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FINAL PROGRAMME Out of Africa: Global Food Science and Technology

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20th SAAFoST Biennial International Congress and Exhibition 2013 7 - 9 October 2013

ICMSF Microbiological Sampling Workshop 10 October 2013

---------------------------------------------------CSIR International Convention Centre Pretoria - South Africa


Providing consumers and other interested parties with information on food that is both relevant and scientifically correct.

SAAFoST Foundation IT No. 643/2012

The SAAFoST Foundation is an independent entity established to control the funding of bursaries and academic awards made annually by SAAFoST. The Foundation is run by an independent board of trustees who have been entrusted to ensure that all funds under its control are used optimally to assist and encourage students to qualify in the field of Food Science and Technology. The SAAFoST foundation is offering to administer bursaries in the field of Food Science and Technology, sponsored by companies involved in the food industry, free of charge. The Foundation can handle the whole process of selection of candidates, payment of fees and the monitoring of progress of students. We will also ensure that the Company awarding the bursary will be able to claim its contribution towards Skills Development of Socio-Economic Development in terms of the B-BBEE codes. A number of companies are already channeling bursary funds through the Foundation and we would like to offer this service to your company. If you are interested or require any further details, please contact me via the SAAFoST Secretariat at the address below: SAAFoST Secretariat Virosha Basdeo Tel: +27 31Â 368 8000 Fax: +27 31 368 6623 Email: viroshab@turnergroup.co.za Postal Address: P.O. Box 1935 Durban 4000

David Watson Chairman: SAAFoST Foundation

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TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION TAG

TITLE PAGE Welcome Messages ............................ 4 Organisation ............................ 5 SAAFoST ............................ 6 Programme at a Glance ............................ 8 Scientific Programme ............................ 9 - 15 ICMSF Post Congress Workshop ............................ 16 Posters Presentations ............................ 18 - 21 Abstract Index ............................ 22 Oral Abstracts ............................ 23 - 47 Poster Abstracts ............................ 49 - 82 Author Index ............................ 83 - 85 Speaker Preparation Centre ............................ 87 Poster Display ............................ 88 Exhibitor Key ............................ 89 Floor Plan ............................ 90 Exhibitor Information ............................ 91 - 97 Social Events ............................ 98 Congress Information ............................ 99 General Information ............................ 100 - 101 South Africa ............................ 100 Pretoria ............................ 100 Currency and Banks ............................ 100 Electricity & Power ............................ 100 Health ............................ 100 Indemnity / Insurance ............................ 100 Language ............................ 101 Accommodation ............................ 101 Dress Code ............................ 101 Important Telephone Numbers ............................ 101 Parking ............................ 101 Lunch Venues ............................ 101 Safety ............................ 101 Telecommunications ............................ 101 Tipping ............................ 101 Transport ............................ 101 Venue ............................ 101 Transport Schedule ............................ 103 Excursion Programme ............................ 104 Notes ............................ 106 Congress Sponsors ............................ 107

Out of Africa: Global Food Science and Technology 3


WELCOME MESSAGES Message from the Chairperson Local Organising Committee

Message from the SAAFoST President

The South African Association for Food Science and Technology is proud to bring you the 20th Biennial International Congress and Exhibition that will take place in Pretoria at the CSIR International Conference Centre from 7 - 9 October 2013. It will be followed by a post congress International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) workshop on the 10th of October 2013.

It is a great pleasure to welcome you to the 20th SAAFoST Biennial Congress and Exhibition in Pretoria from 7 - 9 October 2013. The SAAFoST Biennial Congress and Exhibition is again taking its expected place in the conference calendar in South Africa. It seems like yesterday that the South African food science and technology fraternity had the chance to gather at the successfully hosted IUFoST World Congress in Cape Town in 2010, but just over three years have passed, so it is high-time for us to gather again.   The SAAFoST Biennial Congress has a proud tradition of being the premier food science and technology event in Southern Africa, and this year is no different. The Congress has again attracted the major role players in the South African food industry, top academics, researchers and young scientists from near and far and brought them together in a melting pot of the latest research, innovation, ingredients, technology, trends, regulations and networking. To prove this point – just browse through the excellent scientific programme, which has something for everyone, and the exciting list of exhibitors.

We are particularly excited that this, our first event since the outstanding IUFoST Congress in 2010, will be addressing the theme “Out of Africa - Global Food Science and Technology”. This gives us the opportunity to showcase local achievements and emphasise the important role and impact that Africa in general, and South Africa in particular, have in the food science and technology world today. We are also fortunate to have the participation of eminent international food science organisations (IFT, IUFoST, and ILSI) and more than 25 distinguished international speakers in our congress. The Congress will consist of a series of symposia, an exciting trade exhibition and advanced plenary sessions and lectures featuring the best of South Africa’s as well as Africa’s food scientists and technologists in addition to contributions from prominent invited international food scientists.

It is also wonderful to welcome back the International Commission for the Microbiological Safety of Foods (ICMSF), who has partnered SAAFoST in the past. Food safety is an extremely important aspect of our profession, but without proper sampling procedures, results can be meaningless. The ICMSF post-Congress workshop on Microbiological Sampling is a must for anyone taking food safety seriously. Therefore, I invite you to join SAAFoST, our partners, exhibitors and sponsors in celebrating food science and technology in Africa and around the world. Participate, share, enjoy and network as we continue to emphasise the importance of our science.

Our aim is to make this SAAFoST Congress the premier African and Southern Hemisphere Food Science event of 2013. Amanda Minnaar Chairperson: Local Organising Committee

Yours sincerely Gunnar Sigge SAAFoST President 2010-2013

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ORGANISATION SAAFoST Council 2010 - 2013 President President Elect Vice-President Past President KZN Branch Chair Cape Branch Chair Northern Branch Chair Northern Branch Representative Northern Branch Representative Cape Branch Representative IUFoST Liaison Executive Director Secretariat (Turners)

Gunnar Sigge Ryan Ponquett Johan Visser Rosie Maguire Madelein Jansen Jacques van den Berg Amanda Minnaar Romy Hochfeld Gerda Botha Kareline van der Spoel Nigel Sunley Owen Frisby Dudley Randall

Congress Organisation Local Organising Committee (LOC) LOC Chair Treasurer

Amanda Minnaar Ron Timm

Exhibition Exhibition Co-ordinator

Ingrid Woodrow

Scientific Committee Amanda Minnaar Janet Taylor Belinda du Plessis Owen Frisby

Lucia Anelich Lebogang Harris Naushad Emmambux

Sponsorship Romy Hochfeld (Co-ordinator) Amanda Minnaar Lucia Anelich Naushad Emmambux

Ingrid Woodrow Owen Frisby

Marketing Owen Frisby

Amanda Minnaar

Social Programme Gerrie du Rand

Gerda Botha

ICMSF Symposium and Post Congress Workshop Lucia Anelich Professional Conference Organiser (PCO) Gill Slaughter Turners Conferences and Conventions (Pty) Ltd PO Box 1935 Durban 4000, South Africa Tel: +27 31 368 8000 Fax: +27 31 368 6623 E-mail: Gills@turnergroup.co.za

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SAAFoST The South African Association for Food Science and Technology (SAAFoST) is an education oriented, largely volunteer run, non-profit organisation for food science and other technical food professionals. Through regular lectures, workshops and congresses and by means of a wide-ranging series of awards, grants, prizes and bursaries, SAAFoST seeks to advance food science and technology,  promote  opportunities for development and uphold standards of professionalism and competence in the supply of enjoyable, safe, wholesome and affordable food. With up to 2,000 individual and company members, branches centred in Gauteng, Cape Town and Durban and a growing number of members in neighbouring and more distant African states, SAAFoST’s influence is being felt both nationally and regionally. Being affiliated to the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) in the USA, the Institute for Food Science and Technology (IFST) in the UK and the International Union of Food Science and Technology, (IUFoST), of which it is a founder member, the Association also has sound international contacts.  Website: Facebook: Twitter:

www.saafost.org.za www.facebook.com/pages/saafost/170945546248948 #safoodscitech

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8 Lunch Break Parallel Sessions Symposium: Sensory & Consumer Science (Continued) Food Legislation’s Impact on the Food Industry (Continued) ICSU “Out of Africa” Session Young Scientists Research Section (Continued) Tea and Coffee Break Plenary Lecture 3 Plenary Lecture 4

Lunch Break

Parallel Sessions IUFoST Food Security and Sustainability Symposium (Continued) Shelf-life Testing and Evaluation Key Consumer and Market Trends in Food Science and Technology Innovation in New Food Processing and Engineering Technologies

Tea and Coffee Break

Plenary Lecture 3

Plenary Lecture 4

Plenary Lecture 5

11:00

13:00

13:30

15:00

15:30

16:00

16:30

19:00

Compusense Inc. Welcoming Cocktail

SAAFoST BGM

17:15

18:15

Poster Presentations

17:00

Congress Banquet (19:00 for 19:30)

Parallel Sessions Symposium: Sensory & Consumer Science Food Legislation’s Impact on the Food Industry Food Safety Young Scientists Research Section

16:45

Tea and Coffee Break

Parallel Sessions IUFoST Food Security and Sustainability Symposium Sensory and Consumer Sciences ILSI Water Quality and Safety Symposium The Shape of Things to Come: Nanotechnology, Food Structure and Food Systems

Poster Presentations

Plenary Lecture 3

Plenary Lecture 2

Plenary Lecture 1

Dinnermates Closing and Farewell Cocktail

Closing Ceremony and Awards Presentations

Plenary Lecture 4

Tea and Coffee Break

Parallel Sessions ICMSF Food Safety Risk Management Workshop (Continued) Food, Nutrition and Well-being, including Functional Ingredients and Foods (Continued) Value Addition of Food Industry Waste Food Engineering and Processing Technologies

Lunch Break

Parallel Sessions ICMSF Food Safety Risk Management Workshop Food, Nutrition and Well-being, including Functional Ingredients and Foods IFT Leadership Workshop for Young Professionals Industry Novel Ingredients and Technologies (Industry Sponsored Talks)

Tea and Coffee Break

Plenary Lecture 4

Plenary Lecture 3

Plenary Lecture 2

Plenary Lecture 1

Registration Arrival Tea and Coffee

Registration Arrival Tea and Coffee

Tea and Coffee Break

Welcome and Opening Addresses Plenary Lecture 1 Plenary Lecture 2: Ernest Newbery Memorial Lecture

Registration Arrival Tea and Coffee

WED, 9 OCTOBER 2013

TUES, 8 OCTOBER 2013

10:30

10:20

10:00

09:40

09:20

09:00

08:50

08:40

08:30

08:00

07:00

MON, 7 OCTOBER 2013

ICMSF Post Congress Workshop

Tea and Coffee Break

ICMSF Post Congress Workshop

Lunch Break

ICMSF Post Congress Workshop

Tea and Coffee Break

ICMSF Post Congress Workshop

Registration Arrival Tea and Coffee

THU, 10 OCTOBER 2013

PROGRAMME AT A GLANCE


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12:30 - 13:00

12:00 - 12:30

11:30 - 12:00

11:00 - 11:30

10:30 - 11:00

09:50 - 10:30

09:10 - 09:50

08:40 - 08:50 08:50 - 09:00 09:00 - 09:10

08:30 - 08:40

07:00 - 08:30 Plenary session Venue: Diamond Auditorium Sponsored by Swift Silliker Session Chair: Amanda Minnaar

Monday, 7 October 2013

Ruth Oniang’o Founder of the Rural Outreach Program Food security challenges in east Africa and novel ways to combat this

IUFoST FOOD SECURITY AND SUSTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM Venue: Diamond Auditorium Sponsored by Swift Silliker Session Chair: Pingfan Rao Anne-Marie Hermansson The Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden Global visions for the role of Food Science and Technology to meet societal and technological challenges: Report from a feasibility study initiated by IAFoST Sheryl Hendriks Director: IFNuW (Institute of Food, Nutrition and Well-being), University of Pretoria Key issues for African food security and how food science can play a role in addressing these issues Delia Rodriguez-Amaya President Elect – IUFoST Academy of Fellows (IAFoST, International Academy of Food Science and Technology) Highlighting nutritional security: a key component of food security ILSI WATER QUALITY AND SAFETY SYMPOSIUM Venue: Emerald Auditorium Session Chair: Lucia Anelich

Trevor Britz Dept of Food Science,Stellenbosch University River water as source of high-risk irrigation water! Liesbeth Jacxsens Dept Food Safety and Food Quality, University of Ghent, Belgium Water quality and microbiological criteria: how to set these and apply them in practice Lise Korsten Dept of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria Food safety assurance in fresh produce: scientific facts, public perceptions and role of good governance and control Mjikisile Vulindlu Scientific Services, City of Cape Town Occurrence of algae and indicator bacteria in an open drinking water reservoir and their subsequent infiltration into the distribution network systems

SENSORY AND CONSUMER SCIENCES Venue: Ruby Auditorium Session Chair: Lorraine Geel Johann Kirsten LEVLO, University of Pretoria The economic potential for an origin-based marketing and certification system for a meat product in South Africa: perceptions, preferences and experiments. Hennie Fisher Dept of Consumer Science, University of Pretoria Consumers' responses to food images: a new application of Q-methodology in sensory research Sam Newberg Sweet Green Fields, Bellingham, WA, USA Taste optimization by understanding the impact of steviol glycoside relationships Dominique Pallet Qualisud, CIRAD, France Intracultural study of consumer acceptability of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.drinks between European countries – Portugal, United Kingdom and France

Amanda Minnaar, Chair of the Local Organising Committee Welcome Welcome address by the SAAFoST President: Gunnar Sigge Welcome address by the IUFoST President: Pingfan Rao Welcome address by the IFT President: Janet Collins Plenary lecture:Leon Louw Executive Director of the Free Market Foundation (FMF) and of the Law Review Project (LRP) Can Africa be the world’s food basket of the future? Ernest Newbery Memorial Lecture: Janet Collins President of IFT; Du Pont, Washington DC, USA Scientific innovation in Food Science and Technology: Consumer trust Tea and Coffee in Exhibition Hall Parallel sessions and Symposia

Registration in Central Foyer/ Tea and Coffee in Exhibition Hall

Mohammad Naushad Emmambux Dept of Food Science, University of Pretoria Starch modification with stearic acid for ‘clean' label starches

Janet Taylor Dept of Food Science, University of Pretoria Cereal prolamin bioplastic materials: What is preventing the commercialisation of these natural polymers?

Mats Stading Manager of the Structure and Material Design Group, SIK, Gothenburg, Sweden Food oral design

THE SHAPE OF THINGS TO COME: NANOTECHNOLOGY, FOOD STRUCTURE AND FOOD SYSTEMS Venue: Amethyst Auditorium Session Chair: Belinda du Plessis Peter Fischer Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, ETH, Zurich How interfacial rheology controls emulsion mechanics

SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME


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18:15 -

16:45 - 17:15 17:15 - 18:15

16:30 - 16:45

16:00 - 16:30

15:30 - 16:00

15:00 - 15:30

14:30 - 15:00

14:00 - 14:30

13:30 - 14:00

13:00 - 13:30

Christine Leighton Project coordinator of the Consumer Education Project Milk South Africa Affordable dairy products for low income South African consumers - making a nutritional difference

Pierre Joubert Bureau of Market Research (BMR), UNISA Strategic communication insights to the consumer education project of Milk SA

Nigel Sunley Sunley Consulting The management of food activism

Session Chair: Gerda Botha

Venue: Emerald Auditorium

KEY CONSUMER AND MARKET TRENDS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Plenary session Venue: Diamond Auditorium Sponsored by Swift Silliker Session Chair: Ryan Ponquett

Elizabeth Lodolo South African Breweries A brewery hygiene case study: A multipronged approach to eradicate beer spoilers

Nafiisa Sobratee Post-Doctoral Fellow, Dept Engineering, University of Kwa-Zulu Natal Post-harvest quality changes in green harvested sugarcane stalks from the KwaZulu Natal Midlands

Russell Flowers Chairman & Chief Scientific Officer, Mérieux NutriSciences Microbiological shelf-life testing

Session Chair: Denise Metcalfe

Venue: Ruby Auditorium

SHELF-LIFE TESTING AND EVALUATION

Parallel sessions and Symposia

Plenary lecture: Anne-Marie Hermansson The Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden Nano and microstructure design Plenary lecture: Brenda Neall Publisher and editor of FOODStuff SA and DRINKStuff SA websites and newsletters Feed, weed, seed: the pursue, eschew and ‘ooh’ in today’s food-beverage trends Plenary lecture: David Watson Managing Director Sunspray Food Ingredients (Pty)Ltd Facts about F.A.C.S (The Food Advisory Consumer Service) Poster session in Central Foyer SAAFoST BGM Compusense Inc. Welcoming Cocktail Venue: Outdoor Deck

Tea and Coffee in Exhibition Hall

Herman Koeter MD, Orange House Partnership, Belgium Food security: how much time do we have?

Session Chair: Pingfan Rao John Taylor Dept of Food Science, University of Pretoria Biofortification of cereal grains for improved nutrition in Africa: strategies, benefits and challenges Walter Spiess President: International Academy of Food Science and Technology, IUFoST Is there a role for Food Science and Technology in combating future world food crisis?

Venue: Diamond Auditorium Sponsored by Swift Silliker

FOOD SECURITY AND SUSTAINABILITY IUFoST symposium (continued)

Lunch sponsored by Lake Foods Venue: Outdoor Deck

Andrew Murray Andrew Murray Consulting Are our eating habits sustainable?

Christian Mestres QualiSud, CIRAD, France Modelling lactic acid fermentation to improve fermented beverages from cereals

Peter Fischer ETH (Zurich) New thickening quality of galactomannan polysaccharides by tailored impact milling

Session Chair: Eric Amonsou

Venue: Amethyst Auditorium

INNOVATION IN NEW FOOD PROCESSING AND ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES

SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME


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Plenary session Venue: Diamond Auditorium Sponsored by Swift Silliker Session Chair: Gunnar Sigge

Tuesday, 8 October 2013

Janusz Luterek Patent Attorney, Hahn and Hahn The South African food law landscape

Frieda Dehrmann Consumer Science and Sensory Manager, South African Breweries The application of a sensory QC and QA program in a global FMCG company

11:00 - 11:30

11:30 - 12:00

FOOD LEGISLATION’S IMPACT ON THE FOOD INDUSTRY Venue: Ruby Auditorium Session Chair: Nigel Sunley

Janet Collins IFT President Impacts of the U.S. Food Safety Modernization Act on global food commerce

SYMPOSIUM: SENSORY & CONSUMER SCIENCE: Venue: Diamond Auditorium Sponsored by Swift Silliker Session Chair: Chris Findlay FOOD SAFETY Venue: Emerald Auditorium Session Chair: Ryk Lues

Patrick Njage Post-doctoral Fellow, Dept Food Science, University of Pretoria The transfer potential of Extended Spectrum β-lactamase determinants in pathogenic and commensal E. coli between irrigation water and lettuce

Alex Ray Jambalang Dept of Paraclinical Sciences, University of Pretoria Validation of a novel bacteriological screening test for antimicrobial residues in eggs

Plenary lecture: Chris Findlay CEO, Compusense Inc. Beyond the taste test: sensory science's value-addition to food R&D Plenary lecture: Lucia Anelich Director, Anelich Consulting Prevalence of foodborne disease in Africa Plenary lecture: LJ Grobler Dean, Faculty of Engineering, North-West University Innovative ways of dealing with energy in the food industry Poster Session in Central Foyer Tea and Coffee in Exhibition Hall sponsored by Mondelez International Parallel sessions and Symposium

Registration in Central Foyer / Tea and Coffee in Exhibition Hall

Anne Goldman Vice President of Consumer Research at ACCE International, Canada A global business perspective of crosscultural consumer sensory testing of food products

10:00 - 10:30 10:30 - 11:00

09:20 - 10:00

08:40 - 09:20

08:00 - 08:40

07:00 - 08:00

Theresa Beelders PhD student, Dept of Food Science, Stellenbosch University) Cyclopia genistoides (Honeybush): Development and validation of a High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) method for the quantitative analysis of extracts

Tonna Anyasi PhD student, Dept of Food Science and Technology, University of Venda Some functional properties of conventionally dried unripe non-commercial banana

Joseph Anyango Post-doctoral Fellow, Dept of Food Science, University of Pretoria Improvement in the functional properties of kafirin protein microstructures for use as bioplastic films and for microencapsulation

Dave Howard Marketing and Online Content Manager at IFIS How to increase your chances of getting published in international research journals

YOUNG SCIENTISTS RESEARCH SECTION Venue: Amethyst Auditorium Session Chairs: Janet Taylor and Laura Da Silva

SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME


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13:30 - 14:00

Ilona Steenkamp Dept of Food Science, Stellenbosch University Development of flavour wheels for indigenous South African herbal teas, rooibos and honeybush

SYMPOSIUM: SENSORY & CONSUMER SCIENCE (continued) Venue: Diamond Auditorium Sponsored by Swift Silliker Session Chair: Anne Goldman

Michael Knowles VP Global Scientific & Regulatory Affairs ( Retd.) , The Coca-Cola Company Exposure assessment of food additives with particular emphasis on flavourings and colourants

Selamat Jinap Food Safety Research Center, University Putra, Malaysia Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in grilled meat dishes

Elna Buys Dept of Food Science, University of Pretoria Reducing salt in food products: What are the food safety issues?

FOOD LEGISLATION’S IMPACT ON THE FOOD INDUSTRY (continued) Venue: Ruby Auditorium Session Chair: Christine Broadhurst

Ronald Olusola Olawale Nigerian Institute of Food Science and Technology (NIFST), Nigeria Nigeria: The gap between the Food Industry and the essential needs of the people

ICSU OUT OF AFRICA SESSION Venue: Emerald Auditorium Session Chair: Lebogang Harris

Parallel sessions and Symposium

12:30 - 13:00

Lunch sponsored by Kellogg Company of South Africa Venue: Outdoor Deck

Boitshoko Ntshabele Director, National Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Challenges associated with multiple agency food control system in South Africa

Vinet Coetzee Dept of Genetics, University of Pretoria Understanding preferences with indirect methods: cross-cultural effects of fruit & vegetable consumption and beta-carotene supplementation on skin colour

12:00 - 12:30

13:00 - 13:30

Edelweiss Wentzel-Viljoen Dept of Consumer Science, North-West University The impact of nutrient profiling on the food industry

Jeanine Sainsbury Sensory Science and Consumer Insights Manager, McCormick Chillies – from heat to eat

Ennet Moholisa PhD student, Dept of Microbial, Biochemical and Food Biotechnology, University of the Free State Influence of beta-agonist (zilpaterol) and age on tenderness of beef loin and silverside muscles

MacDonald Cluff PhD student Dept of Microbial, Biochemical and Food Biotechnology, University of the Free State The effect of conjugated linoleic acid addition on the microbial and lipid stability of salami

YOUNG SCIENTISTS RESEARCH SECTION (continued) Venue: Amethyst Auditorium Session Chairs: Janet Taylor and Laura Da Silva

J Edmore Kativu PhD Student, Unit of Applied Food Science and Biotechnology, Central University of Technology Influence of storage conditions on organic acid profiles from cottage cheese

Bheki Dlamini PhD student, Dept of Food Science, University of Pretoria Challenges of low FAN in sorghum lager beer brewing and possible solutions

Johanita Kruger Post-doctoral Fellow, Dept of Food Science, University of Pretoria Which commonly used in vivo and in vitro assays is best suited to measure the effect of phytate reduction on the iron and zinc availability in staple grains? – the case of sorghum

Daniso Beswa PhD student, Dept of Food Science and Technology, University of Venda Effect of amaranth addition on physical quality and antioxidant activity of extruded provitamin-A biofortified maize snacks

SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME


Tea and Coffee in Exhibition Hall

14:30 - 15:00

15:00 - 15:30

13

19:00 for 19:30

16:00 - 16:30

15:30 - 16:00

Pieter van Twisk PvT Consulting Global harmonization initiative

RiĂŤtte de Kock Dept of Food Science, University of Pretoria Sensory Food Science: A vital component of research to improve nutrition in Africa

14:00 - 14:30

Joyce Kinabo Dept of Food Science and Technology, Sokoine University, Tanzania From soil elements to food nutrients: Does soil health affect food quality?

Plenary lecture:Wentzel Gelderblom Interim Director of the PROMEC Unit, MRC Mycotoxin risk assessment in South African maize consumers Plenary lecture:Donna Cawthorn Post-doctoral fellow, Department of Animal Science,Stellenbosch University Detection and quantification of meat adulteration: what DNA can and cannot tell us SUNSPRAY CONGRESS BANQUET Theme: Out of Africa Venue: Amber Room

Plenary session Venue: Diamond Auditorium Sponsored by Swift Silliker Session Chair: Ron Timm

Daleen Van der Merwe North-West University Food labels as source of health information: what consumers think?

Nina Muller Dept of Food Science, Stellenbosch University Novel tools for sensory fingerprinting of wines

Esther Sakyi-Dawson Dept. of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Ghana, Ghana Development and marketing of a sugar-free chocolate for the West African Market: An example of successful industry-academia collaboration.

Obiro Cuthbert Wokadala PhD student, Dept of Food Science, University of Pretoria Amylose-lipid complex occurrence in tef and maize starch biphasic pastes

Melanie Richard PhD student, Dept of Food Science, University of Pretoria Shelf-life estimation of low fat UHT milk Adewale O Omolola PhD student, Dept of Food Science and Technology, University of Venda Drying kinetics of some selected fruits

Richard Nyanzi PhD student, Dept of Biotechnology and Food Technology, Tshwane University of Technology Phylogenetic analysis and possible practical applications of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus isolates

SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME


14

Plenary session Venue: Diamond Auditorium Sponsored by Swift Silliker Session Chair: David Watson

Wednesday, 9 October 2013

Trust Beta Canada Research Council Chair in Food Science and Technology, University of Manitoba Cereal Grains - a rich source of phytochemicals of potential health benefits Gyebi Duodu Dept of Food Science, University of Pretoria Phenolic compounds and bioactive properties of marama bean [Tylosema esculentum (Burchell) A. Schreiber] and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] Implications for potential food uses

Tom Ross Food Safety Centre, University of Tasmania Understanding the uses and limitations of attributes sampling plans

Jean-Louis Cordier Nestlé Switzerland, Group Expert Food Safety Microbiology Microbiological Criteria – past, present and future

11:00 - 11:30

11:30 - 12:00

12:00 - 12:30

FOOD, NUTRITION AND WELL-BEING (incl. Functional Ingredients & Foods) Venue: Ruby Auditorium Session Chair: Linda Drummond

Brinda Govindarajan,Senior Director, Research & Technology, Kellogg AsiaPacific Ltd., Singapore The best of both worlds: enhancing product value through food science and nutrition

ICMSF FOOD SAFETY RISK MANAGEMENT SYMPOSIUM Venue: Diamond Auditorium Sponsored by Swift Silliker Session Chair: Elna Buys

Determining your leadership style profile

Discovering and exploring the 5 practices of exemplary leadership

Busting common leadership myths

Personal Reflections on leadership

Goals for the workshop

Welcome and Overview

IFT LEADERSHIP WORKSHOP FOR YOUNG PROFESSIONALS led by Bob Gravani (Past President, IFT) Venue: Emerald Auditorium Session Chairs: Bob Gravani and Romy Hochfeld

Ryan Ponquett Vice President RD&A for Kerry Ingredients and Flavours, Sub-Saharan Africa, South Africa Flavour Modulation Technology - an olfactory and taste synergy to reduce sugar, fat and salt

Kirsten Henstra Product Specialist - Food Science Division, Bio-Rad Laboratories Alternative methods for microbiological testing

Nigel Sunley Sunley Consulting Functional properties of sugar (on behalf of the Sugar Association of South Africa – SASA)

Industry Novel Ingredients and Technologies Industry Sponsored Talks Venue: Amethyst Auditorium Session Chair: Ingrid Woodrow

Plenary lecture:Pingfan Rao IUFoST PresidentProfessor and founding Director of CAS.SIBS-Zhejiang Gongshang University Joint Center for Food and Nutrition Research in Hangzhou, China Food as a micro-nanosystem and the interaction with the body Plenary lecture: Kevin Korb Acting Foods Director, Games Stores, Massmart Challenges in Food Retail Management Plenary lecture:Morongwa Themba Scientific Services Manager,Nampak Innovation in food and beverage packaging Plenary lecture: Peter McClure Science and Technology Leader for Microbiological Safety, Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever R&D, Bedfordshire, UK Novel food processing technologies and their validation Tea and Coffee in Exhibition Hall Parallel sessions, Workshop, Industry Talks and Symposium

Registration (Central Foyer)/ Tea and Coffee in Exhibition Hall

Lucia Anelich Director, Anelich Consulting · Introduction to the ICMSF · The use of risk-based metrics for managing food safety

10:40 - 11:00

10:00 – 10:40

09:20 - 10:00

08:40 - 09:20

08:00 - 08:40

07:00 - 08:00

SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME


Lunch sponsored by Ecowize Group Venue: Outdoor Deck

12:30 - 13:00

13:00 - 13:30

Developing a personal action plan for achieving one of your goals

15

Tea and Coffee in Exhibition Hall

14:30 - 15:00

15:00 - 15:30

16:15 - 17:15

16:00- 16:15

15:30- 16:00

Plenary lecture: Harris Steinman Director, Food & Allergy Consulting and Testing Service - FACTS Allergens: Lessons learnt Closing Ceremony and Award Presentations Dinnermates Closing and Farewell Cocktail Venue: Outdoor Deck

Wilahun Seyoum Workneh Bioresources Engineering University of Kwa-Zulu Natal Prospective: innovating efficient technologies for energy regeneration and re-use in food process industries George Charimba Dept of Microbial, Biochemical and Food Biotechnology University of the Free State Degradation of poultry feather waste by Chryseobacterium carnipullorum

Herman Koeter MD, Orange House Partnership, Belgium Food frauds: food safety and nutrition in jeopardy?

Jean-Louis Cordier, Nestlé Switzerland, Group Expert Food Safety Microbiology Management of drinking and process water – microbiological aspects

14:00 - 14:30

Plenary session Venue: Diamond Auditorium Sponsored by Swift Silliker Session Chair: Nick Starke

Martin van Nistelrooij, GEA Messo PT, Netherlands Latest innovations in low temperature concentration of aqueous solutions

Gustav Gous Dept of Food Science, University of Pretoria Waste utilization in the citrus processing industry

13:30 - 14:00

Nigel Sunley Sunley Consulting Nutritionists, food scientists and the food industry - joining forces to Improve the nutritional profiles of processed foods

Falko Fliessbach Sales, GEA Group Business Unit Flow Components, Tuchenhagen, Germany Effective tank and vessel cleaning: how different systems can help meet today’s demands

FOOD ENGINEERING AND PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES Venue: Amethyst Auditorium Session Chair: Bernard Cole

Peter McClure Science and Technology Leader for Microbiological Safety, Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever R&D, Bedfordshire, UK Useful microbiological testing for fruit and vegetable products

Mats Stading Manager of the Structure and Material Design Group, SIK, Gothenburg, Sweden Cereal proteins extracted from by-products can be utilised in food and biomaterial applications

VALUE ADDITION OF FOOD INDUSTRY WASTE Venue: Emerald Auditorium Session Chair: Naushad Emmambux

Francois Decaris Biorigin Salt reduction in meat and other food applications

Nicolette Hall Institute of Food, Nutrition and Wellbeing, University of Pretoria Salt – Why we should reduce salt intake in South Africa, considering implications of the new SANHANES-1 data

FOOD, NUTRITION AND WELL-BEING (incl.Functional Ingredients & Foods) Venue: Ruby Auditorium Session Chair: Gyebi Duodu

Parallel sessions and Symposium

Vinesh Maharaj Platform Manager, CSIRBiosciences The potential of South Africa’s Biodiversity as a source of food ingredients and nutraceuticals

Jean-Louis Cordier, Nestlé Switzerland, Group Expert Food Safety Microbiology Management of Salmonella in lowmoisture foods

FOOD SAFETY RISK MANAGEMENT SYMPOSIUM (continued) Venue: Diamond Auditorium Sponsored by Swift Silliker Session Chair: Elna Buys

Tom Ross Food Safety Centre, University of Tasmania Useful microbiological testing for meat and poultry products

SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME


ICMSF POST CONGRESS WORKSHOP The International Commission on the Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) was formed in 1962 through the action of the International Committee on Food Microbiology and Hygiene, a committee of the International Union of Microbiological Societies (IUMS). Through the IUMS, the ICMSF is linked to the International Union of Biological Societies (IUBS) and to the World Health Organization (WHO) of the United Nations. The primary role of the Commission is to be a leading source for independent and impartial scientific concepts, that when adopted by governmental agencies and industry will reduce the incidence of microbiological foodborne illness and food spoilage worldwide and facilitate global trade. Since its founding, ICMSF has had a profound and global impact on the field of food microbiology by addressing such issues as test methods for microorganisms, sampling plans, microbiological criteria, HACCP, risk assessment and risk management. Its activities and recommendations are published as books, scientific and popular papers, opinion papers, proceedings and presentations. Since 1962, forty five commission meetings have been held in twenty four countries, including two meetings in South Africa, the last one of which was in 2006. This workshop has been successfully presented in many countries and is the first time it is being offered in South Africa.

ICMSF SYMPOSIUM WORKSHOP PROGRAMME ICMSF* Post Congress Workshop 2013 Microbiological Sampling Plans and Food Safety Objectives Thursday, 10 October 2013, 08:00 – 16:30 Crystal Garnet Room, CSIR – in association with SAAFoST *The International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods

08:00 – 08:30 08:30 – 09:00 09:00 – 09:30

09:30 – 10:30 10:30 - 11:00 11:00 – 11:30 11:30 – 13:00 13:00 – 14:00 14:00 – 14:30 14:30 – 15:00 15:00 – 15:30 15:30 – 17:00

Registration Dr Lucia Anelich Anelich Consulting, South Africa Introduction to the ICMSF, the workshop and speakers Dr Jean Louis Cordier Nestlé, Switzerland The role of microbiological criteria in food safety and quality assurance Dr Tom Ross Food Safety Centre, University of Tasmania, Tasmania Statistics of sampling – designing / interpreting a sampling plan to match a microbiological criterion Practical exercise using Microsoft Excel (all participants) Tea and Coffee Dr Peter McClure Unilever, United Kingdom The ICMSF attributes sampling plan spreadsheet All participants Practical exercises using the ICMSF sampling plan spreadsheet Lunch Dr Jean Louis Cordier Nestlé, Switzerland Food safety objectives (FSOs) – background concepts Dr Tom Ross Food Safety Centre, University of Tasmania, Tasmania Designing performance objectives (POs) to meet FSOs: Introduction to and use of the ICMSF FSO tool Tea and Coffee All participants Practical exercises using the FSO tool

Sponsored by

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POSTER PRESENTATIONS Food Chemistry and Analysis P001

Robert Ndjouenkeu

P002

Lusani Norah Vhangani

P003

Tonna Anyasi

P004

Peter Gorst-Allman

P005

Vusi Vincent Mshayisa

P006

Anina Guelpa

P007

Alba Du Toit

P008 P009

Dominique Pallet Percy Sibanda

P010

Mohammed Mustafa

P011 P012

Joseph Hounhouigan Mark Pieterse

P013

Tshepiso Mokhoro

P014

Trust Beta

P015

Zanele Skhosana

P016 P017

Adeoluwa Adetunji Henry Udeh

P018

Corinda Erasmus

P019

Gabriel Akanni

P020 P021 P022

Régine Talon Régine Talon Milindi Sibomana

P023

Alaika Kassim

P024

Sanchia Moodley

P025

A Bergh

P026

Dominique Pallet

P027

Henry Udeh

P028

Melanie Richards

P029

Noël Akissoé

P030

Desmond Mugadza

P031

Nokuthula Shongwe

P032 P033

Nicolas Ayessou Siphiwe Dube

P034

Elodie Arnaud

P035

Mpho Mashau

P036

Wilhelmina V. Aindongo

P037

Wilhelmina V. Aindongo

P038 P039 P040

Thato Manyaapelo Lize Liebenberg Sandile Khoza

Physico-chemical characterization of the oil of Ziziphus kernels from the savannah area of Cameroon Antioxidant activity vs. Acrylamide levels resulting from the Maillard reaction during roasting of parboiled rice Morphological characterization of three non-commercial banana cultivars from Limpopo province, South Africa An Investigation of the essential oils of Agathosma betulina and A. Crenulata ("buchu") for important flavour and medicinal components using comprehensive gas chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry Antioxidant effect of Maillard Reaction Products (MRPS) in a lipid- rich model system Non-destructive quantification of vitreous endosperm of whole maize kernels with micro x-ray computed tomography and near infrared hyperspectral imaging Antioxidant content and potential of fresh cladodes and fruit from different fruit - coloured cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia robusta) cultivars Anthocyanin concentrate production from calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Micronisation as an instantisation process for cowpeas Effect of starch type and protein digestibility on sorghum quality for bread and beverage making Sanitary and nutritional quality of Akpan, yoghurt like cereal product of West-Africa GC-TOFMS study on genuine Scotch whisky and whisky produced by alternative methods X-ray micro computed tomography: non-destructive evaluation of effect of induced germination on whole maize endosperm Composition of carotenoids among diverse cereal grain varieties and their fractions as determined by spectrophotometry and HPLC Missing or hidden fumonisins in South African maize: analytical challenges

Food Engineering and Processing Technologies Development of methodology for inactivating condensed tannins in sorghum flour Role of magnesium on yeast performance under very high gravity ethanolic fermentation Testing of a new South African built laboratory-scale degerminator for the production of maize flaking (hominy) grits for cultivar evaluation Identification of the microbial diversity and characterisation of Bacillus species for the enhanced fermentation of bambara groundnut in the production of African condiments

Food Quality and Shelf-life Diversity of Staphylococcal species in pork and beef Kitoza Staphylococcal population in lanhouin: potential indigenous starter? Postharvest deterioration of sugarcane in a simulated harvest-to-crush delay An overview on the effects of postharvest handling and varying storage on the quality of avocados (persea americana mill.) Investigating the microbiological profile of Motoho, a traditionally fermented sorghum beverage The effect of time-temperature fermentation regimes on the sensory and chemical quality of honeybush tea Microbiological quality of beverages and syrup made from the calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa by local company in Senegal Comparative study on the brewing qualities of local cereal grains (surghum and millet) using Saccharomyces cerevisiae The effect of legume protease inhibitors on native milk and bacterial proteases Characterization and optimization of malting process for Gowe production, a fermented beverage from west-Africa Characterisation of Bacillus spp. and PaeniBacillus spp. in extended shelf life milk Quality assessment of oils from selected cultivars of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica and O. Robusta) seeds Arrangements for sanitary security of smoked fish in African's traditional markets Effect of accelerated temperatures on the shelf life limiting factors in apple juice concentrate Characterization of traditional processing of Kitoza, a salted/dried/smoked meat product from Madagascar Effects of carrot powder on physicochemical, microbiological properties and sensory properties of yoghurt. Modelling the effect of temperature on respiration rates of pomegranate (‘cv. Bhagwa’) whole fruit, arils and aril-sac for modified atmosphere packaging Modelling the effect of storage conditions on transpiration rate of pomegranate aril-sac and arils Screening of bacteria as biocontrol agents against the citrus pathogen Penicillium digitatum Evaluation of beef quality at retail level Effect of biofilm on the bacterial quality of extended shelf life milk

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POSTER PRESENTATIONS Food Safety P041 P042 P043

Gaofetoge Setlhare Matthew Aijuka Jeremia Moyane

P044

Nthabiseng Nhlapo

P045

Olanrewaju Fayemi

P046

RJ Beardsley

P047

Elna Buys

P048

Margot Muller

P049

Willem Groenewald

P050

Suretha De Kock

P051

Oluwatosin Ademola Ijabadeniyi

P052

Kelepile Modise

P053

Madelize Kotzé

P054 P055

Alex Ray Jambalang Lebogang Shilenge

P056

Victor Ntuli

P057

R. Son

P058

W.M.R. Che Wan Jasminah

P059 P060 P061

Carmen van Niekerk Nicolette Hall Marina Bester

P062

Innike Rajput

P063

Adediwura Falade

P064

K.A.P. Dovi

P065

Welday Hailu Teklehaimanot

P066

Henry Silungwe

P067 P068 P069 P070

Eric Amonsou Malory Links Danielle Rakoto Zani Du Plooy

P071

Ilriennedu Plessis

P072

Franklin Apea Bah

P073

Annemarie Viljoen

P074

Alice Nderitu

P075

Hettie Schönfeldt

P076

Pek Kui Lim

P077

Twambo Hachibamba

P078

T.T. Shonte

Microbial levels on the food preparation areas of a typical district hospital in South Africa Irrigation water as a source of antibiotic resistant and virulent E. coli on lettuce The physicochemical and sensory evaluation of commercial sour milk (Amasi) products Correlation between surface microbial counts and food preparation practices during the administration of the national school nutrition programme in central South Africa Survival of toxigenic E. coli in goat milk fermented with probiotic bacteria The effects of salt reduction, and use of alternative salt sources on the growth of E. coli in stirred-curd cheddar cheese Molecular characterisation of Bacillus sporothermodurans using (GTG) and REP PCR  Determination of the microbial quality and succession of Enterobacteriaceae spp. on fresh cut fruit during minimal processing Comparing organic acids and salt derivatives as antimicrobials against selected species of Chryseobacterium A surveillance study of mycotoxins in the South African industry, with specific reference to AFB in feed and AFM in milk Control of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 on tomato with microwave and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) Identification of organic acids profile from cottage cheese using high perfomance liquid chromatography Monitoring microbial contamination in an on-farm irrigation system from source to point-ofirrigation Prevalence of Salmonellae species in poultry eggs in South Africa Rapid food contact surface hygiene analysis using ATP bioluminescence in butcheries Prevalence, virulence factor and adaptation of shiga toxin producing E. coli in raw, pasteurised and retails bulk milk in South Africa Prevalence of Bacillus cereus in ultra-high heat treated (UHT) milk Incidence of tdh-positive and trh-positive Vibrio parahaemolyticus in cockles determined by the most probable number-loop mediated isothermal amplification (MPN-LAMP)

Food, Nutrition, Diet and Well-being The nutritional composition of different sub-species of potatoes The effect of breeding and retail practices on the nutrient profile of beef Physical composition of South African takeaways and street foods The perception towards and utilization of animal products by different socioeconomic groups in South Africa The effects of different non-wheat bread recipes on the quality of gluten-free maize bread Development of whole grain sorghum biscuits fortified with whole grain cowpea as a nutrient-dense complementary food for improved child nutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa Maize and teff starches modified with stearic acid as potential fat replacer in low calorie mayonnaise-type emulsions Evaluation of vitamin C degradation in oven and sun-dried tomatoes pre-treated with brine solution. Nutrient composition and microstructure of Bauhinia grains The health promoting qualities of gluten-free sorghum biscuits with added bran Sensory and consumer acceptance of Kitoza, a Malagasy meat product A perspective on health benefit claims as related to dairy products Effect of phenolic content in the bran of maize and non-tannin sorghum varieties on porcine pancreatic alpha amylase activity Does sorghum-cowpea composite porridge hold promise for alleviating oxidative stress? Exploration of the eating patterns of primary school children (11-15 yrs) and their school food environments in Manzini, Swaziland Phenolic composition and inhibitory effect against oxidative DNA damage of cooked cowpeas as affected by in vitro upper gastrointestinal digestion Analytical heme iron values vs. estimated values for South African lean meat Effect of storage temperature on the compositions of sugars and free amino acids in sweet potato (Ipomoea Batatas L. Lam) Effect of cooking and simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of cooked cowpeas Postharvest quality of Georgia grown pomegranates

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POSTER PRESENTATIONS Functional Ingredients and Foods P079

Engela Boshoff

P080

Oluyemisi Adelakun

P081

Alba Du Toit

P082

Claudine Diedericks

P083

Richard Nyanzi

Dough rheology of pretzels from composite wheat-cassava flour with added xanthan gum Effect of simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of a sorghum-cowpea composite porridge Antioxidant content and -potential in processed products from the fruit and cladodes of cactus pears (O. Ficus-indica and O. Robusta) Potential of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) as dietary fibre food source Antioxidant activity of probiotic lactobacillus extracts with anti-Candida and antibacterial activity

Key Consumer and Market Trends in Food Science and Technology P084

A survey of food ingredients and antimicrobials used in beverage products sold in Cape Town, South Africa

Victoria Jideani

Nanotechnology, Food Structure and Food Systems P085

Fidelis C.K. Ocloo

P086

Tatenda Nyakabau

P087

Thabelang Maphalla

P088

Prelen Moodley

Effects of irradiation and stearic acid on molecular, structural and functional characteristics of high amylose maize starch Maize starch biphasic pasting with stearic acid for amylose-lipid complex isolation: effect of pullulanase enzyme Pasting properties of wheat, maize and teff starches with added stearic acid and xanthan gum Effect of amylose-lipid complexes on the quality of wheat starch films

Novel Food Ingredients and Additives P089

Stephanie Bosman

P090

Nokuthula Shongwe

P091 P092

Naledi Botha Leigh McCarroll

P093

Patrick Hermaan Nitcheu Ngemakwe

P095 P096 P097

Opeolu Ogundele Helen Agu Helen Agu

P098

Daniso Beswa

P099

Victoria Jideani

Preparation of a polyphenol- enriched extract of Cyclopia genistoides: optimising extraction and evaluation of ultrafiltration The influence of genotype and season on the oil yield and composition of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica and O. robusta) seed

Product Development / New Products Quality of wraps made from low grade flour with added xanthan gum Optimisation of Mageu-based gluten-free bread in South Africa Effects of yeast, carboxymethylcellulose, yoghurt, transglutaminase and cyclodextrinase on mixing properties of oat dough Production and physico-chemical properties of plain yoghurt from bambara groundnut Some nutritional and microbial quality assessment of Dakuwa - an indigenous snack product Quality assessment of acha based biscuit improved with bambara nut and unripe plantain Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of provitamin A-biofortified maize stiff porridge Developing extruded products: adding value to African underutilised legumes and cereals

Sensory and Consumer Sciences P100

Muruta Baranzika

P101

Pulane Nkhabutlane

P102

Dominique Pallet

P103

Henry Udeh

P104

B Jolley

P105

Dominique Pallet

P106

Zahra Ahmed

P107

L Erasmus

P108

Marise Kinnear

P109

Elizabeth Mnyandu

P110

Annemarie Viljoen

P111

Mpho Mashau

P112 P113

Patricia Nyembwe Christine Leighton

Exploring South African informal settlements consumers’ emotions towards flavoured snack chips Standardization and characterization of traditional Basotho bread prepared according to the culinary practices in rural and urban Lesotho Application of a check-all-that-apply question to the characterization of Adansonia digitata L. drinks with African origin A survey on the  sensory characteristics of orange fruit juice blends in Limpopo Province South Africa Determination of the chemical drivers of taste and mouthfeel quality attributes of rooibos using statistical model building Sensory and consumer testing of drink from baobab fruit in Senegal The fermented wheat based endogenous Kishk Sa’eedi: proximate composition and sensory evaluation Sensory fingerprint of  honeybush species, Cyclopia maculata, C. subternata and C. genistoides Micronised cowpeas: are they acceptable to consumers in South Africa? Assessing consumer perceptions and acceptability of egg powder as preservation technique for rural household food security Familiarity, acceptability and consumption patterns of indigenous and traditional foods by adolescence (15-18 yrs) in the Francistown area, Botswana Comparative consumer acceptability and sensory evaluation of different bread in Thohoyandou, South Africa Do Saponins cause bitterness in Marama beans (Tylosema esculentum)? Developing standard operating procedures for sensory in quality control

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POSTER PRESENTATIONS Waste Management and Environmental Sustainability (including Value Addition of Edible Waste) P114

Irvin Mhaule

P115

Aluwani Ramutanda

P116

Louise Robertson

P117

Michelle de Kock

P118

Erika Jordaan

Production and quality analysis of banana wine made from local cultivars Wine production from pineapple waste - A potential for waste utilization and management in Limpopo Province South Africa Anaerobic treatment of grain distillery wastewater: influence of pre-treatments Effect of inoculum concentration on pH stabilisation during the anaerobic composting of white and red grape skins Growing microalgae on food industry effluents for biodiesel production

Student Product Development Competition P119 P120 P121 P122 P123 P124 P125

P126

P127

P128

P129

P130 P131 P132 P133 P134

Michelle Deyzel Anneke Louw Andrea Olivier Simone Ferreira Zanja Kuhn Bhavana Rampath Shanice Naidoo Ugeshan Pillay Lindsay Hogg Bianca Lee King Shaakira Yousuf Gugu Mncina Nosihle Dladla Ryan Whittaker Helen Zewdie Surine Viljoen Nelisiwe Hlatshwayo Annake Holmes Karien Kotze Matema Seabela Lungile Shongwe Gosia Milaniak Marileen Jansen Memory Chawazee Joseph Kamdem Charlotte van Niekerk Roslynn Allan Jeandre Johnston Tiny Mabasa Charity Magwenzi Lindie van Wyk S. Naidoo N.M. Makhura Refilwe Machema Kelefang Mofokeng I.M Magshule N.P Motloung Ndleve Khanyisa Phoku Thabiso Amanda Lithuli Neria Mahlo Mbatho

African secrets: cupcakes filled with the exotic flavours of South Africa Maizecakes: fat cakes with maize meal and a filling Sjoe! Choux pastry: frozen flavoured choux pastry in a dispenser Non-alcoholic malt beverage maltarula Nutri-paste: a green banana spread African pesto containing peanuts, coconut & coriander Baorula ice-cream: baobab flavoured coconut milk ice-cream with marula liquid centre

Out of Africa: blueberry buna ready-to-drink flavoured cold brew coffee beverage

Canned chicken livers

Heat-and-eat reticulum (honeycomb) bovine tripe in chakalaka stew packaged in a retort pouch

Instant breakfast cereal: rufara a bowl of Africa

Out of Africa: ready-to-eat curry tripe Idombolo: chick beef dumplings Cape Malay ostrich sticks Vanilla and bilton flavoured ice-cream Peanut yam balls

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ABSTRACT INDEX DETAILS PAGE Monday, 7 October 2013 Plenary Lectures IUFoST Food Security and Sustainability Symposium Sensory and Consumer Sciences Symposium: ILSI Water Quality and Safety The Shape of Things to Come: Nanotechnology, Food Structure and Food Systems Shelf-life Testing and Evaluation Key Consumer and Market Trends in Food Science and Technology Innovation in New Food Processing and Engineering Technologies

Tuesday, 8 October 2013 Plenary Lectures Symposium: Sensory and Consumer Science Food Legislation’s Impact on the Food Industry Food Safety Young Scientists Research Section ICSU Out of Africa Session

23

23 24 26 27 28 29 29 30

31

31 32 34 35 36 40

Wednesday, 9 October 2013

41

Thursday, 10 October 2013

47

Plenary Lectures Symposium: ICMSF Food Safety Risk Management Food, Nutrition and Well-being Leadership Workshop for Young Professionals Industry Novel Ingredients and Technologies: Industry sponsored talks Value Addition of Food Industry Waste Food Engineering and Processing Technologies

ICMSF Workshop

41 42 43 45 45 45 46

47

Poster PRESENTATIONS 49 Food Chemistry and Analysis Food Engineering and Processing Technologies Food Quality and Shelf-life Food Safety Food, Nutrition, Diet and Well-being Functional Ingredients and Foods Key Consumer and Market Trends in Food Science and Technology Nanotechnology, Food Structure and Food Systems Novel Food Ingredients and Additives Product Development / New Products Sensory and Consumer Sciences Waste Management and Environmental Sustainability

Student New Product Development Competition University of the Free State Durban University of Technology University of Pretoria University of Johannesburg

22

49 52 53 59 63 69 70 70 71 72 74 78

79

79 80 80 81


ORAL ABSTRACTS Monday, 7 October 2013

This presentation will address how best to communicate about discovery, purpose and use of food science and technological developments in a way that does not disparage the science or drive away the consumer- but also places into context the realities of the food supply.

Plenary Lectures Can Africa be the world’s food basket of the future?

Nano and microstructure design

Leon Louw Free Market Foundation, Johannesburg, South Africa

Anne Marie Hermansson The Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden

Sub-Saharan (“Black”) Africa is the only region of the world that got poorer for that last 30 years of the twentieth century. Why? Theories were as disparate as “the colonial legacy”, “the resource curse”, “African socialism” and as the “racial inferiority” hypothesis. Shortly after the prestigious Economist wrote Africa off as a “failed continent” and foreign aid givers complained of “donor fatigue”, Africa became the world’s highest growth region. Why? What changed? How does an entire region go from being the world’s worst to its best performer? Does it mean that this is “the African Century” or the “African Renaissance” as former President Mbeki called it? Whilst some African countries have been growing at spectacular rates despite the so-called “financial crisis”, others remain the world’s worst performers. Why? Africa has some of the world’s potentially most productive land. Can it become the world’s food basket, and if so, how? What do these developments mean for Africa’s investment and trade outlook? Scientific innovation in food science and technology: consumer trust Janet E. Collins President, IFT, Washington, DC, USA The food industry has a history of meeting the ever-changing demands of regulators, nutrition and health influencers, and consumers (Hoolihan et al., 2012). Achievements in food science and technology amaze and delight consumers- those same achievements raise questions and concerns for consumers. Unprecedented changes in lifestyles and eating patterns, a greater demand for healthier food, more ethical food choices, and consumers’ desire to know more about food production and processing are resulting in marked changes in the way that the food industry responds. Consumers, by and large, are not educated in food science and technology- they do not understand the scientific justification for nutritional enrichment and fortification; canning and preserving; additives and ingredients; and for chemical synthesis versus extraction from biological sources. Further, they also do not understand the farm to fork continuum and as a consequence, they do not appreciate global and technological intricacies inherent in farming, harvesting, storing, transporting, processing, packaging and distribution of food in general. Increasingly, consumers want more information; they want choice in food decisions; they question foundational information and messagesand they trust each other more than they trust regulators, scientists, and industry representatives. Social media and broad communications by food activists, celebrity chefs and self-acclaimed diet gurus are more interesting streams of conversation to follow than mainstream science. If we look at the great number of popular books pointing fingers and blaming the food industry for society’s woes (Freedman., 2013), we see that the language used to create a message is very different from language used among scientists. We do not know how to communicate the wonders of the technologies holding promise for a future to feed increasingly diverse and populous geographies using existing land space and water resources. How can we begin to expect consumers to understand technology when we do not explain it in terms that they can understand? According to Randy Olson (2009) in his book, “Don’t be Such a Scientist: Talking substance in an age of style,” with knowledge of science we can solve resource limitation, cure diseases, and make society work happilybut only if people can figure out what in the world scientists are talking about and why they should care. Innovation is key to growth in our industry while at the same time, science does not resonate. Finding common ground, creating a story and personalizing the messages we deliver, regardless of the audience will be our best means of gaining support with the general populace.

A main focus of structure design of foods, pharmaceuticals, hygiene products and other soft biomaterials is to master inherent structural properties over a range of length scales to control properties and tailor specific functions. Variations in raw materials as well as process condition can be followed on nano- and micrometer scales. Microstructure can explain many differences in product quality and can be used to understand and control product structure and is thus an important tool in product and process development. Structures on the meso-scale control many bulk properties but they are to a large extent determined by structural arrangements on the nano-scale. The toolbox for microstructure characterization include a range of microscopic techniques that can cover length scales from nanometers to micrometers, but we also need to understand the dynamics of structure formation and breakdown to fully understand how to tailor-make processes and conditions that give the desired characteristics of the product. Local events can have a dramatic effect on the overall properties. Structures related to rheology and mass transport are crucial for a wide range of applications such as controlled release, barrier properties, swelling and dissolution, water binding as well as the sensory perception of food during consumption and release of nutrients during degradation in the body. New techniques are available for measurement dynamic properties as well as local properties such as local diffusion properties in complex structures. It is possible to directly observe water uptake on the nano-scale. We also know more about structure complexity such as confinement effects in complex multiphase systems. This means that multifunctional materials can be developed, where different parts of the structure are designed for special functions. Interesting developments are also taken place within predictive science where experimental data on the micrometer and nanometer scale can be used to simulate properties such as flow and diffusion. Feed, weed, seed – the pursue, eschew and ‘ooh’ in today’s food and beverage trends Brenda Neall Editor, FOODStuff South Africa, George, South Africa It goes without saying that consumer food choices today are driven by five mega trends: convenience, health and wellness, ‘naturality’, pleasure and value. Drawing from her many years of reporting on the local and global foodbeverage industry, the past five comprising daily internet research and news gathering for her two websites and weekly e-newsletter, Brenda will share insights on these trends and cherry-picked takes and turns on them. Feed: What is happening today and deserving of undivided attention. Weed: What is no longer happening and deserving of undivided attention. Seed: A look at new food-beverage ideas, ingredients and packaging, new-age retailing, cutting-edge marketing, technology and behaviours to watch - things with the potential to ladder up to bigger trends. Understanding trends and catching a wave in the marketplace combine as one of two important elements for creating business growth. When coupled with outstanding execution, performance can yield results many factors higher than normal. As Professor David Hughes, Emeritus Professor of Food Marketing at Imperial College, London, observes: “If you are pushing in the direction people want to go in, it’s much easier.” The tone of the presentation will be global and journalistic – and while unashamedly unscientific, it aims to be engaging, relevant and stimulating.

