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Faculty Advisor: Steve Bannes

Dual Degree Capstone + Independent Study

Applying C o n s t r u c t a b i l i t y P r i n c i p l e s a n d Va l u e E n g i n e e r i n g to an Architectural Degree Project: [UN]Plugged

Hoi Yan Helena Cheung Candidate for Dual Masters of Architecture

Washington University in St. Louis Summer 2013


table of contents

FOREWORD 1 Construction Management Capstone + Value Engineering a Master of Architecture Degree Project

1

Learning Objective

2

About Being [UN]Plugged

5

Design Thinking: the discovery of a problem Today’s Issues Project Goal Design Strategies Design Systems

Section A C O N S T R U C TA B I L I T Y A N A LY S I S 1 Construction Methods and Procedures CM at-Risk For the City Defining the Team Players Partnering Safety Constructability Plan Site Analysis

Construction Site Setup

2

Building in St. Louis today

Project Cost

Estimating

3

Project Time

Building in St. Louis Method: Fast Tracking Schedule Summary Schedule Strategies

4 Conclusion

45


Section B VALUE ENGINEERING 1 The Basics When will it Happen for [UN]Plugged?

91

Regional Materials

2

Mechanical System: Traditional Chiller vs. Free-Cooling

Choosing the Right System Determine Initial Cost Comfort: Temperature Range for Controls Cost for Operation

Cost Savings

3

Thermal Qualities: Concrete vs. Metal Studs and Gypsum

Choosing the Right System Determine Initial Cost Comfort: Ability to Dampen Temperature Fluctuations Cost for Operation

Cost Savings

4 Conclusion FINAL WORD APPENDIX

123

BIBLIOGRAPHY

147

125


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C ONST RUCT ION M ANAGEM ENT CAP S TON E + VAL UE ENGI N E E R IN G A M A S T E R OF ARCHIT ECT URE DEGREE PR OJE C T

1


Construction Management Capstone + Value Engineering a Master of Architecture Degree Project As the final requirement to the Dual Degree in Master of Architecture and Construction Management at Washington University in St. Louis, a Capstone Project is to be completed by the candidate.

Traditionally, this project is to apply

constructability principles-cost, time, value, methods, systems and safety- to a design studio project.

[UN]plugged, my Master of Architecture Degree Project, will be

dissected and analyzed. As an extension of the Capstone curriculum, this document also explores a process many designers dread throughout the life of their projects: Value Engineering. Based on the concept of the design project, two aspects are specifically chosen to be evaluated: 1) Mechanical System 2) Thermal Qualities Specified. This process aims to justify the basis of design while reducing unnecessary cost. In selecting my Degree Project to be examined, this research is to become a lesson that will build on a topic that embodies my passion in Architecture and my education at Washington University in St. Louis. Section A) Constructability Principles will realize the design project as a construction project, defining 1) Methods and Procedures that are appropriate to the site and goals of the design. The 2) Cost and 3) Time analysis is to give numbers and grant practical meaning to a concept that was conceived purely based on theory. My Degree Project is a Data Center/Library/Community Pool that work together to reduce energy demand using free-cooling and passive strategies, through Natural Ventilation and design of a Thermal Mass. In Section B) Value Engineering, there are three topics: 1) Basics of Value Engineering, 2) Mechanical System, and 3) Thermal Qualities will determine the life-cycle cost for the systems my project proposes, challenging their validity which will ultimately lead to results that can improve the quality of design as well as cost efficiency of my project.

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Learning Objective With the findings of this study, I will be able to make better design decisions as an architect through the awareness of constructability principles and the knowledge life-cycle cost and operations and maintenance cost of specific systems. This study will reveal a series of design issues that may cause concerns during construction and increase cost to the project without adding value or quality.

To conclude this section, these items will

become a list of lessons learned that can advise on improving aspects of the original design, where I will be able to address the question of, “what kind of things will I change in my Degree Project to make it more constructible and feasible� This exploration of a design project from the construction management point of-view is not bring a complete set of answers to define a flawless construction plan for the project, but it is to understand the practicality of a design project, b ringing a wider awareness of the building process. My goal with this research is to finalize my education at Washington University in St. Louis with a balanced and comprehensive understanding of Architecture, from concept through construction.

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ABOUT BEING [UN]P LU GGE D

5


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pr e ce de nt: be s t pr a ctice by Google

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SOLUTION

55

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explore

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Due t o t he h i st o r i c o r i g i ns o f f o r e i g n settl e m e n ts in t he Un i t e d S t a t e s, o u r ve r na c u l a r a r c h i te c tu r e b ega n a s a n i nva si ve sp e c i e s r a t h e r th an a res po nse t o e nvi r o nm e nt a l c o ndi t i o n s .

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Spring 2013 SITE (55) SITE

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86

v e r n a c u l a r bibliography

Degree Project

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BOX About Being [UN]Plugged

Design Thinking: the discovery of a problem As a prerequisite to the Final Design Degree Project, graduate students take a “Design Thinking” seminar to discover and specify a topic that is to be thoroughly analyzed and researched to inspire an innovative architectural solution to a local problem in the city of St. Louis. My initial interest in vernacular architecture resulted in the realization that our vernacular architecture is not performative architecture because the architecture we have adapted in the United States today have been imported through colonization. Most of our buildings are inefficient in responded to the local environment, and we create comfort in these spaces by heavily depending vel o p ed bec a u s e w e We be ca m e o ve rin du lge n t o f Ou r t e ch n o l o gy de p l e te d na tur a l on HVAC systems. Over the tyears, advances and ourre so building rn a c ular t o k e e p us he co n t rothe lle d etechnology n viro n m e n t u rc e s , i nc r e a s e d e ne r gy ur c lima t e . u sa ge , and the r e f o r e i nc r e a s e envelopes gets tighter and tighter. Today, we design our buildings to be op e r a ti ng c o s t e n F e h r m acompletely nn sealed from our natural environment. There are consequences to this method: not only are we disconnecting ourselves from the natural climate, our buildings now make up 38% of the nation’s overall energy consumption, and depending on the source and location, we use at least 50% of this energy for space heating and space cooling .

Ch eung



Today’s Issue Data Center is the new building type that consumes the most amount of energy, up to 100x as much electricity as a standard office! We have extended our luxury of HVAC systems t o provide comfort beyond our fellow human users; in Data Centers, we use energy to provide comfort for the equipment. coverage by major mobile companies Let’s shift our at titude towards the data center as an independent entity that requires an immense amount of resource for its maintenance to a progr am that speaks to a social technological need that creates a by -product. Then, we can now locate this program in the vicinity of its users and match programs that can harness the by-product as a resource. Project Goal To cut our unhealthy addiction to HVAC systems by synergizing the resources of a Data Center, Pool, and Library to create a new type of architecture Cros s r efer enci ng th e dens i ty of i nter net W i -Fi that will able to promote a new relationship between people and net wor ks wi th poor mobi l e s er v i ce cov er age can We b e c a m e o ve r i ndu l g e nti nfo o f rm an ar ea of u nder sO te c hpopu n o l o gl ati y don. e p l e te dT hne atu r al eruvr ed information/technology while functioning at a fraction of the original's energy t h e c o nt r o l l e d e nvi r o nm e nt r e s o u r c e s , i n c r e as e d e n e r g y o ver l appi ng ar eas wi l l l i kel y be conv eni entl y l ocated s ag e , an d th e r e f o r e i n c r e as e consumption. w i t hi n an exi s ti ng i nfr as tr uu ctu r al and s oci al dens i ty. o p e r ati n g c o s t

7

s i t e

s u i t a b i l i t y


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About Being [UN]Plugged Design Thinking: the discovery of a problem As a prerequisite to the Final Design Degree Project, graduate students take a “Design Thinking” seminar to discover and specify a topic that is to be thoroughly analyzed and researched to inspire an innovative architectural solution to a local problem in the city of St. Louis. My initial interest in vernacular architecture resulted in the realization that our vernacular architecture is not performative architecture because the architecture we have adapted in the United States today have been imported through colonization. Most of our buildings are inefficient in responded to the local environment, and we create comfort in these spaces by heavily depending on HVAC systems. Over the years, the technology advances and our building envelopes gets tighter and tighter. Today, we design our buildings to be completely sealed from our natural environment. There are consequences to this method: not only are we disconnecting ourselves from the natural climate, our buildings now make up 38% of the nation’s overall energy consumption, and depending on the source and location, we use at least 50% of this energy for space heating and space cooling . Today’s Issue Data Center is the new building type that consumes the most amount of energy, up to 100x as much electricity as a standard office! We have extended our luxury of HVAC systems t o provide comfort beyond our fellow human users; in Data Centers, we use energy to provide comfort for the equipment. Let’s shift our at titude towards the data center as an independent entity that requires an immense amount of resource for its maintenance to a progr am that speaks to a social technological need that creates a by -product. Then, we can now locate this program in the vicinity of its users and match programs that can harness the by-product as a resource. Project Goal To cut our unhealthy addiction to HVAC systems by synergizing the resources of a Data Center, Pool, and Library to create a new type of architecture that will able to promote a new relationship between people and information/technology while functioning at a fraction of the original's energy consumption. 9


Wi-Fi networks

selected site

d a nBY-PRODUCTS d e x i s AS t i AnRESOURCE g infrastructure

Wi-Fi networks

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potential site wi

a r e a s

o f

p

MAJOR PA


MAJOR

th ex i s t i n g pr ogram s

p o t e n t i a l 

ATH OF

s i t e

MAJOR PATH OF AIR MOVEMENT

a n d

e x i t i n g

p r o g r a m

spring LOCATING A SITE: MAPPING DATA SERVICE GAPS VS. COMMUNITY AMENITIES

Design Strategies -Localize Data Centers: to bring back life, reduce infrastructure to improve efficiency -Use the Pool to p rovide Free-Cooling to the Data Center -Embracing Data Center as new media for information, this is the new library. Design Systems - The design of floor plates to encourage natural ventilation throughout the with respect to predominant path of air. A year: I R Carving M O V EtheMfloor E N plates T 11 -The floor plates are made of concrete, performing as a thermal mass while providing structure for the pool and s ervices for spaces.


CA

O u r tec h n ol og y d e p le t e d n at ural resou rc es, i n cre ase d e n e rg y u s a g e, a n d th e re f o re in cre ase opera t in g co st

a r e a s

o f

p o t e n t i a l

s i t e

a n d

e x i t i n g

form

p r o g r a m

WIND

major mobile companies

Wi-Fi networks

MAJOR PATH OF AIR M

net W i-Fi ver age can y dioeplet na tura l at n. e dThe c r eased e ne r gy eni en tl y located e r efore i nc r e ase soc i al density.

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selected site

a r e a s

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o f

p o t e n t i a l

FOR EWO RD

p r o g r a m

MAJOR PATH OF AIR MOVEMENT

needs to be c ooled data c enter

s torage for information s erv er rac k s

e x i t i n g

spring

+

and existing infrastructure

MAJOR PATH OF AIR MOVEMENT

a n d



Wi-Fi networks

selected site

s i t e

= needs to be heat ed swimmi ng pool

+

temperature recovery

p o t e nt i al s i t e w i t h ex i s t i n g pr o gr a m s 

summer

spring

=

spring

info rmat i on library

summer

r

digital library

win

summer

fall

winte

winte

CARVING


CONCEPTUAL PERSPECTIVE

13


C A R V I N G W I T H A I R n a t u r a l vent ilat ion st r at egy f o r m m aMkA JiOnR gP A T H

OF AIR MOVEMENT

C A R V I N G W I T H A I R nat ural vent i l at i on s tr a te g y WIND ROSE

PREVALENT PATH OF AIR

f o r m m aMkA JiOnR gP A T H

R PATH OF AIR MOVEMENT spring

OF AIR MOVEMENT summer

spring

WIND ROSE

summer

winte

summer

ATH OF AIR MOVEMENT

fall

r

spring

spring

winte fall

r

winter

PREVALENT PATH OF AIR

summer

winte

winter

summer

fall

r

winter

f all

winte

summer

winter

fall

r wint er

s u mm e r

mmer

CARVING THE MASS

winter

summer

winte

r

winte

r winter

us mmer

CARVING WITH AIR: NATURAL VENTILATION STRATEGY winter

N

N

fall

mer

fall

N

summer fall

winter

N

BULDING STRATEGY

CARVING THE MASS

winter

N

N

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y MANIPULATING THE FLOOR PLATE

MANIPULATING THE FLOOR PLATE

CONCEPTUAL TEMPERATURE ANALYSIS AT SECTION

N

CARVING THE MASS

15


DESIGN STRATEGY structure and envelope

DESIGN STRATEGY

roof

structure and envelope

canopy top level

level 4

water slide pool- adult pool- children pool- general

pool- lap

lazy river exoskeleton

EXPLODED DIAGRAM OF BUILDING ELEMENTS

DESIGN EVOLUTION OF EXOSKELETON

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SITE PLAN

Design Strategies -Localize Data Centers: to bring back life, reduce infrastructure to improve efficiency -Use the Pool to p rovide Free-Cooling to the Data Center -Embracing Data Center as new media for information, this is the new library. 0

Design Systems - The design of floor plates to encourage natural ventilation throughout the year: Carving the floor plates with respect to predominant path of air. -The floor plates are made of concrete, performing as a thermal mass while providing structure for the pool and s ervices for spaces. -Radiant Heat runs throughout the slab. -Galvanized Stainless Steel 6x30” Box Girder, provides structure for top level and roof while providing sun -shading to the rest of the building.

