PIERRE BONNARD / FERNANDO BOTERO / MARC CHAGALL / EDGAR DEGAS / SALVADOR DALÍ / ALFRED DE DREUX / JEAN-HONORÉ FRAGONARD / CHILDE HASSAM / FRIDA KAHLO / WILFREDO LAM / TAMARA DE LEMPICKA / ROY LICHTENSTEIN / RENÉ MAGRITTE / EDOUARD MANET / ROBERTO MATTA / RICHARD EDWARD MILLER / JOAN MITCHELL / CLAUDE MONET / BERTHE MORISOT / ALICE NEEL / IRVING NORMAN / FRANCIS PICABIA / PABLO PICASSO / CAMILLE PISSARRO / PIERRE-AUGUSTE RENOIR / DIEGO RIVERA / HENRI ROUSSEAU / ALFRED SISLEY / RUFINO TAMAYO / WAYNE THIEBAUD / JAMES TISSOT / KEES VAN DONGEN / VINCENT VAN GOGH / ANDY WARHOL / FRANCISCO ZÚÑIGA / PIERRE BONNARD / FERNANDO BOTERO / MARC CHAGALL / EDGAR DEGAS / SALVADOR DALÍ / ALFRED DE DREUX / JEAN-HONORÉ FRAGONARD / CHILDE HASSAM / FRIDA KAHLO / WILFREDO LAM / TAMARA DE LEMPICKA / ROY LICHTENSTEIN / RENÉ MAGRITTE / EDOUARD MANET / ROBERTO MATTA / RICHARD EDWARD MILLER / JOAN MITCHELL / CLAUDE MONET / BERTHE MORISOT / ALICE NEEL / IRVING NORMAN / FRANCIS PICABIA / PABLO PICASSO / CAMILLE PISSARRO / PIERRE-AUGUSTE RENOIR / DIEGO RIVERA / HENRI ROUSSEAU / ALFRED SISLEY / RUFINO TAMAYO / WAYNE THIEBAUD / JAMES TISSOT / KEES VAN DONGEN / VINCENT VAN GOGH / ANDY WARHOL / FRANCISCO ZÚÑIGA / PIERRE BONNARD / FERNANDO BOTERO / MARC CHAGALL / EDGAR DEGAS / SALVADOR DALÍ / ALFRED DE DREUX / JEAN-HONORÉ FRAGONARD / CHILDE HASSAM / FRIDA KAHLO / WILFREDO LAM / TAMARA DE LEMPICKA / ROY LICHTENSTEIN / RENÉ MAGRITTE / EDOUARD MANET / ROBERTO MATTA / RICHARD EDWARD MILLER / JOAN MITCHELL / CLAUDE MONET / BERTHE MORISOT / ALICE NEEL / IRVING NORMAN / FRANCIS PICABIA / PABLO PICASSO / CAMILLE PISSARRO / PIERRE-AUGUSTE RENOIR / DIEGO RIVERA / HENRI ROUSSEAU / ALFRED SISLEY / RUFINO TAMAYO / WAYNE THIEBAUD / JAMES TISSOT / KEES VAN DONGEN / VINCENT VAN GOGH / ANDY WARHOL / FRANCISCO ZÚÑIGA
CONTENTS 10. 12. 14. 16. 18. 20. 22. 24. 26. 28. 30. 32. 34. 36. 38. 40. 42. 50.-54. 56. 58. 60. 64.
PIERRE BONNARD FERNANDO BOTERO MARC CHAGALL EDGAR DEGAS SALVADOR DALÍ ALFRED DE DREUX JEAN-HONORÉ FRAGONARD CHILDE HASSAM FRIDA KAHLO WILFREDO LAM TAMARA DE LEMPICKA ROY LICHTENSTEIN RENÉ MAGRITTE EDOUARD MANET ROBERTO MATTA RICHARD EDWARD MILLER JOAN MITCHELL CLAUDE MONET BERTHE MORISOT ALICE NEEL IRVING NORMAN FRANCIS PICABIA
66.-64. PABLO PICASSO 68. CAMILLE PISSARRO 70. PIERRE-AUGUSTE RENOIR 72. DIEGO RIVERA 74. HENRI ROUSSEAU 76. RUFINO TAMAYO 78. WAYNE THIEBAUD 80. JAMES TISSOT 82. KEES VAN DONGEN 84. VINCENT VAN GOGH 86.-88. ANDY WARHOL 90. FRANCISCO ZÚÑIGA 94. DAN FACE MASK, GUNYE GE 96. PENDE MOTHER AND CHILD FIGURE 98. CHINESE BUDDHIST STELE 100. CHINESE BRONZE BODHISATTVA 102. GANDHARAN STUCCO BUDDHA 104. JAPANESE TEMPLE FIGURES, NIO 106. CHINESE FIGURE OF MAITREYA 108. OLMEC STONE MASK 110. MAYAN JADE MASK
Heather James Fine Art is proud to present our compilation of important artworks. It has been an honor for us to offer some of the finest paintings, sculptures and antiquities to the market. As you will see in the following pages, we have been able to exhibit an incredible array of art forms, from Impressionist and Modern art to African, Asian and Latin American antiquity. The unifying aspect, however, is quality. We strive to show the best examples in each genre, and most often with impeccable provenance. As repeated throughout history, quality is always the most important aspect when acquiring a work of art. Please contact the gallery or visit our web site for a complete list of artworks and availability.
PIERRE BONNARD (1867-1947) Bord de Mer, Sous les Pins Signed (lower left), 1921 Oil on canvas 47 5/8 x 47 5/8 in.
PROVENANCE: Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, Paris, acquired directly from the artist in 1921. J. Rodier, acquired from the above. Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, Paris, re-acquired from the above. Kunstnernes Hus, Oslo, acquired from the above in January 1939. Mr and Mrs Johann H. Andresen, Oslo, acquired from the above in 1946 and thence by descent to the previous owner. EXHIBITED: Paris, Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, Bonnard, May - June 1921, no. 18. Oslo, Kunstnernes Hus, Pierre Bonnard, January 1939, no. 25 (illustrated). Oslo, Kunstnernes Hus, Exposition d’Art Français, November - December 1946, no. 35. Oslo, Kunstnerforbundet, Pierre Bonnard malerier, March - April 1966, no. 22. LITERATURE: C. Roger-Marx, Bonnard, 1924, p. 55 (illustrated, titled Gouter champêtre, and incorrectly dated 1920). J. & H. Dauberville, Bonnard, Catalogue raisonné de l’oeuvre peint, vol. III, 1920-1939, Paris, 1973, no. 1077 (illustrated p. 90).
Glowing with light and warmth, Bonnard’s Bord de mer, sous les pins is a colorist extravaganza, a sumptuous visual hymn to life and beauty. He has created an enticingly paradoxical image, a fashionable scene of bucolic repose from the early 1920s. In it, we see a picnic being enjoyed from a dramatic viewpoint, saturated with the heat and light of the South of France. The deep blue of the Mediterranean Sea draws the viewer in with its lapis-like intensity. Bernheim-Jeune’s decision to exhibit it the piece the same year as it was painted emphasizes the importance of this work. Only a few years later, the prominent critic Claude Roger-Marx reaffirmed the painting’s status by selecting it as one of the few illustrated works in his small but important 1924 monograph on the artist. Later in his career, Bonnard spent an increasing amount of time in the South of France, an environment beneficial to his wife Marthe’s compromised health. It seems likely that Bord de mer, sous les pins depicts Marthe with her dog Black and other close friends on the coast near St. Tropez where he spent the winter of 1920 and the spring of 1921 with his old friend Henri Manguin. Bonnard had long been drawn to the area’s deep art historical associations. The distant mountains in Bord de mer, sous les pins are expressly painted using the visual idiom of Cézanne; however Bonnard has interpreted the late Master of Aix’s territory in his own unique aesthetic language. Likewise the intense colors of this painting recall the Fauvism of Matisse, evident in many of Bonnard’s paintings of the South, such as his 1904 image of the Gulf of Saint-Tropez. Bonnard thus succeeds in fusing a sense of the contemporary and immediate with a timeless, dreamlike quality. The glowing color and inexplicable air of fantasy give the work an almost ethereal quality, characteristic of some of the greatest paintings of Bonnard’s later career.
FERNANDO BOTERO (B. 1932) Sunday Afternoon Signed and dated ‘Botero 67’ (lower right) Oil on canvas 69 x 69 in. Painted in 1967
PROVENANCE: Jean Aberbach, NY Private Collection, FL LITERATURE: C. Ratcliff, Botero, New York, Abbeville Press, Inc., 1980, p. 119, no. 96.
Painted in 1967, Sunday Afternoon is one of a series of paintings by Botero that explore the theme of picnicking and the relationship of figures, both formal and psychological, in an outdoor setting. In this painting, five members of a family sit or recline in a compact figural composition atop a pink checkered cloth. They are framed by a ring of grey, conical forms of varying sizes. Smoke rises from one such form in the background on the left, paralleling the smoke from the cigarette in the husband’s hand. A number of bare tree trunks rise from the ground behind the family at titled angles, both framing and reflecting the angles at which the figures lean against one another. The painting illustrates an intimate gathering, and Botero’s close frontal perspective on the family invites the viewer into the scene. Like other paintings in this series, Botero has appropriated a traditional art historical theme and reinterpreted it in accordance with his own personal artistic vision. His most conspicuous use of this theme is in the 1969 painting Le Déjeuner sur l’Herbe, which takes both its title and subject matter from a painting by Manet. This painting, which shocked audiences in the 1860’s, depicts a nude woman and two clothed men picnicking in the forest. Sunday Afternoon, though less conspicuous, exudes this same kind of playfulness in its art historical borrowing and reinterpretation.
MARC CHAGALL (1887-1985) L’evenement Signed and dated, 1978 (lower right and again on reverse) Oil on canvas 51 1/4 x 64 in.
PROVENANCE: Galerie Maeght, Paris (acquired from the artist). Private collection, United States. EXHIBITED: Stockholm, Moderna Museet and Humlebaek, Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, Chagall, September 1982-March 1983, p. 83, no. 85 (illustrated in color). Saint-Paul-de-Vence, Fondation Maeght, Marc Chagall: Retrospective de l’oeuvre peint, July-October 1984, p. 145, no. 78 (illustrated in color). London, Royal Academy and The Philadelphia Museum of Art, Marc Chagall, January-April 1985, p. 242, no. 119 (illustrated in color). LITERATURE: F. Le Targat, Marc Chagall, Paris, 1985, no. 138 (illustrated in color). J. Baal-Teshuva, Marc Chagall 1887-1985, Cologne, 1998, p. 210 (illustrated in color).
The years after Chagall settled into the halcyon rhythms of life in southern France in the late 1970s were, in his words, “a bouquet of roses” (quoted in S. Alexander, Marc Chagall: A Biography, New York, 1978, p.492). The garlands of success capped a life and career scarred with suffering, from the sudden death of the artist’s first love, to several long years of privation and exile in the face of the Holocaust. Reluctantly embracing the mantle of the “Wandering Jew,” Chagall had planted roots in Russia, America, and finally, and most enduringly, France. In a life often marked by upheaval, the constancy of Chagall’s source material was unwavering, turning in his later years to the compendium of images compiled over years of international cosmopolitan living. The story told by L’evenement is, in many ways, the autobiographical summing up of over ninety years of creative life. The re-imagining of his past, stirred by new visions of love, is writ across this large canvas that reaches for universals of religion, love, life and death. Chagall paints himself as a young artist with a palette, standing beside the cock in the dark twilight of the shtetl, with the outlines of the small village lit only by a crescent moon and the faint glow of a menorah. Aloft in the evening sky, the figure of the artist appears ready to cross over into the incandescent red light that bathes the left side of the canvas – not into the urbane sophistication of the Paris skyline, as in Hommage a Paris, but rather into the shtetl again. In the middle of the canvas stands the fiddler, floating in the scarlet sky but with his head turned toward the misty grayness of the past. A recurrent image in Chagall’s work, the fiddler traditionally played music to commemorate significant life events such as birth, marriage and death. Such dualities of life figure prominently in this pictured montage. The sun and the moon preside over the split halves of the painting, one side seemingly a shadow of the Vitebsk Chagall once knew, and the other an allegory of the memories associated with his Russian roots. The Madonna and child and the virile goats are affirmations of life and love. Here the fickle fiddler seems to be a symbol of death, as his outline is interrupted by that of the cock, a symbol of impending death. As in many of Chagall’s paintings, the narrative is discontinuous and infinitely circular. The passages between the moments of life and death are fluid and their symbols interchangeable.
EDGAR DEGAS (1834-1917) Trois danseuses Stamped with his signature Degas (Lugt 658) lower left Pastel on paper 25 3/4 by 25 3/4 in. Executed circa 1899
PROVENANCE: The artist’s studio; first sale, Galerie Georges Petit, Paris, 6-8 May 1918, lot 227 (FFr 10,600, illustrated). Charles Vignier, Paris; his sale, May 1931, lot 44 (illustrated). Victor Spark, New York. Wildenstein & Co., New York. C. Michael Paul, Palm Beach. Raymonde I. Paul, New York. The Metropolitan Museum Of Art, New York (de-accessioned); sale, Sotheby’s, New York, 13 May 1986, lot 35. Private collection, 1987. EXHIBITED: Tokyo, Isetan Museum of Art, Edgar Degas, October-November 1988, no. 79 (illustrated p. 145). LITERATURE: P.A. Lemoisne, Degas et son oeuvre, vol. III, Peintures et Pastels 1883-1908, Paris, 1946, no. 1345 (illustrated p. 789).
Executed in 1899, Trois danseuses is a study of posture, form and movement that epitomizes Degas’ mature exploration of his most iconic theme, the ballet. When he had begun producing pictures of the ballet and its dancers over two decades earlier, Degas was a sophisticated man about town. His purpose in depicting these images of dancers at rest was partly in line with his attempts to paint modern life, to capture the energy and entertainment of the city. Nowhere was this more evident than in the glamorous yet exploitative world of the dancers, often girls rather than women, whose movements were graceful enough to be considered art in their own right. As Degas matured as an artist his interest in the behind-the-scenes life of the ballet diminished, while his artistic appreciation of form and line grew. The dancers thus retained their central position in his work, but were less present as manifestations of modernity and entertainment than as a representation of art in their own right. Degas used photographs and models rather than firsthand observation to more precisely create compositions as they appeared in his mind. Thus in Trois danseuses, each of the figures is only a mildly adjusted version of the figures shown in three photographs of dancers taken by Degas in the 1890s. These three photographs came to form the basis for a group of works that includes En attendant l’entrée en scene, now in the National Gallery of Art in Washington D.C. This painting shares a close resemblance to Trois danseuses, though with the addition of a fourth girl. Trois danseuses is therefore a steppingstone in the gradual evolution of this particular composition of a group of girls, and is made all the more rare for relating to such a significant late oil. At the same time, Trois danseuses bears witness to the painstaking preparation that lay behind Degas’ paintings.