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ORAL ABSTRACTS Facts about F.A.C.S. (The Food Advisory Consumer Service) David Watson Managing Director, Sunspray Food Ingredients (Pty) Ltd, Johannesburg, South Africa The presentation will cover when and why FACS was established and will discuss the objectives of FACS. The voluntary committee that runs FACS is made up of members of SAAFoST and representatives of the South African Consumer Union, the Association for Dietetics in South Africa (ADSA), the Directorate of Food Control of the Department of Health. The aim of the organisation is to disseminate scientifically based information to consumers, people involved in the food industry, and the media on pertinent topics relating to food and nutrition. FACS attempts to counter myths and misconceptions that are commonly voiced about food processing, food additives and the like but also warns its audience about food safety issues, bad practices and false claims.

IUFoST Food Security and Sustainability Symposium Global visions for the role of food science and technology to meet societal and technological challenges. Report from a feasibility study initiated by IAFoST Anne Marie Hermansson1, Peter Lillford2 1 The Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden, 2 University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

Key issues for African food security and how food science can play a role in addressing these issues Sheryl Hendriks University of Pretoria, Director: Institute for Food, Nutrition and Wellbeing, Pretoria, South Africa Food insecurity is global concern. Recent global economic recession, extreme and uncertain weather conditions, food price shocks, high price volatility and concerns over the sustainability of food production challenge our ability to feed a growing population. Over the decades, the focus of food security debates has shifted from production to the functioning of markets to the human face of hunger and access to food. More recent shifts have focused on human nutrition and how to link agriculture, food, nutrition and health. New attention focuses on food policy and the role of regulation in protecting domestic livelihood opportunities, markets, food safety and the value of indigenous foods in health and nutrition. Food science plays a crucial role in food security. Now, more than ever, the knowledge, skills and expertise of food scientists are needed in addressing a number of crucial issues related to food security. This presentation will provide an overview of global and African food security issues, providing insight into the scope, magnitude and severity of the situation and identify the key areas that food science can contribute to. Highlighting nutritional security: a key component of food security

The role of Food Science for Societal and Technological changes is unclear and individual regions and nation states may have different objectives and visions for their future. Security, Sustainability, Diet and Health are headlines, but to achieve any of these aims, the role of practicalities of best practice in food manufacture as well as the contribution of food science and interdisciplinary skills and an educated and trained workforce will be crucial. There is worldwide recognition that for humankind to feed itself adequately, there will need to be changes in current practice, and net Growth is required. This is a political, economic and social issue and one objective is to clarify the role of food science in this context. Changes in life style will change our needs for Diet. Different countries have different research policies and it is important for future strategies have a map of priorities in a global perspective. This could help governments to take necessary steps in a Health perspective. Security and Sustainability demands will need research strategies for food science and engineering to meet changes in climate as well as consequences thereof, such as the use of water and availability of raw materials. Here again individual regions and nation states will have different objectives and visions for their future. So, the key drivers and issues facing food production and security on a global basis are pretty well known. What is NOT known is how regions, nation states, and even the global food businesses are developing individual strategies to cope. With a weakened economic position, we suspect that Food Science is being squeezed out. However, this view is not evidence based, and requires a more complete investigation. We recognise that changes in agricultural production will necessarily occur, but this project focuses on post farm gate practices. Our eventual aim is to have an accurate “Map“, of the current state of affairs from which IUFoST can recommend collaboration, change of programmes, and best practice in Food Research, Training and Innovation worldwide, The project intends to report its findings at the IUFoST congress in Montreal in 2014. In the first Feasibility Phase we have explored the routes to collect a more detailed picture of which initiatives are proposed in different parts of the world. Results to date show that whilst there is considerable activity in relevant sciences, it is difficult to identify integrated plans for the future of Food Science and Technology, despite the evident and urgent need for international action. We now invite colleagues to join the continuing project, where we will continue to collect evidence, raising awareness of the necessary contribution of FS&T to the continued wellbeing of individual nations, and the world at large.

Delia B. Rodriguez-Amaya University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil Although the focus is usually on food production, food security encompasses food safety and nutritional security. In terms of food insecurity, households are often classified into those with light insecurity (referring to food quality, including nutritional quality), those with moderate insecurity (referring to quantity) and those with serious insecurity (referring to hunger). The first group generally and considerably outnumbers the other two. With the increasing incidence of diet-related chronic diseases, along with the persistence of micronutrient deficiency, a situation that has become known as the double burden, nutrition should be a vital consideration in food security efforts for developing countries. Diet diversification has long been regarded as the definitive solution to micronutrient deficiency; biofortification of staple foods has been introduced more recently. Emerging strategies for nutritional security include: (1) use of nutrient and bioactive compound contents as a criterion, along with yield and resistance, for the selection of varieties for agricultural production; (2) conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity for food and nutrition, (3) optimization or development of processing technologies to provide maximum retention of nutrients and bioactive compounds, (4) reduction of the substantial postharvest losses of fruits and vegetables and utilization of food industries’ byproducts /wastes rich in these health-promoting substances. Case studies will be presented to illustrate these strategies. To address food security successfully, a multidisciplinary approach is necessary, involving Agriculture, Nutrition and Food Science and Technology. Food security challenges in east Africa and novel ways to combat this Ruth Oniangó AJFAND/IUFoST, Nairobi, Kenya Food security challenges in East Africa are no different from those facing the rest of sub-Saharan Africa. They are not insurmountable. Top of the agenda is good governance and respect for the rule of law. The challenge to halve the number of hungry persons by 2015 in MDG1, if respected by all governments would see more resources and efforts put in place towards the realization of this millennium development goal. For many governments, however, it is more rhetoric than action. This, therefore, means that as people experience hunger, the level of anger rises, accompanied by more social intolerance and unrest, and thus more crime and less respect for law and order. In an environment of high crime, there

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ORAL ABSTRACTS cannot be much economic development. The economy stagnates, few jobs are generated and overall poverty escalates. A second challenge has to do with failure to honour trade tariff provisions. There is a legislated customs union that allows free movement of people and goods. Food is probably the most traded commodity within East Africa. Yes, there continue imposition of non-tariff barriers and human malpractices that cause confusion and interfere with the free flow of goods. Given the different ecologies in East Africa, it is possible for the diet base to be diversified and for populations to enjoy affordable fresh produce year round. As such, food would be available in both quantity and quality terms. A third challenge that we scientists must address has to do with our political clout and relevance in this whole arena. We may have great science, but it needs to be applied politically. Food is political, yet food and nutrition security is a development imperative. Biofortification of cereal grains for improved nutrition in Africa: strategies, benefits and challenges John R.N. Taylor, Janet Taylor Institute for Food, Nutrition and Well-being and Department of Food Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa Biofortification is a new name for a well-established strategy. It is the improvement of the nutritional quality of staple foods, such as cereals, in terms of macro- and micro-nutrient content and bioavailability through breeding. Advances in genetics, including recombinant DNA technology, and in our understanding of people’s micronutrient needs “the hidden hunger” have led to a huge upsurge in research and development of biofortified staples, particularly cereals, especially to combat malnutrition in Africa. Probably the first example of cereal biofortification is Quality Protein Maize (high lysine) maize. Recent biofortified cereals include: Golden Rice (fortified with provitamin A), Provitamin A maize, iron fortified pearl millet and Africa Biofortified Sorghum (ABS). The latter has multiple biofortified nutrients; increased lysine, improved protein and mineral bioavailability and provitamin A. A survey of young child food consumption in Burkina Faso, a country with a very high incidence of child malnutrition, indicated a potentially strong positive effect of biofortified cereals on the children’s nutrient status. This is assuming that all the children’s cereal intake was directly replaced by these biofortified cereals. However, HarvestPlus, the organisation responsible for many biofortification activities, estimates the contribution of biofortified cereals to the diet may only be 30-40%. The complexity of the process of development and acceptance of biofortified crops should not be underestimated. To ensure that the enhanced levels of nutrients in biofortified cereals actually improve people’s nutritional status and health, a multi-disciplinary approach must be used, involving plant breeders, geneticists, agronomists, extension officers, food scientists, nutritionists, social scientists, economists, market and product developers and educators. Is there a role for food science and technology in combating future world food crisis? Walter E.L. Spiess President International Academy of Food Science and Technology (IAFoST), C/O Karlsruhe Institut fur Technologie (KIT), Institut fur Bio und Lebensmitteltechnik, Karlsruhe, Germany According to the many statistics compiled by FAO, WHO or UNDP and others almost one sixth of the world’s population is suffering from hunger and malnutrition; a situation that has prevailed for many years. This obvious scandal has been recognized by the world public in many ways, the response so far are mainly numerous, resolutions and declarations e.g.FAO-World Declaration on Nutrition (1992) The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDG)(2000) and more recently the Draft Zero of the Rio+20 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, 2012; not to forget IUFoST’s Budapest Declaration in 1996 and Cape Down Declaration in 2010 The commitments made by the World Community are clear and measurable, e.g. in Target 1C of the MDG 1it is proclaimed to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger and

in detail to Halve the proportion of people who suffer from hunger to achieve by the year 2015. None of those goals have been reached, there have been some successes in certain areas but in other areas the situation is even worse and if projected into the future there is barely any hope that a major world food crisis can be prevented, a crisis which will hit especially Africa, parts of South East Asia and parts of South America. The reasons for this dramatic failure are certainly many fold; the major reason is without any doubt that the many political statements and declarations for assuring worldwide Food Security, if at all, have only been halfhearted translated into effective actions, partially because of national egoisms, partially because of the protection of vested rights and privileges. Further reasons which hampered progress in successfully coping with the present crisis and the crisis on the horizon, are the fact that (agricultural) innovations and developments are blocked and that food technological measures were considered as less important or even neglected, prices for staple foods reached dramatic heights and not to forget that inappropriate lifestyles misdirected food production and technological development in certain countries. In order to cope with future problems in a sustainable way misleading strategies should be readjusted. In this context the almost sole focus on the growth of the agricultural output has to be corrected. Food Science and Technology have to be recognized as important elements to cope successfully and effectively with future challenges. Dealing with existing problems like the tremendous losses in the food chain and the utilization of under-utilized resources would be first steps out of the present crisis and to prevent future crises. Food Science related strategies to cope with future challenges are e.g.: Reduction of Post Harvesting Losses; Improvement of Product Quality; Higher Process Effectiveness; Reduction of Process Impacts on the Environment by a better Utilization of Energy and Water resources; Reduction and Utilization of Processing Waste; Utilization of under or so far not utilized Natural Resources; Improvement of Storage and Distribution/Retailing Strategies. Major potential contributions of Food Science and Technology which will allow coping with future problems will be discussed in detail. Food security: how much time do we have? Herman B.W.M. Koëter Orange House Partnership, Brussels, Belgium Many papers have been written about global food shortage by 2050 and many rather dark scenarios have been presented. However, one might also consider a more positive development. This presentation will argue that the era of plenty of food for some parts of the world and hardly enough to survive for other parts has to be over and most likely will be over within the next 10-20 years. Developing countries and emerging economies will learn from the mistakes and failures of Europe and North America. Sustainability will turn out to be essential for survival and new, efficiency enhancing, technologies in the food sector will become available, not necessarily requiring intensive farming or intensive agriculture. However, the key to and prerequisite for success will be twofold: (i) a fundamental shift in what today is seen as the most desirable food, namely animal protein, and (ii) changing from up-scaling single food production to small scale local and diversified food production. The presentation will address the pros and cons of biotechnology and biofuel, including suggestions for future directions that are environmentally sustainable. Furthermore, thoughts will be shared on food efficiency and food safety issues.

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ORAL ABSTRACTS Sensory and Consumer Sciences

could be harnessed to positively alter behavioural intent and, eventually, purchasing decisions.

The economic potential for an origin-based marketing and certification system for a meat product in South Africa: perceptions, preferences and experiments Johann Kirsten, Hester Vermeulen, Karin van Zyl, Gerrie du Rand, Henrietta du Plessis, Tessa Weissnar University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa The main focus of this paper is to unpack South African consumers’ perceptions of and preferences for an origin-based meat product through applying a set of different methodologies. ’Hypothetical bias’, the difference between hypothetical and real values when evaluating consumers’ preferences, has received significant attention in academic literature since it is often the reason for an overestimation of willingness to pay (WTP) values. The different approaches (sensory analysis, perception analysis, conjoint analysis, experimental auction and an instore experiment) are all employed to illustrate ‘hypothetical bias’, to establish without doubt that the market potential for a specific originbased meat product does exist and to test consumers’ willingness to pay a premium price for such a product and determining its range. The results come from several studies that applied different methods related to the same product but with different consumer groups in different locations. The findings provide sufficient evidence to suggest that the regional identity of the product is important and that various willingness to pay estimates yield different results. It is clear that the stated preference methods confirm the hypothesis that consumers recognise the reputation of the product and are willing to pay a premium price for it. Positive results from the experimental auction and in-store experiment strengthen these conclusions. Together these deductions present a strong case for the marketing potential of origin-based mutton / lamb which could sell at a premium price similar to or slightly higher than comparable existing luxury and niche lamb brands on the South African market.

Taste optimization by understanding the impact of steviol glycoside relationships Mel Jackson, Sam Newberg Sweet Green Fields, Bellingham, WA, USA There are a number of steviol glycoside extracts in the marketplace today with varying glycoside compositions. Understanding the correlation between relative composition and taste impact of these glycoside variants is critical in formulating sweetener solutions to produce high quality food products for the consumer. Our research has shown that in applications where a reduction of sugar is the objective, blends of Rebaudioside A, Stevioside, Rebaudioside B, Rebaudioside C, and Rebaudioside D out-perform high percentage Rebaudioside A extracts such as Rebaudioside A 97 and Rebaudioside A 99. A trained and calibrated panel (n=10) showed that glycoside blends rated higher in a number of descriptive aspects, including mouth-feel, overall liking and acceptance. These findings are a result of organoleptic studies conducted in a number of flavour model systems and food and beverage category applications. Sensory evaluations clearly demonstrate preferred taste acceptance with glycoside blends in applications where saccharides are present in the sweetener matrix, suggesting a synergistic mechanism in flavour enhancement. Intercultural study of consumer acceptability of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. drinks between European countries – Portugal, United Kingdom and France

Hennie Fisher, Gerrie Du Rand, Alet Erasmus University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa

Maria Isabel Franco1, Geneviève Fliedel4, Aurelie Bechoff5, Corinne Rumney5, Mónica Freitas2, Susana Teixeira1, Ana Patrícia Silva1, Maria João Monteiro1, Mady Cissé3, Dominique Pallet4, Ben Bennett5, Keith Tomlins5, Manuela Pintado1 1 Escola Superior de Biotecnologia - Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Porto, Portugal, 2Faculdade de Veterinária da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil, Brazil, 3Association Afrique Agro Export, Senegal, Senegal, 4CIRAD, Montpellier, France, 5Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, Chatham, UK

This report presents results obtained during the application of the Q-sort technique to food magazine readers’ responses when examining food images matched with aesthetic indicators. The Q-method is a reliable psychometric technique that often uses photographs in non-food related contexts such as architecture and the travel industry. This is a first time application of Q-methodology employing food images in sensory research. Food images are important in the food marketing industry, where they represent dreams and ideals that are intentionally communicated to sell products. Food images evoke certain emotions, and may make sense to the viewer or not. An image has a message that the viewer decodes and consequently an experience follows, which could be pleasing or not. These content-driven messages, which are encoded through their talent by food stylists and are then interpreted by consumers, may contribute to an altered persuasion or behavioural intention. An understanding of how consumers respond to content aesthetics, as a result of how they interpret content through their senses, will greatly benefit the food stylist and may ultimately influence the marketing of food. Six specific food images, paired with six particular aesthetic indicators, were Q-sorted by a predetermined sample of two of South Africa’s most eminent food magazine readership. Seven factors with a notable correlation between the food image and the aesthetic indicators could be deduced after evaluation by the consumers. The seven factors reflected specific sensory related food image characteristics and explained more than 60% of the variance, although the first factor continued to dominate, explaining 17,7% of the variance across the participants’ sorts. The findings showed that Q-methodology, employing food images, is a useful and valuable sensory research approach for non-verbal communication settings where the technical and artistic messaging of food stylists are employed during food image content assembly, and

The consumption of this drink is widespread in Africa and Asia, as far as we know little appears to have been published about European consumers’ acceptance, when the drink is largely unknown in Europe. In order to achieve product acceptance followed by successful market introduction in Europe, it is of prime importance to gain insight into the factors determining consumers’ food choice. Understanding how consumers perceive food products is critical for food companies. This information is essential for the development and marketing of new products, the reformulation of existing ones, the optimization of manufacturing processes and the establishment of specifications in quality control programs. One of the most novel methodologies that has been developed for gathering information about consumers’ perception of the sensory characteristics of food products is the use of check-all-that-apply questions (CATA). CATA questions consist of a list of words or phrases from which respondents select all the words they consider appropriate to describe a product. This can result in a simpler and more valid approach to gathering information about consumers’ perception that includes both their sensory and hedonic impression. The aim of the present work was to apply CATA questions to compare consumer perception in the development of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. drink products between European countries, namely Portugal, United Kingdom and France. Four traditional samples (n=4) brought from Senegal were tested, two directly as commercial products - viz. 1 commercial syrup and 1 commercial instantaneous juice and two produced according to traditional approaches from calices. Consumer’s studies were performed in Oporto, Porto - Portugal, with 100 people from two Portuguese Catholic University Campuses, in Chatham, United Kingdom, with 120 people from the University of Greenwich

Consumers’ responses to food images: a new application of Q-methodology in sensory research

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ORAL ABSTRACTS and in Montpellier, France with 120 people from two canteens at the CIRAD Campus (La Recherche Agronomique pour le DÊveloppment) viz. - Baillarguet and Lavallete. Consumers were asked to score their overall liking and to answer a CATA questionnaire that included 28 sensory and hedonic terms. Significant differences were found in the frequencies in which CATA terms were used for describing the four samples in each European country under study, suggesting that this methodology was able to detect differences in consumer’s perception of the drinks. CATA methodology allows establishing a European consumer profile of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Drinks.

Symposium: ILSI Water Quality and Safety River water as source of high-risk irrigation water! Trevor J. Britz, C Lamprecht Department of Food Science, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa Consumption of fresh produce is increasing worldwide and since often eaten raw it makes an excellent vehicle for disease transmission. Notsurprisingly, food-borne disease outbreaks linked to fresh produce are increasing, in both number and intensity. Although fresh produce can become contaminated at any time in the agri-food chain, pre-harvest contamination is considered the most likely origin. One important source of pathogens found on fresh produce is from faecally-contaminated irrigation water. Over the last decade the microbial quality of many South African rivers used for irrigation of fresh produce has decreased and pollution levels are far above recommended WHO and local guidelines. As part of a study funded by the Water Research Commission and Department of Agriculture, the potential risk involved in the use of contaminated river water as irrigation water was investigated. Based on the results, the microbial levels of rivers and fresh produce monitored in different provinces of South Africa over 4 years showed unacceptable microbiological levels with faecal indicators, reaching log 7 cell concentrations. In many cases they did not meet international faecal guidelines for safe irrigation with Escherichia coli concentrations exceeding 1 000 cfu.100 mL-1. The presence of indicator organisms did not only indicate unsanitary conditions, but also the presence of potential pathogens including Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, Listeria, Salmonella, Enterococcus, coliforms, E. coli, norovirus and hepatitis A viruses, and protozoa. It was concluded that there is a high risk of exposure to human pathogens when water from these rivers is used to irrigate produce that is consumed raw. In view of this, as well as the seriousness of recent E. coli food-borne outbreaks which involved multi-drug resistant pathogenic E. coli strains, it could be argued that the potential of E. coli as emerging pathogen on fresh produce cannot be ignored. Water quality and microbiological criteria: how to set these and apply them in practice Liesbeth Jacxsens, Mieke Uyttendaele Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium Water quality and water sources applied along the fresh produce chain as irrigation water, transport water or washing water can be an important vehicle for foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., parasites or norovirus. Given the fact that there is a lot of pressure on the use of potable water on a global scale due to different reasons such as cost, availability or environmental considerations, multiple sources and qualities of water are used. Many guidelines are available to explain which type of water and quality of water can be applied at an international level, with often conflicting recommendations. This presentation will give an overview of microbiological parameters, set criteria and definitions of waters applied. It will discuss approaches in setting criteria and guidelines. Finally, it will end up with examples of risk assessment studies to set science based criteria for water quality. Within the EU funded project Veg-i-Trade, water sources and water types

(irrigation water, washing water for fresh produce) over different regions in the world (South Africa, Brazil, Egypt, Spain, Belgium and Norway) are analysed for multiple parameters and will be presented. Food safety assurance in fresh produce: scientific facts, public perceptions and the role of governance and control Lise Korsten, Erika du Plessis University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa In order to establish a more realistic food safety framework for the South African fresh produce industries and to retain our strong international trade profile, revised microbiological guidelines should be aligned with new scientific data and baseline studies. Furthermore the lack of adequate local information on the prevalence of foodborne pathogens on fresh produce in the supply chain makes it difficult to effectively implement food safety assurance systems. In South Africa, data on foodborne outbreaks and the associated microorganisms is further limited. The microbiological ecology of fresh produce, the potential link with poor quality irrigation water and the prevalence/absence of food borne pathogens will be discussed in this presentation. A final perspective on the status of food safety assurance in South Africa will be provided based on a Water Research Commission and Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries funded research project: An investigation into the link between water quality and microbiological safety of fruit and vegetables from the farming to the processing stages of production and marketing (Project K5/1875/4). Occurrence of algae and indicator bacteria in an open drinking water reservoir and their subsequent infiltration into the distribution network systems Mjikisile Vulindlu, Molefe Mohlala City of Cape Town, Water and Sanitation Scientific Services, Cape Town, South Africa The fitness of suitability of drinking water for human consumption in South Africa is measured against the national standard SANS 241 for both biological and physico-chemical parameters. Water suppliers aim to produce water that meets this standard in order to comply with the Department of Water Affairs incentive-based monitoring system known as the Blue Drop System. Following a rigorous treatment process, drinking water is supplied to customers through a network of closed bulk water reservoirs and a couple of open reservoirs. The City Cape Town’s Oranjezicht and Southern suburbs experienced episodes of clogged filters in their water meters which resulted in low pressure in their shower taps. Water sampling was carried out at the reservoir and associated distribution network. Sludge samples were also collected at the floor of the reservoir. Two filamentous algal species Melosira (Bacilliophyceae) and Mougeotia (Chlorophyceae) were isolated and found to be dominant species occurring in the reservoir as well as in the drinking water samples. Elevated levels of indicator bacteria, metals, inorganic compounds as well as a cocktail of other algae were also observed in the sludge samples. It was concluded that the filamentous algae were responsible for the clogging of the filters and had passed through the open drinking water reservoir into the distribution. The presence of polluted sludge at the bottom of the reservoir presents the possibility of compromising drinking water quality and infiltration of unwanted pollutants into the system. This presentation will elaborate on this and other challenges facing the City of Cape Town and how the City aims to manage these issues in the future.

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ORAL ABSTRACTS The Shape of Things to Come: Nanotechnology, Food Structure and Food Systems

Cereal prolamin bioplastic materials: what is preventing the commercialisation of these natural polymers?

How interfacial rheology controls emulsion mechanics

Janet Taylor University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa

Peter Fischer ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Interfacial stabilization by adsorption layers of proteins, small molecular weight surfactants, and particles is ubiquitous in numerous food products and discussed as potential encapsulation method (Erni et al., 2011). To establish the link between interfacial morphology and the resulting mechanical properties of the adsorption layer we focus on a set of recombinant proteins (DARPins) (Mitropoulos et al., 2011) and nanoparticles (Pickering emulsions) (Sander et al., 2012; Kim et al., 2013).. The modular construction of the proteins allows a polymer-like extension with the same building block and a controlled adjustment of its bulk and interfacial properties. On the other hand, the different adsorption behaviour of nanoparticles at the interface offers a wide range of stabilization mechanisms. Using interfacial rheology, neutron scattering reflectivity, and microfluidic techniques we are able to correlate the protein and particle properties (e.g. size and charge) to the resulting adsorption layer morphology, layer viscoelasticity, and capsule mechanics. Food oral design Mats Stading1,2 1 SIK - The Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden Before we swallow something we first disintegrate it into smaller particles and mix them with saliva to form a viscoelastic bolus which we transport to the back of the mouth. As soon as the bolus hits the pharyngeal arches we automatically swallow. During the short time it takes to carry out these activities the receptors of various senses in the oral cavity and in the nose are stimulated and we perceive all impressions about what we eat regarding aroma, taste, texture and mouthfeel. Ideally this stimulation gives rise to pleasurable food experiences. Normally we do not think about these intricate processes and much of them are even automatic, still they are the basis of how we perceive the food we eat. This means that with detailed knowledge of the eating and swallowing processes we are able to develop food by Food Oral Design. Saliva is one important component in the oral processing where it is involved in taste and aroma transfer, lubrication and thus strongly contributes to the perception of the food. Other major functions of saliva are to protect hard and soft oral tissues from wear, dehydration, demineralisation, chemical insult and microbial imbalance. It is particular salivary glycoproteins such as mucins and proline-rich proteins that have structural features that correlate to the protective function of masticatory lubrication. Mucins, of both high and low molecular weight are secreted from the submandibular-sublingual salivary glands while the prolinerich glycoproteins emanate from the parotid glands. The saliva from the different glands is shown to have very different viscoelastic properties. The actual swallowing is another important component of the oral processing. As healthy individuals we seldom consider it, whereas for others it may cause discomfort and even serious health problems. Already over 50 years of age, 22% suffer from swallowing disorders, or dysphagia, and in the age group above 70 years, 40 % suffer due to factors such as degenerative diseases, side effects of medication and trauma. These persons must eat texture adjusted foods, and the oral processing is considerably affected.

Environmentally friendly edible bioplastic materials can be made from zein and kafirin, the prolamin storage proteins of maize and sorghum grain, respectively. These natural materials show potential for use in the food industry as encapsulating agents for nutraceuticals and as coating materials to extend the shelf-life of fruit. However, despite much research, there are very few commercial bioplastic materials made from these materials. This paper provides some insight into why this is so and what can be done to change this. High cost is a primary reason for lack of commercialisation of these products. This may change with the vastly increasing quantities of prolamin-rich co-products, particularly from grain biofuel production but also from wet milling and brewing, are now being generated, which are attractive sources of feedstock to produce these prolamin bio-plastic materials. Commercialisation of these prolamin bioplastic materials is further hampered by their inferior functional properties compared to synthetic polymer plastics. This is because these prolamins are complex, each consisting of several classes and sub-classes and the functional properties of their bioplastic materials are greatly affected by water. Prolamin bioplastic materials are be produced by protein aggregation from a solvent. Recent research indicates that protein aggregation occurs by polypeptide self-assembly into nanostructures. We are investigating the very complex processes of how prolamin polypeptides assemble into nanostructures, including the role of protein secondary structure, and especially how these structures further assemble into the organizational structures of the various prolamin bioplastic materials. Such knowledge should enable us to manipulate and direct the process to improve functionality. This, along with an improved economic viability should enable bioplastic products made from prolamin proteins to complete effectively with synthetic polymer plastics. Starch modification with stearic acid for ‘clean’ label starches Mohammad Naushad Emmambux University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa Starch is widely used in the food industry for thickening, stabilizing and even as a fat replacer. These starches are generally modified with chemicals to produce substituted and cross-linked starches for better functionality and stability. The production of these starches require the use of ‘non-food friendly’ chemicals with legislative limitation and the use of solvents that require disposal. They are also not regarded as ‘clean’ label. This presentation discusses starch modification using lipids as food biomolecules. When starch is modified with stearic acid (a lipid molecule) at 1.5% w/w, a biphasic starch paste (two pasting peak viscosity) is obtained. The second pasting peak viscosity is characterised by high viscosity and non-gelling properties. These properties seem to be similar to (i) substituted starches which are non-gelling and (ii) crosslinked starches with high viscosity. Starch modified with stearic acid can also be used as a fat replacer in mayonnaise type emulsion. The nongelling and high viscosity of starch modified with stearic acid is due to the production of amylose-lipid complexes as shown by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The amylose lipid complexes are at nanometer scale and this can also allow for more interaction in the system for higher viscosity. Starch modified with lipids may be considered as food friendly chemicals and regarded as ‘clean’ label starch for food application.

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ORAL ABSTRACTS Shelf-Life Testing and Evaluation Microbiological shelf-life and safety of perishable foods Russell S. Flowers Merieux NutriSciences, Chicago, USA There are few regulations that define the shelf-life of a food. However, it is unlawful to sell or distribute foods that are adulterated, and foods that are unsafe or spoiled are considered adulterated. Thus, it is inferred that foods that are spoiled are adulterated. Shelf-life can be considered to be the time period between manufacture and spoilage or ideally the period just prior to spoilage. Ultimately the consumer determines what the definition of spoilage, which may result from chemical, physical or microbiological changes in the food. This presentation will be limited to a discussion of microbiological spoilage and the relationship to the safety. Definitions of microbiological spoilage, and the levels, and types of microorganisms causing various types of spoilage will be discussed. In addition, methods to predict and test microbiological shelf life will be considered. The design of storage studies and challenge studies will be discussed. The usefulness of predictive modelling and accelerated shelf life studies will be considered. Examples will be presented for which predictive modelling and storage /challenge studies closely correlated, as well as examples where modelling was not a good predictor of microbial growth and shelf-life. Post-harvest quality changes in green harvested sugarcane stalks from the Kwa-Zulu Natal midlands Nafiisa Sobratee, Carel Bezuidenhout, Tilahun Workneh, Milindi Sibomana University of Kwa-Zulu Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa The occurrence of supply chain management bottlenecks in the sugarcane industry is the major cause of post-harvest changes resulting in sucrose degradation during delay. Pre-harvest factors, harvesting techniques and climatic factors exacerbate sugar inversion and the formation of viscosity-altering deterioration products that impact on sucrose recovery. The aim of this study is to identify a set of comprehensive and sensitive indicators to benchmark post-harvest changes during (i) early and late harvest and (ii) green and burnt cane. The present work reports post-harvest quality changes, during a nine-day harvest-to-crush delay, in two common cane varieties, namely N12 and N31 from the KwaZulu Natal Midlands in South Africa. Total bacterial count (TBC), lactic acid (LA) concentrations, total soluble solids (TSS) and respiration rate, were examined for internode-specific susceptibility to deterioration across the stems in green harvested sugarcane. LA was only detectable in the outermost portions starting from day 5 (N12) and day 7(N31), respectively, and was significantly higher in the bottom portion than the immature top portion. TBC were higher in the top portions indicating the presence of more concentration of glucose to support bacterial growth in this part of the stem whereby the sucrose-hexose pool was in favour of invert sugars rather than sucrose with delay. The TSS content significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased in the top internodes. This indicates that there were high physiological changes in the top portions. Similarly, the trends in respiration rate were similar in the outermost portions in contrast to the middle portions. The findings of this study showed that cane stalk position had effect on post-harvest quality. Parameters used to detect deterioration signals, in the high sucrose environment of the sugarcane stalk, need to be able to detect and characterize this differential rate of postharvest changes during the harvest-to-crush delay. A brewery hygiene case study: a multi-pronged approach to eradicate beer spoilers

concentrations, served the brewer well in preventing the presence of food pathogens. However, beer spoilage bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Pediococcus have developed resistance to hops and therefore have the ability to grow in hopped beer if unmanaged. Although these bacteria do not pose a health risk, they are the main cause of beer spoilage, causing a change in beer flavour and/or causing turbidity in beer. The pasteurisation of beer to kill beer spoilage bacteria was first shown by Pasteur in 1870. Although an effective process, the addition of heat to beer once packaged results in a slight change in flavour and impacts the overall flavour stability of beer freshness over time. A beer which has a lower bacterial log reduction requirement can therefore be subjected to a lower level of pasteurisation and hence improve product freshness in the trade. With this knowledge in mind, an opportunity to present consumers with fresher tasting beer offerings became a focus for SAB Ltd. A project to manage the reduction of beer spoilers through appropriate brewery hygiene practices followed. The hygiene journey was divided into milestones which were clearly defined. Breweries were classified based on their current hygiene status (GMP, CIP, people practices and micro performance) and work programs were tailormade to address specific gaps identified per site. Additionally, training programs were initiated to train staff at all levels regarding the required changes in work practices. Extrinsic and intrinsic micro targets were set for both brewing and packaging areas. Extrinsic targets are achieved through environmental cleaning programs. Intrinsic hygiene targets are achieved through the required Clean in Place (CIP) practices. The program was supported by the introduction of more sensitive micro media specifically designed to detect beer spoilage bacteria and wild yeast as well as increased sample volumes. The results of a brewery specific hygiene program, as monitored with the improved micro standards, are presented based on a case study. This successful hygiene project demonstrated the ability to reduce total pasteurisation units whilst maintaining excellent product quality.

Key Consumer and Market Trends in Food Science and Technology The management of food activism Nigel Sunley Sunley Consulting, Johannesburg, South Africa Many issues in food science and technology raise strong emotions among the general public and the last twenty years has seen substantial growth in the number of activist bodies who vigorously promote specific points of view on controversial food related issues. Some of these admittedly relate to commercial rather than scientific aspects of food but, irrespective of the actual nature of the issues concerned, food scientists and technologists have tended to take a back seat in this area, preferring to leave them to often scientifically poorly-informed corporate affairs personnel. This approach can potentially cause more harm than good and it is essential that a rational and scientifically rigorous approach be taken in handling the issues raised by food activists. In particular, it is essential that a clear distinction is made between issues driven by purely scientific considerations and those of a more moral and ethical nature. It should also be remembered that in some cases the issues raised by activists may be legitimate ones; however their credibility can often be blurred by an emotional, scientifically flawed and unduly simplistic approach, particularly in the area of risk assessment. Food scientists and technologists thus have an important role to play in this area, and this paper, an earlier version of which was presented at the World Congress of Food Science & Technology in 2012, will outline some of the ways in which food activism operates and how it can be managed, using a number of case studies including non-nutritive sweeteners, genetic modification and nutritional activism in fields such as breast milk substitutes as examples.

Elizabeth Lodolo, Martin Brooks, Clint Viljoen, Vernon Keys SAB Ltd, Alrode, South Africa Since the first written records of the use of hops in Abbot beer, the antimicrobial properties of hops, combined with typical lager alcohol

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ORAL ABSTRACTS Strategic communication insights to the Consumer Education Project (CEP) of Milk SA

Innovation in New Food Processing and Engineering Technologies

Pierre Joubert1, Christine Leighton2 Bureau of Market Research. College of Economic and Management Sciences, Pretoria, South Africa, 2Milk South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa

New thickening quality of galactomannan polysaccharides by tailored impact milling

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Milk South Africa commenced with the Consumer Education Project (CEP) during 2007. The objective with this project aims to inform consumers of the health and nutritional advantage of dairy products and eliminate dairy related misperceptions. A communication strategy (including print, television and internet) informed by the objectives has been finalised. This strategy delivers a multimedia communication plan that includes the most efficient, cost effective and relevant media channels. To effectively educate consumers on the health and nutritional benefits of dairy, strong insights into attitudes, emotions and feelings of consumers towards dairy products can be advantageous. Subjecting consumers to a barrage of scientific facts is therefore probably not the most appropriate tool to serve the purpose of educating consumers on the role of different dairy products in respect of nutrition and health. The aim of the study was to provide strategic insight into consumer reaction to four dairy products and seven key communication messages of the project. The study explored the emotions and feelings of different segments of the Consumer Education Project of Milk South Africa’s target market. Furthermore it informed its relevancy in shaping the future of the dairy industry in South Africa. The research methodology employed state-of-the-art analytical tools which included computer aided personal interviews to explore the emotional and feeling environment in which consumer education is undertaken. The outcome of the study is not only relevant for the African market but other developing markets that include low, medium and high income segments and who share similar demographic characteristics. Affordable dairy products for low income South African consumers – making a nutritional difference Christine S. Leighton1, F.A.M. Wenhold2 1 Consumer Education Project of Milk South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa, 2 Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, University Of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa Dairy products provide shortfall nutrients in the diets of low income South African consumers, yet intakes tend to be low, as dairy is perceived to be expensive. By demonstrating the nutrition and cost impact of dairy products on typical consumption patterns and meals of these consumers, new marketing avenues could be explored. The aim of this presentation is to describe the low income consumer, a selection of typical meals and snacks, and the theoretical impact of the addition of selected dairy products on the nutritional composition and cost of the selected meals and snacks. Existing market research (Markinor 2007) and food consumption surveys were consulted to characterise the low income South African consumer. Typical plates of food or food items commonly consumed by lower socio economic groups in South Africa were identified and analysed in terms of selected macro- and micro- shortfall nutrients using the South African Food Composition Tables (2010) and in terms of cost. The theoretical impact of adding affordable dairy products on the nutritional profile and the cost of the meals or snacks was calculated. In order to promote food-related behaviour change, an in-depth understanding of how people view the benefits, costs and other factors that could influence their ability to adopt new behaviours, is required. This paper introduces the greater South African population in terms of the different income groups, their disposable income and typical dietary intakes. It highlights the theoretical nutritional value for money of various dairy products for the low income consumer, and ends with suggestions for practically applying this knowledge in current and future nutrition promotion campaigns of the Consumer Education Project of Milk SA, including strategies to improve acceptability and awareness of dairy in low income communities.

Silke Illmann, Michael Pollard, Erich J. Windhab, Peter Fischer ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Galactomannan polysaccharides are long chain macromolecules used as emulsion stabilizers, thickeners and bulking agents in a variety of food formulation (Pollard et al., 2006) They are found in tissues of seed endosperms of species such as guar and carob. In order to produce these powders the seeds under go several harsh and damaging processing steps. These processes cause irreversible changes in the structure of the biopolymer molecule due to thermal and mechanical treatments. Thus, the potential functionality of the product as a thickener is diminished. In our study we designed and developed a new method for extraction and milling of such endosperms (Pollard et al., 2011). The thickening behaviour and the molecular weight of such galactomannan flours can be kept at its biological level due to a specific two step milling procedure. At first the endosperms are pre-milled in a pin mill in a dry state. Second, the material will be hydrated in water, before it is milled in a centrifugal mill to the final powder. The new process enhances the solubility of the powders while preserving the natural molecular structure of the polymers, thus resulting in higher molecular weights. As causes of these property enhancements morphological changes of the material during the hydration step are proposed, leading to the alteration of the mechanical properties. This results in a different breaking mechanism of the seed endosperms inside the mill. After identifying the relevant parameters influencing the process, we are able to control the desired properties as well as the rheological behaviour of the resulting galactomannan solutions. Modelling lactic acid fermentation to improve fermented beverages from cereals Munanga Bettencourt1, Gérard Loiseau2,1, Christian Mestres1 CIRAD/QualiSud, Montpellier, France, 2SupAgro/QualiSud, Montpellier, France

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Gowé is a sour and sweet sorghum based traditional Beninese beverage that is consumed after the addition of sugar, ice and sometimes milk. The traditional manufacturing of Gowé includes malting, fermentation and cooking. A Gowé of high quality relies on a sufficient acidification during fermentation (to achieve safety and sourness) and sorghum starch hydrolysis by malt amylases which produces fermentable substrates and imparts a sugary taste. The kinetics of the lactic fermentation thus depends on malt amylasic activities that are in return more or less inhibited by the acidification due to the production of lactic acid. The final objective of this study is to propose a global model allowing predicting the good making of Gowé. Two selected lactobacilli known to have different potentialities of acidification: L. plantarum and L. brevis were cultivated on MRS liquid medium. We firstly modeled the growth of the two strains at constant pH according to the logistic primary model of Rosso (1996) which determines lag time and growth rate. Secondly, a cardinal model (CPM) was used to model the effect of pH on growth rate. Lactic acid production appeared linked to bacterial growth rate through a sigmoid type model. A double linear model was fitted with the variation of alpha-amylase activity with pH. A global fermentation simulator was thus built, and the comparison of measured and predicted data in MRS medium showed that the model gives a good prediction of growth rate and lactic acid production for the two strains. The simulator, in addition, predicts that after 15 hours of fermentation conducted by L. plantarum, all alpha-_amylase activity is lost while a third of the activity remained after 24 hours with the L brevis strain. This result shows that the L. brevis strain is potentially well suited for the lactic fermentation of Gowé.

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ORAL ABSTRACTS Are our eating habits sustainable? Andrew Murray Andrew Murray Consulting, Hermanus, South Africa

The prevalence of foodborne disease in Africa

The survival of a man and the survival of mankind are dependent of adequate supplies of water, biomass (in the form of food) and energy. Virtual water is an expression of the quantity of water that is used in the production of a given quantity of a product. For instance the virtual water content of a kilogram of beef is, on average, 15 500 litres. Environmental thermodynamics traces the interdependence of biomass and energy noting that in effect the only way that biomass is created is though photosynthesis which is dependent on solar energy. Biomass is then converted from one form to another with varying efficiency through the different levels of the food chain. We measure our diet in terms of the energy it provides (kilojoules or calories) rather than the mass consumed. The linked concepts of virtual water and biomass-energy relationships are examined to determine whether we can afford to go on scoffing the way we do.

Tuesday, 8 October 2013 Plenary Lectures

Lucia Anelich Director, Anelich Consulting, Pretoria, South Africa Millions of people around the world become ill from food- and waterborne disease. Of these, an estimated three million people die every year with 700 000 estimated deaths occurring in Africa due to diarrhoea alone, associated with contaminated food and water. Whilst cases of foodborne illness occur daily in all countries, there is a severe underreporting of such diseases, particularly in developing countries, including Africa. Africa consists of 54 countries, most with diverse cultures, religions, languages, traditions and foods. Whilst there are many differences between African countries, including levels of development and sophistication of agriculture, food manufacturing and food retail as well as infrastructure, there are many similarities. These include a severe underreporting of food- and waterborne diseases. Consequently, the true prevalence of foodborne disease in Africa is unknown. This presentation explores current knowledge on the prevalence of selected microbial and chemical hazards in African food and water sources, many of which are of greater importance to the African continent than to the developed world. Outbreaks of various food- and waterborne diseases, as well as the impact that food- and waterborne diseases have on the African population, taking the prevalence of severe food insecurity and HIV/AIDS into consideration, will be discussed. Innovative ways of dealing with energy in the food industry

Beyond the taste test: sensory science’s value-addition to food R&D

LJ Grobler Faculty of Engineering, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa

Chris Findlay Compusense Inc., Guelph, Ontario, Canada Over the last 50 years, the science of sensory and consumer research has grown from its infancy to become a robust tool that creates value for food research and development. Our understanding of the fields of psychophysics and statistics has grown to provide the theoretical underpinnings of current sensory science. There are now over 5000 sensory scientists active in the world and the growth of professional societies is a major indicator of that progress. One of the oldest groups, the Sensory and Consumer Science Division of the IFT celebrates its 40th Anniversary this year, while the African Network for Sensory Evaluation Research (ANsWer) is prepared to become the leader of African sensory science. Product taste tests were once the staple of product development or quality control departments. The questions were simple and the results were basic. Sensory science has moved forward from then through the application of basic science to build a robust understanding of sensory evaluation, consumer response and consumer choice. Calibrated descriptive analysis is now able to deliver analytical sensory profiles of products that are both accurate and precise. This has led to more meaningful measurement of the sensory authenticity of products. This complements any conventional food analysis, the ability to create a product development library of prototypes using their sensory properties and delivering reliable measures of sensory shelf life. Moving beyond traditional consumer segmentation, we now know much more about consumers and are able to cluster them based upon their liking of products and their behaviour. This has resulted in consumerdriven product development; creating new products based upon sensory design, targeted on the desires and needs of specific consumer groups. Sensory and consumer research has taken advantage of the progress in computing and communications to be able to take its tests to consumer, wherever they are and to permit sensory laboratories to collaborate on a global scale. Sensory science can deliver enormous benefits to product development and to understanding the priorities of consumers in a global market.

Rising energy costs and energy security have become so important that companies cannot neglect to look at innovative and smart ways to reduce energy costs and usage. For many companies energy falls within the top three operating expenses. Food processing and specifically cooking is fairly energy intensive processes. Many processes require various forms of energy for heating, cooling, drying, conveying etc. Traditionally energy was purchased to drive the processes. The high costs of energy are forcing companies to look at innovative ways to save energy and also make use of waste heat recovery to reuse energy whenever possible. The paper will focus on innovative ways that can be applied in the food processing sector to reduce energy costs and use. Topics to be covered are: Energy efficiency; Demand side management; Waste heat recovery; Combined heat and power system; Tri generation systems. Mycotoxin risk assessment in South African maize consumers W.C.A Gelderblom1, H-M Burger1, M.J Lombard2, G.S Shephard1, D.J Van Schalkwyk3 1 PROMEC Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, South Africa, 2Division of Human Nutrition, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa, 3Consultant, Durbanville, South Africa South African maize is frequently contaminated by fumonisins (FB), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA). The risk of mycotoxin exposure in the South African population, resident in nine Provinces, was assessed during a cross-sectional grain consumer survey by; (i) providing the relative per capita maize intake (g day-1) stratified by gender, ethnicity and Province and (ii) the probable daily intake (PDI) of each mycotoxin (µg kg-1 body weight day-1) utilising contamination levels of dry milled maize fractions (SPECIAL and SUPER), intended for human consumption. When utilising specific maize intake increments (g kg-1 body weight day1 ), a sensitive exposure mycotoxin risk assessment model (MYCORAM) for FB, DON and ZEA was developed and validated and the percentage of the population exposed above the PMTDI for each toxin was characterised for each Province. The estimated mean mycotoxin PDIs utilising the commercial dry milled maize fractions was far below the Provisional Maximum Tolerable Daily Intake (PMTDI) for each mycotoxin.

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ORAL ABSTRACTS The predictive risk of exposure (MYCORAM) when utilising experimental SPECIAL dry milling fraction varies between 7 to 18 %; 3 to 9.5% and 0.2 to 4.2% of the population exposed above the PMTDI for FB, DON and ZEA respectively. The SUPER dry milling fraction provides an approximate fivefold lower level of exposure. In contrast, the dry milling fractions (SPECIAL and SUPER) obtained from samples representing levels in home grown maize of rural subsistent communities provide a far higher percentage of maize consumers above the PMTDI for each mycotoxin. The MYCORAM provides a far more sensitive and alternative model in assessing the risk of mycotoxin exposure and addressed maize consumption profiles, demographics and population density.

socioeconomic factors and preference differences will be discussed with reference to relevant examples. The presenter has considerable experience in the execution of consumer sensory research across a variety of product categories with diverse consumer populations.

Detection and quantification of meat adulteration: what DNA can and cannot tell us?

As part of a global vision to understand the quality of beverages produced by the SABMiller group around the globe, a global QA and QC Sensory system was introduced. This review identifies the key requirements for this initiative and highlights milestones and examples of the success. This presentation was informed by the implementation of a global system, and makes use of various recognised sensory testing methodologies and project management tools. Sensory training techniques, assessment techniques and an application of a modified QDA for QC and QA tests are explored. The application of a global QC and QA system has allowed the intelligent application of quality measures that ultimately have driven quality improvements, as below: a) Comparison of performance of products produced in various locations, between brewery locations, countries and continents, b) Assurance of franchise brands produced around the globe, c) Quality improvements of brands driven by the identification of brand off flavours, d) Consumer assurance of best quality products, e) The application in NPD and trade monitoring.

Donna Cawthorn1, Louw Hoffman1, Harris Steinman2 1 Department of Animal Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 2Food & Allergy Consulting & Testing Services (FACTS), Milnerton, South Africa The correct description of foodstuffs is important not only for economic, religious and health reasons, but also to promote fair-trade and transparency on the market. Nonetheless, due to their high prices, meat products are often targets for species substitution and adulteration. Such phenomena are exemplified by the recent horse meat crisis in the European Union, as well as the discovery of undeclared donkey, water buffalo and goat in a variety of South African meat products. Following the emergence of these scandals, there has been a tendency for regulators to attempt to set threshold values for the presence of undeclared or prohibited species in meats in terms of percentage meat content (weight/weight) and to attempt to use the available DNAbased analytical methods to ensure compliance with such thresholds. However, while DNA-based methods are widely recognised as the most accurate techniques for the detection of undeclared species in foodstuffs, major problems are encountered with quantification. This paper sets out to review the available analytical methods for species authentication, their limits of detection (LODs) and their capacities for quantification. Particular focus will be placed on the problems associated with correlating quantitative DNA measurements to meat content expressed as percentage (w/w), stressing the factors that contribute to correlation problems (amongst others, meat composition, mitochondrial distribution and copy number, DNA extractability and degradation). In addition, the basis of thresholds is discussed, the acceptability of these thresholds from health and religious viewpoints, and the achievability of these with the current analytical techniques. Overall, the intention is to make industry and researchers aware of the shortcomings involved with expressing DNA results as meat content (w/w), to attempt to seek suitable alternatives and to suggest the way forward in ensuring the authenticity of meat products offered for sale on worldwide markets.

Symposium: Sensory and Consumer Science A global business perspective of cross-cultural consumer sensory testing of food products Anne Goldman ACCE - Applied Consumer & Clinical Evaluations, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada Understanding cross cultural differences is a key component to prevent product failure in the global marketplace where marketing and trading activities across borders, countries and continents grow every year. Sensory and consumer science research is essential to help businesses in their understanding of consumer product preferences in different countries and to harness product optimization opportunities for diverse cultural populations. This presentation will cover the challenges and discuss solutions to using consumer sensory research across different cultural groups. Factors that impact the research design and execution including translation and appropriate scaling as well as understanding customs, beliefs,

The application of a sensory QC and QA program in a global FMCG company Frieda Dehrmann, Gary Steyn The South African Breweries Ltd., Johannesburg, South Africa

Examples of each of these comparisons are provided. The fundamental of placing the brand technical essence at the centre of the assurance system, and thereby assuring a consistent consumer experience, in a category where brand consistency is vital is highlighted. The role of proper sensory assessor training and assurance is also discussed, and examples of driving assessor competency are shared. The sensory tools of QDA, difference testing and rank rating are demonstrated as easy tools to apply in the implementation of a QA and QC sensory system. Finally, the advantage of global quality assurance system is also highlighted. Chillies: from heat to eat Jeanine Sainsbury McCormick South Africa, Johannesburg, South Africa With a 75% increase in the number of chilli containing food products launched in South Africa and a 35 % increase globally over the last 2 years, it is clear that chillies are a hot topic in the food industry. Consumers are not referring to chillies in general anymore, but rather to specific varieties such as Jalapeno, Chipotle and Habanero. As consumers are becoming more educated on chillies and health benefits associated with the consumption of chillies, it is critical for the food industry to deliver products that are appealing to the consumer. The increase in sales and consumption of chillies and chilli flavoured products further emphasizes the importance of understanding the consumer’s needs and sensory attributes of different chilli varieties and chilli containing products. Sensory Science tools such as time intensity, consensus profiling and other novel tools has enabled us to understand the differences between chilli varieties and chilli products in the South African market as well as other global markets. By understanding the sensory composition of these products as well as the consumer’s behaviour towards chilli, the food industry will be able to develop chilli products with the correct chilli profile, heat intensity and heat delivery.

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ORAL ABSTRACTS Understanding preferences with indirect methods: cross-cultural effects of fruit & vegetable consumption and beta-carotene supplementation on skin colour Vinet Coetzee Department of Genetics, University of Pretoria, , Hatfield, Pretoria, South Africa A diet rich in fruit and vegetables is consistently associated with increased health, partly because of the role of carotenoids. These plant pigments play a crucial role in the human antioxidative network — protecting the body against the harmful effect of free radicals — and more generally in immune response. Once obtained from the diet, carotenoids are deposited in various human tissues including the skin, increasing the yellowness of the skin. Skin yellowness might therefore serve as a non-invasive indirect marker for fruit and vegetable consumption, the antioxidative network, immune response and health in general. Here we report on a range of collaborative studies conducted in the United Kingdom and South Africa testing the role of carotenoid colouration as a marker for diet, health and attractive appearance. We show that (a) carotenoid intake is significantly associated with increased skin yellowness in both Caucasian and African skin, (b) that both African and Caucasian observers enhance skin yellowness to increase apparent health and attractiveness, and (c) that lifestyle factors influence carotenoid deposition in the skin. These findings point to the utility of skin colour measurements as an indirect marker for diet, health and attractive appearance. Furthermore, these findings introduce the possibility of using appearance-based interventions to motivate dietary changes in the South African population. Development of flavour wheels for indigenous South African herbal teas, rooibos and honeybush Ilona Steenkamp1, Nina Muller1, A Theron1, E Joubert2 1 Stellenbosch University, Western Cape, South Africa, 2ARC InfruitecNietvoorbij, Western Cape, South Africa Sensory wheels are graphical representations of aroma, flavour, taste and mouthfeel attributes that describe the sensory characteristics of a food or beverage product. They are widely used in industry to describe and discriminate between products for quality control, product development and research purposes. The lack of a comprehensive set of descriptive terms in the rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush (Cyclopia species) industries has led to the development of sensory wheels for both rooibos and honeybush teas. Rooibos (n = 69) and honeybush (n= 58) samples were sourced ensuring that the sample sets capture as much potential variation in sensory attributes as possible. Samples from different producers, harvest areas and quality grades were selected. Furthermore, for development of the honeybush sensory wheel, six different Cyclopia species were included. Samples were analysed using descriptive sensory analysis (DSA) in order to develop a sensory profile for each sample. A panel of trained judges generated an extensive list of aroma, flavour, taste and mouthfeel terminology for both types of teas. These descriptors were then reorganised into first and second tier descriptors and finally assembled into a sensory wheel. The first version of the rooibos and honeybush sensory wheels reflects the sensory attributes of tea from one season only. In order to ensure that sensory variation arising from seasonal differences is covered in the wheel, sample sets (Rooibos: n = 259; Honeybush: n = 135) from additional harvest seasons were evaluated using DSA, and the results used to modify and validate the sensory wheels. Although the method of DSA is most accurate and comprehensive in generating a quantitative sensory profile for each analysed sample, it is a very time-consuming process. Therefore, it was investigated whether a much simpler and faster sensory method (Sorting technique) would be able to provide a similar reflection of the sensory characteristics of the sample sets. Results indicated that DSA and Sorting delivered significantly similar representations of the sensory profiles and groupings within a sample set.

Novel tools for sensory fingerprinting of wines E Hanekom, H Nieuwoudt, A Tredoux, N Muller Stellenbosch University, Western Cape, South Africa Descriptive sensory analysis is one of the most extensively used tools in wine analysis. It can provide a complete, quantified description of the sensory attributes of wine. Considering the economic and time constraints of training sensory panels for descriptive sensory analysis, several novel methodologies for sensory characterisation have been developed over the past 10 years. These methodologies are less timeconsuming and can be used with trained and semi-trained assessors or even consumers, providing maps that are very close to those of classical descriptive analysis. One of these newly-developed methodologies, the sorting technique, is based on the evaluation of global sensory differences and has been used with success in a number of studies, including wine and beer. The aim of this presentation is to review the theory, implementation, advantages and disadvantages of descriptive analysis and the sorting technique in sensory characterisation of a product range. The results of research on Chenin blanc wines will be used to illustrate the capacities of these two sensory methodologies. Fifteen commercial Chenin blanc wines were used, the wines were classified as dry (RS < 4 g/L) and represented three of the classical Chenin blanc wine styles, i.e. “fresh and fruity”’, “rich and ripe unwooded” and “rich and ripe wooded”. Descriptive analysis data were analysed using PCA and the sorting data using MDS, DISTATIS and CA. Sensory food science: a vital component of research to improve nutrition in Africa Henriëtte L. De Kock University of Pretoria, Department of Food Science, Pretoria, South Africa Tuorila & Monteleone (2009) defined Sensory Food Science as a discipline dealing with human sensory perceptions of and affective responses to foods, beverages and their components. It is multidisciplinary by its nature, deriving research questions from food science and applying behavioural research methods to solve these questions.” The African continent is home to 1 billion+ people, almost 15% of the world population, a market that is rapidly increasing and changing. Over fifty countries are recognised and over 2100 languages spoken. Africa has a variety of traditional beliefs and religions which has been a major influence on culture  and  philosophy. Sub-Saharan Africa is facing high levels of food insecurity and only few countries are on track to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. An aspect that is often overlooked is that whatever economical status, people want to eat tasty food typical of their own culture and tradition. There are only a limited number of Sensory Food Scientists in Africa. This paper will review published sensory studies conducted in Africa over the last five years. The objective is to identify the types of sensory investigations that are conducted, review the methods used, and identify opportunities. Multidisciplinary research, international and cross-African collaboration that include Sensory Food Science are crucial to build capacity in regional food and nutrition research. Sensory Food Science that utilises physicochemical, physiological, and consumer-based research methods is crucial to understand consumer perceptions and acceptance of foods and beverages to relate the significance of food for human wellbeing and health. In food companies, Sensory Food Science can be of great value to both tactical and strategic research goals. The African Network for Sensory Evaluation Research (ANSWER) aims to establish an international network of researchers, institutions and industrial partners for this purpose. Collaborations could be achieved by increasing research visibility and awareness, stimulating knowledge exchange, building capacity, alleviating isolation and sourcing funding for research carried by partners from various African countries.