We developed an unhealthy addiction to air conditioning systems; we allow our built environment to do little to respond to our natural environment. In introducing the most energy demanding and isolated building type, the Data Center, into our community, the project challenges the perception of resource demand and by-products as a linear relat ionship. Programs unplug from the 17 network while, in turn, plug into each other to create a symbiotic relationship

between, conventionally, singular entities. This allows us to reconnect to the

40’

160’


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CONCEPTUAL DIAGRAM OF FREE-COOLING SYSTEM

19


circulation

managing heat and water

level 4

level 3

level 2

ground level

sub-level

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server racks

water quality treatment

heat recovery unit

storage and regulation control

water entertainment

program allocation


circulation

program allocation

server racks

water quality treatment

heat recovery unit

storage and regulation control

program allocation

water entertainment

21


Pool

Level Sub-Level Ground Second Mezzanine Third Fourth Total FOR EWO RD

GSF 27,200 27,170 17,710 4,650 21,700 8,040 106,470

Deck+ Amenties Water Data Center 7,320 6,840 2,600 --2,750 5,960 5,130 ---2,230 12,420 5,140 --1,550 -25,700

18,660

7,580

Library 2,900 8,920 3,710 2,420 -3,050

Building Services 1,890 1,280 --320 320

21,000

3,810

22


SECTION PERSPECTIVE, DISSECTING POOL ON SECOND FLOOR AND SUB-LEVEL “LAZY RIVER”

Building Common Total Lobby W.C. Misc. 3,040 -630 2,410 3,010 1,360 630 1,020 810 -790 20 0 ---660 -360 300 700 -360 340 8,220 1,360 2,770

4,090

Total 1,435 10,080 1,420 0 2,560 1,825 17,320

Vertical Penetration Open to below Stairs Elev. Shafts -1,035 300 100 8,220 1,030 300 530 -1,020 300 100 -----2,190 300 70 -1,455 300 70 8,220

6,730

1,500

870


BASEMENT GROSS SF DATA CENTER

COMMUNITY POOL LIBRARY

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EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE AT “LAZY RIVER”, LOOKING UPWARD

SCALE: 1/32” = 1’- 0”


25


FIRST FLOOR GROSS SF

MEZZANINE DATA CENTER AND LIBRARY ONLY

DATA CENTER

COMMUNITY POOL LIBRARY

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SCALE: 1/32” = 1’- 0”


INTERIOR PERSPECTIVE AT LIBRARY MEZZANINE

27


SECOND FLOOR GROSS SF DATA CENTER

COMMUNITY POOL LIBRARY

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SCALE: 1/32” = 1’- 0”


INTERIOR PERSPECTIVE AT 2ND FLOOR LAP POOL

29


THIRD FLOOR GROSS SF

5

DATA CENTER

COMMUNITY POOL LIBRARY

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SCALE: 1/32” = 1’- 0”


BUILDING SECTION A

A

31


FOURTH FLOOR GROSS SF DATA CENTER

COMMUNITY POOL LIBRARY

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SCALE: 1/32” = 1’- 0”


EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE AT FOURTH FLOOR FROM THIRD FLOOR POOL DECK

33


5

FOR EWO RD


2

BUILDING SECTION AT DATA CENTER AND LIBRARY 35


MAIN ENTRANCE AT GROUND FLOOR

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PERSPECTIVE AT FOURTH LEVEL FROM THIRD FLOOR POOL DECK

37


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EXTERIOR PERSECTIVE AT SOUTH FACADE

INTERIOR PERSPECTIVE AT GROUND LEVEL, WEST END OF BUILDING 39


FOR EWO RD


Design Strategies -Localize Data Centers: to bring back life, reduce infrastructure to improve efficiency -Use the Pool to p rovide Free-Cooling to the Data Center -Embracing Data Center as new media for information, this is the new library. Design Systems - The design of floor plates to encourage natural ventilation throughout the year: Carving the floor plates with respect to predominant path of air. -The floor plates are made of concrete, performing as a thermal mass while providing structure for the pool and s ervices for spaces. -Radiant Heat runs throughout the slab. -Galvanized Stainless Steel 6x30� Box Girder, provides structure for top level and roof while providing sun -shading to the rest of the building. PERSPECTIVE AT THIRD LEVEL POOL DECK

We developed an unhealthy addiction to air conditioning systems; we allow our built environment to do little to respond to our natural environment. In introducing the most energy demanding and isolated building type, the Data Center, into our community, the project challenges the perception of resource demand and by-products as a linear relat ionship. Programs unplug from the network while, in turn, plug into each other to create a symbiotic relationship between, conventionally, singular entities. This allows us to reconnect to the exterior

environment

through

form,

materiality,

and

structure

while

revolutionizing the medium for a library and optimizing the community pool for free cooling. The project inspires a new language that confronts our existing vocabulary of a social center in a bustling suburb of St. Louis; it becomes an architectural response that liberates us from our destructive habit. 41


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SITE FROM BIG BEND ROAD

SITE FROM DOUGHERTY FERRY ROAD

43


Secti on A CONST RUCTABIL IT Y AN A LYS IS

45


s ec t i o n co nte nt

Section A CONSTRUCTABILITY ANALYSIS Construction Methods and Procedures CM at-Risk For the City What does it mean to be “at-Risk”? Benefits for the Owner Contractual Implication Defining the Team Players Partnering Introduction How is it done? Safety Constructability Plan Safety during Construction OSHA Experience Modification Rate Precautions for the Site Site Analysis Heavy Traffic Gas Station Construction Site Setup Setting up the Job Trailer and Workers Equipment and Materials Access Business as Usual

CONST RU C TA B I L I TY A NA LYS I S


Project Cost Building in St. Louis today Estimating Cost Summary Contingencies Project Cost Breakdown Project Time Building in St. Louis Effect of the Seasons Rush Hour traffic Construction Hours Method: Fast Tracking Schedule Summary Project Duration Project Schedule Milestones Schedule Strategies Design Duration Concrete Enclosing the Building Project Completion Conclusion

47


CONST RU C TA B I L I TY A NA LYS I S


C O N ST RUCT ION M ET HODS AND PROC ED U R E S

49


Construction Methods and Procedures CM at-Risk for the City The Benefits of a Construction Manager at-Risk In the many types of project delivery systems that exist, the Construction Manager at-Risk would be the most appropriate in constructing [UN]Plugged.

While every

delivery system has its own advantage/ disadvantages, a Construction Manager at-Risk will be able to maximize the value of the dollar in a high quality design through using its expertise in the technicalities on the construction site and in project coordination. Since the Construction Manager will be included on the project before the design , it will develop a sensitivity to the owner’s demands and iwill be more inclined to deliver a high quality product. The owner brings its set of programmatic requirements and financial budget to the table, but, most of the time, the owner is without an in-depth knowledge in how to best control the many factors of a construction project. Without a good leader to oversee any job, the quality of the project as well as the budget are on the chopping block to be sacrificed throughout the push-and-pulls of the many team players throughout the project phases. With the Construction Manager at-Risk, there will be a prime point of contact for construction, this team will be involved from the beginning of the project to guide it along through various site, design, construction, schedule, and financial obstacles. The Construction Manager will be the connection between the many, usual ly fragmented, players throughout the entire project. While it is natural for each player to prioritize their part of the contract to maximize their profit margins, this often fester into adversarial relationships between players. Trust and a neutral representative that can speak on the owner’s behalf, while understanding the technical and creative aspect of the project, will benefit not only the quality of the project as a whole, but can help foster a team-building environment for positive relationships to develop.

CONST RU C TA B I L I TY A NA LYS I S


“The involvement of a Construction Manager (CM) during the entire design process as a collaborative yet independent member of the design team helps ensure that every major design decision is balanced by proper analysis of its cost consequences, and impact on project schedule.” (Cladny) The Construction Manager will offer pre-construction services to the client from the conception of the project, the role and responsibility will switch to a General Contractor’s during construction. And as usual, General Contractors will see through to the end of the call-back period after construction, in most cases, it is a year.

http://www.pogueconstruction.com/images/construction-management.gif

51


What does it mean to be “at-Risk?” In the CM-at-Risk delivery system, the Construction Manager is committed to deliver the project to the owner within a Guaranteed Maximum Price (GMP). The Construction Manager is contracted to the owner and becomes the consultant in the development of the project (pre-construction) and as a general contractor during the construction phase.

In representing the owner’s best interest, the Construction

Manager must control the cost to stay within the GMP. “…construction management comes in two general forms: -Agency CM- The CM acts as the Owner’s principal agent to advise on or manage the process from project conception to completion. -CM at-Risk- The CM provides professional management assistance to the Owner prior to construction and advice on constructability, budget and schedule considerations. The CM later converts to the equivalent of a General Contractor during construction. The key difference between these two forms is that the CM atRisk is in fact a distinct delivery method due to its responsibility for construction performance. Agency construction management, on the other hand, is a distinct set of services that can be applied to any delivery method.” (The Construction

Management Association of America, Inc., 2002, p. 8)

Requesting a new building type from the designers and builders will reveal concern and extra coordination that is required for a construction project that is already complicated in nature.

These concerns means additional risks for the teams; to

accommodate for the risk, the teams will increase the price in their services. Consequently, the overall project cost will be increased simply because it is a new building type few have experience with. However, the additive cost the teams will ask can be mitigated by efficient project management by the Construction Manager. Through Construction Manager at-Risk, the budget for the project will remain within reasonable range for the owner-- even in calculating for a 2-5% price fluctuation due to change orders during the project, because there is a Guaranteed Maximum Price.

CONST RU C TA B I L I TY A NA LYS I S


Benefits for the Owner The aspiration of the city to promote a new building type to defy the existing conventions of treating by-products as waste through multi-use and innovation is a romantic gesture, but it is a risky effort. The citizens will rejoice in the new amenities of its community but will also demand that their tax money to be spent efficiently. A typical owner’s perspective on a construction project is that it will take a long time, it is a large capital investment, the project and process is often fragmented, it is risky, and the uniqueness of the project will increase the risk (and therefore, financial demands). These items will lead to uncertainty and lack of control of the project. In reviewing these items, a new building for the city does not appear to be desirable at all! However, efficiently managing the project will reduce risk without incr easing cost or reducing value of the building. In assigning a Construction Manager at-Risk, the owner will have a single point of contract to the project and responsibility. In hiring an expert to the field, the owner will obtain the best value for the dollar through optimum price and scheduling. Since the Construction Manager will guarantee a maximum price for the project, the owner will no longer need to worry about the project’s price or delivery schedule. As a result of reducing risk and responsibility of the owner, this will minimize the use of the owner’s resources: in valuable time and effort in dealing with a field that is better left in the hands of an expert. From the Owner’s Perspective: the primary goal in choosing a delivery system is to ensure that the project objectives are met, and at the same time allow the project to be delivered on time and within budget. Contractual Implication CMAA Document GMP-1

Standard Form of Agreement Between Owner and

Construction Manager (where a Guaranteed maximum Price will be provided).

53


Defining the Team Players Owner: City Construction Manager at-Risk: Consultant to Owner during Preconstruction and General Contractor during Construction Design Consultants Geo-tech Engineer Architect Civil Engineer Structural Engineer MEPFP Engineer Fire Safety Consultant Data Center Consultant Swimming Pool Consultant

Construction Team Project Manager, Project Engineer, General Superintendent, Field Superintendent Subcontractors Material Suppliers

Partnering Introduction To avoid adversarial relationships between the various players on the project, Partnering can be introduced to encourage communication and to foster a team effort for project completion. Project contract and responsibility varies, creating a diverse definition for “project completion” or “project success.” The owner wants a product that will reflect the initial goal while staying within budget and delivered in a timely manner. If the city constructs a building that does not fit the community’s needs, such as building a pool or library that no one will use, or a data center that does not meet the demands of the technologies used today and

CONST RU C TA B I L I TY A NA LYS I S


tomorrow, the city will not only lose the funds from the initial cost of the project but also in operational and maintenance cost in the future. From the aspect of the design professionals, a successful project is able to meet profit margins as well as meeting the aesthetic and quality standards of the individual practices. In taking on the challenge of designing an innovative and complex system can be boast its reputation or destroy it. Innovation and creativity is only successful if it works. Contractors and subcontractors will do their best to work and spend efficiently to deliver an acceptable product to the owner. Many factors on the job can consequently equate to cost. New method of building or using a material the local companies are not familiar with will increase training time for the crew members and supervisors. We cannot build what we do not understand. The learning curve applies here, which means an increase in margin of error and labour efficiency is reduced. Additional time to the job means additional pay for the employees for the same job. Risk is also increased in introducing this learning curve. Conclusively, [UN]plugged will be quoted at a higher cost simply due to its innovative nature to mitigate for these situations throughout the building process.

In efforts to control the risk, contractors and

subcontractors will push to use methods that they have experience in, something more familiar to them. This may create tension between the design professionals and the builders. How is it done? Partnering needs to be supported by individual team members as well as their upper management. A one-day workshop is proposed to review construction phase responsibilities, processes, potential problems, as well as partnering follow -up activities. The point is to create the ability to affect cost in the beginning of the project, prior to it reaching the field. Within this workshop, the team player will meet and be presented a structure to resolve disputes. A timeline is p roposed for decision making. Aside from the introductory meet-and-greet, participants are to outline the major challenges of the job and problems to overcome. Roles and responsibilities are 55


assigned to members to resolve these issues. When issues cannot be resolved on-site, then it is passed up to the management ladder in each party, one step at a time. Finally, a “Partnering Charter” is signed by each participant and to be displayed in the job-site trailer as a reminder of the workshop and the overall goal of the job. “A major emphasis of the partnering philosophy is to build a team from the contracting parties that works together to complete a project.” (Bannes, Construction Project Delivery Systems Part 2, 2010, p. 8) [UN]plugged is a new building type that will push the limits of conventional way of living, designing, and building. Selecting a project team needs to be done carefully to ensure members are qualified and understand the goal of the project. Each player within the project team will play a vital role in the project’s success or failure. Throughout coordination and clear communication is not only appreciated, but required between all members.

The project team must agree to see beyond their

immediate individual role and to remember the most important goal of the project, in addition to cost and schedule, to create a building that works. By having all of the players invested in the project as early as possible, we initiate open lines of communication between trades and consultants; this will foster a team that can benefit from each other’s expertise thorough the design and construction of the project. Having innovative solutions is valuable for any project but to create a team that will provide innovative solutions for a new building type is essential.

CONST RU C TA B I L I TY A NA LYS I S


http://teampartnering.com/images/safford.jpg

57


Safety Constructability Plan Safety during Construction Construction is a hazardous profession, by nature.

Precautions and safety

measures need to be taken on any job to ensure the health and wellness of the workers and the community around it. Aside from the direct “cost” of accidents on the job site, the hidden cost of an accident may be lost of work time, affecting the project schedule, crew break-up, damage to tools and equipment, spoiled work, economic loss to dependents of the injured, penalty payments. (Bannes, Construction Safety, 2010, p. 4) Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA), aka Williams -Steiger Act The Federal government and its Department of Labor enforces guidelines on the job site to ensure workers can expect and have a safe workplace. “Section 5. Duties: Each employer: Shall furnish to each employee, employment and a place of employment which is free of recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to the employee.” (OSHA) To meet the safety standards to ensure a hazard-free workplace, a throughout understanding of the job site and the process of construction is required. Experience Modification Rate (EMR or Mod Rate) The Experience Modification Rate is a standard rating by a rating bureau the Worker’s compensation insurance uses to calculate the coverage premium for the contractors. One (1) is average, higher than one (1) is poor and less than one (1) is a good rating. This rating is based on the most recent three -year history, not including the current year. This is a way to evaluate the incident and its severity. A bad rating does not only reveal the safety history, but it also affects the contractor’s price for the job since a higher premium is a higher overhead for the company.

CONST RU C TA B I L I TY A NA LYS I S


Precautions for the Site Heavy Traffic [UN]Plugged is located at the intersection of Dougherty Ferry Road and Big Bend Road, two major intercity roads that brings in traffic throughout the week.

The

adjacent suburban shopping plazas attracts even more cars around and onto the site. The job site shares an active parking lot with the adjacent shopping plaza. Directing traffic and parking to maintain a safe worksite will need coordination between workers and neighbours. Gas Station The neighbouring Gas Station is not far from the site and it defines a firm boundary line around the [UN]Plugged site. Disruption towards the adjacent site will not simply fluster the neighbours but can endanger the job site, crew, and people nearby. Reinforcing the earth during excavation and foundation work is vital to ensure minimal impact to Gas Station’s stability.

