Page 1

PASS ON

THE GIFT

70years

celebrating

of FAMILY FARMING

Mariela Wismann

Madeleine Muñoz

A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

Cleida Incacutipa

Working Document No. 4


A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus Sociologist Mariela Wismann, Psychologist Madeleine Muñoz and Anthropologist Cleida Incacutipa

* This guide was begun by the “Gender and Family” project team and was finished with the “Gender and Leadership” project: Mariela Wismann, Madeleine Muñoz and Cleida Incacutipa. Lima, December 2006.


A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus Legal deposit made in the Peruvian National Library First edition 2008, Translation June 2014 © 2014 Heifer Project International - Peru Av. Brasil 2948 Magdalena del Mar, Lima 17 - Perú Telephone: (51) (1) 261-3122 E-mail: oficina.nacional@heiferperu.org www.heifer.org www.heiferperu.org “Focus on Gender and the Family” project, a component in the projects of HPI Peru. No. 23-0621-02 This program was financed by the Leadership and gender equity for sustainable development of families and communities in Peru” project. No. 23-1712-02 Drawings: Arthur J. Muñoz Z, Lilián Yudit Incacutipa Limachi Formatting: Juan Kanashiro Iparraguirre Translation: Monica Dykas Printed in Peru All rights reserved. The reproduction and complete or partial distribution (by any means including mechanical, photocopies, electronic, magnetic, or others) of this work is prohibited without former written authorization by the editors, under the established legal sanctions.


Table of Contents FORWARD 7 INTRODUCTION 9

MODULE I: GENDER EQUITY

13

FIRST WORKSHOP: “DEVELOPMENT WITH GENDER EQUITY”

16

GENDER / SEX

16

Activity: the masks

19

ROLES: PRODUCTIVE, REPRODUCTIVE AND COMMUNAL

20

Activity: the hunchbacks

22

GENDER EQUITY

24

Activity: socioeconomic table

27

Homework Activity: a message for the home

MODULE II: PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT

30

31

FIRST WORKSHOP: “BUILDING THE PATH TOWARDS PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT”

35

PESONAL DEVELOPMENT: SELF-ESTEEM, SELF-RECOGNITION, AND SELF-WORTH

36

PERSONAL IMAGE – SOCIAL IMAGE – IDEAL IMAGE

37

Activity: my self-portrait

39

Activity: the ponchos

40


Activity: my future self

41

Activity: the life story of John and Jeannette

42

Homework Activity: just for today

44

SECOND WORKSHOP: “RECOGNIZING OUR VALUES AND IDENTITY”

45

DEVELOPING FAMILY AND COMMUNAL VALUES

45

Activity: value auction

47

CULTURAL FACTORS, BELONGING, AND VALUATION

48

Activity: what do we want to show?

51

Activity: role playing

52

Activity: artistic representation of my community

54

Homework Activity: yellow rope

MODULE III: LEADERSHIP AND GENDER

55

57

FIRST WORKSHOP: “LEADERSHIP AND GENDER EQUITY”

59

LEADERSHIP: CONCEPTS AND CHARACTERISTICS

61

Activity: who is the owner?

65

Activity: didactic presentation and brainstorming

66

Activity: a leader in my community

67

TYPES OF LEADERSHIP

68

Activity: power relations

70

Activity: didactic presentation

71

Activity: role playing

72

SECOND WORKSHOP: “LEADERSHIP AND COMMUNICATION”

73

COMMUNICATION AND LEADERSHIP

73

COMMUNICATION: CONCEPTS, TYPES, AND IMPORTANCE

74

Activity: communication skills

77

LEADERSHIP CAPACITY

79

SOCIAL SKILLS

79

CONFLICT RESOLUTION

80


ASSERTIVENESS 81 Activity: the dramatization

83

THIRD WORKSHOP: “FORMING LEADERS FOR COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT”

85

PUBLIC SPEAKING

85

Activity: development techniques

87

Breathing exercises

87

Confidence exercises

88

Presentation exercises

88

Voice modulation exercises

89

Activity: speaking with gestures

90

Listening techniques

91

WAYS TO OVERCOME FEAR

92

Activity: didactic presentation

93

Activity: the message

94

MODULE IV: ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND GENDER EQUITY 97 FIRST WORKSHOP: “ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND GENDER”

99

ORGANIZATION: DEFINITION, HUMAN NEEDS, CHARACTERISTICS, AND FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS

101

Activity: the hidden phrase

110

Activity: didactic presentation

111

Activity: listening to the women

112

Activity: case study

114

Activity: working together

116

Homework Organized planning and implementation put into practice

117

SECOND WORKSHOP: “FOSTERING PARTICIPATION WITHIN MY ORGANIZATION”

119

Activity: evaluating the homework

119

Activity: the puzzle

120

ACKNOWLEDGING OUR ORGANIZATION

122

Activity: past, present, and future

124


STRATEGY: DEFINITION AND SIGNIFICANCE

125

Activity: the decisi贸n labyrinth

127

THIRD WORKSHOP: RECOGNIZING MYSELF AS AN ACTOR OF CHANGE IN MY ORGANIZATION

129

ORGANIZATIONAL CHART

129

Activity: group work

130

Activity: organizaitonal self-evaluation

132

PLANNING 133 Activity: planning matrix

134

BIBLIOGRAPHY 135


A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

Forward Heifer is an institution that bases its actions on cornerstones or principals. One of those is Gender and the Family; gender refers to the socially assigned roles for men and women in each culture. The Heifer Gender Program empowers women and men to share decision-making, resource ownership, and chores as well as the benefits of these actions. Heifer works for gender equity in order to promote the mutual respect between men and women, thus strengthening the family and community organizations. We agree with Ritu Sharma, who presented at Heifer International´s 60th anniversary event in October 2004 and expressed the following: “Working for gender equity is a permanent undertaking that requires resources; just as responsible administration is a necessity, and resources are made available to achieve it, there should also be resources for gender issues.” It must be added that, while poverty and inequities exist in our societies, this work and focus on gender will prevail. This document about equity – posed as gender equity – gathers lessons learned from previous experiences and proposes tools and validated processes that will be beneficial for Heifer Peru’s technical team and counterpart organizations by providing improved training for the local and community-based counterparts. Since 1992, Heifer Peru has attempted to incorporate the focus on gender in all of its operations at a national level. One of Heifer’s strongest efforts was in the Gender and Family project (2001-2005) that took place in 7 departments of Peru (northern, central, and southern regions) and supported the ongoing projects directly through the community-based organizations and indirectly through local institutions. Above all, the results are shown in the sensitization about the importance of gender equity and its incorporation in the technical team as well as in the family relationships (of the project participants). Currently, however, we find ourselves in a new phase trying to adapt from the focus on gender equity to the vision that we seek, principally the improvement of opportunities for men and women to be

* Executive Director of Women’s EDGE (The Coalition for Women’s Economic Development and Global Equality).

Working Document No. 4 / Forward

7


A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

able to make decisions about the development and social changes of their families, communities, and societies. This initiative could not have been undertaken by one person alone or even as an institution without taking into account the joint work with local organizations, community-based social organizations, and farming communities who work with Heifer Peru. The local counterpart organizations have years of experience with development projects and with Heifer Peru; they have technical capacities and are recognized in their fields of work, thus making it easier for them to work with larger organizations and contexts. These counterparts have developed skills and technical capacities that deserve to be complemented with training in social aspects, above all in this focus on gender equity. This initiative will promote the development of leaders who have a focus on gender equity, which is considered a positive technical and social quality that should be developed in men and women of all ages as part of their personal and social development. In this sense, and given that the initiative seeks to achieve attitude changes, the essential component is the training; the content of this training is developed in a strategic manner and is organized into diverse topics that the communities have shown interest in. The training will be carried out through workshops with topics that are addressed to Heifer technicians and counterpart organizations, community leaders and promoters, young people, and finally the participating families. This book has been developed with the purpose of serving as a guide, tool, and resource for focusing on gender equity in community development. Lastly, I would like to thank the leaders, promoters, and consultants who helped improve the documents that were principally used as components of the training for the Gender and Family project. Above all, I would like to thank Mariela Wismann, Madeleine Muñoz, and Cleida Incacutipa who all persevered and accepted the challenge of creating a book from diverse materials that were developed over time. Thank you. Alfredo García National Director Heifer Perú Lima, June 2014

8

Working Document No. 4 / Forward


A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

Introduction Seven years have passed since Heifer Peru began working to promote gender equity in development projects as part of a framework for holistic, just, and sustainable development. Heifer Peru has carried out this work in two projects to date: “Gender and Family Project” that sought to incorporate gender equity in the everyday interactions of families who belong to farming organizations, above all looking at the inequities faced by women; and the “Integration of Gender and Leaders in the Communities of Peru” project that aimed to help families improve their situation, but above all to shift the empowerment of women and men from the private to the public sphere so that anyone who has the proper leadership skills can participate and have access to leadership roles. In an attempt to foster gender equity not just for the families but also within its own institution, Heifer Peru works with a group of professionals with distinct backgrounds; the project team consists of social science professionals as well as supporting professionals from the agricultural and engineering sciences. Heifer Peru’s work on gender equity has evolved over time and it pleases us to be able to share this work with others because we recognize that, without going through many different stages (and the lessons learned, best practices developed, and challenges faced), we would not be where we are today. We recognize the usefulness of the focus on gender equity for our organizational culture but above all for the community dynamics. It gives us great pleasure to share that, today, it is the women and men, the families (husbands, wives, and children) and the community leaders, who are beginning to understand the usefulness of this focus and who are putting it into action as part of their daily lives. This document summarizes the training program implemented by Heifer Peru in its efforts to promote and incorporate the focus on gen-

Working Document No. 4 / Introduction

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A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

der equity in the different communities where the organization intervenes. This program proposes sequential training workshops that each include strategically planned content. It incorporates training modules with topics that should be applied according to the level of development of the participants: I. Gender Equity; II. Personal Development; III. Leadership; and IV. Organizational Development. The level and topic to be implemented and/or reinforced should be identified according to the particular characteristics of the families and the participating communities. This document is the result of long days of planning, execution, and validation of the trainings events and of an effort to structure a training program that articulates distinct levels of development formation (personal and group environments as well as public and private spaces). It should be remembered that this is a guide and it is the responsibility of the promoter, facilitator, or technician to evaluate and establish the most adequate strategy for using this material in an adaptive and creative manner so that it works in accordance with the needs, interests, and objectives of the participants. With the diffusion of this document, we also seek to promote a strategy that has brought about many important results for Heifer Peru. It is a document that can be revised by the technical team as well as promoters (local change agents) and participating families; but, above all, it has been designed as reference material to help those people called ‘community promoters’ in their work related to gender equity for farming groups. This training program is divided into modules. The first module, “Gender Equity,” provides information about this thematic focus of Heifer Peru, the differentiation between equity and equality, and a greater explanation about concepts such as sex and gender. The objective of this module is to sensitize and motivate people to change their attitudes and behaviors in order to establish fair relationships in the different levels of society. The second module, referred to as “Personal Development,” describes the interior work of the individual as a foundation for any medium- or long-term changes. The purpose of this section is to strengthen the personality by means of personal motivation, self-esteem reinforcement, personal values, and cultural identity. In the third module, titled “Leadership and Gender Equity,” we introduce social and communication skills as basic requisites for the development of leadership capacities. The objective of this section is to reflect upon the principal characteristics of leadership, as adjusted to the community context, and provide tools and techniques for the development of potential leaders. In the last module, “Organizational Development and Gender Equity,” we discuss the farming organization, the importance of active participation, and the recognition of individuals as change agents. The purpose of this module is to generate a process of reflection about the state of one’s organization and to encourage the establishment of participatory, critical, and proactive attitudes for the enhancement of organizational development.

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Working Document No. 4 / Introduction


A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

Before ending, I would like to thank the entire team behind this great challenge: psychologist Madeleine Muñoz for her undeniable work in the field, her persistence, and her important contributions to this document; anthropologist Cleida Incacutipa for her determination in the promotion of gender equity in the Andean-Aymaran context; psychologist Rita Peña for her dedication in working with the farming families with a consistently proactive attitude; psychologist Tiziana Gálvez for her contribution to the training events and work with children; and Heifer Peru’s National Director Alfredo García for his trust placed in the project team, his continuous accompaniment, and his encouragement to confront the innumerable challenges. A special recognition also goes to engineers Jaime Sequiros, Jorge Jiménez, and Luis Gómez for their support throughout the implementation of the project; and to Billy Pérez for his diligence in revising this document and his patience during its completion. Also, a special thanks to all the community promoters who dared to make a change, taking a big step that opens a world of possibilities to promote and obtain fair and holistic development. Thank you very much. Mariela Wismann Program Coordinator Heifer Perú

Working Document No. 4 / Introduction

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A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

General Objective To guide attitude changes in the families of farming communities in order for them to develop skills and establish behaviors that promote fair relationships between all members of the community; and to sensitize people to topics such as gender equity, personal development, leadership skills, and organizational development, while always focusing on gender equity.

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Working Document No. 4 / Introduction


Module I Gender Equity


A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

Gender equity Duration 1 workshop

General objectives This module seeks to identify and analyze the attitudes and behaviors that hinder the achievement of gender equity at the family as well as the communal level. The module promotes the sensitization of and motivation towards attitude and behavior change in order to establish fair relationships at the different levels of society.