SALVADOR DALÍ (1904-1989) Portrait de Mme Philips avec l’angneau Oil on canvas 42 1/2 x 31 3/4 in. Painted in 1953
PROVENANCE: Private Collection. Sale: Christie’s, London, June 23, 2004, lot 265. Private Collection (acquired a the above sale). EXHIBITED: Toronto, The Art Gallery of Toronto, Comparisons, 1957.
Typical of Dalí’s style, Portrait de Mme Philips avec l’angneau is a sumptuously surrealist portrait. Dalí portrays his sitter in flattering terms, bathed in the soft light of the parted clouds overhead and draped in satins reminiscent of the classical robes worn by Gala in Dalí’s monumental Corpus Hybercubus of 1955 (Metropolitan Museum of Art). As is often the case with Dali’s portraits, the artist introduces narrative elements drawn from his own repertoire of pictorial motifs rather than painting the sitter alone. Dalí has projected Madame Phillips against a barren backdrop of arid landscape to reveal a void characteristic of the artist’s so-called “white” paintings of the mid-1930s. Behind her walks a solitary angel; the lonely figure casting a long shadow in a vast, flat landscape is a common theme in Dalí’s work and is strongly identifiable with the shrouded figures of Dalí’s own tortured sexual imagination. Salvador Felipe Jacinto Dalí Domenech was born in 1904 in the small agricultural town of Figueres, Spain. The son of a prosperous notary, Dalí spent his boyhood in Figueres and at the family’s summer home in the coastal fishing village of Cadaques where his parents built him his first studio. As an adult, he made his home in nearby Port Lilgat, with his wife Gala. Many of his paintings reflect his love of this area of Spain. Dalí and Gala escaped from Europe during World War II, staying in the United States from 1940 to 1948. These were very important years for the artist. The Museum of Modern Art in New York gave Dalí his first major retrospective in 1941, followed by the publication of his autobiography, The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí, in 1942. Dalí summarized the shift from his esoteric, surrealist style to more universal themes of religion and science by saying he intended “to become classic.” He stated, “to be a Surrealist forever is like spending your life painting nothing but eyes and noses.” Following this shift, Dalí looked back to Classical and Renaissance art for inspiration, while also looking forward to the emerging scientific discoveries of the 1950s. He strove to be a spokesman of the atomic age, to unite the discoveries of modern science with religion and mysticism.
ALFRED DE DREUX (1810 - 1860) A Rest in the Mountains (Le Lad blanc) Signed and dated ‘Ad de Dreux/1851’ (lower right) Oil on canvas 36 x 28 1/2 in. Painted in 1851
PROVENANCE: Deane F. Johnson and Anne Ford Johnson LITERATURE: Marie-Christine Renauld Beaupere, Alfred de Dreux le peintre du cheval, Lausanne, 1988, illustrated p. 64. Marie-Christine Renauld Beaupere, Alfred de Dreux, le cheval, passion d’un dandy parisien, Edition Action artistique de la Ville de Paris, 1997.
Alfred de Dreux was born in Paris in 1810. When he was a young child he met the painter Theodore Gericault, a close friend of his parents. As a young man, de Dreux’s uncle took him to Gericault’s studio where he was greatly influenced by the master painter and his work. Like Gericault, de Dreux became a passionate horseman and successful painter of upper equestrian society during the reigns of Louis-Philipe and Napoleon III. De Dreux first exhibited his equestrian paintings at the Paris Salon in 1830. His work was an immediate success and was soon in high demand. In 1840 he began what is perhaps his most famous series of paintings, a set of portraits of the great horses from the celebrated stables of the duc d’Orleans. After the French Revolution of 1848, Napoleon II and the French royal family immigrated to England. De Dreux visited the family many times, painting several equestrian portraits of the Emperor and his sons. While living in England the artist was often commissioned to paint English high society, specifically reflecting its passion for horses, dogs and hunting. Despite his connections with the aristocracy and the royal family, de Dreux’s work also remained popular in France and is represented today in the Louvre and several more of France’s greatest museums. His best works were painted in the Orientalist style and featured beautiful Arab horses, often with their grooms. De Dreux was also a talented draftsman and engraver and many of his popular works were reproduced in lithographs. In 1859 he received an order from Emperor Napoleon III for a portrait on horseback. In the midst of a heavy dispute regarding the painting in 1859, Alfred de Dreux was mysteriously killed in a duel with Comte Fleury, the Emperor’s aide de camp.
JEAN-HONORÉ FRAGONARD (1732-1806) La Charette de Roses (The Cart of Roses) Oil on canvas 37 1/2 x 49 1/2 in.
PROVENANCE: Jules Duclos. Anonymous sale; Paris, 8 March 1920, Lot # 29, as ‘J.-B. Huet’. With Wildenstein, New York. Deane F. Johnson and Anne Ford Johnson. EXHIBITED: New York, Wildenstein, Fragonard, 1926, no. 1. Wilmington, Wilmington Society of Fine Arts, A Collection of Old Masters, 1935, no. 4. New York, Wildenstein, The Pleasures of Summer, 1943, no. 4. LITERATURE: R. Portalis, Honore Fragonard, sa vie et son oeuvre, Paris, 1889, p. 280. G. Wildenstein, The Paintings of Fragonard, New York, 1960, p. 197, no. 28, fig. 18 illustrated. D. Wildenstein and G. Mandel, L’Opera completa di Fragonard, Milan 1972, p. 87, no 29, fig. 1, illustrated. D. Sutton, in the exhibition catalogue, Fragonard, Tokyo, The National Museum of Western Art, 18 March-11 May 1980, no. 6. J.-P. Cuzin, Jean Honore Fragonard: Vie et oeuvre, Friborg, 1987, no. 32, p. 265. R. Rosenberg, Tout l’oeuvre peint de Fragonard, Paris, 1989, no. 8, illustrated.
Jean-Honoré Fragonard was a prodigiously gifted artist who displayed an uncanny ability to assimilate new styles and techniques throughout his career. La Charette de Roses dates from the early 1750s when Fragonard was apprenticing in the studio of François Boucher, one of the most sought after painters in France at the time. La Charette is among Fragonard’s earliest independent works and is clearly influenced by the style of his mentor. Boucher had all but invented the painted pastorale and here Fragonard adopts one of Boucher’s beautifully dressed country girls as his own. Indeed, the pose and costume of the maiden parallel those of the central figure in Boucher’s La Petite Fermiere, a small canvas dated from 1752. Fragonard’s entire composition is indebted to Boucher’s painting, though even here Fragonard imbues the work with his own unmistakable artistic style. Fragonard’s handling of paint is much broader and looser than Boucher’s more defined brushwork. The entire large-scale canvas is executed with a confident sketch-like bravura, a remarkable accomplishment for such a young painter. The subject of La Charette de Roses was a favorite of the artist’s who, at the beginning of his career, became something of a specialist in decorative canvases depicting gardeners and gardening girls. Like all of Fragonard’s finest garden subjects, La Charette depicts the overflow of nature’s abundance and exhibits the vibrant coloring, varied paint handling, and graceful sense of movement that are consistent with a style of painting that pre-dates the artist’s departure to study with the French Academy in Rome. The painting illustrates a pastoral landscape in perfect harmony with the people who inhabit it, a rural idyll as appealing to twenty-first century city dwellers as it was to eighteenth century Parisians. Jean-Honoré Fragonard developed into one of the most brilliant and versatile artists of eighteenth century France. He wielded brush, chalk, and etcher’s needle with extraordinary virtuosity, effortlessly varying his touch as he produced a succession of consummate masterpieces on themes ranging from religion to mythology and genre and landscape.
CHILDE HASSAM (1859-1935) Children in the Park, Boston signed and inscribed ‘Childe Hassam, Boston’ (lower right) Oil on canvas 15 x 18 1/2 in. Painted circa 1889
PROVENANCE: The Artist. Charles Francis Adams, circ 1920’s. Private Collection. EXHIBITED: Portland, Oregon, Portland Art Museum, Catalogue of a Loan Exhibition of Paintings Held in the New Museum of Art, November 18, 1932- January 2, 1933, no. 54 (as Boston). Portland, Oregon, Portland Art Museum, Childe Hassam in Oregon, February 20- March 29, 1953 (as Children in a Park).
The success of Childe Hassam’s metropolitan views of Boston, New York and Paris from the late nineteenth century is attributed to his love of observing the vitality of city life and his unique use of composition, color, light and atmosphere. His paintings of parks are pastoral retreats from the harsh realities of urban life. These new man-made parks were created as a much-needed escape for an urban population burdened by rapid industrialization. Hassam’s Children in the Park, Boston illustrates the brilliance of American Impressionism and extols the tranquil beauty of a constructed oasis amidst the chaos of a changing world. Painted circa 1889, following Hassam’s return from Paris, this painting depicts a beautiful passage in a public common. On Sundays and holidays, people of all social classes commonly escaped to the lush surroundings offered by parks like the one in the painting. However during the workweek, upper class women and children seeking clean air, restful repose and healthful exercise amidst the rolling lawns, winding paths and elegant promenades, typically frequented the park. Clearly a continuation of his explorations of park scenes in Paris, Children in the Park, Boston exemplifies the subject matter in which Hassam and his fellow impressionists found continual fascination: leisurely activities of the refined and aristocratic in picturesque settings. Set against the backdrop of the park, Hassam populates the canvas with groupings of women and children, relaxing by the side of the water or setting toy boats to sail. Each figure is well dressed, including the boy in his blue sailor suit and the girl in her frilled dress. Hassam, though committed to nature and an advocate of documenting real life experiences, found it was necessary to be visually selective in his observations. With his skillful choice of location and selection of subjects, Hassam successfully captures an idyllic moment of escape from frantic urban society on canvas.
FRIDA KAHLO (1910-1954) Self-Portrait with Curly Hair Oil on tin 7 1/4 x 5 3/4 in. Painted in 1935
PROVENANCE: A gift of the artist to Ella Goldberg Wolfe, Palo Alto Sam Schorr, California, by descent. Arte Mundi, Florida, acquired from the above. LITERATURE: H. Herrera, Frida: A Biography of Frida Kahlo, Perennial, New York, 1983, p. 180-187, n. 37 (illustrated in color). F. Zamora, Frida: El Pincel de la angustia, 1987, p.285, n.n. (illustrated). H. Prignitz-Poda, et al, Frida Kahlo: Das Gesamtwerk (Cataglogue Raisonne), Verlag Neue Kritik, Frankfurt, 1988, p. 106, n. 41 (illustrated in color). H. Herrera, Frida Kahlo: The Paintings, Harper Collins, New York, 1991, p. 109, n.n. (illustrated). C. Picard, “The Armory Show and the Art Show 2002”, ArtNexus, N. 45, V.3, July-September 2002, p.82 (illustrated in color). H. Herrera, Frida: A Biography of Frida Kahlo, Perennial, New York, 2002, p. 180-187, p. 136, n. 37 (illustrated in color). H. Herrera, Frida Kahlo: Las Pinturas, Harper Collins, New York, 2003, p. 109, n.n. (illustrated).
Frida Kahlo’s 1935 Self-Portrait with Curly Hair, another page in the iconography that reflects significant events in the artist’s life, expresses her attempt to break her attachment to her husband Diego Rivera following the discovery of his amorous liaison with Kahlo’s younger sister Christina. A despondent Rivera withdrew for a time, stunned by the destruction of the mural he had painted for Rockefeller Center due to the surreptitious inclusion of a portrait of Lenin. Kahlo interpreted his withdrawal as a form of rejection and pressured her husband for acknowledgment, which only pushed him farther away. In Self-Portrait with Curly Hair, Kahlo portrays herself modestly, wearing simple clothing, her hair in a permanent curl and her thick and sensuous eyebrows framing her intense gaze. Small in size and emotionally charged, the painting is a precious devotional object. Following her separation from Rivera, Kahlo had a relationship with Ignacio Aguirre, himself a talented muralist and printmaker. Until his death, Aguirre kept her letters and photos in a small box inscribed with his name, likely a gift from Kahlo. Her letters recall those she wrote to Rivera, making one wonder if she simply sought the amorous experience rather than the individual. Three months with Aguirre were not long enough to forget Rivera. With curls shed, Kahlo went to New York to commiserate with her friend Ella Wolfe. She brought with her Self-Portrait with Curly Hair and presented it to Wolfe as a gift. Ella Wolfe owned another work of Kahlo’s, Four Inhabitants of Mexico, which was also a gift. She sold the painting in order to live at home until her death in 2000, but the treasured Self-Portrait with Curly Hair hung in her dining room until the end. – adapted from Salomon Grimberg
WILFREDO LAM (1902-1982) Untitiled Oil on Canvas 42 1/2 x 30 1/4 in. Painted in 1975
PROVENANCE: Sotheby’s New York: Thursday, May 29, 1997 [Lot 00054]. Latin American Art (lots 1-76). Private Collection, California.
