Images, text: Heidi Merrild, Radosław Stańko Design, post-production, assembly: Radosław Stańko Horsens, August 2015 Unless otherwise credited all texts, images, drawings, and diagrams were created by Heidi Merrild and Radosław Stańko. Every reasonable attempt has been made to identify authors and owners of copyrights. We apologize for any errors or omissions that may have occurred. Please contact us should you have any corrections. For all images not credited to Heidi Merrild or Radosław Stańko, the full credit line is available in the end of this publication.
VIA School of Business, Technology and Creative Industries Campus Horsens, department of Architectural Technology and Construction Management
COUNTRY OR ORGANIZATION
Non-national pavilions 10
Michele de Lucchi
Herzog & de Meuron
Anne Holtrop, Anouk Vogel
Patrick Genard & Asociados
Arthur Casas + Marko Brajovic
Netwerch GmBH of Brugg
United Arab Emirates
Foster + Partners
THEME Divinus halitus terræ Save Biodiversity. Save the Planet Shopping today at the supermarket of tomorrow Divide to multiply. Breaking the bread
Breathe. Austria Archaeologies of Green Belgium’s conviviality has a sustainable future Feeding the World with Solutions El Amor de Chile Fields of Ideas Harmonious Diversity You Are What You Eat Heritage in Harvest Reference to main EXPO theme Confooderatio Helvetica Food for Thought – Shaping and Sharing the Future Growth in Britain and Northern Ireland
“Feeding the Planet, Energy for Life”
â€œFeeding the Planet, Energy for Lifeâ€? is the core theme of Expo Milano 2015. The headline is relevant for todayâ€™s lifestyle and awareness about feeding the planet. The fact that about 1.3 billion tons of food is being wasted every year is just one of many reasons why we have to focus on conscious political choices, develop sustainable lifestyles, and use the best technology to create a balance between the availability and the consumption of resources. Expo have many other interesting aspects, especially the fact that every country design a pavilion, some with a strong sustainability aspect others designed as either
contemporary or movable pavilions. Also lots of efforts is given to present architectural and cultural values into design and technologies. The main purpose for us to explore the Milan Expo is the different pavilions strategy on design for disassembly, new developments in materials and technology and some interesting points of architecture. We have, according to this, pointed out some pavilions with this particular interest. There are also many other pavilions in terms of other aspects but this is the limitation or the angle we would like to review in this booklet.
Source: uncubemagazine.com Image ÂŠ Herzog & de Meuron
The master-plan, was initially suggested by Herzog & de Meuron, trying to convince the organisers to undertake the necessary steps to get the participating nations (145 nationsÂ participating in the Milan Expo 2015) to give up their conventional pavilions and instead focusing on their specific contribution to Agriculture and food production, did not succeed. The Origin of the master-plan was though kept, as shown in the figure with a clear axis through the site, just with pavilions and not land for agriculture.
Zero architecture: Michele de Lucchi theme: Divinus halitus terrĂŚ
Pavilion Zero provides an introduction to EXPO 2015, spotlighting areas as agriculture, food production and consumption, both past and future together with current problems concerning nutrition, food waste and hunger. The pavilionâ€™s architecture is a modern, unique interpretation of vernacular hous-
ing in Italy - trulli - white, cone-roofed buildings in Alberobello, region Apulia. These houses were build with dry stone without any mortar or cement for among others - agricultural labourers. Therefore the connotation to food and culture remains.
Source: en.wikipedia.org Image by Frédéric de Goldschmidt
“We already produce enough food today to feed the entire population in the world. And, yet, around 800 million people are hungry” José Graziano da Silva, FAO Director-General
Slow Food architecture: Herzog & de Meuron theme: Save Biodiversity. Save the Planet
Located at the far end of the Expo site, Herzog & de Meuron’s Slow Food Pavilion comprises three simple wooden sheds, all of which offer shelter but due to their open sides are also exposed to the elements. The three sheds frame a triangular courtyard furnished with large planting boxes, each containing rows of vegetables and herbs.