Main topics zz Gender zz Gender Roles zz Gender Equity

Module 1 / Gender equity

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A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

First workshop:

“PURSUING DEVELOPMENT WITH GENDER EQUITY” Objectives: >> Understand and analyze the following topics: sex, gender, and roles >> Examine socioeconomic status, as related to gender, that reflects

the families’ current realities

Gender / sex What is sex? A person is born with and dies with his/ her sex. Sex is related to the body parts and functions that differentiate a man from a woman. For example, every woman has a vagina and can become pregnant. Every man has a penis and cannot become pregnant.

16

Module 1 / Gender equity


A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

What is gender? Gender is a social construction that results from the relationships between men and women. Society assigns different roles to men and women due to social, economic, historical, religious, and cultural factors. When we talk about gender, we refer to what we have learned from our society about what distinguishes a man from a woman (e.g. the way to dress, the proper profession, and the way in which one should think, talk and act as a man or woman in one’s everyday life).

Remember that: SEX IS NOT THE SAME AS GENDER. Sex is universal; for example, there are no men in the United States that can become pregnant. On the other hand, the definition of gender is different in different societies and cultures and can change with time. For example, in the United States, it is not odd to see men wearing earrings.

SEX

GENDER

Men’s and women’s body parts and bodily functions

Feminine and masculine identities

Sexual reproduction

Roles, responsibilities

NATURAL (one is born with it)

SOCIOCULTURAL (one learns it)

Body differences

Valued/ esteemed unequally

DOESN’T CHANGE

CAN CHANGE

Module 1 / Gender equity

17


A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

How is gender learned? Gender is transmitted from generation to generation, that is from fathers to their sons and from mothers to their daughters. Many times, without realizing it, we hear expressions that confuse gender for something that cannot change: “That’s how it should be, that is how God made us.” Or when people say, “Since she is a woman, she has to learn from a young age how to take care of a house; if she doesn’t, she will suffer because her husband will think she is a tomboy.” “Well, women were born to suffer.” “The young men must learn to be brave and not cry for any little thing, be strong and resilient because, when they are grown, they must support their families.” We learn to be men and women through socialization.

What is socialization? Socialization is the process by which men and women, from birth, learn behaviors, manners, and values. Our society stimulates different ways of acting between men and women, such as, “Men don’t cry” or “girls don’t jump, nor do they get their clothes dirty.” The spaces of socialization include the family, school, communication mediums (television, radio, etc.), church, and friends.

18

Module 1 / Gender equity


A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

Activity: the masks Objectives: zz Encourage dialogue about stereotypes and traditional roles of

men and women that can change. zz Analyze the difference between men and women while encoura-

ging fairness in regards to opportunities, rights, and duties.

Materials: 99 Paper bags or flip chart paper to make the masks 99 Markers 99 Masking tape

Procedure: zz Distribute the masks to all the participants. zz Call each person by name asking them to complete the sentence,

“I am a man/woman because…” If someone does not want to participate, move on to the next person. zz One of the facilitators will write the responses on a flip chart as a

brainstorming exercise. zz The exercise ends when everyone has responded to the phrase. zz The facilitators read the responses and comment on them with

participation from the group, separating the responses into biological aspects and differences in roles. zz According to the comments, the facilitators should stimulate fur-

ther discussion by questioning the participants’ affirmations. For example, responding to the affirmation “I am a man because I use Module 1 / Gender equity

19


A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

pants,” the facilitator can ask, “So do women become men when they use pants?” zz Facilitators can comment that, with the passing of time, women

have begun to perform tasks that were traditionally considered masculine and that men now accept female leaders in their communities, thus confirming that stereotypes have changed. zz Reflect on the fact that many times it is not the biological differen-

ces but rather the stereotypes that determine our roles in society.

Roles: productive, reproductive and communal What are roles? Roles are the activities or responsibilities assigned to a person according to the position he/she holds. Our society assigns roles according to gender, in other words the jobs and responsibilities that people think men and women should perform at different stages of life. Thus, we have the following types of roles:

Reproductive role This is the work that is carried out in the home and is not paid, such as raising and educating children, feeding the family, managing the home, attending to family members who are in poor health, etc.

Productive role This is the work carried out in exchange for money or products. The productive role includes the production of goods and services. Many women and men from rural communities participate in productive work as farmers, shepherds, salesmen and saleswomen, laborers, and artisans.

20

Module 1 / Gender equity


A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

Community management role This role refers to the unpaid work or activities that men and women carry out for the benefit of the community, such as participating in community organizations, food pantries, mother’s clubs, farmers’ organizations, water distribution committees, and other diverse groups. If we want our families and communities to develop, both men and women should participate in the decision-making spaces such as community planning meetings, roundtables seeking to end poverty, participatory budgets, among others.

Module 1 / Gender equity

21


A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

Activity: the hunchbacks Objectives: zz Analyze the characteristics of the activities carried out by women

and men zz Encourage participants to commit to work together with their fa-

milies for their own development .

Materials: 99 Two large drawings on flip chart paper – one of a woman and the

other of a man hunched over carrying large bundles. 99 Colored paper cut into circles (similar to the bundles).

Procedure: zz Hang the drawings on different sides of the room. zz Form two groups: one of women and one of men. zz Each group should write different activities and responsibilities

that it performs on a daily basis (one activity per colored paper). Then, the women should tape their papers to the drawing of the woman and the men to their drawing, making it look like bundles. zz With both groups, evaluate the two drawings by reflecting on the

number of activities in each group. Who has a larger burden? In what activities can they help each other or share responsibility? zz Write the identified activities in an activity matrix, differentiating

them according to gender and roles. Then, evaluate the participation levels and duties of the three roles (see role chart).

22

Module 1 / Gender equity


A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

zz Make commitments to contribute to a more equitable distribution

of roles in the family and community. Carry out a group reflection about the participation level of men and women in different social roles.

Productive role

Reproductive role

Community management role

Men Women

Module 1 / Gender equity

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A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

Gender Equity When talking about gender equity, it is common to associate this term with equal opportunity or equal duties, but, in reality, these terms are not really the same. Equity covers much more. So, the proper question to better understand these terms is:

¿Is equality the same as equity? When we talk about equal opportunity, are we properly accounting for equity? Does giving the same resources to men and women ensure equity? We can understand the answer with a fable:

>> The fable of the fox and the stork:2 “The fox and the stork wanted to be friends, though they often argued about why the fox always tried to scare and deceive the stork, which really irritated his friend the stork.

The stork was happy because it seemed as if the fox had finally understood.

The fox said to her: “Friend stork, so that you don’t say that I want to keep fighting with you, I would like to invite you to dinner at my house.” The stork happily accepted. Once she was at the fox’s house, he said, “So that you don’t think that I am unfair, I have cooked two liters of soup. I will give you one liter and the other will be for me. We will both eat equally.”.

2 Adaptation from Esopo´s table.

24

Module 1 / Gender equity

And, as he had said, the fox served one liter of soup for each of them; on top of that, he served them in exactly the same type of plate, the type in which the fox always ate in – flat and wide:

Both began to eat and the fox finished all of his soup, licking it up to the last drop. But the stork, no matter how much she pecked at the plate, couldn’t drink even a little bit. The fox was angry when he saw that the stork had left almost all of the soup uneaten. He thought that the stork did not want to eat the soup which he had gone to so much trouble to prepare. Since the stork did not want to continue arguing, she told the fox that this time he would eat at her house and, thus, give her an opportunity to apologize, fix the problem, and be good friends again.


A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

The following day – this time at the stork’s house – the stork served the same soup and the same quantity to be truly fair. She used the same utensils that she always eats with – tall, thin glasses.

as much as he tried, he could not get his snout in the glass and his tongue did not reach far enough to drink the soup. On top of that, in his efforts to drink the soup, he knocked over the glass and the soup was wasted.

Both began to eat. This time, the stork finished very quickly; she was happy until she saw that the fox was really irritated because,

Since then, the fox and the stork continue to fight.

Why could both of them not resolve their problem? If we want, as in the example, to feed both subjects, we would do the following: Give them the same quantity of food.

We could say then that there is EQUALITY in giving the same amount of resources, but could we also say that there is equal opportunity? Not taking into account the particular characteristics of who we are dealing with, we are presented with a great difficulty because, even though the same resources are distributed, we are not assuring EQUITY, otherwise called justice. The necessary opportunities for equal access to these resources is not being given, so, even though there is equality, equity is not obtained.

Equity is one way to achieve true equal opportunity, but it implies adapting our actions and behaviors (such as interventions in projects) to the local conditions of access to, management of, and control of resources in such a way that takes into account the different characteristics, necessities, and realities in which we work (such as men and women of different ages). This should be done in such a way that assures equal access and the fair use of the different development opportunities.

>>

Module 1 / Gender equity

25


A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

The focus on gender equity means analyzing those behaviors and roles which are specific to men and women (not only talking about women). We must use a special gaze to understand the population characteristics that are used to assign resources, activities, and responsibilities. Additionally, we must analyze the people’s capacities and the difficulties that they face, while making sure that the results of this analysis ensure the establishment of fair relations.

Based upon the story: zz How could we achieve equity and solve the problem between the

stork and the fox? zz How can we apply gender equity in our families and community?

26

Module 1 / Gender equity


A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

Activity: socioeconomic table3 SOCIOECONOMIC ANALYSIS ACCORDING TO GENDER

Objectives: zz Obtain information directly from the families of the community

about the social and economic characteristics, including ownership of resources4, differentiated by gender.

Materials: 99 Flip chart 99 Thick markers 99 Colored index cards

Procedure: zz On the flip chart, draw the following table with the different faces.

Hang up the flip chart so that it is visible to all participants and clearly explain how the participants should fill in the chart.

3

Table adapted from the training material “Herramientas de PSE con enfoque de género” developed by CENTRO, Lima - Peru.

We understand “resources” not only as the possession of money, but also ownership of livestock, land, clothing, house, etc. When asking questions, it is important to specify what type of resources. For example, “How many animals do you own, what type and breed (it is different to own cows than birds)? What crops do you grow? How many hectares do you use? Are the crops for consumption or sale? How many times per day do you eat and what are the typical foods that you eat?”

4

Module 1 / Gender equity

27


A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

Families The faces (in the columns of the chart) represent the characteristics of each family group (in the rows of the chart). The different faces have the following meanings:

“Those who have more,” or also explained as those who

possess more resources in comparison to other groups. Another way to refer to this group would be “the less poor ones.”

“Those who have average,” or also explained as those who are in the middle when compared to other groups, not more but not less. Another way to refer to this group would be “the average poor.”

“Those who have less,” or also explained as those who

have very little resources when compared to others. Another way to refer to this group would be “the most poor.”

zz The participants should analyze the general socioeconomic cha-

racteristics, trying to ask the same questions for the different groups and then compare the answers afterwards. For example, work, education, health, housing, access to basic resources, hectares of land for farming, type and number of animals, number of children, diet, economic income for daily maintenance of the home, etc. zz As a group, analyze and jot down on the colored cards the charac-

teristics that correspond to the different social groups. zz Afterwards, go over the answers one more time to add any other

viewpoints that are considered important.

Recommendations: zz It is important to tell the participants that it is necessary to “show

reality as it is,” which means “the current situation,” and not situations that the participants desire or have lived in the past. They must also mention issues that are true for the “families of their own community” and not of other places, near or far. zz To explain the group divisions in farming families, it is useful to be

familiar with and use the local language.

28

Module 1 / Gender equity


A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

zz For example, in Aymaran communities, the people distinguish

between three type of families: “qamiris” (wealthy) who are characterized as possessing the largest and best-quality lands and animals and they hire laborers for their agricultural and livestock production; “uatjirini” (middle class) who have resources for productive activities and who use traditional technology with some modern technologies; and “huajchas” (poor) who do not have sufficient productive resources, own small pieces of land in different ecosystems, use their production for their own subsistence, practice “ayni” (exchange of foods and goods) and “yanapa” (help) between families, and they work as day laborers. zz So that the group can quickly and clearly differentiate and pla-

ce the characteristics in the proper columns, it is helpful to begin with the extremes (“those who have more” and “those who have less”) and then analyze the middle group (“those who have average”). zz Depending on the richness of the analysis and the desired infor-

mation, you can divide the table into more rows and classify the groups or population according to sex and age.

For example:

+ POBRES*

Population

Women**

+ O – POBRES*

- POBRES*

Adults Teenagers

Men**

Adults Teenagers

Module 1 / Gender equity

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A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

Homework Activity: a message for the home Objective: zz Create reminder cards to ensure that participants commit to chan-

ging their attitudes to promote gender equity in their households.

Materials: 99 Colored cardstock 99 Colored cardstock 99 Tempera paint 99 Thick markers

Procedure: zz Every participating family will write a message on the colored

cardstock, painting and decorating it in a creative way. zz Explain to the participants that it is important to take this message

home and hang it in a place that is visible to the entire family so that it becomes a reminder of their commitment to change their attitudes in the home. The messages should include topics related to necessary changes for achieving gender equity in the home, such as “In this home, the husband and wife will make decisions together.�

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Module 1 / Gender equity


Module II

Personal development


A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

Personal development Duration 2 workshops

General objectives This module seeks to promote the strengthening of one’s personality by encouraging attitude and behavior change which are the product of building up self-esteem, personal values, and cultural identity as the foundation for self-worth, which is an important element for personal and community development. Each participant should recognize his/her importance as an individual directly related to his/her social group.