Wifredo Lam was a Cuban artist who sought to portray and revive the enduring Afro-Cuban spirit and culture. Inspired by and in contact with some of the most renowned artists of the twentieth century, Lam melded his influences to create a unique style that was ultimately characterized by the prominence of hybrid figures. Though he was predominantly a painter, he also worked in sculpture, ceramics and printmaking. One of the most significant artists of the Surrealist movement, Lam grew up in Cuba with his grandmother, a Santeria priestess who practiced Voodoo, and came of age in Paris where he and Picasso became close friends. Lam’s father, Yam Lam, was a Chinese immigrant and his mother, Ana Serafina, was born to a former Congolese slave and a Cuban mulatto father. Lam’s contact with African celebrations and spiritual practices proved to be one of his largest artistic influences. Wifredo Lam’s career in Europe exposed him to the work of Bosch and Bruegel, Leger, Matisse, Braque and Miro. Lam’s dislike of academic conservatism led to the development of an aesthetic that merged Western compositional traditions with primitivism. Influenced by Surrealism and Cubism, Lam had begun simplifying his forms before he came in contact with Picasso, but it is apparent that Picasso had a significant impact on his work. It is said that Picasso’s encouragement and approval led Lam to seek his own interpretation of modernism. Upon his return to Havana, Lam developed a new awareness of Afro-Cuban traditions and his time there marked a rapid stylistic evolution. Fusing Surrealist and Cubist perspectives with Santeria symbols and imagery, his work continued to simplify abstraction while combining a radical modern style with the primitive arts of the Americas and Afro-Cuban culture. For this reason, his work does not categorically belong to one specific art movement or period.
TAMARA DE LEMPICKA (1898 - 1980) Portrait de Romana de la Salle Oil on canvas 45 5/8 x 28 1/4 in. Painted in 1928
PROVENANCE: Galerie du Luxembourg, Paris (acquired from the artist). Galerie Wolf Uecker, Hamburg. Galerie Michael Hasenclever, Munich (1988). Barry Friedman Gallery, New York (1988-89). Private Collection of Wolfgang Joop, Hamburg. EXHIBITED: Poznan, Poland, Exposition Internationale des Beaux-Arts, 1929, no. 1236. Paris, Galerie du Luxembourg, Tamara de Lempicka de 1925 a 1935, 1972, no. 26. Mexico City, Museo Nacional de Arte, Tamara de Lempicka, 1989. Rome, Accademia di Franci Villa Medici, Tamara de Lempicka, Tra eleganza e trasgressione, 1994, no. 30. Montreal, Musee des Beaux Arts, Tamara de Lempicka, 1994. Munich, Kunsthalle der Hypo-Kulturstiftung, Der Kuhle Blick: Realismus de zwanziger jhare, 2001. LITERATURE: Tamara de Lempicka, Album-photos annote, Houston, 1923, no. 77. Marc Vaux, Fonds Lempicka, M.N.A.M., Paris, 1972, no. 77. Ellen Thormann, Tamara de Lempicka, Kunstritik und Kunstlerinnen in Pars, Berlin, 1993, listed p. 221, no. 55. Gioia Mori, Tamara de Lempicka, Parigi 1920-1938, Florence, 1994, no. 61, illustrated p. 160. Alain Blondel, Tamara de Lempicka, Catalogue Raisonne 1921-1979, Lusanne, 1999, no. B.100, illustrated p. 179.
Tamara de Lempicka was introduced to Renaissance painting in 1911, when she accompanied her grandmother on a trip to Italy. After she had returned from the trip, she spent hours copying the works of the Mannerists. This influence inspired Lempicka to develop her own artistic style, in which she incorporated the careful modeling found in late Renaissance art with the more geometric elements of modern design. In this depiction of Romana de la Salle, the curvaceous lines of the sitter’s dress and figure contrast with the more angular silhouettes of skyscrapers in the background, evoking both the romantic ideals and urban development that came to define life in modern European cities. In Portrait de Romana de la Salle, the sitter’s cropped hair, red lips and painted fingernails are strikingly modern. Nonetheless, the influence of Renaissance painting is evident throughout the composition, from the dramatic illumination of Romana’s face, to her wistful gaze and serpentinata pose. The monolithic skyscrapers and grand proportions of the pink dress speak of the modern society in which Lempicka lived. The juxtaposition of sensuous contours with rhythmic geometry in this composition results in a commanding yet sensitive portrait. Around the time Lempicka completed this work, she had begun to achieve widespread acclaim as a portrait artist. She painted portraits of her contemporaries, a brilliant circle of luminaries consisting of European aristocrats and affluent patrons of modern art. Lempicka gradually emerged as the portraitist who best represented the high society of the nineteen-twenties and thirties. Indeed, she was the iconic painter of Art Deco high-society.
ROY LICHTENSTEIN (1923-1997) Still Life with Sculpture Signed and date “74” on the reverse Oil and magna on canvas 42 x 52 in. Painted in 1974
1972 through 1976 was a period of intense creativity for Lichtenstein. Having emerged as one of the leading voices of the revolutionary pop art movement, which had exploded upon an unsuspecting audience a decade prior, Lichtenstein began to explore the bedrock of art history. During this particular time, it was the still life genre that caught his eye.
PROVENANCE: Leo Castelli Gallery, New York. S.I. Newhouse, New York. Sotheby’s, New York, November 17, 1999, Lot #47. Private Collection (acquired at the above sale).
Lichtenstein’s interest in still life manifested itself in two ways. He would alternate between compositions of his own invention; configurations of fruit, crystal goblets and bowls taken from commercial sources and rendered in the objectified manner of his earlier Pop art pieces, and compositions in which the works of other artists figured prominently.
EXHIBITED: London, James Mayor Gallery, Roy Lichtenstein, 1974. New York, Mitchell -Innes & Nash, Still Life with Sculpture: Lichtenstein and Matisse, 2003.
Of this latter group, Matisse loomed the largest. Lichtenstein’s kindred connection to Matisse is fitting. Not only was Matisse concerned with the use of color to define space both flat and volumetric, but he also created paintings and sculptures concurrently throughout his career and would self-referentially incorporate his own work into his paintings. One of the earliest of such instances, Sculpture and Persian Vase (1908), distinctly depicts the terra cotta version of his own Nu Couche I (Aurore) (1906), precariously placed on a small, sloping table behind a vase with a tripartite screen in the background. Matisse’s sculpture reappears nearly seventy years later as the centerpiece of Lichtenstein’s Still Life with Sculpture. However in a departure from Matisse, Lichtenstein has reinforced the planar quality of the composition. The screens, which serve as the background, are as flat as the three-dimensional vase and sculpture. Though Lichtenstein cites Matisse’s 1908 composition, he does so in his own visual vernacular. The palette is reductively simple and heavy black outlines serve to offset color and space. The composition is schematic, with everything in its reasonable and correct place. The atmosphere, in other words, has been compressed and artificially transformed. In so doing, Lichtenstein claims this particular composition as his own.
RENE MAGRITTE (1898 - 1967) La Double Vue Signed Magritte (lower right); titled and dated La Double Vue 1957 on the reverse Oil on canvas 29 3/4 x 22 in.
PROVENANCE: Lolas Gallery, New York (acquired from the artist in 1957). Mary and Leigh Block, Illinois (acquired from the above). Art Institute of Chicago (acquired as a gift from the above in 1988). Sale: Sotheby’s, New York, November 4, 2004, Lot# 22. EXHIBITED: Dallas, Museum of Contemporary Art; Houston, Museum of Fine Arts, René Magritte in America, 1960-61, no. 63. LITERATURE: Art Institute of Chicago Annual Report, Chicago, 1987-88, p. 71. David Sylvester (ed.), René Magritte, Catalogue Raisonne, Oil Paintings, Objects and Bronzes, 1949-1967, vol. III, London, 1993, no 846, illustrated p. 264.
La Double Vue depicts the most famous image in Magritte’s oeuvre, the man in the bowler hat. He first appeared as a secondary character in the artist’s work as early as the 1920s, but Magritte did not develop him into a subject of singular importance until the latter half of his career. In these pictures, he is consistently portrayed wearing a dark suit and simple bowler hat, the typical attire of a European bureaucrat. In the 1950s and 60s, this impassive figure appeared in countless situations: with an apple suspended before his face, obscuring his identity; fossilized into ageless blocks of stone; rendered wholly or partially transparent; depicted alone or in an infinite number raining down from the skies; and, as with this 1957 painting, projected against a nondescript landscape. Although he is portrayed as an anonymous figure in these compositions, the man in the bowler hat is understood to be a representation of the artist himself and is regarded as one of the most iconic images of 20th century art. Suzi Gablik has offered the following interpretation of the man in the bowler hat: “Magritte was the most paradoxical of all the Surrealists. Where the others deliberately created scandal in life, he tried to remain outwardly inconspicuous… Magritte’s reluctance to draw attention to himself is mirrored in the anonymity of the bowler-hatted man, a theme which developed mostly during his later years, and which has since come to be identified with himself…Magritte’s bowler-hatted man is more like a figure in a book than a human being, he seems to live the history of ideas rather than the history of the world…Impassive and aloof, he fixed the world in his gaze, but often his face is turned from view, dislocated, or otherwise concealed or obliterated by objects, as if expressing a universal disinclination, for which there exists no complementary inclination,” (Suzi Gablik, Magritte, Greenwich, 1970, pp. 154-156). In accordance with his objective as a Surrealist, Magritte generally added disquieting elements to his pictures in order to challenge the viewer’s understanding of the scene at hand. Positioned in front of a placid landscape, the man holds up a rose in his right hand, investing the otherwise dispassionate scene with an element of tenderness, while the somber figure of the man remains deliberately mysterious. The man’s firm and emphatic clenching of the flower between his two fingers appears abrupt and punctuates the scene with an unexpected force of life.
ÉDOUARD MANET (1832-1883) Bouquet de Fleurs Signed “Manet” (lower right) Oil on canvas 21 3/4 x 13 3/4 in. Painted in 1882 PROVENANCE: Petruiset Collection, Paris. J.B. Faure, Paris. Durand-Ruel, Paris (received from the above on February 20, 1906 and purchased on July 11, 1906). Hugo von Tschudi for the National Gallery, Berlin (purchased from the above on July 16, 1906). Eduard Arnhold, Berlin. Hans Arnhold, Paris. Wildenstein & Co., New York (purchased in 1948). Edwin C. Vogel, New York. Sam Salz, New York. Goulandris Collection, (acquired from the above on April 17, 1972).
In this painting Manet stylistically explores painting in its purest and most simple form. Capturing the vivid yet fleeting presence of the flowers under the mysterious trappings of studio light, Manet has forever contained them in a few layers of paint. In this particular work there is no backing away from the artist’s central concerns. He was, above all, a painter of modern life. “Nature,” the myth that sustained so many of his contemporaries, meant nothing to him. Indeed, there is something truly sharp about the very essence of this composition. The vigor of each flower is captured with a kind of gesture; a gesture of the flower’s form, and the concentrated light they return to us is particular to their individual forms and colors. The contrast between the luxurious floral elements and the transparent sparkle of the glass vase is both inimitable and difficult to articulate, yet it is central to the quality of the series of paintings from which this particular piece originates.
EXHIBITED: Paris, Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Manet 1884, no 102. Paris, Durand-Ruel Gallery, Manet 1906, no 20. New York, Wildenstein & Co., Magic of Flowers, 1954. New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Annual Summer Exhibition, 1959. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Manet, 1966. Chicago, Art Institute, Manet, 1967. New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Annual Summer Exhibition, 1968.
LITERATURE: T. Duret, Histoire d’Edouard Manet et Son Oeuvre, Paris, 1902, 1906, no 325. J. Meier-Graefe, Impressionisten, Munich, 1907, repr. p. 109. J. Meier-Graefe, Edouard Manet, Munich, 1912, p. 269, fig. 159. G. Severini, Manet, Rome, 1924, pl. 26. E. Moreau-Nelaton, Manet Raconte Par Lui-Meme, Paris, 1926, II, fig. 329, no 337. A. Tabarant, Manet. Histoire Catalographique, Paris, 1931, no 398. P. Janot and G. Wildenstein, Manet, Paris, 1932, I, p. 180, II, pl. 195, fig. 402, no 505. A. Tabarant, Manet et Ses Oeuvres, Paris, 1947, fig. 431. J. Tworkov, Flowers and Realism, Art-News, New York, LIII, 3, May 1954, pp. 22-24, (reprod. and enlargement of detail). Michel Ayrton, A Prospect of Flowers, Vogue, New York, Dec. 1954 pp. 102-106, 178, color reprod. p. 104. “Manet” in the series, Le Gout de Notre Temps, Geneva,1955, p. 119, color plate by Albert Skira, Denis Rouart and Daniel Wildenstein, Edouard Manet Catalogue Raisonne, La Bibliotheque des Arts, Paris, 1975, vol. I, pp. 300-1, no. 417, illustrated. Robert Gordon and Andrew Forge, The Last Flowers of Manet, New York, 1986, ill. p. 31.
It is said that the flowers in this series are a metaphor for the fragility of Manet’s own life. When Manet was painting the series, he was in considerable pain as a result of having contracted syphilis in his youth. Consequently, Manet’s ability to paint large pictures was greatly impaired. Invalided, but still able to work, he received gifts of flowers from well-wishing friends. He put these flowers in crystal vases and quickly painted them before they wilted, in perhaps no more than two sessions for each work. The intensity of this work attests to Manet’s struggle to maximize what energy he had left in the final years of his life. There are only sixteen paintings in this precious series, including this particular piece.
ROBERTO MATTA (1911-2002) Untitled 1955 Oil on canvas 36 x 43 in.
PROVENANCE: Christie’s Sale, May 1991, Lot# 49 Private Collection, California
Usually known by his surname, Matta was born in 1911 in Santiago, Chile. He studied architecture and interior design at the Sacre Coeur Jesuit College and the Catholic University of Santiago before leaving Chile to travel to Europe. During his travels, he met influential artistic luminaries including Salvador Dalí, Rene Magritte and Andre Breton. It was these relationships that helped foster Matta’s artistic development and connect him to the Surrealist movement. In 1938, Matta transitioned from drawing to painting and moved to New York later in the year following the outbreak of World War II in Europe. His first solo exhibition was in 1940 at the Julian Levy Gallery in New York. He left New York in 1948 and divided his time between Europe and South America through the 1960s. Matta was an active participant in many social movements throughout the 60s and 70s, a theme frequently represented in his work. Throughout his lengthy career Matta exhibited at major art institutions worldwide, including the Museum of Modern Art in New York and the Museo de Bellas Artes in his native Chile, and is remembered today as a leading artist of the 20th century. Much of Matta’s work explores the visionary landscape of the subconscious. In his “inscape” series, the artist attempts to represent the human psyche in a visual form. Inspired by Freud’s psychoanalytic writings, he busied his canvases with images of electrical machinery and distressed figures. Matta’s work shows the clear influence of his friend Yves Tanguy, whose work recalls the allegories of Bosch and Bruegel. Matta was similarly influenced by Picasso’s socially and politically motivated work. Strong parallels between Picasso’s Guernica and Matta’s Crucifixion highlight this relationship. Matta was one of the first artists to incorporate a blend of organic and cosmic life forms into his work, integrating biomorphism with surrealism. In the 1960s Matta further innovated his style with the addition of clay to his canvases, adding a ne dimension to his distorted imagery. Matta did not like to be thought of as a specifically “Latin American” artist. His unique style allowed him to directly address social, political and spiritual themes in a Surrealist style alternative to social realism.
