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PASSING ON THE GIFT

FROM HEIFER INTERNATIONAL IN PIURA 1984-2000 Tatiana García Alfaro Carlos Cornejo Flores

Systematizing Experiences N° 09 Lima, December 2015


Tatiana Garc铆a Tatiana Garcia is a zootechny engineer with Master studies in Animal Production at the Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Peru, and the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Zaragoza, Spain; she also has Project Management studies at the Pontificia Universidad Cat贸lica del Peru. Her professional career has developed in the field of international cooperation; promoting, implementing, monitoring, evaluating and systematizing development projects in various parts of the country, both with NGOs and cooperation agencies. She has also worked on Special Projects as Monitoring Officer for the Cordillera Negra Program in Ancash. Outside the country she has worked as monitoring and project development officer for Heifer International in Mozambique. Since 2004 she works in the European Union Delegation in Peru, currently serving as Manager of Thematic Projects with civil society and is responsible for the Environment and Climate Change Delegation. In 2000 she made a consultancy for Heifer Peru, systematizing our experience in the dry forests of Piura.


GARCÍA ALFARO, Tatiana; CORNEJO FLORES, Carlos. PASSING ON THE GIFT FROM HEIFER INTERNATIONAL IN PIURA 1984-2000 Systematizing experiences N° 9. Lima: Heifer Perú, 2015. 74 pp Social Capital; Dry Forest; Gender; Rural Communities; Environmental Improvement.

PASSING ON THE GIFT FROM HEIFER INTERNATIONAL IN PIURA 1984-2000 Hecho el Depósito Legal en la Biblioteca Nacional del Perú N° 2016-00209 ISBN: Printing: 200 Edited by: ©2015 Heifer Project International - Perú Av. Brasil 2948 Magdalena del Mar, Lima 17 - Perú Phone: (51) (1) 261-3122 E-mail: oficina.nacional@heiferperu.org www.heifer.org www.heiferperu.org

PASSING ON THE GIFT FROM HEIFER INTERNATIONAL IN PIURA 1984 - 2000 Tatiana García Alfaro Carlos Cornejo Flores

Authors: Tatiana Garcia Alfaro – Carlos Cornejo Fotografías: Archivos Heifer International Perú Support team: Ing. Jorge Sandoval Moscol Ing. Dubally Huertas Mogollón Ing. Jorge F. Vélez Guaylupo Ing. Madelina Soplopuco Castro Design: Ymagino Publicidad Edited: Kimochi Gestión Cultural – Doris Moromisato Miasato Printed in Peru Talleres Gráficos Ymagino Publicidad S.A.C. Mz. E Lt. 8, II Etapa. Urb. Santa Elisa - Los Olivos (51 1) 528-5843 Printed in Peru December, 2015 Copyright 2015

Systematizing Experiences N°9 Lima, December 2015


TABLE OF CONTENTS

PRESENTATION 7

24

A. PASSING ON THE GIFT

25

10

B. GENDER AND FAMILY PARTICIPATION

30

A. HEIFER INTERNATIONAL INTERVENTION IN PERU

10

C. TRAINING AND EDUCATION

31

B. NATIONAL POLITIC INFLUENCES

12

D. IMPROVING THE ENVIRONMENT

32

C. NATIONAL PROJECTS WHICH INFLUENCED LIVESTOCK ACTIVITIES

13

E. IMPROVING ANIMAL PRODUCTION

33

F. GROWTH OF HEIFER PERU BUDGETS 1984-1999 IN US$

37

I. CONTEXT OF HEIFER PERU’ S INTERVENTION IN PIURA

II. FEATURES OF HEIFER PERU’S WORK ZONES

4

IV. HEIFER PERU’S IMPACT IN DRY FOREST FROM PIURA

14

A. ECOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL FEATURES OF PIURA

14

B. CURRENT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PARTICIPANT FAMILIES FROM PROJECTS

15

C. PRODUCTIVE FEATURES OF THE PARTICIPANT FAMILIES FROM PROJECTS.

16

III. INTERVENTION PROPOSAL AND STAGES OF HEIFER PERU IN PIURA

18

A. INTERVENTION PROPOSAL

18

B. STAGES OF HEIFER PERU INTERVENTION IN PIURA

20

C. IMPROVEMENT OF THE PRODUCTION OF SMALL RUMINANTS

20

D. IMPROVEMENT OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE DRY FOREST RESOURCES (1992-1999)

21

E. COOPERATION AGREEMENTS SIGNED SINCE 1984 FOR THE PIURA REGION

22

F. HEIFER PERU AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL RUMINANTS

23

V. LEARNED LESSONS

40

VI. BIBLIOGRAPHY

44

VII.ANNEXED 46

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PRESENTATION The objective of this systematization is to reflect our work history at the right place where Heifer Peru took its biggest institutional effort, since its intervention beginning, nearly 1984, in Piura, located at the Peruvian north coast. The beginnings were framing under a particular context. They were submitted by the Latin-American economics that registered strong liberalization and globalization processes. About the Peruvian case, it was harder because of the local institution and leaders disappearances caused by the army conflicts and terrorism, managed by peasant groups like “Luminous way” and MRTA, mainly in high land places. This context implied that Heifer Peru have to leave many places of the country, deciding to work in Piura because of the security. The natural scenarios, where many projects have been developed, were the Dry Forest and other places with low vegetal covers, closed to the desert characteristic. We mean weak ecosystems, with low regeneration and long dry periods alternate with short periods of a large quantity of water, known as El Niño phenomenon, has been present in this particular zone of the country.

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PASSING ON THE GIFT

FROM HEIFER INTERNATIONAL IN PIURA 1984-2000

The Piura´s intervention was in 1972, since then, Heifer Peru was working continuously, however, in 1984, Heifer Peru announced officially its intervention in the country. Since then, until the final systematization in 2000, including nowadays, it has developed a very particular social, political and economical context, characterized by important changes. Some factors that influenced our different scenarios, where many projects have been developed, were the Dry Forest and other places with low vegetal covers, closed to desert characteristics. We mean weak ecosystems, with low regeneration and long dry periods alternating with short periods of a large quantity of water, known as El Niño phenomenon, which has been present in this particular zone of the country. The factors that influenced our action during the eighties were the break up process from the agrarian reform which implied a law promoting the fragmentation between the Agrarian Cooperative and farmer organization, strong entities in Piura. During the nineties the land market law was changed from inalienable land to negotiated community land. Both, economical and politics facts were done from many governments since 1980 until 1999, affecting strongly the economical situation of community farmers. About ecological way, during the first sixteen years old of intervention, four El Niño phenomenon manifestations appeared (1983, 1987, 1992 and 1998) with different intensity, causing hydrological cycles that generated farming resources increases. Those raised in 1983 and 1998 were considered as “Mega- Niños”, which let the Nord land subsoil assimilate through a big hydrological reserve.The commitment for our intervention continuity between 1984 and 1999 was made in different sectors in Bajo Piura, specially in the Farmer community San Juan Bautista in Catacaos. This big geographic place** reflects a summary of the main characteristics from Heifer Peru intervention in Piura.

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About Social factor, we can see that the first “passing on the gift” (1988) marked off the first stage, going from agrarian cooperatives of workers to farmer communities, considering, mainly, the central leadership. Whereas that the third passing on the gift (1996) started to work with business and community associations; organizations that implied family groups (between 10 and 25) that made productive activities with business perspectives.

information from institutional archives; and finally the document analysis and draft. To make this possible, the systematization team was in Piura as part of the field research during the last three months of 1999. The results were established according to the institutional cornerstones. In this way, we found the “passing on the gift”, training and environmental improvement and animal production as the Heifer Peru strength in Piura.

About Thematic areas, during the first stage, the approach was addressed to sheep and goat husbandry improvement. Then other interesting subjects were included in projects, achieving the husbandry diversification with small animals. Actually, we are developing management and natural resources conservation, with an environmental vision, including beekeeping and its product transformation.

The systematization is divided in seven chapters: The first one presents an historic and institutional context about Heifer Peru intervention in Piura, through the political international cooperation and the influence of the national politics. The second part implies the ecological and social characteristics of the intervention zone, highlighting the social economical characteristics from participant families of different project. The third one covers the intervention proposal, where the local potentialities were considered to develop the local production and make it sustainable. On the fourth one, the intervention stages of Heifer Peru are developed, between 1984 and 1999. On the fifth, the intervention impact was showed by its basic indicators like the passing on the gift achievement level, the number of productive activities made by the family members, the number of gender workshop, participations of family members in different trainings, participation level in natural resources uses, number of animals of specific species in the intervention zones, husbandry systems, etc. The sixth part is about the Heifer Peru budget evolution in Piura´s project (1984 – 1999). Finally, in the seventh part, we show lessons learned from the systematize experiences.

Inside the HEIFER PERU philosophy, there is a medullar aspect called “PASSING ON THE GIFT” of resources, implying solidarity and support between farmer groups. In Piura, we give 757 animals and share 695 animals, almost 92% from total, addressed to other community groups, many of them far away from the original ones. There were 19 processes that started in 1988 with the handing over of 72 sheep and 11 goats to the farmer community of San Juan Bautista from Catacaos, reaching 310 resident families in 18 locations in provinces like Sullana, Paita, Piura and Morropon. In this document, we tried to systematize the experience of Heifer Peru intervention in Piura, during the last sixteen years old. This work was made in 3 stages: Planning, gathering information from surveys, interviews and official documentation reviews, like project

the engineer Jorge Sandoval Moscol, who was the coordinator of Heifer Peru in Piura and the engineers Dubally Huertas Mogollon, Jorge F. Velez Guaylupo and Madelina Soplopuco Castro. Also to the ex directors of Heifer Peru Juan Flores (1984-1998), who made possible the Heifer permanence and intervention in Peru in those years of systematization, with Amalia Cuba (1999 – 2002) who supported the experience systematization processes in Heifer Peru history, in Piura. Jim Hoey, as a Director from Heifer International to LatinAmerican (1990 – 2005). I would like also recognize the final edition of this work, after many years, was possible with the support of Yanina Maracuzco and Katia Melgarejo from Heifer Peru team. Waiting for the publication of this systematization, that let us not only register our history as institution, but also to pick up all the learned lessons and recognize the work development, based on partnership and cooperation agreement, as the trust between people, which is demonstrated by the project participants. Thank you very much. Alfredo García Nacional Director Heifer Peru Lima, December 30th, 2015.

Finally, I would like to thank the systematization authors Tatiana Garcia and Carlos Cornejo, after doing a hard effort in short time, between travels and permanence at working area for many months, they could finish the job; undertaking the help of many people, like the project participants, but also

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FROM HEIFER INTERNATIONAL IN PIURA 1984-2000

I. Context of Heifer Peru’s Intervention in Piura

A. Heifer International

Intervention in Peru1

The history of Heifer International has been influenced by two currents of thought, first of all the ecumenical concepts of the churches which make up the institution and secondly by an institutional strategy which promoted the creation of national offices. In the early eighties, following an evaluation of all the cooperation agreements in the world, the head office decided to set up national offices to coordinate activities in each country. These offices would be 1 The study interviewed Messrs. James Hoey, Jorge Sandoval and Juan Flores, with data taken from the Program Review 1997.

