victim’s reluctance to believe that an untruth on such a grand scale would indeed be concocted. [BLUFFING] To bluff is to pretend to have a capability or intention one does not actually possess. Bluffing is an act of deception that is rarely seen as immoral when it takes place in the context of a game, such as poker, where this kind of deception is consented to in advance by the players. For instance, a gambler who deceives other players into thinking he has different cards to those he really holds, or an athlete who hints he will move left and then dodges right is not considered to be lying (also known as a feint or juke). In these situations, deception is acceptable and is commonly expected as a tactic. [BULLSHIT] Bullshit does not necessarily have to be a complete fabrication; with only basic knowledge about a topic, bullshit is often used to make the audience believe that one knows far more about the topic by feigning total certainty or making probable predictions. It may also merely be “filler” or nonsense that, by virtue of its style or wording, gives the impression that it actually means something. [BUTLER LIE] A term coined by researchers in Cornell University’s Social Media Lab that describes small/innate lies which are usually sent electronically, and are used to terminate conversations or to save face. For example sending an SMS to someone reading “I have to go, the waiter is here” when you are not at a restaurant is an example of a butler lie.[2] [edit]Contextual lie One can state part of the truth out of context, knowing that without complete information, it gives a false impression. Likewise, one can actually state accurate facts, yet deceive with them. To say “Yeah, that’s right, I ate all the white chocolate, by myself,” utilizing a sarcasm that is a form of assertion by ridiculing the fact(s) implying the liar believes it to be preposterous. [LYING THROUGH YOUR TEETH] When one lies face-to-face with the intended recipient. This also may be an expression describing the act of lying with a smile or other patronizing tone or body language. [EMERGENCY LIE] An emergency lie is a strategic lie told when the truth may not be told because, for example, harm to a third party would result. For example, a neighbor might lie to an enraged husband about the whereabouts of his wife, whom he believes has been unfaithful, because said husband might reasonably be expected to inflict physical injury should he encounter his wife in person. Alternatively, an emergency lie could denote a (temporary) lie told to a second person because of the presence of a third. [WHITE LIE] White lies are minor lies which could be considered to be harmless, or even beneficial, in the long term. White lies are also considered to be used for greater good. A common version of a white lie is to tell only part of the truth, therefore not be suspected of lying, yet also conceal something else, to avoid awkward questions.

dishonesty

±


missing

I started with a sketch which later got letter pressed in the studio and than I copied the poster so that I could start with my guerrilla graphics experiment.

T H E MISSING POSTER

the

There wasn’t a lot of places I could hang the poster that was legal, so I had to use hidden footpaths and old trees.

05


poster project

“The Missing� Poster was hung up several places around town to see if I could get any respons after trying to contact the jacket thief a multitude of times with no luck.

Sadly my poster was torn down within two days of my experiment and I only got two prank calls from my inquiery. But I got feedback from sevral people who had seen the poster and thought it was funny. So I guess thats something.

06


07


USEDBYTHE NORWEGIAN P O L I C E

08

police university college

I N T E R R O G A T I O N TECHNIQUES


police

INTERVIEW WITH SUPERINTENDENT NILS PETTER MICHAELSEN AT THE NO

bodø

I WAS INTERESETED IN HOW DISHONESTY HAS BECOME A BIG PART OF OUR CULTURE AND HOW THIS EFFECTS OUR COMMUNITY. THE POLICE IS ONE OF THE INSTITUSIONS THAT WORK EVERY DAY AGAINST CRIME AND DISHONEST ACTS, SO I CONTACTED THE NORWEGIAN POLICE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE IN BODØ, NORWAY.

Have you noticed any unusual developments over the last 20 years in how Norwegians commit crimes?

return. This is also a good example of the greed we see in our community today.