RICHARD EDWARD MILLER (1875-1943) Black Mantilla Signed ‘Miller’ (lower right) Oil on canvas 36 1/4 x 34 1/4 in. Painted circa 1910
PROVENANCE: The artist’s studio. Grand Central Art Gallery, New York. Christie’s, New York, May 26, 1988, lot 262. Private Collection. EXHIBITED: St. Petersburg, Florida, Museum of Fine Arts, In the American Spirit: Realism and Impressionism from the Lawrence Collection, March 21 – June 13, 1999, no. 27. LITERATURE: J. Hardin and V.A. Leeds, In the American Spirit: Realism and Impressionism from the Lawrence Collection, exhibition catalogue, St. Petersburg, Florida, 1999, p. 30, 58, 84, no. 27, illustrated.
Richard E. Miller’s sumptuous images of young women in interiors are celebrated as some of the finest achievements of American Impressionism. The present painting, Black Mantilla, is an exquisite example of Miller’s mastery of rich textures and delicate lighting. Miller is most often associated with the Giverny Group, an assemblage of American painters living in France in the early twentieth century, who sought inspiration and kinship in the small town near Paris. Although nearly all of the artists in the small town knew one another, Miller’s work is quite distinct from that of his contemporaries. Critics and historians have noted his unique palette as “being ‘in a rather lower tone of color,’ for which he was no doubt deemed ‘the Whistler of the quartet’ – it prompted [artist Guy] Pene du Bois to say of it, ‘soft and yet brilliant, delicate and yet with a semblance of radicalism a lesson in compromise – a delightful lesson.’ The ‘compromise’ referred to is obviously Miller’s mixing academic and Impressionist painting modes. Miller blends them harmoniously in the creation of a decorative, dreamlike atmosphere. He covered the canvas with small dabs, broad strokes, scraped patches, dry swags and floating flecks of color, many independent of literal description,” (M.L. Kane, A Bright Oasis: The Paintings of Richard E. Miller, New York, 1997, p. 33). Black Mantilla is a masterpiece of the type of Impressionist paintings Miller created in Giverny in the early twentieth century. In his work, Miller has faithfully incorporated every hallmark of the stylistic elements he mastered while in Giverny: light and pattern captured in dazzling jewel-like colors. Miller’s beautiful, young model sits in contemplation, unconsciously touching the long strand of green beads that hang around her neck. In contrast to the smooth rendering of the young woman, Miller paints her textured robe in a vividly colored tapestry of short, dense Impressionist strokes. Miller is able to combine strong draftsmanship, lively color and bold design to create a picture that harmoniously captures both Impressionist and modern elements.
JOAN MITCHELL (1926-1992) Untitled Oil on canvas 78 x 69 in. Painted in 1960
PROVENANCE: The artist. The Estate of Joan Mitchell. The Joan Mitchell Foundation. Cheim & Reid, New York. EXHIBITED: The Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, The Paintings of Joan Mitchell, 2002. Birmingham Museum of Art, Birmingham, Alabama, The Paintings of Joan Mitchell, 2003. Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, Fort Worth, Texas, The Paintings of Joan Mitchell, 2003-04. The Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C., The Paintings of Joan Mitchell, 2004. LITERATURE: Livingston, Jane, The Paintings of Joan Mitchell, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 2002, reproduced in color, plate 22, and on cover. Kertes, Klaus, Joan Mitchell, New York, reproduced in color, p. 27.
Joan Mitchell was born in Chicago in 1925 and attended Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts from 1942 until 1944, when she transferred to the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. From 1943 to 1946 she spent her summers in Mexico, where she was greatly influenced by the work of Orozco. She traveled to France, Italy and Spain between 1948 and 1949 on a traveling fellowship. Upon her return, Mitchell settled in New York and abandoned her academic training. She turned her inspiration from the freer styles of Cezanne, van Gogh and Kandinsky, to the more abstracted work of Gorky, de Kooning, and most significantly, Franz Kline. She moved to Paris in the late 1950s and lived in France uninterrupted until her passing in Vetheuil in 1992. Mitchell held a celebrated position in the generation that succeeded the likes of Pollock and Rothko, quickly gaining recognition and exhibiting regularly, though always somewhat detached from the mainstream. Throughout her career she remained the empirical American, consistently declining the theoreticism of her European counterparts. As an abstract expressionist Mitchell composed her paintings with long, curvilinear strokes and broad stains of color, often contrasting warm tones with cool against an unprimed canvas. She worked on multiple panels or large-scale canvases, striving to extract a natural rather than constructed rhythm from the composition. She painted to evoke the visual sentiments of nature. The objectivity of her painting, devoid of anecdote or theater, was in her own words, â€œto convey the feeling of the dying sunflower.â€?
CLAUDE MONET (1840-1926) Water Lily Oil on canvas 25 1/2 x 20 in. Painted circa 1915-1919
PROVENANCE: Monsieur Blin Sr. (Monet’s longtime gardener). Monsieur Blin Jr. (by descent). Private Collection, Europe.
This seductive, richly textured painting depicting Claude Monet’s beloved water lily pond is a superb example of the master’s bold late style. Loosely rendered with brushstrokes thick with impasto, it has Monet’s distinctive late palette and the pictorial tensions unique to works of his final years. The painting demonstrates the artist’s signature forthright complexity, which earned him both the admiration of his contemporaries and a prominent place in art history. The painting breathes with the freedom of an artist who is in full command of his craft. Lively, fresh and compelling, it also bears witness to the care and concern that Monet had for his art. Its surface, while seemingly built-up with multiple layers of rapidly applied paint, is instead the result of the artist’s thoughtful composition. Note for instance the arched dark green line in the lower right corner which serves to anchor the area, or the two red flowers in the lower half of the painting that counter the lyrical movement of their four violet counterparts which seem to oscillate across the canvas. The touch of forest green that sits directly atop a dash of mustard-orange at the painting’s center is another exquisite demonstration of an artist who relishes bravura as he reinvents pictorial elements. The color scheme is Monet’s alone. Although dominated by blues and greens, the painting is a complex combination of many colors – purple, orange, brown and white along with multiple shades of blue and green. The colors are deftly applied to create dramatic juxtapositions and intricate spatial relationships. One senses the shifting forms of the lilies, jostling against one another in competition for the viewer’s attention, and the variegated depth of the water. Sketch-like in appearance, the colorful brushwork does well to suggest the surface of the pond scattered with floating flora.
CLAUDE MONET (1840-1926) Le Repos Dans Le Jardin, Argenteuil Signed oil on canvas 31 7/8 x 23 5/8 in. Painted in 1876
PROVENANCE: (possibly) Pelgrin, Paris (acquired from the artist in November 1876). Durand-Ruel, Paris (acquired from the above on August 25, 1891). Baron Maurice de Herzog, Budapest (acquired from the above on August 8, 1911). Dr. Hans Wendland, Berlin (by 1916). Paul Cassirer, Berlin (acquired from the above on March 20, 1916). Henry Percy Newman, Hamburg (acquired from the above April 26, 1916). Maria Newman, Hamburg and Berlin (by descent from the above from 1917 until her death in 1942; placed in a vault at the Deutsche Bank, Berlin sometime between 1940 and 1943; allegedly stolen by the Soviet Army in 1945; the Newman family has relinquished all claims to this work pursuant to an agreement reached with the Metropolitan Museum of Art in August 2001). (possibly) Mme Guy Lemm, Paris. A.&R. Ball, New York. Mr. and Mrs. Charles Wrightsman, New York (acquired from the above in 1952). Mrs. Charles Wrightsman (by descent from the above in 1986 and given by her to The Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1994). Heather James Art & Antiquities by private treaty sale from above. EXHIBITED: Paris, Galerie Durand-Ruel, Monet, Pissaro, Renoir et Sisley, 1899, no.12. Berlin, Galerie Paul Cassirer, Ausstellung VIII Jahrgang, 1905, no. 23. Weimar, Grossherzogliches Museum, Monet, 1905, no.10. (possibly) Frankfurt-am-Main, Kunstverein, Art francais du XIXe siecle, 1912, no. 83. LITERATURE: Daniel Wildenstein, Claude Monet, Bibliographie et catalogue raisonne, Paris, 1974, vol. I, no. 408, illustrated p. 291. Paul Hayes Tucker, Monet, vie et oeuvre, vol. V, Lausanne and Paris, 1991, listed p. 31. Daniel Wildenstein, Monet, Catalogue Raisonne, vol. II, Cologne, 1996, no. 408, illustrated p. 167.
Le Repos Dans Le Jardin, Argenteuil depicts the artist’s wife Camille and an acquaintance at rest in the shade dappled garden on an idyllic summer afternoon in 1876. It was likely painted around the same time as Monet’s Camille dans le Jardin de la Maison d’Argenteuil, a view of the garden painted from a vantage point closer to the house and slightly to the left, currently held in the Annenberg Collection. As George Rivere wrote in his newsletter “L’Impressionniste” in the spring of 1877, concurrent with the Impressionists’ third group exhibition, “M. Monet not only depicts the imposing power and grandeur of nature, he also pictures it as being charming and pleasant, very much as a happy young man might see it. No gloomy thought ever grieves the spectator standing before the canvases of this powerful painter. After the pleasure of admiring them, our only regret is being unable to dwell forever in the luxuriant nature that blossoms in his pictures.” “By his fellow painters Monet was regarded as a leader, not because he was the most intellectual of theoretically minded or because he was able to answer questions that they could not answer, but because in his art he seemed to be more alert to the possibilities latent in their common ideas, which he then developed in his work in a more radical way than did the others Considering how all these painters developed their intensely personal manners with respect to the new artistic ideas, we may observe that the new elements appeared most often for the first time in the work of Monet and then were taken over by the other Impressionists, who incorporated them as suggestions or as definite means and applied them in their own ways.”
CLAUDE MONET (1840-1926) Les Rosiers Dans le Jardin de Montgeron Signed oil on canvas 31 7/8 x 23 5/8 in. Painted in 1876
PROVENANCE: Ernest Hoschede (acquired from the artist, December 1876); sale, Hotel Drouot, Paris, 5-6 June 1878, lot 58. Jean-Baptiste Faure, Paris (acquired at the above sale). Mme Faure, Paris (by descendent from the above, circa 1924). Galerie Georges Petit, Paris. Mercedes Santamarina, Buenos Aires (1930); sale, Buenos Aires, 25-27 September 1946, lot 27. Mme Maria Menendez de Campos, Buenos Aires. Wildenstein & Co., Inc, New York. Mr. & Mrs. Nelson Harris (acquired from the above, 22 March 1972). Private collection, by descent from the above. EXHIBITED: Paris, Troisieme exposition des impressionistes, 6 rue le Peletier, Paris, April 1877, no. 93 (titled Les Dahlias, Montgeron) LITERATURE: G. Riviere, “L’exposition des impressionistes,” L’Impressioniste, 6 April 1877. Jacques, “Menus propos,” L’homme libre, 11 April 1877, p. 2. L. Venturi, Les archives de l’Impressionisme, Paris, 1939, vol. II, p. 312. M. Rostand, Quelques amateurs de l’epoque impressioniste, Paris, 1955, p. 44. L. Bortolatto, L’opera completa di Claude Monet, 1870-1889, Milan, 1966, p. 98, no. 149 (illustrated). D. Wildenstein, Claude Monet, biographie et catalogue raisonne, Lausanne, 1974, vol. I, p. 294 (illustrated, p. 295). F. Chevalier, “Les Impressionistes,” L’artiste, May 1977, p. 332. D. Wildenstein, Monet, catalogue raisonne, Cologne, 1996, vol. II, p. 170, no. 417 (illustrated, p. 171). Paris, Troisieme exposition des impressionistes, 6 rue le Peletier, Paris, April 1877, no. 93 (titled Les Dahlias, Montgeron).
This lush and ebullient garden scene is a large-scale oil study for one of four decorative panels that Monet made in 1876 for Ernest Hoschede, a preeminent early collector of Impresionist art. The paintings were commissioned for the dining room of Hoschede’s sumptuous country house, the Chateau de Rottembourg, situated at Montgeron, about twenty kilometers south of Paris. Hoschede’s estate featured extensive and well-tended grounds, which were the subject of the four panels. The present painting focuses on a corner of Hoschede’s garden, depicting a vividly colored and freely painted tangle of flowers and foliage. The blossoms crowd forward to the surface of the painting, creating a tapestry-like, enclosed space that anticipates Monet’s celebrated views of his own gardens at Giverny. Indeed, although the garden was a favorite subject for many of the Impressionists, no artist rivaled Monet in his dedication to the theme. Discussing the Hoschede commission, among other works, Robert Herbert concludes, “Of all the Impressionists it was Monet who was chiefly responsible for elevating the garden to the ranks of the most admired and influential paintings of the early modern era,” (Impressionism: Art, Leisure, and Parisian Society, New Haven, 1988, p.259). Ernest Hoschede took possession of the present painting in December of 1876, upon Monet’s departure from Montgeron. Eighteen months later, it was included in the sale of Hoschede’s collection at the Hotel Druout and acquired by JeanBaptiste Faure, a famous baritone and another important early patron of the Impressionsits.
BERTHE MORISOT (1841-1895) Jeune Femme Signed (lower left), 1871 Oil on Canvas 21 1/2 x 18 1/8 in.