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run by local managers in order for them to assume their own identity. The institution then prioritised its activities in some countries of Latin America, one of which was Peru. In order to strengthen Heifer International on an institutional basis, the institution strengthened its own policy making strategies and went ahead with other initiatives such as the Heifer International Foundation and its participation in the financial world which went beyond the mere campaigns and collections which have traditionally supported the sharing of the gift principle. This process of change also meant reducing the importation of animals from the United States to the beneficiary countries and relying more on local breeding centers, a situation which also lowered costs and facilitated the adaptation of new breeds to the local environment.

Over time, this strategy gave rise to the need for greater technical information in the reports issued by the national offices and this motivated the institution’s decision that the execution of projects would have to meet certain legal requirements. In these circumstances, the institution implemented the Letters of Agreement which replaced the former Cooperation Agreements.

At this time, HEIFER PERU had not set out any rules concerning the boundaries of the work zones, but finally set the maximum duration of the projects, which would range from 5 to 8 years. As part of this institutional consolidation process, the institution began to discuss the Institutional Cornerstones, focussing on issues related to environment, gender and spirituality. In Peru, the institution underwent the same process of change, while the work carried out during the sixties and seventies had been based more on a missionary basis supported by diverse churches, in the eighties, the projects were designed, monitored and coordinated more on an institutional basis. In response to the Latin American proposal of working with native species, Peru proposed the breeding of alpacas, guinea pigs, sheep, pigs, dairy cattle and poultry, a combination of native, exotic and adapted species. HEIFER PERU commenced its work in the department of Piura in 1972, with a program supported by the World Church Service , the Catholic University and other local universities. In 1983, the institution responded to the request for assistance made by La Huaca community. This work was then followed by other projects in the CAT Santa Rosa de

Poechos. Later, applying the concept of the diffusion of tropical sheep, the institution carried out a research project in La Huaca and imported several Kathadin sheep. The main features of HEIFER PERU’s work during the decade of the eighties were: :

The

institution worked in the rural areas of the coast or highlands with farm workers or poor farmers who generally raised livestock as a complementary activity. In some areas, the institution was obliged to suspend activities due to the economic crisis and the terrorist violence which swept the country. In the end the institution chose to work only on the northern coast of Peru.

The

counterparts were farmers’ organisations, farming communities and agrarian cooperatives.

The

general criteria used to support livestock activities considered availability of forage, low cost of the animals and species which did not compete with local inhabitants with respect to food supplies. As a result, the institution gave priority to native species and tropical sheep.

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PASSING ON THE GIFT

FROM HEIFER INTERNATIONAL IN PIURA 1984-2000

As from the early nineties, following an initiative arising in Peru, the institution began to de-centralise its activities in order to expand its activities encompassed within economic, humane, programmatic and political criteria. Piura however remained the most active hub of the institution’s activities and this eventually led to the opening of the Piura office in 1992. One of the most strategic themes introduced into HEIFER PERU’s activities was the response to the phenomenon of El Niño and the conservation of the environment. At first, the institution drew up the project ENRO (El Niño y la reforestación) which eventually became the PREMIA (Proyecto Regional para la Educación en Manejo Integral del Medio Ambiente) . This strategy led to the cooperation agreement signed with the Algarrobo Project in 1996, and the institution expanded its presence in themes such as the fight against desertification from a forestry and productive perspective.

B. National politic Influences

Events in the social2, political and macro-economic history which are influenced by agriculture in the Piura region3. Since 1980, when democracy was restored in Peru, there have been three governments each of which has implemented its own distinct economic policy. •

During the period 1980-1985, the government of Fernando Belaunde Terry applied programs designed to stabilise the economy, however the effects were

2 Information taken from the book “El ajuste estructural y los campesinos” - Efrain González de Olarte. IEP, 1996 3 Information taken from the book “Región, regionalismo y desarrollo regional en Piura” -A. Humberto Valverde. CEPESER, 1984

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to the contrary, as the macro-economy became even more unstable and legal insecurity grew.

left thousands of casualties and hundreds of abandoned rural communities.

The following government, under Alan García Pérez (1985-1990) implemented an economic program based on expanding the demand which relied on the availability of foreign exchange, however once the country’s foreign reserves were depleted, the economy spiralled out of control which led to hyperinflation and deep economic recession.

In the Piura region , there were several events which influenced HEIFER PERU’s work, while the decade of the sixties brought a “bonanza” to the area due to increased exportation of farm products to international markets, the eighties saw the dismantling of the land reforms and the implementation of new laws which broke up the agrarian cooperatives which were at the time responsible for most of the agrarian production in the region.

Este esquema económico que es dependiente de la disponibilidad de divisas, se agotó en los últimos años del gobierno de García Pérez (1988-1989), ampliándose el déficit fiscal, generándose una crisis de la balanza de pagos que desembocó en una hiperinflación acompañada de recesión.

In 1990, the government of Alberto Fujimori entered office and immediately applied a financial program designed to control the hyperinflation, drastically reduce government spending and the fiscal deficit and reinsert the country into the international financial system. These objectives implied an extensive privatisation process and the removal of all government subsidiaries which led to a dramatic increase in prices . The program met its objectives but has provoked a long deep recession, the closure of thousands of companies and massive unemployment.

C. National projects

which influenced livestock activities

Two national projects influenced the decision to develop small rumiants on the northern coast of Peru. The SR-CRSP program (program to support and research into development of small ruminants). During the decade of the eighties, under a research agreement signed between universities

and national and foreign institutes, a special program was set up to research into and diffuse the improvements in the breeding of small ruminants. Studies were carried out mainly on creole sheep and crosses of this breed with other breeds which had been introduced into the country. Research was also carried out into goats , llamas and alpacas. The results of this multi-disciplinary work (sociological, economic and zoo technical) helped to draw up guidelines for the production of small ruminants and proposals to improve animal productivity and commercialisation. Introduction of tropical sheep: As part of a large project to promote and improve livestock in tropical zones, the institution made the first importation of Blackbelly sheep into the country. These sheep were sent to the Peruvian jungle as part of the Special PichisPalcazu project, run by the Ministry of Agriculture, which planned the diffusion of the sheep which resulted from the cross between the Blackbelly sheep and the local creole sheep. One of the most important results of this work was the conclusion that these species did not adapt to the Peruvian jungle and were more suited to the central and northern coastal regions.

Additionally, the early eighties saw the outbreak of political violence initiated originally by Sendero Luminoso and MRTA. Two successive governments were unable to control the increasing violence which had devastating effects on the country in all aspects. In 1990, the new government of Alberto Fujimori initiated a strict crackdown on the terrorist groups and para-military forces, harshly repressing all armed dissidents in both rural and urban areas. The vlolent crackdown was successful but the violence

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FROM HEIFER INTERNATIONAL IN PIURA 1984-2000

ONERN (1982) has classified 60.9% of the land as “protected soils” which indicates that it is not apt for crops, grazing or forestry production. A further 24.6% of the land has been classifed as “suitable for grazing land)

B. Current

characteristics of the participant families from projects

The phenomenon of El Niño

II. FEATURES OF HEIFER PERU’S WORK ZONES

This is an oceanographic phenomenon controlled by the atmosphere and characterised by heavy rainfall and high ocean surface temperatures. During the last eighteen years, this phenomenon has appeared in the country on four occasions, and in 1983 and 1999, its appearances were devastating to the social and productive infrastructure.

Poverty Indicators

A. Ecological4 and

social features of Piura

The region of Piura encompasses an ecosystem called dry forest which extends over 2.16 million ha. of land which is crossed by two rivers, the Chira and the Piura. The desert strip of the region is a flat to slightly rolling area. 4 Information taken from the Paper “Sustainable rural development in the dry forest region of the northern coast of Peru: Algarrobo Project, contained in the book “Bosques Secos y Desertification. Memorias del Seminario Internacional del algarrobo Project INRENA, 1999; and the book “Estado y conservación de la diversidad natural de la region Noroeste del Perú “ CDD-UNALM, 1992.

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This is a fragile tropical dry forest ecosystem vulnerable to hdyric forces with a slow forest regenerative capacity of 1.2 m3/ha/year as compared to a degradation rate greater than 2 m3/ha/year. The phreatic layer varies from 10 m. to 60 m. in different areas and varies in line with the frequency of the climatological phenomenon of El Niño. Annual rainfall fluctuates between 60 mm to 120 mm. and varies widely during the presence of El Niño. The temperature is warm, between 24°C and 27°C ( average maximum temperature of 33°C and an average minimum of 18°C). There is a variety of trees and shrubs in the region, mainly the carob tree (prosopis pallida , Sapote (Capparis angulata), Faique (Acacia macracantha), Chope (Cryptocarpus pyriformis) Overo (Cordia lutea) and others. The fauna include birds, reptiles and mammals such as deer and foxes among others.

According to the poverty map drawn up by the Ministerio de la Presidencia5 , six districts of Piura, in which HEIFER PERU is active, together with ten other districts are classified as in extreme poverty, with poverty rates fluctuating between 15% to 30% and malnutrition rates exceeding 50%. Illiteracy rates vary between10% to 35% while school absentee rates are approximately 15%.

In order to learn the current main characteristics of the families with whom the institution has had a working relationship in the past or today, we carried out a survey6 which revealed that the families were mainly nuclear families (70.8%), comprising the mother, father and children; they are young, with the children of three quarters of the families under eighteen years of age; half the parents were aged 39 or younger; most families had up to eight members. Of a total of 113 families interviewed, the heads of the family of 95 of these were men and in 18 cases , women. There were four cases where a single woman (no husband) was the head of a family. 28.6% of the mothers had not received any type of education, while 90% of the children older than 6 years generally complete their secondary education. The survey revealed one particularity, a greater number of women than men had completed technical education courses.

Chart Nº 1: Poverty indicators in the districts of Piura where HEIFER PERU carries out its projects Province

Piura Morropón Sullana

District

Extremely Poor

Catacaos Castilla La Arena La Union Chulucanas Sullana

21.7 12.9 30.6 29.0 20.0 12.9

Chronic malnutrition rate (%) 51.9 32.2 58.5 59.9 45.6 30.0

Illiteracy rate (%) 19.5 7.3 34.5 22.9 20.5 8.3

School absentee rate (%) 13.1 8.0 18.8 18.1 15.5 9.3

Source: INEI . Map of unfilled basic necessities of the homes at district level. 1994

5 Elementos de la estrategia focalizada de lucha contra la extrema pobreza 1996-2000. Equipo Técnica para la inversión Social del Ministerio de la Presidencia, Lima 1996.

