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1.Critical thinking may be stored for use in future decision making. Examples of mechanisms used to “store� critical thinking for future programmed decisions include

2. When facing a critical decision, a manager should use critical thinking in order to ______ uncertainty

3. Decision tools and techniques influence the use of critical thinking in decision making. According to the decision steps model, what is a proper response when an unstructured problem is presented?

4. When faced with a decision opportunity, a critical thinker must sort through a variety of readily apparent symptoms in order to focus on important considerations that may be hidden. Based on the decision steps model, when framing a problem a helpful step is to


5. When faced with a decision opportunity, a critical thinker must sort through a variety of readily apparent symptoms in order to focus on important considerations that may be hidden. Based on the decision steps model, when framing a problem a helpful step is to

6. A critical thinker balances effectiveness and efficiency when deciding how to approach a problem. Depending upon the situation, a proper approach may be to do nothing, to use a ready-made solution, or to design a custom made solution. Choosing a ready-made solution, rather than designing a custom made solution, implies

7. Tactics for increasing the diversity of opinion brought to bear on a decision include

8. The completeness of our thought is limited by selective perception of relevant inputs one example is

9. Critical thought involves the consideration of diverse perspectives. Advantages of this include

10. Considerations when framing a problem include

11. The outcome of the process of framing the problem includes


12. A programmed decision is generally applied to a ________, routine problem, while a non-programmed decision is used for a more ________, unusual problem.

13. During problem formulation, the establishment of proper goals may be hampered by the failure to ask enough questions concerning a problem. This tactic can increase the use of the creative thinking style to increase the probability of asking the right questions.

14. What is the most comprehensive definition of a problem?

15. This thinking style may be used to frame a problem in general terms through the use of sample data.

16. Problems may become apparent to stakeholders through the use of tools which compare actual results to expected results. An example of such a tool is a

17. An important step toward framing a problem in a manner that is sensitive to relevant stakeholder perspectives is to

18. While this decision style offers an opportunity for stakeholder input, it most lessens accountability for decision making.


19. Identifying programmed decision opportunities—problems with objectively correct answers, solvable through the use of simple rules, policies, or numerical computations—promises this benefit in terms of decision making.

20. Urgent crisis conditions might call for a decision making style that is

21. Identifying programmed decision opportunities—problems with objectively correct answers, solvable through the use of simple rules, policies, or numerical computations—promises this benefit in terms of decision making.

22. A decision tool that can be helpful in identifying risks to contemplated decisions is

23. The state that exists when the probability of success is less than 100% is

24. When a manager is attempting to identify root causes, the following tool may be helpful:

25. In the course of developing a SWOT analysis, Bob determines that a large competitor is moving into one of his company’s key service areas. Bob has uncovered

26. When deciding between decision alternatives, this tool helps the manager to focus scarce resources on the most common causes of a problem.


27. The initial step in framing the problem is to ______, and the first step in making the decision is to ______.

28. Bob has been assigned to implement his company’s decision to expand its construction business to its first international market. After bidding on their first project, Bob learns that the power tools purchased for this expansion will not operate on the voltage provided by the host country location. Bob’s implementation plan was most deficient in its consideration of A. ethical standards B. cultural factors C. trade restrictions D. unique standards E. the legal environment

29. One way to manage the risk of a far reaching decision is to A. reduce the number of contingency plans in order to avoid confusion B. implement the decision gradually, in phases C. insist on compliance from key stakeholders D. implement the decision quickly, in order to prevent problems from affecting the decision that has been made E. ensure that ample financial resources are dedicated to implementation

30. A decision tool that can help identify possible sources of resistance to change is a A. Pareto chart B. Force Field Analysis C. Scatter diagram


D. profit and loss statement E. Fishbone diagram

31. Since unforeseen circumstances will arise during implementation, a company should invest resources in teaching employees to A. be consistent in their actions B. stay the course in spite of any difficulty C. follow direction D. follow the plan to the letter E. make decisions

32. Freda is analyzing the prospects for a new gambling casino that her company is considering. In the course of her analysis, Freda has identified potential stakeholder resistance to this venture, in that she has discovered that the areas is very densely populated with houses of worship. She has also discovered a potential source of support for this venture, in that the local government has established tax credits for new businesses in an effort to stimulate employment. Freda is, in all likelihood, developing a A.

financial proforma income statement

B.

Force Field Analysis

C. ROI analysis D.

Scatter diagram

E. resource allocation survey

33. Resistance to change during implementation could be a result of A.

sensitivity to the needs of external stakeholders

B. a decision that has been delayed by a lengthy collaborative/participative decision making style C. a problem statement that is not representative of relevant stakeholder interests


D. The manager’s decision to allow discussion of both internal and external stakeholder concerns, which introduced conflicting objectives into the problem formulation and identification process

34. A system of rules that governs the ordering of values is referred to as: A. Ethics B. Corporate legitimacy C. Justice D. Legal system

35. A company applying a ______ view of ethics would probably find fewer impediments to decisions involving cross cultural factors than one applying a ______ view. A. compliant, non-compliant B. virtue, utlitatarian C. deontological, rule based D. relativist, universalist E. universalist, relativist

36. Bill is an automotive mechanic, paid on the basis of the repair dollars that he generates for his employer. A customer has informed Bill that he believes he needs major repair work to his automobile. Upon examination of the car, Bill discovers that an inexpensive adjustment is all that is needed. He knows that if he informs the customer of this, he will miss out on the substantial commission he would earn by performing the work that the customer already expects. The compensation structure employed by Bill’s garage has created the ethical dilemma of A.

proper allocation of resources

B.

a conflict of interest

C. joint and several liability dilemma D.

impartial third party mediator


E. the good of the individual vs the good of society

37. A tool that is helpful in monitoring, evaluating, and changing a decision as needed during implementation is the A. balance sheet cause of change analysis B. financial effectiveness audit C. contingency plan effectiveness audit D. Plan, Do, Check, Act (PDCA) cycle E. stakeholder summary analysis

38. A measurement that identifies the degree to which goals and objectives are obtained is a measure of A. organizational fluctuation B. organizational stability C. organizational efficiency D. organizational precision E. organizational effectiveness

39. In order to develop meaningful measurements to guide decision implementation and evaluation, it is important to develop ______ when framing a problem. A. a thorough SWOT analysis B. relevant job descriptions C. specific task responsibilities for each member of the team D. specific criteria, goals and objectives E. multiple alternative courses of action


40. When evaluating the decision processes in an organization, leaders should consider doing which of the following? A.

Ensure that the process is consistent for all significant decisions.

B. Make sure the process is sufficiently autocratic. Make sure the process is sufficiently autocratic.Make sure the process is sufficiently autocratic. C. Make sure to focus on results of the decision rather than the process. D. Make a list of those affected by the decision, and determine if those interests are represented in the process under consideration. E. Ensure that all of a company’s stakeholders provide input all of a company’s decisions

41. In order to apply continuous improvement in decision making, a company should take the time to record not only the results of its decisions, but also the A. impact to employees B. customer satisfaction data C. process through which the decision was made D. impact to external stakeholders E. financial results

42. As noted in our texts, a key measurement of our decisions is: “are they ethical.” In order to achieve a superior level of ethical behavior in its decision making processes, leaders should instill a(n) ______ in those charged with making decisions. A.

legal approach to ethical considerations

B.

utilitarian approach to ethical considerations

C. integrity based approach to ethical considerations D.

compliance based approach to ethical considerations

Mgt 350 final exam guide 3  

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