Page 1


c o n t e n t s


ISSUE (4) o u r v er n acu l ar and o u r HVA C - d e pe nd e nt s o ci e ty

EXPLORATION (8)

g l ob a l p a rt n er o f sim ilar c lim at e

e v o l u ti o n o f HVA C and b u i l ding t y pologies (38)

(8)

ne w typ o l o gy: th e d a t a cent er

s am p le c it ies

(24)

(40)

p r e ce d e nt: b e s t p r acti c e by Google

SOLUTION (52) sy m bo t i c r e l ati o ns hi ps : p o we r o f the ne two r k

SITE (55)

4

8

52

55

73

86

issue

explore

solution

site

appendix

bibliography

l o cati ng th e s o ci al ne e d

(48)


D u e t o th e h i st o r y o f c o lo n iz at io n in t h e Uni te d S t a te s , ou r ver n ac u lar ar c h it ec t u r e began as an in va s i ve s p e ci es r at h er t h an a n at u r al r espo ns e to e nv ir o n m en t al c o n d it io n s.

o u r

n o n - p e r f o r m i n g

v e r n a c u l a r

H.V.A .C. s ys te m s we r e d e v e l oped beca use w e l acke d a p e r fo r m ance v e r na cula r t o keep us co m fo r tab l e i n o ur clima t e.


We bec am e o v er in dul ge nt o f t h e c o n t r o lled en vi r o nm e nt



O ur te chno l o gy d e pl et ed na t ura l r e s o ur ce s , i ncr e ased energy us age , and i ncr e as ed building o p e r ati ng cost


Let’s press “reset,” to EXPLORE the the origins of the vernacular and see what we can learn from our climate PARTNERS and local TYPOLOGY.



p a r t n e r s

o f

s i m i l a r

c l i m a t e

Saint Louis exist in the transitional zone between the Humid Continental Climate (Dfa) and Humid Subtropical Climate (Cfa). In this analysis, these climates are highlighted and the regions’ culture is traced through colonization and invasions to reflect on international influences that may or may not be of similar climate, which have impacted its vernacular architecture. With the results, we will be able to identify the cities that have a similar climate, without the foreign influences. These are the cities that should have native, performative architecture. *according to KÜppen Climate Classification.

E X P L O R E :

P A R T N E R S



Humid Subtropical Climate (Cfa) Hot, often humid, summers and mild/cool cold winters Humid Continental Climate (Dfa) Warm/Hot, often humid, summers and cold/ severely cold winters

a vernacular of layers of influence and evolution


g l o b a l




M ad agascar 600s: Ar ab e s tab l i s he s tr ad i ng po s ts 1500s: Po r tu gu e s e co ntact 1600s: Fr e nch e s tab l i s he s tr ad i ng po s ts

So u t h Af r i ca 1830s: N ati v e Z ul u K i ngd o m i n th e no r th ; N atal i a, a B o e r R e pub l i c, i n the s o uth 1843: Natal i a b e co m e s par t o f th e B r i ti s h Co l o ny o f Natal


A f r i c a

Madagascar South Africa




Au st r alia 1606: D u tch e xp l o r e s 1770: E a s te r n h al f o f co nti ne nt i s cl ai m e d b y G r e at B r i tai n 1828: G re at B r i tai n fo r m al l y cl ai m s the we s te r n l and 1970: Imm i gr ati o n i s p r o m o te d 1986: B r iti s h r o l e i n gov e r nm e nt e nd s