6 The survey of the participant families of HEIFER PERU’s projects in Piura, was carried out in October 1999, in 13 sectors of the department of Piura. The field team interviewed over 113 families who provided important social and economic information.

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PASSING ON THE GIFT

FROM HEIFER INTERNATIONAL IN PIURA 1984-2000

Chart Nº 2: Educational level of the parents and children, classified by gender. Parents Educational level No Education Primary Secondary Advanced Technic. University Total

Women N° % 32 28.6 59 52.7 18 16.1 3 2.7 0.0 112 100.0

Children Men

N° 13 66 22 4 4 109

% 11.9 60.6 20.2 3.7 3.7 100.0

Women N° % 5 3.5 81 57.1 40 28.1 10 7.0 6 4.2 142 100.0

Men N° 1 99 75 3 9 187

% 0.5 52.9 40.1 1.6 4.8 100.0

Source: Survey of participant families in HEIFER PERU’s projects carried out in Piura, 1999.

There are three basic types of production systems in the zones where HEIFER PERU works: • Agriculture with complementary livestock

Family incomes vary widely. Although a significant number of families (46.2%) have monthly income which is less than the official minimum rate7, over 34.1% receive either the official minimum amount or up to two times as much.

C. Productive

features of the participant families from projects.

The main resources which the families have are basically the forest and small plots of land which they use in various manners: some areas for permanent crops, others for temporary crops8 and others left in fallow. Some families commented however that given the lack of money they used all their land for raising livestock.

Chart Nº 3: Productive activities carried out by the families Productive activity Agriculture, livestock, beekeeping, transformation. Agriculture, livestock, transformation. Agriculture, livestock Livestock, beekeeping, transformation* Livestock, transformation Livestock Beekeeping * Total

Families Number % 4 4,2

25

26,0

36 2

37,5 2,1

11 17 1 96

11,5 17,7 1,0 100,0

This system is most common in those zones located close to water sources such as rivers, or canals (La Huaca and Poechos in the Chira valley and Cura Mori and Tallan, close to irrigation canals) The farmers graze their livestock in forest areas, or off crop stubble. They also use feed their animals off pasture which they themselves have planted.

• Livestock

This system is directly related to the dry forest and its resources (Cañas, in Sullana

and Km. 48 on the Chulucanas highway). The families who live in the forest raise diverse livestock, feeding them with products they obtain from the forest and supplemented by some products which they themselves grow. On some occasions they manage to cultivate some temporary crops.

• Agro-pastoral silviculture

This is a combination of two systems, where families use their crop land not only to raise crops but also to graze their livestock (crop stubble) and use sub-products for supplementary animal food. Additionally, the families use the dry forest not only to extract firewood or graze their animals but also for beekeeping activities and to extract either food products and timber which they are able to transform into diverse products. This means the inhabitants use the forest on an integral basis, a system in which all the resources interact according to the needs of the inhabitants.

* Cases in Mallaritos / Source: Survey of participant families in HEIFER PERU’s projects carried out in Piura, 1999

The main productive or complementary activities of most of the families are crop farming and livestock farming. 7 Official Minimum Rate is S/. 345.00 (three hundred and forty five New Soles) monthly, equivalent to US$ 100.00 (one hundred US Dollars) 8 Land next to the river which is used to cultivate mainly maize and beans after the rainy season.

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FROM HEIFER INTERNATIONAL IN PIURA 1984-2000

both the quality and the care of the animals, transferring the responsibility of passing on the gift to the recipients as from the original delivery day onwards. The technical challenge involved in this proposal of sharing resources is not only the passing on of the offspring but to ensure that the recipients’ herd is of better quality than it was prior to receiving the support and the recipient is

III. INTERVENTION PROPOSAL AND STAGES OF HEIFER PERU IN PIURA

able to sustain the quality and growth of his herd on a permanent basis. On the social level, the work seeks to strengthen the relations between different groups of producers and facilitate the interchange of technical information between them.

Managers Technical team

Technical training and production monitoring

A. Intervention proposal

The presence of HEIFER PERU in Piura, as in other zones of the country, relies on the diverse potential which exists locally.: Social, the existence of organised, dynamic social groups who can expand their capacity with a little support. In addition they must be willing to act in solidarity with other groups in order to facilitate shared growth. Economic, families who are living in poverty but have clear potential to improve their social-economic condition. Ecological, availability of land which has natural resources which will allow inhabitants to expand their local production on a sustainable basis.

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The proposal initiates with the setting up of cooperation agreements with an organised group of local producers. This is followed by the provision of productive resources, the most important being small ruminants. Later, the farmers are responsible for raising and breeding the animals, introducing improvements in livestock management following guidelines set out by HEIFER PERU field specialists who also take charge of the subsequent training and monitoring of the process. The objective of this set of activities and resources is to initiate a process of improving local livestock . The catalyst to dynamise this proposal among those who receive the animals lies in the commitment to pass on the offspring in the same number and quality of animals, to another organised group and so on. This commitment is the sharing of resources. The logic of the proposal is to generate dynamics which lead to the improvement of

Local organization leaders

institutional coordination

Deliver module of small ruminants

Farmers who are members of the local organization

Group or family pens

Pen management

Improved pens

Module of small ruminants for passing on the gift

Local organization

Fuente: HPI-Piura Elaboración: Equipo de sistematización Fecha: Diciembre 1999

Fuente: HPI-Piura Elaboración: Equipo de sistematización Fecha: Diciembre 1999

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FROM HEIFER INTERNATIONAL IN PIURA 1984-2000

DYNAMICS OF HEIFER PERU’S INTERVENTION

B. Stages of Heifer

Peru intervention in Piura

An analysis of the sixteen years of HEIFER PERU’s work in Piura reveals three main factors of our performance: the expansion of themes dealt with, the setting up of links with different social groups and the funding of the annual budgets. The themes were expanded as follows: in the early projects, activities centred on sheep raising, the animal prioritised at the time The following projects included goat raising and some basic agro-forestry activities. In the subsequent projects, animal production was linked to the rational use of the dry forest resources. The first organised social groups with whom HEIFER PERU worked with were the CATS (Agrarian Workers Cooperatives) farmer-owner organisations of the former large haciendas. During the execution of the first projects however, these organisations entered in crisis and finally disappeared altogether towards the early nineties. The first resource sharing activity was with farming communities and their UCPs (Communal Production Units. This activity was followed up by three additional projects, unfortunately however during the decade of the eighties, this type of organisation also entered into crisis which persists today. The following projects, some of which recently approved, have worked mainly with communal enterprises which a group smaller numbers of farmers who seek to improve their production on a more commercial basis.

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The annual budget of HEIFER PERU in the north of Peru has increased by 4.2 times the average annual amount budgeted at the beginning of 1992. This has largely been due to the financial support granted by an inter-institutional project such as PREMIA and the cooperation agreement with the Algarrobo project (1996-1998). These three factors have served as a base which supports the two stages of Heifer Peru’s work in Piura. These stages are as follows:

C. Improvement of the production of small ruminants

During this period, HEIFER PERU executed 5 Agreement Letters, all related to the raising small ruminants. During this work, the institution mobilised resources worth a total of US$ 72,570, which represented an annual average of nine thousand US dollars, during the first eight years of work. At the beginning of the work in Piura (1984) in order to restore the damages occurred to the livestock sector as a result of the 1983. El Niño, the institution’s projects were oriented to introducing additional sheep into the region and improving the quality of those animals which were already present in the area. The institution worked with two CATs (Agrarian Workers Cooperatives) located to the north of the city of Piura. The first cooperation agreement was signed with the CAT, La Huaca, in the district of the same name and encompassing 105 families. The second agreement was made with the Cooperativa Agraria de Productores Santa Rosa de Poechos, encompassing 25 families in the district of Querecotillo.

Both projects offered an alternative production system based on the use of crop stubble for animal feed and the promotion of a more technician manner of raising the animals which consisted of the semi-stabling system. The importance of these first Agreement Letters was that they gave rise to the first sharing of resources, with groups of animals delivered to the farming community of San Juan Bautista de Catacaos, in addition to other groups (female sheep plus one ram) delivered to some schools. During this period, 1988-1990, the Farm Law had a great impact on rural as the Communal Production Units dismantled and restructured as CAUs Agrarian Cooperatives).

New areas were (User

The dissolution of the CATs (Agrarian Workers Cooperatives) was one the main factors which interrupted the sustainability of these initial projects and as from 1988 onwards, the institution turned its interest towards the farming communities such as San Juan Bautista de Catacaos which received a total of 72 sheep and 11 goats followed later by the supply of 120 ruminants more under the terms of a second letter of agreement.

D. Improvement of

animal production and management of the dry forest resources (19921999)

In 1992, the institution executed two letters of agreement under the direct responsibility of the national office, one project involving goats and the other was

PREMIA (Proyecto Regional para la Educación en Manejo Integral del Medio Ambiente). The goat project was carried out with the farming community of San Felipe Santiago de Cañas, in the district of Marcavelica in Sullana. The objective was to improve the living standards of 15 families of the community, promoting the improvement of their livestock using silvi-pastoral systems. PREMIA was basically a training and technical assistance project related to the integral management of the dry forest resources and carried out in the geographical areas where the letters of agreement were executed. The project later expanded into other areas ranging from the Chira valley (north of Piura) to Medio and Bajo Piura, a zone between Catacaos and Chulucanas. The project focussed on expanding and promoting knowledge of the desert, carrying out damage prevention measures as concerns the phenomenon of El Niño and the advantageous use of its effects (rainfall, more fertile land etc.) During the period 1994-1995, the institution established other cooperation agreements, one with the UCP No.3 in the farming community of Castilla and the other with the Asociación Agropecuaria La Alborada. These projects promoted goat raising among urban families who wished to carry out worthwhile activities in the desert. In 1996, as part of the fight against the desertification process, the institution entered a cooperation agreement with the Algarrobo Project, financing the project “Recovery, Management and Use of the Dry Forest in Arid and Semi-arid Ecozones of Piura” (19961998). This project was carried out in some sectors of the farming communities of San Juan Bautista de Catacaos, Castilla and José Ignacio Távara Pasapera in Chulucanas. Productive activities were based on the forest resources and included protection

21


PASSING ON THE GIFT

FROM HEIFER INTERNATIONAL IN PIURA 1984-2000

and conservation measures, particularly the intensive planting of the carob tree. The activities covered approximately 2,000 ha. of forest and benefitted over 200 families. HEIFER PERU also became involved in a micro-credit system for small producers in the dry forest area.

E. Cooperation

During the period 1998-1999, the institution signed two additional letters of agreement with communal enterprises of San Hilarión de Loma Negra and Yapato-Tallán. Thse projects supported families who were raising creole sheep.

HEIFER PERU has been working in the north of Peru since 1984, specifically in the department of Piura, executing over 14 cooperation agreements.

