WAITOKI: LANDSCAPE + URBAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN PART OF THE 2011 GREEN HEART GROWTH STRATEGY
LAND6225: STUDIO HEATHER DOCHERTY 1345281
In Part 1 of LAND6225 Studio, areas of land suitable for more intense development were identified through a series of broad-scale GIS maps. The main driver for locating the developable areas was through the Land Use Capability(LUC) Class maps, whereby good quality soils (LUC Classes 5,6 & 7) were retained for agricultural and horticultural production. Multiple Use land types (Classes 1-4) were deemed appropriate for development, overlaid with fine-grain detail generated from other factors such as slope and existing vegetation. The objective of this was to create a sustainable region, where productive land was used not only for resources, but to also provide employment opportunities. Riverhead Forest creates the ‘green heart’ of this plan, whereby the forest has ‘stacked’ benefits. Aside from timber harvesting, the forest provides recreational opportunities such as mountain biking and horse riding and has ecological value as a large patch of forest, albeit exotic.
PART ONE: GREEN HEART GROWTH STRATEGY
Existing built infrastructure, such as the Western Rail Line, were identified as key links in the growth strategy, in order to utilise existing resources more efficiently. By reinforcing existing roads across the northwest Auckland region, through the Kahikatea Flat Valley, a loop was created to curb Auckland’s growth back towards the under-utilised settlement of Helensville (a key growth area identified in the Auckland Spatial Plan). Smaller areas of potential development (such as Waitoki Ridges) are intended as potential commuter towns, whereby residential development would occur in order to feed a work force to larger areas (such as Helensville) .
Relationship of Proposed Development with Existing Nodes/ Infrastructure
THE SITE Legend
Motorway/ State Highway Existing Development Node Built Environment Proposed Areas for Development Proposed transit corridor
A 370Ha site was identified (in yellow boundary) as appropriate for development through the landscape mapping series undertaken in Part 1 of this project. The northwestern-most perimeter of this development area sits 1 kilometre from Waitoki, a small rural village that sits at the crossroads of Kahikatea Flat Road (between Silverdale and Kaukapkapa) and Waitoki Road that heads north to Wainui and eventually Orewa/ Puhoi. The current landscape character of Waitoki is dominated by agricultural pasture land, with smaller blocks of horticulture. A patch of native bush is located along the Kaukapkapa River valley, and is listed as a Significant Natural Area. Currently, there is no public open space, other that these areas of native bush.
CONTEXT: REGIONAL + LOCAL
Waitoki is a small rural settlement situated in north-west Auckland, 15-minutes by car from Albany and Helensville. Farming lots, lifestyle blocks and a small residential area comprise the current form of the town. The main arterial route of Kahikatea Flat Road services the area, catering for over 5,200 vehicle movements daily. Community facilities include a ruralzone school, small community hall and a church. Local business activity consists of dry stock units, dairy farming, cropping, horticulture, light engineering and a chocolate factory. A café and a petrol station are the only services available at present. The Waitoki Vision was adopted by Rodney District Council in October 2009, after liaison with the Waitoki Village Community Group. This statement, while non-statutory, provides a guide for development in the area and outlines the aspirations of locals for their community.
‘WAITOKI VISION’ The current population is 600 people and is estimated to grow to 900 people by 2026, if growth and development progress in the way current governance permits. Key principles from this document include retaining the rural character of the village, whilst providing a centre for the surrounding rural lifestyle community and managing growth to support and encourage business. A plan was drawn up outlining how this may happen (see Figure 2, left), which has been translated in GIS to compare and contrast with the Waitoki Ridges plan.
Exisiting facilities in Waitoki include the community hall and the only food establishment, DD’s Cafe, a basic petrol station and and the newly re-vamped primary school. (clockwise from top left)
PART TWO: LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS
Land Use Classes (Simplified)
Map Features • highly fertile soils dominate the surrounding landscape, primarily due to underlying geology and old alluvial floodplains • discrete, isolated patches of lower-fertility soils occur, in a variety of sizes Strategy •
in order to retain good soils for food production, use poorer quality soil areas as more suitable to develop.