According to Herzog & de Meuron, the long and narrow structures were inspired by the traditional farmhouses of Italy’s historic Lombardy region. The design and structure is a very good example of design for disassembly. Once the Expo is over, they will be disassembled and transported to a selection of Italian schools, where they will be rebuilt and used as garden sheds.
Source: archdaily.com Image ÂŠ Herzog & de Meuron
Future food architecture: Carlo Ratti theme: Shopping today at the supermarket of tomorrow
Future food pavilion, as one of additional non-national buildings, brought into focus of the future society of knowledge. That particular knowledge was information about food - such as nutrition values, expiry dates and origin. Those information were displayed on the screens each time the visitors took a product from the shelf.
Sleek and stylish screens, either black or mirror-alike made a perfect combination with robots packing apples. Impression of future was made through design and technology. However, the information provided on the screens was available in Italian language only.
Three main areas were taken on the spot: raw material sourcing, social sustainability and manufacturing process.
Caritas architecture: Piuarch theme: Divide to multiply. Breaking the bread
The Edicola, this is the name of the small pavilion designed by Piuarch. The pavilion has the appearance of a fragmented cube, the structure has been designed keeping simplicity at the core of its composition and the unadorned nature of its appearance. The structure is divided into 5 elements.
The uniformity of the construction is provided by its structural profile characterized by the same external dimensions, colour and materials. Thanks to its extremely simple structure, the Edicola seems to be a design with possibility to disassembly and reuse over time.
Austria architecture: Terrain theme: Breathe. Austria
The Austrian pavillion highlight the importance of oxygen and cooling air to the environment, as well as to promote the country’s approach to managing sustainable forests- and its done very well, It incorporates natural cooling systems rather than air conditioning, creating its own microclimate. “Air is not only one of the most important quality characteristics of Austria, but by world standards” - says Klaus K. Loenhart, architect, landscape architect, and
partner in team.breathe - “Air, climate and atmosphere are considered foods, information carriers, energy and producers of resource.” An open roof allows natural sunlight down into the pavilion, and is supplemented by discrete lighting fixtures. As light filters through the tree canopy, dappled shadows are cast over the ground – similar to a forest floor. This “forest atrium” should be able to not only provide oxygen but also cool down the building.
Source: dezeen.com Author unknown
DSC-solar sculpture on the roof
Bahrain architecture: Anne Holtrop, Anouk Vogel theme: Archaeologies of Green
“I wanted to make something which starts by minding the past but is making the future.” Panels of pre-cast white concrete were used to build the structure. These are connected to one another using dry joints, and then finished with brass fittings.
“The architecture we made exactly follows the drawing” 350 pieces of white prefabricated concrete in total concrete panels that we assembled like a puzzle, loosely stacked on top of each other. The whole link together all elements in a very appealing way. The pavilion will be disassembled and transported to Bahrain and used as a school.
Belgium architecture: Patrick Genard & Asociados theme: Belgiumâ€™s conviviality has a sustainable future
The most remarkable part of the Belgium pavillion, is the displays and experiments focusing on scientific and technical advances in the field of food technology, such as alternative food production methods, aquaponics, hydroponics, cultivation of insects and algae. The Pavilion is therefore a genuine laboratory of ideas and innovations on a large scale.
Some points in the lab on Aquaponics: 500 % more productivity of aquaponics versus soil farming 90 % less water required for aquaponics compared to traditional framing systems. 50 % faster growth of plants in aquaponics, plants have better access to water and nutrients and plant density can be increased 40 % less labour required to run an aqua-
ponics farm than a conventional farm. 30 % energy requirement relative to conventional farming because of reduced harvesting, transportation etc. And, Aquaponics require: less fertilizers, pesticides, hormones, antibiotics; can be set-up anywhere; does not rely on availability of fertile soil; is scalable from home-level to industrial level
Brazil architecture: Arthur Casas + Marko Brajovic theme: Feeding the World with Solutions
Brazil’s Expo pavilion, have suspended a huge rope canopy over a garden. The pavilion, which is one of the largest built structures on the Expo site, comprises two adjoining blocks – one housing the main exhibition and the other conceived as a Brazilian garden and playground. It is an interesting approach, with the different levels and the space created.