59


Site Analysis

site

v

Vehicular Traffic [UN]Plugged is strategically located in Des Peres, St. Louis County, at a busy suburban town center between Interstate 270 and Route 141, a focal point for nearby residents with the convenience of the infrastructure that feeds into the city of St. Louis. Big Bend Road spans 17.6 miles starting as North Big Bend Road at Delmar Boulevard at the Loop in St. Louis through South Big Bend Road in Clayton Maplewood and then turning westward in Webster Groves. It transects the city’s major Interstates highways, Route 64, Route 44 (twice), Route 270, and two other local Routes 67 and 141. It is one of the few continuous artery in the city that connects a vibrant city neighborhood to the depths of the city’s suburban sprawl.

CONST RU C TA B I L I TY A NA LYS I S


While Dougherty Ferry Road is of 4.3 miles, it starts at the Kirkwood High School (4 miles from the site), passes the Des Peres Hospital (2 miles from the site) before turning into Forest Avenue after it crosses Big Bend Road. Forest Avenue converts into Vance Road and Sulphur Spring Road as it loops northward int o Baxter Road that feeds into Chesterfield and its airport. The speed limit on these roads just before the intersection is 40-45 mph. Nearest Hospital The nearest hospital is Des Peres Hospital at 2345 Dougherty Ferry Road, St. Louis.

61


Construction Site Setup

Setting up the Job [UN]Plugged will be located on a currently for -sale open lot within a shopping plaza district.

Although the site provides plentiful amenities for the future building,

maneuvering around the site during construction will require throughout coordination. Since the building is designed to fit snuggly within the lot property line, with some appropriate setbacks, there will be little room left over for staging and temporary setups. To accommodate for crews’ need during construction, an empty site on the southeast side, across Big Bend Road, can be occupied. Phasing the construction will not only help streamline the schedule, but it will also become a strategy to operate within the site.

CONST RU C TA B I L I TY A NA LYS I S


Trailer and Workers The main trailer will be setup on the north edge of the site, in a corner that is off of the building footprint. When the building is near completion, the trailer can be removed and the building can be used as a temporary facility for crew and supervisors. Although the site is adjacent to a parking lot, workers are encouraged to park across Big Bend Road in the temporary site, so that the parking lot can be reserved for the shopping plaza patrons. Equipment and Materials Aside from parking, the temporary site will also be served for additional storag e for building materials arriving in bulk and equipment that needs to be conveniently located close by but out of construction’s way when not in use. Temporary fencing and Trailer B will be staged at this temporary site for security. Access There are two accesses into the site, one from Big Bend Road and another from Dougherty Ferry Road. Construction activity and workers will be discouraged from using the north access from Dougherty Ferry Road, to reduce further traffic disruption at the parking lot for patrons of the shopping plaza. Appropriate signage will be installed to signify construction, and a cross walk is to be established to connect the temporary site to the construction site. The temporary site will be accessible from Big Bend Road as well as Quinette Road; having two points of entrances will help alleviate traffic congestion. Business as Usual Additional parking on the east side of the shopping plaza will be one of the first items to be established to accommodate for the parking spac es that will be occupied during construction. This area is for designated for patrons for the shopping plaza.

63


CONST RU C TA B I L I TY A NA LYS I S


PROJEC T C OS T

65


Project Cost Building in St. Louis today St. Louis was founded based on its location o n the Mississippi River, when water systems were the major mode of transportation for people and goods. Since then, the transcontinental train and highway infrastructure help increase mobility between source of material and construction site. Being strategic in choosing regional materials can reduce cost for shipping and it will help local economy. Major materials for [UN]Plugged are cast-in-place concrete, glass, and galvanized stainless steel. Secondary materials consist of aluminium for curtain wall system, drywall for wall and ceiling finish, and wood for formwork for the cast -in-place concrete. Estimating There are various methods of estimating a project cost: Order of Magnitude: +/- 30% accuracy Square Foot Estimate: +/- 15% accuracy Assemblies Estimate: +/- 10% accuracy Unit Price Estimate: +/- 5% accuracy Since [UN]Plugged is an academic design project, even with plans and sections, it is in its conceptual stage. While engineers were consulted for the mechanical and architectural development, the estimate that can be gathered based on the information already developed will be an order of magnitude estimate. [UN]Plugged is also of a new unique building type that was inspired by new technologies and an ideal relationship between programs; finding a base template to adjust will be difficult. Therefore, striving for a Unit Price Estimate for the major elements of the project while referring to square footage estimate, with appropriate adjustments, will help us get into the Order of Magnitude Range for constructing [UN]Plugged.

CONST RU C TA B I L I TY A NA LYS I S


Cost Summary Below is a chart for Soft Cost Estimates and calculated Cost of Work as well as for Overall Project Cost. The percentages used to calculate pricing are based on research. Since the source of the pricing does not specify a location or time, it is assumed the pricing is a “base� value, an average of all locations within the U.S. We will use the location multiplier for St. Louis of 1.03 (R.S. Means) , the tax for Des Peres is 8.425%.

67


Contingencies A unique project is a risky project, which can easily become an expensive project. “Risk is created when some aspects of the project are unknown or when certain project elements are likely to cause concern. “ (Hart, 2007, p. 1) When managed properly, cost and risk can be controlled without sacrificing quality of work or quality of design. In acknowledging the risk to a new building type, the Owner and Construction Manager at-Risk can agree on a series of contingencies that breakdown the areas of uncertainty. This method will create comfort for the contractors during the process because the contingencies indicate that the owner understands the risk and will cover a reasonable additional cost for quality job delivery. As part of the contract, any leftover amount of the contingency will go back to the owner, with respect to retaining a percentage to be distributed to the Construction Manager and subcontractors for a job well managed. This percentage acts as incentive for team members to work together to come up with the best value solution, not just an expensive solution. Owner’s Contingency: A perfect set of construction documents do not exist; some estimates errors and omissions of a set of documents to amount to less than 5% of the project’s budget. This contingency can also cover an y changes imposed by the owner regarding design/ program during the process. (Hart, 2007, p. 1) Construction Contingency: allows for contractor to cover cost for unknown conditions, building inspector’s modifications, Owner or Design clarification or Modifications. This is useful during issues that may arise during excavation or material cost increase. Design Contingency: This contingency should not be viewed as inclusive of the budget, but to be additional to the budget for the design team’s use to ensure that all desired scope is covered; this includes unforeseen issues during initial period of design , scope creep, and to provide balance between scope and initial budget if problems occurs, to avoid “cost cutting” that will reduce the quality or scope of project. It is recommended that the owner should appropriate approximately 20% during Design Phase, 30%

CONST RU C TA B I L I TY A NA LYS I S


during Design Development, and 50% or less during Construction Document phase. (Hart, 2007, p. 3) Managing the Contingency The owner, contractor, and architect may view the purpose of the contingency differently. This issue can be resolved when all three parties understand the purpose of the contingency and how it relates to their roles and responsibility of the project. (Hart, 2007, p. 2) “Contingency funds are to be used, first, to complete the scope or deal with unknown conditions. Many owners make the mistake of adding scope with their contingency. Architects should make sure the documents are as complete as possible and understand that the contingency is not a method for addressing late design decisions.” (Hart, 2007, p. 2) In the situation where a change order occurs, it is recommended that the Construction Manager or Contractor is not to receive a fee on the change -order since that will leave them little or no incentive to scrutinize the subcontrators’ change fee. The only time a fee should be granted to a Construction Manager or Contractor is when “when there is a real and tangible change to their work which seldom occurs.” (Hart, 2007, p. 2)

69


CONST RU C TA B I L I TY A NA LYS I S SF SF SF 10,414 SF

@at south door (w/2% slope) 2,354

@front of building 4,100

Forms in place, SOG, curb forms, wood, 6" - 12" high, 1 use

LF

LF

1,157 SY

@loading dock and patio 3,960

7"(18cm) Concrete Pavement 4, 500 PSI Concrete at Spreader

3 CONCRETE Exterior Slab on Grade around building @6"

@ Additional Parking for Existing Plaza 190

@ Parking + Conc. Slab Edge 7,150

7,340 LF

SF

@ Additional Parking for Existing Plaza 3,100

CY SF

Curb, granite, sawn face, 5" x 16"

Formwork

SF

79 TON

@ Parking 9,100

57

@ General 6,270

Asphaltic concrete pavement, highway, binder course, 1.5" thick

Asphalt Paving

SF

18,595 CY

Quanity Unit

City Multipler

Take-off Total:

30% Range:

@ Building Footprint 27,200

General/Structural Excavation For jobs 100CY to 500CY in Size

2 SITEWORK Earth Excavation @ -15' below grade

Div Description

Source: www.allcostdata.info

Order of Magnitude Estimate: Conceptual Design

$

$

$

$

1.03

8.76

18.04

16.10

45.65

11.71

Cost/Unit

$

to

$

$

$

$

$

$10,106,800

$8,590,800

91,228

73,964

118,174

3,606

217,747

Total

$11,622,800

$2,432,280

Averaged between curved and straight formwork

Equipment, Labor, Haul Away

$339,528

Comments

subtotal $9,812,462


71

Foundation Wall 825' x 4'h, @16" t

Forms in place, 2 use, footings, continuous wall, plywood

Forms in place, 4 uses, SOG, keyed joint form, 7" to 12"

Forms in place, 8'-16', 2 use, ret wall, job built plyform

Formwork

Placing concrete, direct chute, ftgs, shallow, cont.

Footing

Placing concrete, walls, 12" thick, direct chute

Retaining Wall 520'x from grade to 10', @ 12"

Placing concrete, walls, 15" thick, direct chute

8,500 SF 1,815 LF 3,630 SF

134 CY $ $ $

$

$

$

256 CY

Placing concrete, pile caps, over 10 CY, direct chute

16" Auger Cast Piles With 12" Re inforcing Cage

96 CY

$ $ $

Caisson, 18"dia,.065CY/LF, to 50'D, wet gnd

16"(41cm) Prstr Octg Concrete Pile 40' Long

360 VLF 360 VLF 59 CY

$

8.47 3.80 4.90

14.62

17.55

16.72

22.80 96.40 8.16

48.81

84.18

Cost/Unit

$

545 CY

Quanity Unit

360 VLF

Labor Piles (30) 16"dia, 12' deep

Concrete ready mix, regular weight 1:3:5 mix 4000

Substructure Material

Div Description

$ $ $

$

$

$

$ $ $

$

$

71,995 6,897 17,787

1,966

1,690

4,277

8,208 34,704 477

17,572

21,533

Total

Perimeter: Retention, foundation

*used pricing for 15", 16" not avail

Building Footprint+ Interior Structural Walls

*used pricing for 18"dia., 16" not available

Comments


CONST RU C TA B I L I TY A NA LYS I S SF SF

Ground Level: 1,620' x 17' 27,540 Sub-Level: 2,540' x 10' 25,400

Placing concrete, beams, large, elev, pumped

Forms in place, columns, plywood, 24" x 36", 1 use

Formwork

Placing concrete, columns, 24" thick, pumped

Labor

Concrete ready mix, regular weight 1:3:5 mix 4000

Columns Material

Forms in place, 18" w, plywd, 2 use, intr beams & girders

Forms in place, 8'-16', 2 use, ret wall, job built plyform

Formwork

1,190 SF

408 SF

7 ea 4 CY

87,265 SF 9,418 SF

522 CY 14,100 CF

SF

Perimeter Beam/ Slab Edge, 10'h

SF

SF

Level 3: 505' x 10' 5,050

Level 4: 505' x 10' 5,050

3,232 CY

3,754 CY

Quanity Unit

Level 2: 1,275' x 19' 24,225

Placing concrete, walls, 12" thick, direct chute

Walls @12"

Labor

Concrete ready mix, regular weight 1:3:5 mix 4000

Superstructure Material

Div Description

$

$

$

$ $

$

$

$

9.54

36.58

84.17

8.47 7.88

37.39

17.55

84.17

Cost/Unit

$

$

$

$ $

$

$

$

11,353

14,925

318

739,135 74,214

19,526

56,722

315,996

Total

**marked up, ref. pricing for 24x24"

24x36" @pool + by stair, 17' h

@Pools Levels

Perimeter Walls: Intr,extr

@Pools

Structural Walls and Interior Walls are at same thickness

Comments


73

Cast-in-Place Concrete Finish, bush hammer, cured conc.

Finishing Concrete

Forms in place, stairs, (slant length x width), 2 use

Placing concrete, stairs on grade, direct chute

Concrete, ready mix, regular weight 1:3:5 mix 3000 psi

Stairs and Landings

Forms in place, to 14' high, 3 use, elev slabs, flat with drop

Slab on Grade

455 CY

@Walls 6,464

@Floors 60,380

@Columns 408

SF SF SF SF

83,115 SF

CY 246 CY 246 6,655 SF

24,590 SF

60,380 SF

@Slab Edge 15,863

Forms in place, SOG, edge forms, wood, 7" to 12" high, 4 use

Formwork Slab, Elevated

Placing concrete, slab on grade, direct chute, slab over 6" thick

Slab on Grade

Placing concrete, elev slabs, 6" to 10" thick, pumped

Labor Slab, Elevated 1,118 CY

29 CY

Slabs Material

Concrete, ready mix, regular weight 1:3:5 mix 3000 psi

Quanity Unit

Div Description

$

$ $ $

$

$

$

$

$

2.80

84.17 43.87 14.88

3.28

3.28

10.63

21.03

84.17

Cost/Unit

$

$ $ $

$

$

$

$

$

2,453

232,721

20,745 10,812 99,020

80,655

198,046

4,841

23,515

Total

Fire stairs, stairs @ pool, stairs @ Library

Comments


CONST RU C TA B I L I TY A NA LYS I S

Columns, strl tubing, A500GrB, sq, 6" x 6", 15-35 PLF

HSS Tube Framing-Secondary

18"x6" Wt Range 48-76 LB/LF Structural tubing

Exterior Framing HSS Tube Framing-Primary

12"x12" Wt Range 40-80 LB/LF Structural Tubing

Columns

Structural steel, 31-65 PLF, spans 10' to 45', W shape

Beams

Metal decking, cellular, galvanized, 1.5" deep, 22-18 ga

5 METALS Superstructure Decking

Forms in place, 18" w, plywd, 2 use, intr bm, beams+ girders

Formwork

Forms in place, SOG, edge forms, wood, 7" to 12" high, 4 use

Slab @6"

Placing concrete, beams, large, elev, pumped

Labor Perimeter @6" CY SF CY SF

18 TON LF 8 TON LF

364 TON 15,173 LF 111 TON 14,784 LF

330

887

84,970 SF

8,360 SF

155 8,360 346 18,660

500 CY

Pool Material

Concrete ready mix, regular weight 1:3:5 mix 4000

Quanity Unit

Div Description

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

2,963.00

3,148.39

2,889.00

2,439.00

4.12

7.88

3.28

37.39

84.17

Cost/Unit

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

328,537

1,146,493

23,834

43,268

350,076

65,877

61,205

5,789

42,116

Total

estimated: semi-structural member but occurs frequently

@48lb, estimated: structural member but occurs frequently, used as average price, actual design dimension: 6" x 30"