That’s a big question, and I should have brought some statistics, but the main difference we see in our community is that greed has become a bigger problem than it was 20 years ago. There are also more criminals coming from other countries, especially from the Eastern Europe. Norway is a wealthy country, but you don’t have to travel far to get to a poor country, where people struggle to get work and food. Many criminals have come over from Poland, Latvia and Lithuania. They can easily steal from Norwegians as we don’t usually protect our properties or goods. It’s also not really a deterrent for criminals to go to prison in Norway, because they can get a job, earn money and get an education.

What methods do the police employ to get criminals to tell the truth?

Insurance and welfare fraud are both new and now major problems in our community. Many tend to apply for welfare when they don’t want to get a job, and we have seen this increase in the last couple of years with younger people. The system makes it hard to find out who is guilty of this crime. When the iPhone came on the market, insurance fraud became a problem. Every time Apple releases a new model, many of their customers report their phone stolen, or broken to their insurance company, so that they can get the newest model in

If you look at Aldert Vrij’s research on detecting lies and deceit, we see that methods like the lie detector are completely useless. This just doesn’t work and the physical aspects like nervousness, sweating and blinking your eyes, could be caused by other factors than a lie being told. Therefore our methodology is simple; lies are hard to repeat. A lie doesn’t exist in our memory therefore it is hard to tell a lie in detail and to repeat it, this is called memory psychology. To detect lies we interrogate thoroughly and in detail, and often repeat our questions. We of course also compare the suspects explanations with evidence. Is there anything else that characterizes a lie, or indicates when a person is being dishonest? This of course differs from person to person, but when someone gives a very superficial statement and a story lacking in detail, this can often be a sign of a lie being told. But the hardest part is to find out if a person is lying in just some

09


university college

HE NORWEGIAN POLICE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE

“During an interrogation we always use video camera and audio recording to show the community that the police have nothing to hide. We teach the students: Trust through Transparency.” -Nils Petter Michaelsen

aspects of a story. This is a common problem in sexual assault cases, where the suspects rarely deny having met the victim and having had sex with them. The suspects’ stories are rarely “black and white”. You obviously look for physical evidence, but how much does it affect an investigation when a suspect claims to be telling the truth? That’s a good question, because it all comes down to how objective we allow ourselves to be. Every policemen has their own opinion about a case, even though we are all required to have an objective view on the cases we investigate. One of the problems can be that the police form an opinion about what they think occurred, and then do everything in their power to find proof to enhance their hypothesis. When they no longer listen to the suspect they could ignore important information. This could result in an innocent person sitting in custody for a very long time. So the answer to your question is that this is a perpetual process where the police have to work on being objective and being able to listen to the suspects statements, even though it might contrary to our own opinion of the matter. This can be really difficult because it is human nature to not always

10

be objective. The way we solve this problem is often to have one in our team play ‘the devils advocate’, who will always ask critical questions. To what extent does it affect the penalty if a suspect tells the truth and pleads guilty? An easy question to answer because this is statutory law in Norway. In the criminal code, paragraph fifty nine, it says that if the suspect helps to solve the case through a confession, they could get up to a third off their sentence. This is very significant, it is so significant that it’s a part of our routine to inform the victim of this on their first interrogation. In the United Stated the lie detector is often used to solve criminal cases. Has it ever been used in Norway? It has never been legal to use lie detectors in Norway. Police investigators often use it in the United States and after 9/11 it became increasingly popular. But the lie detector often causes false confessions. The American police also use other techniques like presenting false evidence and false witnesses to reach a confession. This has become a major problem in USA and organizations like innocenceproject.com investigate cases where people have been wrongfully convicted.


police

“THE

SUSPECT

WOULD

BE PUT UNDER PRESSURE DURING

THE

INTERRO-

GATION AND FALSE CLAIMS PRESENTED TO MAKE THEM CONFESS. THIS WAS AT THE FAR EDGE OF ETHICS.” bodø

-Nils Petter Michaelsen, Superintendent, Norwegian Police University College in Bodø, Norway