Main topics Personal development Self-esteem: zz Personal image zz Social image zz Ideal image zz Values zz Cultural identity

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First workshop:

“BUILDING THE PATH TOWARDS PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT” Objective: >> Recognize the importance of personal development by building

up self-esteem and self-recognition on personal and social levels

>>

REFLECTION: “OLD ADVICE” One afternoon, the people saw Eleanor looking for something in the street in front of her hut. Everyone drew closer to the poor old woman. “What happened?” they asked. “What are you looking for?” “I lost my needle,” she said. And everyone helped her to look for it. Then, someone asked her, “Eleanor, the street is big and soon there will not be any light. A needle is very small. Why don’t you tell us where you were when you dropped it?” “Inside my house,” said Eleanor. “Have you gone crazy?” asked the people. “If you dropped the needle in your house, then why are you looking for it outside?” She responded, “Because there is light outside and there is not light inside the house.” “But even with the light outside, how can we find the needle here if this is not the place

where you lost it? The correct thing to do would be to take a lamp inside your house and look there for the needle,” they said. Eleanor laughed, “You all are so intelligent about the little things. When will you use that intelligence for your interior life? I have seen you all looking for solutions to your problems outside and I know, from my own experience, that what you are looking for is lost inside of you. Use your intelligence: why do you search for happiness in the outside world? Is that where you have lost it? Everyone was left speechless and Eleanor disappeared inside her house.

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Personal development: self-esteem, self-recognition, and self-worth Personal development Personal development is related to personal growth. More than physical or material growth, it refers to spiritual growth – a strengthening of one’s personality, fulfillment of one’s personal goals, and cultivation of one’s values. Personal development includes personal integrity in relation to one’s environment and society. It requires a continuous process that can only be achieved with daily effort. If we compare it with the development of a plant, personal development begins when we are born. Many things influence our growth (such as the social environment), but it is not until we learn that we have to take care of and feed the plant (our self ) on a daily basis that we begin to change and strengthen the roots (values) to obtain the fruits (goals).

Self-esteem Self-esteem is the positive assessment that we have of ourselves: to love yourself, know your value, and be satisfied with yourself. Self-esteem is the consciousness of one’s own worth that allows one to take charge of his/her life, attitudes towards oneself, and relationships with others. It also allows one to recognize, accept, and manage one’s own limitations and transform them.

What does self-esteem depend on? Self-esteem depends a lot on the social environment and how we were as children, what we thought and what we felt, which has a lot to do with the way in which we were treated, the way we were understood, the way in which others helped us to overcome our insecurities at home and at school, the friends we played with, etc. On the other hand, when we are adults, self-esteem has a lot to do with one’s determination to change, to recognize the details of things that have hurt us in order to overcome them, and to appreciate the admirable qualities that we possess; that is, self-esteem no longer depends as much on exterior things, but on internal things such as making decisions with such internal strength so as to change oneself and his/her social environment.

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Family is very important! Adults that have close relationships with children, such as parents, grandparents, teachers, are critical for the development of self-esteem in the children. When family relations are adequate, we, as adults, positively influence the children; we make them feel our unconditional love and we offer them security and permanent support. We can negatively influence the children when our way of interacting with them hurts them and/or makes them feel like they are not valued. Insults, nicknames, threats, and mistreatment can destroy self-esteem or, even worse, can prevent a child from developing positive self-esteem.

Personal image - social image - ideal image5 Personality is made up of integrated images that should coincide in a healthy way; in other words, what we think, do, and desire are all related. In working to continually know oneself better, it is important for each person to recognize his/her images:

PERSONAL IMAGE Personal image is what one really feels and thinks about him/herself, to recognize one’s qualities and flaws. To do this, it is necessary to know oneself, to look inside and respond to the questions: How do I see myself? What am I like? For example, “I see myself as a responsible and kind person.”

Concepts taken and adapted from training material: “Autoestima y liderazgo” by Psychologist Julia Vargas Giles from Centro Peruano de Teatro. Lima 2003.

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A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

Social image Social image is the way that one acts in front of others. Those who know us best realize when we act differently; they are the ones who see our gestures, how we talk, what we say, and what we do. Realizing how others see us can be very surprising. The question would be:

How do others see me? From the previous example: Personal image = responsible, kind When asking my neighbors in a sincere manner, they tell me that sometimes I arrive late and they have noticed that I can complain a lot. Thus, social image = sometimes late and a complainer during meetings. Therefore, the two images do not coincide; the way that I think I am is not the same as the way I act with others. Recognizing this is important to be able to change and behave better.

Ideal image The ideal image means reflecting on what one wishes to achieve. Starting with recognizing my two previous images, I can identify the things that I wish to change or strengthen and thus know what I desire for myself in the future. It is important to outline development goals to know that what we do is moving us towards that desired image.

Who would I like to be? Each person needs to respond to this question about him/herself:

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Activity: my self portrait PERSONAL IMAGE

Objective: zz Encourage the habit of personal recognition by means of identi-

fying and differentiating between unchangeable and changeable personal characteristics.

Materials: 99 Kraft paper 99 Thick colored markers 99 Masking tape

Procedure: zz On the kraft paper, each participant should draw a large silhouet-

te of him or herself. Inside the silhouette, the participant should write his/her name and the characteristics that he/she likes most about his/her body, way of being, and those characteristics which could be improved. zz These drawings should be hung up on the walls. zz Then, each participant will explain the content of his/her drawing

to the rest of the group who will reinforce his/her effort with applause.

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A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

Activity: the ponchos SOCIAL IMAGE Objective: zz Compare and contrast the perceptions of one’s own social image

and that held by others

Materials: 99 Ponchos made out of paper (flip chart paper with a hole for the

person’s head)

Procedure: zz Give a readymade poncho to each participant. zz Explain that every person should prepare the content on the front

side of the poncho; each person should write his/her name, how he/she behaves with people from the community, and the opinion that others have of him/her. zz Instruct the participants to walk around the room with their pon-

chos on to exchange the information on the front with other participants; at the same time, each person should write a message on the back side of the other person’s poncho. Each participant should complete this exchange with at least two other people, writing on the other’s poncho how this person behaves with other people in the community and what opinion the others have of this person. zz Note: this activity can also be used to analyze the personal ima-

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ge and social image at the same time. With this technique, each participant would write on the front side of his/her poncho what he/she thinks of him/herself (for example, “I am happy, responsible, etc.” During the exchange, the other participants would write on their companion’s back how they believe this person behaves with other people.


A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

Activity: my future self IDEAL IMAGE Objective: zz Facilitate a dialogue between the participants about their future

ambitions and visions of personal development

Materials: 99 Colored cardstock 99 Colored markers

Procedure: zz Ask the participants to draw on the colored paper how they see

themselves in five years, trying to reflect in the drawing everything that they wish to achieve in that time, how they imagine themselves dressing, how they will be physically and emotionally, what they will be doing, and where they will be. zz The participants will voluntarily present their drawings, standing

in front of the group and explaining out loud their drawings of their future selves. Each person should express what he/she will have achieved in the future, where and what he/she will be doing, what feelings he/she will have, and what values he/she will have developed. Take advantage of this opportunity to ask the participants how they imagine achieving this future, what things they will have to do, and what obstacles they will have to overcome.

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A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

Activity: the life story of John and Jeannette ANALYSIS OF THE OPPORTUNITIES FOR PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT ACCORDING TO GENDER

Objective: zz Analyze in a participatory manner the influence that the family

and social environments have on the opportunities for personal development for both men and women

Procedure: zz Explain to the participants that they will analyze the fictitious life

story of two children who were born in the same town: John and Jeannette. zz Ask the participants to reflect on the reality of their community

throughout the different stages of life of the characters in the story as these situations could be similar to their own stories or those of friends. zz With the group, analyze the attitudes, thoughts, and behaviors

of the characters (the family and the neighbors) during the different stages of John and Jeannette’s lives: birth, infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old age. zz When finished reading the story, the participants should analy-

ze the differences presented between John and Jeannette and highlight the different opportunities that are given to them only because one is either a man or a woman: education, development, recreation, decision-making, work, etc.

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Suggestions The facilitator can ask the following questions:

Birth - infancy: What sex did the parents want their children to be born with? How did the parents feel when their child was born? What did they do afterwards?

Childhood: How were the children dressed? Who was sent to school? What chores did the children do? What did John and Jeannette think? What did they play? How much time were they given to play?

Adolescence: Who continued studying? Did the children have friends? Who was allowed to go out more? Who was responsible for the household chores?

Adulthood: Have either of the characters married? Do they have children? Are they working or studying? How do John and Jeannette feel?

Old age: Are John and Jeannette healthy? Who is with him/her? How do each of the characters feel about what he/she has achieved in his/her life?

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A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

Homework Activity: just for today Objective: zz Each participant will commit to strengthen his/her self-esteem by

beginning with one personal change

Materiales: 99 Cardstock 99 Thick colored markers

Procedure: zz Give each participant a piece of cardstock and ask them to write

the heading “Just for today…” and then note at least one action to cultivate in order to begin their attitude and behavior changes that will reinforce their personal development. zz Explain that one should live for today. If one wants to change, he/

she should begin with him/herself and start on the same day they he/she makes the decision to change, trying to think one day at a time so as not to get overwhelmed thinking about the future. In other words, one should walk one step at a time without getting discouraged by looking at the long walk ahead and then never beginning. Each participant will take his/her piece of cardstock home and put it in a visible place as a reminder of his/her commitment. Each day, he/she will see it and work daily on this action as if it was a new day. In the following workshop, the participants will reflect upon whether or not they were able to achieve their commitments and if they would be open and ready to commit to an additional change. For example, “Just for today, I will stop yelling at my kids.”

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Second workshop:

“RECOGNIZING OUR VALUES AND IDENTITY” Objectives: >> Contribute to the recognition of values that strengthen personal,

familial, and communal development. >> Promote the valuation of cultural identity

Developing family and communal values6 Values Values are all the things that we hold most importantly and that are used as principles or rules that guide the behavior of a person or group. Each person and group has its own value scale; in other words, certain values are more important than others and this “ranking” of values is different for different people or groups. Values vary according to one’s experience of interpersonal and social relations, but, with such a diversity of people and groups, it is important that a minimum number of values overlap to ensure a harmonious identity and relationships. For example, a person who considers responsibility as one of the most important values in a working environment will generally look to associate with people who are also responsible. Moreover, this person will learn additional values from the other person who he/she is associated with and will add these values to his/her personal value system. 6

Concepts taken and adapted from: “como educar en valores“ by Llorene Carreras et a I. Madrid: Nancea 1996.

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A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

It is possible to distinguish between diverse types of values, though many values are related to one another. The following are some common values: zz Responsibility: the capacity to be interested in and fulfill one’s

job without anyone obligating you to do it. zz Honesty: related to the harmony of thoughts, words, and actions.

Honesty is closely related to sincerity and veracity. Being honest begins with not deceiving oneself; to do that, each person needs to know him/herself well. zz Dialogue: the basic capacity of the human being to establish a

conversation between two or more people. To be able to dialogue with other people, one needs to be able to be sincere to, respect, listen to, use the same language as, share reflections and criticisms with, be patient with, give time to, and appreciate the other. By way of dialogue, we get to know each other, we learn, we show our feelings, and we share experiences with others. Dialogue can help avoid misunderstandings and it helps us to establish good relations with others. zz Respect: the consideration, attention, and friendliness that is

owed to each person. It could be said that respect is the feeling that allows us to recognize the rights and dignity of the other. This value includes respect for oneself and for others. It is the first condition to know how to live and build the foundation for peaceful coexistence. It is also important to value the respect for nature, the world that surrounds us, animals, plants, etc. zz Justice: to act without prejudices and give each person what he/

she deserves. It is not easy to apply justice, rather it requires great responsibility, discernment, honesty, and experience. Because of this, not everyone can act as a judge in society. zz Sharing: the act of mutual participation in something, be it mate-

rial or immaterial. Sharing implicitly suggests the value of giving – generosity – and the value of receiving, accepting, or welcoming what another offers me. To share means leaving behind selfishness, the belief that one can do everything on his/her own, and the belief that he/she never needs anyone else. The feeling of being less than others and the thought that one does not have anything to offer are also left behind. The pleasure of sharing helps us to overcome our selfishness, pride, and arrogance, and it helps us feel fulfilled. It should be noted that we can share not only material goods, but also ideas, hopes, tasks or chores, feelings, friendships, knowledge, experiences, difficulties, desires, etc.

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Activity: value auction Objective: zz Identify, as a group, the principal values that are held by the parti-

cipants on family and communal levels

Materials: 99 Colored index cards 99 Cardstock cut and painted to look like dollar bills of different

amounts: 10, 20, 50, and 100 99 Three flip charts with large circles drawn on them with the fo-

llowing titles: “My family,” “My community,” “My environment”

Procedure: zz In a participatory and didactic manner, the participants will pre-

sent the definitions of the values and their importance on a personal, family, and communal level. zz Afterwards, brainstorm with participants the different values that

they know. Take note of these values on the colored index cards and tape them to the flip charts in front of the participants. zz Form three groups and explain to them that each group will sepa-

rately analyze the values that they consider most important and necessary in order to improve their lives. zz The three working groups are: Group 1 – the family, Group 2 – the

community, and Group 3 – the environment.