PROVENANCE: Jos. Hessel, Paris. Jules Strauss, Paris (acquired from the above and sold: Hôtel Drouot, Paris, December 15, 1932, lot 55). Thierry de La Noue, Paris (acquired at the above sale). Private Collection (by descent from the above). EXHIBITED: Paris, Cercle de la Renaissance, Portraits et figures de femmes: Ingres à Picasso, 1928, no. 139. Paris, Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, Berthe Morisot, 1929, no. 6. Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Van Gogh et ses contemporains, 1930, no. 236. Paris, Galerie Schmit, Cent ans de peinture française, 1969, no. 92. Paris, Galerie Schmit, Portraits français, XIXe et XXe Siècles, 1974, no. 39. Paris, Galerie Schmit, Choix d’un Amateur, XIX-XXème siècles, 1977, no. 56. Paris, Galerie Schmit, 25 Ans d’Expositions: Maîtres Français XIXème-XXème siècles, 1990, no. 49. LITERATURE: The Art News, vol. XXXI, no. 9, New York, November 26, 1932, illustrated p. 4. Monique Angeoulvent, Berthe Morisot, Paris, 1933, no. 20. Louis Rouart, Berthe Morisot, Paris, 1941, illustrated p. 6. Marie-Louis Bataille and George Wildenstein, Berthe Morisot, Catalogue des Peintures-Pastels & Aquarelles, Paris, 1961, no. 22, illustrated p. 115. B. Bailey and M. Rosenthal, Masterpieces of Impressionist and PostImpressionism: The Annenberg Collection (exhibition catalogue), Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1989, fig. 46, illustrated p. 141. J.J. Lévêque, Les Années Impressionnistes, Paris, 1990, illustrated p. 203. Alain Clairet, Delphine Montalant and Yves Rouart, Berthe Morisot, Catalogue Raisonné de l’Oeuvre peint, Paris, 1997, no. 22, illustrated p. 123.
This intimate portrait of a young woman with dark hair and dreamy expression, dressed in a diaphanous white gown patterned with blue sprigs is typical of the work of the quintessentially Impressionist painter Berthe Morisot. Morisot was among the few female painters who emerged as a fringe group of Impressionist artists in Paris in the early 1870s. Morisot was particularly close to the great painter Edouard Manet, closely associated with the Impressionists though he never actually exhibited with them, who painted several portraits of her. She married Manet’s brother Eugene Manet. The diary kept by their daughter Julie Manet is one of the most significant first-hand sources of information on the Impressionist movement. The sitter’s identity is unknown, but her features and facial expression, as well as her white muslin dress, bear a close resemblance to the left hand figure in Morisot’s 1869 painting, The Sisters (National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.). It may be that she is one of “the little Delaroches” whom the artist referred to in a letter at the time but about whom little is known. Morisot was above all a painter of the human figure and her subject were mostly women and children in her domestic circle. As an upper-middle-class female artist in nineteenth-century France, her options were far more limited than those of her male colleagues. She could not, for example, wander freely about the streets and parks of Paris in search of subjects for her paintings. And the noisy, bohemian cafes where Manet, Cezanne, Degas, Renoir, Pisarro and others would gather to debate their latest artistic theories would have been completely of limits to her. Nevertheless Morisot was highly respected by her male colleagues, particularly Manet. She not only exhibited in all of the Impressionist group exhibitions from 1874 to 1886, with the exception of the fourth exhibition in 1879 when she was ill following the birth of her daughter, but she also played an active role in their organization. Her home was a regular meeting place for intellectuals and writers of the day, including the famed poet Stéphane Mallarmé, as well as the Impressionist artists.
ALICE NEEL (1900-1984) The Baron’s Aunt Oil on canvas 38 x 22 in. Painted in 1959
PROVENANCE: The Estate of Alice Neel, New York. Victoria MIro Gallery, London. Private Collection, California. EXHIBITED: New York, 1960. New York, 1974. Summit, 1974. Georgia, 1975. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, Alice Neel, 2000. Addison Gallery of American Art, Alice Neel, Andover, 2000. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Alice Neel, 2001. Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Alice Neel, 2001. Denver Museum of Art, Alice Neel, 2001. LITERATURE: Alice Neel, edited by Ann Temkin, Whitney Museum of American Art, Walker Art Center, Addison Gallery of Art, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Denver Museum of Art, exhibition catalogue, Harry N. Abrams, 2000. Alice Neel’s Women, National Museum of Women in the Arts, Washington DC, Rizzoli, 2002. Alice Neel – A Chronicle Of New York – 1950 – 1976, curated by Jeremy Lewis, Victoria Miro Gallery, June 1 – July 31, 2004.
Alice Neel was one of the great American painters of the twentieth century. A pioneer among women artists, she was primarily a portrait painter. Her paintings are notable for their expressionistic use of line and color, psychological acumen and emotional intensity. Never fashionable or in-step with the avant-garde movements, her work is sympathetic to the expressionist spirit of Northern Europe and Scandinavia and to the darker arts of Spanish painting, though always with a unique style and distinctive approach. Born near Philadelphia, Neel trained at the Philadelphia School of Design for Women. She became a painter with a strong social conscience and equally strong left-wing beliefs. While living in Cuba with her husband, Carlos Enriquez, she was embraced by the art community and developed her political and social foundations. After moving to New York City in the 1930s, she enrolled as a member of the Works Progress Administration for which she painted urban scenes. Her portraits of the 1930s portrayed artists, intellectuals, trade unionists and political leaders of the Communist Party. In the 1970s Neel began to paint portraits of her extended family as well as major scenes of nudes, which often glorified subversion and sexuality. Her nudes played with the conventions of eroticism while asserting the female point of view. She became an icon for feminists and was commissioned to paint activist Kate Millett for the cover of Time Magazine. Widely exhibited throughout the 70s, Neel had a retrospective at the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York. The centenary of her birth was later marked by a major traveling exhibition held at the Whitney and the Philadelphia Museum of art. Alice Neel met the woman in The Baron’s Aunt when a flamboyant character calling himself Baron Erik von Anckarstrom came to sit for a portrait. Though the baron’s aunt funded his extravagant lifestyle, she herself was a conventional lady from the Midwest.
IRVING NORMAN (1906-1989) The Palace Oil on canvas 90 x 60 in. Painted in 1959
PROVENANCE: The artist. Martin Sosin. EXHIBITED: Sacramento, Crocker Art Museum, September 23, 2006 – January 7, 2007. Pasadena, Pasadena Museum of California Art, January 21 – April 15, 2007. Logan, Utah, Nora Eccles Harrison Museum of Art, Utah State University, June 5 – October 6, 2007. Washington D.C., Katzen Arts Center at American University, November 2007 – January 2008. Laguna Art Museum June 22, 2008 – October 5, 2008 LITERATURE: Dark Metropolis: Irving Norman’s Social Surrealism, pub. Crocker Art Museum and Irving Norman Trust, 2006, pg. 73.
Irving Norman, born Irving Noachowitz in Poland in 1906, immigrated to the United States in 1923 where he changed his last name to Norman and pursued a career in painting. Norman’s infinitely complex paintings reveal an artist who drew upon many historical schools of painting to portray a very particular understanding of the modern world and the relationship between people and the contemporary society in which they lived. Norman’s choice of subject matter was heavily influenced by his experience in fighting against the fascists in the Spanish Civil War. Like many young idealists of his generation, he fought alongside other volunteers against General Franco. He witnessed many atrocities and barely survived the war. Upon his return to the United States, he depicted the pain and suffering he had witnessed in his paintings. The FBI took an interest in Norman’s communist sympathies and watched him closely for more than twenty years, another experience that adds to the underlying tension and horror of his paintings. Regarding his style, Norman can perhaps best be compared to the Dutch Renaissance painter Hieronymus Bosch, whose fantastical canvases peopled with humans, animals and other unnamed beasts and objects, create an unearthly atmosphere with sadistic undertones. Like Bosch, Norman avoids didacticism and instead paints worlds inhabited by figures that seem to be subjected to forces beyond their control. Indeed, there are greater powers at work in Norman’s conjured worlds, powers that seem to tip towards evil rather than good. Norman’s paintings also contain an element of allegory, though many of them are interrupted to represent the dehumanizing aspects of modern culture and the factoryproduced homogeneity that threatens to subdue the human spirit. However his work retains a strong mystical element that defies strict interpretation and imbues his paintings with a wealth of potential meanings. After studying in New York City Norman settled permanently in the San Francisco Bay area, where he continued to paint up until the end of his life. Although a successful artist, Norman was always uncomfortable with the idea of commercial success. He felt that his paintings belonged in museums where the general public could view and study them. This commitment to public edification rather than personal gain testifies to the fact that Norman viewed his art as inherently hopeful. He believed that art could help propel society beyond its own horrors by acting as a cathartic cleansing of the past and a prohibitive warning for the future. It is this hopefulness that gives Norman’s paintings a lasting legacy.
FRANCIS PICABIA (1879-1953) Bords du Loing a Moret Signed Picabia 1904 Oil on canvas 85 by 118 3/4 in. Painted in 1904
PROVENANCE: Michel Gauthier, Paris. Galerie Berri-Saint Honoré, Paris. EXHIBITED: Salon d’automne, Petit Palais, Paris, October 31 through December 6 1903, printed on page 53 of the catalogue, no. 439. Salas Ruiz Picasso del Ministerio, in the exhibition Francis Picabia, Madrid, January 29 through March 31 1985. Fundacio Caixa de Pensions, Barcelone, April 15 through May 26 1985, printed on page 115 of the catalogue, no. N°4. Musée des Beaux Arts, in the exhibition Francis Picabia, Nimes, July 11 through September 30 1986, printed on page 29 of the catalogue, no. 2. Musée Jacquemart André, in the exhibition, Europe of the Great Masters when they were Young, Paris, September 21 through November 12 1989, printed in the catalogue. LITERATURE: Picabia by Maria Lluisa Borras, pub. Albin Michel, Paris, 1985, catalogue no.10 andno.126.
The view depicted in this painting if the River Loing near Moret-sur-Loing, close to Fontainebleau southeast of Paris. It is typical of paintings from Picabia’s early career. Francis Picabia was born in 1879 of a French mother and Spanish father who was an attaché at the Cuban legation in Paris. From 1895 to 1897 Picabia was intermittently enrolled at the Ecole des Beaux Arts and the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs in Paris, funded by a substantial inheritance from his mother. In the early years of his career, roughly 1903 to 1908, he was greatly influenced by the Impressionists, especially Alfred Sisley and Camille Pissarro. Picabia knew Sisley, who lived at Moret-sur-Loing and painted many views of the surrounding countryside and the River Loing, before his death in 1899. For the duration of his career he moved through a series of highly original styles, often provocative and subversive in intent. After 1912, Picabia rejected Impressionism and turned his attention to Cubism. In 1913 he visited New York to see a painting of his that was shown at the famous Armory Show. He was much affected by the dynamism of the modern city, and once back in Paris he adopted a more fragmented, Cubist style to reflect this. He became a close associate of Marcel Duchamp, making works similar in nature to Duchamp’s ‘ready-mades,’ which deliberately mocked the pretensions of high art and the art establishment. Picabia’s rejection of any consistent style makes him hard to categorize as an artist, but his constantly challenging ideas characterized him as an intellectual force that has had a great impact on subsequent generations of artists.
PABLO PICASSO (1881-1973) Instruments de musique et compotier sur un guéridon Signed on the reverse Oil on canvas 39 1/2 x 32 in. Painted Fall 1913
PROVENANCE: Arthur B. Davies, New York. Katherine S. Dreier, West Redding, Connecticut. Leslie M. Maitland, Los Angeles. Sale: Parke-Bernet Galleries New York, 13 December 1961, lot 86. Galerie Beyeler, Basel (Inventory no. 7550) . Private Collection. EXHIBITED: New York, The Modern Gallery (Alfred Stieglitz & Marius de Zayas), 1915-1916 Iwaki, Japan, Iwaki City Museum of Art, Pablo Picasso, 28 April-27 May 1984, no. 25, illustrated in color. Takasaki, Japan, Gunma Prefectural Museum of Modern Art, Picasso, 4 October-3 November 1986, no. 28, pp. 138-139; p. 18, illustrated in color. Hakodate, Japan, Hokkaido Hakodate Museum of Art, Picasso, 8 August-2 September 1987, no. 38, illustrated in color. New York, Whitney Museum of American Art; San Francisco, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art; Minneapolis, Walker Art Center, Picasso and the American Art, September 2006-September 2007. LITERATURE: Christian Zervos, Pablo Picasso, vol. 2 (1912-1917), Paris, 1942, no. 759, illustrated (titled Clarinette, violon, compotier avec fruits, feuille de musique, guéridon; dated 1912) Pierre Daix and Joan Rosselet, Picasso, The Cubist Years, 1907-1916, London, 1979, no. 626, p. 309, illustrated. Josep Palau i Fabre, Picasso Cubism 1907-1917, Barcelona, 1990 and 1996, no. 804, p. 510; p. 284, illustrated. John Richardson, A Life of Picasso, Volume II: 1907-1917, New York, 1996, p. 312; p. 362, illustrated. Marius de Zayas, “Picasso at the Modern Gallery”, How, When and Why Modern Art Came to New York, Cambridge, 1996, no. 39, p. 247; p. 32, illustrated.
Although Zervos dates the painting circa 1912, Daix relates it to a series of wooden and cardboard constructions which were first reproduced in Les Soirée de Paris of 15 November 1913 and date from the autumn of that year. More than any other artist, Picasso defined Modern Art of the twentieth century by his establishment and development of one of its major movements, Cubism. Born in 1881 in Málaga, Spain, Picasso spent his childhood studying drawing and painting under his father, Jose Ruíz, who taught at the local art school. Picasso spent a year studying at the Academy of Arts in Madrid, before traveling to Paris in 1900. Landing in the center of the European art world, Picasso shared lodgings with the poet and journalist Max Jacob, with whom he lived the Bohemian lifestyle of the poor and starving artist. The next few years saw an improvement in his fortunes and he spent time in Paris and Madrid, founding and illustrating the art magazine Arte Joven. Picasso began to mingle in the company of other artists and literary figures including the poet Guillaume Apollinaire and the legendary writer, art critic and salon hostess Gertrude Stein, whose portrait he painted in 1906. Around 1907, Picasso became very influenced by African masks and art which began making their way into Parisian museums following the expansion of the French Empire into Africa. The faces and simplified, angular planes of the women in Picasso’s Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, clearly derive their style from African masks and sculptures and this painting is often heralded as the beginning of Cubism. Along with his contemporary, Georges Braque, Picasso began to develop an artistic style, later known as Analytical Cubism, which approached the visual world from the perspective of geometric forms. Synthetic Cubism followed from the basic premise of Cubism, but incorporated materials such as wallpaper and newspaper, adding these to the canvas as collage.
