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PEDESTRIAN STREETS


The University of Waterloo PLAN 474 Karen Hammond Hee Suk Lee


Table of Contents Introduction What is pedestrian streets?

p.2

Case Studies Pedestrian-Only-Street Takeshita Dori, Tokyo

p.4

The 16th Street, Denver

p.8

Spark Street Mall, Ottawa

p.12

Calle Florida, Buenos Aires

p.16

Shangxiajiu, Guangzhou

p.20

The 3rd Street Promenade, Santa Monica

p.24

Haeng-Bok-No, Uijeongbu

p.28

Pedestrian Precinct Strøget, Copenhagen Distillery District, Toronto

p.32 p.36

Pedestrian Boulevard Las Ramblas, Barcelona

p.40

Summary Findings Street Sections

p.45

Summary of the Streets Commonalities and Differences Summary of Pedestrian Street Elements

p.46 p.48 p.48

Reference Appendix Reference

p.49 p.50


Symbols used in this report:

Bench

Street Performance

Water Feature

Public Transit

Light

Shuttle System

Automobile Allowancet

Vegetation

Street Market

Public Art

Outdoor Patio

Subway System


Introduction

W

hat is Pedestrian Street?

Pedestrian streets are an ancient urban design element.It represents a place’s unique historical, cultural, and political environment. (Robertson, 1994). Pedestrian streets are usually located in or near the center of a city and are designed to provide a convenient, attractive, and comfortable walking environment. Pedestrian streets are usually paved with distinctive textures and non-asphalt materials and surrounded by commercial-use buildings with strong connectivity to the public transit. (Robertson, 1994) There are many different forms and types of pedestrian streets all over the world. In this paper, three types of pedestrian street will be discussed, 1. Pedestrian-only-streets – The term pedestrian streets and pedestrian malls are interchangeable in this report. Definition of ‘mall’ is “a large retail complex containing a variety of stores and often restaurants and other business establishments housed in a serious of connected or adjacent buildings or in a single large building” or “a large area, usually lined with shade trees and shrubbery, used as a public walk or promenade” (Dictionary.com). Therefore in this report, pedestrian-only-streets and pedestrian malls are interchangeable. Pedestrian-only-streets prohibit automobile activity other than loading trucks at certain time of the day. 2. Pedestrian Precincts evolve where two or more pedestrian-only streets are connected together, forming a distinctive, mutually-supportive district. Like the single pedestrian-only streets, the only allowable vehicular activity is loading, and that is restricted to prescribed time limits. 3.Pedestrian Boulevards are broad central medians located in very wide vehicular streets. The Pedestrian Boulevard takes up more than half of the total street width, and is paved like a street with full of street activities, such as street performances and markets.

This report explores a selection of well-known, successful pedestrian streets from around the world. Their characteristics are compared with the intent to find commonalities that lead to success, and ultimately to identify best practices. Successful pedestrian streets: 1. Are located in the centre of a city, 2. Have retail shops and restaurants with patio on the ground floor, 3. Have street activities – such as street market, programmed events, or street performances, 4. Have easy access to different modes of public transportation, 5. Connect to other P.O.I designations, 6. Provide vegetation and street furniture where pedestrians can rest, 7. And have adequate street lights to ensure safety at night.

2 .


Case Study: Takeshita

Takeshita Dori, Harajuku Takeshita Dori (street) is the symbol of Harajuku fashion street and a birthplace of many Japanese fashion trends. Takeshita Dori is a narrow, roughly 400-meter-long street lined with shops, boutiques, cafes and fast food restaurants, that target Tokyo's teenagers.(Japan-Guide.com) Takeshita Street became one of Tokyo’s busiest tourist attractions due to its diverse and trendy fashion, appealing to the young Japanese Market and tourists. (Japan-Guide.com) The buildings on the street contain commercial, mainly low-end retail stores, restaurants, and some souvenir shops. The shops along the street open from 11 AM to 8 PM, thus the street is not too lively in the early morning and in the late night. (Japan-Guide.com) Since Takashita Dori is designed to appeal to younger consumers, it does not attract the senior population. (Japan-Guide.com) Takeshita Street is only 400 meters long and only 4 meters wide. Due to its short distance and narrow width, there are few street performances. Also, because of the shape of the street, there is no room for vegetation or street furniture that can create a better pedestrian experience. However, it has its own character, being one of Japan’s famous fashion streets. At the west end, Takeshita Street is located right across from Harajuku subway station, which provides convenient and easy access for the public. At the east end, Takeshita Street connects to Meiji Street. Meiji Street is another fashion street that has many high end boutiques and department stores. Though Takeshita Street is not very spacious, the street is busy with pedestrians because of the location and the unique fashion retail stores.

10 m 7m 4m

Street Section, 1:500

City: Tokyo Country: Japan Built Year: 1964 Street Type: Pedestrian-only-street Length:400 meters Building Height: 2 to 3 stories Block Length: ~ 43 meters Building Use Along the Street: Commercial P.O.I: Harajuku Station, Meiji Dori, Yoyogi Park, KDDI Cellphone Design Studio, Meijijingumae Subway Station Harajukugaien Jr High School

4 .


1) Pavement

2) Harajuku Fashion Street

3) Building Style

4) Street Usage

5) Street Light

6) Gateway

8) Loading Trucks in the Morning

9) No Public Vegetation Along the Street

Street Usage

7) Entrance from Intersections

10) Commercial Uses & Store Front

11) On Street Store Promotion


Case Study: Takeshita

6 .


The

16th Street Mall,

Denver


Case Study: The 16th Street

8 .


30 m

11 m

7m

11 m

7m

Street Section, 1:500

The 16th Street Mall, located in the center of Downtown Denver, was built in 1982. The street is lined with trees and have red-and-grey granite pavement. The Mall is lined with outdoor cafes, historic office buildings, glass-walled skyscrapers, shops, restaurants and retail stores. There are numerous street furniture and public place along the street; furthermore, free shuttle bus system is offered everyday to everyone.. (Downtown Denver, 2008) The 16th Street Mall was an initiative of the City of Denver, Downtown Denver Partnership (DDP), Downtown Denver Business Improvement District (BID) and the Regional Transportation District (RTD) in 1976. It was designed by an architecture firm, I. M. Pei and Partners, with association with Hanna Olin. In 1960s, a large population began to migrate to suburbs and with a decreased tax base, Denver’s physical infrastructure and financial economy continued to deteriorate. Therefore, in the late 1960s and 1970s, the local business community and civic leaders decided to fix the situation through a large-scale redevelopment initiative. The two main vision of the 16th Street Mall includes below; - To create an urban pedestrian mall that would not only reduce traffic congestion, but also would revive and stimulate economic growth in the Central Business District, - To provide the citizens of Denver a civic space that would serve as a major economic focal point for both visitors and residents alike. (Downtown Denver, 2008)