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ORAL ABSTRACTS Food Legislation’s Impact on the Food Industry

The South African food law landscape

Impacts of the U.S. food safety modernization act on global food commerce

Janusz F. Luterek Hahn & Hahn, Pretoria, South Africa

Janet E. Collins President, IFT, Washington, DC, USA

The legislative and regulatory landscape in respect of food is complex with a number of government departments having a finger in the pie, some unexpectedly having a louder voice than others. Whilst the reason for this is only of historical importance, the practical implications are far reaching and a failure to unravel this ball of wool can result in both civil and criminal liability as well as losses of product and packaging materials due to the forfeiture provisions in several of the laws and rejection of products by retailers. The main actors in the legislative and regulatory landscape are, as expected, the Department of Health and the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, the former being concerned with public health and this is reflected in the Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act and the Regulations thereunder, and the latter being concerned with compositional and quality standards as reflected, amongst others, in the Agricultural Products Standards Act and the Regulations thereunder. However, whereas most would believe this to be the entire picture, the Department of Trade and Industry has started playing a bigger and more imported role with the coming into force of the Consumer Protection Act which also claims jurisdiction over labelling, trade descriptions, production methods, and product quality and safety as far as consumers are concerned. In addition, the National Regulator for Compulsory Standards (NRCS) enforces compulsory standards which relate to foodstuffs in so far as weights and measures and even food safety are concerned. Finally, SARS plays a role in defining foodstuffs in relation to excise duty.

The purity of food has been a concern of all societies since the beginning of time; food regulations largely were developed to prevent economic adulteration of food. As food delivery and production moved from farms to larger scale enterprises, some food manufacturers sold foods that contained ingredients other than those intended to be in the food for sale. Those intentional adulterations included flour as a thickener for cream; cement powder to colour and thicken milk; and animal parts not intended for human consumption added to sausages and ground meats. In the late 1800’s Federal authorities began to regulate adulterated and misbranded foods. The first uniform Federal food law was enacted in 1906; this Pure Food and Drug Act was followed by Amendments and then the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act, 1938) as new technology and more advanced methods of processing foods evolved. With regards to food, the FD&C Act was designed to ensure that foods were produced under sanitary conditions and properly labelled. The introduction of sanitation to the regulation was recognition that some foods made people sick—through processing methods, ingredients, residues and insanitary conditions, food was being ‘adulterated,’ in ways not intended. The limitations of the FD&C Act were more punitive than protective. Over time, regulations developed that were aimed at particular segments of the food chain- fortification and enrichment, pesticide residues, foreign materials. However, in order for regulatory action to be taken, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was responsible to demonstrate such adulteration or misbranding. Given limited resources, such oversight was not entirely effective- legal cases were brought against manufacturers but most agree that much mischief existed in food production. For the first time since the 1938 Act was issued, FDA has taken a preventative approach to food regulation and proposed rules to compel food industry stakeholders to be more proactive in ensuring food safety (Tarver, 2013). The proposed rules under the Food Safety Modernization Act (2013) will emphasize the food industry’s primary role in ensuring safe food and preventing foodborne illness. At present, only two proposed rules in the areas of ‘Prevention’ have been published- produce safety, and preventive controls for human food facilities. Other areas yet to be developed include Inspection and Compliance; Response; Imports; and Enhanced Partnerships. Each subject area will contain proposed regulations that impact not only foods produced and sold in the US, but also to imported foods. For example, the Preventive Controls for Human Food Facilities proposed rule applies to domestic and foreign facilities that manufacture, process, pack or hold human food; it also requires development and implementation of a written plan addressing hazard analysis and risk-based preventive controls. Forthcoming proposed rules will address foreign supplier verification, accreditation of third party auditors of foreign food facilities, and preventive controls of animal food. The developing proposed rules, when enacted will impact food safety determinations and prevention along the entire food value chainspecifically from the farm through manufacture, processing, distribution and packaging for the consumer. These impacts will be dramatic- and will affect not only domestic food producers but also those who export to the US. This talk will address the food safety and prevention elements of the Food Safety Modernization Act, as written, and the potential impact on food producers and manufacturers who export to the United States.

The impact of nutrient profiling on the food industry E. Wentzel-Viljoen, J.C. Jerling, M. Wicks Centre of Excellence for Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa The use of a nutrient profiling model (NPM) as a criterion for making nutrient and/or health claims aim to avoid a situation where claims mask the overall nutritional status of food products, which could mislead consumers when trying to make healthy food choices. The aim was to validate the NPM of Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and to provide a scientific basis to assess the eligibility of food stuffs to carry health claims in South Africa. The “Guiding principles and framework manual for the development or adaptation of nutrient profile models” of the WHO was used as the guide to validate the NPM. Five methods were applied including construct validity (using FBDG, Diet Quality Index, linear programming) and convergent validity (based on dieticians). Results of the study showed good agreement between the way the model and the FBDGs categorises food products. There was good correlation between the classification of food products by the NPM and the views of dieticians. The consumption of foods categorised as ‘being eligible to carry a health claim’ by the NPM are higher in people who have ‘healthy’ diets than people who have ‘unhealthy’ diets. A plausible theoretical ‘healthy’ diet can be constructed from only foods eligible to carry a health claim and no such plausible theoretical diet can be constructed from only foods that would be ineligible to carry a claim. The quality of the diet can be improved when foods not eligible to carry a health claim are replaced by foods that would be eligible to carry a health claim. The results of all the validation studies suggested that the FSANZ NPM is a valid instrument for use in the South African food and nutrition environment. Our understanding is that the NPM will be used as part of legislation regarding nutrient and/or health claims in the future. The Food Industry should use this tool to adapt the composition of current products and in the development of new food products if they want to make any nutrient and/or health claim on the food in future.

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ORAL ABSTRACTS

Reducing salt in food products: what are the food safety issues?

study aimed to determine South African (SA) metropolitan consumers’ opinions and beliefs about the food-health link, as well as their opinions and use of health information on food labels. A cross-sectional study using fieldworker-administered questionnaires was done. Using stratified randomised sampling, 1 997 respondents were recruited. The data were weighted to represent the metropolitan SA adult population (N=10 695 000). Practically significantly more (d=0.92 to 1.68) respondents believed there is a food-health link and that health messages on food labels are supported by scientific research. Respondents’ opinions on health information on food labels were mostly positive, as confirmed by the average opinions for the different ethnic groups. The results identified a lack of interest, time and price concerns, and habitual purchasing as reasons for not reading food labels. Health-concerned respondents considered labels as important health information sources. Consumer education on the food-health link and the use of health information on food labels should address the deficiencies identified through the opinions and use of food labels by these respondents. Representative results of SA metropolitan consumers in this study are significant since third world countries are burdened by various diseases and former studies only used limited-sized non-probability samples. As opinions and beliefs could be changed easily to guide or motivate behaviour this study might contribute to improve food choice behaviour through food label education. Food industry should strive towards the provision of more detailed and informative health information that complies with regulations to assist consumers in the need to make healthier food choices.

Elna M. Buys University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa

Global harmonization initiative

Challenges associated with multiple agency food control system in South Africa B.R. Ntshabele, M. Mutengwe Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Gauteng, South Africa South Africa’s food control system is a multiple agency type system with food control responsibilities delegated to different governments departments. Legislation apportions food control responsibilities between several government departments such as the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF), Department of Health (DoH) and the Department of Trade and Industry (the dti). In addition, provincial and certain local authorities are also involved in enforcing certain aspects of the food control system. As such, the South Africa food control system is characterized by fragmentation of legislation, structure and functions resulting in operational challenges. The challenges include lack of coordination, duplication, inaction, omission and confusion over jurisdiction of functions within and between involved governments departments. This paper reviews the legislative mandates and established coordination mechanisms to highlight and discuss the challenges regarding multiple agency food control. Various proposals to overcome the problem associated with fragmentation of food control are made.

Consumers have become more health conscious and there has been a drive towards reducing the sodium intake in their diets. Excessive sodium intake has been linked to the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The average sodium intake in the modern western diet is excessive, being two to three times more than the recommended dietary intake. All foods will contain microorganisms which will either cause food spoilage or illness in consumers due to presence of the microorganisms themselves or due to toxins produced in the food. Food scientists develop food formulations which aim to prevent the growth of undesirable microorganisms during the shelflife of the food. Salt reduces the water activity of the food so that it is unavailable for microorganisms to use. If the salt level of a product is reduced then the shelf-life of that product is also likely to be reduced as it affects the antimicrobial mechanism. If the shelf-life needs to remain the same then levels of the other factors will have to be increased to replace the antimicrobial effect of the reduced salt. The microbiological food safety and quality implications of NaCl reduction in foods has received little recent attention both in peer-reviewed literature, media and by regulators relative to that devoted to potentially beneficial cardiovascular health impacts. Reduction of NaCl in processed foods may not only enable enhanced pathogen growth and survival, it may also permit more accelerated spoilage of certain foods causing a negative economic impact to producers, distributors, retailers, and consumers. Enhanced pathogen growth and survival may also permit more accelerated spoilage of certain foods causing a negative economic impact to producers, distributors, retailers and consumers. Food labels as source of health information: what consumers think? Daleen van der Merwe1, Magdalena Bosman1, Susanna Ellis2, Johann C Jerling3, Jane Badham3 1 School for Physiology, Nutrition and Consumer Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa, 2Statistics and Operational Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa, 3Centre of Excellence in Nutrition, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa Food labels are intended to serve as a valuable source of health information to consumers. Furthermore, the role of food labels in communicating the globally recognised link between diet and health needs to consumers to facilitate healthy food choices is of utmost importance. Thus this

Pieter van Twisk Consultant, Pretoria, South Africa The Global Harmonization Initiative (GHI) was founded in 2004 as a joint activity of the International Division of the US-based Institute of Food Technologists and the European Federation of Food Science and Technology. The GHI is a network of scientific organizations and individual scientists, in their personal capacity, working together to promote harmonization of global regulations and legislation. The presentation will cover aspects like the GHI Mission, Organizational Structure, Global Framework, Global Impact, Supporting Organizations and Recent Accomplishments.

Food Safety Validation of a novel bacteriological screening test for antimicrobial residues in eggs Alex Ray Jambalang1,2, Shahnn Bisschop3, Jacqueline Picard4 Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Phytomedicine Programme, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, 2 Salmonella Research Laboratory of the National Veterinary Research Institute in Vom, Nigeria, Vom, Nigeria, 3Department of Production Animal Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, 4Department of Veterinary Tropical Disease Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa

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Screening of antimicrobial residues in eggs needs special attention because of the high level of naturally occurring inhibitors contained in eggs which often lead to false positive results. It was discovered that heating egg samples at 80 °C for 10 minutes inactivated the inhibitors. A new bacteriological screening test for antimicrobial residues in eggs, developed during this study, contains viable spores of Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 12980, which are sensitive to antimicrobial residues including beta-lactams, tetracycline’s and macrolides. This test method was validated against the Kundrat micro-screening four-plate test and Premi®Test standard reference methods. In vitro test showed that florfenicol and norfloxacin out of the eighteen antimicrobials tested have no established MRL or published Premi®Test values, therefore, their minimum detection concentrations and sensitivity could not be compared to that obtained by the new test. Several performance criteria

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ORAL ABSTRACTS and minimum detection concentrations were estimated and discussed. Some agreements and differences were found between the new and the reference tests with the new test being more sensitive to beta-lactams, tetracyclines and macrolides than the Kundrat and Premi®Test on the average. The new test method was poorer in detecting sulfadiazine and sulphamethoxyazole than Premi®Test. A preliminary trial was then conducted on 36 hens that were given therapeutic oral doses of overthe-counter antimicrobials daily for seven days with one of eleven antimicrobials based on the manufacturer’s recommendations. Eggs were collected from the hens during and after treatment and tested for the presence or absence of antimicrobial residues The new screening test can thus be recommended for routine screening of antimicrobial residues in eggs. A two seasonal survey conducted to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial residues in commercial chicken eggs in Tshwane area of Gauteng Province, South Africa using the new test method indicated that 7.5% of the samples tested positive. Statistical results of the survey showed that cheaper eggs 12.1%, certain egg brands, 16.2% - 50%, and eggs from informal sales outlets 18.9%, (informal/roadside shops) had high levels of antimicrobial residues in them compared to eggs obtained from big chain supermarkets 1.2%. The transfer potential of extended spectrum β-lactamase determinants in pathogenic and commensal E. coli between irrigation water and lettuce Patrick Njage, Elna Buys University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa The impact of E. coli on morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs has not been considerable in the past due to effective antibiotic therapy. This situation is rapidly changing with increase in the acquisition of antimicrobial resistance by E. coli strains. Extended-spectrum or thirdgeneration cephalosporins were designed to overcome this. However, E. coli and some other members of Enterobacteriaceae are able to produce mutant forms of the “older” β -lactamases referred to as extendedspectrum β –lactamases (ESBLs) which are capable of hydrolyzing the new-generation cephalosporins and aztreonam. E. coli is therefore amongst the six drug-resistant microbes to which new therapies are urgently needed. Genes may be acquired by conjugation, transformation, or transduction. Little attention has been given to transfer of resistance genes through water and vegetables though evidence has shown that it might be an important pathway of gene transfer to human pathogenic and commensal strains given that many vegetables are consumed raw. E. coli isolated over ten months from two irrigation water sources and lettuce were studied for phenotypic and genotypic resistance to ESBLs. Their clonal relatedness, possible extraintestinal virulence genes and molecular compatibility of ESBL plasmids to translocation was also studied. The in vitro transfer frequency of ESBLs coding genes between pathogenic and commensal E. coli from irrigation water and lettuce was also studied. This information is an important pre-requisite to quantification of the risk posed to humans from the transfer of ESBL determinants among pathogenic and commensal E. coli between irrigation water and lettuce. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in grilled meat dishes Selamat Jinap1, Farhadian Afsaneh1,2 1 Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, 2Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia Meat and meat products may be a source of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that vary according to cooking methods, temperature duration and type of meat. Dietary exposure to PAHs is associated with risk of human cancers. In this study tandem solid-phase extraction, using Extrelut diatomaceous earth, PRS and silica columns, was developed and HPLC with fluorescence detector was used for the determination of PAHs. The developed method had a good correlation coefficients, recoveries and precision. The validated method was then applied on nine types of popular grilled meat dishes. The highest concentration of total of three PAHs was found in charcoal grilled beef, followed by chicken and fish. When the charcoal, gas and oven grilling

were compared, the highest concentration of PAHs was found in charcoal grilled, followed by gas grilled and oven grilled dishes. Seven marinade treatments at four time intervals (0 - 12 h.) were then applied before charcoal grilling. The study showed the highest reduction of PAHs was through the addition of lemon juice to basic marinade followed by basicoil-lemon, commercial-tamarind and basic-oil-tamarind. BaP generation was used as a marker for the PAHs family in grilled meat to study the effect of preheating methods (steam and microwave) before charcoal grilling to reduce PAHs. The results showed PAHs reduction of 46-100% for steam and 34-100% for microwave pre-treatments. To further reduce PAHs, aluminum foil and banana leaf were used to wrap the samples during charcoal grilling. The PAHs reduction with aluminum foil was 39 -100%, and 32-100% for banana leaf. The results of sensory evaluation confirmed that the precooking, wrapping and acidic marinating treatments reduction were acceptable by the panellists. Exposure assessment of food additives with particular emphasis on flavourings and colourants Mike Knowles KIROS sprl, Brussels, Belgium Exposure assessment of chemicals in food is a critical step in risk assessment enabling risk characterisation, since only intakes of toxicologically significant amounts can lead to adverse health effects, even for relatively toxic substances. For chemical in foods there are three key determinants: the concentration in the food as eaten, including processing effects; consumption patterns of the foods containing the substance, including high consumers; integration of this data to ensure that all susceptible sub-groups of the population are addressed. All of these steps have limitations which lead to uncertainties which in turn need to be included in estimations by various methods. For food additives, to use scarce resources wisely, a tiered approach is usually implemented by risk assessors. A screening method using conservative consumption data and maximum use levels in all foods allowed to contain the additive is used and if this produces intakes below any safety level , e.g. ADI , then no further refined assessment is required . If this is not the case then further refined estimates are made and these will be discussed. The increasing use of probabilistic modelling, particularly FACET and the recent ILSI Europe ‘Guidea’ initiative, will be discussed.

Young Scientists Research Section How to increase your chances of getting published in international research journals Dave Howard Marketing and Online Content Manager, IFIS, Shinfield, Reading, UK This session will discuss how to increase your chances of getting published in international research journals, and provide essential insight into publishing strategies and behind the scenes advice on how to enhance your publishing profile. The presentation will be of value to scientists and researchers in the area of food science, technology and nutrition writing scientific papers and wanting to get published. A key component of initiating any research project is a full understanding of the existing landscape of scientific research, to ensure the research you produce is authoritative and unique and adds value to the body of knowledge. The volume of literature has increased exponentially in recent years covering not only journal articles, but also books, standards, patents, reviews, conference proceedings and informative summaries. This talk will discuss methods to locate scientific research in food science and technology.

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ORAL ABSTRACTS Improvement in the functional properties of kafirin protein microstructures for use as bioplastic films and for microencapsulation Joseph Anyango, Janet Taylor, John Taylor University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa We have developed a process to produce various types of microstructures including vacuolated microspheres from kafirin, the very inert sorghum grain prolamin storage protein. These inert vacuolated microparticles have shown potential for encapsulation of antioxidants and for preparation of high quality bioplastic films. However, the microstructure functional properties need to be improved to exploit their potential as delivery devices for bioactives. This would enable control and manipulation of properties of these bioactives close to molecular level. The microstructures must protect the bioactives from degradation before reaching target point of release. Heat and glutaraldehyde crosslinking treatments were investigated to modify the kafirin microparticles properties. Though incompatible with food, glutaraldehyde was used to test the crosslinking principle. Both treatments increased microparticle average diameter to about 20 µm, probably due to cross-linking of kafirin proteins. Heat treatment enlarged the vacuoles within the microparticles, probably due to air expansion within the microparticles, as the vacuoles are probably air bubble footprints. Thin (<50 μm) glutaraldehyde-treated microparticle films were found to maintain their integrity and flexibility in water, despite being several magnitudes thinner than other bioplastics reported in other studies. This indicates their potential as bioplastic films/coatings for use in aqueous environments. The large kafirin microparticles obtained with the crosslinking treatments could have application for microencapsulation of bioactives such as nutraceuticals, probiotics and flavours. Kafirin microparticle films could be applied as films/coatings for food under humid conditions, such as interleaving for pizzas and fruit salads. Some functional properties of conventionally dried unripe noncommercial banana flour Tonna Anyasi1, Afam Jideani1, Ainamensa Mchau2 Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Agriculture, University of Venda, Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province, South Africa, 2 Department of Horticultural Sciences, School of Agriculture, University of Venda, Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province, South Africa

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The underutilization of unripe banana due to lack of information on its use, has resulted generally in the consumption and processing of banana only when ripe. Continuous post-harvest loss of bananas is therefore recorded especially among farmers with low storage capacity. Unripe non-commercial banana cultivars (NBC) harvested in Limpopo province were processed into banana flour using conventional oven drying method at a temperature of 70°C for 12 hours. Fruits were pre-treated with ascorbic acid (AA), citric acid (CA) and lactic acid (LA) which are GRAS chemicals with treatment done at varying concentrations of 10%, 15%, and 20% w/v respectively. The L*, hue (a*) and chroma (b*) values for banana flour obtained from oven dried NBC were also determined. Pre-treatment with GRAS analytical grade acids and conventional drying showed varying effects on the colour and functional properties of banana flour. Unripe NBC flour exhibited significant difference (p < 0.05) in their water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, pasting property, swelling power and solubility index. NBC flour with AA pre-treatment had more yellowness and the highest positive values of a* and b* in all concentrations while the CA and LA pre-treated oven dried flour showed more whiteness and higher positive values for L* in all treatment at varying concentrations. These results are useful indices to determining alternative and non-conventional value-added uses of flour from NBC in food processing.

Cyclopia genistoides (honeybush): development and validation of a high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the quantitative analysis of extracts Theresa Beelders1, Dalene de Beer2, Elizabeth Joubert2 1 Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 2Agricultural Research Council (ARC) of South Africa, Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Post-harvest and Wine Technology Division, Stellenbosch, South Africa The indigenous fynbos species, Cyclopia, has a long history of use as herbal tea, but hot water extracts recently found application in the food industry. The functional ingredient status of extracts, characterised by a naturally sweet taste and aroma, is boosted by its biological properties ranging from antioxidant to anti-diabetic and cholesterol-lowering effects. The biological properties of Cyclopia extracts may partially be ascribed to its phenolic composition, comprising monomeric polyphenols from subclasses such as xanthones, flavanones and flavones, amongst others. Standardisation of extracts in terms of selected marker compounds and/or other parameters is required for the production of high quality products. The C-glycosyl xanthone, mangiferin, is currently targeted for extract standardisation purposes. Cyclopia genistoides is a commercially important species renowned for high levels of this biologically active compound, which is also its major phenolic constituent. Extracts prepared from this species can thus be used to manufacture extracts containing high levels of mangiferin for a specific market, or used to enrich the mangiferin content of other Cyclopia extracts to meet specifications. In light of the above, an HPLC method with diode-array detection was developed to quantify the xanthones and other major polyphenols present in hot water extracts prepared from unfermented and fermented C. genistoides plant material. For method development, different stationary phases, mobile phases and column temperatures were evaluated and gradient parameters optimised. The method was successfully validated in terms of specificity, linearity and range, precision, as well as analyte stability. Mass spectrometric detection was used for to identify the phenolic compounds in extracts. The new method enabled accurate quantification of the major constituents and also provided separation of various minor phenolic compounds, making it suitable for fingerprint analysis – the next level of quality control used in extract production. Effect of amaranth addition on physical quality and antioxidant activity of extruded provitamin-A biofortified maize snacks Daniso Beswa1,2, Muthulisi Siwela1, Eric O Amonsou3, Nomusa R Dlamini4, John Derera1 1 University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, 2University of Venda, Thohoyandou, South Africa, 3Durban University of Technology, Durban, South Africa, 4Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa Maize-based extruded products are popular world-wide. Provitamin A- biofortified maize snacks with added leafy vegetables may have a potential as nutritious and health-promoting products, especially for addressing vitamin A deficiency, which is prevalent in developing countries. Powder of the leafy vegetable Amaranth, which is indigenous in Southern Africa, was added at concentrations of 0%, 1% and 3% (w/w) to flour of each of four experimental hybrids of provitamin A- biofortified maize, PVAH79-100, PVAH1-26, PVAH27-49 and PVAH50-75, and the flours were then extruded into snacks. A snack made with a biofortified maize hybrid, without Amaranth, was used as a reference. The snacks were analysed for their physical properties by standard methods, and their phenolic content and antioxidant activity were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu and TEAC methods, respectively. When compared with the reference, the addition of Amaranth generally had positive effects on the physical and potential health-promoting properties of the snacks. Increasing the concentration of Amaranth resulted in an increase in the water absorption index (WAI), bulk density (BD) and water solubility index (WSI) of the snacks by 37%, 4% and 47%, respectively, whilst their expansion ratio (ER) decreased by 7%. The hardness of the snacks increased by 93% as Amaranth was increased, which indicated the

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ORAL ABSTRACTS need to tenderize the snacks. As Amaranth was increased, the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the snacks increased from 51 to 99 mg gallic acid equiv./g and 370 to 400 mg of Trolox equiv./g, respectively. Provitamin A-biofortified maize with added Amaranth has a potential for use in nutritious and healthy extruded snacks. There are hardly any studies reported on how best provitamin A maize can be processed with complementary plant foods, which is common in Southern Africa, thus our study seems a baseline. Which commonly used in vivo and in vitro assays are best suited to measure the effect of phytate reduction on the iron and zinc availability in staple grains? – The case of sorghum Johanita Kruger1, John Taylor1, Bo Lönnerdal2, André Oelofse1 University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, 2University of California, Davis, California, USA

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Improved iron and zinc availability from sorghum, a commonly consumed staple in Africa, will benefit many malnourished communities in rural Sub-Saharan Africa burdened with high prevalence of iron and zinc deficiencies. Although both in vivo and in vitro assays have been used to obtain mineral bioavailability estimates, it is likely that no single assay is perfect for all elements and model systems. Our research compared the effect of genetic phytate reduction in sorghum on iron and zinc bioaccessibility and uptake measured by in vitro dialysability and Caco-2 cell uptake assays to that of iron and zinc absorption measured by a suckling rat pup model. Two sets of GM low phytate non-tannin (40-50% and 80-90% reductions), a set of tannin-containing sorghums (30-40% reductions), and their respective null controls were processed into thick unfermented and fermented porridges. Treatments that reduced the sorghum phytate content by 70% and/ or below 200 mg/100 g whole grain flour significantly increased iron and zinc availability as measured by some or all of the assays. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the mineral availability, phytate and mineral content data indicated that the first factor, phytate content, contributed to 44% of the variation in the data, whereas factor 2, which separated the samples according to differences in mineral (calcium and zinc) contents, contributed to 31% of the variation in the data. The Caco-2 cell method, but not the dialysability assay, proved useful in estimating zinc absorption. The measured increase in iron availability differed between the methods, possibly due to the effect of varying mineral (Ca, Fe, Zn, P) contents of the sorghums. While this effect was most prominent in the iron uptake results, the data obtained from the dialysability assay was more closely related to that from the suckling rat pup model and seems to be better suited to measure the effect of phytate reduction on the iron availability in sorghum. Challenges of low FAN in sorghum lager beer brewing and possible solutions Bhekisisa Dlamini, Elna M. Buys, John Taylor University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa Production of sufficient free amino nitrogen (FAN) for a rapid and complete fermentation still remains a challenge when brewing with sorghum. Brewing with high protein digestibility sorghums has been shown not to substantially improve FAN production. Improvements in FAN production have, however, been reported when potassium metabisulphite (KMS) is added in the sorghum grain mashing system. In this study, malted and unmalted white Type II tannin (WTT) sorghum and white-tan plant (WTP) sorghum grain, which are used for making sorghum lager beer in different parts of Africa, were investigated for FAN production. The effect of mashing with a commercial proteolytic (CP) enzyme, as well as the effect of adding KMS at different concentrations on FAN production were also studied. Malted sorghum produced substantially higher FAN levels than unmalted grain. The addition of the enzyme further increased FAN production with both malted and unmalted sorghum. Free amino nitrogen production from WTP grain was significantly (p<0.05) higher, by approx. 35%, than

that of WTT grain when mashed with the CP enzyme. A proportionally higher increase (above 40%) in FAN was observed with unmalted sorghum grain than malt when treated with the enzyme. The addition of KMS at a high concentration significantly improved FAN production by approx. 19% to 56 mg/100 g sorghum, in total, when used in combination with the CP enzyme. These results indicate that mashing with malted sorghum produces more FAN than mashing with unmalted sorghum. However, the use of the exogenous CP enzyme on malted sorghum has a lesser effect than on unmalted sorghum. This could possibly be due to the malting process which activates endogenous enzymes that hydrolyses some of the proteins. Mashing with unmalted WTT sorghum produces low FAN than WTP, possible due to the presence of tannins. The addition of KMS at a higher concentration improves FAN production probably due to the reduction of the intermolecular disulphide bonds in the kafirin protein. Therefore, FAN production from sorghum grain can be improved by using malted WTP grain and addition of KMS during mashing. Influence of storage conditions on organic acid profiles from cottage cheese Kelepile Modise, Karabo Shale, Edmore Kativu, Willem Groenoweld Central University of Technology, Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa Cottage cheese is a soft mild flavoured cheese that is prone to contamination and must be kept in low temperatures to maintain its shelf life. (Nelson and Barbano, 2005). Organic acids within cottage cheese play a major role in influencing the organoleptic properties as well as stabilization of the microbial culture. Analysis of these organic acids profiles is vital in determining the spoilage of cottage cheese and its shelf life. (Schmidt and Bouma, 1992). In this study, Ion Exchange High Performance Liquid Chromatography was used to identify and quantify the presence of different types organic acids within cottage cheese detected at 210 and 290 ηm. Samples of cottage cheese were collected and stored at three different conditions, e.g. room temperature, 4 °C and fresh samples from the factory. Changes in organic acid concentration and types were noted. The samples were analysed for six consecutive weeks. Cottage cheeses analysed showed that they contain a number of organic acids. A total of 11 peaks could clearly be seen on the samples chromatograms. Organic acids namely acetic, citric, oxalic and uric acids were confirmed to be present. Refrigeration of cottage cheese proved to be an effective way of preserving them since it showed chromatographic profiles that are very similar to those of cottage cheese fresh from the factory. Generally cottage cheese collected fresh from the factory and those stored in the refrigerator exhibited low organic acid content. Major organic acids identified were oxalic acid, lactic acid, citric acid and acetic acid. Samples fresh from the factory recorded a highest concentration of oxalic acid and lactic acid of 0.054 and 0.52 mg/ml respectively while refrigerated samples recorded a highest concentration of oxalic and lactic acid of 0.056 and 0.057 mg/ml respectively. Cottage cheese showed that their organic acid profiles and concentration remained unaffected for at least two weeks. For the first two weeks the highest organic acid recorded was that of lactic acid with a concentration of 0.058 mg/ ml while the rest of the organic acid remained unchanged at least six weeks. However lactic acid dramatically increased to concentration of 0.12mg/ml in the 3rd week of the experiment. The results found in this investigation indicate that cottage cheese investigated can be effectively be stored at temperatures below 4°C and remained unaltered. Cottage cheese under study’s organic acid profile remain unaltered for the first two weeks remained relatively stable and thereafter investigated cottage cheese recorded a significant increase on lactic acid concentration. All the other organic acid remained relatively stable for the six weeks which may indicate that only lactic acid producing bacteria was present and other microbes were not active.

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ORAL ABSTRACTS The effect of conjugated linoleic acid addition on the microbial and lipid stability of salami MacDonald Cluff, Celia Hugo, Carina Bothma, Arno Hugo The University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa Lean pork and pork backfat procured fresh from a local butchery was utilized in the manufacturing of four distinct groups of novel salami. The aim of this study was to increase the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of salami to three different percentages (25%, 50% and 100%) of the Recommended Dietary Allowance for conjugated linoleic acid per 28 g portion of salami. This was accomplished through the direct addition of CLA (Tonalin® TG 80) in a pre-emulsified form with proportional decreases in the normally used pork BF content of the salamis. The salamis from these three treatment groups were then compared to a 100% pork backfat control group for any possible effects on the microbial, physical, and lipid stability parameters as well as fatty acid composition and fatty acid ratios. Microbial and sensory parameters were largely unaffected with varying effects on the physical and lipid stability parameters. Major effects on the fatty acid composition and fatty acid ratios of the salamis were observed. The partial replacement of pork backfat and direct addition of CLA to salami proved to be an effective method of increasing CLA levels in salami in an attempt to improve the health aspects of salami to the point where it could be regarded as a functional food. Influence of beta-agonist (zilpaterol) and age on tenderness of beef loin and silverside muscles Ennet Moholisa1, Phillip Strydom1, Arno Hugo2, Michelle Hope-Jones1 1 Animal Production Institute, Agricultural Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa, 2University of Free-State, Bloemfontein, South Africa South African beef is classified according to the age of the animal as determined by dentition. Since the implementation of this system in 1994, much have changed that could affect quality within age classes and this could result in huge variation in product quality. For this reason it is difficult to describe or predict product quality such as tenderness based on a single factor like age. Beta-agonists are largely used in feedlot cattle in South Africa and may have negative effect on meat tenderness. Tenderness of the M. longissimus dorsi (LD) and M. biceps femoris (BF) muscles of three different age groups according to South African beef carcass classification system was evaluated. Forty A-age weaner Bonsmara steers from feedlot, twenty AB-age and twenty B-age grass fed Bonsmara steers were used. Twenty A-age group animals were supplemented with beta-agonist (zilpaterol), the other twenty were used as a control group. Parameters measured included collagen properties, myofibrillar fragmentation lengths (MFLs) and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). Although not statistically significant, collagen content increased with increasing animal age for BF while the opposite was observed with LD. Collagen solubility decreased with increasing animal age. Zilpaterol treatment reduced total collagen and increased collagen solubility. MFLs and WBSF values significantly increased with increasing animal age in a 3 day aging period. Zilpaterol had less effect on BF when compared to LD in parameters measured except for MFL. Zilpaterol supplementation caused variation in tenderness of the LD within the younger age group, and did not have the same effect on high connective tissue cuts. Animal age may play a dominant role in WBSF in these cuts. Therefore, if age classification is intended to distinguish between classes of tenderness based on number of incisors, then the South African Beef Carcass classification will fail to distinguish between certain cuts among A age carcasses if zilpaterol is used. Phylogenetic analysis and possible practical applications of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus isolates Richard Nyanzi, Piet Jooste, Kobus Eloff, Susan Wright Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa In this study the multilocus locus sequence analysis (MLSA) technique was used to differentiate a range of lactobacillus species and strains

isolated from probiotic pharmaceutical supplements and food products. The primary aim was to precisely identify and classify species and strains prior to screening for anti-microbial activities, probiotic characteristics and the ability of such isolates to bind or sequester mycotoxins. The 16S rRNA gene and protein-coding genes in the genomic DNA from pure isolates of Lactobacillus species were amplified in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using carefully selected oligonucleotide pairs. Gel agarose electrophoresis was used to separate the PCR amplicons using Bio-Rad’s Gel DocTM XR+ Imaging system transilluminator. The PCR amplicons were sequenced using the Genetic analyser ABI PRISMTM 3100. MEGA 5.04 software was used in the phylogenetic analysis and SplitTree4 software enabled split decomposition analysis. Compared to 16S rDNA sequences, the use of selected protein-coding gene sequences combined with phylogenetic analysis and concatenation provided a substantial improvement in discriminatory power between closely related isolates. The MLSA enabled the precise identification of isolates from pharmaceutical probiotic supplements and food products. The potential practical application of these findings in terms of antimicrobial activity and the sequestration of mycotoxins will be discussed. Shelf-life estimation of low fat UHT milk Melanie Richards, Elna, M Buys, Henriëtte, L De Kock University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa Real time shelf-life determination of shelf stable products like UHT milk can be very time consuming and expensive and critical descriptors used to determine the end of shelf life can be difficult to identify. The multivariate accelerated shelf life test (MASLT) (Pedro and Ferreira, 2006) employs all sensory attributes that show change over time and was applied to data obtained from a trained panel (n=11) that evaluated 19 sensory attributes of low fat UHT milk samples stored at 25°C, 35°C and 45°C over a six and a half month time period. The cut-off point that identify the end of shelf life was obtained by survival analysis based on consumers’ acceptance or rejection of samples stored for different times. Storage at 35°C and 45°C reduced the shelf life by a factor of approximately 2 for every 10°C increase in storage temperature. In future, changes in sensory attributes that correlate well with the UHT milk MASLT model can be used as predictors for end of shelf life. For this purpose the milk can be stored at accelerated temperatures and results can be converted to actual market condition. Drying kinetics of some selected fruits Adewale O Omolola1, Afam I O Jideani1, Patrick F Kapilla2 1 Dept of Food Science and Technology, University of Venda, Thohoyandou, South Africa, 2Dept of Agricultural and Rural Engineering, University of Venda, Thohoyandou, South Africa Drying characteristics of food materials and drying/simulation models are needed in the design, construction and operation of drying equipment. The drying kinetics (DE) of selected fruits, namely banana (Musa species), prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica), and water chestnut (Trapa natans), are considered along with research studies on the fruits. Considerations include the description, food uses and nutritional qualities of the fruits; drying models by scientists for fitting or expressing drying curves such as Page, Henderson, Modified Henderson, Logarithmic, Wang and Singh, Diffusion, Verma, Two term, Two term exponential, Midilli et al., Modified page equation and Newton; and statistical parameters normally used in selecting the best model expressing different drying curves and determining the consistency of the various models in drying operation. Also highlighted are the applicable statistical parameters: coefficient of determination R2, reduced chi square value (x2), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Bias Error (MBE), and t-stat used in DE. The highest values of R2 and the lowest values of x2, RMSE, MBE and t-values determine or express the best fit. The understanding of drying kinetics in food processing is important in relation to abundant solar radiation under tropical condition, as well as other sources of energy, for application in processing diverse fruits and vegetables.

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ORAL ABSTRACTS Amylose-lipid complex occurrence in tef & maize starch biphasic pastes Obiro Cuthbert Wokadala1, Suprakas Sinha Ray2, Mohammad Naushad Emmambux1 1 Department of Food Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa, 2DST/CSIR Nanotechnology Innovation Centre, National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa The occurrence of amylose-lipid complexes in maize and tef starch biphasic pastes was assessed. Starch biphasic pastes refer to peak viscosity pastes that occur at short (<15 min) and prolonged (< 40 min) wet-heat processing times in a rapid visco-analyser (RVA). Maize and tef starches were pasted for 11.5 and 130 min with or without added stearic acid followed by alpha-amylase hydrolysis in an RVA. X-ray diffraction analysis of pastes and residues after hydrolysis showed crystalline V-amylose diffraction patterns for the starches pasted for a prolonged time with added stearic acid while less distinct V-amylose patterns with non-complexed stearic acid peaks were observed with a short pasting time. Differential scanning calorimetry of pastes before and residues after paste hydrolysis showed that Type I amylose-lipid complexes were formed after pasting for the short duration with added stearic acid, while Type II complexes are formed after pasting for the prolonged time. The present research provides evidence that amylose-lipid complexes play an important role in starch biphasic pasting. These results may facilitate utilization of the relatively high viscosity of the second biphasic paste that occurs after prolonged pasting through the application of lower starch concentrations to improve consistency and viscosity in foods.

ICSU Out of Africa Session Nigeria: the gap between the food industry and the essential needs of the people Ronald Olusola Olawale Nigerian Institute of Food Science and Technology (NIFST), Lagos, Nigeria Nigeria, by virtue of its population of over 160 million people is the largest country in Africa. Feeding such a large population poses a big challenge. The food industry in Nigeria has struggled to grow despite the huge opportunity that Nigeria represents. The players in the industry can be grouped into 3 categories with different focus areas. The multinational companies are basically into drinks (alcoholic and non-alcoholic), food drinks, baby food, seasoning, etc. The local majors are into wheat flour milling, wheat flour based products, vegetable oil production, snack foods (e.g. biscuits), and so on, while small scale producers focus on bread, pastries, confectioneries, snacks, staple foods and others. The fact remains that none of the multi-nationals truly addresses the staple foods requirement of the country. They have simply introduced to Nigeria, food concepts from other regions of the world and, through the power of marketing and distribution make them acceptable to the people. For example, soft drinks and wheat flour based products (noodles, spaghetti, semolina and other pasta products) are modern day additions to the dining table. Durum Wheat does not grow well in Nigeriaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s tropical climate, despite the efforts so far made and the money spent on research. Local food staples such as cassava, yam tuber, plantain, etc. and other food preparations derived from them have not attracted the attention of the big players in the country. In the absence of large scale production operation for the staples, year round availability at affordable prices remains a mirage. However, recent focus on cassava by all key stake holders with the government leading from the front is very encouraging. The farm to industry/table approach is yielding positive results. Wheat flour produced in Nigeria must contain 20% cassava flour. This opens up a ready market for harvested cassava and encourages more farmers to go into cassava farming. As the scale gets bigger, so will the opportunity for innovation, including looking for ways to improve on the nutrient density and quality of cassava based products. This will in turn help to improve on the nutritional status of Nigerians. The food industry has to tap into these opportunities and take the lead. Doing this will help address some of the key challenges the country is facing including unemployment, net food shortage and good nutrition.

Development and marketing of a sugar-free chocolate for the West-African market: an example of successful industry-academia collaboration Esther Sakyi-Dawson1, Frank Asante2, Ida Kuekey-Ennuson2 1 Dept. of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana, 2 Cocoa Processing Company, Tema, Ghana Cocoa has traditionally been the most important export commodity for Ghana and. Ghanaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cocoa beans are noted for their high quality. Ghana is one of the few countries within the African continent that has a growing cocoa processing industry. To further enhance value addition, processing into semi-finished products and chocolate needs to be expanded. Recognizing the need for expansion of their market by bringing new chocolate products onto the market the Cocoa Processing Company took advantage of the African Knowledge Transfer Partnership programme to partner with food scientists in the University of Ghana to achieve their aim. The goal of the project was to improve on competitiveness and productivity of the company and to increase its share of the confectionery market in Ghana and West Africa. To achieve this scientific knowledge, technology and skills were to be maximized to bring a new product onto the market whilst using an approach that brought mutual benefit for the partners involved. The academic partners gained handson experience by their engagement in a product development effort from concept generation through product formulation to product launch whilst the industry partners benefitted from theoretical insights in terms of product formulation matrices, and sensory techniques which enabled the company to meet its target. This presentation will provide an overview of the pathways that lead to a successful collaboration and the lessons learnt. From soil elements to food nutrients: does soil health affect food quality? Joyce Kinabo Dept of Food Science and Technology, Sokoine University, Tanzania All forms of life are directly dependent on plants for food. Plant foods contain almost all of the minerals and organic nutrients (carbohydrate, protein, fat and vitamins) established as essential for human nutrition, as well as a number of unique organic phytochemicals that have been linked to the promotion of good health. Plants extract elements from the soil to make the nutrients contained in the grains, tubers, roots, vegetables and fruits for food. Nutrition of people living in Africa depends largely on the nutrients derived from plants and to a limited extent from animal foods. All the foods we eat, either from plant or animal origin are produced using the elements present in the soil and through photosynthesis. Nutrients contained in the foods depend on the quantity and chemical forms of the elements present in the soil and on the extent to which plants are able to extract or mine these nutrients from the top soil. Therefore, good quality food depends on soil health (Soil type, physical characteristics and soil pH) and agricultural practices. A study conducted to elucidate some of the processes involved in nutrient uptake and nutrients in vegetables revealed that soil properties (structure, pH and moisture) have significant influence on nutrient uptake by vegetables and content in the vegetables. In addition, differences in nutrient uptake were observed to vary with the type of crop grown in the different types of soils. Amaranth had a higher capacity to take up calcium, zinc and iron compared to other types of vegetables such as sweet potato leaves and Chinese cabbage. Therefore, the nutrient quality of foods depends on what is contained in the soil and the ability of plants to draw up the elements from the soil. However, factors such as processing and preparation may also contribute to nutrient quality of the food that is finally consumed by human beings. It is important that agriculturalists, food scientists and nutritionists work together to ensure wholesomeness on the foods that we consume.

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ORAL ABSTRACTS Wednesday, 9 October 2013

Innovation in food and beverage packaging Morongwa Themba, Anee Sieberhagen Nampak R&D, Cape Town, South Africa

Plenary Lectures Food as a micronanosystem and the interaction with the body Pingfan Rao, Jianwu Zhou, Lijing Ke CAS.SIBS - Zhejiang Gongshang University Joint Food and Nutrition Research Center, Hangzhou, China When food ingredients undergoes processing, some composition interact with each other to generate new attributes as in Maillard reaction, while some others can rid themselves of the confinement of the original structures and migrate from the solid phase to the solution phase with the disruption of cellular structures. The former reaction has been extensively investigated, but the latter remains almost unknown. Our recent works indicate that the latter is the physiochemical reaction which endows food with some of its most important biological functions. It is fascinating to find that once in the liquid phase, some of the liberated molecules assemble into new structures from nano to micro scale with outstanding excellent physiochemical and biological properties. With this insight, even cooking is no more a low-tech or notech chore but a process for natural nanoparticle preparation, and food is a micronanosystem most closely related to the wellness human being. The formation of nanoparticle during processing will be illustrated with our work on nanoparticles from Alisma orientalis, a medicinal herb. Meanwhile, by a method of visualization of intracellular superoxide distribution in living rats, the hepatic superoxide was found to be discharged into the intestine, the most important site for food and body interaction, through the connection of the bile duct. With the intestine involved in the storage and disposal of superoxide as the visceral organâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s metabolic waste, the interaction of food nanoparticles with the body can be expected to be elucidated to be much more significant than imagined in a more straightforward manner, and food will be thy medicine in a more convincing manner. Challenges in food retail management

The last 200 years have seen packaging evolve from being a container for the product to becoming an important element of total product design (Cole, 2011:3). An example is the extension from packing tomato sauce in glass bottles to squeezable co-extruded multi-layer plastic bottles with oxygen barrier material to achieve longer shelf life. Since the 19th century, innovations in food science and technology and importantly too, in packaging materials have seen a large variety of food and drinks become available to consumers. In recent years there has been an increasing demand for packaging that offers the consumer convenience and ease of use, whilst being sustainable and environmentally friendly. Packaging will also need to become smarter to more effectively communicate with consumers, improve convenience, augment brand identification and enhance sustainable credentials (Cole, 2011:5). This will continue to grow in importance on the packaging agenda (Datamonitor, 2013). For instance, a can or bottle that chills itself, was seen by some to be the holy grail of beverage packaging innovation; and had remained out of reach, until now. There have been, in the past, many innovations in packaging. An example of one that addresses both the sustainability and consumer friendly issues is new soy sauce pack, recently launched in Japan. The pack consists of a very lightweight (3.2g) plastics; three-side seal inner pouch with an integral pour spout, which gives excellent control when pouring. Once the pack is empty, the two packaging components (pouch and outer cartonboard) can be easily separated and flattened for recycling purposes. This presentation will highlight numerous types of food and beverage packaging innovations by focusing on: 1. new packaging technologies 2. the environment 3. light-weighting 4. convenience 5. active and intelligent packaging, and 6. intelligent packaging coatings Furthermore attention will also be paid to the various types of packaging substrates available namely; metal, paper, plastic and glass.

Kevin Korb Retired, Johannesburg, South Africa The market in South Africa has both a very sophisticated first world retail component and a very large unsophisticated rural component. Business leaders need to find a balance between ensuring safe and quality food for consumers on the one hand and creating work opportunities on the other. Finding this delicate balance brings many challenges to the retail sector including: 1. buying food at an affordable price, whilst taking food safety and quality into consideration; 2. accessing and managing innovative food products; 3. listing and developing relationships with suppliers, including small and emerging suppliers to ensure an adequate and consistent supply of quality products; 4. handling customer complaints and food crises when they occur; 5. regulatory issues, such as ensuring suppliers comply with new regulations and dealing with varying levels of enforcement in different provinces and their impact on food retailers. This presentation will include real case studies to illustrate the abovementioned challenges and will seek to identify solutions to some of these identified issues.

Novel food processing technologies and their validation Peter McClure Science and Technology Leader for Microbiological Safety, Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever R&D, Sharnbrook, Befordshire, UK Novel processes used to prolong the shelf-life of foods are generally regarded as those involving recently-developed technologies or applications (the technologies themselves may not be new concepts). Many of these utilise non-thermal methods, such as high pressure, pulsed electric fields, pulsed light or ultrasound and others make use of thermal effects, or combinations of some of the above. The efficacy of these novel processes is generally compared to traditional thermal processing, used either alone (e.g. commercial sterilization) or in combination with other traditional preservation methods (e.g. reduced pH/aw, storage at refrigeration temperatures, presence of other preservatives). Validation of irradiation, for example, initially focussed on demonstrating equivalence to the 12D concept used in canned foods and more recently, activities have concentrated on the different scientific criteria that should be used to demonstrate â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;equivalenceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; to a wider scope of traditional approaches. The factors requiring consideration include target microorganism(s), the mechanism of action (if known), the performance standard(s) (e.g. n log reduction or inhibition of growth), impact of food or food components on the fate of target microorganisms, recovery methods, modelling the fate of target organisms, validation that the process is effective (including scale-up), identification of critical limits to deliver the performance standard(s) and definition of the operating characteristics/parameters for the process. Measures of reproducibility

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ORAL ABSTRACTS and reliability are also required. General considerations and those more relevant to particular novel processes are discussed, to establish a basis for the manufacture of safe and stable products. Allergens: lessons learnt Harris Steinman Food & Allergy Consulting & Testing Services (FACTS), Milnerton, South Africa In 1996 the UN Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on “hidden” allergens in food was held to consider implementation of precautionary allergen labelling. Matters considered included clinically relevant thresholds, risk assessment, testing methods and other related issues. Subsequently legislation has been enacted to protect at-risk consumers throughout the world, including recently in South Africa. Science has progressed. Methods of evaluation have evolved. Manufactures have had to change mind-sets. Auditors have revised manuals. Consumers have become empowered. Hard lessons have been learnt. How has South Africa fared? Current aspects regarding allergens in foods, including regulations, testing and other relevant local and international issues will be addressed. Practical real-world illustrative examples will be presented.

Symposium: ICMSF Food Safety Risk Management

end-product testing may be of limited utility and other approaches (such as HACCP), will be more effective for assurance of microbiological quality and safety. Nonetheless, attributes sampling plans still have application in some situations and understanding their limitations is important for interpreting results based on them. Microbiological criteria – past, present, future Jean-Louis Cordier Nestec Ltd., Nestlé Quality Assurance Center, Vevey, Switzerland In this presentation we will review the different types of microbiological criteria existing as well as their usage and application. In the second part we will provide details on the different elements defining microbiological criteria as described in the Guidelines of the Codex Alimentarius on the establishment of microbiological criteria. In the last part of the presentation, we will discuss the role and application of microbiological criteria in a food safety management system and in the context of the microbiological risk management concepts developed and published by Codex Alimentarius. Useful microbiological testing for meat and poultry products Tom Ross Food Safety Centre, University of Tasmania, West Hobart, Tasmania

The use of risk-based metrics for managing food safety Lucia Anelich Director, Anelich Consulting, Pretoria, South Africa The international adoption of the World Trade Organization Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Agreement (WTO/SPS) in 1995 drove the importance of the work conducted at the Codex Alimentarius Commission to a new level. This occurred due to the recognition of Codex Alimentarius as the international standards setting body for SPS issues related to foods. Many clauses in the SPS agreement emphasize the need for a risk-based approach to food safety management, hence the development of the Risk Analysis Framework by Codex Alimentarius in the early nineties. The process of Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) is now well-entrenched within FAO/WHO as well as in many countries. Whilst the results of microbiological risk assessments (MRA) can assist national authorities in determining the Appropriate Level of Protection (ALOP) for their particular populations, the question is often raised as to the significance of such results for the food industry. The purpose, steps as well as results of a typical MRA will be discussed. This information will be linked to risk management and food safety management principles. The conceptual equation (H0 - Σ R + Σ I < PO or FSO) of the International Commission on Microbiological Specification for Foods (ICMSF) will be used to illustrate how the food industry can use risk-based metrics such as Performance Objectives, Performance Criteria, Process Criteria and Control Measures to better manage food safety, based on results of MRAs. Understanding the uses and limitations of attributes sampling plans Tom Ross Food Safety Centre, University of Tasmania, West Hobart, Tasmania

Meat is an important commodity internationally, consisting of fresh (chilled and frozen) meats and a variety of fermented, dry-cured and smoked, as well as cooked products. Poultry is also an important source of protein and poultry meat is distributed in various raw, and cooked, forms though international trade is not as extensive as for red meats. Both types of meat, and products derived from them, share common microbiological quality and safety issues as well as hazards that are specific to each product type. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the microbiological aspects of quality and safety of meat and poultry products. It will also give an overview of ICMSF recommendations for useful microbiological testing of these products including, as appropriate, testing of processing environments, processing lines and finished products. Management of Salmonella in low-moisture foods Jean-Louis Cordier Nestec Ltd., Nestlé Quality Assurance Center, Vevey, Switzerland Several low moisture foods such as chocolate, peanut butter, cerealbased products, dehydrated dairy products, spices or pet foods have been implicated in sporadic but recurrent outbreaks during the last decades. This presentation will shortly review relevant outbreaks caused by contaminated low-moisture foods. The routes of contamination will be discussed as well as the relevant hygiene control measures allowing to effectively control Salmonella during manufacturing in order to prevent contamination and subsequent consequences. Useful microbiological testing for fruit and vegetable products

Principles for the specification of microbiological criteria for foods require that the criterion also specifies a sampling plan defining the number of samples to be taken and the size of the analytical unit. This is because the sampling plan has a direct effect on the sensitivity of the test, particularly when the testing involves enrichment (presence/absence) methods. This presentation will describe how the sensitivity of attributes sampling plans can be determined, and illustrate the confidence that they can provide about the microbiological status of the product being tested. The presentation will show that, when the acceptable proportion of defective units in the lot is low, attributes sampling plans require large numbers of samples to prove that the lot, as a whole, is acceptable. In this situation,

Peter McClure Science and Technology Leader for Microbiological Safety, Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever R&D, Sharnbrook, Befordshire, UK Fresh fruit and vegetables are an essential part of the human diet as a source of nutrients, fibre and vitamins and consumption has increased significantly in many countries in recent years. However, this increase in consumption has also been accompanied by an increase in foodborne disease associated with these products. For example, in the US, outbreaks associated with fresh produce increased from 1% to 12% between the 1970’s and 1990’s. Microbiological contamination of fresh produce arises

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ORAL ABSTRACTS from many different sources, including soil, manure, irrigation water, wild animals, harvesting equipment and food handlers. Microorganisms can persist in soil for many months or even years. Products are often eaten raw or are minimally processed, allowing survival of contaminating microorganisms. Since there may be no intervention step that will ensure safety of fresh produce, prerequisite programmes, such as Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) and Good Hygienic Practice (GHP), and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) programmes are essential. Microbiological testing is an important tool that is used demonstrate adherence to both GAP and GHP, to validate and verify HACCP plans and also to aid in investigations of outbreaks or contamination incidents. This presentation aims to give practical guidance for the microbiological testing of fresh produce and associated materials, such as irrigation water and compost used for cultivation. The guidance provided was developed by expert elicitation. The relative importance of testing of critical ingredients, semi-processed product, the processing environment and finished product are considered and recommendations made for useful testing, with emphasis placed on testing for specific indicators, such as Escherichia coli, or particular pathogens, such as Salmonella, where this is deemed necessary. Sampling plans and limits for fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables and sprouted seeds are described in detail. In most cases, routine microbiological testing for pathogens is not recommended unless other data or information indicate potential for contamination. Although there are many limitations of testing and this should never be relied upon on its own to assure safety, it can provide useful information when applied appropriately and pragmatically. Management of drinking and processing water – microbiological aspects Jean-Louis Cordier Nestec Ltd., Nestlé Quality Assurance Center, Vevey, Switzerland While the requirements for drinking water for the direct consumption and the necessary measures to obtain water fulfilling the established requirements are quite well-known, aspects related to the usage of water in food processing are often less well-known. During food processing, water is used in many different ways such as for washing of raw materials, cleaning equipment and premises, transporting of raw materials or intermediate products, heating and cooling as well as an ingredient as part of the recipe. Certain types of usage are common to many different types of products while other will be specific to certain types of products only. Water is therefore either a constituent of a food product or will be in direct contact; in certain cases the contact may only be indirect or incidental. The use of water in food processing premises may require specific or additional treatments, e.g. to allow for recirculation or usage in specific foods, and therefore the management of related hazards needs to be adapted to the situation. This presentation will illustrate several cases.