PABLO PICASSO (1881-1973) Tete de Femme Dated and numbered 2.6.65 (on the reverse) Oil on canvas 21 3/4 x 18 1/2 in. Painted on June 2, 1965
PROVENANCE: Claude Picasso. Private Collection, New York. Michelle Rosenfeld Gallery, New York. Acquired from the above in 1996. Sale: Sotheby’s, New York, May 4, 2005, Lot #307. LITERATURE: Christian Zervos, Pablo Picasso, oeuvres de 1965 et 1967, vol. 25, Paris, 1972, no. 147, illustrated p. 82. The Picasso Project, Picasso’s Paintings, Watercolors, Drawings and Sculpture. Surrealism, 1930-1936, San Francisco, 1997, no. 32-046, illustrated p. 106
Tete de Femme is a portrait of Jacqueline Roque, Picasso’s devoted second wife who remained with the artist until the time of his death in 1973. Picasso’s renderings of Jacqueline constitute the largest number of images of any of the women in his life. The artist first met Jacqueline in 1952 while he was still living with his mistress Francoise Gilot, and by 1954 the raven-haired beauty began to appear in his paintings. In 1961 Picasso married Jacqueline and they moved into a farmhouse in Mougins called “Notre Dame de Vie,” where they shared a peaceful and secluded lifestyle. Unlike Francoise, Jacqueline was ever accepting of the notoriously temperamental artist and his blind obsession with art, and doted on him ceaselessly in his old age. Picasso experienced a calm and peace with Jacqueline that he had not felt since his days with Marie-Therese, and like his golden mistress, Jacqueline became his muse for some of his most imaginative compositions. The present work is an intimate rendering of Jacqueline, a portrayal of a selfconfident muse who is both casual and in love. Her thick, black hair is released from its usual bun, and falls onto her shoulders and down her back. She engages the viewer with wide, open eyes and a playful smile. Jacqueline is framed by a dense background of blue and green, colors that reflect the sparkle of the highlights in her face and hair. Two powerful brushstrokes of dark red denote clothing, barely clinging to her shoulders and dominating the foreground, possibly hinting at the powerful presence of the artist himself.
CAMILLE PISSARRO (1830-1903) Les peupliers, après-midi à Eragny Signed and dated 99 Oil on canvas 28 3/4 X 36 1/4 in.
PROVENANCE: Galerie Durand-Ruel, Paris (acquired from the artist, November 27, 1899). The Henry Zimet Foundation (sale : Sotheby’s London, October 23 , 1963, lot 8). Acquavella Galleries, Inc., New York (acquired at the above sale). Acquired from the above November 5, 1963. EXHIBITED: Paris, Galerie Durand-Ruel, C. Pissarro, 1901, no.24. Manchester, Manchester City Art Gallery, Modern French Paintings, 1907, no. 65. Paris, Galerie Durand-Ruel, Tableaux et Gouaches de Camille Pissarro, 1910, no. 15. New York, Metropolitain Museum of Art, Summer Loan Exhibition, 1962, no. 6. LITERATURE: A.Basler and Charles Kunstler, La Peinture Indépendante en France, Paris, 1929, illustrated. Ludovic Rodo Pissarro and Lionello Venturi, Camille Pissarro, son art-son œuvre, Paris, 1939, vol . I, p. 230, no. 1073 ; vol. II, pl. 215, no. 1073.
Camille Pissarro was born in 1830 on the Caribbean island of St. Thomas. He lived in St. Thomas until the age of twelve, when his parents sent him to boarding school in Paris. After completing his primary education, he returned to St. Thomas where he took up drawing in his free time. At this time he was particularly attracted to themes of political anarchy. In 1852 he traveled to Venezuela with the Danish artist Fritz Melbye, and eventually returned to Paris in 1855 to study art at the Ecole de Beaux Arts as well as the Academie Suisse. During this time, he studied under Gustave Courbet, who is considered Pissarro’s earliest and most significant influence. In the Salon catalogues of 1864 and 1865, Pissarro would list himself as Courbet’s pupil. Pissarro’s early works are characterized by broadly painted, sometimes with a palette knife, naturalism that illustrate Courbet’s influence but do so with an incipient Impressionist palette. At the end of the 1860s he moved to Louveciennes, where he worked in close proximity to Claude Monet, Pierre Auguste Renoir and Alfred Sisley. It was here that he began to revise his technique, employing smaller patches of paint and giving color a more dominant role in his expression of nature. In 1874, he participated in the first Impressionist exhibition. Pissarro and Edgar Degas were the only artists to show at all eight of the Impressionist exhibitions. In 1885 Pissarro opened himself up to new influences, meeting both Paul Signac and Georges Seurat, who were experimenting with Divisionist techniques. Pissarro investigated Pointillism, which he deemed “scientific Impressionism,” but eventually returned to his original Impressionist style. In the last years of his life Pissarro suffered from eye problems and was forced to abandon outdoor painting. However he continued to work in his studio in Paris until his death on November 13, 1903. Pissarro lived long enough to see the start of Impressionist fame, yet during his lifetime he sold relatively few paintings. Post-Impressionists such as Cezanne and Gauguin revered him, both artists even referred to him as their “master.” Pissarro is credited with playing a primary role in the development of Impressionist technique.
PIERRE-AUGUSTE RENOIR (1841-1919) Pecheurs Au Bord Dâ€™un Lac Signed (lower left), 1910 Oil on canvas 13 x 16 1/8 in.
PROVENANCE: Leicester Galleries, London. The Redfern Gallery, Ltd., London. Sale, Sothebyâ€™s New York, 17 November 1983, lot 108. Pacific Heights Gallery, San Francisco. Private Collection. Private Collection (acquired from above).
Pierre-Auguste Renoir is regarded as one of the most renowned and wellrespected Impressionist painters of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Born in Limoges, Haute-Vienne, France, Renoir was a working class prodigy who studied and gained inspiration from the French master painters Alfred Sisley, Frederic Bazille, and Claude Monet. Renoir was a leading force in the development of the revolutionary Impressionist style, dramatically deviating from the academic painting that dominated art at the time. Renoir gained initial acclaim when he displayed work in the first Impressionist exhibition in Paris in 1874. That same year two of his works were shown with Durand-Ruel in London. His maturity as an artist heightened during the mid-1880s as he applied a more formal and disciplined technique to his painting. However his return to the use of thinly brushed color in 1890 changed his direction once again. Paintings from this period, such as this one, illustrate the airy appeal of dissolved outlines and implied imagery. A prolific artist, Renoir painted with a warm sensuality that has made his paintings some of the most well known works in the canon of Western art.
DIEGO RIVERA (1886-1957) Retrato de una Mujer (Portrait of a Woman) Oil on canvas 16 1/4 x 14 3/4 in. Painted in 1928
PROVENANCE: William and Margaret Sommerfeld, New York (Acquired from the artist, 1928). Thence by descent, c. 1980.
As famous for his tempestuous marriage to Frida Kahlo as for his art, Diego Riveraâ€™s talent for historical murals and his tributes to earthy folk traditions made him one of the most influential artists in the Americas and one of Mexicoâ€™s most beloved painters. Influenced by Cubism as well as Post-Impressionism, it was only when Rivera began to study Renaissance frescoes that he discovered his medium. Indeed, Rivera is credited with reintroducing fresco painting into modern art and architecture. His vision and strong belief in public art led him to paint some of the most famous and controversial murals in America. Diego Rivera incorporated his radical politics, Communist ideals, and his intense devotion to his cultural heritage into his art and viewed his medium as an antidote to the elite walls of galleries and museums. He gained fame as a muralist and altered the course of American painting with his ability to incorporate his political views while maintaining a sense of simple historicity. His power to condense a complex historical subject down to what he felt were the most essential parts: the struggle of the working class, the effect of war and industry in the name of progress, the life of the American worker, was one of his greatest gifts.
HENRI ROUSSEAU (1844-1910) Heureux Quatuor Signed H. Rousseau (lower right) Oil on canvas 37 3/8 by 22 7/8 in. Painted in 1902
PROVENANCE: E.R. Weiss. Gallerie Flechtheim, Dusseldorf (January 15, 1914). Edith von Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Berlin (by 1922 and until at least 1926). (probably) Paul von Meldelssohn-Bartholdy, Berlin Countess Else von Meldelssohn-Bartholdy Kesselstett (nee Lavergne-Paguilhen), Berlin and Switzerland, Berlin (circa 1938). Buchholz Gallery (Curt Valentin), New York. Mr. & Mrs. John Hay Whitney (acquired from the above on December 12, 1949).
EXHIBITED: Paris, 18eme Salon de la Societe des Artistes Independants, 1902, no. 1538. Berlin, XXIV Berliner Secession, 1912, no. 227. Dusseldorf, Galerie Alfred Flechtheim, XIX Jahrhundert, 1913. Berlin, Galerie Flechtheim, Henri Rousseau, 1926, no. 7. Paris, Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, Le nu dans la peinture d’aujourd’hui, 1932 New York, Sidney Janis Gallery, Henri Rousseau, 1951, no. 9. Paris, Galerie Charpentier, Henri Rousseau dit le Douanier, 1961, no. 35. London, The Tate Gallery, The John Hay Whitney Collection, 1960-61, no. 60. Washington, D.C., The National Gallery of Art, The John Hay Whitney Collection, 1983, no. 27. Paris, Galeries nationals du Grand Palais; New York, The Museum of Modern Art, Henri Rousseau, 198485, no. 22. Washington, D.C., The Phillips Collection; National Gallery of Art, The Pastoral Landscape: The Legacy of Venice and the Modern Vision, 1988-89, no. 117. London, Tate Modern; Paris, Musee d’Orsay; Washington, D.C., National Gallery of Art, Henri Rousseau: Jungles in Paris, 2005-06, no. 20.
LITERATURE: Le Petit Parisien, March 29, 1902. Fernand Hauser, L’echo de Paris, March 30, 1902. Rene-Albert Fleury, L’effort, Toulouse, June 15 to July 15, 1902. Fagus, La revue blanche, Paris, April 15, 1902. Francois Charles, L’ermitage, Paris, 1902. Henri Huot, L’enclopedie contemporaine illustree, Paris, April 20, 1902. Dodici opere di Rousseau, Florence, 1914, illustrated. Guillaume Apollinaire, Les soirees de Paris, January 15, 1914, illustrated p. 54. Wilhelm Uhde, Henri Rousseau, Dusseldorf, 1914, illustrated pl. 11 Roch Grey, Action, no. 7, May 1921, illustrated. Roch Grey, Henri Rousseau, Rome, 1922, illustrated pl. 18. Helmet Kolle, Henri Rousseau, Laipzig, 1922, illustrated pl. 10. Adolphe Basler, Henri Rousseau, Paris, 1927, illustrated pl. XLIX. Christian Zervos, Henri Rousseau, Paris, 1927, illustrated pl. 39. Cahiers d’art, no. 6-7, Paris, 1932, illustrated p. 299 Douglas Cooper, unpublished catalogue raisonne on Rousseau, 1938, no. 140. Roch Grey, Henri Rousseau, Paris, 1946, illustrated pl. 27. Andre Legard, Le nu dans la peinture Francaise, Paris, 1947, illustrated pl. 55. Lo Duca, Henri Rousseau dit le Douanier, Paris, 1951, illustrated p.5. Jean Bouret, Henri Rousseau, Neuchatel, 1961, no. 19, illustrated p. 97. Dora Vallier, Henri Rousseau, Paris, 1961, illustrated pl. 76. Dora Vallier, L’opera completa di Rousseau il Doganiere, Milan, 1969, no. 129, illustrated pl. 21 and p. 100. Dora Vallier, La revue de l’art, no. 7, Paris, 1970, p. 92. Yann le Pichon, The World of Henri Rousseau, New York, 1982, illustrated p. 36. Henri Certigny, Le douanier Rousseau en son temps, vol. 2, Tokyo, 1984, no. 178, illustrated p. 365.
Heureux Quatour was first exhibited at the Salon des Independents in 1902. Rousseau clearly attached a great importance to the painting, as an annotated copy of the catalogue shows that it was priced 2000 francs, far more than any of his other paintings exhibited in the same Salon. Although Rousseau exhibited in every Salon des Independents up until his death in 1910, with the exception of those in 1899 and 1900, he did not harbor adverse feelings toward the official art world, as did so many of his fellow exhibitors. In a brief biography written in 1895, he described how he felt “obliged at first, in view of his parent’s lack of means, to follow a career different from that in which his artistic tastes called him. Therefore it was not until 1885 that he made his debut in Art after so many disappointments, alone and without any master but nature and some advice from Gerome and Clement. His first two creations exhibited were sent to the Salon des Champs Elysses and were entitled Carnival Evening and Sunset,” (Dora Vallier, Henri Rousseau, New York, 1961, pp. 59-60). One of the few depictions of nudes in Rousseau’s oeuvre, Hereux Quatuor is noteworthy for its idyllic tone and for its curious updating of themes that had become clichéd in academic painting. Dora Vallier proposed Gerome’s Innocence as an important source. There may also be references to Perugino’s Apollo and Marsyas in the Louvre and the child may reference a figure from Donatello’s Choir, in the Duomo Museum. As Michel Hoog has commented: “Like any true creator, he (Rousseau) brings together iconographic elements and formal procedures to make the meaning explicit.” Unspoiled nature like that of the Garden of Eden, delicate nuance such as the flower garlands, the poses of the figures, and the choice of accessories all refer back, through Gerome (who furnished only a schema of an idea), to earlier representations of the Earthly Paradise or the Golden Age, particularly the evocations of Poussin, which Rousseau would have seen (Henri Rousseau, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1985, p. 150).
RUFINO TAMAYO (1899-1991) El constructor Oil and Sand on Canvas Signed and dated ‘0-48’ (lower left) 40 x 30 in. Executed in 1948
PROVENANCE: Collection of the artist. John Senior, New York. Felix Landau, Los Angeles (circa 1960). Private Collection, California (acquired from the above by the present owner). Sotheby’s Latin American Sale, 30 MAY 08, Sale N08451, Lot 10. EXHIBITED: Mexico City, Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes, 20 Años de su Labor Pictórica, June-September, 1948, no. 57, illustrated. Dallas, Dallas Museum of Fine Arts, Three Contemporary Mexican Painters David Alfaro Siqueiros, Diego Rivera y Rufino Tamayo, October 9-November 7, 1948, no. 17. New York, Knoedler Galleries, April 24-May 13, 1950, no. 10. Washington D.C., Pan-American Union, October 14-November 15, 1952, no. 16. LITERATURE: Enrique Gual, Tamayo, Mexico, Editorial Eugenio Fischgrund, 1950, illustrated. Paul Westheim, “Tamayo, una investigación estética,” Artes de México, No. 12, Mexico, May-June, 1956, illustrated. Paul Westheim, Tamayo, Mexico City, Ediciones Artes de México, 1957, n.n., illustrated.