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zz Provide a short period of time for the participants to converse

with their group members and decide which values to purchase with the money (the bills made from cardstock) that was given to each group. Indicate that their selections should be kept secret since they will be competing with the other groups to purchase the values in an auction. zz The groups will compete in purchasing the values (the index cards

taped on the flip charts) and the group that offers the most will get to keep the value. Mention that, during the auction, if even one person from the group raises his/her hand, it will be considered a bid. Thus, everyone should be attentive and quiet. zz Every group should place its bills on the flip chart that corres-

ponds to them, noting on the value cards the price they would pay for each one. zz In the front of the room, each group will explain why it chose the

different values and it will analyze the values that it paid the most for. The other participants can ask questions or add other values that they consider should be included, explaining the reason. zz Finally, analyze the characteristics of the values in each group as

they can vary; sometimes we value one thing more than another and, even though it does not cost anything, we do not pay attention to acquiring different values.

Individual and collective identity: cultural factors, belonging, and valuation Cultural identity Just as people do, towns also have their own unmistakable qualities that make them unique. They have a name, a color, a language, a religion, customs, a way of being, and, what is fundamental, a history or a past, a present, and a future. This is the town’s identity, which consciously becomes its personal or social “I.”

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Identity Identity consists in continuing to be oneself beyond the changes that one can make in his/her physical appearance, social relations, or personality in the presence of external influences. Talking about identity constitutes all that which differentiates us, as a community, from others; we can talk about our destiny, perspectives, and achievements in the scope of social identity. Identified in this way, we know what goals we can and should achieve.

Culture The term culture can be looked at from different angles. We understand culture as a set of knowledge, habits, and traditions that have been accumulated over generations. It is by means of culture that a nation expresses its authentic personality, in other words its essence. Especially in the cultural realm, it is important to discover the values and protect the cultural works of art. This means revitalizing folklore and proudly showing what we have; for example, in Peru, this would include the riches, landscapes, and people of the country’s diverse geography.

To know, to believe, to love “In our homeland of Peru, we can affirm with certainty that our cultural identity did not begin with the colonization nor with the modern day republic. Its roots are much deeper and go further back than even the powerful Incan Empire.”7 The fusion of the Hispanic and the Andean produced the “mestizaje” (crossbreed) and we cannot deny this heritage. We have received not only the Spanish influence but also the Anglo-Saxon in many ways, even in cultural terms. Currently, thanks to advances in the sciences and technology, we are also greatly influenced from cultures around the world. We are going through a crisis, not only economically but also culturally and spiritually. With the migration from the Andes to the cities, a completely new social and cultural reality is being created including new ways of eating, dressing, talking, carrying out social life, customs, economic demonstrations, and popular art. We are part of a country that can perfectly identify itself by its history and its problems (terrorism, drug trafficking, unequal distribution of wealth, etc.), but not by its cultural and social integration and much less by its legal system and Stately character. Inside our controversial reality, there are many cities that have acquired their own iden-

7

Moya Espinoza, Reynaldo. Identidad Cultural de Sullana”.

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tity which allows them to stand out in our country even though we have a common past. The people who were born in these cities are very proud of and fight for their city; some examples of these types of people are those from Arequipa, Cusco, and Lima. The people should begin to prepare themselves to respond with certainty to the following questions:

Who are we? Where do we come from? Where are we going? It is commonly held that it is necessary to look at the past in search of our own historical roots to be able to value our cultural heritage and to recover that IDENTITY that we all need. But, the most important question is “How do we strengthen and consolidate this state of consciousness?� The answers to this question will allow us to know, believe, and love what is indispensable and basic for us to resolve the problem of our identity. Since antiquity, it has been considered vitally important to know oneself. But that alone is not enough; we should also equally know our most profound origins, historical as well as spiritual, because much of our individual and group behavior comes from our ancestral traditions. We use our history and traditions to get to know our roots. To transmit traditions from generation to generation, it is not necessary to have the knowledge in written or expressed form. Rather, oral methods were enough even though they also sometimes made the real acts get confused with fantasy and gave origin to myths and legends. Now, there is more interest in knowing the past and where we came from so that we can better plan for the future. This thirst for knowing and the possibility of obtaining this knowledge are indispensable for affirming our identity because you cannot love what you do not know. Therefore, culture is a right and a responsibility that must be assumed and proudly defended.

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Activity: what do we want to show? Objectives: zz Evaluate and reflect upon the different messages that are hidden

within the topic “rural situation.” zz Explore the negative stereotypes that affect the cultural image

and how this affects one’s own identity and cultural valuation.

Materials: 99 Two large drawings (or pictures) with different messages: the first

that shows a negative perception of the rural farming community, trying to give the image of poverty and helplessness with the stereotype of asking for help; the second that shows a positive image of rural development, with cheerful people who use the typical dress and have the same working conditions as the people in the first image.

Procedure: zz Give every participant the first image and ask them to evaluate

and reflect upon their feelings generated by that image. zz Analyze the second image with respect to the first. The partici-

pants should discuss, from their points of view, the different attitudes in rural communities. This is very important for the valuation of cultural identity. Encourage the participants to develop a valuation of the resources that they possess and focus on a positive vision of development.

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Activity: role playing MY PERSONAL VALUES AND CULTURAL IDENTITY

Objective: zz Reflect on the individual values and cultural identity in terms of

the behaviors and thoughts of the participants, contributing to a safe environment and personal affirmation

Materials: 99 Bond paper 99 Thin markers 99 Paper hats (optional) 99 Paper ponchos (optional)

Procedure: zz Give every participant a piece of bond paper and explain that:

a) On one half of the paper, they should write down the values that they believe they possess as a person (individual values); next to each value, they should write how it is that they demonstrate these values (the “what” and the “why”). For example, “sincerity: because I tell people what I think and I do not talk behind anyone’s back.” b) On the other half of the paper, they should write down things that they are proud of and how it is that they show their pride (the “what” and the “why”). For example: “I feel proud to live in the countryside. Wherever I go, I tell people what it is like and how pretty it is.” (You can also ask the participants to draw instead of write depending on the preference of the participants.)

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c) Then, form two large groups, placing one in front of the other, explaining that the participants will act as if they were the person in front of them. Participants in group 1 will act proud of their values and cultural identity and participants in group 2 will be completely opposite, criticizing their community and culture. The debates will begin when group 2 says the phrase: “I do not like my town” and the other group will immediately respond with “I so like my town.” One participant from group 1 will go to the front of the room and will articulate in a loud voice his/her values and the pride that he/she feels about his/her cultural identity (using his/ her sheet of paper where he/she wrote the list). The participants from the other group can contradict what the first person says, but another member of group 1 will immediately come forward to support his/her companion. zz Try to allow time for every person on both teams to express him/

herself (depending on the number of participants). zz Conclude by discussing that we will often find people who do not

value what they have as well as people from other realities who do not understand the importance of our own community, its history, and what makes us feel proud. Leave the participants with the message that the strength of our culture is born inside each of us and is projected together with the community.

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Activity: artistic representation of my community Objective: zz Promote the valuation of community resources by means of crea-

tive artwork.

Materiales: 99 Flip chart paper 99 Magazines 99 Tempera paint 99 Glue 99 Scissors

Procedure: zz Form two or three groups who will prepare a tourist advertisement

that projects a positive image of their community, highlighting the things that they are proud of, to attract the attention of tourists. Explain that the advertisements will be judged on their creativity and attractiveness. zz Hang the advertisements on the wall as if they were part of an

art gallery. Each group will present its advertisement to the other groups, who will applaud to motivate their fellow participants.

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Homework

Activity: yellow rope Each participant will receive a broach (pin) made out of yellow rope. Ask each participant to choose one other participant to talk with: ask the other person how he/she feels, what he/she likes, and what he/ she thinks about his/her family and community. When finished with the conversation, the partners will pin the broach on their partner’s chest. Each participant should pledge to use this activity in his/her home and dedicate at least a few minutes of conversation with the person that he/she considers most important in his/her household. At the end of the conversation, the participant should give a gift (the yellow broach) to his/her family member, affirming that he/she chose this family member to do this exercise because this family member is very important to him/her. The participants will comment on this experience during the next workshop.

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Module III

Leadership and gender equity


A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

Leadership and gender equity Duration 3 workshops

General Objective The purpose of this module is to reflect upon and sensitize participants to the principal characteristics of leadership, adapted to the context of the community, and the attitudes and behaviors that are important for the community’s development. This module also seeks to contribute basic tools, practices, techniques, and examples of behavior and social development to motivate the participants to develop their leadership skills and put them into practice in the community.

Main topics zz zz zz zz

Leadership Types of leadership Communication and leadership Social skills: -- Conflict resolution -- Assertiveness -- Public speaking -- Listening techniques

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First workshop:

“LEADERSHIP AND GENDER EQUITY” Objectives: >> Provide the basic concepts and characteristics of leadership >> Analyze the characteristics of resource management in the com-

munity according to gender >> Promote the reflection about power relations and types of leader-

ship that exist in the community

Leadership: concepts and characteristics What is leadership? Leadership consists in bringing out the best in others, in other words their best effort, cooperation, and loyalty. Additionally, leaders will try to promote the well-being and personal development of others (Lloyd, 1982).

>>

It consists in bringing out the best in others, in other words their best effort, cooperation, and loyalty.

Leadership can be practiced by different people in a group according to the circumstances. It is also defined as the art of influencing other people to put forward effort to achieve the objectives of the group. In conclusion, leadership is the way a leader relates with the group.

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Who is a leader? A leader is the person who feels, thinks, talks, and acts for the wellbeing of his/her family and community. A leader encourages and promotes others to practice good values. He/she proposes solutions and desires to work together to help other people and organizations develop. Therefore, a leader is the person who has won the respect, consideration, and prestige of others in the community for his/her way of communicating (speaking), behaving, and his/her knowledge.

Characteristics of a leader

zz Cheerfulness: not easily discouraged when difficulties arise, but

rather motivates others with his/her happiness zz Respectful and sincere: says things as they are without offending

anyone and knows how to value the ideas and efforts of others; always speaks the truth zz Not fearful: does not see things as impossible, but always quickly

solves any issue zz Creative: realizes that nothing is permanent, everything changes,

and he/she always has new ideas

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zz Communicative: informs and guides the people zz Self-esteem: confident in him/herself and recognizes his/her

skills zz Responsible: always fulfills obligations and does not leave tasks

incomplete zz Democratic: tries to allow all members to participate and res-

pects their opinions; any issues are discussed in an amiable way; convenes the people but does not obligate them to do anything, rather he/she encourages the people to commit themselves by their own effort and participation zz Caring: concerned about the needs of others and the organiza-

>> A leader is democratic.

tion; always seeks to help zz Desire to learn: attends workshops and exchange experiences zz Expressive: voices his/her opinion in order to improve the organi-

zation and recognize its errors zz Progress-oriented: not satisfied with a little, but wants his/her

organization to grow and improve

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Is a leader born or made? The majority of people believe that leaders are special people who have had unique skills since they were children and their environment has helped them in an almost natural manner; however, it is important to consider that leadership is not necessarily something that a person is born with and therefore the rest of us could never be like the leaders. It is important to note that we are all born with different skills, some of which are stronger than others. We can also learn new skills that interest us or that we think we need; all that is necessary is to realize what we want and begin to work towards developing the skills in ourselves. For example, even if a person was born with special capabilities, if he/she is not aware of his/her unique qualities in order to strengthen them8 or is simply not interested in using his/her capabilities to help others, it is very likely that he/she will not be a leader. On the other hand, there are cases of people where others did not think these people could be leaders (because they considered them to be ordinary and judged that they would not succeed because of their modest means), yet these people have surprised the others with their leadership. For these leaders, it was enough that they believed in themselves and sought to learn more every day. Because of this, we would say: “Every person is responsible for developing his/her leadership potential.” Therefore, it can be said that a leader is born, but, more importantly, a leader is made. The starting point to transform oneself into a community leader is desiring the best quality of life for one’s community; by imagining how we would like to change a situation, we can set goals and a mission that will give a purpose and direction to our physical, mental, and emotional efforts. Some examples of community leaders are people who work in community organizations such as churchs, clubs, local security groups (rondas campesinas), and farming associations, among others. Thus, community leaders are true change agents who serve to improve the quality of life of the community. It is not about trying to change the people, but working with and seeking from within the community the answers to the needs of all, thereby taking advantage of local resources.

In simple terms, strengthen means that even if something is small, it can grow into something equally or more important than what it was originally. It means putting forth the effort to assure that one achieves or even surpasses the goals that he/she has identified as important.

8

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Activity: who is the owner? 9 GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT: ANALYSIS OF RESOURCE OWNERSHIP Objectives: zz Compare and contract resource ownership and responsibilities. zz Create a space for dialogue about the alternatives for a more just

distribution

Materials: 99 For each group: three large drawings of a woman, a man, and a couple 99 Flip chart 99 At least a dozen cards with different drawings that show family

resources such as pots and pans, clothes, agricultural production tools, tables, chairs, fruit and vegetable plants, household animals and livestock, land, radio, bicycles, books, money, etc.