City: Denver Country: United States Developer: City of Denver, Downtown Denver Partnership (DDP), Downtown Denver Business Improvement District (BID) and the Regional Transportation District (RTD) Street Type: Pedestrian-only-street (Transit Mall) Built Year: 1982 Length:1.6 km Building Height: 2 to 10 stories Block Length: ~ 106 meters Building Use Along the Street: Commercial & Business P.O.I: Union Station, Civic Center Park, United Nations Park, Colorado State Capitol, Denver Art Museum, Denver Public Library

The 16th Street Mall is 16 blocks-long with the length of 1.6 kilometers and width of 25 meters wide including two lanes for a shuttle bus system in the middle of the street. The shuttle bus stops at every intersection of the street for easy pedestrian movement. The Mall connects Union Station (trains) in the west with the Civic Centre historic district, including the Colorado State Capitol Building in the east. It is located near Denver’s main attractions – The Denver Performing Arts Complex, Coors Field, The Pepsi Center, and others are located just couple blocks away from the Mall. The 16th Street Mall is located in the heart of the city, and it invites pedestrian through its free shuttle bus system, public arts and effective street furniture.


Case Study: The 16th Street

1) Pavement

2) Street Performance

3) Building Style

4) Street Usage

5) Street Light

6) Landmark

7) Entrance from Intersections

8) Free Shuttle System

9) Vegetation Along the Street

10) Street Furniture

11) Store Front

12) Interacive Public Art

13) Storytelling Public Art

14) Water Feature

10 .


Spark Street Mall, Ottawa


Case Study: Spark Street Mall

22 m

10 m

City: Ottawa Country: Canada Developer: City of Ottawa & NCC Street Type: Pedestrian-only-street Built Year: 1960 Length: 850 m Building Height: 3- 7 stories Block Length: ~ 176 meters Building Use Along the Street: Commercial and Business P.O.I: Parliament Hill, Supreme Court of Canada

10 m

Street Section, 1:500

Sparks Street is one of Ottawa's most significant commercial heritage streets. It was first founded by Nicholas Sparks, one of the Fathers of Ottawa (O'Neill, 2003). In May of 1960, the stretch from Elgin Street to Bank Street was turned into a temporary pedestrian mall. Due to its overwhelming success during that time, the mall was turned into a permanent pedestrian street mall on June 28, 1967. (O’Neill, 2003) Since the late 1980s, due to its popularity as a commercial centre began to fade because the Rideau Centre Shopping Mall opened only three blocks away from Spark Street Mall. The local authorities tried to revitalize the street by introducing new activities. However, it is debatable whether their effort brought Spark Street Mall back to its original vibrancy, but indeed, the Mall is still famous as a pedestrian street with its rich history including more than thirty heritage buildings. (O'Neill, 2003)

Spark Street Mall is 850 meters long, and 10 meters wide. The Street is well treed, and has pedestrian-scale lamp posts and benches to enhance the pedestrian experience. The east entrance of Spark Street Mall is only one block away from Parliament Hill, and the west entrance is only one block away from the Supreme Court of Canada. Spark Street Mall is lined with restaurants, shops, banks, office buildings, and a big-box store - Zellers. The Street gets extremely busy during lunch hours due to its location in the Center of Ottawa. Nonetheless, during nights and weekends, the Street becomes less crowded because there is not much activity going on. (O’Neill, 2003)

12 .


Case Study: Spark Street Mall

Pavement

Street Performance

Street Usage

Street Light

Spark Street Mall Map

Entrance from Intersections

Landmark

Building Style

Outdoor Patio

Rib Festival

Vegetation / Street Furniture

14 .


Calle Florida, Buenos Aires


Case Study: Calle Florida

16 .


1) Pavement

2) Street Performance - Buskers

3) Building Style

4) Street Usage

5) Outdoor Patio

6) Street Market

7) Entrance from Intersections

8) Street Performance - Tango

9) Street Light

10) Street Furniture

11) Commercial buildings


Case Study: Calle Florida

City: Buenos Aires Country:Argentina Built Year: 1913 Developer: Request from Merchants Street Type: Pedestrian-only-street Length:1.5 km Building Height: 5 to 7 stories Block Length: ~ 125 meters Building Use Along the Street: Commercial P.O.I: Plaza Cañada, Armas de la nacion Museum, Buenos Aires City Legislature, National Technological University University of Buenos Aires, Galerías Pacífico

19 m

16 m

Street Market

4m

10 m

Street Section, 1:500

Calle Florida (Florida Street), located in Buenos Aires, Argentina, was created in 16th Century. It started to become famous in early 20th Century for its fur and leather goods. In 1913, Calle Florida transformed into a pedestrian-only street due to the requests from shop owners on the street. Calle Florida is located in the center of Buenos Aires, close to other tourist attractions, such as Plaza de Mayo and Lavalle Commercial Street. (floridastreet.com, 2005). Calle Florida has a very interesting street layout. The pedestrian-only street is lined with commercial buildings, such as restaurants, souvenir shops, and brand name shops. What is interesting about Calle Florida is that the street offers unique activities not found in North American pedestrian streets. There is street market located in front of the buildings that sells cheaper goods to pedestrians than the goods that are sold within the retail shops in the buildings. (Refer to the diagram below)

Calle Florida is 1.5 kilometers long and 10 meters wide. There are trees and ornamental plantings installed at each major intersection; however, there is not too much vegetation elsewhere along the street partially because of its use of street market. Furthermore, street furniture located along the street, includes clocks and public payphones, but there are no benches for pedestrians to sit on. Lights from buildings act as the major source of street light in Calle Florida, but there are also street lights hanging in the middle of wires strung overhead. Calle Florida offers dynamic scenery, especially through the street shows performed on the street. The main performances are tango dancing and classical guitar playing – representing South American culture. These street performances make Calle Florida unique among the pedestrian streets studied.

RETAIL SHOPS PEDESTRIAN STREET STREET MARKET

18 .


Shangxiajiu, Guangzhou *Google Street View was not available


Case Study: Shangxiajiu

20 .


Pavement

Street Performance

Building Style

Street Usage

Neon Light from Buildings

Public Art

Entrance from Intersections

Street Light Attached to Buildings

Street Market

Street Furnitures

Advertisement on Building Wall

Public Art Throughout the Street

China’s First Commercial Pedestrian Street!