Rufino Tamayo fused a Cubo-Surrealist Modernist approach with color and light influenced by his Mexican heritage. His textured surfaces, while painterly and lyrical, also evoke the primitive and savage. His paintings focus on the human figure, animals and the cosmos and present coloristic synthesis of form. Born in Oaxaca, Mexico to Zapotec parents, Tamayo attended the Escuela Nacional de Artes Plasticas and was appointed the head of the Department of Ethnographic Drawing at the Museo Nacional de Arquelogia, Mexico City. Although a prominent figure of the art scene in Mexico City, he had major differences with the reigning Mexican muralists over content and style and relocated to New York. However he eventually returned to Mexico, and his homecoming was marked by a solo exhibition at the Palacio Nacional de Bellas Artes in 1948. Tamayo exhibited at the Venice Biennale and created murals for the Palacio Nacional and UNESCO in Paris. He traveled throughout Europe and lived in Paris from 1957 to 1964, though permanently resettled in his home country, where he died in Mexico City.
WAYNE THIEBAUD (b. 1920) River Boats Oil on canvas 36 x 60 in. 2001
PROVENANCE: Le Baron’s Fine Art. Tasende Gallery, California. Private Collection, California. Exhibited: Wayne Thiebaud: Four Decates with the Allan Stone Gallery, Recent Works, Allan Stone Gallery, New York, May 3-July 12, 2001. Chestnut Street Stomp: A Charles Campbell Selection, Weigand Gallery, Notre Dame de Namur University, Belmont, California, March 13-April 21, 2001.
Wayne Thiebaud’s career has been one of great productiveness and constant evolution. His work spans, and sometimes has reflected or even foreshadowed, many of the greatest movements of late twentieth century American art. His is a life rich and full of artistic experience. Thiebaud was born in Mesa, Arizona, but raised chiefly in California, the state that he remains most closely associated with. His early career was based in commercial illustration, including short stints with Walt Disney and UniversalInternational Studios and several years as an art director for the Rexall Drug company. In 1947, Thiebaud’s focus shifted from commercial illustration to the fine arts, a shift inspired by his own research into the roots of design, and by his friendship with the artist Robert Mallary. Mallary, a “sculptor, self-taught intellectual and typographer at Rexall,” was an extraordinary character, a lifelong political and social activist who had run off to Mexico at the age of fourteen in order to work with Siquieros and Orozco. As mentor and critic, his influence had an incalculable effect upon the young artist.
JAMES TISSOT (1836-1902) At the Louvre Oil on canvas 29 x 20 in.
PROVENANCE: R.F. Mosely, London. Leichester Galleries, London 1954. Anonymous Sale: Sotheby’s Parke-Bernet, New York, 5 June 1979, lot# 631. Deane Johnson and Anne Ford Johnson.
James Tissot was born in 1836 in Nantes, France. The son of a successful merchant and shop assistant, Tissot showed an early interest in architecture and painting. Upon deciding to become a painter, he moved to Paris in 1856 and enrolled at the academy schools. Although he received a formal artistic education, Tissot was mostly influenced informally, amongst a circle of avant-garde artists and writers in Paris. As a young, successful man-about-town, Tissot was able to observe the boulevard life of contemporary Paris, including both the fashionable and the illicit modern entertainments that were favorite subjects of painters at the time. Despite his interest in the avant-garde, Tissot painted with academic execution and great attention to detail. In this way he created his own uniquely modern way of seeing, melding traditional techniques with new subject matter. Following his alleged involvements in an ill-fated government formed by socialist revolutionaries in 1871, he was forced to abandon his luxurious life in Paris and seek refuge in London. He was as successful there as he had been in Paris, wasting little time in finding patrons and building a thriving career. In 1874, Edmond de Goncourt wrote sarcastically that Tissot had a “studio with a waiting room where, at all times, there is iced champagne at the disposal of visitors, and around the studio a garden where, all day long, one can see a footman in silk stocking brushing and shining the shrubbery leaves.” Tissot’s pictures are distinguished most obviously by his love of painting women’s costumes: indeed, his work, which has a fashion-plate elegance, has likely been more often reproduced within the history of costume than in the history of painting. His interest and keen observation of modern life is seen in pictures that portray flirtation between couples, or between the viewer and the subject of the painting. However, these interactions are often ambiguous or have immoral implications. Tissot did not paint sentimental scenes for Victorian valentines, but rather captured the complicated, often painful travails of modern love.
KEES VAN DONGEN (1877-1968) Les Amies Signed van Dongen (upper right); title, signed and dated Amies/ van Dongen/5 rue Juliette Lamber/Paris XXII on the reverse Oil on canvas 29 1/8 x 23 1/4 in. Painted circa 1922 PROVENANCE: L. Schames, Berllin. Private Collection. Sale: Christie’s, London, June 23, 1986, lot 47. Sale: Loudmer, Paris, April 9, 1989, lot 80. Private Collection (acquired at the above sale). Sale: Sotheby’s, New York, May 6, 2004, lot 149. EXHIBITED: Paris, Musee d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Van Dongen, Le Peintre, 1990. LITERATURE: Edmond des Courieres, Van Dongen, Paris, 1925, illustrated pl. 71.
Les Amies is a striking example of the distinctive stylistic features that characterized much of van Dongen’s work from the 1920s. During this period of his career, what came to be known as the “Folle Epoque,” van Dongen became one of the most talked about figures in the French art world. At this time, his creative energy was primarily focused on portraiture, depicting members of high society as well as performers from the cafes and cabarets he frequented. In this intimate composition, the two nudes are seen against a nondescript background with an ornamental fence behind them. Although painted in the nude, the women’s necklaces, earrings and fashionable hairstyles give them a distinct air de l’epoque. The highly expressive green coloration of their skin, reminiscent of van Dongen’s earlier fauve paintings, accentuates the sensual nature of the sitters. Their brightly colored, almond-shaped eyes looking just away from the viewer, so typical of van Dongen’s portraiture, and the slightly Asiatic physiognomy of the woman on the right veil Les Amies in an atmosphere of exoticism and mystery. Van Dongen, a Dutch-born painter, was one of the leading Fauvists after Henri Matisse. Van Dongen was particularly renowned for his sensuously rendered portraits of women. In 1905 he participated in the famous Salon d’Automne, at which the Fauve (Wild Beast) group was given its epithet. After contracting with Picasso’s dealer Daniel Henry Kahnweiler in 1907, van Dongen’s reputation only grew. In 1918, van Dongen began a long-term relationship with Leo Jacob, also known as Jasmy La Dogaresse, an ambitious woman who helped launch his career in a new direction due to her connections in the Paris fashion circles. In 1922 the couple moved to a new residence in Rue Juliette Lamber, where van Dongen held exhibitions and Jasmy hosted extravagant parties attended by influential members of high society. Van Dongen was a frequent visitor to Deauville, where the intellectual world gathered, as well as to the cabarets and restaurants of Paris. The movement and gaiety of the années folles greatly appealed to van Dongen. He once said, “I passionately love the life of my time - so animated, so feverish. Ah! Life is even more beautiful than painting,” (William Steadman and Denys Sutton, Cornelius Theodorus Marie van Dongen (exhibition catalogue), Tucson, 1971, p. 46).
VINCENT VAN GOGH (1853-1890) La Moisson en Provence Signed Vincent (lower right) and titled La moisson en Provence (lower left) Watercolor, gouache, charcoal, reed and quill pen and brown ink on off-white wove paper laid down on mill board 19 7/8 x 24 in. Executed in June 1888 PROVENANCE: Julius Meier-Graefe, Berlin (probably by 1899). Jos. Hessel, Paris (by 1901). Paul Cassirer, Berlin (on consignment 1914-18). Galerie Georges Bernheim, Paris. Galerie Flechtheim, Dusseldorf. F. Haniel, Wistinghausen. Galerie Paul Rosenberg, Paris. The Lefevre Gallery (Alex, Reid and Lefevre Ltd.), London. Mrs. J.B.A. Kessler, London (acquired by 1930 and sold: Sotheby’s London, June 24, 1997). Wolfgang Flottl, Austria. Sotheby’s, New York, November 5, 2003, Lot#6.
EXHIBITED: Paris, Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, Vincent van Gogh, 1901, no. 66. Paris, Galerie E. Druet, Vincent van Gogh, 1909, no. 23. Berlin, Paul Cassirer, Vincent van Gogh, 1914, no. 76a. London, The Lefevre Gallery (Alex, Reid and Lefevre Ltd.), Renoir and the Post- Impressionists, 1930, no. 15. London, National Gallery, 19th Century French Paintings, 1943, no. 76. London, Wildenstein & Co., The Kessler Collection, 19th and 20th Century French Masters, 1948, no. 30. Leicester, Leichestershire Museums and Art Galleries, The Kessler Collection, 1986-87, no. 11.
LITERATURE: Julius Meier-Graefe, Germinal, Berlin, 1899, illustrated in a color lithograph. Julius Meier-Graefe, Vincent van Gogh, vol. 11, Munich, 1922, illustrated pl. 43. Kurt Pfister, Van Gogh , Sein Werk, Potsdam, 1922, illustrated pl. 19. Louis Pierard, La Vie Tragique de Vincent van Gogh, Paris, 1924, illustrated opposite p. 112. Florent Fels, Vincent van Gogh, Paris, 1928, p.148 Hans Tietze, Vincent van Gogh, Vienna, 1928, illustrated pl. 14. Jacob-Baart de la Faille, L’Oeuvre de Vincent van Gogh, Catalogue Raisonne, vol. 3, Paris, 1928, no. 1483, catalogued p. 146; vol. 4, part 2, no. 1483, illustrated pl. CLXVI. Vincent van Gogh, Briefe an Emile Bernard und Paul Gauguin, Basel, 1929, illustrated pl. 96. Mark Roskill, “Vincent van Gogh’s Blue Cart and His Creative Process,” Oud Holland, Amsterdam, 1966, illustrated p. 10. Jacob-Baart de la Faille, The Works of Vincent van Gogh, His Paintings and Drawings, London, 1970, no. F1483, illustrated p. 516. Paolo Lecaldano, Tout l’oeuvre peint de Van Gogh, Tome II, 1888-1890, Milan, 1971, no. 523a, illustrated p. 209. Jacques Lassaigne, Vincent van Gogh, Milan, 1974, no. 3, illustrated p. 43. Jan Hulsker, The Complete Van Gogh, Paintings, Drawings, Sketches, New York, 1980, no. 1439, illustrated p. 326. Ronald Pickvance, Van Gogh in Arles, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1984, discussed p. 93. Walter Feilchenfeldt, Vincent van Gogh & Paul Cassirer, Berlin, Zwolle, 1988, no. F1483, illustrated p. 135. Vincent van Gogh, Drawings, Rijksmuseum Kroller-Muller, Otterio, 1990, discussed pp. 225-27. Jacob-Baart de la Faille, Vincent van Gogh, The Complete Works on Paper, Catalogue Raisonne, vol. I, San Francisco, 1992, no. 1483, catalogued p. 146; vol. II, illustrated pl. CLXVI. Jan Hulsker, The New Complete Van Gogh, Paintings, Drawings, Sketches, Amsterdam, 1996, no. 1439, illustrated p. 333.
Vincent van Gogh was born in Holland in 1853. His father was a pastor, and van Gogh worked for a time as a lay preacher in England before deciding to become a painter. In 1888, the artist left in search of the intense light and color of Southern France. He moved to Arles to live in undisturbed solitude so he could focus on his art. Plagued by loneliness and desperation, van Gogh was eventually driven to attacks of insanity before ending his own life in July 1890. Though his career as a painter lasted no more than ten years, van Gogh’s body of work includes some of the most recognizable and beloved paintings in all of art history. A Dutch Post-Impressionist painter, Vincent van Gogh’s work represents the archetype of expressionism; emotional spontaneity as expressed in painting. The artist described his state of inspiration when “the emotions are sometimes so strong that one works without being aware of working…and the strokes come with a sequence and coherence like words in a speech or letter.” Van Gogh executed this panoramic view of the landscape outside Aries, looking northeast across the plain of La Crau, in early June 1888. Described by Ronald Pickvance as “[one] of his most marvelous drawings,” it simultaneously expresses the artist’s first impassioned response to the colors of the Provencal summer and his remarkable command of the reed-pen as drafting instrument (Vincent van Gogh Drawings, Rijksmuseum Kroller-Muller, Otterlo, 1990, p. 225).
ANDY WARHOL (1928-1987) Liz II.7
Offset lithograph on paper 23 1/8 x 23 1/8 in. Ed. Of 300 1967
Andy Warhol, the controversial pop artist who rose to iconic status in 1960s, challenged the definition of art with his silkscreen paintings of celebrities, advertisements and utilitarian objects such as his famous cans of Campbell’s soup. Warhol gained devoted fans and attracted vitriolic critics with his unique subject matter and unconventional artistic process. His role as notorious artist, turning the fabric of American consumer culture into the stuff of art, has sealed his position as one of the most popular artists of the twentieth century. Warhol was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in 1928. He was the son of immigrant parents who came to America from Czechoslovakia. A sickly child, Warhol often spent long periods of time home from school in bed, which he later described as the fundamental foundation in the development of his personality and interest in art. As a young adult Warhol studied commercial art at the School of Fine Arts in Pittsburgh before moving to New York City in 1949, where he worked as a magazine illustrator and advertisement designer. After his artistic career took off during the 1960s, Warhol began to make paintings of famous American products and celebrities, artistically commercializing the products so comfortably implanted in the American household and media. His switch to serially produced silkscreen prints, helped Warhol re-emphasize his artistic goal to not only make art of mass-produced items, but to mass-produce the art itself. His intention of creating art like “a machine” was heightened by minimizing the role of his own hand in the production of his work. This truly sparked a revolution in art, and made his work both popular and controversial. In 1964, Warhol confronted the New York public with his involvement in the exhibition, “The American Supermarket,” held at Paul Bianchini’s gallery on the Upper East Side. The show featured six pop artists who had created all the accoutrements of a supermarket, complete with produce, bread and meat products. Warhol sold his painting of a can of Campbell’s soup for only $1,500. Warhol enjoyed ongoing popularity throughout his career, continuing to cut a high-profile image across New York’s social scene. He shunned media attention and rarely commented on his art or popularity, sometimes issuing cryptic statements such as his prophetic phrase, “in the future, everyone will be famous for fifteen minutes.” Warhol died of complications stemming from gallbladder surgery in New York in 1987.