11


university college

12


police

Does the Norwegian police have any other techniques to determine if suspects are lying? There are no other techniques in use today, besides collecting evidence and talking to the suspects, victims and witnesses. But not long ago, right up to the Millenium, it was considered normal to use similar techniques to those used in the USA today. The suspect would be put under pressure during the interrogation and false claims presented to make them confess. This was at the far edge of ethics. Interrogation expert Asbjørn Rachlew has written his PhD on these interrogation techniques used in Norway up to the Millenium and in England during the IRAinvestigations. Today the Norwegian police have now actually copied the way the English

police work on investigations. A course called PEACE or in Norwegian KREATIV is based on these new and more ethical ways of interrogating people with respect and empathy. How do you encourage Police cadets to act when they talk to suspects? The students practice these techniques, particularly during their year of deployment at different police stations, and also in the second year of their education. During an interregation we always use video cameras and audio recordings to show the community that the police have nothing to hide. We teach them: Trust through Transparency. It is also important that the students learn how to treat suspects with compassion, respect and that it is all about interpersonal communication. In earlier times, suspects

didn’t get food or cigarettes before an interrogation, because it would make them more anxious and more likely to confess if they were hungry, tired and suffered abstinence. Today an interrogation is more about empathy and it’s important that the police build a close and strong relationship with the suspect. We believe that the suspect would be more likely to help us if they are treated with respect. But of course this can be really hard, one must distance oneself from the emotional aspect of the case. Therefore it is important that students get the training they need. The police must employ confidentiality in most cases, but how do you make sure your colleagues and employees are reliable? The Special Unit investigates the police and their every move, but there is much sensitive information floating around in the police network. And it is important that we maintain a good information flow when we are working on different cases, so that everyone is informed and the work can be done effectively. We don’t really have any sepcial routines to check up on our colleagues and employees, but the advantage today is everything is electronically tracked. It’s not hard to find out if someone has been looking up information that they weren’t supposed to. What other procedures do you have to ensure that the police act in an honest way? Less people fear the authorities today, than say 10 to 15 years ago. Citizens will easily report a police officer if we attempt to do anything wrong. We have a great watchdog in society and we know that individuals can ruin an entire agency, so there is a major focus on ethics and morals throughout the entire police force. The students are also trained in the subject of professional ethics.

bodø

PHOTOGRAPHY & GRAPHICS: Helene Hagen Devold INTERVIEWEE: Superintendent Nils Petter Michaelsen

13


-Nils Petter Michaelesen

TODAY AN INTERROGATION IS MORE ABOUT EMPATHY AND IT’S IMPORTANT THAT THE POLICE BUILD A CLOSE AND STRONG RELATIONSHIP WITH THE SUSPECT. WE BELIEVE THAT THE SUSPECT WOULD BE MORE LIKELY TO HELP US IF THEY ARE TREATED WITH RESPECT.

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university college

We have a great watchdog in society and we know that individuals can ruin an entire agency, so there is a major focus on ethics and morals throughout the entire police force.


investigative

THE iIIRG international investegative interviewing research group

THE IIIRG WAS FORMED IN 2007 AND IS A WORLDWIDE NETWORK OF PROFESSIONALS, WITH COLLABORATIVE INTERESTS, WORKING WITH INTERNATIONAL BODIES COMMITTED TO IMPROVING INVESTIGATIVE INTERVIEWING (INTERNATIONALLY) AND ENSURING ALL IMPROVEMENTS ARE UNDERPINNED BY A ROBUST EVIDENCE BASE. The iIIRG works in collaboration with Teesside University, UK; the Norwegian Police University College, Oslo; The Centre of Forensic Linguistics at Aston University, UK; the Centre of Forensic Interviewing at the University of Portsmouth, UK; the Kids Internet Safety Alliance (KINSA), Canada, and; the University of Derby, UK. We also have a close working relationship with the Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO) in England and Wales. The iIIRG is sponsored by Indico Systems.