Case Study: Shangxiajiu

Shangxiajiu street has a history of more than one hundred years being recognized as a busy commercial street in China. Shang-xia-jiu, built in 1995, is China’s first pedestrian commercial street. It is located in Guangzhou in south China. (Ministry of Culture, 2003) 22 m

17 m

15 m

Street Section, 1:500 City: Guangzhou Country:China Built Year: 1995 Street Type: Pedestrian-only-street Length: 1.2 km Building Height: 5 to 7 stories Block Length: ~ 130 meters Building Use Along the Street: Commercial P.O.I: Hualin Buddhist Temple, Ping'an Theater, Huangsha, Changshou Lu,

Shangxiajiu is over 1.2 kilometers long with the width of 15 meters. There are more than 300 shops located along the Street. The majority of the buildings are used for restaurants and retail purposes. The street starts from Shangxiajiu Road in the east, and ends at Dishipu W. Road in the West. At the both entrance of Shangxiajiu street, it connects to other commercial streets where cars are allowed. Though the street is wide, it does not contain many street trees or furniture. There are many examples of public art along the length of the street. In particular, bronze sculptures seem to appear on every block. These sculptures are series of Chinese people telling how the street was once used before it developed into a pedestrian street .The Street is crowded with pedestrians on a daily basis, despite the lack of trees and other pedestrian amenities. There are some street lights that are attached to the buildings; however, the majority of the light actually comes from the bright neon signs on the commercial buildings. Shangxiajiu also offers Chinese street performances, creating its own sense of place and uniqueness. (Ministry of Culture, 2003)

22 .


3rd Street Promenade, Santa Monica


Case Study: 3rd Street Promenade

DOWNTOWN FARMERS' MARKET Date(s): Recurring weekly on Wednesday, Saturday Times: Wednesday 8:30am-1:30pm; Saturday 8:30am-1:00pm Location: Arizona Avenue between Second and Third Street Admission: Free

CINEMA ON THE STREET Date(s): Recurring annually on Friday, July Times: Friday 7:30pm Location: Between Wilshire Boulevard and Arizona Avenue Admission: Free

14 m 5m

22 m

Street Section, 1:500 City: Santa Monica Country: United States Built Year: 1965 Developer: Santa Monica City Council (Downtown Santa Monica, Inc.) Street Type: Pedestrian-only-street Length: 625 meters Building Height: 1 to 4 stories Block Length: ~ 180 meters Building Use Along the Street: Commercial P.O.I: Santa Monica Medical Center, AMC Santa Monica 7 Theatre, St Peter and St Paul Coptic Orthodox Church,

3rd Street Promenade is a famous shopping and restaurant district that is located in the centre of downtown Santa Monica. 3rd Street Promenade was developed in 1965 by Santa Monica City Council now known as Downtown Santa Monica, Inc. Also, ROMA Design Group was hired to design outdoor Santa Monica mall. It is a pedestrian street that starts from Wilshire Boulevard and ends at Broadway. On the east entrance, there are massive parking structures and department stores. On the west side, retail stores line the street. Though there are no major attractions at either entrance to the street, there are numerous movie theatres and Santa Monica Medical Center located close by. The 3rd Street Promenade offers many performances and active events to pedestrians. The performers on the street must have a valid license. The Street programming also includes outdoor movie screening, yoga, and children’s learning activities which attract people to come and use the space effectively. (Downtownsm.com, 2012) The 3rd Street Promenade is about 625 meters long and 22 meters wide. There are a lot of street furniture and vegetation along the street. Lamp posts are to human scale, and the benches line the street to provide excellent pedestrian experience. The 3rd Street Promenade certainly attracts pedestrians with the interactive events and public art.

24 .


Pavement

Street Performance - Buskers

Building Style

Street Usage

Street Light

Landmark

Entrance from Intersections

Night Performances

Good Vegetation Along the Street

Cinema on the Street

Outdoor Patio

Yoga on the Street

Interactive Public Art / Gateway

Benches

Sewer Grate Design


Case Study: 3rd Street Promenade

26 .


Haeng-Bok-No, Uijeongbu * Naver Street View is used


Case Study: Haengbokno

28 .


Pavement

Street Light

Building Style

Street Usage

Water Feature

Landmark

Entrance from Intersections

Interactive Public Art

Vegetation

Street Performance

Street Ecosystem

River-shaped water feature

Outdoor Sitting

Media Poles


Case Study: Haengbokno

City: Uijeongbu Country: Korea Built Year: 2009 Developer: City of Uijeongbu Street Type: Pedestrian-only-street Length: 607 meters Building Height: 3 to 7 stories Block Length: ~ 76 meters Building Use Along the Street: Commercial P.O.I: Uijeongbu Station

Haeng-Bok-No (Happiness Street) in Uijeongbu, South Korea, was developed in 2009 by the Planning department of the City of Ui-Jeong-Bu. Haeng-Bok-No, the former name of Jung-Ang-No (Central Street), was part of an ancient commercial district in the City of Ui-Jeong-Bu. (City of Uijeongbu, 2009)

22 m

Haeng-Bok-No is 607 meters long and 20 meters wide. Numerous tall Japanese Red Pine Trees are planted in two lines in the middle of the street creating a strong public space for pedestrians. The Street is not long, but it is very wide and it is full of interactive public arts and street furniture. Haeng-Bok-No provides special public spaces for pedestrians. In the middle of the street between Japanese Red Pine trees, there is a shallow river-shaped water feature that attracts many families with children to come and play. The human-scale lamp-posts effectively provide light along the street at night; furthermore, the benches are located around the water feature to provide a place for people to rest. The Street is lined with restaurants, clothing shops, and cafes. Although Haeng-Bok-No is located in the centre of Ui-Jeong-Bu, it is mainly patronized by the locals. The volume of tourist traffic is minimal because the city itself is located far away from the capital city, Seoul. However, Haeng-Bok-No is always occupied with families including little children and seniors, and it creates inviting environment for all ages (City of Uijeongbu, 2009). Since the street is relatively new, it will be interesting to see how it will evolve in the future.

7m

3m 20 m

Street Section, 1:500

30 .


Strøget , Copenhagen

1962 : 15,800 m² 1996 : 95,750 m²

Strøget is the longest pedestrian street in the world. Strøget is an ancient shopping street known as the main central street of Copenhagen. In the early 1960s, after the automobile boom, the volume of traffic started to increase in Copenhagen. Because it is an old narrow shopping-oriented street, Strøget started become overcrowded with pedestrians and automobiles. Therefore in 1962, Copenhagen’s City Council decided to create an auto-free pedestrian-zone from the Town Hall Square to Kongens Nytorv in the eastern part of the town. Afterward, the success of Strøget spilled over onto the neighbouring streets, evolving into an auto-free district. (European Commission, 2004) There are four strong entrances on Strøget. On the west side of Strøget, there is Copenhagen’s Town Hall Square. On the east side, there is Kogens Nytorv, which is a public square that was created in 1670 by King Christian V. On the north entrance of Strøget, there is a BRT station. Lastly, to the south of Strøget, there is a Christianborg Palace Church. The total length of Strøget is 3.2 kilometers long, and the width of the street varies from 11 meters to 27 meters. The street is highly occupied by pedestrians and it has minimal automobile activity - mainly for loading trucks. The street is divided into more than ten blocks and the streets that connect to Strøget are either part of the auto-free district or they are car-oriented streets. Some blocks have landmark features at the intersection, such as public squares and public art that adds value and identity to Strøget. (Jacobs, 1993) Strøget does not have many trees or other plantings along the street, even though the streets are wide enough to accommodate vegetation. However, the buildings along the street, the paving texture, and the public art together create a very unique character for the district. Furthermore, Strøget does not have much street furniture (i.e. benches) to enhance the pedestrian experience. However, with its long history as being a central shopping district of Copenhagen, it certainly attracts locals and tourists.