Food, Nutrition and Well-Being The best of both worlds: enhancing product value through food science and nutrition Brinda Govindarajan Kellogg Company, Singapore Lifestyle changes have caused consumers to lean more and more towards processed foods. Convenience and variety are key factors in determining the shift towards processed foods. Processed foods form a big part of grocery shopping and eating habits. As consumers lean more and more on processed and packaged foods, they also demand more from the food manufacturers. To make it big, new foods should provide many values to the consumers including taste, quality, affordability and nutrition. Consumers are also looking at food as a preventive path to health rather than just for taste and satisfying hunger. To satisfy these multiple needs the food developer must work with very closely with other internal functions to formulate foods that add value to the consumer. This presentation looks at consumer needs and how food scientists must

work closely with nutritionists to add value to consumers and develop products that matter. Cereal grains – a rich source of phytochemicals of potential health benefits Trust Beta University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada Grains are a source of nutrients and health promoting non-nutrient phytochemicals. There are basic research questions concerning mechanisms by which grains confer health benefits. Because of the different types of grains, the number of bioactive compounds and the diversity of likely biological effects, numerous and diverse experimental approaches are taken to increase knowledge on the biology of phytochemicals in cereals. Research investigations include determination of grain efficacy in terms of antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity. It is inevitable that the identification of the molecular structures of bioactive compounds responsible for antioxidant activity in grains and other plants be undertaken. Using phenolics and carotenoids as the major phytochemicals, the mechanisms involving antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity have been studied in relationship to the molecular structures of these compounds. These in vitro chemical approaches are necessary before grain efficacy can be explained using animal models, clinical and sensory studies. Outcome variables including reduction in cardiovascular diseases and various cancers can then be used to demonstrate the role of grain in health and disease. Phenolic compounds and bioactive properties of marama bean [Tylosema esculentum (Burchell) A. Schreiber] and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] – implications for potential food uses Gyebi Duodu1, Eugenie Kayitesi1, JS Shelembe1, Henriëtte L de Kock1, D Cromarty2, M Bester3, Amanda Minnaar0 1 Department of Food Science, Institute of Food, Nutrition and WellBeing, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, 2Department of Pharmacology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, 3Department of Anatomy, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa The marama bean is an underutilised legume that grows wild in the arid and semi-arid regions of Southern Africa where it is used as a food source by the rural communities of the Kalahari Desert. Sorghum is an important cereal staple in many communities of arid and semi-arid regions of Africa and Asia. There is increased research focus on phenolic compounds in grains due to their antioxidant properties. These antioxidant properties of dietary phenolics offer potential health benefits such as prevention of diseases related to oxidative stress (e.g. cancer and type 2 diabetes). It also offers the opportunity for these grains to be used as sources of natural antioxidants for exogenous use in foods. Research into phenolic compounds in sorghum is at a more advanced stage than that of marama bean. This paper will present the current state of knowledge about phenolic compounds namely, phenolic acids, flavonoids and tannins in marama bean and sorghum and their antioxidant / bioactive properties (e.g. radical scavenging activity, red blood cell hemolysis, LDL oxidation). The potential uses of these grains in foods such as composite porridges or as a source of exogenous natural antioxidants will be highlighted. The potential of South Africa’s biodiversity as a source of food ingredients and nutraceuticals Vinesh Maharaj CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa South Africa is considered to be a “hotspot” for biodiversity and more than 24 000 plant species occur within its boundaries. This represents 10% of the world’s species, although the land surface of South Africa is less than 1% of the earth. Indigenous medicinal and food plants are used by more than 60% of South Africans in their health care needs or cultural practices. The rich biodiversity also includes a large number of

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ORAL ABSTRACTS plant species that are used as edible foods. The leaves and roots of edible plants have a high nutritional value and can play an important role in the prevention of malnutrition in rural areas. Some of the indigenous food types such as Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) R. Dahlgren (rooibos tea) and Cyclopia spp. (honeybush tea) have developed as an agricultural industry with export activity. Several publications on the use of South African plants as edible crops have been described. A book titled “People’s Plants” classifies edible plants based on their preparations and the nature of the plant part used. In another survey, a book titled “Foods from the Veld”, the uses of several edible plants are described. South Arica’s biodiversity and indigenous knowledge could potentially be used to identify concepts and products for different markets viz. edible plants as new flavourants, nutritional/herbal supplements as sweeteners and for the control of hunger; perfumes as a source of fragrances, and natural colorants. However, despite South Africa’s huge biological resources only a few edible crops have been commercialized and cultivated. A systematic Biosprospecting programme could unlock the potential of SA’s Biodiversity and lead to new commercialisable products for the food industry. The current research programme focuses on the transformation of African traditional medicines and edible plants into scientifically validated herbal medicines; the discovery of new pharmaceutically active ingredients; food ingredients and nutritional supplements; cosmetic ingredients and providing opportunities for the establishment of community-based agro-processing businesses for the production of crops. This value addition to biodiversity and indigenous knowledge through scientific innovation is conducted through consortium-based research. The food application focus of this research programme in collaboration with industry is discussed. Salt - why we should reduce salt intake in South Africa, considering implications of the new SANHANES-1 data Hettie C. Schönfeldt, Nicolette Hall, Buelah Pretorius Institute of Food, Nutrition and Well-being, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa The South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2011/2012) found that the majority of South African adults and children, and especially women, are overweight or obese, while many individuals continue to suffer from the consequences of micronutrient deficiencies, i.e. anaemia and vitamin A deficiency (SANHANES-1, 2012). High blood pressure (hypertension) poses a health and economic burden on South Africans by virtue of its costly complications, and early death. Uncontrolled high blood pressure (BP) results in high rates of strokes, heart attacks and other forms of heart disease. The increasing incidence of obesity and the consequent increases in non-communicable diseases such as hypertension (>10% pre-hypertensive, >10% hypertension) experienced along with urbanization has placed the spotlight on food systems to embrace nutrition considerations. The South African Department of Health has responded to the World Health Organization (WHO) Physical Activity and Health Report by setting targets towards improved health outcomes by 2020. These include reducing by at least 25% relative premature mortality from noncommunicable diseases; reducing the mean population intake of salt to less than 5 grams per day; and reducing the prevalence of people with raised blood pressure by 20%. Subsequently the Department of Health has promulgated a salt reduction programme, enforced by legislation to reduce the levels of sodium / salt found in processed foods in South Africa (Government Gazette: No.R.214, under section 15(1) of the Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act 1972 (Act 54 of 1972). In order to be successful, an integral part of the programme would need to include national awareness and behaviour modification, especially related to consumer food choices and the discretionary addition of salt. What South Africans eat, the current burden of disease and the importance of salt intake as well as the role of the food system will be discussed.

Nutritionists, food scientists and the food industry – joining forces to improve the nutritional profiles of processed foods Nigel Sunley Sunley Consulting, Johannesburg, South Africa There is strong criticism of the food industry among many nutrition professionals as one of the main contributors to obesity and other food related public health concerns. While the food industry is certainly far from perfect, the more emotional and politicised members of the nutrition community often simply do not understand the very real challenges faced by food companies in improving the nutritional characteristics of their products and have very limited knowledge of practical factors such as technical feasibility, cost and palatability. The confrontational approach adopted by these so-called ‘political nutritionists’ that typically incorporates simplistic and impractical regulatory based solutions is unlikely to achieve the desired effect due largely to the behaviour related nature of many of the causes of obesity. There are however a number of other more desirable and realistic ways in which the nutrition community can interact in a much more constructive manner with the food industry. Food scientists and marketing personnel need to work with nutritionists to enable them to understand the practical constraints that exist in changing the nutritional characteristics of particular products and encourage constructive criticism in this area. A further option is using nutrient profiling as a means of assessing the effect of potential compositional changes. From a commercial perspective, it is possible to incentivise companies to improve the nutritional quality of their products by linking staff remuneration and in particular performance bonus payments to the achievement of specific average compositional criteria for their product ranges. A suggested model for this process will be proposed which includes not only product composition but also the volumes of different products sold by the companies. Food frauds: food safety and nutrition in jeopardy? Herman B.W.M. Koëter Orange House Partnership, Brussels, Belgium Food fraud relates to food of which the ingredients, the provenance, the amount of the product or any other aspect of the product differ slightly or significantly from the claim printed on the package. Generally, misleading information such as much smaller contents than the package suggests or misleading statements such as “less fat” without any reference to what this comparison refers to, are not considered fraud. Also claims such as “Fair Trade” product for products of which only one ingredient is indeed “Fair Trade” are not considered as fraudulent. Major cases of fraud such as the melamine added to animal feed and infant formulas in China are making headlines in leading newspapers around the globe. However, products which are over the ‘best before’ date which are repacked with a new and much later ‘best before’ date usually are not attracting much public attention. On the other hand, rather frequent events of food contamination such as aflatoxin-infested pistachio nuts, Salmonella contamination of peanut butter, or dioxin contamination of potato chips can be intentionally (fraudulent) or intentionally (usually a process-related failure). The lecture will address a number of cases of fraud and failures but will not mention products, producers or retailers by name. It will address the link between food fraud and food safety. The aim of the presentation is to raise awareness among consumers, regulatory authorities and producers alike of the possibility of food fraud occurring and by that making an attempt to reduce such food scandals.

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ORAL ABSTRACTS Leadership Workshop for Young Professionals

Flavour modulation technology - an olfactory and taste synergy to reduce sugar, fat and salt

Leadership workshop for students and young professionals

Ryan Ponquett Kerry Ingredients and Flavours, Hillcrest, , South Africa

Barbara Byrd Keenan, Bob Gravani Institute of Food Technologist, Chicago, IL, USA Today’s world needs leadership at all levels and across all professions. Food science and technology is no different. Food scientists are positioned to lead the advancement of scientific and technological innovation to ensure a safe, nutritious, abundant and accessible food supply worldwide. But scientific acumen will not be enough… Leadership means having a vision of what you want to achieve, knowing your strengths and how to leverage them to accomplish your goals and self-understanding to apply your leadership skills in effective ways. If you are a student or new professional, establishing your leadership profile early in your career is essential. And this workshop was designed with you in mind! During the 3-hour interactive workshop, you will explore commonly held myths about leadership, discover your leadership profile and build a short term action plan for achieving one of your goals. You also will hear stories of leadership success from the facilitators who will share their personal perspectives on leadership.

FMT is an acronym for Flavour Modulation Technology. It refers to deliverable taste solutions that can be achieved from a deep understanding of the interplay between the sense of smell and the sense of taste. Taste enhancement is well known in our culinary practices as the use of certain ingredients to “bring out flavours” in foods. The addition of sugar to fresh strawberries brings out the flavour of the fruit; addition of salt enhances the flavours of savoury dishes, as does glutamate. The lesser known phenomenon is the enhancement of taste through the addition or development of certain volatiles that signal, through the olfactory sense, the expectation of saltiness, umami, sweetness or fattiness. Through careful selection and processing, key fractions from flavours in foods enhance these taste perceptions and can deftly aid the decrease in the deployment of taste-enhancing compounds such as sugar, salt, glutamate and fat. These are key issues facing the food industry and more so than ever, the reduction of sodium in food stuffs is a key driver in product renovation

Industry Novel Ingredients and Technologies

Salt reduction in meat and other food applications

The functional properties of sugar

Yves Verger, Francois Decaris EMEA, France

Nigel Sunley Sunley Consulting, Johannesburg, South Africa In the midst of all the controversy associated with the nutritional properties of sugar, not to mention its role as the world’s most important sweetener, it is all too easy to forget how much of sugar’s role relates to its functional properties. Many of the foods in which sugar is incorporated, both for domestic cookery purposes and for industrial use, could not be produced without sugar or would require major expensive reformulations if it were to be removed from the product concerned. Functional properties of sugar include texture and mouthfeel generation, shelf life improvement and inhibition of microbial spoilage, not to mention synergistic actions with other ingredients such as proteins. This paper will summarise the key functional properties of sugar and will incorporate a discussion of some of the not-so-obvious benefits it imparts to food products. Alternative methods for microbiological testing

Worldwide the move has been to reducing sodium in processed foodstuffs due to the widespread adverse effects of increased hypertension culminating in cardiovascular disease and strokes. Many governments have collaborated with their food industries and started initiatives the move to lower sodium levels in foods. Salt plays an important role in foods, not only regarding taste but it also has other functions for example shelf life extension and reducing water activity. Biorigin, a Brazilian company, with their yeast extracts and innovative natural taste enhancers have done extensive work on different processed foods and achieved sodium reductions of 40 - 50%. Recipes of these are presented and taste sessions will be held.

Value Addition of Food Industry Waste Cereal proteins extracted from by-products can be utilised in food and biomaterial applications Mats Stading1,2 1 SIK - The Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden

Kirsten Henstra Bio-Rad, Johannesburg, South Africa From farm to fork: food safety is a key issue today. All along the food chain, microbiological risks must be controlled. Bio-Rad has been a key player in the industry of food safety for over 60 years and we are constantly improving our technologies to offer new solutions for microbiological food and water testing. These technologies include alternative methods for microbiological testing, which allows industry to get fast and reliable results. We will also touch on product recalls in South Africa and how we compare internationally. Bio-Rad’s alternative methods for microbiological testing include chromogenic media and molecular biology techniques. These solutions minimise the time to results, reduce costs and improve risk management for our customers. The performance of our products meets the most stringent requirements for food detection and all of our methods are tested and validated by AFNOR certification according to the ISO 16140 standard and AOAC-RI. These alternative methods are designed to allow fast and efficient testing, which can assist in the quick release of food products and can help in reducing product recalls. Join us to increase your knowledge of alternative methods available for food testing and see how SA fairs in product recalls!

Cereals are a major source of biopolymers, where the dominant application is starch utilised for food and feed. A rapidly growing alternative application is the production of biofuel, mainly produced from maize in the US. The starch is fermented to ethanol leaving spent grain rich in cereal proteins as a by-product. The spent grain is currently utilised predominantly as feed, but value can be added by using the extracted cereal protein in food and biomaterial applications. The maize prolamin protein zein is currently extracted on a large scale and used in e.g. food and materials. Similarly, the prolamins kafirin and pennisetin can be extracted from sorghum and pearl millet respectively, both crops critical for food security in sub-Saharan Africa, and have shown to have similar properties to zein. Non-wheat prolamin proteins are important in applications that require a replacement of wheat gluten e.g. in connection with celiac disease, where the only treatment is a life-long avoidance of mainly wheat gluten, and related species such as rye and barley. Greater awareness of this disease throughout the world has led to a growing demand for gluten-free products such as pasta and bread. Non-wheat prolamins have successfully been utilised to bake porous, leavened bread. The prolamins were then mixed with starch, hydrocolloids and water and baked into porous loaves. Foaming of cereal proteins can also be utilised to produce technical foams for e.g. insulation,

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ORAL ABSTRACTS packaging or tissue engineering. During foam formation, gas cells grow through biaxial extension at high strain and usually low extension rate. Low viscosity is necessary for bubble nucleation, but on the other hand, there is a lower viscosity limitunder which the cell walls collapse during cell expansion. Determination of extensional viscosity of the pre-foam protein melt showed that the cereal proteins in general have desired rheological properties in the right range necessary for foaming.

keratinolytic isolate has potential biotechnological use in processes involving keratin hydrolysis.

Waste utilization in the citrus processing industry

Falko Fliessbach GEA Breconcherry, 21514 Büchen, Germany

Andries Gous, Gyebi Duodu, Naushad Emmambux University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa In South Africa citrus waste (consisting mainly of outer parts of the fruit namely flavedo, albedo, segment membranes and seeds) generated by citrus processing plants vary between approximately 165000 to 260000 ton annually. The majority are dried and used as ruminant feed or composted after peel juice removal. The peel juice if not utilized properly can contribute to water pollution. Only a small amount of the waste is used for extraction of phytochemicals, pectin, citric acid, emulsions or alcohol production. Peel residue contains about 8085% moisture. If debittered it can be used as juice filler or sweetener in juice formulations and canned fruit. The bitter compounds naringin and limonin can be removed by using adsorption/ion exchange resins or enzymes or combinations of these. In a recent study, grapefruit peel juice was treated with the enzymes, aromase and laccase in an attempt to remove the bitter compounds naringin and limonin. Treatment with aromase (0.8% w/v) decreased naringin by almost 80% by hydrolysing it into naringenin and glucose and rhamnose (which may be broken down further into other compounds) and decreased limonin by almost 8 times by hydrolysing it into more than one unknown product. Aromase-treated peel juice contained no limonin after 7 months of storage, an indication that aromase treatment prevented occurrence of delayed bitterness. Treatment with laccase (3.0% w/v) only decreased naringin by 40% and decreased limonin by only 1.2 times. Treatment with a combination of aromase (0.8% w/v) and laccase (3.0% w/v) showed the greatest decrease in naringin of 95% and decreased limonin by up to 6 times. The grapefruit peel juice became lighter on treatment with aromase and the clarity increased. The grapefruit peel juice became darker on treatment with laccase. Respondents in a sensory panel indicated the aromasetreated sample as the least bitter. These results indicate that aromase can be used on its own to reduce bitterness in grapefruit peel juice by inactivating both naringin and limonin. Production of enzymatically debittered peel juice represents an example of how the citrus industry can add value to citrus waste. Degradation of poultry feather waste by Chryseobacterium carnipullorum George Charimba1, Celia Hugo1, Piet Jooste2 1 University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, Free State, South Africa, 2 Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, , South Africa Feather waste is produced in large amounts as a by-product of poultry processing plants and causes serious disposal problems. Keratin makes up over 90% of feathers but it is not readily digestible by animals, and is resistant to proteases and insects. This is because keratin is made up of tightly packed α–helix and β–sheets which are assembled into supercoiled polypeptide chains that are extensively cross-linked by cystine bridges, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. A very small percentage of feather waste is steamed, treated chemically and ground to form dietary protein supplement for animals. Biological degradation of feathers using keratinolytic organisms is an economical and environmentally friendly alternative. Chryseobacterium carnipullorum 9_R23581T, previously isolated from raw chicken, almost completely degraded all feathers in a feather meal medium within 48 h. Proteolytic and keratinolytic activities were detected in culture supernatants using azocasein and azokeratin respectively. The maximum protease activity was 110 U/ml after 48 h and the maximum keratinolytic activity was 22 U/ml on day 3. A maximum protein content of 2.58 mg ml-1 on day 3 was achieved. Such a novel

Food Engineering and Processing Technologies Effective tank and vessel cleaning: how different systems can help meet today’s demands

Continuously developing tank cleaning technology with the aim of improving effectiveness and efficiency will help to reduce the required amount of energy and media. Ever higher demands for process hygiene, combined with significantly increased costs for energy required to heat up and convey cleaning media and long downtimes, are typical challenges for many production plants. It is therefore logical to critically analyse the cleaning processes in production plants to determine and exploit the potential for optimization. Developing tank cleaning technology to improve effectiveness and efficiency will help to reduce the required amount of energy, media, and increase hygiene in the plant environment. Cleaning components are used for cleaning in various production plants in the Food, Beverage, Pharmaceutical and Chemical industries. They allow the cleaning of tank vessel and reactor surfaces – irrespective of whether they are in contact with product or not – to be integrated into the process. Cleaning media such as water, detergents or disinfectant solutions are applied to soiled surfaces. Depending on the application (i.e. whether vertical or horizontal tanks with or without internal fittings are to be cleaned and what type of residues are to be removed). Various types of cleaning devices lend themselves to be used more effectively in some situations than others. Latest innovations in low temperature concentration of aqueous solutions Martin van Nistelrooij GEA Messo PT, s’Hertogenbsoch, The Netherlands The demand for high quality liquid food products has stimulated the development of high quality processes. Besides process improvements also economic feasibility has been a topic in new development programs. Innovations in suspension based melt crystallization technology in combination with wash column technology create opportunities for the production of high quality beverages at acceptable costs. It also creates opportunities for more effective waste management systems and environmental sustainability. Volume reduction will combat the negative effects of transportation on cost, energy consumption and environment. The latest process developments in freeze concentration technology will be described. In the solution pure and spherical ice crystals are formed of a controlled size at freezing point temperature. Separation of the ice crystal takes place in a unique wash column separator. Due to the high efficiency of the wash column only pure ice is separated from the concentrated liquid and thus assuring maximum recovery of all original components. The low temperature conditions prevent undesired changes of the product characteristics. Potential applications in the food processing industry and the waste water industry will be described as well as the positive impact on environmental sustainability. Prospective: innovating efficient technologies for energy regeneration and re-use in food process industries Tilahun Seyoum Workneh University of KwaZulu Natal, Pietermartizburg, South Africa Food processing industries are growing in the African continent. Energy is the most important input in food processing and is a bottleneck for development of food industries. This survey explores existing innovative technologies for attaining high energy use efficiency and a future challenges as well as opportunities for development of innovative

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ORAL ABSTRACTS technologies that could enable efficient use and regeneration of energy in food process industries with the main focus on fresh fruit and vegetables, meat and meat products, dairy and dairy products process industries. Cooling and heating are required in food supply chains and this energy expenditure make food processing and preservation costly since utilization of high energy is involved. How much energy is required to cool perishable food commodities to an optimum storage temperature? How much energy is required to thermally process different bottled and canned food products? Where does this input energy that is used during food cooling or heating finally goes? Since energy is neither created nor destroyed, it changes from one form to another form of energy or simply conveyed to the surrounding environment. Although, some operations are using innovative technologies to regenerate energy after use, in most cases innovative energy regeneration or re-use systems are missing. Refrigeration is a requirement to maintain product specific temperature in fresh commodities handling industries including storage facilities, supermarkets, restaurants and others. During refrigeration heat removed from produces and other heat sources is usually conveyed to the surrounding as a result of heat exchange between condenser and the surrounding air. How much energy is conveyed on continuous bases to the surrounding? What are innovative heat regeneration technologies available to be combined with refrigeration systems to recover heat energy? How does the recovered heat energy can be used to process foods? The key future challenge to secure high energy efficiency for agro-processing industries is, therefore, development of innovative technologies for the recovery of energy in processes in a cost effective manner.

Thursday, 10 October 2013 ICMSF Post Congress Workshop

The ICMSF attributes sampling plan spreadsheet Peter McClure Unilever, United Kingdom To simplify the design and interpretation of statistical sampling plans the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods has developed a Microsoft TM Excel spreasheet that automates the various calculations needed to design and interpret sampling plans. The spreadsheet includes analysis of both two- and three-class attributes plans, as well as variables sampling plans. In this presentation, users will be introduced to the format, features and capabilities of the ICMSF spreadsheet and will learn how to use it through a number of practical exersises on computers. Food safety objectives (FSO) – background concepts Jean-Louis Cordier Nestec Ltd., Nestlé Quality Assurance Center, CH-1800 Vevey Over the last 30 years, the principles and concepts of the microbiological food safety management systems have evolved from an approach focusing on quality control, i.e. sampling and testing of product, to a much more effective preventive approach. While the principles of HACCP have been developed in the early 1960’s and are now widely known in food processing, the developments of the more quantitative concepts of microbiological risk analysis up to the metrics of microbiological risk management are more recent. This presentation will briefly review the developments in microbiological risk analysis and illustrate how the outcome of such analyses can be used to develop food safety objectives. The impact of food safety objectives and its link to microbiological food safety management systems as applied during food manufacturing will be discussed.

Role of microbiological criteria in food safety and quality assurance Designing performance objectives (POs) to meet FSOs: introduction to and use of the ICMSF FSO Tool

Jean-Louis Cordier Nestec Ltd., Nestlé Quality Assurance Center, Vevey The quality and safety of foods is ensured through the application of hygiene control measures ranging from general pre-requisite programs (PRP) to the more specific and focused operational pre-requisite programs (OPRP) and HACCP. Sampling and testing of products is traditionally carried out, it has limitations and is therefore not adequate to ensure the quality and safety of products. While it is important to understand these limitations, microbiological criteria have nevertheless a role to play in quality assurance. This presentation will review and illustrate the role microbiological criteria and testing can play within a microbiological food safety management system. Statistics of sampling - designing/interpreting a sampling plan to match a microbiological criterion + practical exercise using Microsoft Excel Tom Ross Food Safety Centre, University of Tasmania During this presentation, participants will be introduced to some basic ideas and principles of statistics that underpin the performance of sampling plans. These ideas are needed to be able to understand the power or limitations of sampling plans to provide assurance of food safety. They include the variabilty of the distribution of bacteria within foods and how this affects our ability to obtain meaningful results, and the signifance of the Binomial distribution on on performance of attributes sampling plans. Participants will learn how to use Microsoft TM Excel to simplify the calculations needed to develop a sampling plan that evaluates a batch of food for compliance with a microbiological criterion or, equally, to be able to interpret what level of assurance a specific sampling plan achieves. The additional difficulties of microbiological sampling, and the influence of the Poisson distribution, will also be exemplified.

Tom Ross Food Safety Centre, University of Tasmania A Food Safety Objective (FSO) is “the maximum frequency and/or concentration of a microbial hazard in a food considered tolerable for human protection”. It is intended to apply to the food at the point of its consumption but we know that organisms can grow and die in foods. Performance Objectives are microbiological criteria that are analogous to FSOs but relate to the food at the time of manufacture, rather than the time of consumption, taking into account possible changes in microbial loads during the intervening time. POs are derived from FSOs by a process that might be termed ‘reverse exposure assessment’. When one takes variability into account, this can be a complicated process. The ICSMF have developed a tool using Microsoft TM Excel to assist in the process of developing POs to meet FSOs, including the consequences of variability in processes and distribution conditions. This presentation will present an overview of the FSO concept and the influence of variability, and describe how credible POs can be derived from an FSO. Participants will learn how to use this ICMSF tool, and understand the basic calculations it provides, through a number of practical exercises on computers.

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POSTER ABSTRACTS Food Chemistry and Analysis

P003

P001

Morphological characterization of three non-commercial banana cultivars from Limpopo province, South Africa

Physico-chemical characterization of the oil of Ziziphus kernels from the savannah area of Cameroon Johsiane Bernisse Azangueu Mafo, Désirée Kamga Gueobu, Richard Kamga, Robert Ndjouenkeu University of Ngaoundere, Ngaoundere, Cameroon Ziziphus is a wild fruit, harvested dry and consumed in the savannah region of Cameroon. Four varieties of the fruit have been identified in the region, among which two varieties, locally named Dakamji and Lammuji are commonly consumed. The pulp of the fruit is consumed or processed into a cake, while the resulting kernel is thrown in the nature as waste or used as combustible material. In a process leading to characterization and valorization of Cameroonian jujube, the oil of consumed varieties of Ziziphus is extracted and characterized using standard methods. Ziziphus kernels can contain up to 33% (DM basis) of oil, with a fatty acid profile displaying significant levels of palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids. The level of unsaponifiable matter (6 – 40%, depending on the Ziziphus variety and origin) positions Ziziphus oil kernel as a potential material for cosmetic application. In addition, due probably to their polyphenol content, Ziziphus kernel oil display antioxidant activity higher than BHT. The significant content of oil in polyphenols (3 – 9 mg/100 g DM) and tocopherol (3 – 10 mg/100 g DM) may explain this activity, justifying the potential used of this oil in inflammatory diseases. These properties seem to be affected by the growing area of the fruit. P002 Antioxidant activity vs. acrylamide levels resulting from the Maillard reaction during roasting of parboiled rice

Tonna Anyasi1, Afam Jideani1, Ainamensa Mchau2 Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Agriculture, University of Venda, Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province, South Africa, 2 Department of Horticultural Sciences, School of Agriculture, University of Venda, Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province, South Africa

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Bananas are grown in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world with each region known to cultivate indigenous non-commercial cultivars. Morphological variations exist in both commercial and noncommercial bananas around the globe. Three non-commercial banana cultivars (NBCs), mabuounde (NBC-m), luvhele (NBC-l) and muobvared (NBC-mr), at unripe green stage of maturity were characterized for their morphological and physical properties with a view to determining differences among cultivars. Physical profile of NBCs outer curve length (OCL), inner curve length, fruit widest mid-point, distal end (tip/flower end) and proximal end (fruit stalk) were determined for 10 randomly selected non-commercial cultivars. Of the three cultivars NBC-mr had the longest OCL while NBC-m had the shortest OCL. The ratio of the outer curve to the inner curve which can be used to determine the degree of curvature for both ripe and unripe bananas was highest for NBC-mr and lowest for NBC-m. Results also revealed that the highest values of measurement for the widest mid-point were recorded for NBC-m, with all three cultivars exhibiting different sizes in their distal and proximal end. Other physicochemical properties of firmness, pulp and peel colour, moisture content, pH, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity and ash were determined and varied significantly (p < 0.05) for all three NBCs. These parameters are useful indices in establishing the profile of local banana cultivars in the region with the aim of further investigation on processing potential. P004

Lusani Norah Vhangani, Jessy Van Wyk Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Bellville, South Africa Maillard reaction products (MRPs) formed during cooking, baking and roasting are common in many food systems. Several authors proved that MRPs possess antioxidant activity in food products in which they are formed or added to. However, it has been found that heat processing of carbohydrate-rich foods at temperature above 120 °C leads to formation of acrylamide. Much attention has been focused on finding ways to reduce or prevent the formation of acrylamide in foods without compromising food safety and sensorial properties. Maillard reaction products were generated by roasting parboiled rice at 185 and 245 °C for 60, 90 and 120 s. Different rice formulations were added with reducing sugar and amino acids to enhance the reaction. In Formulation A, rice was added with glucose (0.5 and 1%), Formulation B glucose (0.5 and 1%) and asparagine (0.0025, 0.05 and 0.1%) and Formulation C contained glucose (0.5 and 1%) and aspartic acid (0.0025, 0.05 and 0.1%). Resulting roasted samples were analysed for physical attributes such as mass, volume, moisture content and colour. Furthermore, samples were analysed for of acrylamide levels and the ability to inhibit lipid oxidation. As the roasting temperature and time increased, there was an increase (p < 0.05) in colour, volume and a decrease in mass and moisture for plain roasted rice and enhanced formulations. The effect of colour in formulation A, B and C was more pronounced with increased concentration of each reactant. Moreover, Formulation A had a significantly lower colour intensity compared to formulation B and C. this was attributed to the absence of an amino acid which is required for the MR to take place. Detectable amounts of acrylamide were found in the samples and this was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in roasted rice containing asparagine as an amino acid. With reference to inhibition of Lipid oxidation, Roasted samples exhibited a higher (p < 0.05) induction time compared to a control sample. Furthermore, a reduction in antioxidant activity was observed in samples with a high acrylamide levels.

An investigation of the essential oils of Agathosma betulina and A. crenulata (“Buchu”) for important flavour and medicinal components using comprehensive gas chromatography – time of flight mass spectrometry Peter Gorst-Allman1, Alvaro Viljoen2 LECO Africa, Kempton Park, South Africa, 2Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa

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Agathosma betulina and its close taxonomic ally, A. crenulata are shrubs with a restricted natural distribution area in the mountains of the Western Cape. Essential oils produced from the plant are generally used for their antiseptic and diuretic properties, but buchu oil is also used in the food industry, and “Buchu Brandy” was an everyday remedy for stomach problems for early Dutch colonists. Previous investigations of the essential oils of A. betulina have identified isomenthone and diosphenol as the major compounds, but sulphur containing minor components are important as they are responsible for the characteristic blackcurrant smell and flavour of buchu oil. We have revisited the analysis using comprehensive gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS) to permit a more thorough investigation of the complex components of the volatile constituents. Commercial product and freshly distilled material were analysed and compared, as well as the hydrodistilled oils from plants harvested in various regions of South Africa. Different sampling techniques were employed to investigate both volatile flavour components and plant extract obtained using QuEChERS technology. The results were compared and indicate that comprehensive gas chromatography is a powerful technique and warrants further investigation in the food and flavour industry as it allows a better understanding of the complex spectrum of flavour components contained in the sample.

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POSTER ABSTRACTS P005 Antioxidant effect of Maillard reaction products (MRPS) in a lipid- rich model system Vusi Vincent Mshayisa, Lusani Vhangani, Jessy Van Wyk Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Bellville, South Africa Maillard reaction products were prepared from aqueous ribose-lysine model system at pH 9, heated at 80 and 121 °C for 60 and 120 min. Browning intensity (BI) and pH reduction were monitored throughout the reaction. 1, 1 diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH-RS), peroxyl (PRS), and reducing power (RP) measured their antioxidant activity. Meanwhile, PV and TBARs were applied to measure their ability to retard lipid oxidation. The pH decreased significantly (p < 0.05) as the reaction temperatures and time increased. This reduction coincided with the significant increase (p < 0.05) in BI of all MRPs. MRPs derived from the model exhibited nonsignificant differences (p > 0.05) in terms of DPPH-RS, PRS and RP for all factors, Moreover, no significant (p > 0.05) differences were observed with regards to lipid oxidation indices: PV and TBARs.

acid/g) and carotenoids that were extracted using hexane/acetone/ ethanol (photospectometric method). The potential of the antioxidants were determined using the DPPH (2, 2-dipehyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical) method and measuring the chelating activity of ferrous ions. The best results regarding antioxidant levels and –capacity were O. robusta Robusta (purple), O. ficus-indica Gymno-Carpo (orange) and O. ficusindica Ofer (Orange) (in descending order). In antioxidant potential tests, all the tissue types were equal, although fruit and seeds had higher capacities to chelate ferrous ions, while peel and seeds showed higher radical scavenging capabilities. It was clear from this study that antioxidants do not act alone, in fact, specific antioxidants cooperate to achieve the exceptional antioxidant potential. It could thus be concluded in this study that Betalains (Betacyanins and Betaxanthins) group with Carotene in purple fruit (Robusta), while Ascorbic acid, Phenolics and Carotene group in orange fruit (Gymno-Carpo and Ofer). It may be concluded that the seeds and cladodes contain significant amounts of antioxidants and together with the fruit; the entire plant seems to have value as a health promoting crop with nutraceutical properties. P008

P006

Anthocyanin concentrate production from calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L

Non-destructive quantification of vitreous endosperm of whole maize kernels with micro x-ray computed tomography and near infrared hyperspectral imaging

Kane Ale1, Cisse Mady1, Ayessou Nicolas C.M.1, Sakho Mama1, Pallet Dominique2, Dornier Manuel2 1 Cheikh Anta Diop Université de Dakar, Dakar, Senegal, 2CIRAD Montpellier, France

Anina Guelpa1, Anton Du Plessis1, Paul Geladi2, Marena Manley1 1 Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 2Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umea, Sweden Whole white maize (Zea mays L.) was subjected to near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging and micro X-ray computed tomography (CT) to determine kernel hardness. Maize kernels consists of vitreous (hard) and floury (soft) endosperm. The predominant endosperm type present determines the hardness of the kernel. Hard maize is favoured for by the milling industry for improved quality and yield. During the milling process the percentage chop produced indicates the milling quality of the maize. This destructive technique was used as reference method. Hardness determination requires a fast and non-destructive method of analysis. Near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging and chemometrics were used to quantify the vitreous endosperm in maize kernels. The recorded images were processed, combined to form a mosaic and subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). Classification in score plots was used to count pixels belonging to the vitreous class and from this the percentage vitreous endosperm was calculated. Micro X-ray CT scans of maize kernels were also taken, reconstructed and analysed to reveal their structural features (3-D). This resulted in distinct separation of vitreous endosperm from the rest of the kernel structures, allowing the vitreous endosperm volume (expressed as percentage) to be calculated. Both methods correlated positively with the reference method. P007 Antioxidant content and potential of fresh cladodes and fruit from different fruit– coloured cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia robusta) cultivars Alba Du Toit, Maryna De Wit, Gernot Osthoff, Arno Hugo University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa Opuntia ficus-indica is an under- valued food source with healthpromoting properties that should be brought into the public domain. The whole plant is edible, thus not only the fruit but the seeds and cladodes could contribute to antioxidant contents that are believed to protect and improve health. The aim of this investigation was to determine the antioxidant content in fruit and vegetables from eight different cultivars with different coloured fruit from South African cultivars. Analysis included betalains (spectrophotometric method) ascorbic acid (2, 6 dichlorophenol- indophenol titration), total phenolics (gallic

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant of the malvaceae family cultivated in tropical regions of Asia and Africa. These red cups are very popular because of their high acidity and high content of anthocyanins (0.15 to 1.5 mg/100 g). They are widely used in the production of juice, syrup and jams. However, these extracts are very sensitive to various parameters such as temperature, oxygen, enzymes, light, etc... This work aimed to develop a new product based bissap with more added value, and more stable to degradation: hibiscus anthocyanin concentrates. The HPLC analysis coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) extracts of roselle calyx showed the presence of high levels of phenolic compounds: phenolic acids and anthocyanins. The major phenolic acids detected are three isomers cafféolquinique acid (ACQ): 3-OHC, 4-ACQ and ACQ-5. Anthocyanins majority present in the extracts are felphinidin sambubioside and cyanidin sambubioside. The concentrates were produced under vacuum (50 and 85 °C) and room temperature (100 °C) with contents of soluble solids (ESS) from 20 to 60 ° Brix. Density concentrates ranges from 1 to 1.35 kg / L, the dynamic viscosity of 1.3 to 58 mPa · s and the water activity of 0.98 to 0.87. At concentration at low temperature, the rate of degradation of total anthocyanins is very low: 1% at 50 °C. However, this rate becomes very high when the temperature increases: 19% at 85 °C and 43% at 100 °C for soluble solids content of 60 °Brix. On the other hand, the duration of treatment greatly influences the quality of the extracts. Thus, during the concentration at 75 °C, the degradation percentage of anthocyanins from 20% to 5% respectively for concentration duration of 160 and 60 minutes. Phenolic acids showed good stability during the concentration process. P009 Micronisation as an instantisation process for cowpeas Percy Sibanda, Amanda Minnaar, John Taylor, Gyebi Duodu University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an indigenous African pulse. It is a good and inexpensive source of protein, carbohydrates and other nutrients for people in developing countries. Cowpea seeds are mainly consumed in the grain form by boiling into a stew. The long cooking time of cowpeas and the limited number of cowpea products are major concerns that limit utilization of cowpeas. Micronisation (infrared heating) as a precooking treatment of preconditioned cowpea seeds has been found to reduce their cooking time and that of other legumes such as lentils.

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POSTER ABSTRACTS The aim of this study is to optimize the micronisation process to instantise cowpea flour. Two Southern African cowpea types (Bechuana white and Agribleu) will be used to study whether the micronisation process can be used to instantise cowpeas. The cowpea seeds will be preconditioned to different moisture content level and micronised at various temperatures above 1000C to study their effect on the functional properties of cowpeas such as enzyme-susceptible starch, in vitro starch digestibility, protein solubility and nitrogen solubility index. Rheometry will be used to study the texture of hydrated cowpea pastes to determine the degree of instantisation.

seven samples respectively. Pathogenic germs such as Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus cereus were present at less than 1 Log cfu g-1. Staphyloccus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were absent in 25 g Akpan. P012 GC-TOFMS study on genuine Scotch whisky and whisky produced by alternative methods Mark Pieterse LECO Corporation, St Joseph, USA

P010 Effect of starch type and protein digestibility on sorghum quality for bread and beverage making Mohammed Mustafa, Mohammad Emmambux, John Taylor Department of Food Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa Endosperm texture and thermal properties of eight sorghum lines with novel traits (high protein digestibility and waxy) were investigated to determine the effect of starch type and protein digestibility on sorghum quality for bread and beverage making. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to measure thermal properties of sorghum flour. Thermal properties especially in terms of peak temperature of the sorghum lines of various starch types and protein digestibility were significantly different. Thermal properties in terms of onset, peak and endset temperatures of waxy sorghums were significantly higher than normal sorghum. High protein digestibility sorghums displayed significantly higher onset, peak and endset temperatures than normal digestibility sorghums. Sorghums of normal protein digestibility showed intermediate texture. Endosperm of normal sorghums and high protein digestibility was floury. Corneous endosperm was predominant within the waxy sorghums. The colour of the corneous endosperm of the waxy sorghums was cream white and lighter than normal sorghums which were of light brown colour. Generally, the waxy and high protein digestibility traits were directly proportional to onset, peak and endset temperatures. As results from DSC showed that there were significant effects of various starch types and protein digestibility in terms of thermal properties. Arising from this a method based on water absorption index (WAI) and water solubility fraction (WSF) of the sorghum flour will be developed as a simple assay to evaluate sorghum flour quality. P011 Sanitary and nutritional quality of Akpan, yoghurt like cereal product from West-Africa Sacca Carole1, Dalode-Vierra Générose1, Anihouvi Victor1, Akissoe Noel1, Hounhouigan Joseph1, Mestres Christian2 1 University of Abomey-Calavi, Abomey-Calavi, Benin, 2CIRAD, Montpellier, France Akpan is a traditional ready-to-serve beverage from maize or/and sorghum which is mixed with sugar, milk and ice before consumption in West Africa. Irrespective of the raw materials, two processing technologies were observed resulting in submerged and solid-state fermentation which lead to different types of Akpan with specific characteristics. This study investigated aroma compounds, amino acids, pathogens, aflatoxins, and tannins of Akpan samples collected at Cotonou and Porto-Novo, two important cities of Benin. Twenty-five (25) aroma compounds of Akpan comprised one ester, one acid, 10 carbonyls, 8 alcohols and 5 phenolics were identified. Sorghum akpan displayed higher values of some amino-acids (glutamic acid) than maize Akpan. In any case, methionine and lysine were the most limiting amino-acids in the diet of 100 g of akpan. Sucrose was the main sugar in all of type of akpan; it was higher for akpan made from sorghum. Tannin content was very low for any technology, varying between 0.02 and 0.05% (db). Irrespective of the Akpan samples, aflatoxins B1 (0.3-59.7 µg/kg) and total aflatoxins (0.7-66.8 µg/kg) contents were high for five and four over

Imagine a flavourist being able to define a flavour by the slightest difference in molecular weight and in doing so; help re-define the way a “real Scotch Whisky is defined”. Genuine Scotch Whisky is produced in accordance with strict manufacturing requirements to guarantee a drink of exceptional and consistent quality. As it occupies an elite position in the liquor trade and consequently commands high prices. A quick easy method of analysis was needed to rigorously differentiate acceptable product. The samples share many components; the main differences between the samples appearing after the 400 seconds in the chromatogram. This region of the chromatogram contains small amounts of components which give the whisky its characteristic flavour. The similarity for most of the samples indicates common methods of manufacture with differences perhaps arising from minor process modifications. P013 X-ray micro computed tomography: non-destructive evaluation of effect of induced germination on whole maize endosperm Tshepiso Mokhoro1, Anton du Plesis1, Paul Geladi1,2, Glen Fox1,3, Marena Manley1 1 Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 2Institute of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, Skogsmarksvägen, Sweden, 3The University of Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia Maize kernel hardness is an essential maize quality attribute in the milling industry. Detrimental environmental conditions may cause germination of mature maize kernels that could have a negative impact on kernel hardness. Earlier research linked endosperm integrity to maize kernel hardness. Maize kernels with germination induced for 0 h, 10 h and 22 h were investigated non-destructively using X-ray micro computed tomography (µCT) to assess the impact of germination on maize kernel hardness. X-ray µCT generates two dimensional (2D) slice images that can be reconstructed to form three dimensional volumes of the sample. Six hybrids with varying hardness levels were included in this study. The obtained results were evaluated in-terms of varying densities (attenuation) within and between samples. Two types of endosperm (typical characteristic of maize kernels) were observed using 2D image slices of the 0 h kernels (control samples). Discrimination between the two types of endosperm was possible due to differences in endosperm density effectively observed by as difference in attenuation using 2D X-ray µCT slice images. Pores in the germ area of the 10 h and 22 h kernels confirmed germination had taken place; 0 h kernels did not have any pores. The process of germination could also be seen by means of voids developed on the peripheral area of the kernel as well as in between the germ and endosperm area. Degradation of the endosperm as germination progressed (from 0 to 22 h) could be observed as decreasing relative density. These changes (from 0 to 22 h) are believed to reduce the integrity of the kernel, leading to decrease in endosperm hardness and a subsequent poor quality end-product. Detecting and removing germinated maize kernels, prior to visible indications (such as emergence of the radicle), will result in better yielding milling processes and improved quality milled products such as maize meal and grits being delivered.

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POSTER ABSTRACTS P014 Composition of carotenoids among diverse cereal grain varieties and their fractions as determined by spectrophotometry and HPLC Trust Beta, Victoria Ndolo University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada To compare the distribution of carotenoid content and composition within the grain, a variety of cereal grains were hand dissected into endosperm, germ and aleurone layer fractions. Total carotenoid content (TCC) and carotenoid composition of whole grains and their fractions were analysed using spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with photodiode array detection (PAD). Results showed that carotenoid content and composition varied significantly (p<0.05) among the cereal types and in the different grain fractions. In the whole grain and endosperm, average TCC was higher in yellow corn (18.19 mg/kg) compared to wheat and barley varieties. TCC was lowest in oats (1.8 mg/kg). However, the germ fractions showed highest TCC in barley (13.73 mg/kg) and lowest TCC in yellow corn (3.78 mg/kg). Lutein and zeaxanthin were the main compounds identified. The latter was not identified in the endosperm of wheat, barley and oats. Whole grain and endosperm fractions of yellow corn exhibited the highest levels of lutein and zeaxanthin averaging 3689 and 9879 µg/kg and, 3639 and 9404 µg/ kg, respectively. Wheat and barley had intermediate levels (819 and 438; 497 and 637 µg/kg) while oats had lowest content of lutein and zeaxanthin. A trend similar to TCC was observed in lutein and zeaxanthin content of the germ fractions. The ratio of zeaxanthin to lutein in the aleurone layer was 2-fold in wheat, 5.2-fold in oats and similar in yellow corn except in dasca corn where it was 4.3-fold. High and significant correlations (p<0.05) were found between carotenoid content and DPPH scavenging activity in whole grain (r=0.6945), endosperm (r=0.9647) and aleurone (r=0.9604). The correlation was weak but significant in the germ fraction(r=0. 4802, p=0.03). These study results suggest that the aleurone layer of all grains studied except barley, the germ of barley, wheat and oat, and corn endosperm have significantly enhanced carotenoid levels. P015 Missing or hidden fumonisins in South African maize: analytical challenges Zanele Skhosana1, Johanita Kruger2, Laura daSilva1, Piet Jooste1, Hannalien Meyer3, Corinda Erasmus1 1 Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa, 2University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, 3Southern African Grain Laboratory, Pretoria, South Africa Fumonisins are secondary metabolites found in maize, typically produced by the growth of Fusarium verticillioides pre-harvest. Current analytical methods used to screen South African commercial maize for the presence of fumonisins, measure free forms only using a methanol/ water solvent as extractant. Although this method is in agreement with similar accredited procedures worldwide, inconsistencies in result repeatability and accuracies have led to the discovery of so-called “hidden” fumonisins. These are also referred to as “missing fumonisin equivalents”. This discovery caused concerns that the actual levels of total fumonisins present in South African maize may exceed maximum tolerable levels for maize meal for human consumption (>1mg/kg fumonisins). The formation of hidden fumonisins in maize is proposed to be an interaction of fumonisins with macromolecular components such as protein and starch in the grain or can also be formed during food processing. Knowledge about the chemical structure of these hidden fumonisins is incomplete and solvent selection has a significant effect on the fumonisin levels extracted. This indicates that extraction protocols and sample preparation before injecting into the LC-MS/MS need to be optimised before conclusions on the presence or absence of hidden fumonisins can be made. Hidden fumonisins can be loosely associated but extractible or chemically bonded and therefore not extractible using current techniques.

This study compares the effect of solvent selection, extraction times, matrix selection (flour vs. extracted maize protein) and dilution effects on the efficiency of fumonisin determination. Hydrolysation of the fumonisins using alkaline treatment with NaOH was tested as an alternative procedure to release tightly embedded fumonisins in the sample. Maximum extraction was obtained using a 50:25:25 water:acetonitrile:methanol solvent. Drying steps during the extraction protocol were found to be a major source of result variation and the use of an ultrasonic bath was optimised to ensure efficient re-dissolving of all material after any drying stage. Although no evidence was found yet to indicate the presence of any chemically bound fumonisins in South African maize, it is clear that the incorrect selection of the extraction solvent will cause incomplete extraction of fumonisins and will lead to missing fumonisin equivalents and variable results.

Food Engineering and Processing Technologies P016 Development of methodology for inactivating condensed tannins in sorghum flour Adeoluwa Adetunji1,2, John Taylor1,2 1 Institute for Food, Nutrition and Well-being and Department of Food Science, Pretoria, South Africa, 2University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa Sorghum grain types containing polymeric phenols known as condensed tannins are referred to as tannin sorghums. The presence of condensed tannins in tannin sorghums confers on them agronomic benefits by protecting against mould and insect attack. However, their food and beverage processing applications are limited. This is linked to the negative effects of condensed tannins on their nutritional and functional properties due to interaction with their proteins. This drawback in utilisation of tannin sorghum when used in the whole grain form has been addressed by pre-processing steps such as chemical treatment. Application of this type of treatment to sorghum flour is also important because sorghum is mostly utilised in flour form. This study focused on development of methodology to inactivate condensed tannins applicable to sorghum flour. High and low tannin and red non-tannin sorghums were selected. Flour samples were steeped in various concentrations of NaOH solution. Steeped flours were freeze dried and analysed for tannin and total phenol contents and α-amylase enzyme inhibition. Steeping in NaOH solution resulted in a considerable reduction in the level of assayable total phenols and tannins. The high tannin NaOH steeped flour assayable tannin contents was 1.7% compared to its raw flour of 4.5% tannin content. Also, high tannin NaOH steeped flour samples had much lower α-amylase enzyme inhibitory effect (<22%) compared to its raw flour with 70% α-amylase enzyme inhibition. Presumably, these effects are due to tannin polymerisation during NaOH steeping. Steeping sorghum flour in NaOH solution for a short time substantially inactivates tannins. It has been proposed that the mechanism of tannin inactivation by alkali is based on oxidative polymerisation of tannins. This is being currently studied in order to fully understand the chemical reaction between tannins and alkali. P017 Role of magnesium on yeast performance under very high gravity ethanolic fermentation Henry Udeh, Ephraim Kgatla, Afam Jideani University of Venda, Vhembe district/ Limpopo, South Africa The advent of highly efficient, environmentally friendly and cost effective fermentation technology has given impetus to research in the field of optimizing nutritional parameters for optimum yeast fermentative performance. Very high gravity (VHG) fermentation is a novel technology that provides an increased production capacity from same size fermentation facilities, with outstanding benefits that includes;

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POSTER ABSTRACTS high ethanol yield per fermentable mash, considerable savings in energy and process water usage, and effluents with low biological O2 demand amongst others. Limitations to full commercialization of the technology have been attributed to deleterious effects of the fermentation condition on yeast physiology which include high osmotic stress and ethanol toxicity amongst others. The impact of these physiological stress during high substrate fermentation manifest as sluggish and incomplete fermentation with high residual sugars in beer, reduced ethanol yield, disproportionate synthesis of esters and generation of respiratory deficient yeast crop. However, several studies has implicated Mg ions with numerous biological processes and more importantly, with the role of curtailing the impacts of these stress conditions. This review highlights two potential stress conditions of VGH fermentation; their mechanism of inhibition versus yeast stress response mechanism, role of Mg ions in yeast physiology and its impact on fermentation processes. The knowledge emphasized herein will be of practical importance to industrial fermentation processes, as it provides possible clue to enhancing yeast fermentative performance under high substrate conditions - with perspectives to precise Mg regulation in yeast.

culture and no standard process control. This affects the product quality consistency and flavour compounds composition. In recent times, the demands for these condiments have increased due to the shift from western flavouring products to the locally produced products by the middle-class population in Africa. Production from bambara groundnut is limited, however, this legume crop have the highest potential as substrate because it is drought resistant and high in carbohydrate. The Bacillus species solely responsible for the fermentation has not been well characterised, with most of the identification method being phenotypic and biochemical test. The flavour compound composition for bambara groundnut fermentation is yet to be documented. This study endeavours to identify the microbial diversity using both phenotypic and genotypic methods. The several Bacillus species were characterized using 16S rDNA PCR. Studies were carried out with bambara groundnut for both spontaneous fermentation and fermentation with Bacillus isolates as a starter culture. These were studied for their fermentation parameter, optimal flavour compound production time and composition of flavour compounds.

Food Quality and Shelf-Life

P018 Testing of a new South African built laboratory-scale degerminator for the production of maize flaking (hominy) grits for cultivar evaluation

P020 Diversity of staphylococcal species in pork and beef Kitoza

Corinda Erasmus1, Massimo Blandino2, Wiana Louw1 1 Southern African Grain Laboratory, Pretoria, South Africa, 2University of Turin, Department of Agronomy, Forest and Land Management., Grugliasco, Turin, Italy

Angela Ratsimba1, Danielle Rakoto1, Victor Jeannoda1, Elodie Arnaud2, Gérard Loiseau2, Jean Paul Chacornac3, Sabine Leroy3, Régine Talon3 1 UT, Antananarivo, Madagascar, 2CIRAD, Montpellier, France, 3INRA, Clermont-Ferrand Theix, France

Effective evaluation of the potential performance of new maize cultivars for the yield of large flaking grits is complicated by the lack of suitably designed laboratory equipment. Cultivar breeders often can only spare a small sample (2 to 3 kg) for the crop quality surveys done by the Southern African Grain Laboratory. Milling Index on cultivars is currently measured using a laboratory-scale roller milling system but still lacks the crucial degerminator step. Lack of suitably-scaled laboratory degerminator units internationally have led to the design of a new prototype model for the SAGL. The unit was tested successfully using 500g size samples of a range of South African and Italian hominy grit-type maize cultivars. Maize was conditioned overnight to 13% moisture, followed by conditioning to 18% for up to 30 minutes depending on moisture uptake rate. Degermination efficiency was tested against a selection of degerminator outlet gap sizes and back-pressure retention times in order to produce a mixture of maize grits, bran, germ and fines. Samples were sieved using 6.35mm, 4mm, 3.35mm, 2mm and 850micron sieves. Fractions were aspirated using a modified SAGL semolina aspirator fitted with an increased power extraction fan. Grit yield was determined as mass fraction percentages. Maize grits of acceptable size and yield were successfully produced. The Pearson correlation coefficients for the flaking grit fraction above 4mm on the laboratory-scale degerminator were 0.90 and 0.91 respectively when compared to total and large flaking grit yields in a commercial mill in Turin, Italy, where a series of candidate cultivars was milled on industrial scale. Sub-samples of the same cultivars were imported to South Africa and analysed at the SAGL for the generation of the required calibration data. This collaborative project between SAGL and the University of Turin is ongoing and trials testing South African cultivars are in progress.

Kitoza is a traditional product from Madagascar manufactured either with strips of pork or beef meat. It is an artisanal product manufactured in rural and urban regions. The first step of the process is salting with coarse salt mixed with spices and then either a drying or smoking step is carried out. Samples from pork and beef and both processes have been analysed. The microbiological analyses revealed the process allowed the selection of microorganisms with potential technological interest. Thus a high level of coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) was noticed: between 5 to7 log CFU/g. These technological bacteria seemed well adapted to the two processes drying or smoking. 811 isolates of presumed CNS from Manitol Salt agar have been identified. Two approaches have been applied: a PCR multiplex as developed by Corbière Morot-Bizot et al. (2004. J. Appl. Microbiol. 97, 1087-1094) or a staph array developed by Giammarinaro et al. (2005. J. Clin. Microbiol., 3673-3680) allowing the identification of 36 CNS species. A total of 9 species of CNS were identified in the Kitoza with 7 species for the beef and 8 for the pork meats. Staphylococcus saprophyticus was the dominant species in all the products and the major one in dried pork and beef smoked or dried. While in smoked pork, in addition of S. saprophyticus (50%), S. xylosus (13%), S. equorum (15%), S. succinus (13%) and S. epidermidis (9%) were identified. This study highlighted that the process: salting and drying or smoking allowed the selection of coagulase negative staphylococci. These CNS are well described in the literature as contributing to the quality of meat products, with some species such as S. xylosus already used as starter cultures for the manufacture of meat products. This work was funded by EU, 7th Framework Programme, AFTER project (grant agreement 245025).

P019

P021

Identification of the microbial diversity and characterisation of Bacillus species for the enhanced fermentation of bambara groundnut in the production of African condiments

Staphylococcal population in Lanhouin: potential indigenous starter?

Gabriel Akanni, Elna Buys, Henriëtte de Kock, Amanda Minnaar University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa

Janvier Kindossi1, Victor Anihouvi1, Générose Vieira-Dalode1, Noël Akissoe1, Joseph Hounhouigan1, Jean Paul Chacornac2, Sabine Leroy2, Régine Talon2 1 UAC, Cotonou, Benin, 2INRA, Clermont-Ferrand Theix, France

African condiments are products from alkaline fermentation of several legumes native to West Africa and they serve as a low-cost meat substitute. Typically, the fermentation is spontaneous without a start

Lanhouin is a traditional fermented fish based condiment mainly processed in the coastal areas of Benin. Its production is still artisanal, and two mainly conditions, aerobic fermentation and semi aerobic

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POSTER ABSTRACTS fermentation were noted in the processing of fresh fish into Lanhouin. The microbiology of the two fermentation processes has been characterized. The coagulase negative bacteria (CNS) were enumerated along the two fermentation processes and reached approximately 4 log CFU/g after 3 days of fermentation and stayed at this level up to the end of the process. A collection of 121 CNS has been done during the process of the two fermentations and identified either by a PCR multiplex or a Staph Array. 112 isolates were identified as belonging to the genus Staphylococcus. The identification of the species lead to the identification of five species: S. nepalensis, S. sciuri, S. cohnii subsp. cohnii, S. saprophyticus and S. epidermidis. S. nepalensis (47%) was the dominant species in the Lanhouin, followed equally by S. sciuri (22%) and S. cohnii subsp. cohnii (21%). S. nepalensis and S. cohhii were isolated along the manufacturing of the two fermentations attesting that they are well adapted to these processes, while S. sciuri was only isolated from the semi-aerobic fermentation and disappeared along the process. The dominance of S. nepalensis and its presence along the process questioned its development as indigenous starter cultures. This species has been isolated from fish sauce and it it was able to improve its odour. Thus the diversity of the strains has been characterized by RAPD and the presence of potential hazards such as resistance to antibiotics, hemolytic property, DNase activity and presence of genes encoding enterotoxins are currently studied. These criteria are indispensable to develop safe indigenous starter cultures. This work was funded by EU, 7th Framework Programme, AFTER project (grant agreement 245025). P022 Postharvest deterioration of sugarcane in a simulated harvest-to-crush delay Milindi Sibomana, Nafiisa Sobratee, Carel Bezuidenhout, Tilahun Workneh University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa Sugarcane deterioration remains one of the important supply chain efficiency leverage points in the South African sugar industries. Deteriorated cane affects milling efficiency and sugar quality, hence affecting profits for both millers and growers. This study simulated a burn/harvest-to-crush delay involving two sugarcane varieties (N12 and N31), which were exposed to similar environmental conditions for a period of 9 days after harvest. On each sampling date, five replicates of each variety were tested for different quality parameters such as respiration rate, total aerobic bacteria, lactic acid and total soluble solids. These parameters were measured at bottom, middle and top sections of the stalks to evaluate the effect of positions on rate of changes of these parameters. The stalk positions significantly (P≤ 0.05) affected the respiration rate, with the top and bottom sections showing greater respiration rates than the middle section. The bottom and top sections had significantly (P≤ 0.05) greater numbers of bacteria than the middle section. An increase in lactic acid in the top and bottom sections was observed. Over time, the respiration rate in the top and bottom sections significantly (P≤ 0.05) declined, peaking at day 5 for N31 and day 7 for N12. The data shows that the rate of deterioration differs significantly in the different stalk sections. Environmental conditions were found to be the major factor influencing the quality during the sample cane storage period. The top stalk section has less sucrose might prove that this section was physiologically active. By studying the changes of cane quality parameters in this stalk position-specific manner then a method to quantify sugarcane deterioration, through monitoring time-sensitive indices, is under development.