ANDY WARHOL (1928-1987) Campbell’s Tomato Soup
Signed ‘Andy Warhol’ (on reverse side of canvas), 1985 Silkscreen on canvas 20 x 16 in.
PROVENANCE: Martin Lawrence Galleries, New York. Private collection, CA
Andy Warhol, the controversial pop artist who rose to iconic status in 1960s, challenged the definition of art with his silkscreen paintings of celebrities, advertisements and utilitarian objects such as his famous cans of Campbell’s soup. Warhol gained devoted fans and attracted vitriolic critics with his unique subject matter and unconventional artistic process. His role as notorious artist, turning the fabric of American consumer culture into the stuff of art, has sealed his position as one of the most popular artists of the twentieth century. During the 1960s, Warhol associated with a motley crowd of artists, musicians and celebrities who gained a reputation for their eccentric behavior and wild parties. Warhol hired a number of assistants to help him with the screen printing process, increasing his output and adding another degree of separation between himself and his art. Warhol was fascinated by popular culture, and the manner in which he produced his art mirrored popular culture’s ubiquitous appeal. He, perhaps more than any other artist of the twentieth century, expressed his particular vision of what art should be and what it should accomplish through his artistic methods. Although Warhol often spoke about art, his statements were often tongue-in-cheek, ambiguous and provocative, such as his declaration that “commercial things really do stink. As soon it becomes commercial for a mass market it really stinks.” Conversely he stated, “making money is art and working is art and good business is the best art.” In 1964, Warhol confronted the New York public with his involvement in the exhibition, “The American Supermarket,” held at Paul Bianchini’s gallery on the Upper East Side. The show featured six pop artists who had created all the accoutrements of a supermarket, complete with produce, bread and meat products. Warhol sold his painting of a can of Campbell’s soup for only $1,500. Warhol enjoyed ongoing popularity throughout his career, continuing to cut a highprofile image across New York’s social scene. He shunned media attention and rarely commented on his art or popularity, sometimes issuing cryptic statements such as his prophetic phrase, “in the future, everyone will be famous for fifteen minutes.” Warhol died of complications stemming from gallbladder surgery in New York in 1987.
FRANCISCO ZÚÑIGA (1912-1998) Orante de Rodillas Black Mexican marble 27 1/4 x 18 3/4 x 15 1/2 in. Executed in 1974
PROVENANCE: Christie’s New York: Thursday, May 26, 2005 [Lot 148].
Francisco Zúñiga, one of Costa Rica and Mexico’s most prominent artists, was a prolific and illustrious draftsman and sculptor. As an apprentice to his father, a sculptor of religious statues, Zúñiga was exposed to art at a very young age and went on to study drawing at the School of Fine Arts in San Jose. Though he attempted to study art in Europe in 1936, the Spanish Civil War blocked Zúñiga’s plans. He instead went to Mexico, where he studied under Manuel Rodriguez Lozano. Though heavily influenced by the Renaissance style, he also often incorporated pre-Columbian motifs into his works. The subjects of Zúñiga’s works are almost exclusively female figures, often representing women’s powerful strength as matriarchs. Through his masterful technique he stated, restated and recapitulated the representational figurative narrative of the feminine, intuitively understanding and its powerful meanings. Created with line, mass and volume, Zúñiga’s works move toward a universal interpretation of woman. Zúñiga described his work as “a continuous representation of femininity.” Like no other artist, he has captured and characterized the archetype of the women of southeastern Mexico. Francisco Zúñiga leaves behind an extensive legacy. His works are held in major museums throughout the world, including the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Museum of Modern Art in New York and the Museo de Arte Moderno in Mexico City.
FACE MASK, GUNYE GE Dan People, Ivory Coast - Liberia Wood Height: 20 in.
Dan farmers of the Ivory Coast used this mask to represent the spirit o the bush, and to fulfill a variety of social, political and religious functions. The maskâ€™s dark patina, high forehead, strongly protruding mouth and full lips are typical of the northern Dan style. The circular eye holes allow the wearer full vision and are characteristic of the racer mask (gunye ge) or the fire mask (zakpei ge). The gunye ge held weekly running contests in the dry season to test the prowess of young warriors. The zakpei ge also appeared at the same time of year to inspect cooking fires, the ever-possible conflagration, to chastise careless women with a switch and to levy fires.
MOTHER AND CHILD FIGURE Pende People, Congo Wood Height: 41 in.
Sculptured mother-and-child figures typically depict the mother nursing or holding her breast. Such gestures express Pende ideas about nurturing, the family, and the continuity of a matrilineaege through a daughter or of a state through a son. The mother-and-child figures are kept in royal and commoner shrines where they emphasize the importance of the family and its lineage. Infants appear in a secondary role, representing the productivity of the mother. Thus there is a clear disparity between African maternity images and Christian images of the Virgin Mary and the Christ child. In the latter, the primary focus falls on the infant while the mother is a secondary figure. This is clearly the reverse of mother and child roles in African examples. The child, a symbol of maternity, supports and reinforces the motherâ€™s strong matriarchal role.
CHINESE BUDDHIST STELE China, Tang Dynasty (618 â€“ 907 AD) Stone Height: 35 in.
PROVENANCE: Sothebyâ€™s, 1979. Spink & Son, London.
Historians regard the Tang Dynasty as a high point of Chinese civilization as well as a golden age of Chinese cosmopolitan culture. It is ranked as a classical period of Chinese art and literature, with flourishing artistic traditions that would prove influential for generations to come. The restored government and strengthening military rule of the dynasty provided the permanence necessary for this lasting cultural and artistic era. Buddhism flourished during the Tang dynasty and was adopted by the royal imperial family. The Chinese believed that the afterlife paralleled the realities of the living world, such that it was governed by its own bureaucracy and required a unique currency. This stele, an upright stone or slab with an inscribed or sculptured surface used as a monument or as a commemorative tablet on the face of a building, embodies the full genius of Chinese artistry during the Tang Dynasty.
CHINESE BODHISATTVA OF COMPASSION SEATED ON A LION China, Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) Bronze 69 1/2 in. high
PROVENANCE: Purchased by George Booth in 1939 from a Chinese dealer. Donated to a prominent museum in 1948.
In the doctrine of the Pure Land Sect of Buddhism, Guanyin is an attendant of Amitabha, the Buddhist God of Light and Lord of the Western Paradise. This magnificent bronze cast sculpture depicts Guanyin (in Sanskrit, Avalokiteshvara) seated in the “royal ease” posture known as lalitasana on the back of a lion. It was after the tenth century that the lalitsana posture became standard in representations of Guanyin in her paradise, supposedly Mount Putuo, an island off the coast of southeast China. The mount indicates that the sculpture represents Guanyin of the Lion’s Roar (Simhanada Avalokiteshvara). The roar symbolizes both a moment of transcendent understanding and the bodhisattva’s supernal wisdom. Here, Guanyin is adorned in a long flowing robe, and draped in elaborate and delicate jewelry. The regal gilt face of the bodhisattva along with the tall elaborate ornamental crown, which depicts a small standing figure of Amitabha Buddha, gives the sculpture both a peaceful and commanding presence.
BUDDHA SEATED IN THE DHYANAMUDRA Gandahara (4th Century A.D.) Stucco 64 in. high
In ancient times, trade routes linking Ancient Greece and Rome to the Orient also allowed for the free exchange of artistic, religious and cultural traditions. Consequently, Buddhists from Gandhara, present-day Pakistan and Afghanistan, modeled the first known images of Buddha after depictions of Greek and Roman gods. This basic image of the Buddha has endured for nearly 2000 years. This figure is among the two or three largest Gandhara stucco figures in the world. An example in a frieze, preserved at the Taxila museum in Pakistan, is larger, and several incomplete lower sections of larger Buddhas survive at the nearby Jaulian Monastery. Apart from these figures, there appear to be no other recorded examples of this size. This particular figure is composed of unfired stucco and appears to have been built up in layers. The treatment of the drapery illustrates a strong Hellenistic influence as a result of the trade contact with the classical world.
PAIR OF TEMPLE FIGURES, NIO Japanese, late Muromachi to early Edo Period (1467 – 1652) Wood 71 in. high each
Carbon-14 testing confirms the dating of the pair to the late Muromachi to early Edo Periods.
The Nio (Benevolent Kings) are a pair of protectors who stand guard outside the temple gate at most Japanese Buddhist temples, one on either side of the entrance. The fierce and threatening facial expressions on the Nio wards off evil spirits and keep the temple ground free of demons and thieves. The subjects are Indian in origin as manifestations of Vajrapani Bodhisattvas and by some accounts, the Nio were said to have followed and protected the historical Buddha when he traveled throughout India. Each is named after a particular cosmic sound. The closed-mouth figure is called Ungyo, who sounds “un” or “om” meaning death. He is also called Nareen Kongo and is said to be a form of the Indian God Vishnu. Nareen represents latent might, holding his mouth tightly closed and waiting with both arms tensed but lowered. The open-mouthed partner is called Misshaku Kongo (Agyo) who utters the sound “ah” meaning birth and is equated with the Indian deity Vajrapani, whose name means “Thunderbolt Holder.” He holds a Kongosho (Indian, Vajra), which is a symbol of his power as the protector of Buddhism. Misshaku represents overt power, baring his teeth and raising his fist in action. The Nio are constructed in the traditional multi-block design. Old works with this form of construction were conventionally repaired bit by bit, over time, as individual blocks shrank at different rates or were damaged by insects. Damaged blocks would be removed, much like the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, and replaced with exact copies of the piece. It is quite common, therefore, to find such works with repairs spanning many years, as is the case with these particular pieces. This particular pair was originally lacquered. Though none of the lacquer survives, there is evidence of the gofun (gesso – like) layer that is found randomly over the surface of each. It is interesting to note that this pair is an near exact copy of the Nio guarding the south gate of the Todaiji in Japan. The Todaiji pair, completed in 1203, stand twenty-six feet tall, however.
FIGURE OF MAITREYA China, Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644) Painted wood 74 in. high
Maitreya is the Buddha of the Future. This magnificent figure of Maitreya is seated in vajrasana, the left hand in varadamudra and the right hand in vitarkamudra. This is representative of reasoning, argumentation, or explanation of teaching. Adorned with ornate jewelry, a high crown and garments draped elaborately over the entire figure, this striking Maitreya sits in sheer majesty.
This sculpture has been Radiocarbon (C14) tested by Rafter Radiocarbon Laboratory, Lower Hutt, New Zealand and has been found to be 395 +/ - 43 years old.
Historically, Maitreya is the harbinger of a new age. According to Buddhism, Maitreya will be reborn during a period of decline to renew the Buddhist doctrine. At the moment of Maitreya’s birth Buddhist law will have completely degenerated, requiring a new revelation. Maitreya is believed to be a bodhisattva, one who refuses nirvana (a transcendent state free from suffering) out of a compassionate desire to help others. Maitreya’s cult first appeared in India around the 3rd century before spreading throughout China, Korea and Japan. The traditions surrounding Maitreya describe him taking a variety of forms, such as a slothful student, a companion of the Buddha or a kind tutor. In China, Maitreya is often known as the “Fat Buddha” or “Happy Buddha.” Over time Chinese culture has transformed the traditionally lean figure of Maitreya to the corpulent image of a cloth-bag monk. The “Happy Buddha” exemplifies the Chinese association of stomach capacity with one’s capacity to give and forgive. This iconic transfiguration symbolizes Maitreya’s limitless tolerance and generosity as seen through the eyes of the Chinese. As the next Buddha-to-be, Maitreya alone enjoys the distinction of being the only celestial Bodhisattva recognized and popularly accepted by both Mahayanist and Theravadin devotees, the two main sects of Buddhism.
CEREMONIAL MASK Olmec Culture, Rio Pesquero, Las Chiapas, Veracruz (circa B.C. 1000-500) Stone 8 in. high
EXHIBITED: France, Angers Fair, Mexique 3000 ans de civilisation, April 22 - May1, 1995 LITERATURE: Exhibition catalogue, Mexique 3000 ans de civilisation, Angers Fair, France, April 22-May1, 1995
This Olmec mask depicts a human face with subtly feline features. The oblique almond-shaped eyes are deeply hollowed out with holes to allow the wearer to see out. Slightly open, the mouth reveals the filed upper front teeth. The nostrils are pierced, and an emplacement for the nose on the reverse of the mask suggests it was used during rituals. A rounded chin and large, slightly bloated cheeks complete the face. Long, finely designed earlobes are situated at the height of the face line. The green-brown mask, essentially composed of quartz, albite and chlorite, shows the effects of the earth and water during its long burial.
MOSAIC MASK OF A DEITY Mayan Culture, Central Lowlands, Classic Period (circa A.D. 450-650) Jade and shell 12 in. high
An idealized portrait of God GIII of the Planeque Triad from the Mayan lowlands, this mosaic mask is made of eighty-two individually cut deep green mottled jade, spondylus and conch shell plaques. The maskâ€™s large squared eyes have distinctive spirally incised conch shell pupils, each carefully highlighted by red pigment. The lower eyelids curl over the nose to form the characteristic cruller loop between the eyes. The robust nose with slightly flared nostrils is carved from a single piece of jade. Distinguished by fish fin shaped ornaments at the corners, the wide mouth reveals a filed front tooth and flint-like tongue. The figure wears the headdress of the Quadripartite Monster, symbolized by the stepped plaque with a central flint. The overall effect is an imposing representation of the Mayan deity.
45188 PORTOLA AVENUE, PALM DESERT, CA 92260 760-346-8926 www.heatherjames.com
45188 PORTOLA AVENUE, PALM DESERT, CA 92260 760-346-8926 www.heatherjames.com