Procedure: zz Divide the participants into groups. zz Give each group a piece of flip chart paper. Each group should put

zz

zz

zz

zz zz

9

the three drawings (woman, man, couple) as the column headings on their flip chart paper. Each group should discuss the resource cards and place them under the column drawings according to who it believes the owner is (representing the current reality). Each group should present to the rest of the participants how it organized the cards and why. Ask the rest of the participants if they agree with the placements or if they could be improved. In addition to comparing resources, the groups can also compare the types of responsibilities or chores and whether or not they are paid. Each group should then discuss among itself and define an alternative proposal to develop a more equitable situation. Each group should present its proposal to the other groups.

Learning to facilitate gender perspectives in development work - Guatemala: HPI and World Concern, 2000.

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Activity: didactic presentation and brainstorming Objective: zz Contribute to the basic concepts of leadership

Materiales: 99 Flip chart paper 99 Markers

Procedure: zz The presentation about leadership concepts should be carried out

by teaching the others using clear, simple language and utilizing the flip chart paper with drawings. zz The analysis of leadership characteristics should be carried out

through a brainstorming session, asking the participants: ---

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Which qualities should a leader possess? How should a leader act with his/her family? Organization? Community?


A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

Activity: a leader in my community IS A LEADER BORN OR MADE ?

Objective: zz Analyze the characteristics of the men and women who are lea-

ders in the community

Materials: 99 Flip chart paper 99 Markets 99 Colored index cards

Procedure: zz Begin the discussion by asking: “Is a leader born or made?” Make

note of the ideas from both positions. zz Then, explain that everyone will analyze the answers together by

looking at real examples. Provide two index cards to each participant and ask them to write the name of a woman on one card and the name of a man on the other card, both of whom should be people that the participants consider leaders in their communities. zz Collect the index cards and write down how many times each

name was repeated (this will help us to know how many leaders are recognized among community members). Hang up two pieces of flip chart paper, one to tape up the names of female leaders and one to tape up the names of male leaders. zz Ask the participants to analyze together why they consider these

people to be leaders, analyzing their biography, trying to understand how they came to be leaders, what they had to do, and the difficulties they encountered along the journey. Module III / Leadership and gender equity

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zz Then, compare and contrast the leadership characteristics listed

for the men and the women. zz Finally, conclude by answering the question asked at the begin-

ning of the activity, stating that a leader is born and is made, thus motivating the participants to continue developing and strengthening their leadership skills throughout the workshops.

Types of leadership Authoritarian leadership The authoritarian leader makes an organization function based upon a discipline of fear; he/she thinks that he/she is the only one who understands the problems and can solve them. This leader gives orders and demands them to be completed; he/she does not allow other people to offer suggestions. This type of leader provokes mistrust and disinterest due to the fact that other members of the group become accustomed to the leader making decisions for them and thus do not offer their own ideas.

“They have to do what I tell them; if not, I will throw them out of the group.” Permissive leadership The permissive leader does not use his/her power, does not take initiative, and allows everything to happen. He/she needs the other group members to define objectives and achieve them. As a consequence, the group may disintegrate since there is no one to guide it. Additionally, the group does not have a common goal, thus every person will do what is most convenient for him/her thereby losing the sense of the group.

“I don’t know how you will do everything; you all attend to it and let me know.” Paternalistic leadership The paternalistic leader is the one who wants to do everything, does not delegate responsibilities, and attends to the needs of everyone else, but according to his/her own criteria. The members of the group are treated inferiorly.

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This demotivates people and creates dependency, thus making the group slowly lose its initiative, creativity, and critical sense. Just as the authoritarian leader, the paternalistic leader does not allow the group to develop.

“Don’t worry, I will take care of everything.” Democratic leadership The democratic leader encourages everyone to participate with their own ideas and efforts. He/she consults others, delegates tasks, recognizes the value of others and their needs, and constantly informs the others about the operations of the organization. The leader’s relationship with the group is based upon respect, dialogue, and interest for the common good. With cordial relations between the leader and the group, they are able to achieving a strong community spirit thus permitting the organization to make better decisions to achieve its objectives, solve problems, and generate an enhanced group.

“We talk with one another and decide together how to do things.”

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Activity: power relations10 Objective: zz Reconocer los diferentes tipos de comunicación y/o manejos en

las relaciones interpersonales: dominio, dependencia y concertación.

Procedure: zz Reconocer los diferentes tipos de comunicación y/o manejos en

las relaciones interpersonales: dominio, dependencia y concertación zz Magnets: work together in pairs. Imagine that one person has a

magnet in his/her hand and the other has a piece of metal in his/ her nose. As magnets attract metal, the first person (magnet) attracts and guides the other (metal), making the metal go where the magnet wants it to, making it move in three different ways: walking upright, hunched over, and dragging one’s feet. Then, the partners should change roles zz Siamese twins: work together in pairs, attached creatively on dif-

ferent parts of the body. Call out different situations, for example, “one person wants to go to ‘X’ and the other wants to go to ‘Y.’” First, one of the partners is in charge, getting to choose where to go; then, they reverse roles. Finally, declare that they both want to go at the same time to two different places. Observe the way that the pairs either confront each other or coordinate what will happen. zz At the end of the exercise, ask the participants to explain which

role made them feel more comfortable and why. As a group, evaluate the adequate and inadequate ways to relate to other people. 10 Activity taken from the training material “Autoestima y liderazgo” written by psychologist Julia Vargas Giles of the Centro Peruano de Teatro. Lima 2003.

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Activity: didactic presentation Objectives: zz Contribute to the basic concepts of types of leadership

Materials: 99 Flip chart paper 99 Markers

Procedure: zz The presentation about leadership concepts should be carried out

by teaching the others using clear, simple language and utilizing the flip chart paper with drawings.

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Activity: role playing Objectives: zz Contribute to meaningful learning about the types of leaders that

can exist in a community

Materials: 99 Paper 99 Scissors 99 Glue

Procedure: zz Form four groups. Each group should name a representative. zz Apart from the rest of the group members, the facilitator will talk

with the group representatives and assign each one a different leadership style that he/she will have to act out: authoritarian (will make demands and impose on others how to do things), democratic (will make sure everyone participates and gives his/her opinion), paternalistic (will do all the work by him/herself while the others watch), and anarchist (will not give instructions nor help in the tasks and will be distracted by other things). zz Before beginning the task, the facilitator will announce to all the

groups that they will have a task to complete and that the group who finishes first will win. The representatives will be responsible for explaining what the task is and providing the necessary materials. zz The four chosen representatives will take materials (paper, scis-

sors, and glue) to their groups and explain that their task is to make a chain with ten links. zz When the representatives act according to the roles they were gi-

ven, observe the different reactions of the other group members in the presence of their leaders. zz At the end, explore the feelings provoked in the group members

who had to face these four types of leadership. Discuss which type of leader would be the best for the organization.

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Second workshop:

“LEADERSHIP AND COMMUNICATION” OBJECTIVES: >> Propose tools and basic communication concepts for the develo-

pment of community participation >> Present basic tools for conflict solution

Communication and leadership It is important that every leader develop strong communication skills. To communicate is not only to transmit information but also to take care that the information is conveyed well. “What is said” is important, but even more so is “how it is said.” Part of communicating is knowing how to listen and let others talk. A leader should always try to be an effective listener.

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Communication: concepts, types, and importance Communication11 Communication is the process by which messages are transferred. It includes ideas, acts, thoughts, feelings, and values; it is a bridge between different people. Thus, communication is based upon exchanging, expressing, and sharing ideas, desires, and feelings. Communication has two main purposes: To inform : provide facts Emotional : transmit feelings and emotions

11 Maldonado Willman, Héctor. Manual de comunicación Oral: México D.F.: Alhambra, 1993.

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The importance of communication The main problem in the majority of human organizations, from families up to very large associations, is that we do not know how to communicate with each other and, even more so, we often avoid contact with other people by creating all types of excuses. “I am very shy,”“I do not like to talk because I am not well-educated,” etc.

Communication and leadership It is important that every leader develop strong communication skills. To communicate is not only to transmit information but also to take care that the information is conveyed well. “What is said” is important, but even more so is “how it is said.” Part of communicating is knowing how to listen and let others talk. A leader should always try to be an effective listener.

Types of communication: The basic types of communication are:

Verbal communication: Verbal communication is that which is put into words to give the message. It is the main form of communication that is used and can be oral or written. Examples include conversations, assemblies, meetings, letters, etc. Independent of the type of communication that is used, it is important to take into account the words, the meaning that they give, and the time and place in which they are used. In order for communication to be effective, it is required that it be precise, clear, and that it come from both parties (giving and receiving). Written or spoken language can be confusing. A person can often make his/her own interpretation of what someone says, thus it is important to: Module III / Leadership and gender equity

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zz Know the topic that you are talking about. zz Be clear and direct. zz Organize your ideas and thoughts well.

Non-verbal communication or body language: We can communicate without pronouncing or writing any words. Actions are communicative non-verbal activities that are just as important as words. Non-verbal communication can be through body movements (posture, gestures) and the way in which we act in different places. It includes facial expressions, tone of voice, movements, etc. Non-verbal communication includes the actions that are performed as well as those that were not carried out. Thus, a strong handshake or arriving late to meetings every day are also ways of communication.

Graphic communication: Graphic communication and illustrations are complements to verbal communication; it refers to supporting graphics that are used to support a written message as much as they are to transmit a complete idea. It is important to combine illustrations with well-selected words in order to communicate successfully. In the same way, photographs, paintings, and drawings have a communicative function in themselves, by way of the image that they transmit.

Leadership and Development

CHIMNEY

IMPROVED COOKSTOVE

STOVETOP

FIREWOOD

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Activity: communication skills Objective: zz Analyze the importance of the different types of communication

and facilitate their development by means of simple practices

Exercise 1: Group pantomime OBJECTIVE: Facilitate the practice of bodily expressions through playful behavior PROCEDURE: • Explain to the group the importance of keeping in mind what our face and body say. • Explain to the participants that they have each lost the ability to speak, therefore they must communicate without talking. • Together, everyone must express different feelings and moods. For example, to express sadness, the

person would have to express him/herself in the way that he/ she walks, feels, looks, etc. Other

examples are laziness, anger, happiness, etc.

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Exercise 2: The great presenters OBJECTIVE: Practice creativity in graphic form and oral expression. PROCEDURE: • In groups of two or three people (or individually if it is a small group), ask the participants to create a drawing on the flip chart paper about whatever topic that they would like to explain to the others. • Every drawing will be hung up on the walls as if in an exhibition hall. • Together, the group will move around the room to the different drawings to hear each group present a short explanation of

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its drawing, describing it, and discussing its characteristics and practical utility (as an object), etc. Every presentation should be no longer than three minutes and the other participants should applaud for each group. The participants can ask questions to the presenting group (even though in many cases they will already know the answer, it is a way to practice public speaking and communication). • Afterwards, analyze together the feelings that were generated from having to present in public and be asked questions.


A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

Leadership capacity If we want to develop our leadership skills, we must work with ourselves as it is often necessary that we change our ways of thinking, acting in front of others, reacting to problems, and overcome our fear of confronting new situations. One of the things that we should improve is our social habits including conflict resolution, assertiveness, public speaking, and listening skills.

SOCIAL SKILLS

What are social skills? (Caballo, 1986) Social skills are demeanors that allow us to express our feelings, attitudes, desires, and opinions in a way that is adequate for a particular situation, respecting the behaviors of others and generally resolving any problems immediately in order to minimize the probability of future conflicts. In summary, social skills are the way that we behave and they help us relate to other people.

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CONFLICT RESOLUTION

What is conflict resolution? Conflict resolution refers as much to how we overcome obstacles (problems) that emerge as it does to finding the best way to satisfy each person’s needs (agreements and disagreements, discussions and reconciliations, differences and commonalities, etc).

How are conflicts resolved? The only way to resolve conflicts is to confront them. To do this, it is necessary to: zz Define what the conflict is about. zz Recognize who is part of the conflict. zz Understand the causes of the conflict. zz Define resolution strategies. zz Define actions to be taken.

Conflict resolution strategies: Negotiation is the activity in which the parties involved in the conflict communicate and interact to influence each other with the aim of coming to an agreement accepted by and which benefits both parties. Mediation is a type of negotiation in which a third party intervenes to help resolve the conflict. Its purpose is to achieve an agreement between the two parties who could not come to an understanding on their own. There are two types of mediation: Process mediation: the third party intervenes without making any decisions; and content mediation: the mediator makes the decision.

Resolving a conflict depends a lot on the intention, disposition, and motivation that both parties put forth to solve the problem.

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Assertiveness What is assertiveness? (Fensterheim and Baher, 1976) Assertiveness is only one aspect of social skills; it brings together the behaviors and thoughts that allows us to defend people’s rights without attacking others nor being attacked. The basic characteristics of assertiveness are: zz Freedom of expression zz Direct, adequate, open, and straightforward communication zz Ease of conversation with every type of person zz Respects and accepts one’s limitations For example, you go to buy fruit at the market. When the vendor gives you what you asked for, you realize that it is rotten. You could: A) Not say anything and take the rotten fruit even though annoyed. B) Ask the vendor to please exchange the piece of fruit. C) Make a big uproar telling the vendor that you will never return to purchase fruit from him.