@50lb, estimated: structural member

@40lb, estimated: structural member

estimated guage

$1,953,519

Comments


75

@Walls @Pool Perimeter @Slab @Roof Deck

Single Door

Commercial stl dr, flush, 3'-0" x 7'-0", full panel hollow core, 20 ga, 1.75" T

55 ea

10 ea

SF SF SF SF

119,630 SF

254 CSF

2,952 SF

8,160 SF

29,220 SF

346 SF

Quanity Unit

26,300 8,360 84,970 8,160

Commercial stl dr, flush, pr 3'x7'-0", full panel hollow core, 18 ga, 1.75" T

8 DOORS AND WINDOWS Hollow Metal Frames & Doors Double Doors

Wall insul, rigid, fiberboard, 2.5" thick, R5

Rigid Insulation

Elastomeric wtrprfng, 60 mil thick, neoprene sheets, plain

Waterproofing, walls below grade +

Flashing, aluminum, mill finish, .040" thick

Sheet metal, perimeter flashing and cap

Elastomeric rfg, 1/16" thick, neoprene membrane, fully adhered

7 MOISTURE PROTECTION Roofing

Furring, ceilings, 16" OC, on stl, 3/4" channels, 25 ga, galv

Ceiling Furring

Stair, landing, steel pan, conventional

Stairs @Data Center

Div Description

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

306.19

638.75

1.52

323.60

4.80

4.15

1.37

61.55

Cost/Unit

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

16,840

6,388

181,838

82,275

14,170

33,864

40,031

21,279

Total

$4,222,350

@surfaces below grade

perimeter x height + 20% for return

$312,147

Comments


CONST RU C TA B I L I TY A NA LYS I S

Walls & ceilings, acoust ceiling, spray, one coat, appl

Ceiling Finish

Gypsum plasterboard, no finish incl, on walls, std, 1/2" thick

9 FINISHES 1/2" Gypsum Drywall @ Ceilings

Metal window, steel sash, double glazing for above, add

Steel sash, custom unit, 100% vented, no glazing & trim

Windows

Entrance door, hardware & SST trim, 1/2" T, 3' x 7', tempered glass

Secondary: Single Doors

Entrance door, hardware & SST trim, 3/4" T, 6' x 7', tempered glass

Entry Doors Front: Double Doors

Tube fr, wdo wall/store front, 2"x4" jamb, al, stk, mill fin

Mullions

Float glass, 1/4" thick, tempered, tinted

Curtain Wall Glazing

Standard

Panic device, mortise bar, with thumb piece, brass, US26D

Finish Hardware Fire Doors

Div Description

29,220 SF

29,220 SF

855 SF 855 SF

3 ea

3 ea

5,404 LF

270,180 SF 540,360 SF

56

65 ea 9 ea

Quanity Unit

31.25

14.43

200.00

1,063.93

$

$

$ $

$

0.16

0.56

53.57 13.30

3,145.78

$ 14,725.13

$

$

$

$

Cost/Unit

$

$

$ $

$

$

$

$

$

$

Comments

4,675

16,363

45,802 11,372

9,437

44,175

168,863

3,898,697

ceiling application

at Library and Building Common

$21,038

@ Corridor, Breakroom, Pool

@ Corridor, Breakroom, Pool

Curtainwall SF x 2 for double glazed

estimated pricing, averaging various types of hardware

9,575 Exit hardware 11,200

Total


77

EXCLUSIONS Reinforcment MEPFP Equipment Handrail/Guardrails Toilet Accessories Pool Finish

Swimming pool equipment, ladders, heavy dty, SST, 4 tread

Ladder

Swimming pool equipment, diving stand, SST, 1 meter

Pool Liner Diving Stand

Lockers, steel, baked enamel, duplex, 15" x 15" x 72"

Lockers

36"Long Trough Type Urinal, En CI with strainer Trap Flush Vlv & Trim

Toilets Urinals

Partitions toilet, SST, fl mounted, screens, entrance

Toilet Partitions

1/2" Thick Perforated Floor Mats

Entry Mats and Frames

Hyd Pass Elev, 2500# x 100 Fpm Baked Enamel Shaft

10 SPECIALITIES Elevators

Div Description

LF

12 ea

34,060 SF 8 ea

250

200 ea

49 ea 6 ea

557 LF

250 SF

3 ea

Quanity Unit

$

$ $

$

$ $

$

$

540.33

5,660.10

1.68

321.43

338.98 1,402.82

228.66

23.21

$ 66,712.04

Cost/Unit

$

$ $

$

$ $

$

$

$

6,484

57,221 45,281

64,286

16,610 8,417

127,364

5,803

200,136

Total

**price from homewyse.com

Surface Area of all pools

**price from homewyse.com

$531,601

Comments


CONST RU C TA B I L I TY A NA LYS I S


PROJEC T TIME

79


Project Time Building in St. Louis Effect of the Seasons St. Louis is not in an extreme climate zone, however, it is known to be “the most frequently tornadic metropolitan areas” with an extensive history of damaging tornadoes.

The city has an average of 48 days of thunderstorm in a year.

(rrsweather.com, 2013) This is prevalent in spring, where it also enjoy an average rainfall of 11.7 inches during the wet season, March through May. Despite this, the life of the city and its construction continues without fret. However, precautions will need to be taken to ensure the site and its materials are ready to endure high winds or hail. It will also be appropriate to have a plan to safe -housing the workers in the event of a tornado. Rush Hour traffic Located at an intersection of two busy inter-city roads, vehicular traffic will be prominent during weekday commute peak hours (8-10am, 4-6pm). The restaurants and other commerce nearby will continue to sustain traffic for lunch and dinner hours (11am-1pm, 6-8pm) and throughout the weekend.

This high level of activity is

favourable to encourage patrons to [UN]Plugged, but will require an extra level of patience and attention during construction. Transporting equipment, materials, and workers to the site will need to be coordinated. Work site signage to reduce car speed and to notify construction movement on Big Bend Road will need to be in place for the safety of workers and for passer-by’s. Construction Hours Benefiting from the bustling shopping plaza, the site is also in clo se proximity to residential neighborhoods. Night construction may be limited to avoid noise and light disturbance.

CONST RU C TA B I L I TY A NA LYS I S


Method: Fast Tracking Fast Tracking Method is used to encourage early design decisions regarding site and major components, such as the pool and data center so that the mechanical system can be adequately addressed and resolved.

Fast tracking a project demands

commitment to major design elements so that the contractors and suppliers are allowed start the project prior to the final completion to the ent ire set of Construction Documents. This innovative building type will require thorough design development as well as the need to reduce project duration to keep the process rolling in a steady speed. “In no industry is the phrase “time is money” more rele vant than in the construction industry.” (Garrett, 2013) Schedule Summary Project Duration

3 years

Start

May 1, 2013

End

May 31, 2016

Duration of Phases Pre-Design

1 month (4.5 weeks)

Design and Engineering

22 months (99 weeks)

Procurement

6.5 months (28 weeks)

Construction

14 months (62 weeks)

Closing Out

1.5 months (6 weeks)

81


CONST RU C TA B I L I TY A NA LYS I S


83


Milestones Design Peer Review: SD, DD, CD Phase Peer Reviews are scheduled six (6) weeks prior to the completion deadline to allow for the design team to develop and review progress. The information exchanged during these Peer Reviews will highlight major items and more detailed items that may have been overlooked.

These elements will coordinated in structural, civil, MEPFP

documents for the remaining weeks of the due date. Constructability Review: SD, DD, CD Phase Constructability Analysis will occur before the start of the next phase, with the submission of each phase package, Constructability Review for the CD Phase will occur one (1) month prior to CD submission to smooth over any bumps for the complete set. The Review will pull the tradesmen onto the design process, shining a more practical perspective to the job.

While communication between the design team and

construction team is encouraged throughout the job, this period will emphasize the coordination that needs to happen between separate subcontractors and the contractor. Site Permit or “Foundation Only/ Partial Building Permit” This Package will be generated to submit for Site Permit, produced during the DD phase and at the beginning of the CD phase to enable the Fast Track Method. This will essentially be comprised of the Civil Documents. Structural and Architec tural drawings will reference the building footprint and foundation design. MEPFP drawings may be necessary to indicate major openings to accommodate equipment and HVAC systems. At this time, a “While You Wait” Permit may be necessary to obtain approval for the height of the building. Building Permit Building Permit is applied using the completed set of Construction Documents.

CONST RU C TA B I L I TY A NA LYS I S


Occupancy Permit (Substantial Completion) Applying for this permit has financial as well as job site use implications. This ma rks the start of the punch-listing and the FF&E process. From the financial perspective, obtaining an occupancy permit will release the remaining funds to the Owner to make final payment to the team and, subsequently, release lien waivers. Construction Start Construction mobilizes with site work on November 3, 2014, prior to 100% completion of Construction Documents. Construction Complete Construction is set to be completed on April 29, 2016, with project close -out to follow in May. Final Inspection by Municipality The site is in #17 Des Peres, Area 11- County of St. Louis, final inspection will be done according to the Codes of St. Louis County. This is to inspect the MEPFP work prior to wall, ceiling, and floor finishes. Final Payment While paying work completed is necessary, it is recommended that enough amount is withheld until the end of the Punch-list to ensure the subcontractor will return to the job to complete the work required.

85


Schedule Strategies Design Duration [UN]Plugged enjoys adequate time during the design phase to ensure appropriate attention is given to coordinate the Swimming Pool, Data Center, and Library. Aside from spatial programming, equipment and pool sizing needs to be carefully calculated so that this new system functions as it was conceived to function. Elements that are usually designed separately will need to be brought together to function as one; not only will they need to co -exist, these systems are to rely on each other during operation. Building an innovative structure takes extensive planning. If issues are not thoroughly resolved in the Design Phase, the problem will be amplified during the Construction Phase. Cost is directly correlated to the point in the project the problem is resolved. If it is discovered early, the team can execute an effective change to the drawings; the cost to fix this is minimal. However, if the problem is discovered later in the field, the situation becomes more complex and the solution will be more costly, and it may also delay the schedule.

http://luisschneegans.com/pictures/potential-savings-from-ve-applications.jpg

CONST RU C TA B I L I TY A NA LYS I S


Design Peer Reviews and Constructability Reviews will be checkpoints for different teams to come to the same table to look at the drawings together. While these checkpoints exist during our process, cross trade coordination is required thorough the entire process to ensure the building will be a successful prototype as a new species of mix-use construction. In Fast-Tracking this project, allowing adequate time in the design phase is ever more important since construction will start before the Final Complete Construction Documents are finished. Concrete Building Formwork and pouring finish-grade concrete is not just a science, but also an art. Ensuring a high quality finish requires treatment to the formwork, a consistent mixture of concrete throughout the pours, and appropriate attention is to be given to the curing process. The substructure of the Concrete Formwork beings the second week of April and the curing process for the substructure will end by the second week of June. The curing for the superstructure will end before the last week of August. During this period, we are avoiding work of the exposed, superstructure during spring with its rain and windy conditions as well as the cold day of winter. In these months in summer, the standard watering and protection of the concrete during the curing process will be required. Enclosing the Building Curtain wall installation is set to start in the second week of October and to be finished before the last week of December. Enclosing the building for the remaining months of winter will allow the crew to work more comfortably on finishing the interior work. Project Completion Children is the main anticipated patrons of the building. With the completion date set to May 31 st , 2016, the pool and library will be open for enjoyment as the academic school year comes to an end. The summer and fall months will be beneficial 87


for the data center as it need time to build in data to support the digital library. By the fall, the student will be accustomed to the system due to their introduction to it in the prior months. They will be the source behind the usage growth of the data center to get it running at full capacity and to generate heat for the winter. CONCLUSION Coordination and communication is key to a successful construction project. The high demand for program and systems coordination for [UN]Plugged will require the expertise of the entire project team, not only of one from a particular trade. With a Construction Manager at-Risk to guide the project, the Team Players join a Partnering agreement to foster and maintain a positive inter-team relationship.

The site is

located on a highly active intersection, it is necessary to take the proper safety precautions to protect the crew and the public.

An additional “spill -to� site is

recommended across the street from Dougherty Ferry Road. Parking and access will be coordinated to avoid unnecessary disruption to the adjacent businesses. A square-footage and unit take-off with the conceptual drawings deemed the Cost of Work to be around $47.5 million, with an accuracy of 30% for the Order of Magnitude Estimate. This gives us The Cost of Construction to be between $43.8 million to $54.6 million (Cost of Work + Contractor).

This range includes the

Mechanical Equipment Allowance of 25% of Cost of Work (without Contingencies) and an Electrical Equipment Allowance of 50% of Cost of Work (without Contingencies). However, this estimate does not include the Equipment fo r Data Center Racks. The project duration is of 3 years, starting on May 1, 2013 and to be completed by May 31, 2016. Coordination throughout the phases have been taken to complete by the summer of 2016 and to avoid building in unfavourable conditions . The Design and Engineering phase takes up half of the project duration, while the construction is of a third of the duration, it is another aspect of the project that accommodates for the unique design of the project and the high level of coordination requ ired for pulling conventional programs into one system. By imposing constructability reviews and peer reviews throughout the design phases, we can resolve problems on paper before it

CONST RU C TA B I L I TY A NA LYS I S


happens on the field. To compensate for the prolonged Design and Engine ering Phase, the project is to be Fast-Tracked through providing a Site Package prior to completion to completing the Construction Documents. This Site Package will solidify decisions on the site and concrete so that it can be submitted for Site Permit fo r early mobilization. In

applying the

Constructability Analysis to

[UN]Plugged, we

realize

coordination is pertinent to the project; not only is it required during the Design Phase but also on the site, mainly due to the size limit and location. The risk in designing and construction a new building type increases project duration and cost. W hile the estimated cost for the project, including Design and Construction Management fee, is around is $61,260,000, a seemingly pricey public project, we should not b e discouraged looking at the price tag; we need to remember the value the project. It is a new perspective of considering building and its programs. W e are not simply building a structure, but we are constructing new relationships between architectural engineering and building use. In architecture, program and occupants have been fragmentized throughout the years, this project will bring union into how we design and live.