World’s longest pedestrian street!


Case Study: Strøget

Two maiin streets of Stroget highlighted with yellow, and orange being the main intersection

City: Copenhagen Country:Denmark Built Year: 1962 Developer: Copenhagen’s City Council Street Type: Pedestrian pricincts Length:3.2 km Building Height: 4 to 7 stories Block Length: ~ 98 meters Building Use Along the Street: Commercial P.O.I: City Hall, Kongens Nytorv Park, BRT Station, University of Copenhagen, Guiness World Records, Church of the Holy Ghost, Christianborg Palace Church, Nørreport Subway Station, Kongens Nytorv Subway Station, Grand Theatre

Auto-free designated zones, Strøget

20 m 17 m

Street Cross Section, Strøget at Helligandskirke

12 m

Street Section, 1:500

32 .


Pavement

Street Performance

Building Style

Street Usage

Street Light

Landmark

Entrance from Intersections

Commercial Uses & Loading Trucks

Minimal Vegetation Along the Street

Interactive Stores Along the Street

Building Details

Street Store Promotion

Trolley Car on Stroget Street

Outdoor Patio


Case Study: Stroget

34 .


Distillery District, Toronto


Case Study: Distillery District

36 .


22 m

5m 12m

Street Section, 1:500

“Still Dancing” by Dennis Oppenheim

The Distillery District is a pedestrian-only district that is located in Toronto, Canada. The Distillery District has a very rich history and character. It was once the largest distillery in the world. The distillery in Toronto was constructed between 1859 and 1860. The architecture style of the District represents the largest and the best preserved collection of Victorian Industrial Architecture in North America. In 1990, the distillery closed its operation and it started to become a popular place to shoot films. In 2001, Cityscape Holdings Inc. bought the district, and in 2003 partnership with Dundee Realty Corporation, it was transformed into a pedestrian-only district that serves visitors and locals with arts, culture and entertainment. (thedistillerydistrict.com)

City: Toronto Country: Canada Developer: Cityscape Holdings Inc. & Dundee Realty Corporation. Street Type: Pedestrian Pricincts Built Year: 2003 Length: 500m Building Height: 1 to 7 stories Block Length: ~ 70 meters Building Use Along the Street: Commercial & Residential P.O.I: Canadian Opera Company, Little Trinity Anglican Church, David Crombie Park

In the Distillery District, Trinity Street is the dominant street. The width of the street is approximately 15 meters and it is 120 meters long. It has the most street furniture and pedestrian activity. In fact, Trinity Street was once an actual street that connected the distillery to the larger street network of the city. Other streets in the distillery were not actual streets but they used to function as service lane (thedistillerydistrict.com). The sum of all the street length is about 500 meters long and width of the street is around 12 meters wide. The district is paved with red bricks, and the buildings lining the district also have the same material as the pavement. The preservation of the historic features and the architecture style of the building and major public arts helps to create Distillery District’s strong characteristic.

RESTAURANTS|EATERIES

RETAIL

OFFICES|SERVICES

PERFORMANCE THEATRE

ART SCAPE

EVENT FACILITIES

EDUCATIONAL

GALLERIES

RESIDENTIAL


Case Study: Distillery District

Pavement

Street Performance

Building Style

Street Usage

Street Light

Interactive Public Art

Entrance from Intersections

Commercial Uses

Good Vegetation Along the Street

Window & Brick Style

Street Furniture

Interactive Public Art

Preserving History

38 .


Las Ramblas, Barcelona


Case Study: Las Ramblas

40 .


25 m 21 m

3m

7m

18 m

7m

3m

Street Section, 1:500

Las Ramblas, located in Barcelona, offers interesting scenery for the public. Las Ramblas is a pedestrian boulevard that takes up more than half of the total width of the street. This boulevard is located in the middle of the street, lined on both sides with one-way car lanes. Las Ramblas once used to be a riverbed with the city wall. In the 16th Century, a university was built along the riverbed. In 19th Century, the city wall was torn down and more buildings were constructed along the dried riverbed – now called Las Ramblas. The street is about 1.5 km long and the width is approximately 38 meters. Rows of trees line the edges of the boulevard to create a buffer between the car lanes and the pedestrian “island”, providing a sense of enclosure. (Barcelona.de)

City: Barcelona Country: Spain Built Year: 1856 Street Type: Pedestrian boulevard Length:1.5 km Building Height: 5 to 7 stories Block Length: ~126 meters Building Use Along the Street: Commercial P.O.I : Museu del Modernisme Català, Columbus Monument, Waterfront Catalunya Subway Station, Liceu Subway Station

The buildings along the street are five-to-seven-stories and the main floor is commercial with street-level display windows. In terms of the street section, the boulevard is about 18 meters wide and the actual sidewalk lining the buildings is only 3 meters wide. This encourages pedestrians to walk in the center of the boulevard, rather than on the actual sidewalk. The street is constantly occupied by pedestrians, regardless of the time of the year. Most of the buildings along the street are traditional retail shops and restaurants; additionally, there are numerous museums and cultural institutions in Las Ramblas. Las Ramblas is certainly one of the most successful pedestrian streets in the world, it is a place for people to be on, to walk, to meet, and to talk. (Jacobs, 1995)


Case Study: Las Ramblas

Street Performance

Building Style

Street Light

Landmark - Columbus Monument

Entrance from Intersections

Car Lanes & Pedestrians Jaywalking

Tall Trees Along the Street

Nightlife

Street Market

Store Front

Outside Patio

Mosaic Tiling by Joan Miro

Pavement

Pavement

Street Usage

Street Usage

42 .


Street Cross Section, Las Ramblas at Carrer dels Tallers


Case Study: Las Ramblas

44 .