(references: http://www.iiirg.org/committees/executive/ http://www.iiirg.org/research/areas)

interational

C U R R E N T R E S E A R C H A R E A S × Fraud × False confessions × Emotional language × Individual differences × Detection of malingering and deception × Effects of asking repeated questions in forensic interviews with children × Eyewitness memory (recall, recognition and interviewing procedures) × Detecting deception from written/oral account

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Greater Manchester Police, Manchester, UK

Detective Chief Superintendent Trond Myklebust PhD Norwegian Police University College, Oslo, Norway

Dr. Becky Milne Centre of Forensic Interviewing, Institute of Criminal Justice Studies, University of Portsmouth, UK

Dr. Gavin Oxburgh Chair and Founder Forensic Psychologist Department of Psychology, Teesside University, UK.

Detective Chief Superintendent Trond Myklebust PhD Deputy Chair and Founder/ Events Co-ordinator Norwegian Police University College, Oslo.

Dr. Becky Milne Deputy Chair/Academic Liaison Forensic Psychologist Centre of Forensic Interviewing, Institute of Criminal Justice Studies, University of Portsmouth, UK.

Professor Martine Powell Chair of the Scientific Committee School of Psychology, Deakin University, Australia.

Michelle Mattison iIIRG Treasurer and Conference Administrator PhD Researcher, Lancaster University, UK.

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E X E C U T I V E C O M I T E E Detective Sergeant Mick Confrey Deputy II-RP Journal Editor/ Practitioner Liaison Specialist Interview Advisor, Greater Manchester Police.

Detective Superintendent Andy Griffiths PhD Practitioner Liaison Sussex Police, UK.

Dr. Sonja Brubacher International Marketing Department of Psychology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Canada.

Dr. Nicky Miller Research Co-ordinator Principle Research Officer, College of Policing, UK.

Dr. Lynsey Gozna Research Co-ordinator Department of Psychology, University of Lincoln, UK

Dr. Dave Walsh

Laura Farrugia

II-RP Journal Editor Lecturer and Programme Leader, Criminology, University of Derby, UK.

iIIRG Administrator PhD Researcher, Centre of Forensic Interviewing, University of Portsmouth, UK.

interviewing research group

Detective Sergeant Mick Confrey


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88,179 prisoners on 2nd of December 2011, aproximately 1.100 places below the useable operational capacity of the prison estate.

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(references: http://www.parliament.uk/briefingpapers/SN04334)

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73%

convicted unsentenced

sentenced male

non-criminal

15-17 1%

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sentenced female

sentenced male

no religion

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all cristian

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buddhist

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0,8%

0,3%

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49,8%

5%

statistics

sentenced adult male


social

×

Does facebook really reflect ones personality or is it just a way of showing everyones perfect life and pretend best friends?

the

Everyone has at some point lied in a text message i.e. “I’m on my way..” or “Sorry I didn’t call you back earlier, but my battery was flat.”

BEFORE LIES WHERE SAID AND

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media

Do we lie more when we speak face to face or through a media that dosn’t neccarly show facial expression and body language?

×

Would a job application be more honest on “linked in” or on a piece of paper handed to the boss?

×

AID AND GONE, BUT TODAY WE RECORD EVERYTHING. HAS THIS EFFECTED THE WAY PEOPLE TELL LIES?

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and

WHY DO CHILDREN LIE? Children may lie for a multitude of reasons. Very young, 2- 3 year old children may not be able to distinguish fantasy from reality. They may lie simply because they have honestly forgotten things. Around the age of 5- 6 chidren start to develop a more consistent understanding of the difference between fantasy and reality. Children at this age also starts to develop a conscience, they don’t want to dissapoint their parents, and for the first time they can actually experience guilt. This could lead to the child constructing a lie to avoid punishment. Children at this age may also tell fibbs to exaggerate in order to get attention.

By the age of 7- 8 most children know the difference between fantasy and reality and they could be counted on to tell the truth. Children at that age mostly tell lies to avoid being punished or to avoid doing something unpleasent, they could also lie to deal with preassure from their parents. At this age children also begin to grasp the concept of “polite social lying”, where people lie to protect others feelings. Adolescence cleary know the possible consequences of telling lies. Parents are also more likely to become more alarmed by their lies. But not all teenagers lie to get away with something illigal or to do something they know their not allowed to do. Most often they lie to protect their privacy, to establish their independence, to avoid embarrassment or to spare others feelings. But off course many also lie to avoid punishment or to get something that they don’t think they would get if they had told the truth.