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S ecti on B VAL UE ENGI N EE R IN G

91


Section B VALUE ENGINEERING The Basics When will it Happen for [UN]Plugged? Regional Materials Method of Research Mechanical System: Traditional Chiller vs. Free-Cooling Choosing the Right System Sizing Equipment Occupancy Loads Traditional Chiller vs. Free-Cooling Determine Initial Cost Comfort: Temperature Range for Controls Cost for Operation Cost Savings Payback Period Trade-offs for Using Alternate System

VALUE E NGINE E R I NG


Thermal Qualities: Concrete vs. Metal Studs and Gypsum Choosing the Right System Sizing Equipment Occupancy Loads Determine Initial Cost Project Cost Breakdown Comfort: Ability to Dampen Temperature Fluctuations Cost for Operation Cost Savings Payback Period Trade-offs for Using Alternate System Conclusion

93


VALUE E NGINE E R I NG


T HE BA S IC S

95


The Basics The Value Engineering (VE) phase of the project often has different connotations to design and construction team members. To Contractors, it is when the project goes through a throughout drawing and budget analysis to determine alternatives that are more economical. To Designers, it is the time when the overall quality of the project is at risk to save a couple of dollars. Although the owner prefers to reduce cost, the true reason for Value Engineering is to ensure the budget is spent efficiently, not to simply reduce the cost of construction. During this phase, the team determines the “function” of the design, what something ‘does,’ not what it is. (SAVE International 4) Contingent on the type of project, the owner may or may not prioritize Operation and Maintenance Cost over Initial Cost. A Developer, whose goal is to increase profit margin during the project close-out, will not value life-cycle cost equally as a tenant-owner. “Value Engineering (VE) is not a design/peer review or a costcutting exercise. VE is a creative, organized effort, which analyses the requirements of a project for the purpose of achieving the essential functions at the lowest total costs (capital, staffing, energy, maintenance) over the life of the project. “ (Cullen) When will it happen for [UN]Plugged? Typically a 40-hour workshop, it will be scheduled to occur at the end of Conceptual Design, before the start of Schematic Design to review Project Goals, Budget, and Deadline feasibility for the proposed design. (Cullen) Major items with the design that will conflict or raise concern is to be revealed. Another session of Value Engineering is to be scheduled to review the Design Development Documents, before the start of Construction Documents so that the team can resolve details of the design. These checkpoints are set to efficiently implement necessary changes to impact schedule and redesign costs. Regional Materials Each element of complexity in a project is another dollar sign in construction. If not on foreign materials with prolong lead time and expensive shipping cost, then it may be on additional hours the crew needs to spend to coordinate and to build. Major materials for [UN]Plugged are cast-in-place concrete, glass, and galvanized stainless steel.

VALUE E NGINE E R I NG

Secondary materials


consist of aluminium for curtain wall system, drywall for wall and ceiling finish, and wood for formwork for the cast-in-place concrete. All of these can be easily found, reviewed at the supplier, and transported to the site on trucks, without the need for ocean freight, train freight, or air cargo. Method of Research The design highlights use of space and program connectivity, it is not reliant on “feature” materials. Therefore, the Value Engineering process can focus the true propose of its goal: on determining systems and methods that support the overall design goals while maintaining within budget rather than finding an alternative to propriety products. In the following analysis, the question of validity is raised for the proposed design: basically, “Will the design elements achieve the goal of the project?” The life-cycle cost for two major design elements of the project will be investigated: 1) Mechanical System and 2) Thermal Quality. In a standard format, each will go through an evaluation of: “What is its function?” and “how does it compare to an alternative (or traditional) system? In a) initial cost, b) comfort, and c) cost of operation.” 1) The primary Mechanical System is conceived to be a free -cooling system that uses the pool as a heat sink, however, will a traditional chiller still be required to fulfil the demands of the building? What will be the projected cost savings to introducing this system? 2) In addressing Thermal Quality, the use of concrete as a thermal mass is widely acclaimed, however, how efficient is it when its life-cycle cost is included in the calculation?

Labor is more extensive for a monolithic appearance for

exterior/interior cast-in-place concrete, in comparison to a concrete, insulation, with metal studs and drywall assembly. How efficient is each system?

97


VALUE E NGINE E R I NG


M ECHANICAL S Y S TE M: TRADIT IONAL CHIL L ER vs. F REE- C OOLIN G

99


Mechanical System: Traditional Chiller vs. Free-Cooling Choosing the Right System The main comfort concern is cooling the building: Data Center Racks will produce an abundant amount of heat that needs to be addressed. To effectively apply Value Engineering to the Mechanical System, we need to understand what it is and how it functions so we are not only replace the cost of one equipment with another. A life-cycle assessment includes the equipment, other equipment that supports this element, as well as cost of operation.

Sizing Equipment HVAC designers and contractors often oversize cooling equipment to try to compensate for high occupancy, large thermostat setbacks, unusual loads, poor initial design, or inadequate distribution. Our experience has shown that typical air conditioner sizing generally results in cooling system over-sizing by about 40% to 50%. (Rudd 3) The impacts of improperly sized equipment can lead to poor user temperature control, unwanted drafts from diffusers, and poor air quality in the restrooms. Occupancy Loads Design Occupancy loads and actual occupancy loads differ. A report concludes that high design guide values for estimating internal heat gains is a main reason HVAC systems are being over-sized by 150%-180%. By the time it reaches to specification of the product, the system becomes 170%-210% of the actual demand level! These values are based on rarely reached high

VALUE E NGINE E R I NG


occupancy levels (person/sf2). (CRC Construction Innovation 8) This affects not only the initial cost of the equipment but also operational cost during the life of the building. To respond to this, floor plans should be zoned appropriately to avoid over-sizing equipment and, or performance. Installing appropriately sized equipment can have a capital saving of up to 5.3%, and an energy saving of 2.7%. Although these numbers may appear small, the table below shows the dollars that can be saved even with these percentages. Today, most buildings are cooled by chillers with a basic chilled water system. This circuit mainly consists of the chiller unit (that actively process the liquid used to cool the air), chiller pumps (pumps that transfers the liquid in the circuit), and cooling tower (used to expel the heat). Chillers consume more than 50% of electrical energy during seasonal periods of building use. More than 120,000 chillers in the U.S. are expending more than 30% in additional energy through operational inefficiencies. (Estimated by DOE survey) (North Carolina Energy Office) The chiller itself comprises of a condenser, compressor, and evaporator. While technology have pushed for the chilled water system from the less efficient chilled air system, the cooling tower needs to be sized to dissipate up to an additional 25% of heat, that is produced by the refrigerant process of the chiller. Case Study with Significant Chiller Over-sizing Estimated Cost Savings

Estimated

Life

Cycle

Cost

Savings (15 years)

(CRC Construction Innovation 6-7)

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Traditional Refrigerant Compression Chiller System

(SPX Cooling Technologies, inc.) The free-cooling system introduces the concept of turning off the demands of the chiller and shifting it to the cooling tower, under suitable conditions of weather and heat load. (North Carolina Energy Office 2) By simply adjusting the temperature range for the systems to operate, we can reduce the traditional practice of oversizing of over-performing equipment. As a result, we will reduce heat load while still maintaining comfort for occupants. The method of load sharing is applied so that the chiller still exist as a back-up but the cooling tower is designed to provide for day-to-day demands.

VALUE E NGINE E R I NG


Load Sharing Free-Cooling System

(SPX Cooling Technologies, inc.) [UN]Plugged’s cooling strategy relates to a free-cooling system with a water-side economizer. Due to the climate of St. Louis and the cooling demands of the data center, the building still require a chiller when the natural conditions do not best serve the functions of the water-side economizer. As recommended by The Green Grid Water-side Free Cooling Map, this type of economizer is best suited in climates where wet bulb temperature is lower than 55°F for 3,000 hours or more. St. Louis falls in the 4,000 hour range, so [UN]Plugged site is deemed a potential for this cost saving. In reviewing the two types of free-cooling systems (air and fluid), a fluid economizer will be most appropriate for our building because of the pool portion of the design. (Energy Star)

103


HVAC effectiveness can be measured by how much it cost to supply to the demands of the system. In reducing energy cost, we are raising HVAC effectiveness beause we are providing the same service at a lower price. Below is a chart that analyzes two case study before and after retrofiting a wet side eonomizer. HVAC effectiveness is, on average, doubled; it would be safe to assume this resulted to about 50% in energy reduction cost.

(intel 6)

(Cho, Lim and Kim 196) While we will leave the exploration of sizing equipment for our engineers, we can begin to investigate the expectations and trade-offs between a Traditional Chiller System and a Liquid Free- Cooling System, and ask how we can influence a more efficient system.

VALUE E NGINE E R I NG


Determine Initial Cost Free-Cooling System is designed with operational cost savings in mind, any initial savings mainly from reducing the calculated heat load for the chiller. To install the liquid free-cooling system, an additional heat exchanger, piping, values, and controls are required. (Pickut 6) Additional equipment leads to additional complexity in design and on the field. Initial Cost (in $ thousands) Traditional Chiller

Liquid Free-Cooling,

Difference

Share Loading Chiller

$ 511

$ 450

Chiller Pumps

$ 125

$ 70

Cooling Tower

$ 111

$ 98

Chiller Condenser Pumps

$ 68

$ 70

Heat Exchanger (Economizer)

--

$ 360

CRAC Units

$ 360

$ 432

HVAC Installation

$ 1,177

$ 1,841

Total

$ 2,352

$ 3,321

$969

(Emerson Network Power 2)

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Comfort: Temperature Range for Controls Defining comfort It is a rule of thumb to maintain rooms around 72 degrees Fahrenheit to keep occupants comfortable. However, it is important to note that many factors affect an individual’s comfort level. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) have created a program that calculates an ideal temperature based on air speed, mean radiant temperature, air velocity and humidity, activity level, and clothing. In addition, solar exposure should not be forgotten in the complex equation. While the architect should design spaces that address comfort based on the anticipated activity of the space to the materials and sun exposure, Mechanical Engineers is to specify a system that is sensitive to the flow of air and control of humidity in the space.

http://www.healthyheating.com/Definitions/Definition_Images/Mean%20R3.gif

http://www.healthyheating.com/Definitions/Definition_Images/Mean%20R6.jpg

Individual’s experience based on HVAC system

Individual’s experience with solar heat gain

http://sustainabilityworkshop.autodesk.com/sites/default/files/styles/600px/public/core-page-inserted-images/hvac_temp_zones_-_revised.jpg http://sustainabilityworkshop.autodesk.com/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/core-page-inserted-images/too_hot_too_cold_-_revised.jpg

VALUE E NGINE E R I NG


Cost for Operation Energy Cost (in $ thousands) @ 7.5 cent/kWh Traditional

Liquid Free-Cooling,

Chiller

Share Loading

Chiller

$ 612

$ 404

Chiller Pumps

$ 147

$ 83

Cooling Tower

$ 47

$ 49

Chiller Condenser Pumps

$ 80

$ 83

Heat Exchanger (Economizer)

$0

$0

CRAC Fans

$ 228

$ 125

Rehumidification

$176

$0

Total

$ 1290

$ 744

Savings

$546

By going to a Liquid Free-Cooling System to share the cooling load with the Chillers, we would save $546,000 every year! Various temperature ranges are defined to accommodate for the various settings in the building. Research shows that there is a 4% operational savings from cooling for every 1 degree increase in operating temperature. (Miller) Every degree counts. Temperature Range (째F) Winter

Summer

Spaces

Low

High

Low

High

Data Center**

55

63

87

95

Library: Stacks

62

70

72

80

Library: Seating

65

73

68

76

Pool: Water

83

Pool: Deck

76

82

78

84

Offices

65

73

68

76

Corridors and Restroom

62

70

72

80

86

**The temperature range set for the Data Center will need to be reevaluated to maximize the exchange of warmer return air into heating the water to the pool during the winter.

107


Payback Period With

the

information

listed, the initial cost to going to a Liquid

Free

Cooling

System

increased by $959,000 but it saved $546,000 in operational cost in the first year.

If we maintain the

system properly and assume the same payback for the following years, we would save about $1,750,000 in five short years!

In checking our calculations with other case studies: -During water-side economizer operation, costs of a chilled water plant are reduced by up to 70%. (Energy Star) A study shows a retrofited liquid economizer in a Data Center in Chicago was able to save almost 50% in energy savings by increasing water temperature by 10째F, increasing temperature in the space by 5째F, and increasing return air temperature from 75 to 82째F while using variable speed fans. -Wells Fargo decided to invest in a Liquid Cooling System for its Data Center, even with the mark up of almost $1 million, however they were able to generate $150,000 in energy savings in the first year, and is set to double that amount the second year. This totals up to an overall 15% savings on energy usage with only an additional 1% of total construction cost. (Mitchell)

VALUE E NGINE E R I NG


While we optimistically assumed an immediate 100% savings on our system, we based our result on a generalized list of cost and equipment. It is practical to agree there will be a couple of years until we learn to maintain and control the complex system after construction; nonetheless, the learning curve is still working towards our favor of energy cost savings! Trade-offs for using alternate system As mentioned before, installing an economizer will increase complexity in the job and will increase cost through the additional equipment needed to support this feature of the cooling system. Increase in complexity may equal additional labor cost, or time for the teams to coordinate. While more equipment require more space, or for space to be used more efficiently. However, since we are reducing expected cooling load to the chiller with the economizer, we can appropriately downsize (and reduce cost) to the chiller entity of the system. However, it is most important to highlight the projected saving on energy cost for this system. Data Center racks already operate at a high power demand; if we do not become efficient in maintaining the appropriate environment for the racks, we will waste money to maintain an inefficient system and we will soon deplete our overall resources.

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VALUE E NGINE E R I NG


T HERM AL QU ALITIE S : C ONCRET E VS. M ETAL ST UDS AND GYP S U M

111


Thermal Qualities: Concrete vs. Metal Studs and Insulation

Design Strategy for [UN]Plugged

Most

of

the

building’s

fenestration is oriented north to avoid direct solar exposure that will cause glare and overheating.

Windows that are

exposed to the south are minimal and have the benefit of being shaded by the steel tube framing system, which is designed to increase frequency on the South perimeter.

This design strategy

can reduce up to 50% of cfm required, compared to a space that has southfacing fenestration. (Rudd 6)

VALUE E NGINE E R I NG

http://www.new4old.eu/guidelines/images/image087.jpg


http://gruenecodesign.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/CropperCapture19.jpg

The original design proposes a monolithic concrete assembly that acts as a thermal mass to dampen temperature fluctuations. However, finish grade cast-in-place concrete demands specific concrete mixture, quality formwork, and tentative labor, all which will increase the overall construction. The proposed design is of a structural concrete wall with rigid foam insulation, and a 2� concrete veneer to finish the interior. Materials were chosen for maximum performance in RValue for thickness ratio. In the alternative design, the structural concrete wall remains, but a spray applied insulation is selected because it is lower in cost than the rigid insulation. The interior finish is replaced by gypsum wallboard on metal furring. As a result, we still get a thermal mass that is unnoticeably thinner but with a higher R-value assembly. The next table compares the proposed concrete exterior wall assembly with a more traditional and economical concrete wall assembly, insulation and material for the alternative system have been selected to generate the total R-Value of the proposed assembly.

http://www.theicfbuilder.com/images/diagram.gif

113


R-Value for Wall Systems

inches)

Per Inch

For Thickness Listed

Total Achieved

R-Value ( ft2·°F·hr/Btu)

Cast-In-Place Structural Concrete

7 1/2

.08

--

.6

Extruded Rigid Foam Insulation

2.5

5

--

12.5

Vapor-Seal, 2 layers of felt

--

--

.12

.12

Cast-In-Place Concrete

2

.08

--

.16

Thickne ss Description

(in

Proposed

Total 12

13.38

Alternative Cast-In-Place Structural Concrete

7 1/2

.08

--

.6

Spray Applied: Cellulose Fiber Insulation (between studs)

3 1/2

3.8

--

13.3

Vapor-Seal, 2 layers of felt

--

--

.12

.12

3 5/8” Metal Studs

3 5/8

--

--

--

5/8” Gypsum Board

5/8

--

.56

.56

Total 11.75

VALUE E NGINE E R I NG

14.58


Determine Initial Cost Initial Cost for Wall Systems: Concrete vs. Metal Studs Description

Cost/ unit

Cost

Proposed Exterior Wall @ 1,690 LF (820’ @10’h, 450’ @17’h, 420’ @ 19’h), thickness: 1’ Cast-In-Place Structural Concrete

$84.17/ cy

$74,288

Labor with Direct Chute

$17.55/ cy

$15,490

Concrete Formwork

$5.92/ sf

$9,047

Extruded Rigid Foam Insulation

$1.53/ sf

Cast-in-Place Concrete Finish, bush hammer, cured conc.