LAND USE CAPABILITY
Legend New_Waitoki LUC Developed Good Quality Soils (LUC 1- 4) Poor Quality Soils (LUC 5-7) Conservation
Map Features • low, rolling hills characterise the majority of the surrounding landscape • a large, flat flood-prone river valley system runs east-west to the north of the identified development area • within development area, several ridge-valley sequences occur, with greater increase in elevation compared to context Strategy •
in order to avoid flood-plain, develop on slopes and ridges
Map Features • cluster of residential buildings around junction of main roads, create centralised area of impervious surface • sparsely distributed rural properties not included in map data for impervious surfaces, presumably because of negligible land: impervious surface ratio Strategy •
EXISITING SETTLEMENT PATTERN
in order to create community centre between new and exisiting development, turn focus away from roads and inwards to centre located in zone between the two to ‘blend’ old and new
Waitoki Current Cadastral Boundaries Map Features • smaller property lots clustered around junction of main roads • larger property lots dominate, with some medium-sized lots evenly distrubuted across landscape Strategy • re-zone large farm properties in order to subdivide with minimal property purchases and disruption to existing community fabric
EXISITING CADASTRAL BOUNDARIES
Legend Cadastral Boundaries Exisiting Settlement Node Potential Development Area
Existing Road Infrastructure Map Features • main road network forms three-way junction east-west and to the north at Waitoki, towards main district service centres • secondary roads network across broader context, providing good connectivity to other town centres Strategy •
in order to create connectivity within and out of new development, utilise exisiting infrastructure - farm roads, farm tracks and paper roads with potential to develop
EXISTING ROAD NETWORK
Poential Development Area Road systems Side Road Main Road
Vegetative Land Cover
Map Features • agricultural farmland dominates the backgound matrix • patches of native and regenerating forest are scattered across landscape, as are blocks of horticultural land • little ecological connectivity between native forest patches exists Strategy •
in order to create ecological connectivity, protect existing patches of native forest and enhance with re-vegetate slopes and riparian corridors
Legend New_Waitoki Built-up Area Broadleaved Indigenous Hardwoods Indigenous Forest Manuka and or Kanuka High Producing Exotic Grassland Short-rotation Cropland Herbaceous Freshwater Vegetation Lake and Pond Major Shelterbelts Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Pine Forest Forest Harvested Deciduous Hardwoods Other Exotic Forest Gorse and Broom Urban Parkland/ Open Space
0 0.25 0.5
Map Features • north and east -facing slopes occur throughout development zone, with a substantial proportion in the northeast portion Strategy •
in order to maximise long-term energy efficiency of development, build residential areas on north/ northeast facing slopes
Legend New Waitoki Flat North Northeast
East Southeast South Southwest West Northwest
Map Features • slopes over 15 degrees occur through whole site, with a particularly large area in the north-west corner • large flatter areas occur around north-east-south periphery Strategy •
in order to prevent further erosion, revegetate slopes over 15 degrees with native forest, refrain from developing and integrate with public amenities such as recreational parks
Legend 0.00 - 5.00 5.00 - 10.00
10.00 - 15.00 15.00 - 90.00 New Waitoki
Aspect Topograhy and Hydrology
Map Features • several tributaries that feed into the nearby Kaukapkapa River originate within the site • multiple sub-catchments form a fine-scale river and ephemeral stream network Strategy •
in order to prevent further erosion or exacerbate downstream flooding effects ,revegetate streambanks to 20m width (following ARC TP148)
TOPOGRAPHY + HYDROLOGY
Legend New Waitoki Flat North Northeast
West Potential Development NorthwestArea FLow Path
Aspect Cadastral Boundaries
in order to refine strategy for site, the cadastral map was re-visited at a smaller scale • the whole 370ha site would be developed in stages, according to acquisition of individual property titles
Legend New Waitoki Flat North Northeast
East Southeast South Southwest
West Northwest Cadastral Boundaries
Potential Development Area
Strategy • A total of 3 properties, comprising approximately 90Ha, were selected to develop as Stage 1 of Waitoki Ridges • these northeastern-most lots were selected due to the proximity to the exisiting settlement cluster • future stages of development would occur within outlined site, in order to satisfy future community demands while still working with underlying strategy
STAGE 1 BOUNDARIES
DEVELOPMENT SITE STAGE 1 DEVELOPMENT EXISTING WAITOKI SETTLEMENT
Stage 1 Development Area
STAGE 1 DEVELOPMENT
Legend New Waitoki Flat North Northeast
Land parcels to develop
Potential development zone
PART THREE: CASE STUDIES
CASE STUDY: MOSES SUBDIVISION SH16 Limited are â€œdevelopers of environmentally sensitive rural residential lots in Rodney District.â€? The Moses Subdivision is just north of Kaukapakapa, within commuting distance to Albany (approximately 30 minutes drive). Local amenities nearby include the local primary school 1km to the south and Kaukapakapa village which contains a superette, vet, liquor store and service station.