P023 An overview on the effects of postharvest handling and varying storage on the quality of avocados (Persea americana Mill) Alaika Kassim, Tilahun Workneh University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa Avocados are characterized as climacteric fruit and vulnerable to rapid physiological deterioration. Maintaining avocado fruit quality requires proper integrated postharvest technologies. Thus, the primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of combined postharvest treatments on the physical, chemical and sensory quality parameters of ‘Hass’ avocado. This study focused on time-varying temperature during 28 days to simulate a realistic avocado cold chain in South Africa. A randomised complete block design with pre-packaging (hot water and Avoshine® wax coating), packaging (low density polyethylene (LDPE) and Corn Starch Biodegradable films (BD)) and storage conditions (controlled and ambient) with three replications was used. The quality parameters that were evaluated included physiological weight loss (PWL), marketability, skin colour, firmness, puree colour, puree viscosity, moisture content, dry matter, pH, total soluble solids (TSS) and total titratable acid (TTA). Storage conditions and the storage period significantly (P ≤ 0.05) affected all the quality parameters tested. Low temperature storage offered the greatest benefit in maintaining marketability when compared to ambient conditions. Control samples exhibited increased rates of ripening evident in increased PWL, reduced firmness, darkened skin colour, rapid decline in pH, increased TTA and TSS. Avoshine® coating combined with LDPE packaging was significant (P ≤ 0.05) in maintaining better marketability, moisture content and dry matter indicative of delayed ripening. Hot water treatment significantly (P ≤ 0.05) promoted darkening of the skin, decreased pulp firmness and lower marketability. The findings show that cold storage is essential in improving the shelf life and maintaining the quality of avocado fruit during export. To further improve the quality and shelf life, Avoshine® wax applied to the avocado surface, thereafter, packaged in micro-perforated LDPE bags can be used. Further research based on the effect of integrated pre-harvest, harvesting and postharvest methods on the final avocado quality should be conducted. P024 Investigating the microbiological profile of motoho, a traditionally fermented sorghum beverage Sanchia Moodley, Elna Buys, Nomusa Dlamini 1 University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, 2CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa Traditional food processing provides a means of livelihood for processors in African countries. Motoho is a spontaneously fermented, nonalcoholic; sorghum beverage.It is traditionally produced in Africa and will be the focus of the proposed research. In this study, the microbiological and physico-chemical properties of raw sorghum, fermented slurry and Motoho will be examined. The general process of manufacturing Motoho will be outlined and recommendations with regards to HACCP will be provided to the manufacturer of Motoho. Microorganisms associated with the fermentation process will be enumerated and identified by culture dependent and culture independent methods. Culture dependent techniques using the plate count method will be used to test for lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds, coliforms, and Escherichia coli while Petrifilm will used to test for Staphylococcus aureus. The culture independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method will be applied to identify the lactic acid bacteria most prevalent in the fermentation process and products. MALDI-TOF will be used to identify the presence of Esherichia coli in the fermentation products. LAB have a central role in the fermentation process of many cereal based foods which are produced in Africa. Hence it is expected that lactic acid bacteria will be isolated from Motoho.

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POSTER ABSTRACTS P025

P027

The effect of time-temperature fermentation regimes on the sensory and chemical quality of honeybush tea

Comparative study on brewing qualities of local cereal grains (sorghum and millet) for brewing purpose using Saccharomyces cerevisiae

A Bergh1, A Theron1, M Muller1, E Joubert2, D De Beer2 1 Stellenbosch University, Western Cape, South Africa, 2ARC InfruitecNietvoorbij, Western Cape, South Africa

1

Chemical oxidation of honeybush, commonly referred to as “fermentation”, is responsible for the characteristic sweet, honey-like flavour and dark, reddish brown colour of honeybush tea. The effect of fermentation conditions, temperature (80°C and 90°C) and time (8 h, 16 h, 24 h and 32 h) on the sensory characteristics of infusions was investigated to establish the optimum fermentation conditions for the honeybush species C. genistoides, C. subternata, and C. maculata. Fermentation resulted in an increase of positive sensory attributes and decrease of negative sensory attributes, with fermentation conditions of 80°C/24 h or 90°C/16 h producing teas with optimal sensory profiles, depending on the species. The effect of fermentation conditions on composition and the effect of these changes on the taste and mouthfeel properties of honeybush tea were also determined. This was achieved by examining the changes in soluble solids and total polyphenol content, instrumental colour and concentration of specific polyphenolic compounds, such as mangiferin, isomangiferin and hesperidin, of the infusions. Fermentation reduced the soluble solids content, total polyphenol content and the concentration of polyphenolic compounds, contributing to the changes in the taste and mouthfeel of honeybush tea. Absorbance, as a measure of colour, decreased with increasing fermentation temperature and time, reflecting the change in polyphenolic composition. Significant correlations were established for specific polyphenolic compounds and bitter taste in C. genistoides and astringency in C. subternata. The concentrations of these compounds appear to be important, as they exist in different proportions in the respective species, contributing to differences in taste and mouthfeel. P026 Microbiological quality of beverages and syrup made from the calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa by local company in Senegal Ndiaye Diop Ndeye Adiara1, Cisse Mady1, Pallet Dominique2, Toure Kane Coumba1 1 Ecole Superieure Polytechnique, Dakar, Senegal, 2UMR Qualisud Cirad, Montpellier, France Hibiscus sabdariffa or Bissap is a herbaceous plant of tropical and subtropical regions. In Senegal it is produced and consumed throughout the year in different forms. The transformation is ensured by economic interest groups or local businesses. To measure the impact of different stages of the production line on the microbiological quality of the finished product, the products obtained in the traditional way (beverage and syrup) by a local company are analysed. Research of pathogens and general hygiene of the raw material (calyx) and during the different stages of the process, but also the aging of the products (beverage and syrup) at different storage temperatures (10.20 30 and 37 °C) were performed using AFNOR microbiological methods Calyx has given an acceptable microbial flora < 104 CFU.g-1 and absence of pathogens. During the process the lactic acid bacteria, appeared in the syrup and drink. They were found at 244 x 103 and 13 x 103 CFU.mL-1 respectively for syrup and drink before filtration. The presence of bacteria after pasteurization indicates problems with the chosen temperature or working conditions. The aging study showed an increase in microbial load between 63 and 400 CFU.mL-1 for moulds, and from 45 to 518 CFU.mL-1 for the lactic acid, from 15 to 30 days at 4 °C only in beverage samples unlike syrups. Conservation of the products (beverage and syrup) (10. 20, 30 and 37 °C) did not reveal the presence of bacteria. The analysis showed contamination during the process. Thus an optimum pasteurization value is important to determine the best expiration date, the storage temperature to preserve the quality of the product and to implement a HACCP system.

Henry Udeh1,2, Lawrence Eneje1, Afam Jideani2, Ephraim Kgatla2 Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria, 2 University of Venda, Thohoyandou/ Limpopo, South Africa Increasing production cost ensuing from the importation of barley grain for brewing of local and commercial beer, has led investigations into local cereal grains with brewing potentials. The brewing qualities of sorghum and millet grains were analysed for their suitability for brewing purpose. The Institute of Brewing and European Brewing Convention methods were employed in ascertaining the brewing qualities of two sorghum varieties KSV8, SJ5912 and millet with respect to germinative capacity (% GC), germinative energy (% GE) and 1000 corn weight. Intriguing results were obtained for KSV8 which showed a respective high GC, GE and 1000 corn weight of 98, 99 and 31.5 as compared to SK5912 and millet which exhibited close values of 96, 93, and 98, 95 and 29.4, 17.5 respectively. Analysis on beer produced from both cereal grains was also carried out with respect to pH and specific gravity yield and the results obtained are 4.4, 4.3 and 3.9, and 1.0015, 1.0015 and 1.0020. The results obtained from beer analysis shows that KSV8 has a more reliable pH, with commensurable amount of dissolved sugars which could jointly ensure extended shelf life of the product and serve as a good source of fermentable extracts for beer production. These results shows that local grains exhibit potential brewing qualities which could be adapted for brewing purposes, however improvement in enzymes and malting method employed is required in order to enhance their yield for efficient brewing of local and commercial beer. P028 The effect of legume protease inhibitors on native milk and bacterial proteases Melanie Richards, Henriëtte, L De Kock, Kwaku, G Duodu, Elna, M Buys University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa

Although heat-treatment is the most common means of inactivating enzymes, some heat-stable enzymes can survive the ultra-high temperature (UHT) processing of milk and cause sensory and consistency defects during storage at room temperature. Protease inhibitors from legume seed extracts (soybean, cowpea and marama beans) and purified soybean protease inhibitor were evaluated with regards to their ability to inhibit proteases produced by important milk contaminating bacteria, i.e. Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp., and native milk protease, plasmin. The legume protease inhibitors were effective in reducing the activity of plasmin and proteases from Bacillus spp., while it showed low inhibitory activity towards P. fluorescens proteases in a buffer system. The protease inhibitors were subsequently evaluated for their ability to inhibit the proteases in UHT milk. The protease inhibitors reduced the activity of plasmin and Bacillus proteases, however to a lesser extent as compared to inhibition in the buffer system, while it had little or no effect on proteases from Pseudomonas spp. Legume protease inhibitors show great potential in preventing or reducing proteolytic activity of Bacillus proteases and plasmin and may be exploited in various applications where these proteases cause sensory or consistency defects in the product.

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POSTER ABSTRACTS P029 Characterization and optimization of malting process for Gowe production, a fermented beverage from West-Africa Laurent Adinsi1, Générose Vieira-Dalodé1, Noël Akissoé1, Christian Mestres2, Joseph Hounhouigan1 1 Département de Nutrition et Sciences Alimentaires, Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques, Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Benin, 2 International Agronomic Research Centre for Development (CIRAD), UMR Qualisud, Montpellier, France Gowe is a traditional Beninese beverage made from malted and nonmalted sorghum or maize, with overall quality depending on functional properties of malt. The objective of this study was to characterize the sorghum malt and maize malt samples collected from Gowe processors, and then to determine the best conditions for malting using full factorial design with independent variables including soaking time (8 to 24h) and germination time (24 to 72h) at ambient temperature of 30°C. Alpha-amylase activity was ranged between 4.1 and 28.7 UC/g and 4.9 and 9.8 UC/g in sorghum malt and maize malt collected from Gowe processors respectively. The ratio alpha amylase / beta amylase activity varied from 19 to 102 for sorghum malt whereas beta amylase was absent in maize malt. Sorghum malt had higher cyanide content (12.8 mg/kg) than maize malt (9.8 mg/kg). Concerning phytate content, no significant difference was observed between sorghum malt (0.5 g IP6/100g) and maize malt (0.4 g IP6/100g). Similar observations were observed for tannins content (0.03% for both malt). Regarding optimization experiments, alpha amylase activity was significantly and positively related to soaking time and germination time. Concerning beta amylase activity, similar observations were observed and germination time was the dominant factor. Dry matter losses were positively affected by only the germination time (linear term). Increasing soaking time and germination time influenced negatively cyanide content. The malting optimal variables were a soaking and germination of 15h and 60h respectively. These conditions gave malt with alpha amylase activity of 47 UC/g, and alpha amylase / beta amylase activity ratio of 34. This malt has 12.9 mg/kg of cyanide content and 13.7% of dry matter losses. P030 Characterisation of Bacillus spp. and Paenibacillus spp. in extended shelf life milk Desmond Mugadza, Elna Buys University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa Extended Shelf Life (ESL) milk is a dairy product that was introduced in South Africa about 5 years ago. Currently ESL is processed in two ways. The first method is whereby milk is subjected to bactofugation, pasteurised and then aseptically packaged. The second method is whereby milk is subjected to UHT temperatures for about 0.5 seconds and packaged. Although the milk is high heat treated it is still susceptible to spoilage by thermoduric microbes such as the Bacillus and Paenibacillus ssp. as evidenced by shelf life challenges that the product currently has. It has been reported that Bacillus cereus a ubiquitous, Gram positive and spore forming pathogenic bacterium was frequently detected in dairy products such as dried milk products, fermented milk and pasteurised milk. The ability of Bacillus and Paenibacillus spp. to form endospores that are highly resistant to various destructive processing conditions make them important species to be studied on in the dairy industry as this has emerged as one of the greatest obstacles in extending shelf life and source of food safety threat in milk especially under the circumstances that the spores are heat resistant and upon germination the organisms are able to grow under a diverse range of temperatures as well as pH. Paenibacillus a ubiquitous Gram positive spore forming, psychrotolerant organism has been isolated in raw milk and has been reported to increase in population during storage of pasteurised milk to outnumber the previously dominating Bacillus spp. at the beginning of shelf life of the pasteurised milk. Such unique characteristics make it worth to investigate the occurrence, survival and adaptation of these

spores to heat treatments. It is therefore the objective of this study is to characterise Bacillus spp. and Paenibacillus spp. in ESL milk. P031 Quality assessment of oils from selected cultivars of cactus pear (O. ficus-indica and O. robusta) seeds Nokuthula Shongwe1,2, Maryna De Wit1, Arno Hugo1 University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, Free State, South Africa, 2 University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

1

The cactus pear seed oil is principally composed of unsaturated fatty acids, making them vulnerable to oxidation reactions. Evaluating the oil quality, acceptability and shelf- life deems important. This study therefore, seeks to measure the oxidative stability of oils extracted from a few selected varieties of cactus pear seed, hence selecting the best quality oil-producing cultivar. Seven South African varieties of O. ficus indica and O. robusta were evaluated for oil quality parameters such as refractive index, iodine value, peroxide value, free fatty acid value, ρ-Anisidine value and oxidative stability index. The cactus pear seed oil is highly unsaturated, owed to its high concentration of linoleic acid (55.82 – 67.32 %). Corresponding and confirming the high unsaturation were the iodine values (110.68 – 126.82) obtained. The oleic fatty acid content ranged between 15.20 – 21.83 % among the tested cultivars. Though the peroxide values indicated the presence of peroxides (9.50 – 33.67 meq O2 .kg-1), ρ-Anisidine values indicated that low levels of secondary oxidation occured. While the oil demonstrated a low oxidative stability index with a range of 2.16–4.15 hours, a few interesting relationships between this and the tested parameters were established. Positive correlations were observed between oxidative stability index, oil content, oleic acid and monounsaturated fatty acid content. Tormentosa proved to have the best quality oil after considering quality parameters. P032 Arrangements for sanitary security of smoked fish in Africa’s traditional markets Nicolas Ayessou, Mady Cissé, Hortense Diatta, Mariama Diatta, Coumba Kane University Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar/Dakar, Senegal Smoking fish in tropical countries particularly in Africa is practised in a small scale and its traditional character imposes poor bacteriological quality to end products. Furthermore the terms of sale and handling in African markets reduce their shell-life. So, objectives of this work are to set up some effective capacities which improve both microbiological quality and life expectancy. Eviscerated fishes are washed then dipped into aqueous extracts in 20g/litre of garlic (Allium sativum) and Moringa olifera’s seeds before the smoking. Both established lots are then preserved at 4°C. The microbiological analyses are realized at the first, third and seventh day. To improve storage in markets, some smoked fishes are arranged in a goal in wire netting and follow-up during seven days. The microbiological analyses allowing to estimate the efficiency of corrective actions are i) the total microbial flora (total aerobic bacteria, yeasts, moulds); ii) indicators of contaminations (enterobacteria, coliforms, E. coli) and iii) pathogenic germs (Staphylococcus aureus). The evaluation of the microbial load in samples just after the smoking reveals 100 % inhibition by garlic and Moringa’s seeds extracts compared with the lot witness. However during their preservation in 4°C, developed coliformes, staphylococci and aerobic flora occurred but in thresholds lower than the lot witness. These results highlight the bacteriostatic action of garlic and of Moringa’s extract being able to extend shelf life of the smoked fish Arius heudelotti from 3 to 15 days. At the level of displays, protected samples presented a better quality at the optimal use (three days) even until seven days. The sanitary security of smoked fish’s consumers can be guaranteed by simple hygienic capacities adapted to African local markets context. These constraints are lake of a cooler chain and primary packaging system.

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POSTER ABSTRACTS P033

P035

The effect of accelerated temperatures on the shelf life limiting factors in apple juice concentrate

Effects of carrot powder on physicochemical, microbiological properties and sensory properties of yoghurt

Siphiwe Dube, Elna Buys, Amanda Minnaar University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa

Ishmael Madora, Thakhani Takalani, Mpho Mashau University of Venda, Limpopo Province, South Africa

The quality of apple juice concentrate deteriorates during storage due to Maillard browning and growth of yeasts and moulds and this poses a problem for the fruit juice industry as it leads to economic losses. Knowledge on the rate of deteriorative reactions is important because when it is known, the storage and processing conditions can be optimized. The objective of this study was to determine if accelerated storage studies can be used to estimate the rate of change in the shelf life limiting factors in apple juice concentrate over time. This was done by assessing the rate of deterioration at a normal storage temperature of 10ºC and accelerated storage temperatures of 25ºC and 35ºC over a period of 12 weeks. The colometric parameters (L*, a*, b*, hue, chroma and total colour difference), absorbance at 420nm (A420nm) and 5- hydroxymethylfurfural content were evaluated. The change in A420nm and b* were best described by the zero order kinetics while the change in L* could be adequately described by the zero, first and parabolic kinetic models. The predicted rate constants (k) from the accelerated storage temperatures were 1.06, 1.70 and 1.63 times more than the actual rate constant from the normal storage temperature for L*, b* and A420nm respectively. These results suggest that the predicted rate constant is comparable to the actual rate constant. The Arrhenius model and Q10 coefficients were used to describe the temperature dependence of the reaction rate constants of the Maillard browning parameters. The Q10 coefficients which can be used to estimate the change at lower storage temperatures were calculated to be 1.53, 1.20, 1.81 and 5.25 for L*, b*, A420nm and HMF respectively and the activation energies were 8.17, 7.70 and 14.80 kcal mol-1 for L*, b* and A420nm respectively.

Yogurt is considered a healthy food and incorporating carrot powder will make it even healthier. Carrot powder, is a good source of beta carotene, a provitamin A. Plain and carrot yoghurt were prepared in the laboratory scale production from low fat milk. Carrot yoghurt was prepared by blending milk with 1 %, 2 % and 3 % carrot powder before fermentation. The physicochemical, microbiological and sensory quality of yoghurt samples were investigated after production. Physicochemical analysis revealed decrease in pH and an increase in titratable acidity, viscosity and total soluble solids with increase in carrot powder. On the other hand, protein content decreases with increase in carrot powder. The lightness (L*) decreased with increase in carrot powder while the redness (a*) increased with increase in carrot powder with 3 % giving higher values of redness and lower values of lightness. Microbial count increased with increase in carrot powder with a significant difference between the 3 % carrot yoghurt and 1 % and 2 % carrot yoghurt. There was a significant difference on the sensory scores of colour and aroma of carrot yoghurt and plain yoghurt as the carrot yoghurt got higher scores than plain yoghurt. There was no significant difference (P<0.05), between the acceptability of the plain yoghurt, 1 % and 2 % a carrot yoghurt and a significant difference was there between 3 %. Thus, fortifying yogurt with 1 % and 2 % carrot powder produced an acceptable yogurt with beneficial health effects.

P034 Characterization of traditional processing of Kitoza, a salted/dried/ smoked meat product from Madagascar Angela Ratsimba1, Danielle Rakoto1, Victor Jeannoda1, Régine Talon2, Elodie Arnaud3 1 Université of Tananarive, Antananarivo, Madagascar, 2INRA, Clermont Ferrand, France, 3CIRAD, St Denis de la Réunion, France Kitoza is a traditional salted and dried and/or smoked meat product of Madagascar. It is made from beef or pork strips and is produced at artisanal and familial levels. In a previous study, the analyses of 60 endproducts showed that smoked Kitoza contained approximately 50 g/100g of water, 3g/100g of salt and showed a water activity of 0.93 on average. They are thus classified mainly in food with high moisture content while the most dried products are in the zone of intermediate humidity food (Leistner and Rödel, 1976). Smoking the product however led to Benzo (a) Pyrene (B(a)P) content (indicator of carcinogenic compounds contamination of cooked and smoked meat products) above the norm of 5 ppb in 10 samples. Moreover, if the final pH values (of the order of 5.8) indicated that Kitoza is not a fermented food, 11 samples had some D-lactic acid content as described in sausage, a well-known fermented product. This study describes the traditional process for making smoked Kitoza. This process has not been the focus of any other scientific study to date. It has been characterized in terms of mass transfers during salting and smoking (salt gain, water loss) and evolution of biochemical (water, salt, Aw, pH, titrable acidity, D andLl-lactic acid , phenol and B(a)P contents) and microbiological (lactic acid bacteria and total flora) characteristics during the process. Measurements were performed on the raw material, the product after salting, and the product after smoking. This kinetic study allows defining better the unit operations involved in the process and their impact on product quality.

P036 Modelling the effect of temperature on respiration rates of pomegranate (‘Cv. Bhagwa’) whole fruit arils and aril-sac for modified atmosphere packaging Wilhelmina V. Aindongo1, Oluwafemi J. Caleb1, Pramod V. Mahajan2, Marena Manley1, Umezuruike L. Opara1 1 Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa, 2 INRA, Montpellier, France Temperature is one of the extrinsic factors that influence physiological response of fresh produce. For optimal postharvest handling and design of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), it is important to understand the influence of storage temperature on respiration rate (RR) of fresh or fresh-cut produce. This requires a robust mathematical model, capable of predicting RR as a function of temperature. In this study, the RR of pomegranate whole fruit, aril-sac and arils were quantified and a mathematical model was developed to predict RR as a function of temperature. RR (RO2 and RCO2) of whole fruit, aril-sacs and arils was measured at 5, 10, 15 and 22°C for storage duration of 5 day, using a closed system. Aril-sac had the highest RR at all storage temperatures RO2 of whole fruit, aril-sacs and arils ranged from approximately 3.7 to 33.3, 5.5 to 48.4 and 3.2 to 28.9 mg kg-1 h-1, and RCO2 ranged from 2.7 to 23.0, 2.9 to 27.7 and 1.96 to 18.6 mg kg-1 h-1, respectively. Temperature had a significant effect on RR of whole fruit and fruit fractions. Overall, RR declined by 74.5% when storage temperature was reduced from 22°C to 5°C. The dependence of RR of pomegranate whole fruit, aril-sac and arils on temperature was adequately predicted by an Arrhenius type model (R2 > 97.1%). The model was validated at 22°C and good agreement was found between experimental and predicted data.

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POSTER ABSTRACTS P037

P039

Modelling the effect of storage conditions on transpiration rate of pomegranate aril-sac and arils

Evaluation of beef quality at retail level

Wilhelmina V. Aindongo1, Oluwafemi J. Caleb1, Pramod V. Mahajan2, Marena Manley1, Umezuruike L. Opara1 1 Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 2INRA, Montpellier, France Transpiration is a critical physiological process in fresh produce, and if not adequately maintained could result in produce weight loss, shrivelling and enhanced decay, which translate into economic losses. Fresh or fresh-cut produce release large amount of water vapour and without appropriate packaging, this could result in the accumulation of water vapour and enhance microbial growth. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of storage conditions (temperature 5, 10, 15 and 22°C; relative humidity (RH) 76, 86 and 96%) on the transpiration rate (TR) of pomegranate (Punica granatum L. cv ‘Bhagwa’) arils and aril-sac. Temperature and RH had significant effects on TR of arils and aril-sac. TR increased with increase in temperature and decrease in RH. Arils had higher TR than aril-sac under all storage conditions. Across all storage conditions, TR ranged from 1.42 to 15.23 g kg-1 d-1 for arils and 0.639.95 g kg-1 d-1 for aril-sac. Higher TR observed in arils may be attributed to the larger surface area-to-volume ratio compared to aril-sac. The TR of arils and aril sac as a function of temperature and RH was adequately predicted (R2 > 83.59%) and successfully validated at 22°C and RH of 76, 86 and 96%, with good agreement found between experimental and predicted data. P038 Screening of bacteria as biocontrol agents against the citrus pathogen Penicillium digitatum Thato Manyaapelo, Renate Roux van der Merwe, Jackie Badenhorst, Thierry Regnier Tshwane University of Technology, Tshwane, South Africa Citrus contributes greatly to the economy of South Africa, the United States, Brazil, Israel and Southern Europe. Post-harvest diseases caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum continue to be a huge problem for this industry, causing great financial losses. Fungicides are the main choice of defense against these post-harvest diseases. However, pathogens develop resistance against these fungicides, therefore rendering them inactive. The use of microorganisms for biocontrol is an alternative method that could be cost-effective. From the 150 bacterial isolates that were screened, only six (five identified as Alcaligenes faecalis and one as Brevundimonas) displayed antifungal activity. As their mode of action against Penicillium digitatum, the bacterial isolates produced siderophores, volatiles and phenolics. The free acids and esters produced by the bacterial isolates were tested further for identification using GC-MS. The bacterial filtrates were also subjected to HPLC, TLC and Bioautography. The compounds active against the pathogen were found to be excreted into the supernatant. SEM analyses showed that the bacterial isolates were able to attach to the citrus peel while during in vivo studies two of the 6 biocontrol agents showed reduced growth of P. digitatum on the citrus fruit.

Lize Liebenberg1, Arno Hugo1, Philip Strydom2 1 University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa, 2ARC, Irene, Pretoria, South Africa At present the only generic regulation of beef quality is the application of the classification system. However, this system only addresses tenderness as far as it is influenced by the age of the animal. The fact of the matter is that very little is known about the status of the product and the factors affecting its quality. Porterhouse steaks, containing the M. longissimus lumborum muscle, were purchased from either butcheries or food retailers. The cuts were purchased as non-vacuumpacked (fresh) or vacuum-packed. Thirteen outlets were selected and 21 products were tested from 20 collection days. Instrumental colour of meat and fat were determined with a Minolta colour meter, measuring L*, a* and b*. Warner Brazler Shear Force was performed as in indicator of tenderness. Sarcomeres and myofibrillar fragments were measured by means of video image analyses. Collagen content and solubility were also measured. Price per kg did not correlate well with tenderness. Only the most expensive product did not have any steak in the tough category. Vacuum-packaging was no guarantee for tender meat. Brand named products with claimed aging periods from food retailers were in most cases more consistent in tenderness than fresh products with no claim. Steaks from grass fed animals were darker in appearance than steaks from feedlot. This is due to the fact that free range animals are invariably older than grain fed animals and therefore have more colour pigment, which would have caused the darker colour. It also had significantly higher score for yellowness of fat and this is well known for pasture animals and is normally due to the higher presence of fat-soluble carotenoid pigments absorbed from the diet. Frozen samples gave the poorest colour recordings indicating a higher degree of browning or the formation of metmyglobin. P040 Effect of biofilm on the bacterial quality of extended shelf life milk Sandile Khoza, Elna Buys University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa Extended Shelf-life (ESL) refers to products that have been treated in a manner to reduce the microbial count beyond normal pasteurization, packaged under extreme hygienic conditions, and which have a defined prolonged shelf life under refrigerated conditions. Milk is thermally processed to reduce microbial load for both safety and keeping quality of milk and milk products. Multiple thermally treatment options are pasteurization, extended shelf-life (ESL) and ultra-high temperatures (UHT) processing. Pasteurization significantly contributes to keeping quality of milk and milk products; it doesn’t kill all spores, specifically psychrotrophic strains of spore-forming B. cereus which are known to be more resistant to heat. Bacillus species and their spores, often present in raw milk, play an important role in the bacterial deterioration of milk and milk products. Apart from its presence in almost all raw milk, biofilms are of concern to the dairy industry because of their high resistance to cleaning procedures, which allows bacteria within the biofilm to detach and cross-contaminate products during processing. The shelf life of ESL milk might be limited by the biofilms and the spores that survive pasteurization, biofilms are really a threat in dairy industry especially in fresh milk processing plant. Up to now, there is limited information available on factors limiting the shelf-life of ESL milk produced by bactofugation and subsequent pasteurization and there’s also limited information available on the relationship between storage temperature and the bacterial quality of ESL milk produced in South Africa. Therefore the purpose of this study is to determine the effect of biofilm, psychrotrophic and mesophilic strains of Bacillus spp. on the shelf life of ESL milk.

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POSTER ABSTRACTS Food Safety

P043

P041

The physicochemical and sensory evaluation of commercial sour milk (Amasi) products

Microbial levels on the food preparation areas of a typical district hospital in South Africa Gaofetoge Setlhare, Ntswaki Malebo, Karabo Shale Central University of Technology, Bloemfontein, South Africa The role of hospital surfaces, including those in food preparation, areas in the transmission of hospital-acquired infections (HAI) has been long recognised; however evidence that indicates the role of these surfaces in the transmission of HAI is not well documented. This study was conducted at a typical district hospital in the Free State Province of South Africa. Using swabs for microbial collection, surface samples were collected from nine kitchen areas, quantified and identified using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Fungal counts (1 x 103 to 2.3 x 105 cfu.cm-2) were found to be higher compared to bacterial counts (1.5 x 103 to 1.1 x 105 cfu.cm2 ). Making use of MALDI-TOF MS and API, two fungal and seven bacterial genera were identified. Candida was the most common fungal genus identified followed by Aureobasidium while Bacillus was found to be the most common bacterial genus, followed by Kocuria, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter and Acinetobacter. The presence of Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas and Candida amongst others on kitchen surfaces could have serious consequences as these organisms have been implicated in various studies as probable causes of HAIs. The study highlights the need to ensure proper cleaning of working surfaces in the kitchen as well as stringent surveillance and monitoring to ensure the minimal contamination of food products prepared for patients.

Jeremia Moyane1,2, Afam Jideani1 University of Venda, School of Agriculture, Department of Food Science and Technology, Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province, South Africa, 2Agricultural Research Council, Animal Production Institute, Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiology and Biotechnology Unit, Pretoria, Gauteng Province, South Africa

1

P042

The physicochemical and sensory properties of five commercially available sour milk (amasi) products- AoA, AoB, AoC, AoD and AoE were analysed in 3 batches. Samples were collected from retail shops in Thohoyandou. The products were examined for Escherichia coli, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), total plate count (TPC), pH, titratable acidity (TA), colour, viscosity and sensory properties. Microbial analysis results for LAB ranged between 1.25 × 105 and 1.97 × 106 cfu with sample AoA and AoB being the highest by 1.96 × 106 and 1.97 × 106 cfu, respectively. E. coli count ranged from 1.22 × 104 to 1.78 × 105 cfu with sample AoE and AoC being the lowest and highest (p < 0.05), respectively. TPC had the least number of counts with the values between 4.2 × 103 and 9.1 × 104 cfu. The pH values of the products ranged between 4.22 and 4.34 and TA ranged between 0.80 and 0.84. Colour measurements gave L* values of the products ranging from 33.77 to 40.19, while a* and b*values were 3.08 to 6.43 and 13.17 to 18.77, respectively. Differences existed in viscosities of the products that were not significantly difference (p < 0.05). Sensory score for the overall acceptability indicated that consumers did like the sour milk, as the values ranged from 3.8 to 4.4. Although there were significant differences (p < 0.05) in terms of sweetness, smoothness and astringency, they did not affect the consumer acceptability of the products. Presence of E. coli in the sour milk products can be of health concern to consumers.

Irrigation water as a source of antibiotic resistant and virulent E. coli on lettuce

P044

Matthew Aijuka, Elna M. Buys University of Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa

Correlation between surface microbial count and food preparation practices during the administration of the national school nutrition programme in central South Africa

Irrigation water has been noted a source of bacterial pathogens on fresh produce. E. coli is a major foodborne pathogen associated with fresh produce and increase in antibiotic resistance has been noted. Antibiotic resistance can provide information on relatedness among environmental E. coli while virulence factors determine ability to cause illness. The purpose of this study was to determine whether irrigation water was a source of antibiotic resistant and virulent E. coli on irrigated lettuce grown under field conditions. Twenty-two E. coli isolates (12 irrigation water;10 lettuce) were subjected to 11 antibiotics on Muller-Hinton agar, incubated at 35˚C for 24 h. Results were recorded as resistant or susceptible and compared using ANOVA. Numerical classification was done using Euclidean metric, average linkage method. Isolates were tested for Shigatoxin producing genes Shigatoxin 1 (stx 1), Shigatoxin 2 (stx 2) and Intimin (eae) using real time PCR iQ-CheckTM STEC VirX.There was a significant difference in resistance (p≤0.05) between isolates from irrigation water and lettuce. High resistance to Cephalothin (50 and 60%) and Ampicillin (50 and 50%) was noted in isolates from irrigation water and lettuce respectively. Resistance to the same antibiotics (Ampicillin, Cephalothin, Oxytetracycline, Amoxycillin) was noted in both irrigation water and on lettuce. Isolates from lettuce were resistant to fewer antibiotics (4/11) than irrigation water (7/11). All isolates in irrigation water clustered in one group while 50% of isolates from lettuce clustered together with those from irrigation water. Three isolates were positive for Stx1/Stx2 and eae and one each for Stx1/Stx2 and eae in irrigation water. Two isolates on lettuce were positive for Stx1/Stx2. Results from this study indicate that irrigation water containing antibiotic resistant and virulent bacteria may be a source of contamination on produce grown under field conditions thereby posing a food safety risk to the final consumer.

Nthabiseng Nhlapo, Ryk Lues, Willem Groenewald Central University of Technology, Bloemfontein, South Africa The prominence of disease transmission between individuals in confined environments is a concern particularly when serving immune compromised individuals such as children. Microbiological testing plays a vital role in identifying potential threats and their sources as well as evaluating their effect on the final product and assist in developing and implementing preventative measures. Training in food safety has furthermore been identified as essential to increase the food safety knowledge of those involved in food management and preparation. The purpose of this study was to assess cleanliness of surfaces that may come into contact with food during the administration of National School Nutrition Programme at dependant schools in Bloemfontein, South Africa. In addition, general food safety practices of food handlers during the administration of the programme were evaluated. Microbial samples were collected from 10 randomly selected schools. Samples were collected from preparation surfaces, hands and aprons of the food handlers and were enumerated for total viable counts, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and yeast and moulds. Furthermore, interviews were conducted among food handlers from 20 schools, which included the 10 schools for microbial analysis, in the form of structured questionnaires regarding food safety. Total viable counts were high for all surfaces with most plates containing too many colonies to permit a count. Counts of organisms were relatively low with 20% of the surface producing unsatisfactory enumeration of S. aureus and E. coli and 30% for coliforms. These results were further reflected in the questionnaire responses of food handlers where 97% of the participants reportedly washed hands and cleaned preparation surfaces several times during food preparation. The respondents were willing to

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POSTER ABSTRACTS receive food safety training to overcome possible shortcomings in food hygiene. Although the participants may have efficiently washed their hands and surfaces to remove bacteria, there was an opportunity for cross-contamination since some microbes isolated from preparation surfaces are part of the natural microflora of humans. Lack of resources in schools proved to be a hurdle for the food handlers and caused challenges for implementation of safety principals.

pathogenic growth and survival as well as accelerated spoilage of the product (Taormina, 2010). This project will deal with looking at the effect that alternative sources of salt in cheese (partial replacers KCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2) have on the growth of E. coli. P047 Molecular characterisation of Bacillus sporothermodurans using (GTG)5 and REP PCR

P045 Survival of toxigenic E. coli in goat milk fermented with probiotic bacteria Olanrewaju Fayemi, John Taylor, Elna Buys University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa Diarrhoea disease is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in children aged five and below in most countries in Africa. In 2009, UNICEF and WHO reported that one in five child deaths (about 1.5) each year is due to diarrhoea. It kills more young children than AIDS, malaria and measles combined and majority of the outbreaks are associated with food contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms. Since the early 20th century, it has been hypothesized that live bacterial cultures, such as those used for the fermentation of dairy products, may offer benefits in preventing and treating diarrhoea. But the implication of probiotic fermented food products such as yoghurt in the food-borne outbreaks caused by E. coli is an indication that some strains of E. coli can tolerate high acidic environment of fermented food and subsequently cause diarrhoea. In this research, the toxigenic E. coli strains (previously isolated and characterized from water) were first subjected to acid adaptation procedures to induce acid resistance and subsequently the inhibitory effects of probiotic bacteria alone and in combination with starter culture on the acid adapted E. coli strains in the fermented goat milk were investigated. The results suggest that the growth of acid adapted E. coli was favoured in the presence of probiotic bacteria alone whereas it was inhibited when probiotic bacteria was combined with starter culture for the fermentation of goat milk. The detail of the results obtained will be discussed at the conference. P046 The effects of salt reduction, and use of alternative salt sources on the growth of E. coli in stirred-curd cheddar cheese Richard J Beardsley, Naushad E Emmambux, Elna M Buys University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa Salt is a vital ingredient in cheese manufacture as it acts a preservative by minimising spoilage and preventing the growth of pathogenic microorganisms, contributing to the desired flavour of the cheese, as well as affecting the texture and body of the cheese and biochemical changes that occur during ripening (Guinee, 2004). In recent years, consumers have become more health conscious and there has been a drive towards reducing the sodium intake in their diets. Excessive sodium intake has been linked to the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (Taormina, 2010). Although cheese only comprises a relatively small portion of their diets, many consumers are conscious of the high salt content of cheese and there has become a demand for cheeses with reduced sodium content. The addition of NaCl to cheese has a preservative function by lowering the water activity (aw) and thereby restricting microbial growth. It has also been shown that the preservative effect of NaCl can be attributed to the direct toxicity of as well as removal of oxygen from the medium and interference with the action of proteolytic enzymes (Taormina, 2010). Coliform bacteria such as Escherichia coli can cause spoilage of cheese products by inducing a condition known as early blowing. Strains of E. coli are also responsible for numerous gastrointestinal infections when consumed. The elimination or reduction of salt levels from cheese without sufficient research into its implications may lead to enhanced

Alessandra Cremona1, Marc Heyndrickx2, Elna Buys1 University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, 2Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research, Melle, Belgium 1

Bacillus sporothermodurans are gram positive, mesophilic sporeformers that are able to produce highly-heat resistant spores (HRS). Detection of B. sporothermodurans and the presence of the HRS clone can be identified by PCR based methods. (GTG)5 fingerprinting is known to be a promising genotypic tool that allows for more rapid and reliable results. The aim of this study was to evauluate the applicability of (GTG)5 fingerpringting for the genotypic differentation of B. sporothermodurans strains. In addition, the isolation of various strains from UHT milk as well as from the dairy farm were compared genotypically using (GTG)5 PCR. In this report, a collection of 9 B. sporothermodurans strains were obtained from UHT milk or farm sources (i.e. feed concentrate, silage and raw milk) from different countries. These strains were identified using the general B. sporothermodurans PCR as well as the more specific HRS-PCR method identifying the HRS-clone. REP PCR and (GTG)5 PCR fingerprinting were performed on all 9 isolates and thereafter analysed using a dendrogram. The two new UHT milk strains (i.e. QA1 from Belgium and F3 from South Africa) were positive for the HRS-PCR. From the dendrogram, B. sporothermodurans strains showed an overall similarity of 40%. The three UHT strains (QA1, F3 and MB 372) showed slight differences in similarity. It was observed that other than MB 1505, the farm isolates did not resemble any of the UHT milk strains. A number of conditions such as environmental conditions may play a role in the differentiation of the strains. The presence of the HRS clone in MB 1505 may explain why there is a greater similarity (76%) to the UHT milk strains. In conclusion, the strains QA1 and F3 have the HRS clone and (GTG)5 PCR is a successful method used to evaluate genetic differentiation of B. sporothermodurans strains. P048 Determination of the microbial quality and succession of Enterobacteriaceae spp. on fresh cut fruit during minimal processing Margot Muller, Amanda Minnaar, Elna Buys University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa With the increased heath concern amongst consumers, there has been an increase in the consumption of fresh produce and subsequent disease outbreaks linked to fresh produce. This study aimed to determine the microbial quality and succession of Enterobacteriaceae spp. on fresh cut mango and sweet melons from a minimal processing plant in South Africa as a pilot study found these products to be contaminated with Salmonella. Fresh cut fruit can have very large and diverse bacterial populations which are pathogenic and non-pathogenic. The Enterobacteriaceae spp. is the largest group of microorganisms associated with fresh produce. No research has been done on how the composition and diversity of Enterobacteriaceae spp. changes during minimal processing. The sampling continued over a period of three months and samples were collected in duplicates during the various stages of the minimal processing procedure including the unprocessed fruit, the cut fruit and the packaged product. Samples were tested for aerobic plate counts, Enterobacteriaceae spp., Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli 0157, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria. During analysis, no pathogens were detected. The aerobic colony count and Enterobacteriaceae spp. count for the mango was <10⁵cfu gˉ¹. The aerobic colony count for the sweet melons was <10⁷cfu gˉ¹ while the

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POSTER ABSTRACTS Enterobacteriacea <10⁵ cfu gˉ¹. The Enterobacteriaceae spp. obtained during the various processing stages will be identified microscopically followed by molecular characterization to give an indication of how the population changes with regards to types and strains during minimal processing and subsequent storage. P049 Comparing organic acids and salt derivatives as antimicrobials against selected species of Chryseobacterium Willem Groenewald, Maria Theron, Ryk Lues Central University of Technology, Bloemfontein, South Africa Bacteria belonging to the genus Chryseobacterium are ubiquitous in nature, primarily found in soil and aquatic environments, and are also recovered from food sources. Some bacteria belonging to this genus are opportunistic human pathogens capable of causing a variety of infections and are a multidrug-resistant to a variety of antimicrobial agents. The objective of this study was to assess the antimicrobial profile of different organic acids and selected acid salt derivatives against eight Chryseobacterium species as possible alternatives in food preservation and pathogen control. The susceptibility of eight Chryseobacterium strains was assessed against five organic acids and two acid-salt derivatives across a series of pH environments. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the acids were tested against the all strains by means of an agar-dilution method. Generally Chryseobacterium defluvii LMG 22469 and Chryseobacterium balustinum LMG 8329 were found to be the most resistant to both organic acids and salts. High MIC levels (low susceptibility) were noted for potassium sorbate and lactic acids, while at pH 5 the isolates were susceptible to all the organic acids tested. A small increase in pH notably reduced antimicrobial activity against all species. At pH 7 the isolates all but lost susceptibility to potassium sorbate, lactic benzoic, lactic, malic and sorbic acids. Although the activity of the majority of acids was linked to pH, some acids were not as closely related (e.g. potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate and citric acid) and this suggests that the type of organic acids plays a role in inhibition. Results suggest that the type of organic acid used to set pH, and not only pH alone, plays a role in determining inhibition. In particular Chryseobacterium indologenes LMG 8337 showed greater susceptibility to even low concentrations of citric and propionic acids. Thus, a more targeted approach is important to increase the efficacy of preservation. P050 A surveillance study of mycotoxins in the South African industry, with specific reference to AFB1 in feed and AFM1 in milk Lishia Daya Khilosia, Suretha De Kock, Michael Dutton University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa A commonly occurring mycotoxin is aflatoxin B1 which is harmful to the health of humans and animals. If feed contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is consumed by ruminants such as the dairy cow, this toxin may be converted to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) under the influence of cytochrome P450 oxidase system found in the rumen micro flora and the animal’s own cells. Both aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin M1 are regarded to be carcinogenic to humans and tend to cause a host of diseases in animals too. The most effective way of controlling levels of aflatoxin M1 in milk seems to be through regular surveillance studies of commercial milk as well as regular analysis of dairy feed. The South African permitted level of aflatoxin B1 in dairy feed is 5 mg/kg and the permitted aflatoxin M1 level is 0.05 mg/L in bovine milk. A multi fold approach was done to address the surveillance issues of dairy feed and milk available in South Africa. Firstly, aflatoxin M1 contamination levels in commercial milk sold at retail level was determined to check the quality and to see whether seasonal variation had an influence on the concentrations. Secondly, the milk produced by a small South African dairy was analysed, together with the feed fed to the cows on all the

selected farms supplying the dairy. The feed and farm gate milk analyses were also conducted during two seasons. During this study the immuno-affinity method was employed for the extraction of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin M1. Final confirmation was performed by high performance liquid chromatography which was coupled to a ultra-violet detector and CoBrA cell for derivitisation. Various other methods available for the detection of aflatoxins were investigated too such as solid phase extraction using C18 columns, enzyme immunoassay (ELISA), as well as certain lateral flow devices which are suitable for on- site testing of aflatoxins. Preliminary results indicate that approximately 78% of the feed ingredients sampled were found to be contaminated with aflatoxin B1. It was further found that over half the farm gate milk analysed was above the South African legislated levels. The contamination of commercially available milk by aflatoxin M1 is evident in South Africa. On average aflatoxin M1 contamination levels among fourteen selected brands were noticeably higher during the winter sampling period and this may be attributed to the increased use of compound feed in winter as opposed to pasture feeding in summer. The application of Good Agricultural Practices both pre and post –harvest, as well as efficient quality control practices involving the use of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Program is necessary to limit the presence of aflatoxins in these commodities. The employment of fungus based biocontrol products during pre-harvest, as well as certain adsorbents during post-harvest are new developments in limiting aflatoxin contamination in agricultural commodities. P051 Control of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 on tomato with microwave and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) Elizabeth Mnyandu, Oluwatosin Ademola Ijabadeniyi, Suren Singh Durban University of Technology, Durban, Kwazulu Natal, South Africa Contamination of fresh and minimally produced vegetables with bacterial pathogens continues to pose a major challenge for the produce industry. The purpose of this work is therefore to determine the efficacy of using the above interventions for removal of pathogens from tomato. Tomato was inoculated with 108 CFU/ml of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 and later washed with sodium dodecyl sulphate while using chlorine as a control. Inoculated tomatoes were also subjected to microwave oven treatment at different watts for 3 minutes after which both sets of treatments were stored at 4oC for 72hours. L. Monocytogenes ATCC 7644 counts taken during storage period showed that SDS was able to eradicate all the pathogens in tomato unlike chlorine which only reduced the pathogens by 3 logs. The microwave study showed that 350 watts and 500 watts caused of 4 log – 5 log reduction and 6 log – 7.5 log reduction respectively during the 3 minutes exposure time signifying that microwave treatments at those watts were unable to destroy all the pathogens however 1000 watts was very effective. This research indicated that L. Monocytogenes ATCC 7644 is resistant to microwave treatment when used at a lower electric power (watts). Furthermore, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) may be a practical replacement for chlorine in the produce industry. P052 Identification of organic acids profile from cottage cheese using high performance liquid chromatography Kelepile Modise, Karabo Shale, Willem Groenewald Central University of Technology, Bloemfontein, South Africa Cottage cheese is a soft type of cheese that is prone to contamination by airborne aerosols, contaminated surfaces or equipment and poor personal hygiene. The identification of organic acids profile from cottage cheese remains a challenge due to many factors such as spoilage organisms and depreciating pH levels. Nonetheless, literature has identified various techniques that have been used in the past to determine the contents

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POSTER ABSTRACTS of organic acids within cottage cheese. In this study, High Performance Liquid Chromatography technique was used to evaluate the presence of different organic acids within cottage cheese. Three samples of cottage cheese were analysed for consecutive six weeks in this study, namely: fresh from the factory, stored at room temperature and stored in the refrigerator. Cottage cheeses analysed showed that they host a number of organic acids. A total of 11 peaks could clearly be seen on the samples chromatograms. Organic acids namely acetic, citric, and lactic, oxalic and uric acids were confirmed to be present. Generally, cottage cheese collected fresh from the factory had low organic acid content. Major organic acids identified were oxalic acid, lactic acid, citric acid and acetic acid. A highest concentration of 0.055mg/ml of oxalic acid was recorded from samples stored at refrigerator. For the cottage cheese which was stored in the refrigerator, the organic acid content remained low. Oxalic acid and lactic acid remained the dominant acids in all the analysed samples with a highest concentration of 0.057 mg/ml and 0.047mg/ml respectively. Storing cottage cheese at room temperature resulted in a significant increase of lactic acid concentration. A highest concentration of 0.12mg/ml of lactic acid was recorded on week three and four. Results shown from the chromatograms clearly define the principles of organic acids profiles within cottage cheese. P053 Monitoring microbial contamination in an on-farm irrigation system from source to point-of-irrigation Madelize Kotzé, Trevor Britz, Gunnar Sigge University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa Research has shown that rivers in the Stellenbosch area are faecally contaminated, making them unsuitable for irrigation. Farmers are thus often forced to use water of questionable microbial quality as it is the only affordable source available. Fresh produce consumption has increased as consumers become more aware of their health, thereby also increasing the risk of fresh produce related foodborne outbreaks. An irrigation system using river water was sampled at various points between the source and the point-of-irrigation. The effect of various components (sand filters, holding dams, sand and disc filters, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) dosing and contact holding tank) of the irrigation system on the microbial load could thus be monitored. Microbial parameters monitored were aerobic colony count (ACC), total coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli. The river ACC and TC counts always exceeded irrigation water guidelines. The ACC and TC loads increased after the sand and disc filters, possibly due to extended usage, clogging and not being resanded. The H2O2 dosing usually decreased the ACC and TC loads by 0.5 - 1.5 logs and 0.5 - 2.0 logs, respectively. Reduction, however, was inconsistent, with irrigation guidelines for ACC and TC loads regularly being exceeded at the point-of-irrigation. E. coli counts in the river only exceeded the irrigation guidelines on one occasion. E. coli counts decreased slightly over the sampling points in the irrigation system, with the H2O2 dosing resulting in 0.0 - 0.5 log reductions. E. coli counts at the point-of-irrigation were always within the irrigation guidelines. It can thus be concluded that the farm’s current irrigation system, even with H2O2 dosing, is not sufficient in reducing all of the microbial parameters to below irrigation guidelines. This therefore still poses a risk for fresh produce contamination. P054 Prevalence of Salmonellae species in poultry eggs in South Africa

supplies. Therefore ensuring safe food is important for prosperity and political stability in any country. Salmonellosis is the most common cause of food poisoning worldwide and can result in serious human illness and death. One of the major sources of human salmonellosis is poultry meat and eggs. Food poisoning can occur when poultry meat becomes contaminated with faeces. Eggs from infected hens may also contain Salmonella leading to food poisoning. Salmonella food poisoning has significant economic effects. In the United States, there are approximately 1.4 million cases annually of food-borne salmonellosis and up to 47% of these cases result from the consumption of contaminated eggs Furthermore, the economic cost of egg-associated salmonellosis is up to $1.1 billion annually in the US. Little information is available on the risk factors for Salmonellae infection in Africa. In poultry, Salmonellae can occur as a clinically in-apparent infection and only become zoonotic when transmitted to man through meat, eggs, and their products. Knowledge about the epidemiology and interaction between animal and human salmonellosis can play an important role in effective control of salmonellosis in poultry. The epidemiology of animal and human salmonellosis in a particular locality or country is important for the effective control of Salmonellae. Epidemiological studies are necessary to develop an understanding of the factors involved in food safety, provide scientific data for sound policy decisions and to develop intervention programmes. In order to set targets for the reduction of contamination of poultry and poultry products, standardised prevalence surveys are necessary to provide a baseline for the most prevalent serotypes of Salmonellae. Improvement of poultry health, increased productivity of farmers and combating zoonosis can be achieved by reducing the prevalence of salmonellosis. Therefore this study to isolate and determine the serotypes of Salmonellae associated with poultry eggs in South Africa, will contribute to improving food safety and public health in South Africa and Nigeria. P055 Rapid food contact surface hygiene analysis using ATP Bioluminescence in butcheries Lebogang Shilenge, Karabo Shale, Jane Nkhebenyane Central University of Technology, Bloemfontein, South Africa Limitations of the existing methods to assess environmental surface (visual inspection) and the regulations that govern the method make objective evaluations difficult. ATP Bioluminescence was used in the study to provide instant results of the hygiene status of the meat contact surface. Meat contact surfaces and non-meat contact surfaces were assessed. The 18 items were assed in duplicate against the benchmark of 100 relative light units. Although the level of RLU’s differed from items and butcheries, the surfaces of hooks, sinks, band-saw and floors including scales revealed the highest dirt exceeding 1000 RLU, respectively. The results highlighted that the butchery surfaces were under inadequate hygiene status and suggested a need for continuous training in cleanliness of food contact surfaces. Lack of monitoring such as chemical testing (test strips or kits) and periodic verification checks such as microbiological testing lead both food handlers and managers that there is no problem. The effectiveness of cleaning and sanitation in this study cannot be overemphasized particularly in the vision limited regulation governing the implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system. Furthermore, additional resources should be provided for all food establishments in Mangaung to ensure an understanding and use of HACCP approach and food safety management system which is embedded in an organizational culture and practices.

Alex Ray Jambalang1,3, Francien S Botha1, Elna Buys2 1 Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Phytomedicine Programme Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University, Pretoria, South Africa, 2Department of Food Science, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, 3Salmonella Research Laboratory of the National Veterinary Research Institute in Vom, Nigeria, Vom, Nigeria, Vom, Nigeria Food safety is an increasingly important public health issue and governments across the world are intensifying their efforts to improve not only the quantity and quality but also the safety of national food

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POSTER ABSTRACTS P056

P058

Prevalence, virulence factor and adaptation of Shiga toxin producing E. coli in raw, pasteurised and retails bulk milk in South Africa

Incidence of Tdh-Positive and Trh-Positive Vibrio parahaemolyticus in cockles determined by the most probable number-loop mediated isothermal amplification (MPN-LAMP)

Victor Ntuli, P Njage, Elna Buys University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa Food-borne illnesses and diseases have become a global challenge of our time, causing millions of death and perpetrating economic losses in third world countries. Recent studies around the region have implicated raw, pasteurised and retail milk, including dairy products to food borne outbreaks caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Emerging antibiotic resistant and pathogenic E. coli is increasing mortality, morbidity and health care cost in developing nations. Information on the occurrence, genotypic and phenotypic variations with respect to serotype, and antibiotic resistance and virulence factors of E. coli in different geographical regions in South Africa was studied using molecular based techniques. Transfer of resistant genes from pathogenic to commensal E. coli in a milk model and also its survival regimes during milk processing was also elucidated. This will provide information in combating and managing outbreaks posed by pathogenic strains of E. coli in milk and also reduce the cost of containment measures in dairy industries in South Africa. P057 Prevalence of Bacillus cereus in ultra-high heat treated (UHT) Milk A Ubong1, L.C. Chai2, Y.Y. Loo1, T.T.H. Malcolm1, W.M.R. Che Wan Jasminah3, A.K. Farihah3, H. Azirah4, M. Nishibuchi5, R. Son1 1 Food Safety Research Centre (FOSREC), Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, 2 Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science Building, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 3Department of Science and Technology Studies, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 4Humanities and Ethics Research Cluster, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 5Centre for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan Bacillus cereus is a known foodborne pathogen. This bacterium often contaminates various kinds of food and food products, commonly proteinaceous food such as meat, milk, vegetables and fish, as well as farinaceous food such as rice, pasta, pastry and noodles. Processed milk such as Ultra-high heat treated (UHT) milk has been regarded as safe for consumption due to the ability of the treatment to eliminate potentially pathogenic microorganisms during processing. In spite of this, as a common contaminant of raw milk, B. cereus can still be detected in the final products. For this study, individually packed chocolate flavoured UHT milk (200 ml) from retail markets (n=30) in Malaysia were sampled. The prevalence and concentration of B. cereus was determined via MPN-PCR assay. Diarrheal and emetic toxin screening among isolates were achieved using PCR. Results showed that 16.67% and 13.33% of UHT milk samples were detected positive for Bacillus spp. and B. cereus respectively. Analysis of milk samples showed that the concentration ranges from <3 to 11 MPN/ml. Bacillus cereus isolate obtained from UHT milk samples were screened for the presence of toxin gene based on bceT, nheA, nheB, nheC and NPRS genes. Among 20 isolates, 95.00% were detected with diarrheal toxin gene while 70.00% with emetic toxin gene. Detection of B. cereus and other foodborne pathogens is necessary for safety of food products. Findings from this study lay emphasize on the potential of UHT milk as a medium to acquire B. cereus infection. Based on current findings, potential study such as survival of B. cereus during storage of UHT milk might provide practical information to lower the risk of infection.

T.T.H. Malcolm1, W.M.R. Che Wan Jasminah2, A.K. Farihah2, H. Azirah3, Y. Nakaguchi4, M. Nishibuchi4, R. Son1 1 Food Safety Research Centre (FOSREC), Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, 2 Department of Science and Technology Studies, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 3Humanities and Ethics Research Cluster, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 4Centre for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan Consumption of raw or undercooked seafood contaminated with V. parahaemolyticus may cause acute gastroenteritis leading to diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps and fever to an individual. Pathogenic isolates of V. parahaemolyticus have been associated with strains harboring the thermostable direct haemolysin (tdh) gene or thermostable related-haemolysin (trh) gene, or both, serving as significant virulence factors. The recent developed molecular method known as LAMP” which stands for Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification is a simple, rapid, specific and cost-effective nucleic acid amplification method solely developed by Eiken Chemical Co., Ltd. It is characterized by the use of 4 different primers specifically designed to recognize 6 distinct regions on the target gene and the reaction process proceeds at a constant temperature using strand displacement reaction. Amplification and detection of gene can be completed in a single step, by incubating the mixture of samples, primers, DNA polymerase with strand displacement activity and substrates at a constant temperature (about 65°C). It provides high amplification efficiency, with DNA being amplified 109-1010 times in 15-60 minutes. Because of its high specificity, the presence of amplified product can indicate the presence of target gene. Most-probable number coupled with LAMP (MPN-LAMP) has facilitated us to detect and enumerate the amount of V. parahaemolyticus harboring the virulent gene from shellfish obtained from hypermarket in Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 14 cockles samples were collected from hypermarket. These samples were subjected to MPN-LAMP for enumeration of tdhpositive and trh-positive V. parahaemolyticus, respectively. Four out of 14 (28.6%) cockles from hypermarkets ranging from 60 to 9300 MPN/g were found to be harboring tdh-positive V. parahaemolyticus. The significant level of tdh-positive V. parahaemolyticus from raw cockle samples may project the risk of acute gastroenteritis to consumer.