$2.80/ sf Total $98,825

Alternate Exterior Wall @ 1,690 LF, (820’ @10’h, 450’ @17’h, 420’ @ 19’h), thickness: ~ 1’ Cast-In-Place Structural Concrete

$79.46/ cy**

$70,131

Labor with Direct Chute

$16.55/ cy**

$14,607

Concrete Formwork

$5.61/ sf**

$8,746

Spray Applied: Cellulose Fiber Insulation (between studs)

$1.61/ sf

Metal studs drywall ptn, 16" OC, 10' H, 16 ga, 3-5/8" W, galv., LB

$2.69/sf

Total $93,484 Proposed Interior Wall @ 5,075 LF, various heights, thickness: 1’ Cast-In-Place Structural Concrete

$84.17/ cy

$197,753

Labor with Direct Chute

$17.55/ cy

$41,233

Concrete Formwork

$5.92/ sf

$24,082

Cast-in-Place Concrete Finish-Polished

$2.80/ sf Total $263,067

Proposed Interior Wall @ 5,075LF, various heights, thickness: ~1’ Cast-In-Place Structural Concrete

$79.46/ cy**

$185,587

Labor with Direct Chute

$16.55/ cy**

$38,883

Concrete Formwork

$5.61/ sf**

$23,283

Metal studs drywall ptn, 16" OC, 10' H, 16 ga, 3-5/8" W, galv., LB

$2.69/sf

Total $248,853 Cost estimate by www.homewyse.com and http://www.allcostdata.info

**number is reduced to accommodate for extra layer of concrete: 2in x 36in x 36in= 2592, 1cy=46656. 2592/46656= .056 reduction.

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The alternative system will save 5.4% in building and materials cost, $5,340 for the Exterior Walls and about $14,210 for Interior Walls; in total, it will be a savings of $19,550. However, this does not factor in the effect of the schedule. As the table shows, maintaining a monolithic concrete structure will become more costly than using the composite of drywall and concrete, mainly due to the cost of the concrete finish. If we turn the project from a bush hammered finish to a polished concrete finish, it would almost double the cost of finishing the concrete, at $5.16/ SF! Comfort: Ability to dampen temperature fluctuations Dampening temperature fluctuations have cost implications.

If a user feels

uncomfortable sooner, the thermostat may be adjusted to turn on/off active systems. The ability to dampen spikes / sudden drops in temperatures can suspend the usage of active systems. We have determined the R-Value of the system can be increased, reduce thickness by ¼”, as well as reducing initial cost, now let’s consider the effects on comfort of this new system. The system is designed as a thermal mass. Thermal mass is a concept of using a mass to dampen the fluctuation of temperature swings, based on the equilibrium. When the ambient temperature is higher than the mass, the mass will absorb the “extra” heat from air until both have reached an equilibrium. As the ambient temperature cools, the mass will also lose heat to the air, until both have reached an equilibrium. The time in which it takes the mass to reach the equilibrium of its ambient temperature is called lag. During this period, the occupants are benefiting from this exchange because it delays the swings in temperature, prolonging the enjoyment of a comfortable state. To measure the effectiveness of the system as a thermal mass, heat capacity and density is used. The higher, the more effective it is in conducting and storing heat to be later released. In addition, a continuous, large thermal mass is more efficient because it acts like a reservoir, the more mass there is, the more “extra” heat it can absorb and store. In the condition of the exterior wall, it acts as a buffer between the temperature exchange between the treated interior environment to the swings of the natural temperature changes (with respect to wind and sun exposure) during the days.

VALUE E NGINE E R I NG


Density (lb/ft3)

Specific Heat (Btu/ lb·°F)

Thermal Capacity x Thickness (Btu/ ft2· °F)

Thickness (in)

Thermal Capacity (Density x Heat Capacity) (Btu/ ft3· °F)

Thermal Capacity for Walls

Cast-In-Place Structural Concrete

7.5

144

0.156 22

13.75

Extruded Rigid Foam Insulation

3.5

1.8

0.31

0.56

0.16

Cast-in-Place Concrete Finish, bush hammer, cured conc.

2

144

0.16

22

3.67

Total

12

Description Proposed Exterior Wall @ 12”

17.59

Alternate Exterior Wall @ 11 ¾” Cast-In-Place Structural Concrete

7.5

144

0.16

22

13.75

Spray Applied: Cellulose Fiber Insulation (between studs)

3.625

3.5

0.4

1.4

4.08

5/8” Gypsum Drywall

0.625

96

0.26

25

1.30

Total

11.625

20.96

Proposed Interior Wall @ 9” Cast-In-Place Structural Concrete

9

Total

9

144

.16

22

16.5 16.5

Proposed Interior Wall @ 11 ¾” Cast-In-Place Structural Concrete

7.5

144

0.16

22

13.75

3 ½” Metal Studs (air space)

3.625

0.08

0.24

0.02

.073

5/8” Gypsum Drywall

0.625

96

0.26

25

1.30

Total

11.625

15.15

Data Source from http://www.brighthub.com

117


The energy transfer between the concrete wall assembly and the alternative dry wall assembly is comparable. The alternate system has a better thermal capacity as an exterior wall, but has a lower thermal capacity as an interior wall, with an increased thickness. This means that it takes less energy to increase or decrease temperature between rooms. However, it should also be noted that the assembly of the interior wall is a composite of materials, with an air space, while the proposed interior wall is a solid construction. Cost for Operation St. Louis has an average of 4290 Heating Degree Days of per year and 1847 Cooling Degree Days per year, averaging the total between 2008-2012. Ameren, the electrical company for St. Louis, charges about 7.55 cent per kW. HEAT LOSS RATE (BTU/hr) Q = (Area) x (1/R-Value) Q = (27,190 sf) x (1/R-Value) AVERAGE HEAT LOSS/ YEAR (BTU/yr) Q= Q (Btu/hr) x 24 hr/ Day x Cooling/Heating Degree Days = BTU necessary to maintain a comfortable temperature

Cost Savings

Heat Loss Rate (BTU/hr)

Average Heat Loss/ year (million BTU/yr): HDD

Average Heat Loss/ year (million BTU/yr): CDD

Btu (in millions)

kW

Cost in St. Louis

Alternative Exterior Wall

R-Value ( ft2·°F·hr/Btu)

Description Proposed Exterior Wall

Thermal Capacity x Thickness (Btu/ ft2· °F)

Cost Savings of the Alternative Wall System

17.6

13.4

2029

208.9

90.0

298.9

87,599

$6,613.73

21.0

14.6

1862

191.7

82.5

274.2

80,350

$6,066.43

1.2

-167

-17.2

-7.5

-24.7

7249

-$547.31

Difference 3.4

VALUE E NGINE E R I NG


Trade-offs for using alternate system Wall Thickness In considering the alternative wall assembly, the wall thickness decreases by Ÿ�. While this number appears to be insignificant, this dimension needs to be coordinated thorough the drawings to ensure other building components (curtain wall, wall foundation) are located and sized appropriately. During the Value Engineering Process, dimensional changes also needs to be reviewed. In areas where the change increases thickness, spaces that require minimum accessibility clearance (corridor, bathrooms) must maintain clearance. Rigid Foam Insulation vs. Sprayed Cellulose Insulation Installation Since the material is purchased as boards in standard dimensions, it the installation of rigid foam insulation is a simple task of cut, mount, and secure onto the concrete wall. With the Spray Cellulose System, the insulation is applied, free hand, onto the wall with attention to stay within 119


the wall system: it can be a messy process. Drying time of 24-48 hours is recommended, prior to installing drywall. With an experience installer, the spray cellulose insulation can be applied with as much ease as other insulation systems. Gaps Gaps will need to be sealed appropriately with the Rigid Foam Insulation whereas the Wet-Spray insulation will adhere to and seal gaps when applied correctly. Duration Rigid Foam Insulation will not sag over time, some manufacturers offer 50 year warranty on the product. The quality of spray cellulose insulation is dependent on installation and complete wall assembly. Since it is a wet-spray, it has been known to be at risk of moisture problems within the wall causing mold. Fixture Installation Punctures through concrete needs to be highly coordinated and is more expensive than creating an opening on a drywall. Design Impact In converting the original wall system from a monolithic concrete design to a more efficient and economical assembly with metal studs and drywall, we can still try to maintain a monolithic appearance if we coordinate the assembly. Through carefully selecting interior faces to receive drywall, and opposite side to maintain a continuous concrete finish, wrapping around main corridors and the data center. Estimating Impact The concrete wall system was designed to remain in its durable concrete finish, using drywall leads to the need for additional maintenance (repainting over the years), and if we apply the

VALUE E NGINE E R I NG


drywall in the restroom, a suitable, waterproof finish (i.e. wall tile) would need to be specified for the walls as well as the floor, to ensure quality design. Conclusion In the case of [UN]Plugged, the building hosts a Community Library/ Data Center and a Pool. The owner is the Municipality, whom will be relying on its citizen’s tax dollars to fund the building’s construction and maintenance. Like all government projects, the budget will allow little room for frivolous spending. Value Engineering will be an important process in determining the relationship between cost and effectiveness of the overall design. While the initial cost of a Free-Cooling System is more than the Chiller System, about $969 million, or 140% cost increase, the cost savings to operate the Free-Cooling System will be rewarding: reducing the energy consumption by 50%. Although the calculated payback period is questionable due to the “learning curve” of operating the system, the city will still see a large saving. The concept of the Liquid Free-cooling System is inherit in designing [UN]Plugged, this Value Engineering Analysis does not only prove the effectiveness of the Free-cooling system, but it also proves the validity of the project design. In our investigation of the wall system, we see a gap in efficiency in the original design. The alternative wall assembly is shown to be more cost efficient, initially and in energy saving, we must remember to design with quality, not just with the dollar sign. As the architect of [UN]Plugged, I am reluctant to revert to a traditional drywall system because it will break down the monolithic quality of the design. After this research, I acknowledge that the wall system can be more efficient as a thermal mass even if it do not remain as a solid construction. However, Cast-in-Place Concrete is not the only method to obtain the aesthetic of a monolithic construction. To amend for this design flaw, I will propose this Value Engineering exercise to extend this investigation into another wall system that can improve efficiency in cost of construction and in thermal quality: such as concrete veneers rather than drywall or a prefabricated composite concrete panel system.

121


F INAL WOR D

In pursue of a Master of Architecture Degree, the design studios often focus on resolving

design for the user: although the ideas generated are supported by research, its validity was more complicated to review without further analysis. The result, no matter how beautifully drawn, the product remain as a romantic gesture, abstract and lacking in technical justification. With this Capstone Research, I was able to apply Constructability Principles and a Value Engineering Analysis on a project heavily based in its Mechanical System. With the Constructability Principles, the location became a site for construction. The abstract idea is realized into a building project, along with its many complexities. Details such as access and parking became a concern, while the aspect of time and cost granted another realistic dimension to the project. My project is no longer a piece of drawing illustrating an idea, but one with a defined Mechanical System and Wall Construction, which have been examined and weighed against its competitors.

The most significant information obtain from this research is not accuracy, but it is the

process itself. With the Dual Degree in Construction Management and Architecture, I am able to understand a design idea as a construction project as well as dissecting the project to measure the functions of its design elements.

Ben Fehrmann, my Degree Project instructor, once said, “As a successful graduate student,

it is not what you know that matters: because as a student, you do have the experience or wisdom to know everything. But it is that you know what you don’t know, which makes you valuable to the profession.”

123


AP PENDIX

125


A . 1 : S t . L o u i s - Te m p e r a t u r e R a n g e

A.2: St. Louis- Hourly Illumination

A PPEND IX A : Si te D ata


A . 3 : S t . L o u i s - G r o u n d Te m p e r a t u r e ( M o n t h l y A v e r a g e )

A.4: St. Louis- Sun Shading Chart 127


St. Louis County Property Viewer Š Copyright 2011 St. Louis County. All rights reserved. Terms of Use. St. Louis County makes no warranty for fitness of use for a particular purpose, express or implied, with respect to this map product. Every reasonable effort has been made to assure the accuracy of the maps and data provided; nevertheless, some information may not be accurate. Printed: Tue Aug 27 2013.

A.5: Property information

A.6: Property information

A PPEND IX A : Si te D ata


   





  

     

  















































 

























 























































































 





 

 



  

 









A.6-2: Ownership/ Legal Information

A.6-1: Ownership/ Legal Information

129

 

 





































































 

 



    

  

   

 







 



 









 

























 













    



   











 





 



















 





















 





 








A PPEND IX B : Pe r m i tt i n g

- Footing & Foundation Authorization Process - Simplified Interior Finish/Alteration Process

Special Process/Procedures

- Introduction - Guidelines for Public Works Submittal - Application/Project Submittal Flow Diagram for Most Projects

Permit Processing Center

- Introduction and Function - Guidelines for Public Works Submittal - Additional Submittal Information - Guidelines for Other County Departmental Submittals - Application/Project Submittal Flow Diagram for Most Projects

Permit Application Center (“PAC”)

- General Information - Types of Permits

Permits

Municipality Contract Matrix

St. Louis County - Unincorporated Areas & Municipalities

Office Locations, Telephone Directory

INDEX

B.1-1: Building Permit Application Submittal & Review Process

B.1-2: Building Permit Application Submittal & Review Process K:\Permdata\Plan Review\HANDOUTS\COMM CONST PROCESS.doc

December 18, 2012

COMMERCIAL CONSTRUCTION

FOR

INFORMATION GUIDE

BUILDING PERMIT APPLICATION SUBMITTAL & REVIEW PROCESS

St. Louis County Department of Public Works Division of Building Permits


1.Ballwin 1.Bel Nor 2.Bel Ridge 3.Bella Villa 4.Bellefontaine Nbrs 5.Bellerive 6.Berkeley 7.Beverly Hills 8.Black Jack 9.Breckenridge Hills 10.Brentwood 11.Bridgeton 12.Calverton Pk. 13.Champ 14.Charlack 15.Chesterfield 16.Clarkson Vlly 17.Clayton 18.Cool Valley 19.Country Club Hills 20.Country Life Acres 21.Crestwood 22.Creve Coeur 23.Crystal Lake Park 24.Dellwood 25.Des Peres 26.Edmundson 27.Ellisville 28.Eureka 29.Fenton 30.Ferguson 31.Flordell Hills 32.Florissant 33.Frontenac 34.Glen Echo Pk. 35.Glendale 36.Grantwood Village 37.Green Park 38.Greendale 39.Hanley Hills 40.Hazelwood 41.Hillsdale 42.Huntleigh 43.Jennings 44.Kinloch 45.Kirkwood 46.Ladue 47.Lakeshire 48.Mackenzie 49.Manchester

51.Maplewood 52.Marlborough 53.Maryland Heights 54.Moline Acres 55.Normandy 56.Northwoods 57.Norwood Court 58.Oakland 59.Olivette 60.Overland 61.Pacific 62.Pagedale 63.Pasadena Hills 64.Pasadena Park 65.Pine Lawn 66.Richmond Heights 67.Riverview 68.Rock Hill 69.Shrewsbury 70.St. Ann 71.St. George 72.St. John

73.Sunset Hills 74.Sycamore Hills 75.Town & Country 76.Twin Oaks 77.University City 78.Uplands Park 79.Valley Park 80.Velda City 81.Velda Village Hills 82.Vinita Park 83.Vinita Terrace 84.Warson Woods 85.Webster Groves 86.Wellston 87.Westwood 88.Wilbur Park 89.Wildwood 90.Winchester Woodson Terrace

Public Works currently provides quality code enforcement services in some capacity to almost all of the 91 municipalities. A matrix showing services currently being performed for the various municipalities is available from our website at www.stlouisco.com/pubworks.