Street Sections, 1:500

30 m

11 m

10 m 7m

7m

4m

Takeshita Dori, Tokyo

22 m

11 m 25 m

7m

The 16th Street Mall, Denver

19 m

16 m

22 m

17 m

10 m Street Market

10 m

2m 10 m

Spark Street Mall, Ottawa Calle Florida, Buenos Aires

15 m

Shangxiajiu, Guangzhou

22 m 14 m

7m 5m 3m 20 m

22 m

Haeng-Bok-No, Uijeongbu

3rd Street Promenade, Santa Monica

22 m

20 m 17 m

5m 12m

12 m

Distillery District, Toronto

Stroget, Copenhagen

25 m 21 m

3m

7m

18 m 38 m

7m

3m

Las Ramblas, Barcelona


Summary Findings

Spark Street Mall, Ottawa - 10 m Calle Florida, Buenos Aires - 10 m Stroget, Copenhagen - 12 m Distillery District, Toronto - 12 m

Street Width (1:500)

Takeshita Street, Tokyo - 4 m

Street Length (1:1000)

Summary of the Streets

Stroget, Copenhagen - 3.2 km

Shangxiajiu, Guangzhou - 15 m Haengbokno, Uijeongbu - 20 m

3rd Street Promenade, Santa Monica - 22 m The 16th Street, Denver - 25 m

3rd Street Promenade, Santa Monica - 9.5 m

The Distillery District, Toronto - 13.5 m

Haengbokno, Uijeongbu - 14.5 m

Two Building Heights from Street Section / 2

Takeshita Street, Tokyo - 8.5 m

Average Building Height (1:500)

Las Ramblas, Barcelona - 38 m

The 16th Street Mall, Denver - 1.6 km Las Ramblas, Barcelona - 1.5 km Calle Florida, Buenos Aires - 1.5 km

Spark Street Mall, Ottawa - 16 m Shangxiajiu, Guangzhou - 1.2 km Calle Florida, Buenos Aires - 17.5 m

Spark Street Mall, Ottawa - 850 m

Stroget, Copenhagen - 18.5 m

Shangxiajiu, Guangzhou - 19.5 m

3rd Street Promenade, Santa Monica - 625 m Haengbokno, Uijeongbu - 607 m The Distillery District, Toronto - 500 m

The 16th Street, Denver - 20.5 m

Takeshita Street, Tokyo - 400 m

Las Ramblas, Barcelona - 23 m

Average Building Height and Street Width Ratio

0.4 : 1 Las Ramblas 23 m : 38 m = 0.6 : 1 Haengbokno 14.5 m : 20 m = 0.7 : 1 The 16th Street 20.5 m : 25 m = 0.8 : 1 Distillery District 13.5 m : 12 m = 1.1 : 1 3rd Street Promenade 9.5 m : 22 m =

1.3 : 1 Stroget 18.5 m : 12 m = 1.5 : 1 Spark Street Mall 16 m : 10 m = 1.6 : 1 Calle Florida 17.5 m : 10 m = 1.8 : 1 Takeshita Dori 8.5 m : 4 m = 2.1 : 1 Shangxiajiua 19.5 m : 15 m =

46 .


Summary of the Streets Takeshita Dori

The 16th Street Mall

Spark Street Mall

Calle Florida

Shangxiajiu

3rd Street Promenade

Haengbokno

Stroget

Las Ramblas

The Distillery District

City: Tokyo Country: Japan Street Type: Pedestrian-only-street Built Year: 1964 Length:400 meters Building Height: 2 to 3 stories Block Length: ~ 43 meters Building Use Along the Street: Commercial P.O.I: Harajuku Station, Meiji Dori, Yoyogi Park, KDDI Cellphone Design Studio, Meijijingumae Subway Station Harajukugaien Jr High School

City: Ottawa Country: Canada Developer: City of Ottawa & NCC Street Type: Pedestrian-only-street Built Year: 1960 Length: 850 meters Building Height: 3- 7 stories Block Length: ~ 176 meters Building Use Along the Street: Commercial and Business P.O.I: Parliament Hill, Supreme Court of Canada

City: Guangzhou Country:China Built Year: 1995 Street Type: Pedestrian-only-street Length: 1.2 km Building Height: 5 to 7 stories Block Length: ~ 130 meters Building Use Along the Street: Commercial P.O.I: Hualin Buddhist Temple, Ping'an Theater, Huangsha, Changshou Lu,

City: Uijeongbu Country: Korea Built Year: 2009 Developer: City of Uijeongbu Street Type: Pedestrian pricincts Length: 607 meters Building Height: 3 to 7 stories Block Length: ~ 76 meters Building Use Along the Street: Commercial P.O.I: Uijeongbu Station

City: Barcelona Country: Spain Built Year: 1856 Street Type: Pedestrian boulevard Length:1.5 km Building Height: 5 to 7 stories Block Length: ~126 meters Building Use Along the Street: Commercial P.O.I : Museu del Modernisme Català, Columbus Monument, Waterfront Catalunya Subway Station, Liceu Subway Station

City: Denver Country: United States Developer: City of Denver, Downtown Denver Partnership (DDP), Downtown Denver Business Improvement District (BID) and the Regional Transportation District (RTD) Street Type: Pedestrian-only-street Built Year: 1982 Length:1.6 km Building Height: 2 to 10 stories Block Length: ~ 106 meters Building Use Along the Street: Commercial & Business P.O.I: Union Station, Civic Center Park, United Nations Park, Denver Art Museum, Denver Public Library, Colorado State Capitol

City: Buenos Aires Country:Argentina Built Year: 1913 Developer: Request from Merchants Street Type: Pedestrian-only-street Length:1.5 km Building Height: 5 to 7 stories Block Length: ~ 125 meters Building Use Along the Street: Commercial P.O.I: Plaza Cañada, Armas de la nacion Museum, Buenos Aires City Legislature, National Technological University University of Buenos Aires, Galerías Pacífico

City: Santa Monica Country: United States Built Year: 1965 Developer: Santa Monica City Council (Downtown Santa Monica, Inc.) Street Type: Pedestrian-only-strreet Length: 625 meters Building Height: 1 to 4 stories Block Length: ~ 180 meters Building Use Along the Street: Commercial P.O.I: Santa Monica Medical Center, AMC Santa Monica 7 Theatre, St Peter and St Paul Coptic Orthodox Church,

City: Copenhagen Country:Denmark Built Year: 1962 Developer: Copenhagen’s City Council Street Type: Pedestrian pricincts Length:3.2 km Building Height: 4 to 7 stories Block Length: ~ 98 meters Building Use Along the Street: Commercial P.O.I: City Hall, Kongens Nytorv Park, BRT Station, University of Copenhagen, Guiness World Records, Church of the Holy Ghost, Christianborg Palace Church, Nørreport Subway Station, Grand Theatre, Kongens Nytorv Subway Station