A u s t r a l i a

Australia




Ch in a 1271: M o ngal i nv ad e s 1800s: Opi um War- l and l o s s to G r e at B r i tai n 1937: W WI I - Jap an i nv ad e s Jap an 300 B C : tr ad e wi th Ch i na and Ko r e a i s e v i d e nt K az ak h st an 1800s: Rus s i an e m p i r e to o k p o we r 1922: B eco m e s p ar t o f the So v i e t Uni o n 1990: D e cl ar e s s o v e r e i gnty Ko r ea 108 B C : Chi ne s e Han Dynas ty i nv ad e s 75 B C : Ko r e an K i ngd o m gai ns po we r 1200s: Mo ngal i nv ad e s 1592: Jap an i nv ad e s 1620: Ch i ne s e M anch u i nv ad e s 1894: Jap an i nv ad e s 1945: Kor e an War- Di v i s i o n o f No r th and So u th Ko r e a Taiw an 1544: Po r tu gu e s e e xp l o r e r s 1624: D u tch s e ttl e s 1626: B eco m e s Spani s h Co l o ny 1642: D u tch gai ns po we r 1662: Ch i ne s e o us t Dutch r u l e 1884: Fr ench i nv ad e s 1885: Fr ench e v acu ate s 1895: Jap ane s e r u l e 1945: W WI I - Ch i na r ul e s


A s i a

Kazakhstan

Korea China

Japan

Taiwan




It aly 800 B C : G r e e k co l o ni z e s 1559: Par t o f Hab s b ur g- Spai n 1700s: Par t o f Hab s b ur g- A us tr i a and Sp ai n, b e cam e cl i e nt st at e o f Fr ance 1800s: Ital y co ns o l i d ate s

R u ssia 1922: B eco m e s p ar t o f So v i e t Uni o n 1941: W WI I - G e r m any i nv ad e s

U k r ain e 1569: Po we r s h i fts to Po l i s h Cr o wn 1657: R us s i a co ntr o l s 1922: B eco m e s p ar t o f So v i e t Uni o n 1941: W WI I - G e r m any i nv ad e s 1990: D e cl ar e s s o v e r e i gnty

Countries with similar climate but lacking definitive colonization origins Greece Romania Serbia Bulgaria Croatia Serbia Hungary Bosnia


E u r o p e

Russia

Italy



Ukraine


S o u t h

A m e r i c a

Paraguay Brazil

Argentina

Uruguay


A r ge nti na 1516: Sp ani s h e xpl o r e r s ar r i v e 1580: S et t le m e nts fr o m P r aguay, Pe r u, and Ch i l e 1816: De cl ar e s i nd e p e nd e nce fr o m Spai n

B r az i l 1500s: S et tl e m e nts b y Po r tugal , B r i ti s h, Fr e nch , and Du tch Par agu ay 1537: Sp ai ni s h e xpl o r e r s ar r i v e 1811: De cl ar e s i nd e p e nd e nce fr o m Spai n 1870: De fe ate d b y B r az i l , A r ge nti na nad Ur u gu ay, l o s e s po pul ati o n and l and 193 0: Tr ad e s l and fo r p e ace wi th B o l i v i a Ur uguay 1516: Sp ani s h e xpl o r e r s ar r i v e 1669: Po r tu gu e s e and Spani s h s e ttl e m e nts e xpand s 1806: Po r tugue s e tr o o ps fr o m B r az i l i nv ad e s 1828 : De cl ar e s i nd e pe nd e nce fr o m B r az i l




N o r t h

A m e r i c a

United States

Mexico


Uni te d State s o f A m e r i ca 1492: Sp ani s h e xpl o r e r s ar r i v e 1534: Fr e nch e xp and s 1550: E ngl and , Fr ance , Spai n, and the Ne th e r l and s co l o ni z e s 1777: De cl ar e s i nd e p e nd e nce fr o m E ngl and 1803: E xp an ds d ue to Lo u s i ana P ur chas e wi th Fr ance

M e xi co 1519: Spani s h co nq ue s t 1810 : De cl ar e s I nd e p e nd e nce fr o m Spai n




s a m p l e

c i t i e s

A closer to into the cities of similar climate and its performance vernacular helps us realize what we’re missing. The extremes of winter and summer need to be addressed. The performance vernacular architecture of our climate regions need to be adaptable to hot and cold weather.