Main component of Brazilian pavilion landscape-alike expanse made of rope attached to steel frame. An entertaining way of elevating people to higher level, where main exhibition starts, together with forming an interesting and eye-catching sculpture above the garden.
Chile architecture: CristiĂĄn Undurraga theme: El Amor de Chile
extended life cycle. This Meccano-like structure, where every single piece, can be easily disassembled, transported and reassembled somewhere else and at the same time itâ€™s a very flexible and neutral space that will allow different uses in the future.
Germany architecture: Schmidhuber theme: Fields of Ideas
The German pavillion have many insights to innovative solutions both in terms of feeding the planet but also energy for life. Where one of the interesting aspects was the OPV organic photovoltaic.
Customized organic photovoltaic (OPV) products is steadily increasing. The manufacturing of OPV is done with a technology that enables the utmost freedom of design. This is achieved by combining freeform laser structuring processes with large-area coating and printing technologies, all of which are based on reliable industrial processes leading to a robust production process as well as easy and cost-effective scalability. The results of these developments have been demonstrated at the German Pavilion at the World EXPO 2015 in Milan, where BELECTRIC and its project partners have installed an OPV system comprising hexagonal modules with a cell layout designed to be aesthetically pleasing. Source: www.solarte.de
Japan architecture: Atsushi Kitagawara theme: Harmonious Diversity
Japanese created a pavilion particularly interesting for itâ€™s architectural look thanks to exterior layer of wooden structure. Each of them has a specific geometry allowing for assembly without any nails, bolts or glue into three-dimensional wooden grid. The pattern gives solar shading but keeps the walls open for wind penetration.
This specific solution has a strong connection to Japan architectural heritage and gives a stylish, abstract, and modern pattern today. Concerning the exhibition itself Japanese pavilion keeps focus on agriculture, diet, preparation of food and culture of food in entertainment terms.
Part of the exhibition - Japanese ceramics showing both old and modern design, shape, solution and purpose.
Korea South architecture: Archiban theme: You Are What You Eat
The exhibition is well organised and a nice experience, but with strange elements - attributable artistic touch. Authentic in the sense that they offer a well-known Korean food-storage technology (fermentation)
to the world: Do like us, it will help all of you. This make sense since many foods are actually lost in the world because they cannot be stored long enough or stored incorrectly.
Oman architecture: David Knafo theme: Heritage in Harvest
The Oman Pavillion have in particular an interesting exhibition, with low tech solution for growing food, simple coast protection creating a habitat for seafood and vernacular cooking principals.
ac ce rte ss w ds sh at yp af er h ts o clo un n d ta se e r k d an ac wa ing d ce di m ss ot s he ha r w fts el l
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Above: Diagram showing the water flow system - a pride of Oman listed as UNESCO heritage site.
On the left: Main entrance to Oman pavilion with water cascade - adapted small scale water flow system
porous cardboard surface seawater
cool, humidified air
fans draw air through greenhouse
fresh water storage
Seawater greenhouse, which is built in Muscat, using solar power to produce fresh water from seawater. The greenhouse produce 300-600 L of freshwater per day during summer.
Poland architecture: 2PM theme: reference to main EXPO theme
Polish pavilion is a cubic, isometric, and straight building covered with an meshed pattern. Each element resembles of wooden box typically used for packing apples - main export food product of Poland. The grid gives an interesting impression both inside and outside.
The exhibition starts with a walk through garden. Mirror-alike walls make a feeling of infinite meadow or grassland typical for polish countryside. In further part of exhibition a scant attention has been paid to the main theme.