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references: www.notmykid.org Authors:Jeri Samson and Beth Keen, Ph. D.

dishonesty

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have you ever stolen anything?

70%

questioning

25% 05%

QUESTIONNAIRE HANDED OUT TO FELLOW STUDENTS, FRIENDS AND FAMILY. 5 QUESTIONS, 20 PARTICIPANTS.

70% 25% 05%

YES NO SOMETIMES

23


% 28 YES NO

24

%

72% 28%

72

QUESTIONNAIRE HANDED OUT TO FELLOW STUDENTS, FRIENDS AND FAMILY. 5 QUESTIONS, 20 PARTICIPANTS.

public

if you have ever stolen anything: did you tell anyone about it?


the

do you think people can steal, cheat or lie and still think of them selves as good people?

40% questioning

35% 25%

QUESTIONNAIRE HANDED OUT TO FELLOW STUDENTS, FRIENDS AND FAMILY. 5 QUESTIONS, 20 PARTICIPANTS.

40% YES 35% NO 25% SOMETIMES

25


public

why do you think that people can still think of them selves as good people?

%

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30

%

10

%

%

72

QUESTIONNAIRE HANDED OUT TO FELLOW STUDENTS, FRIENDS AND FAMILY. 5 QUESTIONS, 20 PARTICIPANTS.

50% 30% 10% 05%

IT’S OK IF YOU’RE POOR/STARVING DEPENDS ON THE SITUATION THE GOOD THINGS MAKES UP FOR IT THEY ARE NOT SELF CONSCIOUS

26


spot

INTERACTIONS AND REACTIONS

A guilty person gets defensive. An innocent person will often go on the offensive. A liar is uncomfortable facing his A liar might unconsciously place objects (book, coffee cup, etc.) between themselves and you.

how to

Hands touching their face, throat & mouth. Touching or scratching the nose or behind their ear. Not likely to touch chest/heart with an open hand.

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a liar

cing his questioner/accuser and may turn his head or body away.

BODY LANG UAGE OF LIES: Physical expression will be limited and stiff, with few arm and hand movements. Hand, arm and leg movement are toward their own body the liar takes up less space.A person who is lying to you will avoid making eye contact.

Timing and duration of emotional gestures and emotions are off a normal pace. The display of emotion is delayed, stays longer then it would naturally, then stops suddenly.

Timing is off between emotions gestures/ expressions and words. Example: Someone says “I love it!” when receiving a gift, and then smile after making that statement, rather then at the same time the statement is made.

EMOTIONAL GESTURES & CONTRADICTION Gestures/ expressions don’t match the verbal statement, such as frowning when saying “I love you.”Expressions are limited to mouth movements when someone is faking emotions (like happy, surprised, sad, awe, )instead of the whole face. For example; when someone smiles naturally their whole face is involved: jaw/ cheek movement, eyes and forehead push down, etc. (references: www.wikipwdia.org/lie)

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emotional

H W

O O

W

U

Y

L

O

D U

F

E

E

L

I

choose one emotion and keep it in mind till next time you act dishonest.

F

S O M E O N E R

O

U troublesome

careless

E M

O violated

embarrassed

devastated

Y the

L

ashamed

F

O

depressed

T

worried

S

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aspect

I have a very nice shirt in my closet, but I never dare to wear it because it’s a bit to special. But I’m leaving for Paris next week and then I’m GOING to remove the tag and use it!

I say that I love animals above everything else, but the real reason why I became a vegetarian was to avoid eating.

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I fall down stairs on purpose so that people can ask why I have bruises and I can pretend like nothing happend. I like that they think that someone has beaten me up.

(references: www.norske-hemmeligheter.blogspot.no)

The only reason why I buy you a coffee every morning is because I feel guilty after sleeping with your boyfriend.



Dishonesty in our Community