E X P L O R E :

S A M P L E

C I T I E S





nature

neighbors

The roofs are constructed in two layers: an inner thick, providing a cool environment in hot weather and layer of limestone boulders, capped by a keystone, insulating against the cold in the win ter. and an outer layer of limestone slabs ensuring that the structure is watertight. The walls are very The units are attached, sharing walls with its neighbors.

Alberobello, Italy


E u r o p e

user




nature

Multiple layers of sliding doors are used to moderate the temperature t hroughout the year; closing all the scree ns in the winter offers some protection from the cold, while opening them all in the summer offers some respite from the heat and humidity. Different

Kyoto, Japan

neighbors

types of screens which would be changed with the seasons; woven bamboo screens used in summer allow air to flow through, but help to block the sun. The open air garden courtyards likewise aid in air circulation and bring light into the house.


A s i a

user




e v o l u t i o n

o f

H V A C

a n d

b u i l d i n g

t y p o l o g i e s

The advancement of HVAC systems influenced the evolution of building typologies. The architectural envelope was no longer required to respond to our environment. We withdrew from the exterior: windows were sealed, deeming operable windows to be inefficient and undesirable. Overtime, equipment and objects became the main occupants of the buildings. This typology is usually economically locating away from the convenience of our local communities.

E X P L O R E :

D E V E L O P M E N T

T I M E L I N E





P r e - 1 9 0 0 ’ s




1 9 0 0 - 2 0 0 0




2 0 0 0 - 2 0 1 0




n e w

t y p o l o g y :

t h e

d a t a

c e n t e r

As energy consumption remains a concern for all building type, a new building typology have evolved with technology advancement that are notorious for its high dependancy on HVAC system as well as high energy consumptions. Data Centers are now a necessary for our way of life.

E X P L O R E :

N E W

T Y P O L O G Y


Gl o ba l con str u ction of D a t a C e n t e r t o in cre a s e fr o m a bo ut $50 billion t o a b ou t $ 7 8 b illion b y 2020.




Known as the server farm or the computer room, the data center is where the majority of enterprise servers and storage are located, operated and managed.


GENERATO R AC

FUEL

RACKS

U PS POWER

FUTURE EX PANSIO N SPACE

PO W ER

FIBER/ BRO ADBAND CO NNECTIO N TO INTER N ET FI B E R / B R OAD B AND C ONNECT I ON T O I NT E R NET DO UBLE DO O RS FO R SECURITY




By 2012 the cost of power for the data center is expected to exceed the cost of the original capital investment.


Used 1.5% of all electricity in the U.S. in 2006 ($4 .5 Billion)

Contributes to 5% of US Greenhouse Gas emissions

Energy Efficiency of 15% or less




Consume up to 100 times as much electricity as standard offices.


t h e

Typical facility is approximately 1MW, but can be > 20 MW

annual energy source for a 1MW data center



energy consumed by 2,300 typical U.S. cars in one year

e f f e c t s


air handlers

cooling tower

chilled water tanks

Many data centers in use today were built very What if we push the limits? ASHRAE’s allowable conservatively in the 1980s and 1990s around unreliable temperature for the data center is 91F. Why is the equipment, with temperature range of 68F to 77F, allowable higher than the recommended? ASHRAE contends that while it is possible to keep the data In 2008, The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating center that warm, server mortality rates will be higher and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) recommended at 91F. Many companies question whether today’s thermal requirements for server environments was a low servers are still susceptible. HP and Dell warranty of 65F and a high of 81F. Very few data centers run at their servers to 95F and SGI goes up to 104F. 81F. Most run at 68F.


o p p o r t u n i t i e s



f o r

s m a r t e r

d e s i g n


p r e c e d e n t

b e s t

p r a c t i c e

b y

G o o g l e

There has been a shift in the way we design in recent years. The need for a more sustainable solution pushed many companies and architects to develop better buildings and to question “the standard.” A top sample company that has a sustainable goal in mind is Google. Let’s see their “Best Practice” plan for a data center.