Agreements signed since 1984 for the Piura region

Chart Nº 5: Cooperation agreements executed by HEIFER PERU in Piura (1984-1999). Nº

Counter parts

Area Dist/Local

1

Cooperativa Agraria de Trabajadores La Huaca

2

Cooperativa Agraria de D: Querocotillo: Trabajadores Sta. Rosa de L: Sta. Rosa de Poechos Poechos

3

4

D: La Huaca L: La Huaca

D: Catacaos L: Cura Mori

UCP 9 de Octubre de la C.C. San Juan Bautista de D: Catacaos Catacaos L: Canizal

D: Marcavelica L: Cañas Empresa Comunal San Felipe Santiago de Cañas D: Marcavelica L: Mallaritos

L.of A. Proj.

Periods

1

1984 – 1988

2

1986 – 1990

3

1984 – 1986

Families (No.) 97 25

Animal Creole sheep Kathadin sheep Goats and creole sheep Sheep / Goats

4

1988 – 1989

5

1990 – 1992

6

1994 – 1996

15

Goats

7

1999 – 2000

8

Beekeeping

8

1994 - 1999

8

Goats

23 Sheep

5

Unidad Comunal de Producción 3 - Castilla

6

Asociación Agropecuaria D: Sullana “La Alborada” L: Congorá Oeste

9

1996 - 1999

6

Goats

7

E.C. de Serv. Agropec. San Hilarión de Loma Negra

D: La Unión L: Loma Negra

10

1999 – 2000

23

Creole and Blackbelly sheep

8

E. C. Sr. de los Milagros de Yapato y E. C. Señor Chocan–Tallán

D: La Arena L: Tallán, Yapato y Tablazo

11

1999-2000

7

Creole and Blackbelly sheep

Proyecto Regional PREMIA

Cañas (Sullana), El Arenal (Paita), Loma Negra, Cura Mori, Castilla, Chulucanas (CC José I.Távara P.

12

1992 – 1996

200

Traing and technical assistance in the integral management of the environment

10 Proyecto Algarrobo

Cura Mori, Loma Negra, Castilla y Chulucanas

13

1996 – 1998

40

Goats and sheep

11 HPI – PREMIA

Cura Mori, Loma Negra, Castilla y Chulucanas

14

1999 – 2000

47

Micro-credit goats, sheep, pigs and heifers

9

D: Castilla

HEIFER PERU is currently working on six cooperation agreements in the north of Peru, in nine different zones located in the districts of Marcavelica and Sullana in the province of Sullana and in the districts of Castilla, La Unión, La Arena and Catacaos in the province of Piura, also in the district of Chulucanas in the province of Morropón.

F. Heifer Peru and the development of small ruminants

The projects have concentrated on animal production especially concerning small ruminants and special concern has been given

to the adequate use of resources and environmental protection. The objective is to harmonise the raising of animals with forestry activity and conservation of the environment. HEIFER PERU basically seeks to harmonise production with the rational use and protection of the resources, through the implementation of planned silvi-pastoral systems in the dry forest regions of the north of Peru. Systems which produce the natural recycling of nutrients where the animal-forage interactions are fundamental, especially in what concerns the increased presence of small ruminants such as goats and creole and tropical sheep such as the Blackbelly species. The small ruminants play a vital role in the conservation of the dry forest by acting as the main carriers of the seeds of the main trees such as the carob tree. These seeds remain latent in the ground until the arrival of the heavy rains, generally brought on by the appearance of El Niño, which then make them germinate.

* Correspond to projects which were added to the PREMIA Letters of Agreement Source: Cartas de Acuerdo e Informes de Heifer Perú.

22

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PASSING ON THE GIFT

FROM HEIFER INTERNATIONAL IN PIURA 1984-2000

A. Passing on the Gift Main results

IV. HEIFER PERU’S IMPACT IN DRY FOREST FROM PIURA

This central part of Heifer Perú’s philosophy has generated an important mobilization of resources over the twelve years that it has been carried out. Analyzing data from 1988 to 1999 , a total of 757 specimen have been delivered to families (through Letters of Agreement); through this, the Passing on the Gift has generated 695 new animals for different groups of farmers.99 During the time that Heifer Perú has been working in Piura, a total of 1,478 small ruminants have been delivered; this number includes the animals delivered through the signing of Letters of Agreement and the 19 Passing on the Gift ceremonies that have been carried out since 1988.

On the other hand, considering that the appropriate amount of time to be able to carry out the Passing on the Gift process is 24 months (in the case of small ruminants), today we can confirm that the chain of Passing on the Gift has continued in 92% of the cases (Workbook N° 10), a figure that indicates a good level of compliance. However, we have found that the compliance was not homogeneous; some groups surpassed 100% compliance and others failed to fulfill their commitment.

Table Nº 10: Level of compiance with the Passing on the Gift process, 1984-1999

Given the fundamental values and principles which govern Heifer Perú, we have tried to measure, using basic indicators, the impact of Heifer’s intervention in Piura over the course of sixteen years.

Animals reception Area Poechos La Huaca (dos CdA) CCSJB Catacaos- UCP 9 de Octubre CCSJB Catacaos – Establo Canizal EC San Hilarión* EC Yapato y EC Tallán* San Felipe Santiago de Cañas UCP 3 Castilla La Alborada Total

Number 173 174 84 124 5 10 15 112 60 757

animals shared

Cumpliance %

133 210 235 35 5 10 14 11 42 695

76.9 120.7 279.7 28.2 100.0 100.0 93.3 9.8 70.0 91.8

* This number does not consider the 244 animals that were delivered with letters of agreement to loma negra (120) and to Yapato-Tallán (124) since they are new and still do not have capability of passing on the gift. Source: Monthly and semester report.

9 218 specimen were distributed in the areas where the Letters of Agreement were signed and 477 were destined for other areas or were redistributed to participant families in the same groups.

24

25


PASSING ON THE GIFT

FROM HEIFER INTERNATIONAL IN PIURA 1984-2000

Brief history of the Passing on the Gift processes These processes began in 1988 with the delivery of 72 sheep and 11 goats to the San Juan Bautista de Catacaos community by families from La Huaca and Santa Rosa de Poechos. To date, this process has been carried out on 19 different occasions, involving 310 families in 18 localities from the Sullana, Paita, Piura, and Morropón provinces. In La Huaca community, with which two Letters of Agreement were signed, not only was the Passing on the Gift chain opened up with Lower Piura, but links of solidarity were also established in the community itself with families who are members of the same cooperative in La Huaca19, the school in La Huaca, families in the Pueblo Nuevo village, and institutions from other provinces such as CDR Villa Nazaret in Chulucanas and the National University of Piura. La Huaca fulfilled its Passing on the Gift commitment and even delivered 20% more animals than what was required. Santa Rosa de Poechos only achieved a 77% level of compliance. The Letters of Agreement concluded in both areas and the Passing on the Gift activities ended with the percentages previously mentioned. The Letters of Agreement that were signed in the San Juan Bautista de Catacaos rural community expressed a different behavior for Passing on the Gift. While the first Passing on the Gift ceremony, which was carried out by the Communal Production Unit “9 de Octubre”, achieved 180% additional shares above and beyond its commitment, the second ceremony (carried out in the Canizal Chico stable) only complied with 28% of its commitment, thus generating a conflict that prohibited its complete fulfillment.

10 14 Passing on the Gift ceremonies and 5 distributions of goods were carried out without further continuation of the solidarity chain.

AGRICULTURAL WORKERS COOPERATIVE’S PROCESS, LA HUACA 1984-1990

In the four previous Letters of Agreement, the animals were passed on to people in other areas or to other institutions within the same area; in all cases, animals were also redistributed to the participant families within the same area where the Letter of Agreement was signed. These redistributions occurred due to the dissolution of the groups and the decision to not continue raising the animals in group herds. The animals shared in the Passing on the Gift ceremony carried out in the Canizal Chico stable were given to four communal companies (EC. San Hilarión de Loma Negra, EC. Señor de los Milagros de Yapato, EC. San Ramón del Tallán, and EC. Sr. Cautivo de Cumbibirá) that gather together the families belonging to the San Juan Bautista de Catacaos rural community. Each company received five sheep and, at the end of 2 years, it passed on the same number; however, only San Hilarión de Loma Negra shared animals with a different group (EC. Monteverde). On the other hand, the communal companies from Yapato and Tallán passed on the gift within their own families, creating a chain from parents to their children. After each company fulfilled the passing on the gift, San Hilarión and Yapato-Tallán began Letters of Agreement in 1999 with the commitment to pass on the gift in 2002. The people involved in the Letters of Agreement in Cañas, Castilla, and La Alborada are in the process of passing on the gift; to date, they have achieved 93%, 10%, and 70% compliance, respectively. According to their activity schedules, these communities will be fulfilling their commitment during the year 2000.

Central leadership of the San Juan Bautista de Catacaos rural community

July 1988

Agricultural workers cooperative La Huaca (104 families) 1984: 125 members 1990: 97 members Letter of Agreement 1984-1990 1988-1990 March 1989

May 1989

La Polvoreta (9 animals)

CDR Villa Nazaret 30 ewes + 2 rams

June 1990

1989

Conversion to CAU and distribution of 62 animals

Valdivia (16 animals) Viviate (18 animals) Virgen del Pilar (5 animals)

1989 National University of Piura 30 sheeps x suffolck + kathadin

La Palma (14 animals)

Pueblo Nuevo village School in La Huaca

Passing on the gift Local organization

Delivery of goods without the continuation of the solidary chain Institution

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PASSING ON THE GIFT

FROM HEIFER INTERNATIONAL IN PIURA 1984-2000

LETTERS OF AGREEMENT AND PASSING ON THE GIFT IN PIURA 1984- 1999

Communal company San Hilarión de Loma negra (25 members)

Letter of Agreement N° 23-0562-02 (1999-2003)

4 ovejas + 1 reprod. black belly 1/2 grande

Agosto 1998

4 black belly sheeps 1/2 sangre + 1 black belly ram

hato de 30 animals

October 1996

Livestock company Señor de los Milagros de Yapato [Inicialmente 10 members... 5]

Canizal Chico Stable (120 rumiants)

1992

Communal Production Unit (UCP) 9 de Octubre 72 sheeps + 11 goats

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

4 black belly 1/2 sheeps sangre + 1 reprod. Black belly puro

October 1996

5 new members 4 black belly ewes + 1 pure black belly ram

hato de 30 animals

17 months

4 ovejas + 1 reprod. black belly 1/2 grande

1992

1990

1991

1984: 125 members 1990: 97 members

72 ewes 11 rams

50 ewes

July 1988

22 ewes 11 rams

2 rams + 69 ewes hembras

4 black belly ewes 1/2 sangre + 1 ram

hato de 36 animales

1992

Communal company Señor del Cautivo de Cumbibirá Norte [10 socios] (4 hembras + 1 reproductor)