Food, Nutrition, Diet and Well-Being P059 The nutritional composition of different sub-species of potatoes Carmen van Niekerk1,2, Hettie Schonfeldt1,2, Nicolette Hall1,2 University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa, 2Institute of Food, Nutrition and well-being, Pretoria, South Africa

1

South Africa is the fourth largest producer of potatoes in Africa, and due to the large volumes of this staple food is consumed in the country. There are 83 different potato cultivars currently cultivated in South Africa and more are developed continuously. The South African cultivar classification system was implemented in 2010 which grouped cultivars into classes based on their varying cooking characteristics. These characteristics are dependent on many factors, including nutritional composition. During this study the nutritional content of 11 cultivars of potatoes (Solanum tubersum) with the greatest market share was determined. The cultivars were grown and harvested under controlled conditions on dry land. The nutritional analysis of the cultivars was done at Agricultural Research Council Analytical Services, a laboratory accredited by the South African National Accreditation System (SANAS) using accredited methods. Moisture content, ash, protein (N), fat, carbohydrates, fiber, starch cholesterol, minerals, and water soluble vitamins were determined. The nutrient composition of these 11 different sub-species

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POSTER ABSTRACTS of potatoes will be presented and difference between their nutritional composition, and the possible contribution of this to eating quality, will be discussed.

P062

P060

Innike Rajput1, Hettie Schonfeldt1,2 Department of Animal and Wildlife Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, 2Institute for Food, Nutrition and Well-being, University of Pretoria, South Africa

The perception towards and utilization of animal products by different socioeconomic groups in South Africa 1

The effect of breeding and retail practices on the nutrient profile of beef Nicolette Hall1,2, Hettie Schonfeldt1,2, Beulah Pretorius1,2 1 Institute of Food, Nutrition and Well-being, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, 2Department of Animal and Wildlife Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa Due to the increased awareness of the global obesity epidemic, red meat is often seen as a culprit in weight gain and obesity. As a result the global meat industry has responded by decreasing the total fat content of red meat. Actions include breed selection, feed manipulation, and retail and food preparation practices, such as trimming. Consistency with the changes in carcass characteristics and retail and food preparation practices need to be maintained in order to reflect true composition. The composition of SA beef cuts with subcutaneous fat removed has not been determined before. The accurate composition data on what is actually consumed (trimmed cuts) will aid in consumer education, in-line with current nutri-marketing trends, to further the image of South African beef as part of a healthy diet. An updated nutritional profile of three South African beef cuts (prime-rib (n=72), rump (n=72) and shoulder (n=72)) from four age groups according to the national classification system, cooked and raw, with and without subcutaneous fat, was determined. Nutrients determined include protein, fat, cholesterol and the fatty acid profile among others. The results have been applied towards: 1. Determining the changes in the nutrient composition of South African beef over time (since the previous composition study was done in 1990) 2. Determining the effect of age and feeding regime on the composition beef 3. Determining the effect of retail trimming on carcass composition. P061 Physical composition of South African takeaways and street foods Hettie Schonfeldt1,2, Beulah Pretorius1,2, Nicolette Hall1,2, Marina Bester1,2 1 University of Pretoria, Department Animal and Wildlife Science, Pretoria, South Africa, 2Institute for Food, Nutrition and Well-being, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa Changing consumption patterns amongst South Africans have been observed in the past 5 years. One of the major changes includes an increase in the consumption of readily available takeaways and street foods. Little is known about the physical, proximate and nutrient content of these foods. The objective of the study was to determine the physical composition of popular takeaways and street foods with a focus on the nutrient composition of animal products in order to form the basis of nutrient calculations. The amount of meat, fat, bone and other ingredients was determined in selected food product and meat cuts, analysed and the data will be presented. The accurate determination of nutrient intake through certain foods is crucial to determine the contribution of a specific product to the nutritional status of a population.

In order to determine the impact of livestock production and the effect of the consumption of animal products on human dietary exposure (in terms of both nutrient and anti-nutrients), as well as to extrapolate the burden which the industry has on the environment (sustainability and green economy), correct intake data is required for the complete and diverse South African population. By uncovering relevant information on the consumption and perceptions of animal-derived protein foods, the relevant industries can be equipped with information to re-align production, processing, policy development as well as consumer education. Towards this aim a study was formulated to investigate the perceptions and utilization of animal product by different socioeconomic groups in South Africa. Adapted questionnaire-based personal interviews were performed in two different socio-economic groups from 2 of the 9 provinces of South Africa. Although animal products are consumed by all (from high to low socioeconomic groups), the nutritional contribution from certain low-cost animal products such as meat-bones, chicken feet and insects are questionable. Results will be presented and critically discusses. P063 The effects of different non-wheat bread recipes on the quality of gluten-free maize bread Adediwura Falade1,2, Elna Buys1,2, John Taylor1,2 1 Institute for Food, Nutrition and Well-being, University of Pretoria,, Hatfield, Pretoria, South Africa, 2Department of Food Science, University of Pretoria, Hatfield, Pretoria/Gauteng, South Africa The highly acceptable quality of wheat bread is linked to its storage proteins, which form gluten which has the ability to produce strong, cohesive viscoelastic dough that retains gas and produces light, aerated baked products. Developing high quality non-wheat bread has been a great challenge for researchers due to the absence of gluten. Research areas include: incorporation of additives such as starches, hydrocolloids, gums, protein sources and enzymes, protein-starch mixtures, pregelatinization of starch and also sourdough fermentation. This work investigated the effects of three types of non-wheat bread recipes on the quality of bread made from maize. The first was a traditional sourdough method used in Lesotho (TSML) for making steamed bread. This involves addition of spontaneously fermenting sorghum malt sourdough (which is equivalent to 15% of the total maize flour) and pre-gelatinization of the starch in the maize flour with boiling water. The second was a Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) method which involves pre-gelatinization of the starch in 10% of the maize meal by cooking. The third method was a modern gluten-free sourdough (MGFS) method which involves spontaneously fermenting 75% of the maize flour. Pregelatinization of starch was aimed at producing a gel matrix which will trap the carbon dioxide produced during fermentation of sugars by yeast in the bread dough. Acidification of the bread dough by lactic acid produced by lactic acid bacteria during spontaneous fermentation of the sorghum malt or maize flour was aimed at providing a favourable condition for starch modification by endogenous amylases. The MGFS method produced maize bread (MB) with a very open crumb structure and a significant increase in loaf height compared to the MB produced by the TSML and FAO methods. This is probably due to the high percentage of maize flour spontaneously fermented leading to a high proportion of modified starch resulting in increased water absorption, stronger dough and better gas holding capacity.

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POSTER ABSTRACTS P064 Development of whole grain sorghum biscuits fortified with whole grain cowpea as a nutrient-dense complementary food for improved child nutrition in sub-Saharan Africa Pamela Dovi1,2, Amanda Minnaar1,2, Henriëtte L. de Kock1,2, John R.N. Taylor1,2 1 Departement of Food Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, 2Institute For Food, Nutrition and Well-being, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) among children under-five years remains a huge burden in sub-Saharan Africa. The underlying cause of PEM is under nutrition due to low food availability and poor nutrition as a result of poverty. Such children rely on the same starchy staple for example sorghum, as is consumed in the household as both a source of energy and protein. Sorghum has a low protein quality, particularly with respect to the indispensable amino acid lysine and also protein digestibility. Local pulses such as cowpea are an important vehicle to address PEM due their high protein content and good quality, availability and low cost. Biscuits as means of fortification are favoured because they are palatable, nutrient dense, ready-to-eat and have long shelf-life. Composite biscuits were produced from whole grain sorghum and cowpea flours at a ratio of 60:40 to determine their potential as a complementary food. Two types of sorghum were evaluated for the effect of compositing them with cowpea on the nutritional quality of the biscuits and compared to that of existing commercial economical wheat biscuits. Sorghum-cowpea composite biscuits had higher mineral content than that of sorghum and wheat biscuits due to the addition of cowpea which is high in minerals. The in vitro pepsin digestibility of the sorghum-cowpea composite biscuits was appreciable compared to that of sorghum biscuits, due to the addition of more digestible globulin proteins from cowpea. There was no trypsin inhibitor activity in the sorghum-cowpea biscuits due the dilution of the trypsin inhibitor in cowpea by the sorghum. The total phenolic content of the sorghum-cowpea biscuits was higher than that of sorghum and wheat biscuits due to the cowpea which is rich in phenolics. These findings suggest that sorghum-cowpea composite biscuits may serve as a potential low-cost protein complementary food to improve child nutrition and alleviate PEM in sub-Saharan Africa regions where these crops are consumed as staples. P065 Maize and teff starches modified with stearic acid as potential fat replacer in low calorie mayonnaise-type emulsions Welday Hailu Teklehaimanot, K. Gyebi Duodu, Mohammed Naushad Emmambux University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa Fat replacers have been developed to produce low-calorie foods due to the association of fat-rich diet to lifestyle diseases. Teff (an underutilized and under-researched cereal), and maize starch pastes modified with stearic acid could be used as fat replacers because of their reduced gelling ability and higher viscosity. The effect of teff and maize starch pastes modified with stearic acid on the rheological properties, microstructure, freeze-thaw and high temperature stability of low-calorie mayonnaise type emulsions (LCMTE) was investigated. Starch suspensions (10% w/v) containing stearic acid (1.5%) were pasted for an extended holding time (2 hr. at 91 °C) in a Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) and used to prepare LCMTE with 50% and 80% oil replacement. LCMTE with modified teff and maize starches had lower yield stress and viscosity and larger oil droplets compared to LCMTE with unmodified teff and maize starches. Increasing oil replacement level (50% to 80%) increased the viscosity. LCMTE with maize starch had higher yield stress and viscosity and smaller oil droplets than LCMTE with teff starch. All samples showed shear thinning behaviour (n < 1). All the LCMTE were more stable to freeze-thaw cycles and high temperature storage than full fat mayonnaise. At 50% oil replacement, unmodified and modified teff and maize starch with

stearic acid could produce LCMTE. When the oil content replacement was further increased to 80% only the LCMTE with modified starches were similar to the full fat. The LCMTE made with unmodified teff and maize starches didn’t flow like a mayonnaise rather they form a gel which doesn’t look like a mayonnaise product. P066 Evaluation of vitamin C degradation in oven and sun-dried tomatoes pre-treated with brine Henry Silungwe, Eastonce Gwata University of Venda, Makhado, Limpopo, South Africa Tomatoes are highly nutritious vegetables and valuable sources of food minerals and vitamins particularly vitamin C. However, tomatoes are highly perishable and deteriorate quickly within a few days after harvesting rendering them unusable. This is partly due to the high water content which makes them susceptible to spoilage micro-organisms. Because of their limited shelf-life, fresh tomatoes are preserved for year-round usage. In some rural communities, particularly in developing countries, tomatoes are sun-dried for preservation. In the process, water soluble vitamins (for instance B and C) that are bound to the water molecules are lost but fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) are retained. This study was designed to investigate the degradation of vitamin C in sun-dried and oven-dried tomatoes that were pre-treated with three levels of brine concentration (0.1M, 0.5M and 1.0M). The highest loss (76.6%) of vitamin C in oven-dried tomatoes was observed in the 1.0M brine pre-treatment. In contrast, pre-treatment of tomatoes with 1.0M brine showed more than two fold reduction in vitamin C loss compared with the control (0.0M brine) in the sun-dried method. The results suggested that sun-drying of tomatoes that have not been pre-treated with brine leads to significant degradation of vitamin C. There is merit in further investigation to determine the optimum brine concentration for treating tomatoes prior to sun-drying. P067 Nutrient composition and microstructure of bauhinia grain Eric Amonsou1,2, Muthulisi Siwela2, Nomusa Dlamini3 1 Department of Biotechnology and Food Technology, Durban University of Technology, Steve Biko Campus,, Durban, South Africa, 2School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZuluNatal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, 3Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Pretoria, South Africa Bauhinia species belonging to the Legminosae family are found in many parts of the world, including Southern Africa. In this study, the nutrient composition and microstructure of Bauhinia grains from two species, B. galpinii and B. petersiana were determined in comparison with soya bean. The protein (38 g/100 g) and fat (23 g/100 g) contents of the two Bauhinia species were very similar to those of soya. P, K, Mg, and Ca were the major minerals in Bauhinia and soya. Bauhinia contained substantial amounts of micronutrients, such as zinc (6 mg/ 100 g) and iron (3 mg/ 100 g) when compared to FAO/WHO standards. The parenchyma cells of Bauhinia showed spherical protein bodies surrounded by networks of lipid bodies and these were similar to soya. However, the protein bodies of B. petersiana were smaller in size (7 ± 3 µm) than those of soya (10 ± 3 µm) and B. galpinii (13 ± 4 µm). Globoid inclusions were found in the protein bodies of Bauhinia and soya. Bauhinia seeds are good sources of protein, fat and micronutrients such as Zn and Fe. The microstructure of protein bodies in Bauhinia is very similar to soya. These findings suggest that the processing technology developed for soya protein may be adopted for Bauhinia protein.

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POSTER ABSTRACTS P068 The health promoting qualities of gluten-free sorghum biscuits with added bran Malory Links, John Taylor Institute of Food, Nutrition and Well-being and Department of Food Science, University of Pretoria, , Pretoria, South Africa Sub-Saharan African countries are facing a vast increase in noncommunicable diseases. The expected increase for Type 2 diabetes (T2D) from 2006 to 2025 is 80%. However, access to appropriate healthcare is restricted, mainly due to unaffordability of treatment. The cereal sorghum is grown across Africa as it is well adapted to the semi-arid climate. Sorghum is believed to possess low starch digestibility, which could aid in prevention and control of T2D but minimal research has been conducted in this area. The objective of this research was to determine the starch digestibility of non-tannin sorghum biscuits, as biscuits are affordable, convenient snacks consumed by various African populations possibly at risk of developing T2D. Biscuits were prepared from wholegrain and refined red non-tannin (RNT) and white non-tannin (WNT) sorghum flours. They were analysed for their in vitro starch digestibility and estimated glycaemic index, phenolics and proximate composition. The biscuits were compared to commercially available whole- and refined wheat biscuits. All the evaluated biscuits indicated a low to intermediate estimated glycaemic index. Surprisingly, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in estimated glycaemic index between whole- and refined grain sorghum biscuits. There was also no significant difference between the RNT and WNT sorghum biscuits. Sorghum biscuits had a significantly higher estimated glycaemic index compared to the commercially available whole-wheat biscuit. With regards to phenolic content, the RNT sorghum biscuits had a significantly higher phenolic content than the commercial whole-wheat biscuits. The red sorghum biscuits showed a higher starch digestibility compared to commercial wheat flour biscuits still indicated an intermediate glycaemic index. They also have the added benefits of being gluten-free and as they are wholegrain they are high in dietary fibre and micronutrients, especially phenolics. Thus, the biscuits have potential as a nutrient rich snack food for those potentially susceptible to T2D. P069 Sensory and consumer acceptance of Kitoza, a malagasy meat product Danielle Rakoto1, Irène M. Andrianarison1, Zo M. Andriatahina1, Julia L. Razanamparany1, Geneviève Fliedel2, Anne-Laure Declemy2, Victor Jeannoda2, Dominique Pallet2 1 Faculty of Sciences, Antananarivo, Madagascar, 2CIRAD, Montpellier, France Kitoza is a traditional Malagasy meat product. It is made from beef or pork strips of 20-50cm long and 2-4cm wide, salted, usually hung above the stove or in an oven, and let dry and/or smoke for preservation. Kitoza has been eaten in Madagascar since its introduction long time ago by the royal families. It has a prominent place in the household diet and its popularity is still rising. Presently some processors produce and sell smoked Kitoza. Kitoza sensory and consumer testing were undertaken through an international collaborative project funded by European Union “African Food Tradition revisited by Research” (AFTER). The aim is to improve nutritional and safety properties of traditional products for local but also new consumers and new markets. Kitoza sensory profile was performed with a panel (n=18) on 8 smoked Kitoza provided by 5 different producers, with 14 descriptors generated in consensus. PCA representation showed that there was a clear difference between pork and beef samples. Pork Kitoza were more associated to fatty and salty descriptors. Four samples into 4 different clusters were selected for a consumer study with 200 Malagasy and European consumers. The mean overall acceptability of the 4 smoked Kitoza was 6.6 (like

moderately). One way ANOVA showed that the least liked was a Beef Kitoza BZIvan described as fibrous and harder by the panellists and which significantly differed from the three others with a score of 6.2. Four groups of consumers were identified using a Cluster Analysis: Kitoza likers (29%), Pork Kitoza likers (25%), Beef Kitoza likers (25%) and BZIvan Kitoza dislikers (20%). Consumption attitudes both by Malagasy and European consumers were analysed. Physicochemical characteristics of smoked Kitoza samples were related to sensory and consumer data. The results provide information that could be useful for improving the process while meeting consumer demand. P070 A perspective on health benefit claims as related to dairy products Zani Du Plooy1, Hettie Schönfeldt1, Nicolette Hall1, Hester Vermeulen1,2 1 University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, 2Bureau for Food and Agricultural Policy, Pretoria, South Africa International authorities in different parts of the world made it their mandate to ensure all health benefit claims made on food labels are clear and scientifically substantiated. In South Africa, as in many other countries in the world, local authorities’ govern labelling legislation, regarding which international guidelines should be followed and ultimately what health benefit claims are allowed to appear on food labels. A comparative analysis was done by observing and comparing South African health benefit claims on dairy products in 2009 with those in 2013. An analysis of internationally approved health benefit claims were also done and compared to current claims on South African dairy products. Since 2009 food labelling legislation in South Africa has changed considerably. Nutrient content and comparative claims are allowed under the Labelling and Advertising of Foodstuffs regulations, whilst a restriction was put on functional health claims. Furthermore, the recently published Consumer Protection Act together with the above labelling regulations, demands that any claim made on a product must be scientifically substantiated Substantiation must be provided within two days upon request by authorities. Nutrient content claims are more standardized than in 2009, with prescribed levels and wording. Strict guidelines determine the sampling and method of analysis for nutrient profiling for labelling purposes. All of the above affects dairy product labels. International authorities, which allow for functional claims on dairy products, base approval of such claims on science-based nutrient profiling, ensuring all claims are substantiated. From a nutrient profiling perspective, it is thus evident that South Africa is aligning itself with the rest of the word in terms of food labelling. Global and local health trends provide a unique opportunity for the use of health benefit claims and the development of fortified/enriched dairy products. P071 Effect of phenolic content in the bran of maize and non-tannin sorghum varieties on porcine pancreatic alpha amylase activity Ilrienne du Plessis, JohanTaylor, Gyebi Duodu Department of Food Science, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Well-Being, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease caused by insufficient insulin production by the pancreas and/or inability of the body to utilise insulin effectively. High glycaemic foods or foods with high starch digestibility are not suitable for diabetic patients due to their inability to metabolise glucose properly. A potential way of preventing diabetes is to limit starch digestibility to control blood glucose levels. Sorghum contains many phenolic compounds like flavonoids which can inhibit starch hydrolysing enzymes like α-amylase. In this study, bran samples of white maize and white and red non-tannin sorghums were analysed

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POSTER ABSTRACTS for inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic α-amylase. Inhibitory activity of extracts prepared from the bran samples using water, acidified methanol and 100% methanol was also determined. Red non-tannin sorghum bran had higher total phenolic content than bran from white maize and white non-tannin sorghum. Bran of red non-tannin sorghum had higher α-amylase inhibitory activity (59.4-71.4%) than bran from white maize and white non-tannin sorghum (16.2–24.6%). Methanolic extracts from red non-tannin sorghum bran had higher α-amylase inhibitory activity (40.2–54.6%) than corresponding extracts from white maize and white non-tannin sorghum (0–27.3%). Interestingly water extracts from the brans of all the cereals did not exhibit α-amylase inhibitory activity. These findings indicate that diets rich in red sorghum bran and nutraceutical-type phenolic preparations from such bran could have anti-diabetic properties. P072 Does sorghum-cowpea composite porridge hold promise for alleviating oxidative stress? Franklin Apea Bah, Amanda Minnaar, Gyebi Duodu Department of Food Science, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Well-Being, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) are implicated as contributing to many debilitating diseases. Their inefficient regulation in the body can lead to oxidative stress and aggravate inflammation. Dietary phenolics such as flavonoids and phenolic acids have proven antioxidant activity through their ability to donate hydrogen atoms that quench ROS/RNS. Sorghum is a good source of the dietary phenolics flavones, flavanones and 3-deoxyanthocyanins while cowpea is a good source of flavonols and flavan-3-ols. If sorghum and cowpea are combined to prepare a staple food such as porridge, the resulting food will have a good balance of dietary phenolics with potentially enhanced antioxidant capacity that may contribute towards alleviating oxidative stress resulting from ROS/RNS. This study determined the effect of compositing a red non-tannin sorghum with a white high polyphenol-containing cowpea, on phenolic content and 2, 2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6sulfonic acid (ABTS•+) radical scavenging activity. The effect of cooking the composite flour into porridge on these parameters was also determined. Maize and soybean were used as control samples. Both legumes increased the phenolic content and radical scavenging activity of the corresponding cereal flours in the composites. Sorghum-cowpea composite flour had higher phenolic content and radical scavenging activity than the maize-soybean composite flour. Total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity of sorghum-cowpea composite flour was higher than the corresponding porridge. However, there was no difference in total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity between the maize-soybean composite flour and porridge. Sorghumcowpea composite porridge had higher phenolic content and radical scavenging activity than maize-soybean composite porridge and shows potential for contributing to reducing oxidative stress through its radical scavenging property. A sorghum-cowpea composite porridge may therefore potentially contribute to alleviating oxidative stress-related diseases of life style including cardiovascular disease, obesity, type II diabetes and cancer. P073 Exploration of the eating patterns of primary school children (11-15 yrs.) and their school food environments in Manzini, Swaziland Annemarie Viljoen, Anne Dlamini University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa Major changes in food systems, food and eating environments occurred globally over the past decades, driven by migration, urbanisation, modernisation and globalisation. These have resulted in economic, social and lifestyle changes. Food has become readily available and accessible in multiple settings throughout the day. Collectively these environments

influence what, where and how much is eaten and it is believed that it contributes to hidden hunger and diseases of lifestyle. To facilitate consumer well-being and health-related behaviour change to prevent these unfortunate outcomes requires, first of all, that the role and influences from various environments be understood. The aims of the study were to explore and describe the eating patterns of 11-15 year old primary school children in Manzini and to assess the contribution of the school food environment to their food This cross-sectional study used a mixed methodological approach. A pre-tested survey questionnaire consisting of open- and closed-ended questions measured the current eating patterns of 301 respondents. An observation checklist of the school meal programme and the food environments of the schools and surrounding neighbourhoods were used to analyse foods available and accessible to the children. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were used to analyse and interpret the data. Although the majority (84%) of the respondents consumed three meals a day with in-between meal snacks, the intake of fruit and vegetables was inadequate. The lunch offered by the school meal programme, consisted mainly a maize-based staple dish served with a vegetable soup as relish. All schools allow food vendors to sell food outside the school premises. Although some include fruit, the majority of items on offer are unhealthy snack foods. The majority (88%) of children regularly purchased these items from them. Healthy food choices are not available, accessible and affordable to primary school children in Manzini. As healthy food choices can only be made in a supportive environment it is recommended that schools be assisted in formulating guidelines and policies to improve the school food environment to promote healthy eating. P074 Phenolic composition and inhibitory effect against oxidative DNA damage of cooked cowpeas as affected by in vitro upper gastrointestinal digestion Alice Nderitu1, Linda Dykes2, Joseph Awika2, Amanda Minnaar1, KG Duodu0 1 Department of Food Science, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Well-Being, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, 2Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA Cowpeas contain phenolic compounds with potential health benefits. Phenolics can only exert their beneficial health effects if they are stable under the conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Hence, the effect of simulated upper gastrointestinal digestion on phenolic composition of cooked cowpeas and the ability of the digests to inhibit radicalinduced DNA damage was studied. Two South African cowpea types, Agrinawa (red type) and Black eye (cream type) were used. The phenolic composition of acetone extracts of raw and cooked cowpea samples, and enzyme digests of cooked cowpea samples was determined using UPLC-MS. Phenolic acids and their derivatives, flavan-3-ols, and flavonol glycosides were identified in the acetone extracts and enzyme digests. For both cowpea types, most of the phenolic compounds present in the raw cowpea extracts were also present in the extracts of the cooked cowpeas though at lower levels. Procyanidin trimer and dimer were found in the extracts of the raw and cooked red cowpea type but not in the cream cowpea type. Compounds such as p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, coumaroylaldaric acid and feruloylaldaric acid were not detected in the enzyme digests of the cooked cowpeas although they were present in the corresponding acetone extracts. Glycosides of quercetin and myricetin decreased upon in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of cooked cowpeas whereas flavan-3-ols were hardly present except for catechin glucoside. The enzyme digests of cooked cowpeas protected plasmid DNA from oxidative damage with the digest of the red cowpea type being about thrice as effective as that of the cream cowpea type. This suggests that cowpea phenolics retain some of their radical scavenging activity even after gastrointestinal digestion and could thus lower the risk of oxidative stress related health problems.

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POSTER ABSTRACTS P075

P077

Analytical heme iron values vs. estimated values for South African lean meat

Effect of cooking and simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of cooked cowpeas

Beulah Pretorius1,2, Hettie Schönfeldt1,2, Nicolette Hall1,2 1 Department of Animal and Wildlife Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, 2Associate of the Institute for Food, Nutrition and Well-being, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa

Twambo Hachibamba1, Linda Dykes2, Joseph Awika2, Amanda Minnaar1, Kwaku G. Duodu1 1 Department of Food Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, 2Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, South Africa

Ample evidence suggests that although it is generally accepted that 4060% of iron in all animal products is heme iron, evidence suggests that significant differences exist in heme content of meats from different species. No data on the heme iron content of South African meat is currently available. This study has determined the total (TFe) and heme (HFe) iron content in South African meat. Triplicate samples of raw commonly consumed meat cuts (lamb, pork and chicken) were obtained from four retail outlets. Nine beef (Bonsmara) carcasses within each of three age groups were directly sourced for analyses. Duplicate analyses were done on muscle only. Total iron was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Heme iron was determined by an adapted Hornsey method. Beef (TFe=2.46±0.41; HFe=1.97±0.19) and lamb (TFe=1.65±0.12; HFe=1.26±0.39) meat have the highest total iron (TFe) and heme iron (HFe) content with chicken (TFe=0.75±0.11; HFe=0.57±0.13) and pork (TFe=0.76±0.09; HFe=0.64±0.08) meat having the lowest values. In this study the percentage heme iron (%HFe) for beef (81%) and lamb (75%) meat was within the reported range, but %HFe for chicken (76%) and pork (84%) was higher than reported. The meats in this study contain higher percentage of heme iron (>75%) than was used in the Monsen model (40%) to estimate iron availability. This indicated that the heme iron value used in the Monsen-equation, and other calculations, should not be a constant value, but should be different for each particular meat type consumed in the diet. Species, cut, as well as, cooking are all factors that might have an influence on the %HFe. P076 Effect of storage temperature on the compositions of sugars and free amino acids in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) Pek Kui Lim University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia The aim of the study was to obtain an insight into changes of sugars and free amino acids in sweet potato roots under different storage conditions. The samples were stored at chilled temperature (15 °C) and room storage (28 °C). The samples were analyzed for sugars and free amino acids at different storage intervals. The concentration of glucose, fructose and sucrose were measured to obtain an insight into the changes in the carbohydrate fraction of sweet potato roots stored at 15 °C and 28 °C. This study showed that sucrose is the major sugar; whilst glucose and fructose are the reducing sugars in raw sweet potato roots regardless of storage temperatures and storage periods. Generally, there was significant (p < 0.05) increment of total sugar (sucrose, glucose and fructose) concentrations upon storage (r = 0.773 for room storage and r = 0.872 for chilled storage, respectively). Analysis of free amino acids showed that glutamic acid, aspartic acid and asparagine were the three dominant free amino acids for both room and chilled temperature storage. However, these three dominant free amino acids were observed to decrease during chilled storage; whilst fluctuated throughout room storage. This study also showed that essential amino acids i.e. threonine and valine increased during increasing of storage period regardless storage temperatures.

Consumption of diets rich in phenolic compounds has been associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. The effect of cooking and simulated gastrointestinal digestion on content and antioxidant properties of two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) types was determined. Total phenolic contents and radical scavenging properties of the cowpeas were reduced upon cooking but increased upon simulated enzyme digestion. Acetone extracts of the raw cowpea had higher inhibitory potential against copper catalysed oxidation of human low density lipoprotein than the acetone extracts of the cooked. The simulated digestion extract had the least inhibitory potential possibly due to differences in the phenolic profiles. Phenolic compounds in cooked cowpea can potentially protect against chronic diseases where reactive oxygen species play a crucial role as they are bioaccessible after digestion. P078 Postharvest quality of Georgia grown pomegranates T.T. Shonte1, D.D. MacLean2 1 Department of Food Science, University of Pretoria, Hatfield, Pretoria, South Africa, 2Department of Horticulture, University of Georgia, Tifton, Georgia, USA Consumption of pomegranates has increased dramatically over the past decade, due in large part to the purported health benefits of the phytonutrients contained in the fruit. The study was aimed to investigate the effect of maturity on basic postharvest quality parameters, and suitability of locally produced pomegranates for fresh or process markets. Fruit from the Ponder Farm, Ty, GA, were harvested at two weeks interval. Early harvest was carried out on 24th September followed by late harvest on 8th October, 2010 and evaluated immediately for initial quality. In total, 18 varieties were evaluated for physicochemical properties and sensory quality using 4 repetitions. In general, an increase trend of soluble sugars, sugar acid ratio and antioxidant activity while a decrease trend in titratable acidity and total phenol content were observed with the advance in maturity stage of the fruits. Soluble sugar content was similar in all cultivars evaluated, whereas acid content ranged from 0.4 to 4.0%, which is a normal range for pomegranates. Titratable acidity varied among the varieties evaluated, thus suggesting that it is the major contributor for the variability in the taste of the fruits. Nikitski Ranni, Kaj-acik-anor, and cranberry performed better in most of the postharvest quality parameters, while Utah sweet was found to be the most tart in taste, and had the lowest sugar to acid ratio (Brix:TA) while Fleischman’s, Thompson, Don Sumner North, were sweeter to the taste. Of the cultivars evaluated, the Russian selections like Nikitski Ranni and Kaj-acik-anor, as well as Cranberry appear to have the greatest potential for production and postharvest quality in Georgia because of their greatest amount of nutraceuticals and were the least susceptible to surface defects and decay.

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POSTER ABSTRACTS Functional Ingredients and Foods

P081

P079

Antioxidant content and -potential in processed products from the fruit and cladodes of cactus pears (O. ficus-indica and O. robusta)

Dough rheology of pretzels from composite wheat-cassava flour with added xanthan gum Engela Boshoff2,1, Naushad Emmambux1 University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa, 2Simba (Pty) Ltd., Johannesburg, South Africa 1

The use of composite wheat-cassava flour has gained prominence in Nigeria since the inclusion of 10% cassava flour into wheat flour was mandated in 2012. To date, extensive research has been conducted on the effect of composite flour on bread quality. Best to our knowledge; very little information exists on the effect of composite flour on pretzel quality, and the application of functional ingredients to improve the quality of composite flour pretzels. This poster examines the effect of five different levels of cassava substitution in wheat flour on pretzel dough rheology. Cassava flour will be substituted at 10%, 20%, 30% 40% and 50% in wheat flour. The functional role of xanthan gum and the different wheat-cassava blend ratios on the viscoelastic properties of the dough will be studied. It is expected that as the cassava ratio in the flour blend increases, the dough will be less viscoelastic in terms of the farinograph and the alveograph values. The addition of xanthan gum will improve the viscoelasticity of the dough as xanthan gum can interact with starch and gluten to form a three dimensional structure through hydrogen bonding and cross-linking of the hydrocolloid molecules with the amylose and gluten polymers. Physical entanglement of the hydrocolloids and starch and gluten polymers can also modify the three dimensional network. P080 Effect of simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of a sorghum-cowpea composite porridge Oluyemisi Adelakun, Gyebi Duodu University of Pretoria, Pretoria, , South Africa Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) have a variety of phenolic compounds that have been shown to have antioxidant activity. The potential health benefit of these antioxidants depends on how they are absorbed and utilized in the body. This study was to determine the effect of simulated gastrointestinal digestion on phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of a sorghum-cowpea composite porridge. Porridge was prepared from a composite flour of sorghum (Orbit variety, white non-tannin) and cowpea (Bechuana white variety, light brown) [sorghum/cowpea (70:30)] and subjected to in vitro digestion by treatment with gastric juice (gastric phase digest) and porcine pancreatin and bile extract (intestinal digest). Flours, porridge and digested porridge were analysed for total phenolics, total flavonoids, ABTS-radical scavenging capacity and specific phenolic acids and flavonoids. Total phenolics and flavonoid content of the gastric (86.52 µg CE/g; 8.79 µg CE/g) and intestinal phase digest (514.06 µg CE/g; 52.73 µg CE/g) were lower than the composite flour (2720.05 µg CE/g; 220.91 µg CE/g) and its porridge (908.41 µg CE/g; 129.58 µg CE/g). The ABTS-radical scavenging capacity of all samples ranged from 5.24 – 507.34 µg TE/g. The gastric phase and intestinal phase digests maintained 1.57% and 28.91% of the radical scavenging capacity of the porridge. Catechin and gallic acid were lower in the intestinal digest (1020.90 µg/g; 83.87 µg/g) than the undigested porridge (3122.77 µg/g; 144.55 µg/g). Sorghum-cowpea composite porridge contains phenolic antioxidants even after gastric and intestinal digestion with potential to significantly impact human health.

Alba Du Toit, Maryna De Wit, Gernot Osthoff, Arno Hugo University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa Cactus pear farming could be developed into a profitable industry if the public is made aware of the health benefits that this undervalued crop, that thrives in arid and semi-arid regions provide. The fruit, peel and cladodes from four different cultivars from the O. ficus-indica spp. and one of O. robusta spp., representing the four colours of fruit available namely, green, pink, orange and purple, were studied in order to determine the antioxidant content and potential in fresh products and the influence of preservation techniques. Juice, dried products, chutneys, whole preserves and pickles were prepared from the fruit (pulp), peel and cladodes. Ascorbic acid, phenolics, carotene and betalain content was determined. The potential of the antioxidants were determined using the DPPH (2, 2-dipehyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical) method and measuring the chelating activity of ferrous ions. The highest antioxidant content and –capacity were found in purple (O.robusta Robusta) fruit, peel and cladode products, attributed to the high levels of Betalains. Ascorbic acid, working synergistically with Phenolics, was found to provide almost as much antioxidant capacity to orange fruit products. Betalains were highly retained in processed products; Ascorbic acid was mostly preserved in the processed products that involved minimal heat treatments, while Carotene and Phenolics increased after processing. The peel was found to contain very similar antioxidant content and potential as the fruit and should be included in products. It was established that antioxidants remained present after processing cactus pear products and in some cases, the levels improved to such an extent that processed cactus fruit products might be classified as being nutraceutical. The study highlights the potential that cactus pear products have for the food industry. P082 Potential of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) as dietary fibre food source Claudine Diedericks, Victoria Jideani Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Bellville, South Africa Dietary fibre [DF], a heterogeneous mixture of indigestible carbohydrates, is important in the development of highly demanded functional and value-added foods. The beneficial role of DF in health and physiology has led to an increased consumer interest in fibre, resulting in the need for new DF food sources for use in the food industry. Legumes, ranked as the second most important food source in the world, have been identified as a rich source for fibre isolation. From the eleven primary FAO recognised legumes, the only research on DF fractions are those from major crops such as peas, lentils, navy beans and chickpeas; with several underutilised legume species like bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) [BGN] remaining to be investigated. BGN, classified as a complete food containing on average 63% carbohydrate, 19% protein and 6.5% fat, is an easy-to-cultivate legume seed which is widely grown throughout tropical Africa, Indonesia, Malaysia, India and Sri Lanka. BGN compares favourably to other more commonly utilised legumes with a total dietary fibre [TDF] content of 26.5% (chickpea TDF: 18.4 – 26.2%, cowpea TDF: 28.3 – 33.7%). No evidence could be found for the isolation and investigation of fibre fractions from BGN or several other underutilised species, thus indicating a gap for better utilisation of this and other underutilised legume seeds, whilst potentially satisfying the need for new sources of dietary fibre.

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POSTER ABSTRACTS P083

Nanotechnology, Food Structure and Food Systems

Antioxidant activity of probiotic Lactobacillus extracts with antiCandida and antibacterial activity

P085

Richard Nyanzi1, Kobus Eloff2, Piet Jooste1 1 Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa, 2Pretoria University, Pretoria, South Africa Pathogen inhibition by probiotic bacterial strains is widely acknowledged by several workers. The claimed antimicrobial factors attributed to probiotic strains usually include high acidity, low pH, effects of live probiotic cells, hydrogen peroxide production and bacteriocins. In an earlier section of the present study, inhibition of Candida albicans cocultured with probiotic lactobacilli in fermented maize gruel indicated that an additional, unknown factor was possibly responsible for inhibiting the growth of Candida albicans. The present study consequently attempted to identify active antimicrobial compounds in extracts from cells of probiotic bacterial isolates. These extracts were found to have antioxidant, antibacterial- and anti-Candida activity, as shown by the TLC fingerprints of extracts and by isolated compounds. These results illustrated that probiotic bacterial cells, even when lysed in the host’s gastrointestinal tract, may result in beneficial antimicrobial effects in the consumer.

Key Consumer and Market Trends in Food Science and Technology P084 A survey of food ingredients and antimicrobials used in beverage products sold in Cape Town, South Africa Victoria Jideani, James Eckleton Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Bellville, South Africa A survey was conducted to evaluate the food ingredients and antimicrobials used in beverages sold in Cape Town, South Africa at three supermarkets chain stores namely Checkers, Spar and Pick n Pay. In total 111 (100%) beverages containing preservatives were sampled from the supermarkets. The ingredients as indicated on the labels of the beverages include flavourings (44), sweeteners (8), acidulants (18), concentrates (9), juices (19), vitamins, hydrocolloids (8), pulps (9), milk and milk solids (5), preservatives (7), colourants, processing aids (2), chelating agents and other ingredients. Significant (p < 0.05) number of the beverages did not contain fructose [99 (28.9%)], dextrose [105 (30.6%)] and glucose syrup [108 (31.5%)]. However, sucrose was significantly present in most of the beverages [80 (79.2%)]. Discriminant analysis was conducted to predict whether the ingredients are good predictors of beverage category. The discriminate function revealed a significant association between beverage categories and four functions accounting for 90.7% of between group variability. The structure matrix revealed the ingredient that is strongly associated with function 1 which distinguished carbonated, noncarbonated, tea, fruit & vegetable juices, water-based flavoured drinks from the other was preservatives (r = 0.300). Waters (r = 0.482) was strongly associated with function 2 distinguished waters, dairy, noncarbonated and carbonated drink from the other. Colourants (r = 0.576)/ juice (r = -0.434) strongly associated with function 3 distinguished waterbased flavoured drinks, concentrates, water, non-carbonated, carbonated drinks from the others. No ingredients significantly correlated to function 4. Preservatives were present as sodium benzoate in 89 (43.2%) cases followed by potassium sorbate in 66 (32%) of cases. Water was present in 47 (69.1%) of the cases and as carbonated water in 20 (29.4%) of the cases. Added colourant was declared as colourants in 76 (96.2%) of the cases. Apple, grape and orange juices were the predominant juices in 19 (20.0%), 13 (13.7%) and 16 (16.8%) cases, respectively. The information will provide a bench mark for further work in assessing the conformation of ingredients combination to food additive regulation.

Effects of gamma irradiation and stearic acid, alone and in combination, on functional, structural and molecular characteristics of high amylose maize starch Fidelis C.K. Ocloo1,2, Amanda Minnaar1, Naushad M. Emmambux1 Department of Food Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, 2Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Accra, Ghana

1

High amylose maize starches are unattractive for commercial use due to difficulties in pasting and solubilising them at normal processing conditions. There is therefore a need to adopt pre-treatment methods for enhancing their utilization. This study is aimed at determining the effects of irradiation and stearic acid on molecular, structural and functional characteristics of high amylose maize starch (Hylon VII) were studied. Hylon VII starch was incorporated with stearic acid (0, 1.5 & 5 %) and then irradiated (0, 30 and 60 kGy). Results showed that irradiation and stearic acid did not seem to cause any structural change in Hylon VII starch at the granular or microscopic level as seen by light and scanning electron microscopy. Irradiation significantly decreased the onset (To), peak (Tp) and conclusion (Tc) temperatures as well as melting enthalpies (ΔH) for all the transition endotherms from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms. Stearic acid caused delay in To, Tp and Tc of the starch; however the effects were not significant (P>0.05). X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of Hylon VII did not change with irradiation, however relative crystallinity slightly decreased with increasing irradiation dose. Significant increase in damaged starch was recorded with increasing irradiation dose. Irradiation also decreased the molecular weights of amylopectin and amylose components of the Hylon VII starch as determined by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Irradiation increased solubility of Hylon VII, whereas stearic acid seemed to decrease the solubility, and this results in lower pasting temperature of the irradiated Hylon VII samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the measured variables showed 66.51 % and 13.80 % variations attributed to gamma irradiation and stearic acid respectively, suggesting the irradiation contributed mostly to the effects observed. Gamma irradiation of Hylon VII can partially depolymerise the amylose and amylopectin molecules to reduce the processing temperature for various applications. P086 Maize starch biphasic pasting with stearic acid for amylose-lipid complex isolation: effect of pullulanase enzyme Tatenda Nyakabau, M. Naushad Emmambux University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa The effect of a de-branching enzyme, pullulanase and stearic acid addition on the biphasic pasting of normal maize starch was investigated using a Rheometer. Normal maize starch exhibits a biphasic pasting curve at extended holding times at high temperatures. The first peak in viscosity is due to starch gelatinization while the second peak is due to the formation of amylose inclusion complexes with lipids. Complex formation involves mainly amylose rather than amylopectin. Debranching amylopectin with pullulanase, to Cleave α (1-6) branch points, results in the release of sufficient uninterrupted length to potentially form complexes with lipids. Pullulanase (0.630 U) was added to 10% (w/v) starch slurry containing 0, 1.5 and 3% stearic acid (by weight of starch on a dry basis), after pasting starch for 101 minutes in a Rheometer. The resultant slurry was subjected to alpha-amylase hydrolysis after amyloselipid complexing, to isolate the complexes. Treatment of normal maize starch containing added stearic acid (3% stearic acid) with pullulanase produced the highest yield of unhydrolysed residues after alpha-amylase hydrolysis. X-ray diffraction analysis of the unhydrolysed residues showed crystalline V-amylose diffraction patterns for starches with added stearic acid (1.5 and 3%). Differential scanning calorimetry showed that addition of stearic acid to normal maize starch resulted in the formation of Type IIb complexes after pasting for a prolonged time. The present research

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POSTER ABSTRACTS showed that treatment of maize starch containing stearic acid with pullulanase enables the formation of more amylose-lipid complexes. The information obtained in this research may be useful in the production of amylose lipid complexes which have promising applications in the food and non-food industry for delivering bioactive compounds such as nutraceuticals and functional components. P087

Novel Food Ingredients and Additives P088 The influence of genotype and season on the oil yield and composition of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) seed Nokuthula Shongwe1,2, Maryna De Wit1, Arno Hugo1 University of the Free State, BloemfonteinSouth Africa, 2University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa, South Africa

1

Pasting properties of wheat, maize and teff starches with added stearic acid and xanthan gum Thabelang Maphalla, M Naushad Emmambux Department of Food Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa Starch is used in food as a thickener and stabilizer. Starch contributes to the texture, mouth-feel and consistency of food products. Most starches used during processing are chemically modified to improve their tolerance to processing conditions. The increase in consumer concerns has led to a strong preference for ‘clean’ label starches compared to ‘synthetic’ chemicals. Lipid and hydrocolloids are food friendly chemicals for modification of starches for clean label. The objective was to determine the effects of xanthan gum and stearic acid alone and in combination on the pasting and textural properties of wheat, maize and teff starches. The addition stearic acid and xanthan gum (alone) to wheat, teff and maize starches resulted in a further increase in viscosity compared to the untreated starches (controls). An even further increase in viscosity was observed for wheat, teff and maize starches modified with a combination of stearic acid and xanthan gum, suggesting a synergistic effect of xanthan gum and lipid modification. However, wheat starch modified with combination of stearic acid and xanthan was observed to exhibit a more viscosity breakdown compared to maize and teff starches. The addition of stearic acid was observed to reduce retrogradation, resulting in a soft textured gel compared to the controls. In contrast starches modified with xanthan gum had a harder texture compared to starches modified with stearic acid, but softer texture compared to the control. Combination of xanthan gum and lipid can produce a higher viscosity starches with lower rate of retrogradation.

The cactus pear plant originates from America, spreading to countries over the world. It flourishes well in the arid and semi-arid regions. The fruits are rich in nutrients and processing has been limited to the fruit pulp only. Research revealed that its seeds contain good edible oils that can be utilized for human consumption and this promises to simultaneously increase the application of this under-utilized plant. The study therefore aims at investigating the cultivar and seasonal influence on the yield and composition of the cactus pear seed oil, as well as to ascertain the best yielding cultivar. Forty-two South African cultivars were analysed for oil yield and the composition of fatty acids. Oil was extracted according to the Folch method and the fatty acids determined by gas chromatography. Results showed that the seed oil content varied among cultivars and seasons tested. The oil yield ranged between 4.09 and 8.76 % among the cultivars. The unsaturated fatty acids were prominent (57.27 – 65.54%) and were principally dominated by the linoleic acid, which varied between 56.86 – 65.21%. Oleic acid followed by 16.44 – 22.51%, while palmitic and stearic acid was between 12.72 – 16.05% and 2.21 – 3.39%, respectively. Genotype had a significant effect on the cactus pear seed oil content and fatty acid composition. Moreover, variation in atmosphericand soil temperatures also had an effect on these parameters. Cultivars demonstrated shared quality traits as indicated by principal component analysis. American Giant proved the best cultivar owed to its outstanding oil content. P089 Preparation of a polyphenol-enriched extract of Cyclopia genistoides: optimising extraction and evaluation of ultrafiltration

P087 Effect of amylose-lipid nanomaterials on the quality of wheat starch films Prelen Moodley, Naushad Emmambux University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa Bio-based packaging materials are a good alternative to synthetic packaging materials as it is environmentally friendly. Several researches demonstrate potential use of starch as biodegradable plastics but their low performance (poor mechanical and barrier properties) has limited the applications. However incorporation of nanomaterials to starch films can improve performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of amylose-lipid nanomaterials on the mechanical, thermal and barrier properties of wheat starch films. The addition of nanomaterial to wheat starch films improved the films mechanical properties in terms of increased tensile stress and tensile Young’s modulus and decrease oxygen and water vapour barrier properties. The glass transition (Tg) of films with amylose lipid nanomaterials addition was higher compared to control. This suggests there is interaction between the amylose lipids nanomaterials and wheat starch polymers to improve the mechanical properties and the amylose lipid nanomaterials acts as a nanofiller. The nanomaterials as a filler will provide a tortuous pathway to decrease the oxygen and water vapour barrier properties. Amylose lipid complexes as a naturally occurring material at nanoscale have potential to improve biodegradable wheat starch films.

Stephanie Bosman1,2, Christiaan Malherbe2, Dalene De Beer2, Elizabeth Joubert2 1 Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 2ARC InfruitecNietvoorbij Post Harvest and Wine Technology Division, Stellenbosch, South Africa Honeybush (Cyclopia spp.) is part of the fynbos biome and is unique to South Africa. The health benefits of honeybush include antioxidant, antidiabetic, antiobesity and phytoestrogenic activities. These activities are largely attributed to its polyphenol content. The major phenolic compounds in Cyclopia plant material have been identified as xanthone, flavanone, flavone and benzophenone derivatives. Cyclopia genistoides is the species of choice for the production of polyphenol-enriched Cyclopia extracts due to its high xanthone content. Such an extract can be used to increase the xanthone content of existing extracts from Cyclopia spp. as well as be used as a functional food ingredient for both food and beverages. Important factors to consider when preparing an extract are yield, composition and whether the solvent has food-grade status. The use of ultrafiltration for the preparation of polyphenol-enriched plant extracts is becoming increasingly popular as it is an energy efficient method that adheres to the principles of green chemistry. To optimize the extraction of green C. genistoides, single factor experiments were performed for different extraction parameters: solvent composition, extraction time and temperature. A full factorial design was then used to determine the optimal extraction conditions. For ultrafiltration, small scale experiments were performed to establish the membrane type (regenerated cellulose vs. polyether sulphone) and molecular weight cut off (MWCO) (10, 30 or 100 kDa) that gave the best extract clean up and/or separation. The total polyphenol and individual phenolic compound content of extracts and filtrates were determined

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POSTER ABSTRACTS by the Folin- Ciocaltaeu assay and HPLC-DAD analysis, respectively. The soluble solids content (TSS) was determined as an indication of extraction yield – an important factor for the practicality and economic implications for use on an industrial scale. Ethanol/water mixtures provided a good yield of soluble solids and high total polyphenol content. Clean-up of the extract was achieved with ultrafiltration by reducing the polymeric phenolic fraction in the final extract.

Xanthan gum also competes with the starch for water during storage, and retards moisture migration, which can result in shelf life extension of wraps. Xanthan gum can added to low grade flour to produce a good quality wraps. P092 Optimisation of Mageu-based gluten-free bread in South Africa

P090 The influence of genotype and season on the oil yield and composition of cactus pear (Opuntia Ficus-Indica) seed Nokuthula Shongwe1,2, Maryna De Wit1, Arno Hugo1 1 University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa, 2University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa, South Africa The cactus pear plant originates from America, spreading to countries over the world. It flourishes well in the arid and semi-arid regions. The fruits are rich in nutrients and processing has been limited to the fruit pulp only. Research revealed that its seeds contain good edible oils that can be utilized for human consumption and this promises to simultaneously increase the application of this under-utilized plant. The study therefore aims at investigating the cultivar and seasonal influence on the yield and composition of the cactus pear seed oil, as well as to ascertain the best yielding cultivar. Forty-two South African cultivars were analysed for oil yield and the composition of fatty acids. Oil was extracted according to the Folch method and the fatty acids determined by gas chromatography. Results showed that the seed oil content varied among cultivars and seasons tested. The oil yield ranged between 4.09 and 8.76 % among the cultivars. The unsaturated fatty acids were prominent (57.27 – 65.54%) and were principally dominated by the linoleic acid, which varied between 56.86 – 65.21%. Oleic acid followed by 16.44 – 22.51%, while palmitic and stearic acid was between 12.72 – 16.05% and 2.21 – 3.39%, respectively. Genotype had a significant effect on the cactus pear seed oil content and fatty acid composition. Moreover, variation in atmosphericand soil temperatures also had an effect on these parameters. Cultivars demonstrated shared quality traits as indicated by principal component analysis. American Giant proved the best cultivar owed to its outstanding oil content.

Product Development / New Products P091 Quality of wraps made from low grade flour with added xanthan gum Naledi Botha, Naushad Emmambux University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa Wraps are a flat circular unleavened flatbread, and have seen an increase in growth in South Africa over the years. The most popular wraps in South Africa are made from white bread flour. Low grade wheat flour is a cheaper alternative to white bread flour, is a by-product of milling, and is higher in phenolic and dietary fibre content. However quality of wraps produced from low grade flour can be lower compared to white bread flour due to low gluten quality. Xanthan gum can improve dough rheology. The objective of the study was to determine the dough rheology, and quality of wraps made from low grade flour with added xanthan gum. Addition of Xanthan gum improved the dough rheology, i.e. increase the viscoelastic properties, in terms of farinogram, alveaogram and mixolab values. Xanthan gum also improves quality of wraps made from low grade flour in terms of (i) rollability score over time, as well as a (ii) lower modulus and higher extensibility over time in terms of tensile properties. The X-ray diffraction showed a slight increase in crystallinity over four days for the control, but a lower increase for the wraps with added xanthan gum. The effects of xanthan gum seem to be achieved via the formation of an electrostatic complex between xanthan gum and gluten.

Leigh McCarroll, Suretha de Kock University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa The effect of the addition of Mageu, traditional maize flour fermentation in South Africa, on the quality of Gluten-free bread using locally available cereals was investigated. Gluten is the protein fraction in wheat, barley and rye. Gluten causes an autoimmune response in susceptible individuals called Coeliac disease. The treatment for Coeliac disease results in a lifelong avoidance of gluten. There is a growing demand for gluten-free products from individuals with Coeliac disease, individuals who have a wheat allergy and individuals who consider “gluten-free” as being health conscious. Gluten-free bread often has a short shelf life and poor sensory characteristics. Mageu produced from maize flour and starter cultures of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus was used as a sourdough in gluten-free bread. The use of sourdough in bread is reported to have beneficial effects on various quality parameters. Evaluations included rheological evaluation, the evaluation of sensory characteristics: loaf specific volume, texture, crumb colour, crust colour, flavour, overall acceptability and staling rate. The 6 treatments evaluated were control gluten-free bread (C1) produced with cooked maize flour, gluten-free bread produced with mageu and without hydrocolloids (C2), gluten-free breads produced with mageu and Xanthan gum (XG); mageu and Guar gum (GG); mageu and Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and mageu and Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). Other ingredients in all treatments were sorghum meal, soya flour, maize starch, sunflower oil, sucrose, sodium chloride, dried yeast and water. Optimised hydrocolloid levels were determined in initial baking trials. The specific loaf volume results were as follows: C1>C2>CMC>GG>HPMC>XG. Texture analysis using the AACC (74-09) standard method results indicated bread firmness in descending order as follows: GG>HPMC>XG>CMC>C2>C1 throughout 24hrs, 72hrs and 120 hours storage. Sensory evaluation results of a consumer panel indicated that treatment XG and CMC were most liked on a hedonic scale for flavour. Treatment XG was also rated most liked (for the attributes texture, crumb colour and overall acceptability. Treatment CMC was rated most liked for the crust colour attribute. Hunterlab colour evaluation results indicate that GG had the lightest crumb colour followed by XG, CMC, C2, C1 and HPMC in descending order. Crust colour results by the Huntercolorlab indicate that XG has the lightest crust followed by HPMC, C1, GG, CMC and C2 correlating with the darker crust colour preferred by consumers in sensory evaluation. Optimised gluten-free bread produced with mageu was found to be well accepted and could be beneficial to the entire population. P093 Effects of yeast, carboxymethylcellulose, yoghurt, transglutaminase and cyclodextrinase on mixing properties of oat dough Patrick Hermaan Nitcheu Ngemakwe, Victoria A. Jideani Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Bellville, South Africa The effects of added yeast, carboxylmethylcellulose (CMC), plain yoghurt (PY), transglutaminase (TG) and cyclodextrinase (CG) on the mixing properties of oat doughusing DoughLab were investigated. A 25-2fractional factorial design resolution III with yeast (1, 3%), CMC (1, 2%), PY (10, 30%), TG (0.5, 1.5%) and CG (10, 40 µl) as independent variables. The parameters measured were water absorption, arrival time, stability, energy at peak, peak resistance, development time, departure

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POSTER ABSTRACTS time, softening and bandwidth at peak were assessed. CMC significantly (p < 0.05) increased stability, energy at peak, development and departure times, but significantly (p < 0.05) decreased water absorption, peak resistance, softening and bandwidth at peak. TG significantly increased water absorption, peak resistance and softening, but significantly decreased energy and development time. Yoghurt significantly (p<0.05) decreased all but increased softening. However, yeast and cyclodextrinase did not affect oat dough significantly during mixing. Principal component analysis indicated that 85.5% of the variation in the data could be explained by two components. Component 1 explaining 52.3% of the variation loaded highly on dough strength (stability and departure time). Component 2 contributing 33.2% of the variation loaded on dough resistance (water absorption and peak resistance). CMC significantly increased dough strength while yoghurt reduced it significantly. TG significantly (p <0.05) increased the resistance of the dough to mixing while CMC and yoghurt reduced it significantly (p < 0.05). Hence, CMC, TG and yoghurt are ingredients of choice in modifying oat dough. P095 Production and physico-chemical properties of plain yoghurt from bambara groundnut Opeolu Ogundele, Adenike Ogunshe, Kolawole Falade University Of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria Bambara groundnut is a leguminous species just like soybean. However it has not gained much popularity especially at the international market. Bambara milk, made from bambara nut, has shown great potential as an imitation milk from an alternative source and could be used in vegetarian nutrition or for medical reasons, for example for milk allergies and galactosemia. The objectives of the project were to develop an imitation yoghurt product from Bambara nut and to evaluate effects of storage on the physical and chemical properties of the Bambara yoghurts. Bambara milk was produced and the resulting milk was fermented with a mixed culture (L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus) for 6 hours into yoghurt at 42 oC. After cooling, yoghurt was packaged in sterile containers and analysed. The total solids, pH, lactic acid, specific gravity and viscosity of Bambara yoghurt stored at 7 oC and 27 oC were analysed after 0, 3, 6 and 9 days of storage. During storage, total solids and pH of Bambara yoghurt was significantly (p<0.05) affected by the storage temperatures of 7 oC and 27 oC. Generally, lactic acid content, specific gravity and viscosity of the yoghurts stored at both 7 oC and 27 oC significantly increased during storage. Decreased pH and increased lactic acid content during storage indicated that the activity of the culture was not completely arrested. Increased total solids content during storage indicated a resulting change in nitrogenous compounds. Finally, an increase in viscosity and specific gravity during storage occurred. This was affected by the integrity of relatively weak protein gel network. P096 Some nutritional and microbial quality assessment of Dakuwa â&#x20AC;&#x201C; an indigenous snack product Helen Agu1, Nneka David1, Israel Jideani2 Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi, Bauchi State., Nigeria, 2Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Venda, Thohoyandou, South Africa 1

Dakuwa is a solid product, brown in colour and eaten as snacks in northern part of Nigeria during wedding, naming ceremonies, turbaning of emirs and chiefs and other festivals. Five samples of dakuwa were produced in the ratio of 80:10:10% (A), 70:15:15% (B), 60:20:20% (C), 50:25:25% (D), 60:40:0% (E) of rice (Oryza sativa), groundnut (Arachis hypogea) and tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) respectively. The sensory, proximate and microbial analyses were carried out on the samples. The overall acceptability result from the sensory evaluation was 7.45, 7.20, 7.70, 7.05 and 6.25 respectively. The proximate composition of the best three samples (A, B, and C) were protein 11.75%, 12.51% and

12.31%; Fats 11.39%, 12.03% and 12.38%; Moisture 9.83%, 9.73% and 9.75%; Ash 2.45%, 2.38% and 2.29%; Carbohydrates 63.41%, 62.36% and 62.43% respectively. Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) was carried out on dakuwa and the critical control points (CCP) determined. The microbial analysis showed that mostly moulds were found on the product. P097 Quality assessment of acha based biscuit improved with bambara nut and unripe plantain Helen Agu1, Gloria Ezeh1, Israel Jideani2 Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria, 2University of Venda,, Thohoyandou, South Africa

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Five value added biscuit products were produced from three different raw materials, namely acha, bambara nut and unripe plantain, at different proportions 80:10:10% (ACH801), 70:20:10% (ACH702), 60:30:10% (ACH603), 50:40:10% (ACH504) and 100:0:0% (ACH105) respectively. The raw materials were prepared into flour and used to produce biscuits. Sensory parameters evaluated were taste, texture, colour, flavour, crispness and general acceptability. Biscuit product ACH801 and ACH702 were acceptable. Physical parameters determined were spread ratio, weight and break strength. Result obtained for proximate analysis were protein (6.20%), moisture (2.04%), fat (20.1%), ash (2.28%) and crude fibre (2.27%) at a content of 80% acha, 10% bambara nut and 10% unripe plantain flour. Cost analysis and shelf life studies on the bacterial, mould and yeast were also carried out and the result obtained showed a snack product with a shelf life of one year and contain nutrient required for diabetic patient. P098 Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of provitamin a-biofortified maize stiff porridge Daniso Beswa1,2, Muthulisi Siwela2, Eric Amonsou3, Nomusa Dlamini4, Unathi Kolanisi2 1 University of Venda, Thohoyandou, South Africa, 2University of KwaZuluNatal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, 3Durban University of Technology, Durban, South Africa, 4Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa Maize has been identified as a potential candidate for biofortification with provitamin A to alleviate vitamin A deficiency in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, sensory properties and consumer acceptability of proviatmin A-biofortified maize stiff porridge were determined. Four varieties of biofortified maize (PVAH 1-26, PVAH 27-49, PVAH 50-75 and PVAH 79100) were used to prepare the stiff porridges. White maize porridge was used as a reference. Descriptive sensory analysis of porridges was done by a trained panel (n = 10). Consumer acceptability was assessed using regular consumers of maize porridge (n = 60). Provitamin A-biofortified maize porridges were described as very sticky and having a slight bitter aftertaste. By Principal component analysis (PCA), the first two components accounted for 93% of the total variation in sensory attributes of porridges. The first component (55%) differentiated PVAH 1-26 and PVAH 50-75 porridges from those of PVAH 27-49 and PVAH 79-100. The former are characterised by low intensity of yellow, texture, aroma and aftertaste. Proviatmin A-biofortified maize porridges had low acceptability for colour, taste and texture compared to white maize porridge. However, the overall acceptability of these porridges was moderate and varied with maize varieties. PVAH 1-26 porridge had the lowest overall acceptability (4.5). The moderate acceptability of provitamin A-biofortified porridges may be associated with their bitter aftertaste, unfamiliar colour and Rama margarine-like aroma. The study findings suggest a need for the manipulation of the sensory attributes that tend to lower the overall acceptability of provitamin A-biofortified maize porridge.