E X P L O R E :

P R E C E D E N T





1. Measure Performance Based on “you can’t manage what you don’t measure, Google measures their equipment effi ciency at least once per second.

Electricity Use

cold air hot air

2. Manage Airflow To separate, direct, and treat exhaust air from “cold/ hot aisle” appropriately.

81 72

with Google Data Center in Belgium

3. Turn up the Thermostat According to ASHRAE , cold aise temperatures can be of 81 degrees Fahrenheit.


4. Use Free Cooling: Removing heat without using Chillers through using low-temperature ambient air, evaporating water, or using a large thermal reservoir In Belgium, Google “follows the moon” and eliminates Chillers completely. On days that are too hot, the equipment will be turned off and computing loads will be redirected to other data centers in differ ent time zones to capture savings from off-peak utility rates. This requires additional capacity and will extend the distan ce between the equipment and the users it serves. “On-site water purification facility allows for use of water from nearby industrial canal rather than a mu nicipal water utility.”

5. Optimize Power Distribution By reducing number of power conversions throughout the building.




s y m b o t i c

r e l a t i o n s h i p :

p o w e r

o f

t h e

n e t w o r k

In our exploration, we have learned the MECHANICISM OF THE VERNACULAR 1. the importance in performance architecture 2. interrelationships of resource and program Let’s shift our attitude towards the data centers from an independent entity that requires an immense amount of resource for its maintenance to a program that speaks to a social technological need that creates a byproduct. We can now locate this program in the vicincity of its users and match programs that can harness the byproduct as a resource.

S O L U T I O N





a r e a s

of social demand and existing infrastructure

n e e d s t o be co o le d d a t a ce nt er

p o t e n t i a l

s i t e

a n d

e x i t i n g

p r o g r a m spring



Wi-Fi networks

Wi-Fi networks

o f

MAJOR PATH OF AIR MOVEMENT

+ +

= =

f al l

MAJOR PATH OF AIR MOVEMENT

n e e d s t o be h e a t e d swimming pool

n e e d s t o be co o le d d a t a ce nt er

summer

spring

spring

n e e d s t o be h e a t e d swimming pool

temperature recovery

summer

temperature recovery

winte winter r

f al l

wi nt e

selected site

and existing infrastructure selected site

and existing infrastructure st o r a ge f o r in f or m a t i o n se r ve r r a cks

+ +

potential site with existing programs 

= =

spring

potential site with existing programs 

spring

i nf o r m a t i on l i br a r y

st o r a ge f o r in f or m a t i o n se r ve r r a cks

i nf o r m a t i on l i br a r y

summer

summer

winte winter r digital library

digital library

summmeerr sum

fall

fall

CARVINGwiTH nt e

CARVING TH

Rather than actively cooling the data center, the heat generated by Using solar power a a renewable resource to produce the energy the equipment can be diverted to the community pool, serving as that is to be consumed by the complex will not only reduce its a heat sink. reliance on the city grid, but any additional energy it produces can be easily transferred to its adjacent retail neighbors. By using the economics of the Data Center to offset the cost of programs that are at risk of the municipality’s budget cut, the library, This will integrate the community’s need of a Data Center along the traditional “data center� can be sustained. with the neighborhood’s core development, fusing the new-tech resource with traditional cultural programs.

winte winter r

a n

u r b a n

d a t a

c e n t e r

mer

summmeerr sum





l o c a t i n g

t h e

s o c i a l

n e e d

The urban data center needs to located within an existing communhity network. Vernacular architecture grows from the convenience of infrastructure and the demands of users; it is how it can sustain its existence.