Public Works is interested in promoting uniformity of construction regulations throughout the entire area because we are convinced that uniformity and consistency in building code enforcement will result in better construction quality and attract more industry and businesses to the region.

Located within St. Louis County are also 91 Municipalities. Since the mid-1950's, the Department of Public Works has offered code enforcement services by contract to these Municipalities. Each Municipality contracting with St. Louis County maintains Zoning Enforcement responsibility at their local level.

The Department of Public Works by County Charter is responsible for code enforcement of County ordinances that regulate building construction within the unincorporated areas of St. Louis County.

ST. LOUIS COUNTY UNINCORPORATED AREAS AND MUNICIPALITIES

B.1-3: Building Permit Application Submittal & Review Process

B.1-4: Building Permit Application Submittal & Review Process

131

Hours: 7:30 am - 4:30 pm Monday, Wednesday & Friday

(314) 615-0902 / (314) 615-0992 (fax)

WEST COUNTY Clarkson Wilson Centre 74 Clarkson Centre, Chesterfield, MO 63017

Hours: 7:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.

(314) 615-4076 / (314) 615-4141 (fax)

SOUTH COUNTY Keller Plaza 4554 Lemay Ferry, St. Louis, MO 63129

615-5184

615-4269 “PAC” Cindy Helton

John Watson Linda Gladson Joan Holtzman

ZONING REVIEW

Building 615-7155 Plumbing 615-7808 Electrical 615-7082 North Satellite 615-7304 South Satellite 615-4076 West Satellite 615-0902

615-3763

PERMIT PROCESSING

Richard Edwards, Supervisor Kimberly Blancett

PERMIT CENTER

615-5485

615-5485 Rich Hodel - MEP Supervisor Marina Klebanov - Mechanical Roger Book - Mechanical Mike Ochonicky –Mechanical/Plumbing Mohideen Sirajuddin- Electrical

(Mechanical, Electrical, Plumbing)

PLAN REVIEW

Duane Emanuel, Supervisor Bill Walterscheid Dan Waldemer Leo Schwartz Chris Falk Helen Zhou Virginia Price

(Building)

PLAN REVIEW

PERMITS/PLAN REVIEW TELEPHONE DIRECTORY

Hours: 7:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m. Tuesday & Thursday

(314) 615-7304 / (314) 615-7409 (fax)

NORTH COUNTY #21 Village Square (North 67 and Highway 270) Hazelwood, MO 63042

Hours: 8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m.

(314) 615-5184 / (314) 615-7085 (fax)

CLAYTON (MAIN) OFFICE 41 South Central, 6th Floor, Clayton, MO 63105

Besides our main office in Clayton, we have 3 satellite permit processing offices to provide limited application processing for certain types of projects. The Permit Application Center (PAC) and all Plan Review functions are located at our Clayton office.

PUBLIC WORKS OFFICE LOCATIONS


A PPEND IX B : Pe r m i tt i n g

Applications for building permits are received and processed by either the Permit Processing Center or the Permit Application Center generally depending upon whether or not other County Departments are involved in the review/approval process. Generally, applications for all other disciplines and/or subcontractor type work (i.e. electrical, plumbing, mechanical, fire suppression, etc.) are processed by the Permit Processing Center.

Permits are also required for the various disciplines and/or sub-contractor’s construction work related to both the building and site work including Mechanical, Electrical, Plumbing, Fire Suppression, Drainlaying, Retaining Walls and Parking Lots, as well as, specialty type permits for installation of Elevators, Escalators, Communications (low-voltage wiring), Signs, etc.

Interior Finish Building Permits authorize the general construction work beyond the shell stage to finish up the building and/or individual tenant space.

One type of shell permit basically authorizes construction of the building enclosure walls and roof including interior structural supports and/or floors. A retail strip center is a common example. The other type of shell is the basic building shell structure (walls, floors, roof) together with common area interior general construction. The best example is a multi-level office building with a public elevator, lobby and restroom areas. Even this type of building sometimes can be further broken down into a basic shell permit as described above followed by an interior finish permit for the common area, as well as, for each tenant.

Shell Building Permits may be of two types usually determined by the type of structure or design and whether or not there are public or common interior areas.

Building permits for new construction and for additions to existing buildings may be issued as a complete permit for the entire structure or as a partial permit for a limited scope of construction work - i.e. foundation only permit, shell permit, interior finish permit, etc. Foundation only type permits (partial building permits) can sometimes be issued sooner than shell or complete building permits to facilitate the start of construction once the Planning Department has approved a site development plan. Clearances must be obtained from each reviewing Department/Agency and applicants must acknowledge that they are proceeding at their own risk without assurance that a complete building permit will be approved.

A Land Disturbance Permit must be obtained for any activity that affects the ground surface and/or vegetation such as clearing and grubbing, rough grading, and excavating for foundations. Land disturbances are categorized as either Major (1 acre and larger) or Ordinary (less than 1 acre). A Land Disturbance Permit may be issued for the entire site disturbance work through final landscaping or issued in stages as “partial permits” to allow clearing & grubbing and/or advance grading to facilitate early preparation of the site for development. Clearances must be obtained from each applicable reviewing Department/Agency and, if a “partial permit” applicants must acknowledge that they are proceeding at their own risk with the site work without assurance that permits will be approved for the entire development.

TYPES OF PERMITS

The zoning, land disturbance, and building construction codes adopted by St. Louis County provides minimum standards to insure the public safety, health, and welfare relative to site development and building construction and to secure safety to life and property from all hazards incident to the occupancy of buildings. Before permit issuance, projects are reviewed for compliance with the applicable land disturbance, zoning, building, electrical, plumbing and mechanical codes. A permit issued by Public Works serves as formal and legal authorization to start the construction work.

PERMITS

B.1-5: Building Permit Application Submittal & Review Process

B.1-6: Building Permit Application Submittal & Review Process


3. A separate building permit application is usually required for each proposed structure. The “PAC” Center will provide you with guidance relative to when more than one structure can be included on a single application.

Cover sheet – property owner/property identification information, location map, contact information, etc. Land disturbance plan sheet(s) conforming to Highway Dept. Sediment and Erosion Control Manual. Best Management Practices (BMP) detail sheet(s). Earth hauling onsite/offsite, quantities, haul route, offsite property information, etc. Geotech Report. Temporary Access to work area. Land Disturbance activity, scheduling phasing and sequencing details, closure plans, etc.

Four (4) sets of professionally prepared, sealed and signed civil site improvement construction documents are required which shall include the following as applicable to the project, scope of site work and/or type of land disturbance application filed:

2. A separate land disturbance permit application must be filed if the land disturbance is a Major Land Disturbance (one acre or larger). If less than on acre the applicant may file a separate land disturbance application or request that the land disturbance work be integrated with the building permit.

The “PAC” number will also allow fast tracking of a project so that when an inquiry is received, the project may be quickly located, and the current review status of all reviews may be reported accurately, and as expeditiously as possible.

From this moment on, the “PAC” Center, and all departmental reviewers are responsible for keeping the “PAC” system current with the status of their reviews, and other information accumulated which may impact the project.

This form requests information pertinent to the project. A “PAC” number will be assigned so that the project information may be entered into the “PAC” automated data entry system creating the “PAC” file.

1. A “PAC” project information application is required.

The following applications must be completed:

(SIGNIFICANCE IS PLACED ON APPLICATION BEING MADE BY A KNOWLEDGEABLE APPLICANT WHO CAN ADDRESS PROJECT QUESTIONS WHICH MAY ARISE. APPLICATION BY COURIER OR MAIL IS STRONGLY DISCOURAGED.)

APPLICATION & PLAN SUBMITTAL GUIDELINES FOR PUBLIC WORKS

PERMIT APPLICATION CENTER “PAC”

B.1-7: Building Permit Application Submittal & Review Process

B.1-8: Building Permit Application Submittal & Review Process

133

The “PAC” Center will advise and assist the applicant as much as possible to prevent any confusion and frustration that sometimes is associated with the permit process.

All reviews may be conducted concurrently, therefore, importance is placed on plan submittal for each Department taking place as soon as possible so all approvals may be obtained simultaneously.

The “PAC” process begins with the original plan submittal into any of the participating County Departments. The exception is Metropolitan Sewer District which the applicant must submit to directly when applicable.

The decision as to which County Departments will be involved in the review and approval process other than that of the Public Works Department is determined by the Permit Application Center through interviewing the applicant and examining the plans to be submitted for the project.

One central location for all Department plan submittals (both first submission & revised plans) Assist the applicant with completing the various necessary forms The current project review status of each Department plan review engineer is provided upon request with a single inquiry The permit application fees associated with the development will be submitted to the Center As various Department approvals occur, the approved permit application(s) and plans are returned to the “PAC” Center for issuance and distribution

The services provided by the Permit Application Center are as follows:

The Public Works Department would like to share with you the following information about the Permit Application Center to familiarize you with “PAC’s” purpose, responsibility, and main objective in assisting you with your project.

Occasionally, selected projects in which Public Works desires to more closely monitor and expedite the review/approval process are handled as “PAC” projects even though other Departments may not be involved in the review/approval process.

The “PAC” Center was established to streamline the permit process for commercial developments that require more than one St. Louis County Departmental plan review and approval in order to obtain the necessary permits to start construction of the commercial development. The Permit Application Center was developed in conjunction with the St. Louis County Departments of Public Works, Planning, Highways and Traffic, and Community Health and Medical Care.

“PAC”

PERMIT APPLICATION CENTER


A PPEND IX B : Pe r m i tt i n g

Completion of Air Pollution form is required. This form is completed by the applicant at the time of the Public Works building plan submission. The applicant is instructed to contact the telephone number indicated at the bottom of the form so that determination may be made as to whether or not the Air Pollution Section of the Health Department will be involved in the review and permitting of the project. The applicant will work directly with the Air Pollution Section as there will not be further involvement by the “PAC” Center once the Air Pollution form has been distributed.

Note: It is the applicant’s responsibility to contact and submit separately to all other Fire Districts and other applicable outside review agencies not mentioned herein, prior to the commencement of construction.

Fire Protection District review and approval of the site plan and completed fire form are required for those commercial developments which fall within the jurisdiction of Affton or Moline Fire Districts.

If a proposed development falls within a municipality for which St. Louis County enforces the building code, a zoning approval form and four sealed and signed site plans must be signed off by the Municipal Zoning Official indicating zoning approval has been granted. The applicant must obtain Municipal Zoning approval directly and submit the approved documents to the “PAC” Center.

If the proposed development falls within the unincorporated area of St. Louis County, zoning approval must be obtained from the Public Works Zoning Review Section. If the Zoning Plan Reviewer determines by reviewing the project that a site development plan or revised site plan must be approved by the Planning Department prior to their sign-off on the building permit(s), the applicant is referred directly to the St. Louis County Department of Planning so that the requirements and processing procedure may be discussed.

St. Louis County Zoning or Municipal Zoning approval is required.

A cost breakdown is required to be submitted prior to the issuance of a building permit so that appropriate permit fees can be assessed. The breakdown may be furnished on letterhead when not indicated directly on the building permit application. Note: The unit costs are intended to be applied to gross square footage of a building and include all structural, electrical, plumbing, mechanical, interior finish, fire suppression systems and normal site preparation including excavation and backfill, overhead and profit. (Architectural fees, cost of land and off-site costs are not included.)

ADDITIONAL SUBMITTAL INFORMATION Cont’d

B.1-9: Building Permit Application Submittal & Review Process

B.1-10: Building Permit Application Submittal & Review Process

Special approval is required for proposed developments that will be served by an Individual Sewage Treatment Facility and for building additions served by existing Sewage Treatment Facilities. Please contact the “PAC” Center for the procedure to be followed to secure approval on projects served by Individual Sewage Treatment Facilities.

If the proposed development will be serviced by Metropolitan Sewer District sewers, the applicant must contact M. S. D. directly for their permit and plan submittal requirements. The Metropolitan Sewer District is an independent agency; however, M.S.D. is a part of the “PAC” System plan review and approval process. The applicant is urged to work diligently with M.S.D. as they have the authority to hold the issuance of a project until such time as they are comfortable with the proposed design and progress of their review or have approved the project.

ADDITIONAL SUBMITTAL INFORMATION

Generally the adoptive ordinances for the building construction codes that the Department of Public Works enforces require that “the construction documents shall be prepared by the appropriate registered design professional consistent with the professional registration law of the State of Missouri”. Normally the architectural portions of the documents must be sealed by a registered architect, the engineering portions by a registered professional engineer and the surveys by a registered land surveyor.

The cover sheet of each set of plans, computations and specifications required for a building permit shall bear an original embossed or fresh ink stamp seal and original handwritten signature of the Missouri licensed architect or professional engineer who prepared them. The original seal and signature on the cover sheet of the plan documents may be presented by placing either: a.) on the front sheet of each discipline within each set of construction plans, or b.) on the cover sheet for the entire set of construction plans provided, it is clear which discipline(s) the professional has prepared. The balance of the sheets for each set of plans must also have affixed seals, but they may be mechanically reproduced.

Each sheet of all plans for commercial projects submitted to Public Works is required to have the affixed professional seal of a Missouri licensed architect or professional engineer.