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POSTER ABSTRACTS P099

P101

Developing extruded products: adding value to African underutilised legumes and cereals

Standardization and characterization of traditional basotho bread prepared according to the culinary practices in rural and urban Lesotho

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Victoria Jideani1, Israel Jideani2 Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Bellville, South Africa, 2 University of Venda, Thohoyandou, South Africa

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Research results show that many underutilised cereals and legumes like the millets, sorghum and bambara groundnuts have the potential to contribute to food security, nutrition, dietary and culinary diversification, health and income generation. Yet, there are very few commercialised products from these grains. Perhaps the greatest hindrance to commercialization of these grains for food purposes is the misplaced social stigma dubbing these as poor man’s crops rather than sustainability issue. Scientists and product developers should take advantage of the fact that these grains could also be more appropriate choices than the conventional cereals such as wheat and rice for the elite who will benefit from their high nutraceutical properties. Application of modern processing methods like extrusion while incorporating traditional knowledge will definitely provide a substantial base for the commercial exploitation of these grains for developing new foods (or for biofortification), as well as for use in the pharmaceutical industry. The article suggests how this can be done through statistical experimental design and process modelling.

Bread forms an important part of Basotho diet. Lesotho, like many developing countries, is experiencing difficulties with changes in food habits due to introduction of modern foods brought by westernization and urbanization. Literature on culinary practices related to traditional bread in Lesotho is very limited. The present study was conducted to document culinary practices regarding bread in rural and urban areas of Lesotho. Mixed methodology using both qualitative and quantitative techniques was employed. A total of 253 female respondents from 5 districts of Lesotho completed a questionnaire on knowledge, preparation and consumption frequency. Breads were standardized and profiled using descriptive sensory evaluation. Flour particle sizes, sourdough properties, colour, volume and texture of the breads were also characterised. Recipes for 10 traditional Basotho breads prepared from wheat, maize and sorghum were obtained from focus group sessions. The focus groups revealed differences in the type of ingredients used in rural and urban areas. The rural participants used flour milled from cultivated grains, sourdough, traditional beer and sour porridge supernatant while urban participants used commercial flour and yeast for preparing breads. The type of cereal and milling properties of the flour used has major effects on the physical and sensory properties of the bread. Steamed wheat breads have larger volume, softer crumb and more bland flavour compared to sorghum and maize breads. Both sorghum and maize steamed breads are characterised by low loaf volume, denser crumb, heavy, chewy, dry, fibrous, brittle texture and more complex, strong flavours and aroma. The knowledge on the culinary practices and sensory characteristics from this study could be considered when promoting health, nutritional activities and sustainable food security in Lesotho. Further research is needed to improve the characteristics of maize and sorghum breads in order to encourage their acceptability to the younger generation.

Sensory and Consumer Sciences P100 Exploring South African informal settlements consumers’ emotions towards flavoured corn snack chips Muruta Baranzika1,2, Elisabeth Kempen1, Tertia van Eeden1 University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa, 2Season to Season Flavours, Johannesburg, South Africa 1

Snack foods provide at least 20% of energy to consumers who eat at least one snack a day (Bawa & Sidhu, 2003) yet little research is published on factors influencing preferences of snack chips, particularly in South African informal settlements. Emotions have been associated with food preferences as part of the personal factors influencing food preferences (Khan, 1981). The current study explored consumers’ emotions towards flavoured corn snack chips in relation to preferences in a South African informal settlement. Purposive sampling allowed the recruitment of 136 voluntary respondents who purchased and consumed flavoured corn snack chips at least once a week. A list of 8 positive and 4 negative emotions selected from the EsSense Profile™ (King & Meiselmann, 2010) was rated on a 5-point scale for cheese, tomato and BBQ beef flavoured snack chips. Consumers were asked to rate the emotions they felt when eating flavoured snack chips. Lower ratings indicated that the respondents associated the least with the emotion while higher ratings indicated that the respondents associated the most with the emotion. The mean value ratings for the negative emotions (1.75 - 2.68) were significantly lower (p≤0.05) than the positive emotions’ ratings (2.673.88) across all flavours, suggesting that consumers did not associate negative emotions with flavoured snack chips. When comparing positive emotions, mean value ratings for the emotions enthusiastic and pleased were significantly higher (p≤0.05) for the cheese flavour (3.04 and 3.88) compared to the tomato (2.67 and 3.64) and BBQ Beef flavours (2.84 and 3.64). This implied that these two emotions were strongly felt by consumers towards the cheese flavoured snack chips than towards the other flavoured snack chips. Enthusiasm and pleasure were the emotions influencing the consumers most in their preferences. These results provide quantitative information on how emotions play a role in preferences of snack chips in consumers in a South African informal settlement.

Pulane Nkhabutlane2,1, Henriëtte L. de Kock1, Gerrie E. du Randa1 University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, 2National University of Lesotho, Maseru, Lesotho

P102 Application of a check-all-that-apply question to the characterization of Adansonia digitata L. drinks with African origin Maria Isabel Franco1, Mónica Freitas2, Susana Teixeira1, Maria João Monteiro1, Ana Patrícia Silva1, Mady Cissé3, Dominique Pallet4, Ben Bennett5, Aurelie Bechoff5, Keith Tomlins5, Manuela Pintado1 1 Escola Superior de Biotecnologia - Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Porto, Portugal, 2Faculdade de Veterinária da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil, Brazil, 3Association Afrique Agro Export, Senegal, Senegal, 4CIRAD, Montpellier, France, 5Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, Chatham, UK Baobab fruit pulp, due to the combination of health claims and food technological functions, is a very interesting candidate for a new generation of functional foods and drinks. Food companies increasingly base their product development, positioning, advertisement and communication strategies on consumer perception. In this context, understanding how consumers describe the sensory characteristics of food products is highly valuable for food companies. One of the most novel methodologies that has been developed for gathering information about consumers’ perception of the sensory characteristics of food products is the use of check-all-that-apply questions (CATA). CATA questions consist of a list of words or phrases from which respondents select all the words they consider appropriate to describe a product. This can result in a simpler and more valid approach to gathering information about consumers’ perception that includes both their sensory and hedonic impression.

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POSTER ABSTRACTS CATA questions provide a methodology to obtain a sensory map based only on consumer perception of the products and to perform external preference mapping when a trained sensory panel is not available. The aim of the present work was to apply CATA questions to study consumer perception in the development of Adansonia digitata L. drinks. Three samples (n=3) were tested including two commercial ones - Commercial juice from Esteval and Commercial syrup from Kumba and one prepared according traditional recipe - viz. Traditional boiled instantaneous powder. A consumer study was performed with 100 people at a local shopping centre called “St. Jones Campus”, Porto, Portugal; who were asked to score their overall liking and to answer a CATA questionnaire that included 29 sensory and hedonic terms. Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA) was carried out based on CATA counts for groups of consumers. Highly significant differences were found in the frequencies in which CATA terms were used for describing the four samples, suggesting that this methodology was able to detect differences in consumer perception of the drinks. Kumba syrup was correlated to sensory terms gold, fluid, caramel and sweet; Baobab powder to pear nectar, marmalade/jelly, viscous and raisins attributes; and Baobab juice to amber colour and acid attributes. For emotional terms Baobab powder was correlated to syrup/concentrated, fibres, natural, healthy, functional food and tropical/exotic; Kumba syrup to artificial, fresh, watery/diluted and instantaneous descriptors; and Baobab juice maybe represented with enjoyable/pleasant and tropical/exotic terms. P103 A survey on the sensory characteristics of orange fruit juice blends in Limpopo province South Africa Henry Udeh, Ephraim Kgatla, Afam Jideani University of Venda, Vhembe district/ Limpopo, South Africa The sensory survey on different orange fruit juice blends (OFJB) was carried out to ascertain the point difference which commands consumers’ preference. Sampling was done in duplicate for OFJB1, OFJB2, OFJB3, OFJB4 and OFJB5. A total of 127 panellists were used for the consumer acceptability test. Descriptive analysis, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), colour and consumer acceptability tests were analysed, using OFJB1 as the control as market sale rate for OFJB1 is highest compared to other OFJB. The descriptive analysis on the five OFJP shows OFJB4 to be best in terms of colour, seconded by OFJB3, while lest colour rating was recorded for OFJB2 and OFJB1. A high TSS was recorded for OFJB3 which was statistically different (p < 0.05) from OFJB1, OFJB2, OFJB4 and OFJB5. pH value for OFJB4 showed a marked difference to the control OFJB1 as well as OFJB3, OFJB2, OFJB5. There was no significant difference in TA for the five products. The sensory scores revealed a significant difference for OFJB1 compared to other OFJB with respect to colour, taste, overall acceptability, unless for aroma where OFJB4 showed a higher value (p < 0.05) compared to the control OFJB1. Result shows that consumer preferences do not solely depend on sensory attribute of a beverage but on product familiarity, which will obviously demand consistency in product quality. P104

block design with six samples tested per day, in triplicate. The data were analysed to determine significant attribute differences between samples using ANOVA and multivariate techniques to test the association between the samples and attributes. Chemical analyses entailed the determination of individual monomeric polyphenol contents. An improved RP-HPLC method, developed by researchers at the ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij was employed to determine 15 rooibos tea phenolics. All infusions were analysed in duplicate and quantified using appropriate calibration series of authentic standards. The chemical and sensory data of the three production seasons is currently being subjected to regression analysis (PLS and DA) to indicate whether compositional parameters could be used as a predictor of taste and mouthfeel quality. In 2009 it was indicated that bitterness was related to several flavonoids, amongst others, the unique rooibos flavonoid, and aspalathin. It was noted, however, that this compound did not contribute to astringency. By expanding the data set to include samples of three production seasons, the 2009 findings could be confirmed and/or the role of other compounds could be determined. P105 Sensory and consumer testing of drink from baobab fruit in Senegal Cisse Mady1, Bechoff Aurélie2, Ayessou Nicolas C.M.1, Sakho Mama1, Pallet Dominique3, Tomlins Keith I2 1 Cheikh Anta Diop Université de Dakar, BP 5005, Dakar-Fann Sénégal, Dakar, Senegal, 2Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime, Kent, ME7 3RU,, London, UK, 3 CIRAD Montpellier, France TA B-95 / 16, 73 rue Jean-François Breton, Montpellier, France The sensory profile of seven samples of bouye (baobab) drinks (syrup and juice) was evaluated by 17 panellists. Than consumer testing was investigated at four different locations in Dakar using the central location method. These were the following: ESP high school (n=32); Grand Yoff (n=36), Guediawaye (n=12), and Gueule Tapée (n=26) areas. The acceptability of the drink was tested by African consumers (mainly Senegalese) (n=104) in Dakar who tested five different drinks from the seven first samples. A cluster analysis demonstrated that consumers behave differently with respect to acceptability. Three classes of behaviour from the consumers were identified. There were a) those who clearly preferred the juice from FWS (27% of consumers) b) those who preferred all of the samples (indifferent likers) (31% of consumers), c) those who liked the juices but not the syrups (juice likers) (42% of consumers). Syrups and juices had different characteristics. Juices were more associated with bouye attributes (taste and odour) than syrup. Juices were also associated with concentration and beige colour. The addition of milk had a significant influence on the characteristics of the product perceived but not the influence of guava flavouring. Traditional juice was not perceived significantly different from one the commercially juice. The commercial syrups were associated to the sweet taste and flavour. They are very close and are the least preferred products by consumers. The correlations highlight that concentration is an important criterion of acceptability for the consumer group as a whole and particularly for the “juice likers”.

Determination of the chemical drivers of taste and mouthfeel quality attributes of rooibos using statistical model building B Jolley1, I Koch1, M Muller1, E Joubert2, D De Beer2, M Van der Rijst2 1 Stellenbosch University, Western Cape, South Africa, 2ARC InfruitecNietvoorbij, Western Cape, South Africa Unpasteurised rooibos samples, ranging in quality were sourced from two production areas (Western Cape and Northern Cape, South Africa) in 2009, 2011 and 2012. Descriptive sensory analysis (DSA) was conducted on these samples by an expert sensory panel, trained extensively on the full range of aroma, flavour, taste and mouthfeel attributes associated with rooibos quality. The samples were tested according to a complete

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POSTER ABSTRACTS P106 The fermented wheat based endogenous Kishk Sa’eedi: proximate composition and sensory evaluation Zahra Ahmed1, Safaa Abozed1, Shaimaa AbdElaziz1, Keith Tomlins2, Christain Mestres3, Sameh Awad4, Habiba Hassan-Wassef1, Dominique Pallet3 1 National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt, 2Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, Greenwich, UK, 3CIRAD, Montpellier, Cedex, France, 4Faculty of agriculture, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt Kishk Sa’eedi (KS) is a homemade fermented wheat-based stable food that has been produced and eaten among the inhabitant of the southern part of Egypt since the time of the ancient Egyptians. The KS consists of two main ingredients namely: whole parboiled locally grown freshly harvested wheat and unpasteurized fermented skimmed buttermilk (Laban Zeer). Despite KS is part of the rich food heritage of Egypt, it received limited attention by researchers and it has not been fully investigated to date. Therefore, this paper responds to the need to narrow the knowledge gape. The main objective of this work is to: 1. better understand the proximate composition of KS with varied quality characteristics; and 2. to provide the first piece of evidence needed to explore the sensory quality criteria as perceived by the traditional processors and consumers. Chemical compositions of seven KS samples representing the wide spectrum of quality were determined using the official standard methods. The chemical analysis (g 100\ g on dry matter basis) of the KS fell within the following ranges: The moisture content of the samples was in the range between 7.06%±0.04 to 13.27%±.03; ash 4.73%±0.00 to 10.36%±0.05; protein 15.11%±0.53 to 21.51%±.31; fibre 0.72% ±0.09 to 4.86%±2.4; fat 3.59%±0.34 to 12.21%±0.32; and carbohydrate 44.44%65.75%. Chemical determinations of pH, and titratable acidity showed that pH ranged from 3.81 to 4.64 in all samples and total titrable acidity ranged from 1.36 to 1.74% (g/g lactic acid equivalent) as well. A wide range of mineral elements in varying concentration were detected in the tested KS samples but the most abundant was sodium 899+1.41 to 2754 +2.83ppm followed by phosphorus 135+0.57 to 227.5+7.78 ppm. Significant difference (p>0.05) in the calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc and copper content were reported as well. The high content of sodium reported are attributed to the addition of table salt during the preparation of (Laban Zeer)on one hand and also the addition of more salt during the processing of KS on the other hand. Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) was used to study the interrelationship among and between 17 developed sensory attributes regarding appearance, odour, flavour and texture of the samples. Mean intensity ratings of the descriptive attributes showed that there were significant differences (p<0.05) within KS samples for all the attributes tested. In general, high ratings for creamy colour, fresh odour, KS taste and fracturability are considered as positive effects that would be favoured by panellists while increase in caramel colour, sour taste, denseness and mouth coating are regarded as undesirable. P107

mouthfeel attributes present in the honeybush samples and rating the intensities of the attributes present. Judge reproducibility was tested by analysing each sample in triplicate. The “characteristic” sensory profile of honeybush tea can be described as a combination of “floral”, “sweet-associated” and “fruity” flavours with a “sweet” taste and slightly astringent mouthfeel. Differences and similarities in the sensory characteristics between the three Cyclopia species (Cyclopia maculata, C. subternata and C. genistoides) were established using univariate and multivariate (PCA and DA) statistical methodologies. The species can be divided into three distinct groups. Cyclopia subternata has a high “floral” and “fynbos-sweet” aroma, C. genistoides a high “apricot/apricot jam” and “fruity-sweet” aroma and C. maculata a high “cooked apple” and “cassia/cinnamon” aroma. A honeybush sensory lexicon consisting of 35 attributes, their definitions and reference standards was designed to use as a quality tool in industry. A generic sensory wheel for honeybush was also created to form a simple graphical representation of the attributes. P108 Micronised cowpeas: are they acceptable to consumers in South Africa? Omphemetse Mothupi, Eugenie Kayitesi, Marise Kinnear, Amanda Minnaar, Henriëtte de Kock Department of Food Science, University of Pretoria, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield, 0028, South Africa Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are well adapted to the climatic conditions of Africa and are a potential excellent source of inexpensive plant based protein. Africa is the dominating producer of cowpeas, with Nigeria accounting for more than 70% of the world production. The utilisation of cowpeas is limited by the need for extensive cooking time requiring high energy consumption. Micronisation is an infrared heat treatment that can be applied to pre-conditioned legumes in order to reduce cooking time. For cowpeas, micronisation has been shown to reduce cooking time by 30 to 44%. Descriptive sensory evaluation has shown changes in sensory properties (e.g. increased splitting, introduction of uncharacteristic flavours and aroma) of cowpeas after micronisation. These changes in sensory profiles may result in decreased consumer acceptability. Consumer sensory evaluation of four cowpea varieties (Blackeye, Bechuana white, Glenda and Dr Saunders) both micronised and unmicronised, were conducted in two locations in the Tshwane region, South Africa. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in consumers’ acceptance of micronised and unmicronised cowpeas except for Bechuana white. Consumers preferred micronised Bechuana white cowpeas in both raw and cooked form, particularly in terms of colour. Blackeye cowpea was the most acceptable variety both with and without micronisation. Penalty analysis revealed that colour, seed size and flavour were important factors driving preference for cowpeas. When these factors do not meet consumer expectations, acceptance decreased. Micronisation of cowpeas reduce cooking time and energy costs of a protein rich food source and could therefore improve food security and livelihoods of vulnerable consumers in southern Africa. However, utilisation of cowpeas and micronized cowpeas in particular by consumers in South Africa also requires consumer education and market awareness strategies.

Sensory fingerprint of honeybush species, Cyclopia maculata, C. subternata and C. genistoides L Erasmus1, A Theron1, I Koch1, E Joubert2 Stellenbosch University, Western Cape, South Africa, 2ARC Infruitec Nietvoorbij, Western Cape, South Africa

1

Honeybush samples produced from three Cyclopia species (C. maculata, C. genestoides and C. subternata) were analysed to develop a full sensory profile for honeybush tea. Descriptive sensory analysis (DSA) was used for qualitative and quantitative characterisation of honeybush tea. A trained DSA panel characterised the samples according to aroma, flavour, taste and mouthfeel attributes, i.e. identifying the full range of flavour and

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POSTER ABSTRACTS P109 Assessing consumer perceptions and acceptability of egg powder as preservation technique for rural household food security Elizabeth Mnyandu, Unathi Kolanisi, Muthulisi Siwela, Eric O. Amonsou 1 School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, 2Department of Biotechnology and Food Technology, Durban University of Technology, Durban, South Africa Almost all South African rural households produce chicken eggs with a potential for food security. Unfortunately, eggs are highly perishable and these households do not have access to modern food preservation technologies. As a result, a large proportion of the eggs are lost through deterioration. Egg powder is currently available commercially and when compared with fresh eggs, it is superior due to its longer shelf life and ease to handle. This study, which was conducted in a rural area of KwaZulu-Natal, aimed to evaluate the acceptability of egg powder to rural households; the egg powder could be processed by sun drying to improve food security. A structured questionnaire was administered on 120 community members complemented by a series of nine focus group discussions to determine egg production and consumption patterns, egg storage methods and challenges, and consumer perceptions about egg powder. Sixty five recruits from the focus group were used as a consumer panel to rate the acceptability of a scrambled commercial egg powder compared to a fresh scrambled egg on a 5-point pictorial hedonic scale. The results showed that 88% of the respondents had egg laying chickens, 70% of which were women. Despite owning egg layers, the respondents indicated that eggs were in short supply due to egg storage challenges and their lack of egg preservation competence. Thus, mainly commercial eggs were consumed about three times a week. Eggs were valued for health and perceived socio-cultural benefits. Sensory analysis indicated that the egg powder was significantly (P<0.01) more acceptable to the consumers than the fresh egg. The acceptability of the egg powder was not influenced by age and gender. Generally, the respondents were interested in exploring processing egg powder. Thus, there is an opportunity to try sun drying of eggs into powder to improve rural household food security.

reasons such as taste, health and cultural identity were given for its consumption. Most (≥ 70%) of the staple grains, meat and chicken dishes and indigenous legumes listed, were known to the respondents and consumed, when available. Preference ratings for these were indicated as either high or neutral. All six indigenous green leafy vegetables were familiar to ≥ 82% of the respondents; however, only three received a high preference rating. Traditional Batswana foods and specifically the staple foods prepared from sorghum, maize and indigenous legumes continue to be consumed on a regular basis, whereas the familiarity and acceptability of indigenous green leafy vegetables and wild fruit seem to be declining. Evidence of a nutrition transition taking place is confirmed. P111 Comparative consumer acceptability and sensory evaluation of different bread in Thohoyandou, South Africa Power Mashau, Afam Jideani, Mpho Mashau University of Venda, Limpopo Province, South Africa The different types of bread produced by different bakeries and sold in Thohoyandou (South Africa) Super stores were examined to determine the attitude of consumers through a survey and sensory analysis. A set of structured questionnaire was administered to 700 individuals that shop at the super stores in order to evaluate and compare consumer attitude and acceptance of the different breads. In the study, 59.1% of female and 40.9% of male responded to the questionnaire. Most respondents (35.0% and 26.6%) claimed to consume B112 and B121 breads respectively; whereas less respondents (13.4% and 13.7%) claimed to consume B113 and B131 respectively. Others (11.2%) claimed to consume other types of bread. The respondents indicated that income does not affect them towards buying bread since higher percentage (48.7%) with no income can afford to buy bread. The results indicated that B112 and B121 are most preferred bread than B113 and B131. Results obtained provide useful data which bakeries can use to improve product for consumers’ satisfaction. P112

P110 Familiarity, acceptability and consumption patterns of indigenous and traditional foods by adolescence (15-18 yrs.) in the Francistown area, Botswana Annemarie Viljoen, Tothozani Adams University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa The extant literature reports a worldwide decline in the consumption of indigenous and traditional foods, attributed to changes in the physical and socio-cultural environments that result in a reduction of the availability, access and affordability of these foods. A sequence of characteristic changes in dietary patterns and nutrient intakes are associated with periods when populations are undergoing demographic transitions due to societal, cultural and economic changes that are closely linked with urbanisation, modernisation, migration and acculturation. Opportunities to socialise future generations to accept and identify with the traditional food of their culture, is consequently lost. The objectives were to determine and describe the familiarity, acceptability and consumption patterns of indigenous and traditional foods by adolescence in the Francistown area of Botswana. A self-administered questionnaire to determine the familiarity, preference ratings and consumption patterns of 57 traditional Batswana foods of which 28 were indigenous to the region, were completed by 242 respondents. A 5-point preference rating scale together with the frequency of consumption indicated acceptability. Variables were not normal at the 5% level. Median and mode values were calculated and used to rate each food item as either a high, neutral or low preference item. The majority (96%) indicated that they ate traditional foods and positive

Do saponins cause bitterness in marama beans (Tylosema Esculentum)? Patricia Nyembwe, Henriëtte L. de Kock, Gyebi Duodu, Amanda Minnaar University of Pretoria Department of Food Science, Pretoria, South Africa Marama bean (Tylosema esculentum) is an indigenous legume which grows in some parts of southern Africa. Research is lacking on the compounds that could be responsible for the bitter taste that is noted after roasting marama beans. The bitter taste can limit the utilisation and consumption of this pulse. Saponins are phytochemicals consisting of triterpene or steroidal glycosides that occur in a wide variety of legume including soybean, peas and chickpeas. They are known to have a bitter taste. The contribution of saponins to bitter taste of marama beans has not been studied before. Marama beans were roasted at 150°C for different time periods 20, 25 or 30 min. Eight samples of water extracts were prepared from full fat and defatted flours from roasted and unroasted marama cotyledons. Descriptive sensory evaluation was conducted with a trained panel using 9-point intensity scales to rate the bitterness intensity of water extracts. The total saponin content of marama water extracts was determined spectrophotometrically. The water extracts prepared from unroasted flour (defatted and full fat) were the least bitter while the water extract prepared from defatted flour from marama beans roasted for 30 min was the most. Roasting of marama seeds for 20 min resulted in significant increases in its saponin content. Marama beans had saponin content varying from 84.4 mg/100g in raw flour to 94.9 mg/100g in roasted flour. The different concentrations of saponins in water extracts prepared from roasted and unroasted marama flour (55-62 mg/l) were higher than the reported bitter threshold value for saponins in water (2-12 mg/l). Therefore, saponins in marama beans possibly contributed to bitterness.

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POSTER ABSTRACTS P113 The principles of sensory assessment in quality control Christine Leighton, Frieda Dehrmann 1 Sensory Science Consultant, Project Coordinator of the Consumer Education Project of Milk SA, Pretoria, South Africa, 2Consumer Science and Sensory Manager, SAB Miller, Johannesburg, South Africa The success of a sensory quality control programme in FMCG production is gauged by a reduced number of customer complaints and returned/ rejected product. Because direct benefit to the company is when a significant cost saving has been realised, time has to be allocated early on to ensure the product is of a good initial quality. Consistent quality of products determines long-term success and consumer satisfaction. The application of a good Sensory QC program allows the reduction of the ‘time to detect - time to correct’ cycle and ensures that non-compliant product is corrected before it reached the public. This poster was informed by and extensive literature review on Sensory in Quality Control and through the application of a Sensory Program in a large FMCG company. Different programmes for sensory in quality control are identified and guidelines are provided for developing standard operating procedures for sensory evaluation in quality control. The basic requirement of a sensory assessment program for quality control is the identification and definition of sensory standards (or tolerance limits) for a product. Therefore, extensive product investigation and evaluation are required before a sensory evaluation programmes for quality control can be developed and implemented on an on-going basis. Requirements for a successful sensory quality programme are: 1. An in-depth knowledge of the attributes of the product manufactured; 2. Knowledge of raw material components, their variability and synergistic effects on the final product; 3. Knowledge of those product attributes (subset of above) that vary during production; 4. Knowledge of the relationship between production variability and consumer acceptability 5. Identification of the tolerable limits (levels/intensities) of product variability, in each attribute. These limits are the actual specification itself. 6. Developing an effective sensory assessment program for Quality Control is based on the following key elements: 7. the selection of the sensory quality standard and the establishment of sensory qualifications 8. the selection of the method to evaluate differences between the product and the corresponding standard 9. The selection, training and maintenance of the panel. 10. Sensory in quality control must be a simple, on-going procedure that can be conducted without disruption of production schedules. This poster provides more insights into the principles and requirements for developing standard operating procedure for a sensory quality programme in any food or beverage manufacturing facility.

Waste Management and Environmental Sustainability (Including Value Addition of Edible Waste) P114 Production and quality evaluation of banana wine made from local cultivars in Thohoyandou Irvin Mhaule University Of Venda, Limpopo Region, South Africa The study focused on the determination of the yield, physico-chemical properties, sensory qualities, acceptability of banana wine from four different cultivars. The experimental design specifically the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was used to describe and analyze the sensory qualities of banana wine made from the four varieties. The

experiment used four treatments with three replications each following the desired procedures. Banana will be mashed to extract juice and analyzed for total sugars, protein, ash, obrix soluble solids. The juice will then be adjusted to 18 oBrix, inoculated with 3% (v/v) Baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisicie) and to be held between a temperature of 30-35oC for 21 days. Thereafter was determined for Physico-chemical properties pH, alcohol content, colour, obrix, total tritable acidity (TTA,) specific gravity. Microbial analysis was determined for the total plate count, coliforms, yeast, and changes in aerobic microbes. Sensory evaluation was carried out to characterize the colour, taste, flavor, sweetness and also to measure the preference of consumer to banana wine. The data was gathered through 60 panels from university of Venda community. Then the data tabulation, presentation and analysis was done with the use of means and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) that will do through SPSS. P115 Wine production from pineapple waste - a potential for waste utilization and management in Limpopo province South Africa Aluwani Ramutanda University of Venda, Thohoyandou, South Africa Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is one of the most cultivated and widely consumed fruit after banana, and has been extensively used in the production of various food products like pineapple juices, wines as well as animal feeds. With over 11 000 tons amount of pineapple waste produced annually in Limpopo Province, it is evident that there is an impeding environmental hazard to be anticipated of the fruit’s byproduct. However, means of curtailing the impact of such environmental hazard, has led investigations into alternative means of utilizing the fruit’s waste for value added product such as pineapple wine. This study aims at utilizing pineapple waste for the production of pineapple wine for commercial purpose. It entails the analysis of the physico-chemical, microbial and sensory properties of the wine. Pineapple waste will be purchased from Tshakhuma Fruit Market, and subsequently washed and sliced in bits. The sliced peels will then be boiled to a temperature of 1000C for 30 minutes, and allowed to cool to about 30oC. The filtrate obtained will then be inoculated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and held at a temperature of 28oC for 5 days. After fermentation, the brix, pH, colour, alcohol content, titratable acidity and microbial activity of the ferment will be determined using appropriate techniques. The sensory and descriptive analysis of the wine produced will be evaluated using a five point hedonic scale and a total of 60 panellists, respectively. The expected outcome of this study is to produce a commercially acceptable alcoholic beverage from pineapple waste, which will in turn be helpful in reducing the waste accruing from pineapple processing. P116 Anaerobic treatment of grain distillery wastewater: influence of pretreatments Louise Robertson, Trevor Britz, Gunnar Sigge Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa The high strength character of grain distillery wastewater (GDWW) requires the use of pre-treatments to make anaerobic digestion (AD) more viable. High fats, oils and grease (FOG) content in GDWW has been linked to biomass flotation and washout, which ultimately results in reactor failure. Pre-treatments, including coagulant addition and ozonation, have been shown to reduce the organic matter and lipid content in wastewaters and thus create a more suitable substrate for AD. The combination of ozonation and biological processes has also been shown to increase reactor efficiency. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of an ozonation pre-treatment on AD efficiency. This was achieved by monitoring the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and FOG reduction efficiency of two separate UASB reactors (R1 and R2). One reactor (R1) received ozonated pre-treated substrate, and the other (R2)

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POSTER ABSTRACTS received a non-ozonated substrate. The first phase consisted of start-up and stabilisation. During the second phase the organic loading rate (OLR) of the influent was increased to 5.6 kg COD.m-3d-1. The COD reduction increased, reaching 80 and 86% by day 211 in R1 and R2, respectively. FOG reduction was found to vary from 24 – 89% and 22 – 82% for R1­­ and R2, respectively. Over the 260 day period, the OLR was increased to ­ca. 9 kgCOD.m-3d-1. During this period R1 reached a maximum COD reduction of 92% and R2 that of 95%. Maximum FOG reductions were 92% and 88% for R1 and R2, respectively. At OLR’s of ca. 9 kg COD.m-3d-1 both reactors successfully treated the GDWW, reaching COD reductions of 92 and 95% for R1 and R2, respectively, at day 260. Reactor 1, which was treating the ozone pre-treated substrate, did not show an improved efficiency over the study period.

production costs. From literature it is clear that very few food industry effluents were tested for usability in biodiesel production as the emphasis remains on the use of municipal waste waters. In this study six effluents were tested for suitability of heterotrophic cultivation of oleaginous algae. During the screening of different oleaginous algal cultures, it was noted that there were numerous effluents that supported algal biomass in conjunction with lipid accumulation. Of the effluents evaluated, the best overall growth was obtained with a whey effluent followed by a fish cannery factory effluent. The best effluent for lipid production was found to also be a whey effluent with 36% lipid accumulation in the biomass. When comparing the algal oil produced from food industry effluents to plant oils used for biodiesel production, the lipid composition showed higher saturated fatty acids.

P117

Student New Product Development Competition

Effect of inoculum concentration on pH stabilisation during the anaerobic composting of white and red grape skins

University of the Free State P119

Michelle de Kock, Trevor Britz, Gunnar Sigge Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa

African secrets: cupcakes filled with the exotic flavours of South Africa

Wastes generated during winemaking include stalk, grape pomace, wine lees and winery sludge. The primary solid waste produced during wine making is the grape pomace that contains seeds, stalks and peel. Anaerobic composting as a treatment option has the advantage of producing biogas (a renewable energy source) as well as an organic amendment that can be used as a soil conditioner. Nine containers of 1 L volume were used as anaerobic compostdigesters. Lime (3 g.150 mL-1) was added to each digester to adjust the pH before inoculation (10, 15 and 25% m/m) with fresh cow manure. Moisture content of the solid waste was kept constant by addition of pH adjusted (pH = 10) effluent from an up flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating grain distillery wastewater. The contents of the digesters consisted of: shredded white and red grape skins (300 g) in a 1:1 ratio; shredded grass (20% m/m) and total moisture content of 80%. Overall, digesters containing 15% inoculum were found to perform best, as pH>6.5 was attained by Day 6, compared to digesters containing 10% inoculum (Day 9) and digesters containing 25% inoculum (Day 17), respectively. The highest volume reduction (75-76%) was achieved in the digesters with the 15% and 25% inoculums, compared to the 67% for the 10% inoculum. The results showed that, inoculums of 15-25% can produce a stable, odour free compost with a good end pH of 7.65-7.69. The 15% inoculum was found to be optimal in terms of pH stabilisation and economic feasibility.

Michele Deyzel, Anneke Louw University of the Free State, Free State, South Africa Whether it’s their individual size, their pretty icing, or just their ability to bring back fond memories of childhood, cupcakes really do have ultimate treat appeal. It can be made by baking almost any cake batter in a cupshaped mould (Connolly, 2005). AFRICAN SECRETS are proudly South African cupcakes with different flavours, filling and icings, where the African spirit can truly be tasted and experienced in a modern cupcake revolution. AFRICAN SECRETS will consist of a series of four cupcakes: cupcake a la Hertzog, with coconut; cupcake Nostalgia, with a milk tart filling; cupcake de Malva, with milk stout and a custard topping; and the red espresso dew cupcake, featuring peppedews® and Red Espresso®. The cupcakes will be served in ecru-coloured laser-cut cupcake wrappers, featuring the scenic Cape Town skyline with Table Mountain, the Johannesburg skyline with the Hillbrow Tower and mine heaps, the Big Five, and proteas and fynbos. P120 Maizecakes: fat cakes with maize meal and a filling Andrea Olivier University of the Free State, Free State, South Africa

P118 Growing microalgae on food industry effluents for biodiesel production Erika Jordaan, Renate Roux van der Merwe, Jacqueline Badenhorst, Ben Botha, Matokelo Mokhali Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa The current appetite of human societies for energy has driven critical fossil-fuel dependence globally and therefore interest in finding renewable energy sources for biofuel production has been on the rise. This is mainly triggered by escalating crude oil prices, energy security and greenhouse gas emissions (Dincer, 2008). Biodiesel is biodegradable, nontoxic, and renewable and its combustion results in no additional carbon dioxide and sulphur emission to the environment and it can be produced from plant and animal oils (Lang et al., 2001). However, concerns are raised that various food stuffs might be utilized for energy generation in a world where food commodities are often scarce (Chisti, 2007). It will be essential to produce a profitable biodiesel from a renewable resource or feedstock without competing for land to be used for farming of produce for human consumption (Ginzburg, 1993). Food effluents are nutrientcontaining waste products that could potentially be used by microalgae. Should waste be used to produce an additional product, such as biodiesel, it would be of great benefit to the companies as waste treatment adds to

It was decided to create an acceptable and affordable product to be used as part of government school feeding schemes. Examination of popular African food led to the use of maize meal to develop a type of vetkoek / fat cake, in which maize meal and flour are used in the dough. The product is hence called MAIZECAKE, and contains a filling in the centre of the dough. The maize meal was added, because it is culturally acceptable and is a staple for the majority of South African citizens. Maize also contains nutrients, which increases the nutritive value of MAIZECAKE. Although the target market is school children, this product can be seen as an alternative to vetkoek, and therefore it can be sold in the same places that vetkoek is sold (spaza shops, taxi-ranks, fast food shops, etc.). The product will be frozen, packaged and sold in bulk. It is easy to prepare as all that needs to be done is to fry it in oil until golden brown. The dough is to be flavoured with aromat and possibly onion, along with various fillings such as: minced meat with chakalaka, biltong and cheese with peppadews®, a hardboiled egg and bacon, boerewors and tomato.

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POSTER ABSTRACTS P121

P123

Sjoe! Choux pastry: frozen flavoured choux pastry in a dispenser

Nutri-paste: a green banana spread

Simoné Ferreira, Zanja Kühn University of the Free State, Free State, South Africa

Ugeshan Pillay Durban University of Technology, Durban, South Africa

Choux Pastry is light dough made from water, flour, butter and eggs, and is used for the making of éclairs (Crompton-Lomax, 1988). SJOE! CHOUX PASTRY is choux pastry made with different flavours, such as coffee, made with strongly brewed coffee, marula, made with amarula liquor, chocolate, made with chocolate-flavoured milk, rooibos, made with strongly brewed rooibos tea and pineapple, made with a pineapple-anddairy blend. The choux pastry will be frozen, which makes it convenient to be used by inexperienced consumers. Since the best results are obtained by placing the piped choux pastry in the refrigerator before baking, this product must be defrosted at 4 °C, overnight. The cold choux pastry is piped straight onto the baking tray be means of its own dispenser, which shapes it like a flower. The consumer can have the satisfaction of having created his/her own cream puffs, without the hassle of preparing the choux pastry from scratch.

Green banana paste is processed from selected banana variety grown in South Africa. High quality green banana paste is obtained from green bananas. The paste produced has a good thickness based on the size of the green banana as well as the thickness of the peel. The green banana paste is considered to be of rich quality. According to studies the starch that, is in green bananas, increases the rate of fat burning. This helps keep the digestive tract healthy by producing food for probiotic “friendly” bacteria. I wanted to create a fortified paste from green bananas, with optimized nutritional content, which will be accepted by the consumers in terms of the products organoleptic qualities, so that it would be easy to apply on snack or bread for consumption. This paste will compete not only in terms of taste and texture but also in terms of nutritional value, with other spread products.

University of Pretoria

Durban University of Technology

P124

P122

African pesto containing peanuts, coconut & coriander

Non-alcoholic malt beverage maltarula

Lindsay Hogg University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa

Bhavna Rampath and Shanice Naidoo Durban University of Technology, Durban, South Africa Product development offers universities the opportunity to link closely to industry, providing students with a challenging and exciting industrial project and exposing them to the tools they require to innovate in a commercial environment. Non-alcoholic beverages are beverages that consist of less than 0.5% alcohol by volume. The non-alcoholic beverage industry is a huge, evolving industry which consists of many different types of products namely, non-alcoholic beer, cocktails, sodas, juices, tea, coffee, hot chocolate, milk, milkshake, iced tea and even lemonade. A malt beverage is usually defined as being both alcohol containing and nonalcoholic fermented beverage. The primary ingredient of a malt beverage is grain and seed of a barley plant which have undergone the malting process. Malts are cereals that have been steeped, germinated, and kilned under controlled conditions. Barley is traditionally the cereal chosen for malting. Malt beverages are used in flavoured drinks which have been prepared from malted grains to which natural flavours have been added to give a specific taste. Malt beverages are very beneficial to health as they contain vitamins, phosphorous, magnesium, calcium, zinc, iron and amino acids which are used by the body to build up protein. Non-alcoholic malt beverages have become very popular in the beverage industry. The consumption of non-alcoholic malt beverages is common in West Africa, America and the Far East but is a relatively unknown drink in South Africa. There are several different kinds of non-alcoholic malt beverages which are found worldwide these include Supermalt which is an inexpensive, non-alcoholic, dark brown drink. Supermalt is produced by Royal Unibrew in Denmark. Nasmalt another brand is unique due to its added vitamin content which make it a high-quality drink. The most recent non-alcoholic malt beverage to be introduced to the South African market is Soraya Apple Malt and King Malta by King Soda. This drink taps the trend towards healthier drinks and the use of natural or near-nature flavours and colours. This non-alcoholic beverage is made from barley, hops and water much like beer. The beverage is consumed in the same way as soda or cola in its original carbonated form. Non-alcoholic malt beverages is similar to beer but has not been fermented. During research the task at hand was much more of a challenge, and thus the concept of MALTARULA came about. Maltarula is a combination of the normal malt drink with a touch of the amarula flavour to compensate for the bitter taste from the hops and appeal to consumers with its smooth creamy taste whilst still being alcohol free.

A spotlight has been placed on Africa, highlighting African cuisine as an upcoming food trend. The aim of this project is to introduce African flavours and spices to a high income target market by developing a reduced fat, refrigerated pesto that is different to the conventional pesto on the market. It will not contain olive oil, pine nuts or parmesan cheese but instead makes use of more African ingredients such as yoghurt, honey and lime juice. African flavours such as Peanuts, coconut, chillies and cumin will replace the conventional Italian ingredients. Fresh herbs will be used and no heat treatments will occur. For this reason the fresh herbs and chillies will be washed in an 80 ppm solution of chlorine to control microbial growth, followed by the implementation of a strict cold chain. In the initial trials the product showed browning after a week. This could be due to polyphenol oxidase enzymes found in the herbs or the loss of the central magnesium ions in the chlorophyll resulting in brown pheophorbide. Elimination tests such as blanching the herbs or altering the pH will be conducted to determine the exact cause of the browning and steps will be taken to maintain the product quality. P125 Baorula ice-cream: baobab flavoured coconut milk ice-cream with marula liquid centre Bianca Lee King, Shaakira Yousuf, Gugu Mncina, Nosihle Dladla, Ryan Whittaker University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa This proposal discusses a liquid centre non-dairy ice-cream using Baobab fruit pulp, coconut milk and marula fruit pulp suitable as an alternative to dairy ice-cream for the middle-high income (LSM 5-10), dairy and non-dairy market. The ice-cream will be manufactured using an Emery Thompson freezer with an adaptation of the filling process by making use of syrup injection. The product is packaged in serving size containers (125ml) made out of polypropylene (Appendix), accompanied by a plastic spoon making it an on-the-go, convenient, easy-to-eat product. A large number of resources such as baobab, marula and coconut are available to produce products with distinct flavours which can be globally marketable. Due to the availability and potential use of these resources, there is an excellent opportunity to develop a sustainable, novel food product.

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POSTER ABSTRACTS The major issues regarding shelf stability will be that of the formation of ice crystals due to temperature abuse and/or storage over long periods of time.

P128

P126

Gosia Milaniak, Marileen Jansen, Memory Chawazee, Joseph Kamdem, Charlotte van Niekerk University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa

Out of Africa: blueberry buna ready-to-drink flavoured cold brew coffee beverage Helen Zewdie and Surine Viljoen University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa Cold brew coffee has been a popular beverage in the American industry for more than 40 years and has various health benefits associated with it. By developing a ready-to-drink cold brew coffee product, consumers suffering from Irritable Bowel Syndrome will not only benefit from the lower acidity of the cold brew coffee, but will also have a new, convenient and refreshing way to consume coffee and obtain the energising benefit from the caffeine. We developed a flavoured Ethiopian cold brew coffee product for the medium to high income working adult market (LSM 5-7) for TriBeCa Coffee Company as a line extension. In our development we used a blueberry flavouring added to Ethiopian Yirga Cheffe coffee and we used a cold brewing technique, where the coffee grinds are steeped in room temperature water over 12 hours in order to obtain a sweeter, smoother and less acidic beverage. The new product that resulted, Blueberry Buna, will be introduced into three of the TriBeCa coffee shops in Pretoria for analysis of market uptake, before being launched on a retail level. P127 Canned chicken livers Hlatshwayo Nelisiwe, Holmes Annake, Kotze Karien, Seabela Matema, Shongwe Lungile University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa Development of a new food product is a multidisciplinary practice in which Food Science and Technology significantly contributes. This approach is necessary for achievability and success (Earle and Earle, 2001). The life cycle of a product has four stages. The product and product area is identified in the product strategy phase, product and process is developed in the product design and process development stage (Page, 1993). The scope of this proposal is the first two stages in the life cycle of any product, the development of a food concept, and production of the prototype according to certain criteria and constraints. The project aim is the development of a cost effective, shelf stable canned chicken liver meal in tomato and onion relish. The product is suited for the same consumer that usually buys fresh/frozen livers and would benefit from the shelf stability. It will be thermally processed with a batch retort to an F0 of 10 minutes. The formulation of the aim gives clarity and direction to the team (Earle and Earle, 2001). The applicable outcomes are dictated by the scope of the project and together with their respective objectives focus the team on the product concept design. The constraints identified were time, fragility of liver tissue and the limit on the final cost to the consumer, total cost of prototype production as well as possible limitations that would be encountered by the thermal processing facility.

Heat-and-eat reticulum (honeycomb) bovine tripe in chakalaka stew packaged in a retort pouch

We are developing a bovine honeycomb (reticulum) tripe heat-and eat chakalaka stew, packaged in retort pouches. It is being developed for the low to medium income working class and to utilize locally sourced (Hatfield, Pretoria) tripe as a raw material. The major challenges will be consumer acceptance, flavour changes, and safety and quality with regard to microbial pathogens and spoilage organisms. P129 Instant breakfast cereal: rufaro a bowl of Africa Roslynn Allan, Jeandré Johnston, Tiny Mabasa, Charity Magwenzi, Lindie van Wyk University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa The world is ‘clamouring’ for healthier food choices because the general population is now more knowledgeable about nutrition and the link between diet and diseases. Words such as anti-oxidants, low glycaemia index, gluten-free are now more widely understood and can significantly increase interest for a food product. Africa has an abundance of highly nutritious foods that are under-utilised. Sorghum, pearl millet and finger millet which are in a group of cereal known as ‘small grains’ are good examples of under-utilised foods. Despite the fact that these small grains are more nutritious than maize and wheat, the supermarket shelves of Africa are still dominated by food products containing wheat and maize. Sorghum and millets are some of the most drought-tolerant cereal grain crops that require little input during growth. With droughts becoming more frequent and irrigation infrastructure inadequate, small grains can play an important role in food security and economic development of the poor rural populations of Africa. One of the main reasons why small grains are under-utilised in food products is their taste, which many find unpleasant. Team Rufaro used their knowledge of food science to develop a nutritious instant breakfast cereal with sorghum, pearl millet and finger millet as the main ingredients but with sensory properties that will allow it to compete favourably with similar products on the market. The target market for Rufaro Instant Breakfast Cereal is children aged 4-12 years of age in the 4-8 LSM segments as market studies have shown that there is an opportunity for more healthy breakfast cereals for this market segment.

University of Johannesburg P130 Out of Africa: ready-to-eat curry tripe S. Naidoo, NM Makhura University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa South African traditional meals are been eaten around the world from Europe, America, Asia and widely in Africa. Traditional, tripe is an inexpensive meat that can be obtained by the local butchery in a clean and presentable form. The meat has to further boil for two hours, before been cooked as desired. This causes an undesirable or unpleasant odor and causes flies to infest the household. By the extra boiling time prior to cooking, contribute to the high energy usage and electricity consumption. The modern South African households living in urban areas cannot face embarrassment of their neighbours wondering what’s the awful odor is coming from their household, when pre –boiling the tripe. As reached, many single or middle class African groups would only eat tripe at traditional ceremonies or have to go to the townships to buy the meat.

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POSTER ABSTRACTS Hence, “ready to eat meal” would be ideal to middle urban class market that can pay fair price to enjoy a traditional meal. The idea of creating flavored tripe, the concept was to attract two cultures that hold bulk of South Africa’s population. To create a curry flavored tripe and packaged in linear low density polyethylene bag which has good resistance to heat, impact and cold. The cooked product will be filled into the bag and placed into standard type cardboard box with the word “Curry Tripe” in the foreground. The front label features an illustration of the enclosed tripe, cooked and the rear label lists all pertinent ingredient and nutritional information, as well as heating instructions. P131 Idombolo: chick beef dumplings Refilwe Machema, Kelefang Mofokeng University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa On a request to promote the application of food science and technology to the development of marketable African products, following the given theme “out of Africa” it was chosen to work with a product that is common in most cultures and enjoyable as a starch served with meat, gravy and vegetables. This amazing product is called “idombolo” in African culture otherwise known as dumplings. The reason for the development of the dumplings is inspired by the original traditional dumpling that is absolutely healthy and filling but it takes approximately three hours to make. Given that most people today want convenient, readymade meals that do not take forever to make the idea to make this freezer to oven dough came along. The processing steps in the original/ traditional making involve rather tiring steps i.e. grinding the proving the dough so therefore this new concept saves energy too. The main objective is to offer that homemade feel dumplings that are conveniently ready in ten to fifteen minutes, without any serving suggestions but as plain as it comes in chicken and beef flavours. The technology used in this project is ‘’in-dough flavouring” and “heat and eat” concepts. P132 Cape Malay ostrich sticks I.M Magashule, N.P Motloung University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa

According to Young, 2007, countries such as New Zealand, United States and Australia have been listed as the major consumers of Ice cream with ratings of 28.4, 20.8 and 18.0% respectively. India is the lowest with a mere 0.1%. In other countries the less popularity of Ice cream could be because of economic issues, lack of refrigerated distribution chain, unavailability of appropriate ingredients and other cultural factors. Africa is one of the least ice cream consumers with just. This could be because most Africans buy food that will cater their basic nutritional needs, being Proteins, Carbohydrates, Minerals and Vitamins. Ice cream consumption is viewed as a luxury Biltong originated in South Africa and is a taste that is familiar to most South Africans. It is consumed as both a functional food and a snack. Apart from being a good source of protein, it is also low in fats, a healthy on the go snack (Anon, 2012).With the above mentioned figures about the consumption of Ice cream globally, it would be ideal to increase the market of such a globally trending product with a familiar concept that will encourage its consumption locally. Incorporating ice cream with Biltong seems like a concept that would satisfy the most local consumers. A vanilla and biltong flavoured ice-cream mix sold with finely grated biltong toppings. It is a smooth caramel coloured liquid pre-mixture sold to retailers packaged in a 1.2 kg foil bags to maintain freshness and has a shelf life of 8 months before opening. The product should be kept refrigerated below 5 °C. P134 Peanut yam balls Lithuli Amanda, Mahlo Mabatho Neria University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa Peanut yam balls will be eaten as an energy snack. Peanuts are rich in energy and contain health benefiting nutrients, minerals, antioxidants and vitamins that are essential for optimum health. The peanuts will be fried with their natural fat to retain their flavour, and then grinded to make them to be finer so that they stick together when rolled into a ball. The balls will be coated with yam, a vegetable native to Africa. The yam will be in a flour form prepared by grinding dried yams until they reach a powdered consistency. The dehydrated yam will be produced by sun drying. The yam flour will be mixed with other ingredients such as eggs, sucrose, cinnamon and water and then coat the peanut yam balls and baked.

Cape Malay spice blend is well known in Cape Town. We are making this product in order to create a new trend in the Ready-To-Eat meat category. This meat snack is one of its kind using lean meat and a different tasty spice blend from Cape Town. We are going to follow the same recipe used in making Salami along with similar equipment for processing in the meat industry. We are expecting a deliciously creative, nutritious Ostrich snacking product with four months shelf life. P133 Vanilla and biltong flavoured ice cream Ndleve Khanyisa and Phoku Thabiso University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa Ice-cream ad frozen desserts are popular throughout the world. Its popularity results from several characteristics such as partial freezing, cooling and refreshing sensation produced when the product is consumed. It is a frozen dairy product with a variety of ingredients including dairy, sweeteners, body and texture modifiers flavours and colours. The composition of ice-cream differs depending on the ingredients used in its preparation. Generally, a good ice-cream contains: 12% milk-fat, 12%; milk solids-not-fats, 15% sugar, 0.2%stabilizer; 6.2% emulsifier and a trace of flavour (Young, 2007).

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AUTHOR INDEX Presenting Author Adelakun, Oluyemisi Adetunji, Adeoluwa Agu, Helen Ahmed, Zahra Aijuka, Matthew Aindongo, Wilhelmina V. Akanni, Gabriel Akissoé, Noël Allan, Roslynn Amonsou, Eric Anelich, Lucia Anyango, Joseph Anyasi, Tonna Apea Bah, Franklin Arnaud, Elodie Ayessou, Nicolas Baranzika, Muruta Beardsley, Richard J. Beelders, Theresa Bergh, A. Bester, Marina Beswa, Daniso Beta, Trust Boshoff, Engela Bosman, Stephanie Botha, Naledi Britz, Trevor J. Buys, Elna M. Cawthorn, Donna Charimba, George Chawazee, Memory Che Wan Jasminah, W.M.R. Cluff, Macdonald Coetzee, Vinet Collins, Janet E. Cordier, Jean-Louis De Kock, Henriëtte L. De Kock, Michelle De Kock, Suretha Decaris, Francois Dehrmann, Frieda Deyzel, Michelle Diedericks, Claudine Dladla, Nosihle Dlamini, Bhekisisa Dovi, K.A.P.