1996

1993

1994

1995

1996

1998

La Huaca agricultural workers cooperative (104 families)

ECUC Señor de Chocán Tallán [6 members]

4 new members

1997

1998

1999

Letter of Agreement N° 23-560-A (1993-1995)

Santa Rosa de Poechos Agricultural workers cooperative (25 families) 122 ewes + 51 rams

Letter of Agreement (1988-1990)

Yapato = 1 ram + [4 members] 37 ewes

September 1998

Communal company San Ramón del Tallán [Inicialmente 8 members... 3 socios] October 1996

Tablazo = 1 ram + [4 members] 37 ewes

23 months 23 families from UCP 9 de Octubre

Letter of Agreement (1984-1990)

Letter of Agreement (1984-1990)

Letter of Agreement N° 23-0230B (1999-2002)

22 months

Central leadership of the San Juan Bautista de Catacaos rural community

1984

Communal company Monteverde [25 socios]

San Felipe Santiago de Cañas rural community (15 families) 15 bucks

Communal Production unit N° 3 de Castilla (33 families)

Central leadership of the San Juan Bautista de Catacaos rural community

1998 Sausal CC J.I. Távara Pasapera Village (7 families) (7 goats) 1998 Comedor San Martín Sausal Village

175 bucks Letter of Agreement N° 23-570-A (1996-1997)

30 Katadin 25 criollos 25 cruzados

Letter of agreement

(60 goats) (120 ruminants)

Letter of Agreement N° 23-570-A (1994-1996)

Letter of Agreement N° 25-600A (1988-1989)

Local organization

Passing on the gift

La Alborada Agricultural Association (39 families) (60 goats)

San Felipe Santiago de Cañas rural community

(60 families) (120 ruminants) Septiembre 1999 Cucungará (12 families) (42 goats)

Letter of Agreement N° 23-560-A (1993-1995)


PASSING ON THE GIFT

FROM HEIFER INTERNATIONAL IN PIURA 1984-2000

B. Gender and Family

held over 56 gender awareness workshops in which 124 persons participated.

Participation

There were three different types of workshops: sensitization, reflection and self-analysis, and support.

The main proposal of the work on the gender issue, initiated in 1993, has been, and remains, contribute to improving the position of the women with respect to access and control of the resources of their families. The institution has worked on this issue, using two methodologies, both seeking to draw attention to the gender inequalities which exist among the local inhabitants with respect to domestic life and daily work, especially the unfair position of the women. During the first period of the work (19931998) as part of the program “Gender, family and eco-development” the institution applied a specialised conception of the issue, carrying out group sessions of reflection -self perception and attitudes. The institution

In 1999, the institution initiated the program “Family and animal production from a gender perspective” based on the proposal of incorporating the gender issue in project planning and execution of the technical training activities. The program considered the gender focus as a means to transfer technology. Up to the current date, the institution has held 7 technical-productive workshops under this focus, with the participation of 200 persons, mainly men. Following our verification of the high illiteracy rate, mainly among women, and at their request, we held 42 basic education classes (reading and writing) for 20 women participants of two Letters of Agreement. We consider that this activity has produced a fairer balance among men and women (the participants) with respect to access to education and culture.

Chart No.5: Training activities in the theme of gender, 1993 –1999

Themes

N° of events

Participant Women N°

%

%

Courses, 1993-1999

3

58

82.9

12

17.1

70

Workshops 1994, 1995 1996, 1997

56

81

89.0

10

10.9

91*

Workshops 1998, 1999

25

37

78.7

10

21.2

47*

Education workshops 1999

42

17

85.0

3

15.0

20*

Technical -Prod. workshops with gender focus.

7

79

38.9

124

61.1

203

TOTAL

133

258

59.9

173

40.1

431

* Permanent groups who have participated in all events Source: Summary of Activities carried out by the Gender Program of HEIFER PERU

30

Total

Men

Participation of family members in productive activities Following a series of surveys carried out in the areas in which HEIFER PERU is active, we have identified a clear division of the tasks carried out within participant family: The men basically carry out the farming activities (38%) and animal care activities (57%) , the mothers help in taking care of the animals (62%) while 72% of them help in processing diverse products. Omly the men are involved in beekeeping activities. The male children help in the farming work( 32.9%) and in taking care of the animals (31.5%), while the girls help in taking care of the animals (21.4%) and in processing activities (23.1%).

C. Training and education

Training is considered a main tool in the strengthening of local capacity and obtaining improved production from the family farming plots. HEIFER PERU has held training sessions since it first began its activities, and today training has become much more intensive since the execution of the PREMIA Project in 1992. This project strengthened the transfer of knowledge towards the beneficiary groups with whom it had been working under the terms of the Letters of Agreement. In methodological terms, there have been two types of group training and one type of family training: courses/workshops, talks and technical assessment visits. The first are part of the process of technological transfer which seek the active participation of the participants, the talks mainly address more specific theoretical-practical knowledge. The technical visits are to verify in situ the application of the transferred knowledge and to strengthen the technical practices of the producers.

Training within PREMIA Project During this project, between 1992 and 1997, a total of 45 training events were held on three different themes: Conservation of resources (9), raising farmer awareness of the importance of the dry forest and its benefits and environmental conservation. Rational and improved use of resources (17) dealing with the rational use of the dry forest and its productive potential in integral production systems, and lastly, the module of production and industrialisation techniques in animal production and the dry forest (19). PREMIA: Participants in training events, classified by gender (1992-1997) 500 400 300 200 100 0 Conservation of resources

Use of resources

Men

Production and Ind. techniques Women

In general, the participants were enthusiastic about all the themes, however, the men had certain preference for those related to production and industrialisation techniques (36% of the male participants), whereas the women preferred the themes related to improved use of resources (54% of the female participants).

Training under the Letters of Agreement Training , a component of all Letters of Agreement, was carried out using the methodologies mentioned earlier. One of

31


PASSING ON THE GIFT

FROM HEIFER INTERNATIONAL IN PIURA 1984-2000

the most important themes dealt with was animal production, followed by the genderfamily talks. The themes of beekeeping, business management and processing were dealt with on a less frequent basis. In general, it was the parents of the family who attended the training sessions and of these it was the men who received most training, given that in 152 cases, 40% of the participants were male heads of family and 13% were female heads of family, while 26% were the couple together. This last figure is important as it shows the shared participation of the parents in the family, while the participation of other family members was much less. The male heads of family attended those sessions on productive techniques (72.1%, the business courses, 11.5% and those related to the environment (10%). When the women attended either alone or accompanied by their husband, they attended the sessions on productive techniques (60%) and those on gender (35%)

D. Improving the Environment

In qualitative terms, the theme of the environment represents one of HEIFER PERU’s most important achievements since the institution first began activities in Piura. The theme has been developed as a complement of two main projects such as PREMIA (supported by HEIFER International , Oxfam UK and the Lutheran World Relief Fund) and Recovery, Management and Use of the Dry Forest in Arid and Semiarid Ecozones of Piura (agreement with the Algarrobo Project), strengthening some of the aspects initiated in the mentioned projects. HEIFER PERU executed the project, Training and Pre-Rainfall and El Niño Forest Planting Campaign (supported by the Lutheran World Relief Fund) and also the project entitled Conservation and Protection of Dry Forest Areas Post Niño. (Supported by Oxfam UK).

Chart No. 6. Participation of family members in training sessions, by themes (in percentages) Type of training Environmental conservation Productive techniques Business manage.-credit Gender – familiy TOTAL

Male head of family

Female head of family

Both parents

Parents and children 7.7 53.8 15.4 23.1

60.0 20.0 20.0

100.0

100.0

10.0 72.1 11.5 6.4

60.0 5.0 35.0

10.0 50.0 2.5 37.5

100.0

100.0

100.0

Only children

Source: Survey of participant families in HEIFER PERU’s projects carried out in Piura, 1999.

Towards 1998, PREMIA began to modify the training themes and added business courses to the educational and environmental courses. One business management course drew 34 participants and two leadership courses drew 36 participants. PREMIA also organised a course on participative techniques addressed mainly to HEIFER PERU staff.

32

The research made by Avi Perevolotsky and the work of the SR-CRSP-Project (Small Ruminats project) gave rise to the PREMIA project which promoted a different concept in the rational use of arid eco-systems. The main objective of PREMIA was to modify popular opinion about the insufficiency of forestal resources to sustain local worthwhile productive activities .

The project was based on a forest sustainability and profitability calculation where “it is estimated that 1 ha. of mature tropical dry forest with 100 carob trees and the respective undergrowth can sustain a goat or sheep plus the offspring and rams, in addition to a beehive. The estimated financial return, including carob fruit (as animal feed of primary material) firewood , animals (meat) and hive products, exceeds US$ 160 ha/year, consequently 5ha. of the dry forest can generate permanent employment and income for a family........”10 During eight years of activities, the project, following massive participation of the local inhabitants, sowed tree seeds over a total of 2,800 ha. of arid land, installed more than 30 carob storage sheds and protected more than 600 ha. of dry forest, in addition to training numerous inhabitants in techniques to transform dry forest resources. In qualitative terms, through extensive campaigns, the project was able to sensitize the local farmers as to the real value of the carob tree. Through an agreement with the Algarrobo Project, PREMIA sought to promote the recovery of the dry forest and the rational use of its resources, in addition to generating dynamic reflection on the need for environmental protection measures.

E. Improving animal production

a. Main animals raised by the participant families. Animal production is either the main or most important complementary activity of the inhabitants of the Piura dry forest region. The animals are mainly small ruminants and poultry. Sheep, goats and pigs generate income while poultry is kept for domestic food consumption. Families keep cows in order to have available milk. In some areas, farmers keep horses and mules to transport water supplies. The small ruminants are most important in those zones which have vast areas of dry forest such as Cañas, Loma Negra, Tallan and Km. 48 (Chulucanas). In these areas, farmers use mainly extensive and semi-extensive breeding systems, while pigs, cows and poultry taken on more value in those areas close to farmland, with a more dependable water supply such as Cura Mori, Km. 50 (Chulucanas) and Poechos. here the farmers principally use semi-extensive and stabling systems of raising their animals.

During the period 1997 to 1998, the project continued to sensitize the farmers as to the value of the forest resources, incorporating up to 700 inhabitants into conservation tasks. The project also promoted forest inventories of over 350 ha. and sowed tree seeds over a further 1,100 ha. It also granted micro-loans to over 60 small producers.