PROFESSIONAL SEAL REQUIREMENTS

Civil/Site Plan(s) Architectural Structural Mechanical Electrical Plumbing Sprinkler Systems Two (2) sets of specifications One (1) set structural calculations Two (2) sets heat gain and loss calculations One (1) set energy conservation calculations

Four (4) sets of professionally prepared, sealed and signed building construction documents are required which shall include the following as applicable to the project, scope of work and/or type of building permit application filed:


PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT

BUILDING ENTRY NO(S): __________________________________

DATE: ______________________

PERMIT APPLICATION CENTER CHECKLIST

Architectural (4 plans) Electrical (4 plans) Plumbing (4 plans) Specifications (2 sets) Construction Cost (1 copy) Construction Cost Breakdown (4 copies) Approved Truss Drawings (4 sets) Fire District Approval Form ( ) Affton ( ) Moline Other: ______________________________

36" X 24" Minimum size plan Locator number, Permit Application Center number, Metropolitan Sewer District “P” number, and Plan Review number Zoning District, Subdivision Name, Lot number, Lot dimensions and area of property limits and zoning of adjacent parcels where different than site Name, address and telephone number of the person or firm submitting the plan and the name, and address of the person or firm who desires the review comments Proposed use of the building and its construction type and distance from adjacent property lines Off street parking spaces required and proposed, including the number, size and location of those designated for the handicapped Parking calculations, drive aisle widths and parking setbacks Type of sanitary sewage treatment and storm water drainage facility, including retention ponds Dimensions of existing and proposed roadway pavement and right-of-way widths for streets abutting the site Landscape plan including existing and proposed landscaping with specific landscaping limits Existing and proposed contour lines or elevations based on mean sea level datum, unless otherwise waived by the Planning Department Location, height and size of existing and proposed free standing signs Location and identification of all easements (existing and proposed) Location and height of all light poles Overall dimensions of all buildings and gross floor area of each Approximate location of any storm water detention facilities, sink holes and springs, site berms ponds and other silt control facilities

SIX (6) SETS OF SITE PLANS ARE REQUIRED TO BE SUBMITTED WHICH WILL INCLUDE BUT NOT BE LIMITED TO THE FOLLOWING:

PLANNING DEPARTMENT

Zoning approval Municipality St. Louis County Zoning approval Septic System Approval (314) 889-3330 Mechanical Heat Loss & Gain Calcs. (2 sets) Mechanical (4 plans) Structural Calcs. (1 set) Structural (4 plans) Energy Conservation Calcs. (1 set) Architectural &/or Engineering Seal Site Plans (4 copies)

FOUR (4) SETS OF PLANS ARE REQUIRED TO BE SUBMITTED FOR REVIEW WHICH WILL INCLUDE BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE FOLLOWING:

PAC NUMBER:

PROJECT NAME:

ST. LOUIS COUNTY DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS

B.1-11: Building Permit Application Submittal & Review Process

B.1-12: Building Permit Application Submittal & Review Process

135


B.1-13: Building Permit Application Submittal & Review Process

B.1-14: Building Permit Application Submittal & Review Process

A PPEND IX B : Pe r m i tt i n g HIGHWAYS & TRAFFIC

FOOD PREPARATION FACILITY:

METROPOLITAN SEWER DISTRICT

AIR POLLUTION FORM

Floor plan Plumbing plan

(314) 768-6200

ONE (1) SET OF PLANS IS REQUIRED TO BE SUBMITTED WHICH WILL INCLUDE BUT NOT BE LIMITED TO THE FOLLOWING:

POOL HOUSE:

Plot plan Engineering report General layout Detailed plans Specifications Summary of design data

ONE (1) SET OF PLANS IS REQUIRED WHICH WILL INCLUDE BUT NOT BE LIMITED TO THE FOLLOWING:

PUBLIC SWIMMING POOLS:

Floor plan Cut sheet-manufacturing specifications on equipment (identify key on equipment) Composition of floors, walls, ceilings and color of walls Plumbing sheet

ONE (1) SET OF PLANS IS REQUIRED TO BE SUBMITTED WHICH WILL INCLUDE BUT NOT BE LIMITED TO THE FOLLOWING:

HEALTH DEPARTMENT

Transmittal letter Photos showing existing site topography and improvements Site plan or title sheet Grading plan Roadway and/or traffic signal construction plan & details Site distance plan & profile drawings Storm sewer and/or special structural details Storm sewer hydraulic calculations on standard computation sheets Sanitary & storm sewer plan and profile Drainage area map Recorded right-of-way and or easement dedications Various agency approval

TWO (2) SITE PLANS ARE REQUIRED TO DETERMINE WHETHER OR NOT THERE WILL BE HIGHWAYS & TRAFFIC INVOLVEMENT:

TWO (2) SETS OF SITE IMPROVEMENT PLANS ARE REQUIRED WHICH WILL INCLUDE BUT NOT BE LIMITED TO THE FOLLOWING:


B.1-15: Building Permit Application Submittal & Review Process

B.1-16: Building Permit Application Submittal & Review Process

137

Permits for the various disciplines and/or sub-contractors work are also filed with the Permit Processing Center. Generally electrical, plumbing and mechanical permits associated with a project that has been submitted under a building permit application request may be issued upon approval of the plans by those appropriate review sections without additional sets of plans being required. Generally, applications for all

PERMITS FOR DISCIPLINE WORK

St. Louis County Zoning or Municipal Zoning approval Construction Cost Breakdowns Septic or Individual Sewage Treatment Facility

regarding each)

ADDITIONAL SUBMITTAL INFORMATION (See “PAC” process for detailed information

Generally the adoptive ordinances for the building construction codes that the Department of Public Works enforces require that “the construction documents shall be prepared by the appropriate registered design professional consistent with the professional registration law of the State of Missouri”. Normally the architectural portions of the documents must be sealed by a registered architect, the engineering portions by a registered professional engineer and the surveys by a registered land surveyor.

The cover sheet of each set of plans, computations and specifications required for a building permit shall bear an original embossed or fresh ink stamp seal and original handwritten signature of the Missouri licensed architect or professional engineer who prepared them. The original seal and signature on the cover sheet of the plan documents may be presented by placing either: a.) on the front sheet of each discipline within each set of construction plans, or b.) on the cover sheet for the entire set of construction plans provided, it is clear which discipline(s) the professional has prepared. The balance of the sheets for each set of plans must also have affixed seals, but they may be mechanically reproduced.

Each sheet of all plans for commercial projects submitted to Public Works is required to have the affixed professional seal of a Missouri licensed architect or professional engineer.

PROFESSIONAL SEAL REQUIREMENTS

Civil/Site Plans Architectural Structural Mechanical Electrical Plumbing Sprinkler Systems Two (2) sets of specifications One (1) set structural calculations Two (2) sets heat gain and loss calculations One (1) set energy conservation calculations

Four (4) sets of professionally prepared, sealed and signed building construction documents (plans) are required which shall include the following as applicable to the project, scope of work and/or type of application filed:

Applications for building permits on commercial construction which do not require any outside County Departmental approvals and therefore can be processed within the Department of Public Works are filed with the Permit Processing Center.

PERMIT PROCESSING CENTER


A PPEND IX B : Pe r m i tt i n g

Rev: 05/27/09

Permit fees for building and mechanical permits will be calculated on the basis of total cost of construction for each discipline. Fees for electrical and plumbing will be based on the fixture count shown.

Qualifying simplified interiors will be given priority plan review. Most applications should be approved and issued within 5 days provided revisions and/or additional information is not necessary.

Areas such as laundromats, beauty shops, barber shops, dental offices, medical facilities, pet shops, food service facilities, etc., requiring special equipment or ventilation will require a more detailed plan review and will not qualify for simplified review.

Plans must bear the original seal, signature, and date of the appropriate Missouri Registered Design Professional on the cover sheet with the balance of the sheets sealed. All plans submitted for simplified permits must bear a code information block that states occupancy load, use group, construction type and fire protection features.

Submittals shall include four (4) copies of the detailed architectural floor plan, together with appropriate sections, details, and schedules including a typical tenant separation wall section (when applicable). Extent of mechanical, electrical, and plumbing construction work must be included as part of the construction documents submitted.

The shell building permit number and key floor plan showing location and size of the tenant interior finish within the shell building, must be supplied.

Projects which include construction or removal of a demising wall to enlarge or reduce the size of a tenant space do not qualify.

Maximum size of qualifying business occupancies will be 5,000 square feet.

Maximum size of qualifying retail occupancies will be 3,000 square feet.

Application must be for a simple interior finish in a “completed shell” building (other than a mall) in which the basic structural, plumbing, electrical, HVAC, sprinkler and smoke control systems have been installed. Plans submitted must show locations of new or relocated diffusers, if any. Installation of mechanical equipment other than relocation of diffusers or grilles will require the application to have a more detailed plan review and will not qualify for a simplified review.

Application and supporting documents must be complete. Partial or incomplete applications can not be processed under this procedure. Application must be made by a qualified person able to supply required information. No mailed-in applications can be accepted.

Application for Simplified Interior Finish Permits for small commercial projects may be processed as a quicker priority plan review when the following conditions are met and the listed items are supplied.

SIMPLIFIED COMMERCIAL INTERIOR FINISH PERMITS

B.1-17: Building Permit Application Submittal & Review Process

B.1-18: Building Permit Application Submittal & Review Process

there are no revisions needed to the project plans presented which directly or indirectly impact the foundation design; the overall building design approach for Code compliance includes all fire and life safety features of significant cost; clearances can be obtained from other Sections, Departments and Agencies involved in the review of the project; and the applicant acknowledges that they are proceeding at their own risk without assurance that a complete permit will be approved.

b.) c.) d.) e.)

Plan submittal for a footing and foundation partial permit request shall include four sets of sealed, signed and dated site, architectural and structural plans. The plans/seals may be qualified “released/issued for foundation construction only” but all must be sealed and signed. The structural foundation plans must be complete. Sealed and signed structural calculations shall be included. The architectural plans shall include a complete building code informational block.

Requests are initiated with either the Permit Application Center (“PAC” projects) or with the Permit Processing Center by filing an application for “partial permit”. This request may be made at the same time that the main Building Permit Application submittal is filed or at a later date if desired. This process is offered for new multi-family dwellings and commercial buildings only and is not available for ancillary structures.

the Planning Department has approved a site development plan for the project;

a.)

It is possible to get started with your foundation work while your project is still in the review process awaiting final approvals and permit issuance for the complete project . Public Works may issue a partial permit to proceed at your own risk with footing/foundation construction provided that:

FOOTING & FOUNDATION PARTIAL PERMIT AUTHORIZATION


Public Works Code Enforcement

Prepared by the St. Louis County Department of Planning August 2007

St. Louis County, Missouri

Sources: St. Louis County Departments of Planning, Public Works, and Revenue.

Inspection Areas/Municipalities

Scale is 1:62,500 1 2 Miles

0

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B.1-19: Building Permit Application Submittal & Review Process 139


C.1: Thermal Data

C.2: Thermal Data

A PPEND IX C: T h er m a l Q u a l i t y


C.3: Water-side Free Cooling Map

141


C.4: Data Center Construction Costs- Tier 2

C.5: Data Center Construction Costs- Tier 3

A PPEND IX C: T h er m a l Q u a l i t y


C.6: The Density vs. Capacity Debate

C.7: Design Criteria: Scope and Redundancy 143


D.1: Capital Cost Components in the Data Center

D.2: Data Center Power Consumption Breakdown

A PPEND IX D : D ata C enter S tat i st i cs


D.3: Operating Expense Contributions by Infrastructure Components in the Data Center

Conclusion

This estimate exercise realizes the conceptual, abstract design project a construction project.

This estimate should be re-evaluated at the end of De

Development stage to ensure the design team is still on track with the budget.

D.4: Data Center Construction Costs 145


B IB LIOG RAP HY

147


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BI B LIOGRA P H Y


Newwell, Ken. "Fire Stations: The construction contingency allowance." 14 October 2011. Carolina Fire Rescue EMS Journal. 22 August 2013. <http://www.carolinafirejournal.com/articles/articledetail/articleid/1781/fire-stations-the-construction-contingency-allowance.aspx>. North Carolina Energy Office. "Chillers: Energy Saving Fact Sheet." May 2010. www.ncdenr.org. Document. 28 August 2013. OSHA. "Occupational Safety and Health Administration U.S. Department of Labor, OSHA 3165-02 2012R “Job Safety and Health: It’s the law!" n.d. www.osha.gov. 20 August 2013. <https://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3165.pdf>. Pickut, David. "Free Cooling: Economizers in Data Centers." 15 March 2008. <http://www.slideshare.net/digitallibrary/free-cooling-economizers-in-data-centers>. rrsweather.com. Climate for St. Louis, Missouri. 20 August 2013. <http://www.rssweather.com/climate/Missouri/St.%20Louis/>. Rudd, Armin. "Design Process for Sizing: Cooling and Heating System Capacity, Room Air Flows, Trunk and Runout Ducts, and Transfer Air Ducts." 19 December 2006. Building Science Corporation. Document. 28 August 2013. <http://www.buildingscience.com/documents/guides-andmanuals/gm-system-sizing-pro>. SAVE International. "Value Methdology Standard and Body of Knowledge." June 2007. SAVE. Document. 27 August 2013. <http://www.value-eng.org/pdf_docs/monographs/vmstd.pdf>. SPX Cooling Technologies, inc. "Free Cooling Minimizing Energy Costs." November 2012. spxcooling.com. Document. 28 August 2013. <<www.spxcooling.com/pdf/H-002.pdf>>. St Louis County. "Office Locations & Business Hours." 2013. www.stlouisco.com. 22 August 2013. <http://www.stlouisco.com/YourGovernment/CountyDepartments/PublicWorks/Documents/Of fices>. St. Louis County Accessor's Office. "Ownership / Legal Information - Tax Year: 2013." n.d. http://revenue.stlouisco.com/. 22 August 2013. <http://revenue.stlouisco.com/ias/print.asp?ParID=24P220094&dat=2013&flag=Y&Maps=Y>. St. Louis County Department of Public Works. "Building Permit Application Submittal & Review Process Information Guide for Commerical Construction." 18 December 2012. www.stlouisco.com. Document. 22 August 2013. <http://www.stlouisco.com/Portals/8/docs/Document%20Library/Public%20Works/code%20en forcement/guides/commercial/comm-constr.pdf>. —. "Code enforcement By Saint Louis County: Municipality Contract Agreement- Matrix." 13 May 2013. www.stlouisco.com. 22 August 2013. <http://www.stlouisco.com/Portals/8/docs/document%20library/public%20works/code%20enf orcement/matrix/Matrix-Alpha.pdf>. —. "Commerical "While-You-Wait" Building Permit." 3 November 2010. www.stlouisco.com. Document. 22 August 2013. <http://www.stlouisco.com/Portals/8/docs/Document%20Library/Public%20Works/code%20en forcement/permits/while-you-wait/WYW-Comm.pdf>. —. "Permit Application." n.d. www.stlouisco.com. Document. 22 August 2013. <http://www.stlouisco.com/Portals/8/docs/Document%20Library/Public%20Works/code%20en forcement/permits/Appl-Bldg-Permit.pdf>. —. "St. Louis County Permit Application." 19 June 2013. www.stlouisco.com. Document. 22 August 2013. <http://www.stlouisco.com/Portals/8/docs/Document%20Library/Public%20Works/code%20en forcement/permits/Appl-Partial-Bldg.pdf>. The Construction Management Association of America, Inc. "An Owner’s Guide to Construction Management: Assuring Project Success Under Any Delivery Method." 2002. CMAA. Document. 20 August 2013. <www.cmanet.org>. 149


Applying Constructability Principles and Value Engineering to an Architectural Degree Project  

Dual Degree Capstone for Master of Architecture and Master of Construction Management at Washington University in St. Louis