City: Toronto Country: Canada Developer: Cityscape Holdings Inc. & Dundee Realty Corporation. Street Type: Pedestrian pricincts Built Year: 2003 Length: 500 meters Building Height: 1 to 7 stories Block Length: ~ 70 meters Building Use Along the Street: Commercial & Residential P.O.I: Canadian Opera Company, Little Trinity Anglican Church, David Crombie Park


Summary Findings Commonalities and Differences Types There are three pedestrian street types: pedestrian boulevard, pedestrian district, and pedestrian-only street. Pedestrian-only street: Takeshita Dori, the 16th Street Mall, Calle Florida, Shangxiajiu, 3rd Street Promenade, Haeng-Bok-No Pedestrian district: Stroget, Distillery District Pedestrian boulevard: Las Ramblas Creation Most of the pedestrian streets were once main commercial streets that are located in the center of a city. Pre-existing Commercial Street: 16th Street Mall, Calle Florida, Shangxiajiu, Haeng-Bok-No, Stroget Developed into a pedestrian street: Las Ramblas Transformed into a pedestrian street: Distillery District Information not found: Takeshita Dori Width Width of pedestrian streets can vary. Width of Takeshita Dori was only 4 meters long and the 16th Street in Denver was wide as 25 meters. Width of the street gives constraints to street performance, public art, street furniture, and vegetation; however, it does not directly relate to success of pedestrian streets. Furthermore, if the width of a street is very wide, there needs to be enough public art, street furniture and vegetation to support the street’s environment. The wider the street, the more amenities and programing needed to animate it. Street Light Every pedestrian street in this report had street lights on the street. Four types of street light were used: free-standing lamp posts, lights from windows of buildings, lights attached to building façades, and lights that are hanging on the wire in the middle of a street. Street lights are important elements for successful pedestrian street. They make pedestrians to feel safer at night when there is no light on the street. Street Furniture Street furniture is surely significant when providing a good pedestrian environment. Street furniture elements include lamp posts, benches, phone boxes, clocks, and public art.

Street Activity Street activity can be a big attraction to many locals and tourists. Programmed street activities include street performances and scheduled events. Many of the pedestrian streets in this study provided street performances that attracted pedestrians. However, only the 3rd Street Promenade in Santa Monica provided regularly scheduled community events, such as yoga and cinema on the street. Since many of pedestrian streets are wide enough to provide these scheduled programs, more of them could enhance their success offering similar events. Pavement Most of the streets used bright colour bricks, granite, or cement pavement, and some of the streets had patterns on them. Some common colours of pavement are grey and red. None of them used asphalt pavement. Microclimate Climate has a drastic role in the development of a street. For example, Stroget in Copenhagen is located in a cooler climate than 3rd Street Promenade in Santa Monica. The hot summer day in Copenhagen average around 20 degrees Celsius. (Weather.com) Due to the cooler weather the street has relatively tall buildings with no vegetation. With the taller buildings it creates a feeling as if the structures were wrapping around the streets and creates congestion on the street. In contrast, 3rd Street Promenade is located in hotter climate. In Santa Monica, their average temperature is around 20 degrees Celsius all year. With the cooler weather they have all year around results in less harsh and dryer winters. Their building height to street width ratio is 0.4:1.The promenade has a lot of vegetation and has more active events on a wide street. Block Length The average block length from ten case studies is 113 meters. The shortest block length is Takeshita Dori being 43 meters long. The longest block length is 3rd Street Promenade being 180 meters. It is interesting when the block length is compared with average building heights and street width. Takeshita Dori has the highest building height to street width ratio – 2.1 : 1. 3rd Street Promenade has the lowest building height to street width ratio, 0.4:1. Block width and the average building height and street width ratio have a strong relationship. The higher the ratio results in the shorter the block length.

Summary of Pedestrian Street Elements Takeshita Dori

The 16th Street

Spark Street Mall

Bench

O

O

Street Performance

O

O

Water Feature

O

Light

Calle Florida

O

Shangxiajiu

3rd Street Promenade

Haeng-bokno

O

O

O

O

O

O

O O

O

O

O

O

O O

O

O

O

O

O

Outdoor Patio

O

O

O

Shuttle System

O

Street Market

Bus

Distillery District

O

O

O

O

O

O O

O

O

O

Vegetation

Subway

Stroget

O

Automobile

Public Art

Las Ramblas

O

O

O

O O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

48 .


APPENDIX: RESEARCH METHOD Information is retrieved from following sources: 1. Literature Review Pedestrian Malls and Skywalks by Kent A. Robertson was used to find definition of pedestrian streets. Greet Streets by Allan B. Jacobs and Grid/Street/Place by Nathan Cherry and Kurt Nagel were used to look at some of the pedestrian street sections as well as their function and usage. 2. Scholars GeoPortal All base maps of ten case studies are retrieved from Scholars GeoPortal website. 3. Google Maps, Naver Street View and Google Earth Google Maps was used to look up point-of-interests (P.O.I) around the study areas; furthermore, some of the images that are used in this report were screen captured from the Google Street View and Naver Street View. P.O.Is were chosen within 2 to 3 blocks from the study streets, and it includes place to worship, transit terminal, subway station, theatre, government building, museum, and public space. Google Earth was used to find rough measurements of street sections and block sizes. 4. Google Images and Flickr Images that are used in this paper were found through Google Images and Flickr, Reference are provided at the end of this report. 6. City Websites Since pedestrian streets are such a big tourist attraction and have rich history, almost all the streets have information on the city’s online website.

REFERENCE (APA format) : Cherry, N., & Nagle, K. (2009). Grid/street/place: essential elements of sustainable urban districts. Chicago: American Planning Association Planners Press. Jacobs, A. B. (1993). Great streets. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Robertson, K. A. (1994). Pedestrian malls and skywalks: traffic separation strategies in American downtowns. Aldershot, Hants, England: Avebury.