This example illustrates the three main points on the continuum of assertiveness:

Passive behavior

Assertive behavior

Aggressive behavior

Neither A nor C are appropriate behaviors in this situation.

PASSIVE BEHAVIOR: Passive behavior consists in not adequately defending one’s rights by not being able to openly express one’s feelings, thoughts, or opinions or expressing them in a timid, self-defeatist, and apologetic manner such that others will not pay attention.

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AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR Aggressive behavior is that which defends one’s personal rights and expresses thoughts, feelings, and opinions in an inappropriate manner and attacks the rights of other people. Direct verbal aggression includes verbal offenses, insults, threats, and hostile or humiliating comments. Non-verbal components can include hostile gestures or threats such as intense glares and physical attacks. These ways of behaving are ineffective for a social life and they generate uneasiness within us. However, as with any other behavior, it is something that can be learned with practice.

ASSERTIVE OR SOCIALLY SKILLFUL BEHAVIOR Assertive behavior is the direct expression of one’s feelings, desires, and opinions without attacking others or violating the rights of other people. It implies respect for oneself by expressing one’s own needs and rights, as well as respect for others by defending the rights and needs of others. The person must also realize what his/her responsibilities are to act in a way that what he/she does gives expression to his/her feelings. It is important to remember that there is the proper time for everything and it is a skill to be able to find the right moment to say things.

Being assertive does not mean always wanting to be right, rather expressing our opinions and points of view whether they are correct or not. We all have the right to MAKE MISTAKES.

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Activity: the dramatization Objective: zz Contribute to the recognition and practice of social skills in perso-

nal interactions

Procedure: zz Divide the participants into three groups. zz Each group will analyze and give solutions to situations where

social skills are put to the test to resolves conflicts. Examples include 1) someone arrives and uses an aggressive tone of voice to complain to the organization; and 2) one person talks a lot and interrupts others during conversations and meetings. zz Each of these situations (two or three cases) will be presented and

each group must come up with a solution to the conflict. zz As a group, analyze which would be the correct way to manage

the situation and discuss the importance of social skills for conflict resolution and their use in daily life.

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Prรกctica 1: Pantomima Grupal


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Third workshop:

“FORMING LEADERS FOR COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT” Objectives: >> Facilitate the development of public speaking skills >> Analyze the importance of listening techniques

Public speaking PUBLIC SPEAKING SKILLS Formerly, it was thought that the public speaker was “special” and “different” and that he/she was born knowing how to speak. Today, we acknowledge that any person can develop public speaking skills with education, practice, and by controlling his/her emotions.

PUBLIC SPEAKING 12 Public speaking is the art of talking with eloquence in public, in other words, to being able to express oneself correctly with clarity, elegance, and sincerity By way of public speaking, we can: •

12

Teach others and transmit knowledge in different types of experiences.

Purizaca Risco Nestor. Manual de Oratoria Lima 2005.

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Persuade and influence others with reason and emotion. Succeed in getting others to accept an idea or do things you want them to.

Convince others to not only agree with what you say but to also accept it as their own.

To touch others and produce in them emotions such as happiness, sadness, indignation, etc.

To please or entertain; to succeed in making the people who listen to us feel content when we talk to them.

EFFECTIVE LISTENING Effective listening is the capacity to listen; above all, to listen is to show respect for and give attention to another human being. Until you have learned to listen, you will not be granted the right to speak. (Indian wisdom)

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Activity: development techniques

Breathing exercises Objective: zz Develop preliminary exercises for the session on public speaking

that will also serve as techniques for confronting stressful situations.

Procedure: zz In pairs, learn the correct technique for diaphragmatic breathing: inhale air through the nose and exhale air though the mouth. Expand the abdomen, not the breast; you can locate your diaphragm when you cough. zz Repeat the sequence of inhaling and exhaling air ten times, retaining the oxygen inside as you count to ten and then slowly exhaling the air and then again inhaling slowly and profoundly. zz Explain to the participants the importance of using this technique when one finds him/herself in a situation where he/she needs to relax, such as before giving a presentation.

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Confidence exercises Objective: zz Develop a higher level of confidence as a basic leadership tool.

Procedure: zz Form circles of approximately five people. The five people should place their feet against the feet of the people next to them, forming barriers. A person who either volunteers or is chosen will be in the middle of the circle. zz The person who stands in the middle of the circle will close his/her eyes, relax, and, without taking his/her feet off the floor, let his/her body fall forwards, backwards, and to the side. zz The group forming the circle will support the person in the middle of the circle without allowing him/her to fall. zz Each person will take a turn in the middle of the circle and then comment on the types of “challenges” or “fears” that he/she felt.

Presentation exercises Objectives: zz Develop tolerance for silence and the ability to be in front of people zz Analyze the feelings that are generated by exposing oneself to the public

Procedures: zz Explain the importance of being able to stand up in front of a group and the exploration of feelings that this act generates in us. zz Standing in front of people is like exposing oneself and it creates fears. zz Taking turns, one participant at a time will stand in silence in front of the group, making sure to have good posture and maintain eye contact with the audience, for approximately two minutes.

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Voice modulation exercises Objective: zz Practice the diction and modulation of one’s voice when speaking in public.

Procedure: zz After the two minutes spent in silence during the previous exercise, the participant will say one phrase, for example “I am not afraid of speaking,” in a slow and clear manner, but in three different tones of voice (low tone, medium tone, and high tone). zz Each of the participants will complete the exercise and will be reinforced with applause at the end of his/her turn.

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Activity: speaking with gestures COMBINING GESTURES AND WORDS IN A SPEECH Objective: zz Practice giving a speech and include gestures to emphasize the important points.

Materials: 99 Flip chart paper

Procedure: zz Explain to the participants the usefulness of combining gestures with what one says to enrich communication. zz Write different announcements on flip chart paper and hang them up on the wall: • • • • •

“When I say one, I mean one.” “When I say no, I mean no.” “When I say something is important, it is important.” “When I say it does not matter, I mean that it does not matter. “When I say ‘thank you very much, it is a pleasure,” I mean ‘thank you very much, it is a pleasure.’”

zz Ask the participants to voluntarily stand up in the front of the room and articulate the aforementioned announcements in a loud voice and with gestures for emphasis.

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Listening techniques zz Make eye contact. People feel that what they are saying is important when the person they are talking with looks at them. zz Nod your head and make appropriate facial expressions. This is a way of saying, without words, that you are continuing to pay attention. zz Avoid gestures or actions that distract the speaker. When you are listening, do not look at the clock or play with objects in your hand as these gestures will make the speaker think you are bored or are thinking about something else. zz Ask questions to clarify any doubts or achieve a better understanding of the topic. zz Paraphrase, that is, repeat what the other person has said in your own words. For example, “What you want me to understand is…?” zz Avoid interrupting the speaker, rather wait until he/she has finished speaking. zz Do not talk a lot. Sharing “talking time” helps us to feel comfortable in a conversation. zz Concentrate on what you are listening to and then take the appropriate time to respond. Do not be preoccupied with anticipating the answer.

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Ways to overcome fear zz Prepare your speech with time, giving yourself time to become very familiar with the topic, and use notes if you wish. zz Breathe slowly to relax and control your nerves that often flare up in front of a group. zz Remember that your fears are internal and that everyone else does not need to know them. Never dwell on ideas such as “I am really bad at this,” “they’re going to laugh at me.” The first person that should be convinced of your speaking capacity is you. zz Develop a positive mental attitude. Tell yourself, “I am going to do it well.” “I can do it!” “No one can stop me!” etc. zz Understand that, once you begin to speak, the nervousness will disappear on its own. Most people feel some sort of fear before they begin speaking, but upon saying the first words and hearing one’s own voice, the concerns disappear. zz Look the audience in the eye; if you do not, it shows that you are nervous. Do not look often at the floor, the ceiling, or your notes. Look face to face at the audience. If you give your attention to the audience, this will help you concentrate on your words and you will stop dwelling on your mistakes. zz Avoid any type of nervous movement or tick that lets others know how you feel. Do not put your hand in front of your mouth, stick your hands in your pockets, or run your fingers through your hair. zz Practice public speaking in every opportunity that presents itself, such as rehearsing with friends or asking a question or speaking up in a meeting.

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Activity: didactic presentation Objective: zz Contribute to the basic guidelines for listening techniques

Materials: 99 Flip chart 99 paperMarkers

Procedure: zz The presentation about listening techniques should be carried out by teaching the others using clear, simple language and utilizing the flip chart paper with drawings.

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Activity: the message Objective: zz Demonstrate the importance of knowing how to listen zz Demonstrate the ease with which one can distort messages

Materials: 99 A relevant story about the local reality, not more than one page.

Procedure: zz Ask for five volunteers from the group. Tell them that they will have to listen to a story and then repeat it. The five volunteers will wait outside the room until they have been called. zz Call the volunteers in one by one zz The facilitator will return to the room with the first volunteer; the two of them will sit facing each other in chairs located in front of the group. zz The facilitator will read the story only one time. The volunteer cannot ask questions and should not be able to see the paper. The rest of the group should remain silent. zz The facilitator will read the story only one time. The volunteer cannot ask questions and should not be able to see the paper. The rest of the group should remain silent.

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zz Repeat the storytelling until the fifth volunteer has told the story to the group. The facilitator and group will ask the fifth volunteer specific questions related to the content of the original story, such as the name of the characters, numbers and dates, etc., in order to understand the level of distortion or omission during the transmission of the story. zz Then, with everyone in the room, read the original story out loud. zz Ask the group members what they learned from this exercise.

Notes: Choose a realistic story that is not too long and include in it different names and points that should be remembered. Important points to raise during the discussion include: zz I t is very easy to distort a message. zz It is difficult to remember something that one does not understand. zz Sometimes, the meaning of things are lost or changed, even to the point of creating a message that is the complete opposite of the original message. zz A person’s preconceptions can allow him/her to alter what he/she hears. zz It is easier to remember exact points if one can see them written down

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Module IV

Organizational development and gender equity

“Warminakaxa janiwa quitina cha`apipapktsa, arsuwinakajaxa warawaran qhanampi sasiwa aka marka jani wiñaya chamakankañapatixa” “As women, we are not anyone’s thorn; our voice is like the light of night so that this community does not find itself in darkness for all of eternity.” Translation of an Aymaran phrase - Peru


A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

Organizational development and gender equity Duration 3 workshops

General Objective This training module is aimed at helping families reflect upon and analyze the current characteristics of their family organization and work towards establishing attitudes that help each family member to personally identify with the family’s development. Families can do this by using participatory tools such as self-analysis and planning, while always keeping a focus on gender equity and holistic development.

Main topics Organization (definition, human needs, characteristics, and fundamental elements) Vision Mission Strategy Organizational chart Planning

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First workshop:

“ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND GENDER EQUITY” Objectives: >> Promote the participatory analysis of organizational development >> Motivate participants to become more integrated and commit to

change

ORGANIZATION: definition, human needs, characteristics, and fundamental elements What is an organization? An organization is a system of activities that is clearly thought out and coordinated and is formed between two or more people. For the continued existence of the organization, it is essential that the members cooperate, identify with one another, and become integrated. This exists when: zz There are people who are capable of communicating with one

another and respecting different ideas and opinions. zz The members are willing to work together to achieve a common

goal (more than an “I,” it should be a “we”). zz The members recognize that the organization’s purpose is not to

satisfy everyone’s personal needs, rather the members can go a step further to feeling truly committed to the organization itself (instead of asking “What do I get out of it?” the question should be “What can I contribute to the organization?”)

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Rather than asking “What do I get out of it?” the question should be “What can I contribute to the organization?” In summary, organizations are more than just a group of people who are united “to achieve something,” but rather a group of people who know and fight for the objectives of the organization and who have a common view of the future and where they want to go (vision) as well as the work that they have to do to get there (mission). All members of the organization should share the desire to want to improve their quality of life and develop decision-making capabilities so that their organization can be self-sustainable (maintain itself with the support and effort of its members) and not fall apart due to exclusive dependence upon other people or external organizations (NGOs, government institutions, etc.).

What is a community-based organization? A community-based organization is the group of people located in a rural community who are interested in development that is more than just satisfying basic needs. These organizations seek to accomplish objectives, promote holistic development, and be able to represent their social, economic, and political context at the local, regional, and even national levels, which would be impossible to achieve individually.

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How are social organizations born? Social organizations are typically born out of the need to satisfy human needs.

Human needs13 Every person who lives in a society, region, town, district, or locality has a series of needs that should be covered in different moments of his/her life. In Peru, the amount of needs are immense and are different in every region or population group; moreover, the importance of satisfying these needs and the possibilities to do so are not the same in every region.

13 Cabrera, Zoila . Organizaciones populares. Separatas. Lima: HPI.

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Core needs They core needs that we have identified are:

Fundamental needs (Food, health, housing, education, and work)

Complementary needs (Recreation, culture, rest, vacation, etc.)