Page No. 69 51 73 76 59 57, 58 53 56 81 65 31, 42 37 37, 49 67 57 56 74 60 37 55 64 37, 73 43, 52 69 71 72 27 35, 60 32 46 81 63 39 33 23, 34 42, 43, 47 33 79 61 45 32 79 69 80 38 65

Presenting Author Du Plessis, Ilrienne Du Plooy, Zani Du Toit, Alba Dube, Siphiwe Duodu, Gyebi K. Emmambux, Mohammad Naushad Erasmus, Corinda Erasmus, L. Falade, Adediwura Fayemi, Olanrewaju Ferreira, Simone Findlay, Chris Fischer, Peter Fisher, Hennie Fliessbach, Falko Flowers, Russell S. Gelderblom, W.C.A Goldman, Anne Gorst-Allman, Peter Gous, Andries Govindarajan, Brinda Gravani, Bob Grobler, L.J. Groenewald, Willem Guelpa, Anina Hachibamba, Twambo Hall, Nicolette Hendriks, Sheryl Henstra, Kirsten Hermansson, Anne Marie Hlatshwayo, Nelisiwe Hogg, Lindsay Holmes, Annake Howard, Dave Ijabadeniyi, Oluwatosin Ademola Jacxsens, Liesbeth Jambalang, Alex Ray Jansen, Marileen Jideani, Victoria Jinap, Selamat Johnston, Jeandre Jolley, B. Jordaan, Erika Joseph, Hounhouigan Joubert, Pierre Kamdem, Joseph

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AUTHOR INDEX Presenting Author Kassim, Alaika Kativu, Edmore Khoza, Sandile Kinabo, Joyce King, Bianca Lee Kinnear, Marise Kirsten, Johann Knowles, Mike Koëter, Herman B.W.M. Korb, Kevin Korsten, Lise Kotze, Karien Kotzé, Madelize Kruger, Johanita Kuhn, Zanja Leighton, Christine S. Liebenberg, Lize Lim, Pek Kui Links, Malory Lithuli, Amanda Lodolo, Elizabeth Louw, Anneke Louw, Leon Luterek, Janusz F. Mabasa, Tiny Machema, Refilwe Magshule, I.M. Magwenzi, Charity Maharaj, Vinesh Makhura, N.M. Manyaapelo, Thato Maphalla, Thabelang Mashau, Mpho Mbatho, Neria Mahlo McCarroll, Leigh McClure, Peter Mestres, Christian Mhaule, Irvin Milaniak, Gosia Mncina, Gugu Mnyandu, Elizabeth Modise, Kelepile Mofokeng, Kelefang Moholisa, Ennet Mokhoro, Tshepiso

Page No. 54 38 58 40 80 76 26 36 25, 44 41 27 81 62 38 80 30, 78 58 68 66 82 29 79 23 34 81 82 82 81 43 81 58 71 57, 77 82 72 41, 42, 47 30 78 81 80 77 61 82 39 51

Presenting Author Moodley, Prelen Moodley, Sanchia Motloung, N.P. Moyane, Jeremia Mshayisa, Vusi Vincent Mugadza, Desmond Muller, Margot Muller, N. Murray, Andrew Mustafa, Mohammed Naidoo, S. Naidoo, Shanice Nderitu, Alice Ndjouenkeu, Robert Ndleve, Khanyisa Neall, Brenda Newberg, Sam Nhlapo, Nthabiseng Nitcheu Ngemakwe, Patrick Hermaan Njage, Patrick Nkhabutlane, Pulane Ntshabele, B.R. Ntuli, Victor Nyakabau, Tatenda Nyanzi, Richard Nyembwe, Patricia Ocloo, Fidelis C.K. Ogundele, Opeolu Olawale, Ronald Olusola Olivier, Andrea Omolola, Adewale O. Oniangó, Ruth Pallet, Dominique Phoku, Thabiso Pieterse, Mark Pillay, Ugeshan Ponquett, Ryan Rajput, Innike Rakoto, Danielle Rampath, Bhavana Ramutanda, Aluwani Rao, Pingfan Richards, Melanie Robertson, Louise Rodriguez-Amaya, Delia B.

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AUTHOR INDEX Presenting Author Ross, Tom Sainsbury, Jeanine Sakyi-Dawson, Esther SchĂśnfeldt, Hettie Seabela, Matema Setlhare, Gaofetoge Shilenge, Lebogang Shongwe, Lungile Shongwe, Nokuthula Shonte, T.T. Sibanda, Percy Sibomana, Milindi Silungwe, Henry Skhosana, Zanele Sobratee, Nafiisa Son, R. Spiess, Walter E.L. Stading, Mats Steenkamp, Ilona. Steinman, Harris Sunley, Nigel Talon, RĂŠgine

Page No. 42, 47 32 40 68 81 59 62 81 56, 71, 72 68 50 54 65 52 29 63 25 29, 45 33 42 29, 44 53

Presenting Author Taylor, Janet Taylor, John R.N. Teklehaimanot, Welday Hailu Themba, Morongwa Udeh, Henry Van Der Merwe, Daleen Van Niekerk, Carmen Van Niekerk, Charlotte Van Nistelrooij, Martin Van Twisk, Pieter Van Wyk, Lindie Vhangani, Lusani Norah Viljoen, Annemarie Viljoen, Surine Vulindlu, Mjikisile Watson, David Wentzel-Viljoen, E. Whittaker, Ryan Wokadala, Obiro Cuthbert Workneh, Tilahun Seyoum Yousuf, Shaakira Zewdie, Helen

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SPEAKER PREPARATION DESK A speaker preparation desk will be located in the VIP Room of the CSIR International Convention Centre. Presenters are required to visit the desk to upload their presentation to the technical team who will ensure that it is available in the meeting rooms as per the programme schedule. Please visit the speaker preparation desk on the morning of your scheduled presentation or where possible the day before your scheduled presentation. Speaker preparation desk operating times are: Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday

7 October 8 October 9 October 10 October

07:00 – 18:30 07:00 – 18:30 07:00 – 18:30 07:00 – 10:00

Please note that all speaker venues are fitted only with computer projection facilities. No overhead projector facilities are available. Speakers should report to the venue of their presentation 15 min before the start of the session to meet the Session Chairpersons, and familiarise themselves with the Audiovisual equipment and venue layout. PLEASE NOTE: Session Chairs will be instructed to stop your presentation when you exceed your allocated time!

SWISS-ACCREDITED CERTIFICATION BODY

We are able to provide a wide range of certification services covering: ISO 22000, FSSC 22000, ISO 9001, ISO 14001, OHSAS 18001, BRC Global Standard-Food, IFS, HACCP (SANS 10330) management system coaching

Contact us today for more details: southafrica@procert.ch

Phone no: 023 316 2022 Fax no: 023 316 2008 E-mail: info@progress-excellence.co.za

TAKING YOUR ORGANISATION TO THE WORLD

Website: www.progress-excellence.co.za Progress Excellence provides interactive training at various levels within the organisation with the aim to change behaviours that will contribute to the food safety culture in an organisation.

ProCert Southern Africa, P.O. Box 616, Ceres, 6835 Tel: +27 23 31 61 404 Fax: +27 23 316 2008 southafrica@procert.ch

Public courses are offered in Paarl, Durban and Johannesburg.

ProCert Holzikofenweg 22 CH- 3000 Bern 23 Tel: +41 31 560 67 67 Fax: +41 31 560 67 60 bern@procert.ch Website: www.procert.ch

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POSTER DISPLAY Posters will be displayed in the central foyer.

Suppliers of world-class ingredients At Crest Food, we know that our ultimate responsibility is to our client. That is why at Crest Chemicals we search for the ultimate ingredients for you from the most reputable suppliers worldwide. We are a trusted partner for both commodity and specialty ingredients and additives for supply into the following industries: 

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Processing

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Because we understand the impact that our contribution can make to the ultimate customer value of your brand, we will commit to being not just a supplier, but a partner in your success. For further information on how we can help build your brand through our product offering, contact your nearest sales office at: Midrand: +27 (0) 11 254 3300 / Durban: +27 (0) 31 902 5324 / Cape Town: +27 (0) 21 534 3140 East London: +27 (0) 43 726 8027 / Port Elizabeth: +27 (0) 41 453 1981 Website: www.crestchem.co.za

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EXHIBITOR KEY EXHIBITOR

STAND NO. ALPHABETICAL BY EXHIBITOR NAME 3M South Africa 53 Anchor Yeast 19 Anatech Instruments 13 BASF South Africa 42 Bio-Rad Laboratories 14 Biz Spec / Progress Excellence 65 Bruker SA 10 Cape Food Ingredients 27 & 28 Crest Chemicals (Pty) Ltd 48 CSIR Biosciences 39 Danlink Ingredients (Pty) Ltd 35 & 46 Deltamune 51 DSM Nutritional Products 24 & 25 Ecowize 43 & 44 Fenris Personnel 38 GEA Process Engineering 9 Glanbia Nutritionals 45 ICSU Regional Office for Africa 55 IMCD South Africa (Pty) Ltd 6&7 Ingredion South Africa (Pty) Ltd 68 Kerry Ingredients & Flavours 21 - 23 Lake Foods 40 & 41 LECO Africa (Pty) Ltd 30 Microsep 49 & 50 NATSEP – National Separations 56 PerkinElmer S.A (Pty) Ltd 66 Peter Rassloff Instruments & Services 8 PHT - SA 52 SABS 54 Savannah Fine Chemicals 36 & 37 Sensient Colors SA (PTY) Ltd 26 Sunspray Food Ingredients /DDW 12 Supreme Wheat Flour 29 Swift Silliker 57 & 58 Tongaat Hulett Starch 11 United Spectrometer Technologies CC 20 Warren Chem Specialities 67

STAND NO.

EXHIBITOR NUMERICAL BY STAND NUMBER 6&7 IMCD South Africa (Pty) Ltd 8 Peter Rassloff Instruments & Services 9 GEA Process Engineering 10 Bruker SA 11 Tongaat Hulett Starch 12 Sunspray Food Ingredients /DDW 13 Anatech Instruments 14 Bio-Rad Laboratories 19 Anchor Yeast 20 United Spectrometer Technologies CC 21 - 23 Kerry Ingredients & Flavours 24 & 25 DSM Nutritional Products 26 Sensient Colors SA (PTY) Ltd 27 & 28 Cape Food Ingredients 29 Supreme Wheat Flour 30 LECO Africa (Pty) Ltd 35 & 46 Danlink Ingredients (Pty) Ltd 36 & 37 Savannah Fine Chemicals 38 Fenris Personnel 39 CSIR Biosciences 40 & 41 Lake Foods 42 BASF South Africa 43 & 44 Ecowize 45 Glanbia Nutritionals 48 Crest Chemicals (Pty) Ltd 49 & 50 Microsep 51 Deltamune 52 PHT - SA 53 3M South Africa 54 SABS 55 ICSU Regional Office for Africa 56 NATSEP – National Separations 57 & 58 Swift Silliker 65 Biz Spec / Progress Excellence 66 PerkinElmer S.A (Pty) Ltd 67 Warren Chem Specialities 68 Ingredion South Africa (Pty) Ltd

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FLOOR PLAN MAIN ENTRANCE


EXHIBITOR INFORMATION 3M South Africa Stand 53 146a Kelvin Drive, Woodmead, Sandton Tel: 011 8062011 Fax: 011 8062138 Email: agalal@3m.com & nnaidoo@mmm.com Website: www.3M.co.za/Foodsafety Information: 3M Food Safety is a leading global manufacturer of innovative solutions that help the food and beverage industries optimize the quality and safety of their products to enable consumer protection. Our products cover a broad spectrum of sample preparation, identification, testing and monitoring solutions that help mitigate risk, improve operational efficiencies and impact bottom line. In more than 60 countries around the world, 3M Food Safety products are at work to help keep businesses moving forward. 3M Building & Commercial Services provides simple and affordable solutions that can make a dramatic difference to almost any facility smart solutions that can start impacting on any organisation’s image, safety, security and bottom line with immediate effect. Whether you are looking to reduce the overall cost of cleaning and maintenance, breathe new life into tired office space, meet new sustainability targets or improve working conditions, 3M has the answers. 3M Food Safety & 3M Building & Commercial Services are part of 3M, a global diversified innovation company with a 100-year reputation for capturing the spark of new ideas and transforming them into thousands of ingenious products. Its culture of creative collaboration inspires a never-ending stream of powerful technologies that make life better. 3M is the innovation company that never stops inventing. Anatech Instruments Stand 13 Meadowbrook Business Estate, Jacaranda Ave, Olivedale Tel: 011 4626776 Fax: 011 7046490 Email: hein@anatech.co.za Website: www.anatech.co.za Information: Anatech Instruments is a South African company, incorporated in 1982. Initially established with a Separation Sciences focus, Anatech has significantly grown its product range and today successfully covers 6 primary sectors, namely: · Separations Technology (Chromatography) · Water Analysis & Electrochemistry · Life Sciences and Microbiology · Molecular Biology · Sample Preparation · Mass Spectrometry Anatech boasts an extensive range of premium products, both consumables and instrumentation, for each of these sectors, allowing it to effectively service a diverse range of industries. Our team of specialists have significant combined bio and analytical chemistry experience, and have been responsible for sustaining the growth of the company through their expertise and focus on service excellence. For more information about Anatech Instruments please see our website www.anatech.co.za Anchor Yeast Stand 19 Website: www.anchoryeast.co.za / www.anchorwineyeast Information: Anchor Yeast With a proud heritage spanning of 90 years, Anchor Yeast has established itself as a leader in the supply of yeast and fermentation technology to the bakery, consumer, wine, and distilling and bio-control industries in Southern Africa.

Anchor Yeast is a division of Lallemand, a global player in yeast, probiotic bacteria and specialty products. Lallemand has been in the yeast business since the early 1920’s and has become known as visionary leaders in the supply of innovative solutions for baker’s yeasts and wine yeasts. Anchor Yeast has built its leadership positioning through a strong competent management team that has structured the company into three market focused business units. The Bakery business unit, serves the needs of the baking industry, delivering leading edge, technology based, yeast, enzyme and specialty ingredient products. Anchor Biotechnologies provides value-added solutions to fermented beverage industries worldwide and has introduced innovations targeting agricultural applications, and the Consumer Business unit supplies a wide range of innovative product solutions that target home baking, brewing and small-scale commercial baking. Today, the business features a talented work force and state-of-the-art production techniques that allow for flexible and innovative solutions. Anchor Yeast conforms to international standards and requirements and operates with Food Safety standards, HACCP and ISO certified Quality Management systems which ensure the supply of world-class quality products and services. The success of Anchor Yeast can be ascribed to their unrelenting commitment for continued research and development, as well as their innovative spirit that’s seen the introduction of new products and applications that’s been not only South African, but world firsts. With the collaboration of Lallemand’s expertise and positioning, Anchor Yeast remains committed to continual innovation. For more information about Anchor Yeast, visit: www.anchoryeast.co.za / www.anchorwineyeast BASF South Africa Stand 42 852 Sixteenth Road, Midrand Tel: 011 2032559 Fax: 086 6704966 Email: Alida.de-witt@basf.com Website: www.basf.com Information: BASF-The Chemical Company We create chemistry for a sustainable future. Bio-Rad Stand 14 34 Bolton Road, Rosebank, Johannesburg Tel: 0861 BIO RAD (246 723) Fax: 011 4428525 Email: safrica_helpdesk@bio-rad.com Website: www.bio-rad.com Information: Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc. (NYSE: BIO and BIOb) has remained at the center of scientific discovery for more than 50 years, manufacturing and distributing a broad range of products for the life science research, food science and clinical diagnostic markets. Bio-Rad serves more than 100,000 research, industry, and clinical laboratories worldwide. The company is world renowned with customers in hospitals, universities, research institutions, microbiological food and environmental inspection agencies, biological research, and private industry laboratories. Founded in 1952, Bio-Rad is headquartered in Hercules, California, and serves research and industry customers worldwide through its global network of operations. Join us at stand 14 and for our product showcase to receive information on the latest technologies in food testing and a free sample of our RAPID’Chromogenic media.

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EXHIBITOR INFORMATION Biz Spec / Progress Excellence Stand 65 25 Village Road, Kloof, 3610 Tel: 031 7640741 Fax: 031 7640737 Email: janice@synchrospec.co.za Website: www.synchrospec.co.za / www.progress-excellence.co.za

Crest Chemicals (Pty) Ltd Stand 48 247 15th Road, Randjespark, Midrand, 1685 Tel: 011 2543300 Fax: 011 3141809 Email: david.kruger@crestchem.co.za Website: www.crestchem.co.za

Information: Protecting your Brand / Sustaining Compliance BizSpec is an operations and quality management consultancy focused on workflow management across various manufacturing sectors, inter alia, food, chemicals, packaging and logistics.  We tackle projects across the whole business management spectrum, with a focus on streamlining processes through targeted, sustainable and expandable business automation. We assist clients in studying their own business processes as a forerunner to the implementation of TEMPO - our award winning ‘e’ compliance technology which allows clients to customise solutions for their industry. BizSpec is equipped to offer specialised Food Safety consulting, providing valuable insight into and success in complying with rigorous requirements placed on food manufacturers through local legislation and internationally recognised standards. Progress Excellence provides interactive training in food and related industries from low to high risk facilities, small companies to multinationals, assisting companies as they plot their journey towards business excellence by enabling them to implement and sustain effective management systems.   Training materials and facilitation of the programmes are designed with the aim of changing behaviours and creating a culture where food safety and quality become a way of life.  The association between the two companies is truly collaborative offering a total compliance solution to protect and build your brand.

Information: At Crest Food, we know that our ultimate responsibility is to your client. That is why at Crest Chemicals we search for the ultimate ingredients for you from the most reputable suppliers worldwide. We are a trusted partner for both commodity and specialty ingredients and additives for supply into the food industry. Because we understand the impact that our contribution can make to the ultimate customer value of your brand, we will commit to being not just a supplier, but a partner in your success.

Bruker SA Stand 10 65 Homestead Ave, Homestead Office Park Tel: 082 4975791 Email: Ruan.vanheerden@bruker.co.za Website: www.bruker.com/za Information: Bruker Optics is a part of Bruker Corporation and offers the most advanced FT-IR, FT-NIR, Raman, TD-NMR and TeraHertz spectrometers to meet all your demanding application requirements. The countless innovations found in our spectrometers, epitomize our philosophy of think forward. Cape Food Ingredients Stand 27 & 28 Po Box 617 Noordhoek 7979 Tel: 021 7891885 Fax: 021 7891233 Email: brl@capesa.co.za Website: www.capefoodingredients.com Information: Specialising in formulations and new product development with innovative ingredients for cost savings and quality improvement. Customer base throughout Africa. Besides our own ingredients (flavours, sweeteners and sweetener blends, pre-mixes, enzymes) made in South Africa, we partner with the latest technology including: Taste Tech- Encapsulated Ingredients & Flavours Isegen/CFI—Fruitaric Acid—excellent as flavour enhancer and sweetener masking. Mediterranea Proquiga - Prize-winning Dairy Cultures, Rennet, Dairy preservatives. Bio-Catalysts -Speciality Enzymes for “wow” technology. Our rapidly expanding network is the best for food ingredients in Africa—East Africa/COMESA, Algeria, Nigeria, Ghana, Zambia, etc. CFI has recently specialised in Value for Money ranges—juices, dairy snacks, dairy blends, flavoured milks, nutritional drinks. These taste like the highest quality, but the cost is affordable for the mass market. Where you want to be for African markets, including South Africa.

CSIR Biosciences Stand 39 Meiring Naude Road, Brummeria, Pretoria Tel: 012 8413147 Email: gbotha@csir.co.za Website: http://www.csir.co.za Information: CSIR Biosciences aims to integrate skills through industrial and commercial experience. Great strides have been made through creating value in biodiversity; the unit continues to develop more cutting edge technologies, to address the country’s ever challenging social development landscape. The unit  is ideally positioned in that it has the primary infrastructure to integrate skills in the biological sciences (including biotechnology, chemistry, agro processing and engineering) with industrial and commercial experience, in order to drive the bio economy. A core focus of CSIR Biosciences is to add value to our biodiversity and to develop cutting-edge technologies to address health and food security concerns amongst others. By bridging the gap between fundamental research and commercial utilisation, CSIR Biosciences creates highly competitive technologies, services and products through new start-up ventures or partnerships. The unit aims to facilitate interaction between the National System of Innovation players; assist and create technopreneurs; develop sustainable biotechnology-based start-up companies as well as improve the product portfolio of existing companies. Danlink Ingredients (Pty) Ltd. Stand 35 & 46 355 Angus Crescent; Northlands Business Park; New Market Road; North Riding; 2162 Tel: 011 7047261 Fax: 011 7047209 Email: info@danlink.com Website: www.danlink.com Information: Danlink Ingredients is a distributer of speciality ingredients & additives to the food industry it represents reliable and reputable manufacturers who provide excellent technical and commercial support, thus greatly abetting its customer service. Since its inception in South Africa in 1977 as a subsidiary of Danish Company Danlink International, it has become well regarded as a world class supplier of products and service to the Food Industry. Danlink’s Product Range includes, Cheese Powder; Egg Powders; Carrageenan; Pectin; Xanthan gum; Tara gum; Locust Bean gum; Alginates; CMC; Sugar Beet Fibre; Citrus Fibre; Yeast Extracts; Flavours; Natural Colours; Antioxidants; Antimicrobials; Functional Whey Proteins; Functional Meat Proteins and Oleoresins. Principles represented on our stand will include Arla Food Ingredients (Functional Whey Proteins); Kemin (Antioxidants & Antimicrobials) and BHJ (Functional Beef; Chicken & Pork Proteins).

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EXHIBITOR INFORMATION Disciplines include scientific, production, product development, quality assurance, engineering, commercial and executive roles.

Deltamune Stand 51 248 Jean Ave, Lyttelton, Centurion Tel: 012 6645730 Fax: 012 6645149 Email: Deon.gallus@deltamune.co.za Website: www.deltamune.co.za Information: Deltamune is a South African based biotechnology company which focuses on veterinary and public health solutions, mainly for the production animal sectors. Strong emphasis is placed on typical African animal diseases and infectious diseases which could spread from animals to humans. The company operates from different premises, with its head office in Centurion and test laboratory services located in Centurion, Oudtshoorn and Pietermaritzburg. The test laboratories’ scope of expertise extends beyond animal health to food safety and pharmaceutical product safety tests, water testing and environmental monitoring. The Hygiene and Food Safety Laboratories can test a wide variety of samples such as meat and meat products, eggs and egg products and various other foods and food ingredients. Tests include: Identification of the origin of meat products – like Horse, Beef & Pork; testing for food pathogens such as Salmonella spp., E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. Deltamune offers water analysis which ensures safe water for humans, animal production units, as well as food processing plants. We test environmental samples that are taken to ensure that hygiene specifications are met in factories and abattoirs once again ensuring safe food for consumption. Deltamune test laboratories are SANAS accredited and DAFF approved, all tests are performed with state-of-the-art equipment which ensures accuracy while minimizing the risk of contamination. For any queries regarding your food testing needs contact: Dionné Rauff – 012 664 5730 or Email – info@deltamune.co.za DSM Nutritional Products Stand 24 & 25 P O Box 2, Isando, 1600 Tel: 011 3986900 Fax: 011 3925808 Email: marina.kent@dsm.com Website: www.dsmnutritionalproducts.co.za Information: DSM Nutritional Products is a global science-based company active in health and nutrition. DSM delivers innovative solutions that nourish, protect and improve performance in the global food and dietary supplement markets. DSM’s ingredients enhance the taste, texture, quality, nutritional value and success of the world’s favourite food, beverage and dietary supplement brands and are used in the dairy, baking, fruit juice, beer, wine, savoury and functional food segments. Ecowize Stand 43 & 44 Website: http://www.ecowize.co.za

Gea Process Engineering Stand 9 286 16th Road, Midrand, 1685 Tel: 011 8056910 Fax: 011 5410555 Email: Info.za@gea.com Website: www.gea-pe.co.za or www.gea.com Information: GEA Process Engineering specializes in the design and develops process solutions for the diary, brewery, beverage, food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Core technologies are aseptic packaging, concentration and pre-treatment, drying, powder processing and handling, liquid processing, emission control. Glanbia Nutritionals Stand 45 17 Gewerbestrasse, Orsingen-Nenzingen, 78359, Germany Tel: +353 86 02 44463 Fax: +49 (0)7774 9397 190 Email: jfinegan@glanbia.com Website: www.glanbianutritionals.com Information: Glanbia means Good Food in Irish. Glanbia Nutritionals is a global innovator in the expert delivery of advanced, science-led ingredient solutions to the food, beverage and nutritional supplement industries. Glanbia Nutritionals is firmly committed to propelling your business with complete ingredient solutions including customized micronutrient premixes, proteins and functional product optimization to achieve healthy, superior tasting and therefore better selling products. ICSU Regional Office for Africa Stand 55 41 De Havilland Crescent, Block C, The Woods, Persequapart , Pretoria East, Meiring Naude Road Tel: 012 3497735 Email: b.mahlalela@icsu-africa.org Website: www.icsu.org/africa IMCD South Africa (Pty) Ltd Stand 6 & 7 275 Oak Avenue, Randburg, 2194 Tel: 011 5704260 Fax: 011 7873513 Email: info@imcdsa.co.za Website: www.imcdgroup.com Ingredion South Africa (Pty) Ltd Stand 68 Infinity Office Park, Suite 6, Building C, 2 Robin close, Meyersdal, 1448 Tel: 011 8679260 Fax: 011 8679271 Email: Gary.pon@ingredion.com Website: Ingredion.com

Fenris Personnel Stand 38 Unit 1, Boskruin Business Park, Bosbok Rd, Randpark Ridge Ext 58 Tel: 0861 FENRIS (336747) Fax: 011 7916413 Email: Antoinette@fenris.co.za Website: www.fenris.co.za Information: Fenris specialises in the FMCG and related industries. We align ourselves with companies so that we are an extension of their HR function. Ideally we’d like to place candidates at companies who value their staff and work with applicants who are dedicated and want to build their career at the client.

Information: Combining the best of National Starch and Corn Products, the Ingredion group of companies is a leading global ingredients solutions provider. Specialising in a wide range of nature-based highly functional starches, clean label starches, nutritional ingredients and high quality sweeteners, Ingredion also delivers market-shaping innovations and cutting-edge technical and formulation support to help customers succeed today and in the future.

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EXHIBITOR INFORMATION The company works in close collaboration with its customers – whether it’s creating a delicious new product with unique nutritional benefits or extending a line with reduced fat, calories or sugar – Ingredion does all this without compromising on taste and texture. Whatever your needs, Ingredion is on hand to help. The company’s technical capabilities coupled with in-depth market expertise help customers stay ahead of trends and the competition, by offering: · Speed to market · Proven innovation · Culinology®, sensory and technical support throughout the formulation and production process · Market trends and insights · World-class functional ingredients · Nutrition ingredients with EFSA positive claims Developing Ideas. Delivering Solutions.™ Kerry Ingredients & Flavours Stand 21-23 4-6 Lucas Drive, Hillcrest, 3610, South Africa Tel: 031 7190600 Fax: 086 5852307 Email: conor.orourke@kerry.com Website: www.kerry.com Information: Kerry Ingredient & Flavours is one largest ingredient and flavour companies in the world with a global business in excess of €5.8 billion. At Kerry, we develop, manufacture and deliver technology-based ingredients, flavours and integrated solutions for the food and beverage industry. The depth and breadth of our portfolio enables us to take a systems approach to product development by drawing from multiple technology categories to layer ingredients and flavours to deliver unique solutions. Kerry’s unique approach to customised innovation and product development is driven by our: · market and consumer insight · unmatched ingredient, flavour and processing technologies · leading culinary, sensory and application expertise We create value by enabling food and beverage manufacturers to deliver the nutrition, taste and functionality desired by today’s consumers. Come visit us at stand 21-23 to find out more. Lake Foods Stand 40 & 41 Galaxy Office Park, Unit 2, 17 Galaxy Ave, Linbro Bus Park Tel: 011 4095046 Fax: 011 3883570 Email: Lindy.dekock@lake.co.za Website: www.lake.co.za Information: Lake Foods - Formulating solutions with our Ingredients.

Over the decades, much has changed in the laboratory, however one thing has remained the same – customers around the world come to LECO for fast and accurate results that they can trust. Visit our booth and discover how we can help you. Microsep Stand 49 & 50 Tel: Johannesburg: 011 5533000 Cape Town: 021 9140393 Durban: 031 7014705/6 Port Elizabeth: 041 3655168 Fax: Johannesburg: 011 5532400 Cape Town: 021 9140366 Durban: 031 7011171 Port Elizabeth: 041 3655169 Email: Richard Jelley - info@microsep.co.za Website: www.microsep.co.za Information: Microsep is a well-established supplier of analytical, laboratory, water purification and weighing equipment in southern Africa. We offer a variety of products for the food industry where food quality, food safety, regulatory compliance and rapid detection of contamination is crucial. Waters Corporation, one of the company’s suppliers, is a leader in developing food testing systems that integrate chromatography (HPLC & UPLC), mass spectrometry (MS), column and sample prep chemistries, and data management software. Waters’ comprehensive solutions enable food laboratories to identify diverse chemical compounds, meet compliance requirements, decrease operation costs, increase productivity and most importantly, help ensure public safety. VICAM, a Waters company, is a leader in agriculture biotechnology and food safety. VICAM has been dedicated to developing USDA- and AOACapproved rapid tests for mycotoxin and food borne pathogens. VICAM’s mycotoxin testing system provides reliable, quantitative detection of particular mycotoxins through the choice of fluorometric or HPLC measurements. Environmental Resource Associates (ERA), a Waters Company, complements the entire analytical instrument range by providing Proficiency Testing (PT) and Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) and quality control standards to help manage environmental monitoring systems and analytical programs. METTLER TOLEDO provides analytical, weighing and measuring solutions to meet the challenges of the food and beverage industry. Stringent quality control for the exact adherence of product specifications is made viable thanks to top-performing, innovative and rugged balances, titrators, moisture analysers, density and refractometers, pipettes, pH meters, melting-, softening- and dropping point analysers and other instruments. As the leader in weighing technology, METTLER TOLEDO supplies balances and scales specific to every area of production, quality control of food and ingredients, research and development. This is complemented by a range of scales for all retail applications including receiving, portioning and point-of-sale.

Leco Africa (Pty) Ltd. Stand 30 P.O. Box 1439, Kempton Park, 1620 3 Vuurslag Avenue, Access Park, Spartan Ext 7, Kempton Park, 1620 Tel: 011 9741681 Fax: 011 9741848 Email: alexander@lecoafrica.co.za Website: www.lecoafrica.co.za Information: LECO Africa, servicing the South African Analytical and Metallographic industries since 1976! As a wholly owned subsidiary of LECO Corporation, USA, we provide LECO Analytical, Metallographic, Spectrographic and Separation Science equipment, consumables and related spare parts.

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EXHIBITOR INFORMATION Southern African countries. Focus will be in key markets including academia, mining and mineral testing, chemical and petrochemical analysis, pharmaceutical applications, and food and beverage safety testing through our comprehensive range of Spectroscopy, Chromatography and Thermal instruments.

NATSEP – National Separations Stand 56 Johannesburg: 011 5532300 Cape Town : 021 9140393 Durban: 031 7014705/6 Port Elizabeth: 041 3655168 Fax: Johannesburg: 011 5532400 Cape Town : 021 9140366 Durban: 031 7011171 Port Elizabeth: 041 3655169 Email: Frances Renwick -info@microsep.co.za Website: www.microsep.co.za Information: National Separations (NATSEP) is the supplier of laboratory filtration, water purification and consumable products for the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, food & beverage and industrial industries. NATSEP, a subsidiary of Microsep (Pty) Ltd, is a distributor for Sartorius Stedim Biotech, Albet Filter Papers and Amazon Filters in southern Africa. NATSEP provides the most cost effective filtration solution by combining excellent products with years of filtration expertise and exceptional service. NATSEP offers a range of laboratory water purification systems for pure and ultrapure water; process filtration systems; membrane filtration and microbiological test equipment. Hygiena’s line of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) hygiene monitoring systems are used extensively throughout the food and beverage processing industries where rapid detection of contamination is crucial. The range of hygiene monitoring and testing systems are used to validate sanitation protocols, ensure HACCP (Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Points) regulations are met, show due diligence to auditors, and quickly determine whether machines are clean enough to start processing food. Celsis International, a global leader in rapid microbial detection, has been helping companies worldwide screen products for microbial contamination. The Celsis system delivers accurate presence/absence screening results in just 24-48 hours and is a great fit for packaged dairy, food and beverage products where there is a low expectation of bioburden present. Perkinelmer Sa (Pty) Ltd Stand 66 Unit 21, Thornhill Office Park, 94 Bekker Road, Midrand Tel: 011 5642400 Fax: 011 5642440 Email: info.za@perkinelmer.com Website: www.perkinelmer.com Information: Managing the pressures of a global supply chain, meeting changing global regulatory requirements and producing consistent quality product is critical to your brand.  PerkinElmer has helped some of the world’s most trusted brands address some of these exact issues.  Whether you are concerned with implementing a plan to detect and deter food fraud or need better solutions to meet an ever-changing global regulatory landscape, our broad range of technologies coupled with the knowledge and experience of our scientists can help.  To help address food fraud we introduced non-targeted screening solutions to quickly screen ingredients for integrity and confirmation such as geographic origin and species identification, dilution, substitution, or for known or unknown adulterants.  We have also developed the AxION™ DSA/TOF that allows you to perform real-time detection in 15 seconds instead of 30 minutes.  Requiring no sample prep and no separation step, you can quickly identify contaminants or adulterants at very low levels.  We also offer a full line of technology to test and verify nutritional labeling as well as a complete line to detect toxic metals. PerkinElmer is a collaborative partner that can work across geographical boundaries, help you improve your outcomes and nourish your brands and the bottom line. PerkinElmer Inc. is a global leader focused on improving the health and safety of people and the environment. The new PerkinElmer Southern African headquarters will support the Company’s business across all

Peter Rassloff Instruments & Services Stand 8 PO Box 87, Steenberg (Cape Town), 7947, South Africa Tel: 021 7853864 Fax: 021 7855299 Email: info@pris.co.za or maria@pris.co.za Website: www.peterrassloff.co.za Information: Manufacturer and supplier of specialized equipment for Quality Control in the wheat/maize/soya milling industry, as well as equipment made to special requirement. On-site service and repair of all kind of laboratory instruments by experienced and factory trained technicians. PHT-SA Stand 52 QPS Office Park, 58 Henri Road, Eldoraigne, 0157 Tel: 012 654 7957 Fax: 086 6289800 Email: dkoekemoer@pht-sa.co.za Website: www.pht-sa.co.za Information: PHT offer and plan the right hygiene and technology solution for companies of any size and type · Personnel hygiene equipment · Change room equipment · Foam cleaning systems · Drain technology · Factory equipment · Cleaning machines · Consumable goods for the hygiene area · Lifting, tilting and ergonomic handling systems · Doors and components · Deboning, conveyor and racking and commission systems · Cooking and Smoking systems · Slaughter equipment · A-Z Hygiene and Technology solutions, consultation, planning and service · Industrial Wastewater treatment systems · PHT-SA is the official representative of Boyens, CSK and Galatic products in South Africa. SABS Stand 54 1 Dr Lategan Road Groekloef Pretoria Tel: 0861 2772277 Email: info@sabs.co.za Website: www.sabs.co.za Information: Established in terms of the South African Standards Act, No. 24 of 1945, the South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) has a long history in standards development and maintenance on the African continent. This rich legacy has supported and enabled South African products and services to enter global markets and to maintain a competitive advantage. Today the SABS is governed by the new Standards Act, No. 8 of 2008, which formally distinguishes it as the leading national standards body, with no regulatory functions. SABS Commercial SOC Ltd is an independent, self-financing company within the SABS Group. Its activities focus on, and are committed to, supporting industry by providing conformity assessment services that enhance the competitiveness of its valued clients.

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EXHIBITOR INFORMATION Conformity Assessment Services The comprehensive range of conformity assessment services falls into two distinctive categories that address the quality of client’s organizations (Management System Certification) and the quality of client’s products (Product Certification). Management System Certification Schemes This verification and resulting certification attests to the effectiveness and validity of client’s management system(s) in terms of professionalism, quality, safety and good governance. SABS provides the following certification schemes: · ISO 9001 – Quality Management Systems · ISO 14001 – Environmental Management Systems · OHSAS 18001 – Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems · ISO 50001 – Energy Management Systems · HACCP – Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points · FSSC 22000 – Food Safety Management Systems · ISO 27001 - Information Security Management Systems · VDA 6.1/KBA/QS 9000/ ISO TS 16949 · SANS 16001 – Wellness and Disease Management ( Including HIV and TB) · ISO 13485 – Medical Devices · Product Certification Schemes · Product testing and certification provide independent third party certification according to: · The SABS Mark Scheme – a well-recognised symbol of credibility Savannah Stand 36 & 37 19 Boeing Road West, Morning Hill, Bedfordview Tel: 011 8564500 Fax: 011 8564599 Email: sfc-info@savannah.co.za Website: www.savannah.co.za Information: Savannah Fine Chemicals: At Savannah we create an environment where potential is maximized and meaningful work is done in pursuit of goals of possibility! Savannah’s expertise is in the sourcing and supply of quality raw materials for the food and beverage, health care & personal care industries. We provide a partnership between customers and suppliers; committed to product quality and expert service. We are dedicated to the development and application of our abilities to meet customer’s needs. During this event, Savannah will be hosting our principals who will be presenting papers and posters at the SAAFOST Biennial International Congress. We look forward to welcoming customers to our stand (36 & 37) to discuss ideas, ingredients and solutions for their food & beverage projects. Sensient Colors Sa (Pty) Ltd Stand 26 Unit 2, Executive City, Industrial Road, Kya Sand, Gauteng, South Africa Tel: 011 4627150 Fax: 011 4627152 Email: Jacqui.mhlongo@sensient.com Website: www.sensient-tech.com Information: Sensient Technologies Corporation is a leading global manufacturer and marketer of colours, flavours and fragrances. Sensient employs advanced technologies at facilities around the world to develop specialty food and beverage systems, cosmetic and pharmaceutical systems, inkjet and specialty inks and colours, and other specialty and fine chemicals. The Company’s customers include major international manufacturers representing most of the world’s best-known brands. Sensient is headquartered in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Sunspray / DDW Stand 12 PO Box 43057 Industria , Johannesburg Tel: 011 4736800 Fax: 011 4746533 Email: rene.cross@sunspray.co.za Website: www.sunspray.co.za / www.ddwcolour.com Information: Sunspray is the largest independent manufacturer of spray dried food ingredients in South Africa., and has two manufacturing sites. The range of ingredients is diverse and includes Caramel colour powders, cheese, tomato and fruit powders, vinegar powder, fat and cream powders, creamers and milk blends, honey powders and citrus concentrates as well as a range of meat and chicken powders. DDW are the world leaders in Caramel Colour and are renowned for exceptional liquid and powder caramel colour products. Their range has now been extended to include Natural colours and DDW will be offering technical solutions for all caramel and natural colour requirements. Sunspray Food Ingredients are the appointed agents for DDW Caramel liquid and powders, and Natural colours in South Africa. We welcome a visit to Stand 12 in the exhibitor’s hall. Supreme Wheat Flour Stand 29 6 President Burgers Street, Pretoria Tel: 012 3083000 Email: Liezel@foodcorp.co.za or Kevinc@foodcorp.co.za Website: www.supremeflour.co.za Information: Established in 1919, the Supreme brand has become a firm favourite amongst South Africa’s professional bakers. The company is known and respected for offering consistent quality, expertise, and service that has resulted in it becoming a significant provider in the professional market. Technical sales support is one of the services provided to all customers in the form of a combined 324 years of experience between our bakers, with some boasting Master Baker, and American Institute of Baking titles behind their names. Technical Bakery Specialists engage with their customers by continually providing the newest baking techniques and assisting them in managing and operating a profitable business. When it comes to products, Supreme offers a range of wheat flours, prepared mixes and concentrates for breads, rolls, cakes and confectionery, which are milled at Foodcorp’s long-standing milling site in Pretoria. Prepared mixes offer a solution for any occasion, including brown and white bread, rye bread, roll mixes, cake mixes and a variety of muffin mixes. By using these products with the addition of only yeast and water, the results are always of a consistent quality which delivers predictable yields .Predictable yield assist bakers and bakeries with the ability to improve the overall management and profit delivery of their bakeries. Foodcorp Milling manufactures and distributes 18 prepared mixes and one concentrate under the Supreme brand, all of which are tailor-made for the industrial and in-store bakeries sector. Supreme’s white bread flour, cake wheat flour and brown bread flour are also available nationally in bulk to customers who require larger orders, the benefits of which include cost reductions, less labour and allowing for a more hygienic process. For more information on Supreme and its products visit: www.supremeflour.co.za

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Information: Swift Silliker (a Mériuex Nutrisciences company) offers testing, auditing, consulting, training, and research services on a global basis. Our commitment to helping processors, retailers, and distributors to find workable solutions to scientific problems has made us the food quality and safety resource of companies around the world.

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Swift Silliker Stand 57 & 58 7 Warrington Road, Claremont, Cape Town Tel: 021 6838436 Fax: 021 6838422 Email: anza@swift.co.za Website: www.swift.co.za

SO U

TH AFRICA

Tongaat Hulett Starch Stand 11 2 Dick Kemp Steet, Meadowdale Tel: 011 4585000 Fax: 011 4585090 Email: cynthia.mabela@tongaat.com or margie.nettmann@tongaat.com Website: www.tongaathulettstarch.co.za Information: Tongaat Hulett Starch is Africa’s largest producer of Starch and Glucose. Producing a wide range of high quality products for customers around the world using maize as a raw material. United Spectrometer Technologies CC Stand 20 No 4 Eagle Mini Factories, 167 Vooraadskip St., Honeydew Ridge, 2040 Tel: 011 7951900 Fax: 011 7951942 Email: leigh@ustech.co.za Website: www.us-tech.co.za Information: We are a company that sells Analytical Instrumentation, we have a range of Texture Analysers from the United Kingdom that we are the agents for. The SMS brand is a well- established brand that has many global companies as their customers. In SA alone, we have a number of Multinational companies that use our SMS texture analysers. These analysers have a wide range of applications, from food, to cosmetic, to pharma, to adhesives and even to Packaging applications. In addition, we have a range of Hand-held NIR and Raman spectrometers for Raw Material identification, from Thermo Fisher Scientific, which we are also the agents for. These are mainly used in Pharmaceuticals, but are getting into the cosmetic and food markets very rapidly. Warren Chem Specialities Stand 67 11 Mansell Road, Killarney Gardens, 7441, Cape Town Tel: 021 5561920 Fax: 021 5561905 Email: sales@warrenchemct.co.za info@warrenchemct.co.za Website: www.warrenchem.co.za Information: Warren Chem is a leading supplier of high quality ingredients to the food, beverage and nutraceutical industries. We represent prime producers of minerals, vitamins, additives and functional ingredients. Together with our suppliers, we are able to offer comprehensive technical support as well as introduce new and innovative ingredients, to assist with all your formulation requirements. Our team looks forward to receiving your enquiries.

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HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLUTIONS FOR HEALTH & HYGIENE


SOCIAL EVENTS Delegates are requested to wear their Congress name tags for identification and admission.

Monday, 7 October Compusense Inc. Welcome Reception You are invited to join us as SAAFoST guests for light snacks and to taste our unique South African wines while you relax and network with fellow delegates from around the World. Venue: The Deck - CSIR International Convention Centre – Pretoria Time: 18:15 – 20:15

Tuesday, 8 October Sunspray Congress Banquet Theme: “Out of Africa – Colonial” A seating plan will be available at the Registration Desk during the congress, please visit the desk to seat yourself. Tickets will be on sale at the registration desk until 11h30 on Monday 7 October. (Not included in Congress registration fee) Venue: The Deck and Amber Room - CSIR International Convention Centre – Pretoria Time: 18:30 – 19:00 Pre-Dinner Drinks on the Deck. 19:00 – 22:00 Sunspray Congress Banquet N.B. Dress for this event is collar & tie or traditional formal dress Cost:

R485.00 per person including VAT.

Tuesday, 8 October Student Social Evening An opportunity for student delegates to relax and meet their counterparts. Tickets will be on sale at the Registration Desk until 11h30 on Monday the 7th of October. (Not included in Congress registration fee) Cost:

R150.00 per student including VAT.

Venue: Department of Food Science, University of Pretoria Time: 18:30 – 22:00 You will need to make your own way to this function.

Wednesday, 9 October Dinnermates Closing and Farewell Cocktail Venue: The Deck - CSIR International Convention Centre – Pretoria Time: 16:15 – 17:15

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CONGRESS INFORMATION The 20th SAAFoST Biennial International Congress and Exhibition and ICMSF Post Congress Workshop will be held at the CSIR International Convention Centre between 7 and 10 October 2013. The Congress is hosted by the South African Association for Food Science and Technology. (SAAFoST)

Registration Information The Congress Registration Desk at the CSIR International Convention Centre will be open during the following hours: Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday

7 October 8 October 9 October 10 October

07:00 – 18:30 07:00 – 18:30 07:00 – 18:30 07:00 – 10:00

On-site facilities are available for new registrations, payments, accommodation, sightseeing excursions, airport transfers and event information and bookings.

Catering Complimentary tea and coffee for delegates, exhibitors and registered accompanying persons, will be served in the Exhibition Hall at the times specified in the scientific programme. Lunch will be served on the Deck daily. We would like to thank our lunch sponsors: Monday Tuesday Wednesday

7 October 8 October 9 October

Lake Foods Kellogg Company of South Africa Ecowize Group

Congress Badges Please note that delegates are required to wear their Congress Name Badges at all times in the Convention Centre. Access to speaker venues is controlled hence failure to wear your badge may impede access to some areas. We also recommend wearing badges at the social events.

Mobile Phones Delegates are requested to turn their mobile phones off when entering speaker venues.

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GENERAL INFORMATION South Africa

Electricity Supply

We welcome you with open arms and hearts and the warmest, widest of smiles, excited to invite you to our shores, homes and braais.

The electricity supply in South Africa is 220-240 volts, 50 Hz. The connection for appliances is a round three-pin plug.

Experience our hospitality wherever you go and get in touch with our wide variety of fascinating cultures and local traditions. Our people are ready to show you our country’s natural wonders, draw you into the rhythm and soul of Africa, give you close encounters with our regal wildlife and take you on an unforgettable journey through our ancient and recent past.

Pretoria Welcome to Pretoria, the seat of government, meeting place of the world and capital of the Rainbow Nation. In Pretoria you will experience an African city of excellence – one which blends the depth of local culture and character with world class technology and infrastructure – all on the backdrop of natural splendour and architectural diversity.

Most hotels provide dual-voltage two-pin razor sockets (100-120 volts and 220-240 volts).

Health There are no compulsory vaccination requirements for persons entering South Africa although a certificate for yellow fever may be required if you are entering from certain South American or sub-Saharan African countries. Certain parts of the country have been designated as malaria risk areas. If you intend travelling to one of these areas, it is essential that you take prophylaxis before arrival and whilst in the area. Protective clothing and insect repellents should also be used. Pretoria is a malaria risk free area. South African doctors and dentists are highly trained professionals and private hospitals are well equipped.

Sport, arts and culture, research and development, industry, learning and the business of running the nation are all captured in the daily lives of the city’s 2,5 million residents who make this city what it is. It is a city with a welcome as warm as its climate and, for very good reasons, named the best host city for the 2010 FIFA World Cup™. Tshwane covers 6 368 km² of Gauteng’s 19 055 km². It stretches almost 121 km from East to West and 108 km from North to South making it the third-largest city in the world in terms of land area, after New York and Tokyo/Yokohama.

Participants are requested to make their own arrangements with respect to health insurance prior to departure and consult their local general practitioner for personal expert advice. For international travel and health advisories please visit the WHO website at www.who.int/ith or www.cdc.org. It is safe to drink tap water throughout South Africa. However, for those who prefer bottled mineral water, this is readily available in various stores. Smoking is prohibited by law in most public buildings in South Africa (airports, CSIR International Convention Centre, restaurants etc.) except in designated smoking areas.

Currency and Banks

Indemnity / Insurance

The unit of currency in South Africa is the South African Rand (ZAR) and is indicated with a capital R so that, for example, three Rand and fifty cents would be written R3.50. South Africa has a decimal currency system with one Rand equalling 100 cents. Denominations of Rand notes are R200, R100, R50, R20, and R10 and of the coins are R5, R2, R1, 50c, 20c, 10c and 5c. The following exchange rates were applicable at time of sending out this document.

The Congress Organisers have taken reasonable care in making arrangements for the Congress, Exhibition and Social Programme. Neither the Organising Body (SAAFoST), the Local Core Organising Committee, nor its sponsors or committee members assume any responsibility, contractual or delictual for any loss, injury or damage to persons or belongings, or additional expenses incurred as a result of delays or changes in air, rail, sea, road or other services, strikes, sicknesses, weather, or for any acts or omissions by any persons, or for any unforeseen changes to the programme including cancellation of the Congress due to force majeure or any related events or activities. All participants are accordingly advised to make their own arrangements for adequate insurance cover including personal health and travel insurance.

1 United States Dollar = ZAR 9.58 (Rates as at 19 September 2013)

1 Euro = ZAR 12.97

Facilities for cashing traveller’s cheques are available at banks (operating hours are Monday - Friday 09:00 - 15:30, Saturdays 08:30 - 11:00) and at most hotels. Banks are closed on Sundays. Foreign exchange agencies are open during the week and on Saturdays. Automatic teller machines (ATM) are open 24 hours and are located at most banks and shopping centres. International credit cards (Visa, Diners Club, MasterCard and American Express) are accepted at the majority of hotels, restaurants and shops.

Language The official Congress language will be English.

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GENERAL INFORMATION Accommodation

Telecommunciations

The Congress Organisers have secured a wide variety of accommodation at Pretoria hotels to suit all budgets.

Mobile phones: Referred to locally as ‘cell phones’. The main areas of South Africa are covered by all networks. You can use a GSM/tri-band phone from outside the country in South Africa, if you arranged for international roaming before leaving home.

If you have not already booked your accommodation, please visit the registration desk for assistance.

Dress Code Attire is smart casual, except for official functions, or where otherwise stated.   Participants are advised to carry a light jacket when attending Congress sessions, when going out in the evening or going on tours as most venues and tour coaches will be air conditioned.

Important Telephone Numbers Congress Organisers Ambulance Transport Organisers Netcare Medical Response EMRS Medical Response Police & Flying Squad

Public phones are either coin- or card-operated. International telephone dialling code is 00 + the country code when dialling another country from South Africa.

Tipping Gratuities are expected in South Africa. In restaurants, 10% of the bill usually applies for good service. Restaurants do not normally include the tip in the bill. Taxi drivers should also receive 10% of the amount charged.

083 269 0279 10177 083 263 3657 082 911 10177 10111

Porters at hotels normally get about R10 a bag. South African petrol stations are not of the “self-service” type and someone will always be on hand to fill your vehicle and clean your windscreen, for which you should tip around R2

Lunch Venues

Transport

Lunches will be served on the Deck.

Transport will be provided to the CSIR International Convention Centre on Congress days from official Hotels.

Parking Parking is available at no cost at the CSIR International Convention Centre.

A facility will be available at the Registration Desk at the CSIR for participants to book transfers from their hotels to the airport for their departures. The cost of a one way transfer is R280.00 per person.

Safety

Venue

For those participants who have not previously visited South Africa, or Pretoria, and are concerned about personal safety, we wish to assure all visitors that Pretoria is like any other major city and has good and bad areas. Common sense will ensure a trouble free and enjoyable congress. Ostentatious displays of wealth should be avoided at all times. During the congress, the information desk at the CSIR International Convention Centre and your hotel’s concierge will be able to assist you with information on places to visit and the appropriate means of transport.

The venue for the Congress is the CSIR International Convention Centre (1 Meiring Naude Rd Pretoria 0001) Registration, the Welcome Reception, Official Opening, all scientific sessions, the Trade Exhibition, Gala Dinner and Closing Cocktails will take place at the Convention Centre. Access to all areas of the Convention Centre will require the wearing of official Congress name badges at all times.

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TRANSPORT SCHEDULE OFFICIAL CONGRESS HOTELS ZONES ZONE ONE ZONE TWO ZONE THREE

DATE 7 OCT 13

8 OCT 13

9 OCT 13 10 OCT 13

HOTELS - - - - - -

SHERATON HOTEL THE VILLAS LUXURY SUITE HOTEL TOWN LODGE MENLO PARK CITY LODGE LYNNWOOD CASA TOSCANA LODGE LOMBARDY BOUTIQUE HOTEL

SHUTTLE SCHEDULE TIMES 06:30 / 07:00 / 07:30 18:15 / 18:45 / 19:15 19:45 / 20:15 06:30 / 07:00 / 07:30 16:30 / 17:00 / 17:30 18:00 / 18:30 / 19:00 21:30 / 22:00 / 22:30 / 23:00 06:30 / 07:00 / 07:30 16:30 / 17:00 / 17:30 18:00 / 18:30 / 19:00 07:30 / 08:00 / 08:30 16:30 / 17:00 / 17:30

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ROUTING HOTELS TO CSIR CSIR TO HOTELS HOTELS TO CSIR CSIR TO HOTELS HOTELS TO CSIR CSIR TO HOTELS HOTELS TO CSIR CSIR TO HOTELS HOTELS TO CSIR CSIR TO HOTELS


EXCURSION PROGRAMME Please call at the Tours Desk at the Convention Centre, the desk will be open at the following times: Monday Tuesday Wednesday

7 October 8 October 9 October

07:00 – 18:30 07:00 – 18:30 07:00 – 18:30

A number of half day, full day and overland tours will be available and all tours will depart from the CSIR International Convention Centre entrance, in front of the parking lot, unless otherwise specified. We look forward to having you on tour with us.

LEISURE TOUR OPTIONS ACCOMPANYING PERSON’S TOUR PROGRAMME PRETORIA CITY TOUR (Included in your Accompanying Person’s registration fee) Date:     Tuesday, 8 October 2013 Time:      09:00 – 12:30 Depart from the CSIR International Convention Centre, Pretoria. Pretoria, Capital South Africa. One of our stops is at the Union Buildings, home to the president’s office, from where you can delight in a panoramic view of the Jacaranda City. We also visit the Voortrekker Monument, Church Square, Kruger House or Melrose House. TOUR NAME Pretoria City Cullinan - Surface Cullinan - Under ground Ann van Dyk Cheetahs Soweto Tour Jo’burg City Gold Reef City Lesedi Village Elephant Sanctuary Apartheid Museum Pilansberg Park Sun City Pilansberg & Sun City Cradle of Humankind

RATE PER PERSON R525 R650 R1150 R750 R650 R650 R750 R950 R1450 R550 R1200 R1000 R1400 R1100

HIGHLIGHTS Tour of the Jacaranda City and historical monuments. Visit the “big hole”, the shaft and view a selection of uncut diamonds. Tour a working mine, a physically taxing tour. De Wildt is a renowned breeding success of rare and endangered species. This tour includes a visit to Mandela House and a local restaurant. Visit the financial capital of South Africa and the “old city centre”. A theme park built around an old gold mine, similar to yester-year. A multi-cultural African village with four ethnic homesteads and cultures. View the elephants in the heart of the beautiful African bushveld. Tour the 22 individual exhibition areas capturing the rise and fall of apartheid. The fourth largest national park in South Africa and home to the “Big 5”. Magnificent sporting & recreational facilities including gourmet eateries on offer. A combination of two worlds, allows one to get the best of both experiences. A world heritage site with approximately 40 different fossil sites.

IMPORTANT DAY TOUR INFORMATION - All leisure tours will depart from CSIR International Convention Centre, Pretoria, unless otherwise specified. - Please ensure that you arrive at the tour departure point at least 15 minutes prior to the tour departure. - The above day tours are subject to availability at the time of booking and are subject to a minimum of two passengers. If minimum numbers are not achieved, you will be offered an alternative tour, equal in value or you will be refunded in full. - Tour bookings close at 15:00, the day before the tour departure. - All transactions are conducted in terms of Turners Conferences & Conventions and their appointed tour operators standard terms and conditions of trading. - Full payment is due immediately on confirmation of the tour booking. - Cancellation Fees: No refunds will be made for cancellations received after tour bookings have been confirmed. An amendment fee of R100 applies to all confirmed reservations.

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NOTES

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CONGRESS SPONSORS SAAFoST 2013 recognises and appreciates the contributions of its sponsors PLATINUM SPONSOR

GOLD SPONSORS

SILVER SPONSORS

CONGRESS SPONSORS

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is the South African Association for Food Scientists, Technologists and other professionals serving the food and allied industries, and ogranisations in South Africa. The association provides its members with valuable networking, knowledge-sharing events and publications. SAAFoST promotes education and professionalism and seeks to provide an appropriate legislative structure in the industry. The South African Association for Food Science and Technology (SAAFoST) was founded in 1960 after a group of industry and academic representatives identified a need for a professional association for South African food scientists. The original association was founded in Cape Town and branches were set up in the Cape and in Johannesburg in 1962 and then in Durban in 1973. From these small beginnings, SAAFoST has grown to become one of the most dynamic and well supported associations of its type in the world.

SAAFoST MISSION STATEMENT

SAAFoST will be the primary regional organization for food science and technology professionals in business, government and academia through its commitment to: - advancing food science and related technologies for the supply of safe and wholesome food; - creating, interpreting and dissemination food related scientific information; - providing opportunities for personal and professional development; - upholding professional standards of competence and integrity.

www.saafost2013.org.za www.foodfacts.org.za

Out of Africa: Global Food Science and Technology

SAAFoST

SAAFoST 2013 Final Programme & Abstracts  

20th SAAFoST Biennial International Congress and Exhibition 2013