Case Study: Takeshita Dori Japan-guide. (n.d.). Tokyo Travel: Harajuku. Japan-guide.com. Retrieved August 1, 2012, from www.japan-guide.com/e/e3006.htm Pictures: Cover: http://www.flickr.com/photos/tokyofashion/6838536800/sizes/o/in/photostream/ 1) http://28.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lng3qmadsV1qbs0f7o1_500.jpg 2) http://www.flickr.com/photos/tokyofashion/5082720613 3) http://www.douban.com/photos/photo/763595513/ 4) http://www.theothereast.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/takeshita1.jpg 5) Google Maps 6) http://www.flickr.com/photos/ayanami_no03/4922874243/sizes/o/in/photostream/ 7) Google Maps 8) Google Maps 9) Google Maps 10) http://www.flickr.com/photos/puenteaereo/7034643141/ 11) http://www.flickr.com/photos/amunizdelgado/7244217488 Support: http://www.flickr.com/photos/lopiccolo/3490272713/sizes/o/in/photostream/ Support: http://www.flickr.com/photos/tokyofashion/6261108093/sizes/o/in/photostream/

Case Study: The 16th Street Mall Downtown Denver Partnership: 16th Street Plan. (n.d.). Downtown Denver > Home. Retrieved August 6, 2012, from http://www.downtowndenver.com/Business/DevelopmentandPlanning/16thStreetPlan/tabid/174/Default.aspx Pictures: Cover: http://www.urbanindy.com/2012/05/22/a-denver-transplant-but-still-a-hoosier-at-heart/ 1) http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_nnABlGh0Vhg/TCOg57mRrwI/AAAAAAAAAbY/VGDKuzP8c34/s1600/Denver+2010+088.jpg 2) http://creativetime.org/programs/archive/2008/democracy/hayes.php 3) http://www.girlsgetaway.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/denver_300x250.jpg 4) http://ikcewicasa.files.wordpress.com/2011/06/060411_0051_runningthe121.jpg?w=640 5) http://www.flickr.com/photos/thewrightshot/7300680438 6) http://s3.hubimg.com/u/5683258_f496.jpg 7) Google Maps 8) http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2123/2424837864_7f5fa541b8.jpg 9) http://www.inside-lane.com/2010/02/25/16th-street-mall-facelift-alternatives-include-basic-granite-repair/ 10) http://www.flickr.com/photos/checco/4647965471/ 11) http://media.merchantcircle.com/41110475/16th%20street%20mall%20denver%20restaurants_full.jpeg 12) http://www.flickr.com/photos/wallyg/4959054232/ 13) http://www.flickr.com/photos/jonathan_cohen/4679103472/ 14) http://www.gogobot.com/16th-street-mall-denver-attraction Support: http://s3-media2.ak.yelpcdn.com/bphoto/rjy3kMCDccvKXkZtYHsarw/l.jpg


Reference Case Study: Spark Street Mall O’Neill, J. T. (2003). An Evaluation of the Spark Street Mall in Ottawa, Ontario. Kingston, Queens University. Pictures: Cover: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-BGStXYJckxc/TjdftYbgG9I/AAAAAAAAFdk/qXWYNiWIfeo/s1600/e010836554-v8.jpg 1) http://www.nccwatch.org/blunders/nccsparkssmall001.jpg 2) http://media-cdn.tripadvisor.com/media/photo-s/01/6b/6e/c4/sparks-street-mall.jpg 3) http://benross.net/images/blog%20images/10-09_canada/4_ottawa/09.JPG 4) http://cycle.ottawacitizen.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/SparksStreet-460x289.jpg 5) Google Maps 6) http://cache.virtualtourist.com/4/4101788-The_bear_necessities_Ottawa.jpg 7) http://farm3.staticflickr.com/2461/3554911644_87f45b6135_z.jpg 8) http://www.sparksstreetmall.com/Gallery/dining.htm 9) http://www.flickr.com/photos/29863115@N08/5916073490 10) http://www.flickr.com/photos/huyd/4594297410/in/photostream Support: http://www.flickr.com/photos/labrancaro/3904703851/sizes/l/in/photostream/

Case Study: Calle Florida Calle Florida Street Buenos Aires Argentina. (n.d.). Calle Florida Street Buenos Aires Argentina. Retrieved August 6, 2012, from http://www.floridastreet.com Pictures: Cover: http://www.flickr.com/photos/tiascapes/4388556119/sizes/l/in/photostream/ 1) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Buenos_Aires_-_Retiro_-_Calle_Florida.jpg 2) http://www.flickr.com/photos/gttexas/3383485129/ 3) http://www.akworld.net/webblog/wp-content/uploads/2006/05/Calle_Florida.jpg 4) http://www.destination360.com/south-america/argentina/buenos-aires/images/s/calle-florida.jpg 5) http://www.welcome2ba.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/image0022.jpg 6) http://www.flickr.com/photos/28095414@N02/6423226107/ 7) http://blog.daum.net/say2ys/17397871 8) http://mybeautifulair.files.wordpress.com/2011/06/img_0507.jpg 9) http://donland.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/PICT0125.JPG 10) http://www.flickr.com/photos/viajebr/4944665121/ 11) http://blog.daum.net/say2ys/17397871 Support: http://veronicafernandezvarga.files.wordpress.com/2011/10/primerpuestocolor1.jpg

Case Study: Shangxiajiu Shangxiajiu Street and Lingnan Culture. (n.d.). Chinaculture. Retrieved August 6, 2012, from http://www.chinaculture.org/gb/en_madeinchina/2006-02/20/content_79483.htm Pictures: Cover: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/41/Shangxj.jpg 1) http://mkylie.multiply.com/photos/album/6/240508_Shang_Xia_Jiu_Lu_GuangZhou?&show_interstitial=1&u=%2Fphotos%2Falbum 2) http://www.worldofstock.com/slides/TAI1353.jpg 3) http://www.lifeofguangzhou.com/node_981/node_989/node_996/node_1012/img/2012/01/18/132685063494473_1.jpg 4) http://whitey.net/CN20101128-19-Guangzhou-Shangxiajiu.jpg 5) http://farm3.staticflickr.com/2699/4241427868_a2343cb9f2_z.jpg?zz=1 6) http://welcometochina.com.au/shangxiajiu-pedestrian-street-in-guangzhou-986.html 7) http://img15.dayoo.com/house/attachement/jpg/site1/20120227/001372af56af10b55c9045.jpg 8) http://farm6.static.flickr.com/5254/5392559840_d95f48394c.jpg 9) http://www.flickr.com/photos/qlin/3480641924/ 10) http://www.flickr.com/photos/qlin/3479839463/ 11) http://www.flickr.com/photos/maggielinchen/3314811391/ 12) http://www.flickr.com/photos/excelguangzhou/5773677371/ Support: http://www.trip2china.com/uploads/120103/1-1201031619492A.jpg

50 .