10 PREMIA, Education and Integral Management of the Environment, HEIFER PERU, 1991.

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PASSING ON THE GIFT

FROM HEIFER INTERNATIONAL IN PIURA 1984-2000

c. Main technical indicators

Chart No.7: Distribution of animals raised in the family herds, by sectors. Sectors Species Sheep Goats Pigs Cows Horses Hens Turkeys Ducks

Pigeons

Loma Negra Tallan Km.48 No. % 558 66.2 542 27.4 44 21.1 33 50.1 45 59.2 97 21.6 39 19.3 6 4.4

16

51.1

Cura Mori Km 50 No. % 113 13.4 85 15 3 156 76 84

40.9 24.6 3.9 34.7 37.6 61.8

12

48.9

Cañas No. 89 1.427 45 3 11 94 39 16

% 10.6 72.1 21.6 4.9 14.5 20.9 19.3 11.8

Poechos No. 83 11 34 10 17 103 48 30

% 9.8 0.5 16.4 16.4 22.4 22.8 23.8 22.0

Total No. 843 1,980 208 61 76 450 202 136

28

Source: Survey of participant families in HEIFER PERU’s projects carried out in Piura, 1999

b. Animal raising systems The animal raising systems used in the Piura region are as follows: extensive without shepherding (11%) extensive with shepherding (39.4%), semi-extensive (42.2%) and stabling (7.3%). There is also a difference between the last two systems, according to the type of food supplementation given, with crop stubble

or with concentrates and quality forage, coincidentally in both systems 50% of the food supplements given are crop stubble while the other 50% are concentrates. With respect to the northern coast of Peru, we agree that two types of handling systems are most adequate : the semi-extensive system in forest areas and semi-extensive and stabling system in valleys or areas with a guaranteed water supply.

Chart No.8 Animal raising systems, by sectors (percentages) C.C. San Sectors Loma Cura Mori Alborada, E.C. Sta. YapatoFelipe Animal raising Negra y y CCJITP UCP3 Rosa de Tallán Santiago systems Km 48 Km 50 Castilla Poechos Cañas Extensive with 62.2 27.3 60.0 14.3 22.2 20.2 shepherding Extensive without 66.7 shepherding Semi-extensive Supplement with 37.8 40.9 40.0 85.7 73.3 11.1 crop stubble 10.8 31.8 10.0 71.4 26.7 11.1 Supplement with 27.0 9.1 30.0 14.3 46.7 concentrates Stabling 31.8 6.7 Supplement with crop stubble 13.6 6.7 Supplement with 18.2 concentrates Source: Survey of participant families in HEIFER PERU’s projects carried out in Piura, 1999.

34

TOTAL 39.4 11.0 42.2 21.1 21.1 7.3 3.7 3.7

In order to analyse the results and effects we show the animal population growth in the projects, the crosses and the physical condition of the sheep and goats and the state of health of the families in the zone under review.

c.1 Population growth rate of the animals Upon completion of the La Huaca project, after five years of work (1989), the total sheep population numbered 471, an annual growth rate of 136%. In the Santa Rosa de Poechos project, the animal population growth rate was also efficient, reaching 135% as the annual average, building up a herd of 540 animals in four years.

concerning the reception of 120 ruminants by the Establo Canizal Chico. The technical indicators were favourable, with 25% of the herd ready for market by the end of the third year and 37% by the fourth year, and the annual growth of the sheep herd reaching 143% (Chart No. 10). Chart No. 10. Annual growth of the sheep herd belonging to the UCP 9 de Octubre. Years 1988-1989 1989-1990 1990-1991 1991-1992

Initial growth population (number) (number) 84 84 116 112 156 65 101

Total

261

Total (%) 138,1 139,3 155,4

373

142,9

Source: Production Summary Sheets of 1988 to 1992

Chart No. 9. Technical indicators of La Huaca sheep herd. Years Birth rate

Population Saca Mortality rate growth %

1984

125,6

0,0

3,8

29,2

1985

120,1

11,8

5,6

161,3

1986

126,9

27,3

15,8

152,9

1987

137,5

31,6

11,7

159,9

1988

115,8

41,5

11,2

157,8

1989

148,0

52,2

30,4

143,7

Ave- 129,0 32,9 rage

13,1

136,3

Source: Mr. Jose Atto Mendives. UNP-HEIFER PERU Agreement Report. 1989

Later, HEIFER PERU promoted two goat raising projects with families from the city who wished to take advantage of the desert resources: the first project was with the UCP 3 de Castilla in 1994, and the second project with La Asociación Agropecuaria La Alborada of Sullana in 1996. Chart No. 11: Productivity in the goat herd belonging to la association Agropecuaria La Alborada Year

1996 1997

Growth Initial Births Mortality population Total Total Total %

60 190

113 213

6 31

107 182

178,3 94,8

Source: Monthly reports of HEIFER PERU-Piura, 1997 -1998 - 1999

Despite the adequate productive rate of sheep in both zones, due to local and national political problems, both projects were closed down and the animals and infrastructure shared among the participants. In the farming community of San Juan Bautista de Catacaos, the institution executed two letters of agreement, the first incorporating 83 animals into the stable of the UCP 9 de October and the second

The productivity of both herds built up by the projects was very satisfactory: a situation which benefitted from the phenomenon of El Niño. The annual growth rates exceeded 100%, reflected by reproduction rates of 1.3 to 1.45 offspring per birth in the UCP 3 de Castilla and 1.5 offspring per birth in La Alborada. In La Alborada the birth rates exceeded 200% with acceptable mortality rates of 3% to 12%).

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PASSING ON THE GIFT

FROM HEIFER INTERNATIONAL IN PIURA 1984-2000

This showed excellent handling of the herd and more adequate technical assistance provided by HEIFER PERU than in the case of the UCP 3. Both Letters of Agreement are now coming to an end under the responsibility of groups consisting of 6 families each. Since 1996, in the zones of Loma Negra and Yapato - Tallan - Tablazo, 4 groups of sheep (4 females plus one ram in each group) have been provided to four communal enterprises. In Loma Negra, following the reception of 5 animals, as part of the sharing of resources , the herd reached a total of 35 sheep in two and a half years, a growth rate of more than 200%, as a result of the effort placed into the breeding systems. These antecedents gave rise to the current Letter of Agreement, with an original herd of 111 animals which has grown to 147 after eight months of activity. This is a growth of 32.4%. The Yapato and Tallán enterprises joined together in 1999 and initiated a Letter of Agreement with 138 animals. Today the herd

has reached 156 animals divided into two herds. This is a growth of 13% in 5 months.

c.2 Condition of the animals: Levels of crossing and physical condition The physical condition of the animals has been classified into three levels3 ranging from bad to very good. In general, about 84% of the animals are in a regular to good condition, only 11% are in optimum or very condition, while 5% are in bad condition. With respect to the production of creole and blackbelly sheep, the former make up most of the sheep population on the northern coast of Peru. In the zones in which HEIFER PERU is cooperating, the pure creole sheep make up 60% to 70% of the sheep population (Chart No. 12 ). In the family herds, the animals, most of them young, are in good physical condition. Most of the pure blooded animals are used as breeding animals and their ages range from 7 months to one and a half years old.

Chart No. 12: The sheep herd by cross breed and age groups by sector Creole crossed Pure Total Breed Sectors and age groups Number % Number % Number % Number % Loma Negra Loma Negra 13 50,0 12 46,2 1 3,8 26 100,0 0 - 2 months 3 - 6 months 33 53,2 28 45,2 1 1,6 62 100,0 7m - 1½ yrs 64 58,7 39 35,8 6 5,5 109 100,0 2 to 4 yrs 59 64,8 26 28,6 6 6,6 91 100,0 5 yrs + 7 77,8 2 22,2 9 100,0 Total Loma Negra 176 59,3 107 36,0 14 4,7 297 100,0 Yapato-Tallán 0 - 2 months 14 51,8 13 48,1 27 100,0 3 - 6 months 17 68,0 8 32,0 25 100,0 7m - 1½ years 59 80,8 11 15,0 3 4,1 73 100,0 2 to 4 yrs 23 74,1 8 25,8 31 100,0 Total Yapato-Tallán 113 72,4 40 25,6 3 1,9 156 100,0 COPEGA km 48 0 - 2 months 17 37,8 24 53,3 4 8,9 45 100,0 3 - 6 months 9 37,5 14 58,3 1 4,2 24 100,0 7m - 1½ years 78 72,9 22 20,6 7 6,5 107 100,0 2 to 4 years 32 65,3 14 28,6 3 6,1 49 100,0 5 years + 13 65,0 5 25,0 2 10,0 20 100,0 Total COPEGA km 48 149 60,8 79 32,2 17 6,9 245 100,0 Source: Survey of participant families in HEIFER PERU’s projects carried out in Piura, 1999.11

11 These conditions have been determined in terms of physical condition and sanitary condition of the animals at the time of gathering the information.

36

Goat Production In the zones where goat production is most significant, Cañas, Loma Negra, La Alborada and Castilla, the basic breeding system is the extensive method and in some cases the semi-extensive method, taking advantage of the forest resources. In the three sectors, the percentage of animals in the reproduction age is similar -50% of the population (basically wombs in production) and 4% of the animals are considered as old. These figures indicate efficient herd management. The separation by gender is made when the animals reach 2 or 3 months of age and taken off their mother’s milk. Many male kids are sold at the market as “milk fed baby goats”.

With respect to disease prevention measures, we found that most of the beneficiary families of HEIFER PERU cooperation agreements did carry out vaccination and de-worming activities. However one group of families stated that they only vaccinated their animals as they considered that this was the most important disease prevention measure.

F. Growth of Heifer

Peru budgets 19841999 in US$

During sixteen years of work in Piura, HEIFER PERU has carried out a total of 14 cooperation agreements, leading to an investment of US$

Chart No. 13: Goat Herds by sex and age groups, by sectors Sectors and sex Ages goups 0 - 2 months 3 - 6 months 7m a 1.5 years 2 to 4 years 5 years + Total

La Alborada Female male Total 12 20 37 24 4 97

11 8 2 2 23

23 28 39 26 4 120

Loma Negra % 19,1 23,3 32,5 21,6 3,3 100,0

female male Total 46 35 73 120 13 287

46 20 2 4 72

92 55 75 124 13 359

Cañas % 25,6 15,3 20,8 34,5 3,6 100,0

Female Male Total 158 258 254 555 62 1287

%

83 241 16,8 37 295 20,6 7 261 18,2 12 567 39,7 1 63 4,4 140 1427 100,0

Source: Survey of participant families in HEIFER PERU’s projects carried out in Piura, 1999.

c. Health care of the livestock Given that most of the livestock are small ruminants, the families are extremely interested in the activities and already possess a great deal of knowledge about the health of their animals. Consequently they quickly recognise any symptoms of disease among the sheep and goats, and to a lesser degree among their pigs and poultry. This capacity to identify symptoms / diseases has mainly been passed down from generation to generation, however half of those beneficiaries interviewed stated that they had received information from HEIFER PERU training sessions or workshops.