S I T E


existing data centers




coverage by major mobile companies

Wi-Fi networks

Cross referencin g the density of internet W i-Fi networks with poor mobile service coverage can inform an area of underserved population. The overlapping areas will likely be conveniently located within an existing infrastructural and social density.

selected site

s i t e s u i t a b i l i t y locating a data center in area of social demand and existing infrastructure


a r e a s



o f

p o t e n t i a l

s i t e

a n d

e x i t i n g

p r o g r a m


Situated in a shopping plaza in Valley Park, near the high traffic intersection of Big Bend Boulevard and Dougherty Ferry Road, a new data center will be appropriate to serve this retail network and its residential neighbors while benefiting from the existing infrastructure.

a n

u r b a n

d a t a

c e n t e r











A


5 4 95’ 30’

6

215’ 210’

7

3 190’

1

90’

8 40’ 70’ 140’

2

A 


8


1

2



3


We have indulged in the HVAC system for too long. The resources we spend and the consequences it creates are too costly to maintain in our near future. Even the environment that it creates is hardly desirable and does not reflect our natural environment. Interior temperatures are set to a flat standard. In the summer, we wear sweaters and in the winter, we don’t need one. Our current vernacular architecture is not a performing vernacular. Our systems leads us to dressing for two temperature range in one day: one outdoor, one indoor. We can no longer afford to do this. Our new typology of the Data Center pushes our way of living with HVAC systems to the limits where the occupants have extended from humans to including equipment. Initially, we treated these users as one in the same; indulging our equipment with the same, or even more, comfortablity we have given ourselves. We splurge on cooling the heat generated by these equipment. To mitigate cost,

7

we cast these buildings away in a remote location, while requiring new infrastructure to service it. But why must we consider all byproducts as waste? And why locate equipment that the entire community can share in a location no one can see? Rather than an amalgam of programs that coexist in a convenience network, our community had been stretched and dissected into clusters of distinct zones. We burn fuel to travel for miles from where we live to where we work to where we shop to where we go to school. Let’s take a step back to consider what the mechanicisms of the verncular originally intended to be: it is one that responds to the climate and one that speaks to a network of inevitable interrelationships. Both have been compromised in our current wasteful vernacular. If we can proceed forward while keeping the lessons we’ve learned from our past in mind, we can be one step closer to a more sustainable verncular.


4

5



6


appendix




Spring

Summer

Fall

Winter











d e m o g r a p h i c s :

%

l i v i n g

i n

p r o v e r t y





d e m o g r a p h i c s :

m e d i a n

a g e





school population

d e m o g r a p h i c s :

p o p u l a t i o n

a n d

s c h o o l

l o c a t i o n





b i b l i o g r a p h y


Asquith, Lindsay, and Marcel Vellinga.Vernacular architecture in the 21st century. New York: Routledge, 2006. Print. Carter, Thomas, and Elizabeth C. Cromley. Invitation to vernacular architecture: a guide to the study of ordinary buildings and landscapes. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2005. Print. Glassie, Henry. Vernacular architecture. Philadelphia: Material Culture ; 2000. Print. Kemp, Jim. American vernacular: regional influences in architecture and interior design. New York, N.Y., U.S.A.: Viking, 1987. Print. Oliver, Paul. Encyclopedia of vernacular architecture of the world. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Print. Richardson, Vicky. New vernacular architecture. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications, 2001. Print. Sugarman, Samuel C.. HVAC fundamentals. Lilburn, GA: Fairmont Press, 2004. Print. Turan, Mete. Vernacular architecture: paradigms of environmental response. Aldershot, England: Avebury, 1990. Print. http://www.google.com/about/datacenters/ http://www.datacentermap.com/usa/missouri/st-louis/map.html http://www.wigle.net/ http://blog.infotech.com/facts-stats/facts-stats-data-architecture-and-more-data/ http://www.treehugger.com/gadgets/designing-radically-efficient-and-profitable-data-centers.html http://communities.intel.com/community/openportit/server/blog/2008/02/20/datacenter-power-management-power-consumption-trend http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm http://www.triplepundit.com/2012/03/green-grid-forum-confirms-data-centers-dont-need-be-cooled-arctic-temperatures/ http://blackswanzine.com/2009/07/23/a-diamond-in-the-rough/




Breaking Out of the [HVAC] Box  

Washington University in St. Louis- Design Thinking for Degree Project: Spring 2012