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Social needs (Integral community and regional development; economic, productive, and social development) The families in the communities seek to satisfy some of these needs with great urgency while they do not give much importance to other needs, but it is important to clarify that all of these needs together are important because: zz One’s life depends on the satisfaction of fundamental needs. zz When we satisfy our complementary needs, we attain a more

pleasing and human life, in other words a better quality of life. zz By covering social needs, we improve the quality of life for the en-

tire community and population together, thus giving great importance to the development of the human person.

How can we satisfy our needs? There are two ways of satisfying these needs: 1. Individually: every person, or every family, satisfies whatever needs he/she can for him/herself. 2. Collectively: people group together to jointly satisfy their needs.

Analyzing our reality, the sectors of society that have the greatest economic resources are able to satisfy many more of their needs in an individual manner. But, in many rural communities, the people do not have the economic resources to be able to satisfy all their needs individually. In this situation, it is necessary to join together for everyone’s personal and social development.

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At first, people usually join together to cover the fundamental needs (food, health, education) which become the initial objectives, but then they begin to look at topics other than material scarcities. It should not be forgotten that the organization should seek out the full development of the person and the community, covering complementary and social needs since satisfying these needs improves the way in which we live, that is, our quality of life.

However, not everything is achieved immediately, rather the organization should move slowly by proposing objectives, modifying them, and broadening them to incorporate new objectives and actions. As soon as the organization achieves an initial objective for which the group was originally formed, the organization should immediately establish a new objective. Or did the members’ interest in development end? Of course not! Only with new proposals and goals will the organization always remain active and vibrant. Past experiences have shown that when a group covers its need, when it achieves the only objective it set forth, the organization can fall apart if it disregards the importance of the shared experiences, struggles, communal failures, and achievements:

Testimonial Examples: “…until we decided to build our local school. We organized ourselves and worked on Sundays and holidays. The women took care of the materials and the children helped out. Once it was finished and inaugurated, we did not go any further. We did not get together anymore.” “… We began meeting to try to earn a little extra money with ourweaving, which is

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what we knew how to do. We bought the wool and when we sold the products we set aside the necessary money to buy more wool and the rest of the money was distributed among all of us. It was a beautiful experience, but there was not much profit in it. Thus, little by little, we each grew apart from the group… Now, we want to begin again with one group and then start a second group.”


A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

Due to this tendency, an organization should always look further than just the basic needs. The organization’s members should not just seek to cover the immediate needs of those involved, but also look to incorporate the majority of the population by working together to create experiences to exchange knowledge of the current reality, learnings and advances, and creating a consciousness of the everyday situation. Through these experiences, the organization should strive to transform the current reality and build a better life, including improvements in the relations between members; above all, these changes should be the product of a collective work.

The purpose of organizations is not only to meet concrete needs, but to be spaces for an exchange of experiences and ideas, learning, swapping of roles, raising questions about and reconsidering the current reality, carrying out different roles, sharing spaces, and creating solidarity. A product of getting to know oneself within a socioeconomic and political sphere is the development of political advocacy.

Principles of an organization zz Objectives: each and every activity established in the organiza-

tion should relate to the objectives and purpose of the organization; the existence of a responsibility, role, or activity is only justifiable if it truly serves to achieve the objectives. zz Authority and responsibility: the leadership board should fulfill

its functions as outlined in the statutes of the organization. zz Coordination: the members of the organization should always

communicate well with one another. zz Continuity: once the organizational structure has been establis-

hed, it must be maintained, improved, and adjusted to the changing environment and local reality.

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Characteristics of an organization Among the main characteristics of an organization, we must: zz Promote collaboration and negotiation between the members in

order to improve communication to not only have more results but so that these results are important achievements. zz Maintain a continuous nature; it must never be said that it is over

so long as the organization and its resources are subject to constant change (expansion or reduction, new direction, new objectives, etc.). “Rather than being afraid of change, one should be fearful of the deceitful monotony (always doing the same thing even when the reality changes).� zz It is a way through which objectives can be effectively achieved

and which would not be able to be accomplished by one person alone. zz Avoid slowness and inefficiencies in activities. Since the members

of the organization work together, the activities should be carried out correctly and with the least amount of effort possible. zz Avoid doing double the work by clarifying the functions and res-

ponsibilities of all the members.

Fundamental elements of an organization: zz VISION: the organization has a very clear vision of where it is

going and what it wants to achieve in the future. The vision must represent the feelings and aspirations of the members. This joint dream must be explicit and internalized for all group members; there cannot be even one member who does not know what he/ she aspires to achieve with the organization. zz MISSION: the organization must establish the way in which it will

attain the future which it hopes to achieve, develop the skills of its members, and prepare itself to put into practice and execute its dream. zz BOARD MEMBERS: identify the people or families who are in the

position to assume the challenges that the organization will confront. zz STATUTES AND INTERNAL RULES: clearly define the norms for

working together. From the beginning, all members should know their rights, responsibilities, and commitments that they will need to assume.

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zz WORK PLAN: define the steps needed to progressively fulfill the

organization’s dreams. Define implementation strategies and activities to accomplish the proposed objectives and goals and include the members in the process. Have a clearly organized plan of what the organization will complete each day, month, semester, and year. zz MANAGEMENT TOOLS: in addition to the field studies (rural needs

assessments, specialized studies on different topics such as forestry, water access, food security, etc.) and the holistic development plans carried out by the organization, the work and relationships with other organizations should be documented in historical records (record books, registry of photos, etc.). The organization should be familiar with its history and recognize the challenges overcome and the lessons learned as these are all important for the development of the organization’s identity. “An organization is not something static with an unknown history, unconscious present, or an undefined future. It is absolutely necessary to acquire and maintain the correct documents with specialized and updated information that clearly represents the surrounding community; this is crucial in order to know what is actually a priority and what are the strategic efforts needed to attain the organization’s vision. zz RESPONSIBLE ADMINISTRATION OF RESOURCES: the organization

must be responsible in the administration and management of its resources. It is considered responsible when there is a reliable control of income and expenses, when members are informed how money is being spent, and when the information is documented, organized, and accessible for review. zz GENDER EQUITY: both men and women should be involved in the

different organizational processes, including the establishment and implementation of its vision, mission, objectives, and achievements. Justice should be guaranteed in every opportunity developed by the organization. zz ENVIRONMENT: the organization should recognize itself as a commu-

nity that is interested in working in harmony with its environment and assuming the importance of activities that promote the conservation and proper use of natural resources. This collective aspiration includes maintaining a healthy environment within each family and the community.

It is important to remember that organizations are actors and builders of their future

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Activity: the hidden phrase PARTICIPATORY ACTIVITY Objectives: zz Analyze the importance of communication as the base for the for-

mation and maintenance of the organization. zz Reflect on the joint work needed to accomplish the objectives.

Materials: 99 Index cards with syllables written on themk

Procedure: zz Divide the participants into three groups. zz Each group will receive index cards that contain different syllables.

zz

zz zz zz

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Instruct the groups that “when organized, these syllables form a phrase. Try to assemble the phrase as a group.” This will create a competitive atmosphere as each group will want to be the first to assemble its phrase; however, the phrase will only be able to be completely assembled when all three groups work together with all of the index cards. After a set amount of time, ask each group to stand up and tell the rest of the participants what words it formed. The facilitator should point out to each group that the phrase it created is not the desired phrase (example phrase: AN/OR-GAN-I-ZA-TION/IS/ EVE-RY-ONE/WORK-ING/TO-GETH-ER/FOR/THE/SAME/OB-JECTIVE). After each group presents, the facilitator should tell the groups that they can all join together to jointly discover the phrase. Provide a certain amount of time for the groups to work together. Afterwards, reflect upon how one subgroup working on its own can lose sight of the goals and thus not achieve the objectives. The formation of subgroups, within the same organization, that work towards different objectives creates chaos and confusion. Thus, each working group within an organization should work with clear, shared goals.

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A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

Activity: didactic presentation Objectives: zz Provide the important and basic concepts, characteristics, and

fundamental elements of organizational development.

Materials: 99 Flip chart paper 99 Markers

Procedure: zz The presentation about organization development should be ca-

rried out by teaching the others using clear, simple language and utilizing the flip chart paper with drawings

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Activity: listening to the women GENDER EQUITY WITHIN THE ORGANIZATION

Objectives: zz Analyze the feelings that are generated when new ideas are pro-

posed in the community zz Reflect upon how women’s participation is being achieved in the

development of the organization

Procedure: zz Describe a fictitious situation saying that the organization has just

acquired new funding of “X” amount of money that will be invested in a project that the members propose. zz Ask for six to nine volunteers (depending on the number of par-

ticipants). zz In a separate room or area, explain to the volunteers that they

should break up into three groups and each group should develop a proposal that they will then have to present. One example of a proposal is the construction of improved cookstoves. zz Without letting the volunteers know, explain to the remaining

participants that they will be the judges. Without any regard for the creativeness of the proposals, the judges will have a predetermined reaction to the presentations. zz Invite each volunteer group to come back into the room one at a

time.

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zz The judges should treat the first group (women) with an inquisi-

tive attitude by asking questions. The judges should interrupt in different parts of the presentation to ask questions about what was said and objecting to different things, but without deciding at the end whether or not the proposal is accepted or rejected. zz The second group (women) should be received by the judges

with a rejected attitude. After listening to the proposal, the judges should give a resounding “no� with a pessimistic attitude. zz The judges should receive the third group (men) with an accep-

ting attitude, listening attentively to the proposal, and showing great desire to collaborate by applauding, complimenting the group, and formally accepting the proposal. zz Afterwards, explain the intention of this activity and ask the par-

ticipants to discuss how they felt in the three different situations. Explain to the group that many of us often arrive to meetings with a predetermined attitude, without a desire to listen to the ideas and contributions of others. Reflect upon the importance of listening to and collaborating with each member of the organization

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Activity: case study ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

Objectives: zz In a participatory manner, recognize and reflect upon the different

components that can lead to failure for the organization. zz Identify the basic themes of organizational development and

create general proposals to contribute to the organizational development.

Materials: 99 Case studies

Procedure: zz According to the number of participants, divide into three or four

groups. zz The facilitator will have previously developed case studies descri-

bing situations where an organization is having problems or has dissolved. zz For example: in a farming community called “New Town,” the fa-

milies no longer attend the meetings and the few people who do attend are men because, according to the statutes of the community, women are not recognized as land owners and thus do not have the right to vote. During this season, the men leave the community to find work and they “demand” that their wives to go to the meeting; however, the women understand little to nothing of what is said during the assemblies because they know very little

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about the organization (some do not even know who the president of the organization is). On the other hand, the leaders are worried because they cannot come to any agreement in regards to changing the leadership because there is no majority (since men are the ones who vote). Now, no member wants to go to meetings nor take on a leadership role because they do not trust one another, no one wants to support the different activities, and only the president and treasurer fulfill their duties. Everyone else has left without asking others to take on their responsibilities. The leaders are tired of the situation and want to bring on new leaders very soon.

What is happening with the members and the leaders of the organization? Why is this happening? What can be done to improve the situation? zz Each group will be given a different case study to analyze. Instruct the

groups to identify the key points that are hindering the organization’s development and to suggest possible solutions to the said problems. Each group will then present its analysis to the other groups. zz With the participation of the participants, the facilitator will elaborate

upon the concepts involved in organizational development and identify the importance of holistic development and sustainability strategies.

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Activity: working together WORKING IN TEAMS (INTEGRATION)

Objective: zz Analyze the importance of collaboration within a group or orga-

nization.

Procedure: zz Form two or more groups. Each group should name its leader. zz The facilitator will ask for a series of objects that the participants

have or that can be found in the area where the workshop is being held. zz Denote a specific place where each group should put its objects. zz The leader and the group should get what is asked for; the leader

should then turn in the object to the facilitator. zz The facilitator will only receive the object from the group that arri-

ves first, but not from the other groups. zz The group that turns in the most objects wins. zz Announce the winning group and then, with everyone present,

analyze how each group worked together and how the leader acted. zz Discuss and reflect upon the importance of collaboration and

coordination in any type of group work. Analyze the role of the leader, his/her function, and the importance of a leader.

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Activity: Organized planning and implementation put into practice

>>

Homework

The work that will be done must be beneficial and useful for the community, simple and easy to execuse together, and use locally available resources.

Objective: zz By means of a joint homework assignment, practically apply the

different themes discussed in regards to organizational development.

Procedure: zz As a group, suggest a task to be jointly carried out in the next two

weeks. zz Explain that the participants themselves will be responsible for

organizing themselves in order to fulfill the task. In the following meeting, the participants will evaluate the participation and effectiveness in reaching the goal.

Notes: Be sure to clarify: • The objective of the task to be carried out. This objective should be simple since it is a practice exercise.

Objective

Activities

Goal

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• The activities to be carried out. • The goal that the group wants to achieve and the date by which it will be achieved. • The responsibilities (defined by the leadership board) divided into working groups who will carry out the different activities. • An activity schedule that shows the progress made over time (show progress per day since this exercise will only last for a total of two weeks) and the date in which each activity will be complete.

Activity Timeline

(Days) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ----------------------

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Second workshop:

“FOSTERING PARTICIPATION WITHIN MY ORGANIZATION” Objectives: >> Analyze the level of participation within the organization, in the

areas of leadership, implementation, and responsibilities. >> Reconocimiento de la misión y visión organizacional.

Activity: evaluating the homework Objectives: zz As a group, evaluate the activities carried out, the level of collabo-

ration and coordination, and the effectiveness of the work.