380,471. HEIFER PERU has directly financed 64.3% of this figure (US$ 244,477), while other sources such as the Algarrobo Project, Lutheran World Relief Fund and OXfam-UK provided the remaining 35.7% ( US$ 135,994). In global terms, HEIFER PERU executed 5 Letters of Agreement for an amount of US$ 72,570 during the first eight years of work (1984-1991), representing 19% of the total investment. During the subsequent eight year period (1992-1999) HEIFER PERU carried out 9 Letters or Cooperation Agreements to the amount of US$ 307,901. The analysis of the evolution of the budget since 1988 onwards, shows that once the

37


PASSING ON THE GIFT

38

Asoc. La Alborada

Loma Negra

Yapato Tallan

PREMIA

PREMIA Algarrobo

9º 23-0565-A

10º 23-0562-2

11º 23-0230-B

12º 23-0620-A

13º 96080911

12,000 9,000 5,000 4,000 14,515 13,330 7,900 6,825 19,325 12,000 32,059 42,500 35,735 47,232 63,516 55,534 380,471

12,000 25,000 26,000 36,632 23,862 5,500 135,994 7,000

* The sources which have funded or co-funded diverse projects have been, in order of importance, Proyecto Algarrobo, Lutheran World Relief Fund, and OXFAM -UK. SOURCE: Letters of Agreement of HEIFER PERU.

UCP 3 Castilla 8º 23-570-A

GENERAL TOTAL

Cañas Apicola 7º 23-0563-2

Total Contribution from other sources*

Cañas Caprino 6º 23-560-A

14º 23-0620-01 PREMIA Microcreditos

CCSJB Catacaos 5º 23-230-A

Total contribution of HEIFER PERU 12,000 9,000 5,000 4,000 14,515 13,330 7,900 6,825 12,325 12,000 20,059 17,500 9,735 10,600 39,654 50,034 244,477

7,200 7,200

36,632 21,443

4,000 4,235 4,000

58,076

174,731 5,500 17,000 12,000 26,400 38,500 31,500 6,600 37,231

10,000 10,000

10,954 10,954

10,000 4,842

1,158

14,400 6,165

14,557 14,557

5,659 5,659

CCSJB Catacaos 4º 25-600-A

Código

199

8

9

Contribution of HPI

Letter of agreement

Total

199

6 199 7

199

5

4

199

3

199

199

1

2 199

199

9

0 199

198

8

7

6

198

198

198

5

4

198

198

Years

17,050 7,900 6,825 2,325

Poechos 3º

Zone

20,000

0

7,930

La Huaca

8,000 6,000 3,000 3,000 1,000

9,330

4,000 4,985

600

2º 25-540-A

30,000

10,000

17,260

21,000

8,985

Total 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1989 1990 1991 1992 1988

40,000

4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000

50,000

La Huaca

60,000

70,000

1984 1985 1986 1987

These new investment levels were sustained mainly as a result of contributions from other sources and have funded and/or co-funded HEIFER PERU’s work in Piura for seven of the last eight years. During the period 19941997, this funding has doubled and even tripled HEIFER PERU’s contribution. As the graph shows, HEIFER PERU made its first contribution in 1992 but external funding has widely exceeded subsequent HEIFER PERU contributions, especially during 1996 and 1997, while the difference diminished considerably in 1999 (See Graph and Chart).

All of the funding received financed two distinct groups of projects: the first group encompassing twelve to fourteen projects which implied expenditure of between 5,000 to 21,000 US Dollars per project and totalling US$ 147,664, which is 38.8% of the total funding. The second group projects consisted of PREMIA and the Agreement with the Algarrobo Project which meant a disbursement of 61.2% of the total funds. These two projects promoted the environmental and rational use of resources issue; however the duration of PREMIA was much longer and demanded greater funds which amounted to US$ 174,731 during the eight eights of work between 1992 and 1999. The Agreement with the Algarrobo Project ran from 1997-1998 and involved expenditure of US$ 58,076.

Annual Budget (in US$)

In 1992 however, the budgets began to rise sharply and in that year the budget was three times the previous year’s figure. By 1995 the annual budget had reached forty thousand US Dollars and two years later it exceeded fifty thousand US Dollars.

We can see that there has been a marked increase in HEIFER PERU’s contributions which were historically less than twenty thousand US Dollars annually, rising sharply during 1998 and 1999 to amounts fluctuating between forty to fifty thousand US Dollars a year.

CHART No. 14. Letters of Agreement Budgets in Piura 1984-1999

CAT projects ended (1984-1987) the annual budget of HEIFER PERU in Piura declined steadily and in 1991 reached US$ 6,825 which was only one third of what had been disbursed five years earlier.

10,600

FROM HEIFER INTERNATIONAL IN PIURA 1984-2000

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PASSING ON THE GIFT

FROM HEIFER INTERNATIONAL IN PIURA 1984-2000

producers as part of a chain of solidarity, we consider that this sharing should be made between one group and a distinct group and under no criteria whatsoever should the resources be shared among the same beneficiary group of family. •

V. LEARNED LESSONS

Following a global revision of the work carried out and the analysis of the progress made, we consider that the geographical areas should be prioritised, based on the potential of the beneficiary groups, the availability of environmental resources and the existing knowledge oftechnical-productive management . Considering this criteria, we propose that work continues in Loma Negra and Cura Mori, in the farming community of San Juan Bautista de Catacaos; in the area of COPEGA 48 in Jose Ignacio Távara Pasapera farming community. The institution should also re-initiate and sustain the work in the community of San Felipe Santiago de Cañas.

40

It is important to make a base line considering variables which try to modify itself through Heifer Peru approaches and determine the intervention effects or impacts from different project subjects. With respect to Heifer International principles (The Cornerstones), we set out the impact of our sixteen years old activities below:

Passing on the Gift •

The sharing of resources is one of the fundamental cornerstones of HEIFER PERU’s philosophy, and from 1988 to 1999, this process has been achieved on 19 occasions, establishing links of solidarity between 310 families living in 18 communities of the provinces of Sullana, Paita, Piura and Morropón. Given that, the philosophy of “passing on the gift” is to reach a greater number of

Our work in Piura has handled 1,478 animals, with 783 delivered to beneficiary families under the terms of the Letters of Agreement and a further 695 (offspring) delivered as part of the sharing of resources process. To make the “passing on the gift” a more dynamic process which achieves greater efficiency and promotes record keeping, we suggest that the maximum time limit in which to share the resources should not exceed 24 months in the case of small ruminants and tropical sheep. On the other hand, all of those groups who receive animals, HEIFER PERU and beneficiary groups etc. must receive a technical card for each animal received. The data of the animal must be clearly marked on this card. From this time onwards, the recipient shall agree to maintain a similar card with the data of the offspring which are to be passed on in the future. Consequently, each animal which is passed on in the chain of solidarity shall have its respective technical card showing its weight, health condition, bloodline and other technical details). We suggest that a copy of this data is delivered to HEIFER PERU.

• The proportion between those animals provided by the Letters of Agreement and the offspring delivered as part of the sharing of the resources has been 1:0.89 animals, while this ratio is expected to reach 1:1 by the end of the current Letters of Agreement. With the exception of the first delivery made by HEIFER PERU at the beginning of a new chain of solidarity, the HEIFER PERU field team and the group who are to pass on the offspring should jointly agree upon on the new group of beneficiaries in

the chain. The two parties should take into consideration the following criteria prior to their selection: the area where the offspring are being raised, the situation of the potential beneficiary group and their knowledge of animals and necessary installations • The field team must promote interchanges of experiences (visits) between the group who are to pass on the offspring and the new beneficiary group, six months prior to the actual delivery of the animals. These visits should also include joint technical training sessions.

Gender and family participation •

Since 1993, HEIFER PERU has applied two methodologies concerning this theme: up to 1998, the institution carried out gender-awareness workshops to encourage both men and women to reflect on the different aspects involved in this concept such as gender division of work etc. Since 1999, however, we have incorporated the theme into operative planning and technical training sessions so that it has become part of the technology transfer process. Provide further training to the HEIFER PERU field team, adding to their knowledge of both the theme itself and the use of the methodological tools.

The high illiteracy rate among women and their scarce participation in technical training sessions led to series of adult educations courses aimed at improving the women’s position with respect to access and control of the family resources. Although we have worked in this theme for six years, we do not yet have reliable indicators which allow us to measure the impact of the changes which our activities have promoted. In order to measure the impact of the work on this theme, it is

41


PASSING ON THE GIFT

FROM HEIFER INTERNATIONAL IN PIURA 1984-2000

necessary to draw up a base line study, the variables of which HEIFER PERU seeks to modify through its proposal.

specific training programs. The sessions principally responded to inquiries which arose in the communities themselves. HEIFER PERU should implement local hubs of intervention and continue promoting technical assistance on specific themes and raising, where possible, the participants’ awareness of local development. This type of work will contribute eventually to global improvements in the communities

Training and education •

Training has been the main tool used in strengthening local capacity, taking on greater importance during the execution of the PREMIA project (1992). This project specifically emphasised themes of animal production, conservation of resources, improved use of resources and production and industrialisation techniques. Additionally, under the Letters of Agreement, training activities incorporated the themes of business management and micro loans. Training, as one of the main tools in expanding local capacity, should be provided within a specifically designed sequential program which meets the requirements of the population and each Letter of Agreement. The training activities were aimed at the population in general, seeking to improve production standards in general. At the time, the project did not propose the training of local technical promoters. So, we consider that diverse levels of technical training will provide better results: a general level similar to what HEIFER PERU has provided since the beginning of its activities in Piura, through talks, workshops and/or courses for complete beneficiary groups. In addition to a specialised level, aimed at small groups (men and women) who may be trained as promoters, consequently requiring some basic knowledge and tools to enable them to carry out follow up tasks provide assistance and strengthen previous training in animal care on a permanent basis.

• The themes dealt with during the training sessions did not follow a specific sequence, nor were there any

42

Through the agreement made with the Algarrobo Project, the activities sought to promote the recovery of the dry forest and the rational use of its resources while creating awareness of the need for environmental protection among the local inhabitants. The environmental protection campaigns among the inhabitants of the dry forest and adjoining communities should continue.

Nutrition and income

Improving animal management

Field surveys have shown a significant number of families (46.2%) have monthly income which is less than the official minimum rate12, over 34.1% receive either the official minimum amount or up to two times as much. This information cannot be compared to previous years given that the respective data was not registered at the beginning of the projects. Therefore, Base line studies should be drawn up in order to measure the subsequent impact of the institution’s activities on income and nutritional levels.

Raising small ruminants is one of the most important activities of the families in the Piura region. Taking advantage of the productive capacity and adaptability of this ruminants, the cooperation agreements should focalise their work on these species, prioritising the improvement of Creole sheep and goat raising

Given that small ruminants are the main resource of the families who live in the dry forest region, HEIFER PERU is intensively promoting silvopastoral systems among these families who currently raise their herds using extensive and semi-extensive grazing systems. This breeding system is well suited to arid eco-systems and promotes the rational use of resources, allowing the natural recycling of nutrients in the dry forest. Furthermore, the farmers are already very familiar with this system

The current handling of the herds can be considered as regular to good, without any particularly serious problems. This outcome is a result of the local traditional knowledge of raising animals combined with the technical assistance provided by HEIFER PERU.