Case Study: 3rd Street Promenade Downtown Santa Monica Events | Downtown Santa Monica. (n.d.). Welcome | Downtown Santa Monica. Retrieved August 6, 2012, from http://www.downtownsm.com/events Santa Monica Events, Southern California Events Calendar. (n.d.). Welcome to Santa Monica, CA in Los Angeles, Southern California. Retrieved August 6, 2012, from http://www.santamonica.com/events-calendar/ Third Street Promenade | 3rd Street Promenade | Santa Monica. (n.d.). Santa Monica, CA | Santa Monica Real Estate | City Info. Retrieved August 6, 2012, from http://www.aboutsantamonica.com/third-street-promenade/ Pictures: Cover: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/87/Santa_Monica_Third_Street_Promenade,_Jane_Lidz.jpg 1) http://pics4.city-data.com/cpicv/vfiles6222.jpg 2) http://tylerdmorgan.blogspot.ca/2010/05/3rd-street-promenade.html 3) Google Maps 4) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8b/052607-008-3StP-facing-SMP.jpg/220px-052607-008-3StP-facingSMP.jpg 5) http://www.life2day.gr/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/image20.jpeg 6) Google Maps 7) http://www.flickr.com/photos/alpharomeo/3315147209/ 8) http://www.terragalleria.com/images/us-ca/usca43412.jpeg 9) http://www.flickr.com/photos/remozolli/2752817975/ 10) http://smmirrorstatic.s3.amazonaws.com/media/550/134091482073773.jpg 11) http://cdn.c.photoshelter.com/img-get/I0000b_tEB_jrvd0/s/860/860/DSC-4212.jpg 12) http://www.flickr.com/photos/abetterstay/3760224369/ 13) http://photos.metrojacksonville.com/photos/1394565516_FGCTgRk-M.jpg 14) http://www.flickr.com/photos/26944050@N04/4906698502/sizes/l/in/photostream/ 15) http://www.flickr.com/photos/antigone/4536305129/lightbox/

Case Study: Haeng Bok No City of Uijeongbu. (2009). 행복로 문화의 거리 사업현황. City of Uijeongbu: Planning Department. Pictures: Cover: http://www.naewaynews.com/wellplaza/co_img/news3_board_picture_112_45502.jpg 1) Naver Streetview 2) Naver Streetview 3) Naver Streetview 4) http://toqur0716.blog.me/130110461045?Redirect=Log&from=postView 5) From City Report 6) http://www.flickr.com/photos/38635642@N00/4220240755/sizes/o/in/photostream/ 7) Naver Streetview 8) http://toqur0716.blog.me/130110461045?Redirect=Log&from=postView 9) http://365happy.tistory.com/126 10) http://cafe.naver.com/karmadream/2695 11) http://cafe.naver.com/karmadream/2695 12) http://365happy.tistory.com/126 13) http://blog.daum.net/llim34/15970884 14) http://www.flickr.com/photos/38635642@N00/4218946047/sizes/o/in/photostream/ (media poles) Historic Photo: http://www.flickr.com/photos/25021533@N08/3009060509/sizes/m/in/photostream/

Case Study: Stroget Jacobs, A. B. (1993). Great streets. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Pictures: Cover: http://traveljapanblog.com/wordpress/2011/08/str%C3%B8get/ 1) http://www.flickr.com/photos/trovato989/446383650/sizes/l/in/photostream/ 2) http://media.lonelyplanet.com/lpimg/5960/5960-1/preview.jpg 3) http://www.flickr.com/photos/head-gear/24498617/ 4) http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-u7msphfYfPY/Tj8eAWuCkaI/AAAAAAAAHXk/dA1WQZSIk-o/s1600/stroget.jpg 5) http://www.blogvacanze.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/12/copenhagen-shopping-3.jpg 6) Google Maps 7) Google Maps 8) Google Maps 9) Google Maps 10) http://www.flickr.com/photos/sitephocus/3702587213/ 11) http://www.flickr.com/photos/15635975@N05/3061621197/ 12) http://www.flickr.com/photos/sylvainbourdos/2920009804/sizes/l/in/photostream/ 13) http://www.flickr.com/photos/swimmingupstream/842245329/ 14) http://inkelvestravel.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/14-the-stroget-copenhagen.jpg?w=297&h=300 Support: http://www.flickr.com/photos/smudgeboy/4847571556/sizes/o/in/photostream/


Reference Case Study: Distillery District The Distillery Historic District. (n.d.). The Distillery Historic District. Retrieved August 7, 2012, from http://thedistillerydistrict.com Pictures: Cover: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jemsabell/5960260830/sizes/l/in/photostream/ 1) http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3268/2877602051_c598350bfc_z.jpg (pavement) 2) http://doublecrossed.ca/images/20060716015558_dxd_unicycles.jpg (street performance) 3) http://www.flickr.com/photos/imuttoo/4186087825/ 4) http://www.flickr.com/photos/bukharov/7178845375/in/photostream/ 5) http://www.elementsfireplaces.com/images/phocagallery/lightings/thumbs/phoca_thumb_l_lighting9_big.jpg 6) http://www.flickr.com/photos/bukharov/7364066220/ 7) Google Maps 8) http://vacay.ca/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/Distillery-for-web.jpg 9) http://gailatlarge.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/2012-06-30-16.03.50.jpg 10) http://www.flickr.com/photos/c453y/3799421709/ 11) http://www.flickr.com/photos/michele_li/7276780772/ 12) http://www.flickr.com/photos/tsaiware/4507064680/ 13) http://www.flickr.com/photos/bensonkua/3814013686/ “Still Dancing”: http://www.flickr.com/photos/snuffy/5231373328/

Case Study: Las Ramblas Barcelona.de - La Rambla, Barcelona's famous promenade. (n.d.). Barcelona Reiseführer. Hotel, Flug, Barcelona Card buchen, Informationen über Barcelona. Retrieved August 7, 2012, from http://barcelona.de/en/barcelona-rambla.html Jacobs, A. B. (1993). Great streets. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Pictures: Cover: http://wikitravel.org/upload/en/7/7f/DSCF0158.JPG 1) http://www.barcelona-tourist-guide.com/images/int/albums/ramblas/thumbnails/las-ramblas-02_jpg.jpg 2) http://www.habitatapartments.com/resources/sections/ramblas3.jpg 3) http://www.flickr.com/photos/shadowcaster57/2195164456/sizes/l/in/photostream/ 4) http://www.barcelonapoint.com/images/web/La%20Rambla%20Barcelona.jpg 5) http://farm5.staticflickr.com/4040/4632590197_9c4edce9cf_z.jpg 6) http://0.tqn.com/d/create/1/0/9/L/9/-/colonnandakishoremohanram.jpg 7) Google Maps 8) Google Maps 9) http://www.way2barcelona.com/travel-guide/제-content/uploads/2009/09/dreamstime_9413476.jpg 10) http://www.flickr.com/photos/11537676@N06/7644607546/ 11) http://www.flickr.com/photos/kelliejane/432276242 12) http://www.flickr.com/photos/jimmyv/743937036 13) http://www.barcelona-tourist-guide.com/images/int/albums/ramblas/images/las-ramblas-08_jpg.jpg 14) http://www.flickr.com/photos/9084427@N07/3231392715 Support: http://cruises.about.com/od/mediterraneancruises/ig/Barcelona---Old-Town/Barcelona---La-Rambla.-uyd.htm

52 .


Pedestrian Streets