Switzerland architecture: Netwerch GmBH of Brugg theme: Confooderatio Helvetica
The Swiss pavilion focus on habits of consumption both from outside and inside, questioning our minds and our behaviour on consumption. The project, which focuses on the availability and distribution of food resources in the world, invites visitors to reflect on their behaviour as consumers. At the same time it’s showing
products either processed or produced in Switzerland. The pavilion, which covers an area of 4.432 square meters, combines industrial elements like a warehouse with moving levels. The towers, acting as deposits, recall the world of technology and machinery.
United Arab Emirates architecture: Foster + Partners theme: Food for Thought – Shaping and Sharing the Future The two wavy walls at the building’s entrance were constructed from red pigmented GRC, which stands for glass-fibre reinforced concrete. The feature rippled surfaces intended to resemble the ridges of sand dunes – a pattern based on a scan taken in the desert. Since 2007 Foster has been working on “the world’s first zero-carbon, zero-waste city” in Abu Dha-
bi. Named Masdar City, it will become the new home for the UAE Pavilion after the Expo finishes in late October. The pavilion is designed for disassembly, not as massive concrete elements but hanging on a steel structure – which make this possible with 12m high concrete elements.
Source: www.exhibitionstand.contractors Author unknown
United Kingdom architecture: Wolfgang Buttress theme: Growth in Britain and Northern Ireland The UK pavillion is developed around the concept of the beehive and how new research and technology are helping to address food security and biodiversity.
The uk Pavillion is a 1,910 square metre Pavilion with an impressive design and complex structure, done by creative construction and manufacturing.
Of the 100 crop species that provide 90 percent of the world’s food, over 70 are pollinated by bees alone. Woven into the UK Pavilion’s very structure is a demonstration of how UK science, innovation and creativity combine to directly address ‘Feeding the Planet, Energy for Life’
The amasing structure designed for disassembly is constructed from 169,300 individual aluminium components. Assembled in 32 horizontal layers, the structure comprises three main components: chords, rods and nodes. The concentric zig-zag shaped chords form the main body of the hive and are connected to rods measuring up to one-metre long.
Opening p. 8-9 Image © Herzog & de Meuron, (2015), Masterplan [ONLINE]. Available at http://www.uncubemagazine.com/ uncube/magazine/art-1425303037595e330263a-ce42-485c-b9ea-acd0290cdbf2/ DATA/IMAGES/Int_original_plan_03. png [Accessed 25 August 2015] Pavilion Zero p12. Image by Frédéric de Goldschmidt (2006) Toits Alberobello (1024) [ONLINE]. Available at https://commons. wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Toits_Alberobello_(1024).jpg#/media/File:Toits_Alberobello_(1024).jpg [Accessed 21 August 2015] Slow Food p.18 Image © Herzog & de Meuron, (2015), Plan [ONLINE]. Available at http://images.adsttc.com/media/images/555f/c1ee/e58e/ce19/1b00/0190/ large_jpg/446_DR_1503_006_Padiglioni. jpg?1432338915 [Accessed 20 August 2015] Austria p.35 Author unknown (2014), Section
detail [ONLINE]. Available at http://static. dezeen.com/uploads/2015/05/Austria-pavilion_Milan-Expo-2015_dezeen_3_1000. gif [Accessed 20 August 2015] Germany BELECTRIC OPV GmbH (2015) BELECTRIC OPV releases its novel Design-2-Module tool for easy access to customized OPV products. [ONLINE] Avaliable at http://www.solarte.de/index.php/en/?file=files/theme_data/pdf/ BEL_PM_2015-06-24_Design2Module. pdf [Accessed 19 August 2015] Oman p. 77-79 Diagrams made on basis of artworks presented in Oman Pavilion at EXPO 2015 United Arab Emirates p. 97 ExpoRoad LLC (2015), no title [ONLINE]. Avaliable at http://www. exhibitionstand.contractors/en/news/262/ Road-to-Expo-2020-3-storey-UAE-Pavilion-at-Milan-Expo-unveiled [Accessed 18 August 2015]
University publication, a EXPO review published at VIA University College, Campus Horsens, Denmark.