Environmental Improvement • HEIFER PERU first incorporated this theme into its activities in Piura during the execution of the PREMIA project and the Agreement made with the Algarrobo Project. During eight years of activities at the PREMIA project, through a series of “awareness” campaigns, we were able to make considerable progress in sensitizing the local population to the importance of the carob tree and conservation of the environment in general. The institution must promote the use of local integral production systems, to facilitate the rational use of resources 12 Official Minimum Rate is S/. 345.00 (three hundred and forty five New Soles) monthly, equivalent to US$ 100.00 (one hundred US Dollars)

43


PASSING ON THE GIFT

FROM HEIFER INTERNATIONAL IN PIURA 1984-2000

570A. Semestral Progress Reports: I-1994 (August, 1994); II-1994 (January, 1995); I-1995 (July 1995); II-1995 (December , 1995); I-1996 (July,1996); II-1996 (February, 1997); I-1997 (July,1997); II-1997 (January,1998); II(February, 1999). HEIFER PERU-Perú. El rol de la familia comunera en el proyecto agrosilvopastoril de las Empresas Comunales de Yapato y El Tallán, de la Comunidad Campesina San Juan Bautista de Catacaos (1999-2000). Letter of Agreement No. 23-0230B. Project Summary: Semestral Progress Reports: I-1999 (June, 1999) ; Monthly Progress Reports; July, 1999; August, 1999.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

HEIFER PERU-Perú. Proyecto Conservación y protección de áreas del bosque seco en el post-niño. Piura, 1999.

Atto Mendives , José. Informe final del Convenio de asesoramiento técnico pecuario entre la Universidad Nacional de Piura y la CAT La Huaca. Universidad Nacional de Piura. Facultad de Zootecnia. Piura, April , 1991. Calle Escobar, Rigoberto. Producción de ovinos tropicales. Ediciones Universidad Agraria La Molina . 1994. 1 ra. Edición. Lima 650 páginas. Cuba Salerno, Amalia B. Desarrollo rural sostenible en los bosques secos de la costa norte del Perú: el Proyecto Algarrobo; contained in the book, Bosques Secos y Desertificación. Memorias del Seminario Internacional. INRENA - Proyecto Algarrobo, Lambayeque, 1999. Devendra, C.Y G.B. Leroy. Producción de cabras y ovejas en los tropicos. Editorial El manual Moderno S.A. México D.F. 1986. 295 páginas.

Gonzales de Olarte, Efraín. El ajuste estructural y los campesinos. Colección Mínima IEP No.33. Instituto de Estudios Peruanos (IEP) Lima, January 1966. 138 páginas.

44

HEIFER PERU- Perú. Programa de Microcréditos para pequeños productores de los bosques secos de Piura. HEIFER PERU-Perú. Proyecto Crianza de caprinos criollos y conservación del ecosistema en la zona de Congorá Oeste, Sullana, Piura. Letter of Agreement No. 230565A. Project Summary; Semestral Progress Reports: 1- 1997 (June , 1997) ; II - 1997 (February 1998); I -1998 (July, 1998); II -1998 (January 1999) . HEIFER PERU-Perú. Proyecto Desarrollo poblacional y mejoramiento genético del ovino criollo en la Empresa Comunal San Hilarión de Loma Negra, Comunidad Campesina San Juan Bautista de Catacaos (1999-2003). Letter of Agreement No. 23-0562-02. Project Summary: Semetral Progress Reports: I-1999 (July, 1999); Monthly Progress Reports : July 1999. HEIFER PERU-Perú. Proyecto Granja Comunal de explotación de caprinos criollos mejorados, en la Unidad Comunal de Producción No.3 de la Comunidad Campesina Castilla, Piura. Letter of Agreement No. 23-

HEIFER PERU-PREMIA. Proyecto Recuperación, manejo y uso del bosque seco en las ecozonas áridas y semiáridas de Piura. Agreement with the Algarrobo Project No. 96080911 (1996-1998). HEIFER PERU-PREMIA. Proyecto regional de Educación y Manejo del Ambiente. Letter of Agreement No. 23-620A. Semestral Progress Report: II-1995 (March 1996); II-1996 (May ,1997); I-1997 (November, 1997) ; II-1997 (March, 1998). INEI. Mapa de necesidades básicas insatisfechas de los hogares a nivel distrital. Lima. August, 1994. 4 volumes. INEI and UNICEF. Estado de la niñez, la adolescencia y la mujer en el Perú, 1995. INEI, Lima, 1995. 180 p. INRENA-Proyecto Algarrobo. Bosque seco y desertificación, Memoria del Seminario Internacional. 1ra. Edición. Lambayeque. 1999. Jaimes Espinoza, Ena. Características del fenómeno de El Niño; en Prevención, Quarterly magazine published by Centro de

Estudios y Prevención de Desastres- PREDES. Año 5. No. 11. Lima, May, 1998. Ministerio de Educación, UNICEF, FONCODES y PMA. /Censo Nacional de talla escolar. Lima. May 1994. 113 p. Ministerio de Presidencia. Elementos de la estrategia focalizada de lucha contra la pobreza extrema, 1996-2000. Equipo Técnico para Inversión Social, PRES. Lima, December 1996. 109 p. Narval System. Informe. Producción ovina en la Unidad Comunal de Producción 9 de Octubre , de la Comunidad Campesina San Juan Bautista de Catacaos, Piura. Resultados y análisis de encuestas. Lima. February, 1993. Programa Colaborativa de apoyo a la Investigación en Rumiantes Menores. Mejoramiento de la producción andina de ovinos y alpacas. Recomendaciones de una década de investigación en el Perú. INIAA, Lima, August, 1990. 212 p. Sandoval Moscol, Jorge. Report Coordinación de proyectos HEIFER PERUZona Norte. Piura, May 1999. Sandoval Moscol, Jorge. Report. Una nueva esperanza a través del compartir de recursos. HEIFER PERU- Perú 1988 -1998. HEIFER PERU-Zona Norte, Piura. 1998. Sandoval Moscol, Jorge. Report. El proceso de descentralisación en la zona norte: una experiencia para compartir (1991-1995). HEIFER PERU- Piura, June, 1995. Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Estado de Conservación de la diversidad natural de la Región Noroeste del Perú. Centro de Datos para la Conservación - Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (CDC-UNALM) Lima, 1992. 211 p. Valverde A. Humberto. Región regionalismo y desarrollo regional en Piura. Central Peruana de Servicios (CEPESER). Piura, July, 1984. 78p.

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PASSING ON THE GIFT

FROM HEIFER INTERNATIONAL IN PIURA 1984-2000

HEIFER PERU PIURA, FIELD TEAM, 1999-2000 •

Mr. Jorge Sandoval: Coordinator of HEIFER PERU- Piura

Mrs. Lulú Gómez: Technician assigned to the Letter of Agreement with Km. 50 and COPEGA Km. 48 and the farming community of José Ignacio Távara Pasapera, Chulucanas.

ANNEXED

Mr. Lorenzo Vilchez: Promoter of HEIFER

PERU-Piura in Loma Negra, Catacaos. •

Mrs. Lidia Navarro: Technician assigned to the Letter of Agreement with the UCP No.3 Castilla, Piura.

Mrs. Silvia Navarro: Technician assigned to the Letter of Agreement with the farming community of San Felipe Santiago de Cañas, Sullana.

Mr. Walter Valdiviezo: Technician assigned to the Letter of Agreement with Mallaritos, Sullana.

PHOTOGRAPHS Photograph Description

INTERVIEWS CARRIED OUT •

• •

46

Mr. James Hoey: Regional Director of Latin America for Heifer Project International - Arkansas.

Mr. Juan Flores: Former Director of HEIFER PERU - Peri

Mr. Enrique Nolte : Director of PREMIA

Mr. Ignacio Meca Villarreyes: Former President of the farming community San Felipe Santiago de Cañas, Sullana. Mr. Santos Ruiz Castillo: In charge of the veterinary post of the farming community of San Felipe Santiago de Cañas, Sullana. Mr. Santos Rafael Ramos Suárez: Delegate of the farming community José Ignacio Távara Pasapera, Chulucanas.

FARMERS AND LOCAL AUTHORITIES

Mr. Casimiro Macalupú Paz: Member of the Communal Enterprise Señor de los Milagros Yapato - Tablazo Norte, Catacaos.

Mr. Segundo Eugenio Sánchez Mendoza: President of the Asociación de Pequeños Agricultores de Santa Rosa de Poechos, Sullana.

Mr. Teodoro Ruiz Peña: President of the farming community of San Felipe Santiago de Cañas , Sullana.

1.

Blackbelly ram received within the chain of solidarity, Tallán, Catacaos, November 1999

2.

Improvement of the race, Blackbelly and creole sheep, Tablazo, Catacaos, November 1999.

3. 4. 5.

6.

Family corral. Loma Negra. November 1999 Flock of sheep. Empresa Comunal San Hilarion de Loma Negra, November 1999. Family goat herd. Comunidad Campesina San Felipe Santiago de Cañas November 1999 Milking the goats. Comunidad Campesina San Felipe Santiago de Cañas November 1999

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PASSING ON THE GIFT From Heifer International in Piura 1984-2000 Was printed on the graphic studios of Ymagino Publicidad S.A.C. E-8 street, Santa Elisa II stage, Los Olivos, Peru May, 2016


Heifer is an international development organization that has been working in Peru permanently since 1984. Our mission is to work with communities to end world hunger and poverty and to care for the Earth. Our vision is a world where communities live together in peace, equitably sharing the resources of a healthy planet. PASSING ON THE GIFT "Passing on the Gift" is what makes Heifer International unique. This cornerstone began with the sharing of animals, where all those who received an animal or resources committed themselves to giving the same number of ospring to another family in need, and in this way becoming donors who can extend their support to new families. Currently, Passing on the Gift applies to all kinds of support; for example, Passing on the Gift promotes sharing agricultural resources (seeds, inputs, agricultural materials), healthy homes materials (improved cookstoves, food, etc.), and intangible assets (passing on knowledge and skills) between participant families called "Originals" and the “Passing on the Gift" families. In Peru, Heifer International has developed Passing on the Gift chains in many communities and local organizations for many years; these chains have become a self-sustaining and self-managed practice that is maintained when Heifer concludes its project intervention. One of the reasons why this practice is possible is that families and communities in the rural areas of Peru have their own social and spiritual values that form part of their culture; "ayni" or "minka" (mutual aid or community work) are examples of this. Thus "Passing on the Gift" is not a strange or new idea but, rather, is a proposal that supports the valuation of the local culture.

Passing on the gift may 2016  
Passing on the gift may 2016  
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