Procedure: zz Analyze the effectiveness of the work carried out for the ho-

mework activity from the previous workshop. zz Each participant should mention at least one piece of feedback

about the work. zz Explain to the participants that this analysis and feedback exerci-

se should be carried out in a cordial manner that appreciates the contributions of each participant.

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Activity: the puzzle INTEGRATION OF THE ORGANIZATION

Objective: zz Analyze the importance of identifying functions for and the inte-

gration of the members of the organization.

Materials: 99 Puzzle pieces (that form the shape of a doll)

Procedure: zz Form two or three groups and ask each group to choose its repre-

sentative. zz Give each group a set of puzzle pieces (one group should receive

the pieces that correspond to the arm of the doll, another group the legs, another the head, etc.). Each representative should try to put the puzzle pieces together; the trick is that the representative will be blindfolded and will have to complete the puzzle with the vocal instructions of his/her group members zz After several minutes of failed attempts, the facilitator will give the

groups a second chance. This time, the representative can put the puzzle together with the help of one of the other group members who is allowed to guide the representative’s hand and help him/ her to put the pieces together. zz After having put the puzzles together, analyze the first attempts

(when it was almost impossible to complete the puzzle). Then, discussing the second opportunity, analyze how an objective can be achieved when taking into account different points of view.

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zz After the discussion, ask the different groups to put all of their

separate puzzles together. Relate the different parts of the body with the leadership and member roles within the organization. Analyze the functions and importance of each part, asking the participants to think about how the participation of every part of the body is important for the organization to function properly, the advantage to developing and working with each part, and the advantage to working with other bodies (other organizations). Mention that there is no part (role) that is more or less important than others.

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Acknowledging our organization Vision14

Vision is the WHAT An organization’s vision is the picture of the future that the organization wants to create. It gives the organization a direction to go in, in other words, a goal, the desired results, or the image of what will happen.

Elements of a vision The vision depends on three elements: zz People zz Place zz Productive resources

With these elements, a vision of the future can be developed that includes values, the way to achieve the vision, and the future resources that will be needed in order to achieve the organization’s dreams.

The organization should develop its vision in a creative and unrestricted manner, while also being realistic. The “shared vision” of the group should be related to the “personal vision” of each member so that everyone is motivated to accomplish a greater objective. It is crucial to develop the vision as a team.

14

“Cornerstone Model,” Heifer Project International - 1996.

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Mission15

Mission is the WHY The mission is the reason for which the organization exists. It explains why the organization is doing the work that it does. It is the institutional purpose for a determined period of time, generally longterm, thus the mission helps orient the organization’s activities. It can be a small paragraph or just one sentence. The mission should provide a brief description of the organizational image, its purpose for existing, and its way to achieve and maintain its image (Kiggindu, 1989).

>> The mission helps orient the organization’s activities

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“Cornerstone Model,” Heifer Project International - 1996.

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Activity: past, present, and future Objectives: zz Evaluate whether or not the organization’s objectives have been

obtained over time zz Analyze the difficulties encountered on the journey and the way

in which they were overcome zz Analyze the mission and vision of the organization

Materials: 99 Flip chart paper 99 Markers 99 Index cards

Procedure: zz Explain to the group that it will be examining the organization’s

objectives and activities. zz Form three groups, each of which will evaluate a certain time pe-

riod. zz Provide index cards that the groups can use for brainstorming. zz “The past” refers to activities that were carried out when the orga-

nization first began. What were the initial objectives? What did the organization want to achieve in the past? zz “The present” refers to what is currently happening in the organi-

zation. What are the current objectives? What does the organization currently want to achieve? zz “The future” refers to what the organization wants to achieve.

What will the organization’s objectives be in the future? What will its vision be (should coincide with the organization’s current vision)? zz Finally, the groups will present their organizational missions

and visions and tape their index cards to the chart below (which should be written or printed on flip chart paper). zz Discuss the results as a group.

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Past

Present

Future

Objectives Main activities

Our vision

Our mission

Strategy: definition and significance STRATEGY An organization’s strategy is the way in which it carries out its activities to accomplish a goal or objective. To develop strategies, the organization should: zz Make a list and describe the strategies needed to accomplish ob-

jectives. zz Review the proposed strategies to see if they fit well within the

future vision. zz Make a list of activities for each strategy including the sequence of

tasks and the time that it will take to complete each one.

Defining strategies is an art. Strategies must be devised in a way that outlines a path that is different from the one that we have walked before, or that is unique from others, to find the best way to accomplish the objectives of the organization. When doing this, we should value what we have in our own organization and also take into account possible external influences.

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What makes up the strategy? The strategy is made up of the following elements: a) Relationship between objectives and activities: each activity carried out by the organization should be compatible with the established strategy; at the same time, the activities should coincide with the direction of the objectives. b) Resources and capabilities: an organization should be familiar with its strengths and weaknesses that can affect the achievement of its objectives. c) External influence: organizations must attempt to anticipate the changes that will occur in the future.

16

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“Cornerstone Model,” Heifer Project International - 1996.

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Activity: the decision labyrinth17 Objectives: zz In a participatory manner, understand strategy as a tool to achieve

objectives. zz Analyze the importance of decision-making for the development

of an organizational vision.

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“Técnicas participativas para la educación popular” Madrid: Alforja.1985

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Procedure: zz The facilitator will explain the concept of strategy and its impor-

tance for the accomplishment of an organization’s objectives by giving examples that help the participants to understand the concept. The facilitator should highlight the difference between strategy and activities so there is clarity for when the participants partake in the group activity. zz Divide the participants into three groups. Give each group a blank

labyrinth that has different ways to achieve the goal (main objective) and tell the groups to analyze and solve them. zz Suggest that the main objectives which are analyzed be the

organization’s current objectives. zz The groups should analyze the different possible paths to achieve

the objectives (the facilitator can help clarify any possible doubts). Each entrance point to the labyrinth should be identified as a different strategy and every turn or intersection as an activity. zz Once the groups have completed their labyrinths, each group

will present the different paths that they created in order to arrive at the goal, mentioning which path (strategy) it considers as the most effective by analyzing both its characteristics and advantages. zz The facilitator should mention that there can be different ways

to achieve something, depending on the skills of those who will be following the strategy. Strategies should be developed and evaluated before beginning a project (as when entering into the labyrinth). Clearing marking the path (strategy) helps orient us so that we can follow the path without going in blindly and hoping for good luck. However, it is possible to change the path (strategy) after beginning if the organization realizes that the chosen strategy is not working, but without losing sight of where we want to go (the objective).

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Third workshop: “RECOGNIZING MYSELF AS A CHANGE AGENT IN MY ORGANIZATION”

Organizational chart Organizational chart An organizational chart is an important instrument for the organization as it is a graphical representation of the organization’s structure. The organizational chart shows the structure and levels of authority in the organization. It allows any member of the organization to see where he/she fits within the organizational structure.

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Activity: group work Objectives: zz The participants recognize their roles and responsibilities within

the organization and where they fit in the structure of the organization. zz Analyze the characteristics of integration and the importance of

each person in the organization.

Materials: 99 Flip chart paper 99 Markers 99 Index cards 99 Pre-cut silhouettes of men and women 99 Cardboard hats (optional)

Procedure: zz Provide flip chart paper for the participants to create their organi-

zational chart. zz Give the participants index cards to write down the different posi-

tions within the organization. zz Ask the participants to organize the index cards to create the struc-

ture of the organizational chart. They should also put the pre-cut silhouettes of a man or a woman next to the index card according to whether a man or woman holds the position. zz Afterwards, ask the participants if it was easy to create the orga-

nizational chart, analyzing whether or not they really know their organizational structure and the level of participation of the men and women. For example, ask the participants: are there more men than women who hold positions? If there are women, what roles do they have? Do the women have important positions? How easy is it for a woman to become president of a community-based organization? These questions should help the participants analyze how much they are preparing themselves to fill the different responsibilities in the organization.

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A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

Example: Organizational chart of ACBIODESA (created by the participants of the “Organizational Development” workshop in Piura, Peru 02/19/05)18.

General assembly

President

Vide president

Treasurer

Internal Auditor

Secretary

Promoters

Administrative assistants

Member families

Suggested additional work: zz After discussing the organizational chart, divide the participants

into smaller groups and ask them to evaluate the characteristics of the leadership roles: the functions, responsibilities, and qualities that the person of each position should fulfill. zz After completing the analysis of the organizational chart, a repre-

sentative from each group should stand in front of the room to present the position that his/her group analyzed. The representative should wear a cardboard hat with the position written on the front of it and he/she should talk as if he/she were the person who holds that position.

It can be observed that the highest leadership roles are held by men and the women occupy the roles of promoter or administrative assistant. In this case, the questions that should be asked are: “How is the organization making it possible for women to hold higher leadership roles?” “Are the women effectively assuming responsibility of their current positions?” “How are the women preparing themselves to rise up the ladder?”

18

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Activity: organizational self-evaluation STRENGTHS AND POTENTIAL

Objectives: zz The participants evaluate the level of development of their orga-

nization zz Reflect upon the different strengths and challenges of the orga-

nization

Procedure: zz Form groups (the number of groups should be equal to the num-

ber of criteria being evaluated) and assign each group a certain criteria. Each group should evaluate its assigned criteria with a score of 1 to 5. zz The score should be based upon the analogy of the development

process of a tree. The facilitator should predesign the criteria to enable a more uniform analysis by each group. zz The scores will be added up during the second phase where the

entire group will debate and evaluate the criteria. zz The criteria that have very low or very high scores should be eva-

luated and the participants should establish agreements and commitments to improve the criteria that scored poorly.

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A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

PLANNING19 Planning is the HOW Planning is the construction of a map that shows how to get where we want to go. It helps ensure that all of the organization’s resources and talents are used in the best way possible to attain the desired results. During the planning stage, it is important to use a participatory methodology where all the members of the organization can contribute their ideas. Planning should be designed to satisfy the needs of the organization. For this, the participants should have a broad view of the aspects to be discussed (material, social, ecological, and spiritual). Thus, the situation (people, place, and resources) should be identified first and then the vision of the organization should be established. Planning will help the organization to achieve its vision.

19

“Cornerstone Model,” Heifer Project International - 1996.

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A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

Activity: planning matrix PARTICIPATORY PLANNING

Objectives: zz Offer basic tools for organizational planning

Procedure: zz Based upon the previously identified aspects that the organiza-

tion needs to work on and the commitments obtained from the previous activity, the facilitator should work with the group in a participatory way to create the planning matrix as a tool for the organization to lay out how it will accomplish its objectives. If the organization already has a plan in place, the participants could review and edit it or they could use this technique to plan specific tasks; however, it should be kept in mind that tasks require shortterm planning (months) and objectives require medium-term planning (annual plans). zz The participants should commit to put into practice the planning

method, trying to make sure the different members of the organization are involved in the process. AREA / TOPIC

134

What?

OBJECTIVE

ACTIVITIES

RESOURCES

GOALS

TIME

PERSON RESPONSIBLE

Why?

How?

With what?

Module IV / Organizational development and gender equity

How many?

When?

Who?


A Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus

Bibliography Printed Sources Aaker, Jerry, and Jennifer Sumaker. El modelo de los fundamentos. Little Rock: Heifer Project International, 1996. 93 pp. Heifer Project Internacional; World Concern. Separata: Aprendiendo a facilitar la perspectiva de género en el desarrollo. Guatemala, 2000. Carrera, Llorenç (et al.). Cómo educar en valores. Madrid: Narcea, 1996. 302 pp. Maldonado Willman, Héctor. Manual de comunicación oral. México D.F.: Alambra, 1993. 177 pp. Purizaca Risco, Néstor. Manual de Oratoria. Lima: Palomino, 2005. 370 pp. Williams, Suzanne (et al.). Manual de Capacitación en género de Oxfam. Lima: Flora Tristan, 1997. 487 pp. Vargas Vargas, Laura, and Graciela Bustillos de Nuñez. Técnicas participativas para la educación Popular. Lima: Tarea, 1987. 288 pp.

Online Sources “Asertividad.” <www.psicología-online.com> “Identidad cultural.” <http://portal.huascaran.edu.pe/comunidad/xtras/ web/catalogo_multimedia/doc_portal/DOCENTES_PRODUCTOS_identidad_cultural.doc> “Estrategia.” <http://www.adrformacion.com/cursos/diremp/leccion1/ tutorial1.html> “Líder.” <http://www.deportes.gov.ar/Paginas/LiderazgoEnProceso.pdf> “Liderazgo.” <http://www.cge.udg.mx/revistaudg/rug31/opinion3.html>

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The “Facilitator’s Guide to Community Development with a Gender Equity Focus” was printed in June 2014 by: Ymagino Publicidad S.A.C. Jr. Cusco N° 412 - Int. 101


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Facilitator's guide to community development with a gender equity focus  

Working Document No. 4 Mariela Wismann, Madeleine Muñoz and Cleida Incacutipa Translation: Monica Dykas. First edition 2008, Translation Jun...

Facilitator's guide to community development with a gender equity focus  

Working Document No. 4 Mariela Wismann, Madeleine Muñoz and Cleida Incacutipa Translation: Monica Dykas. First edition 2008, Translation Jun...

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