Each SH16 subdivision features large areas of protected native bush and riparian areas supplemented by extensive native plantings with eco-sourced plants. Existing native bush patches are also protected by covenants on individual titles, and lots are a mix of grass or bush or a mix of both. House sites have been formed to maximise the rural outlook and the sun, and are serviced with features that retain or enhance the rural character of the area, such as farm-style fences, curb-less roads with swales and stormwater detention ponds.
The Moses subdivision comprises approximately 25 Ha, and is due to be completed in stages. Similar developments are being undertaken by the same developer in 5 other locations in the former Rodney Council area. The soft-engineering approach and combining development sensitive to the rural character are key features similar to Waitoki Ridges.
CASE STUDY: MATAKANA VILLAGE Over the past 20 years, Matakana has transformed from a remote rural service centre with little more than a petrol station to a popular year-round tourist destination. Located at a junction on main road that head to Leigh and the popular holiday-home destination of Omaha, the village has carved a niche as a boutique food, wine and art destination. Landscape Architect Garth Falconer, formerly of Isthmus and now principle at Reset Urban Design, undertook much of the redevelopment design work. The Matakana Village retail development has created 32 full-time jobs (plus seasonal work),as well as many economic opportunities such as B&B’s and wine tours. Specialist retail includes a bookshop, two art galleries, two shoe shops, a dress shop, a chemist, a restaurant, interior designer, a florist, butchers, ice-cream shop, chocolate shop, and a wine bar selling only locally produced wines. A weekly market of fresh produce attracts hundreds of regular visitors, providing direct opportunity for local farmers to sell seasonal goods. Not only local producers have benefitted economically from this transformation. Ecological linkages have been created through riparian planting along the Matakana River, and integrated with urban design features such as the market square (pictured above). By working with the character of the surrounding productive landscape and creating a niche ‘brand’ position for Matakana, the town has flourished while retaining a rural aesthetic . Similarities between the character of the existing context of Waitoki and that of Matakana hint towards the potential of Waitoki as a ‘boutique rural village’, with the added advantage of being much closer to Auckland city - thus potentially ‘upstreaming’ Matakana.
CASE STUDY: BATH CRESCENT + VILLAGE GREEN The concept of developing ridges near river systems with high-density housing triggered recollections of Royal Crescent in Bath, U.K. It is a residential road of 30 townhouses, laid out in a crescent shape located on a ridge that slopes away to the north and south.
Designed by the architect John Wood the Younger and built between 1767 and 1774, the front facade has four storeys above road level, while the back has five, staggering as the land falls away. A common in front of the Royal Crescent provides public open space on slopes that head south towards the city centre, as well as connecting the landscape to the large Royal Victoria Park system to the northwest. The common has been used as pasture in previous times, connecting the surrounding rural context with the city. The embracing nature of the Royal Crescent around the common not only creates a natural community focal point, but also provides nearby open space for inhabitants of high-density housing. This notion is a key feature that guides development in the upper reaches of Waitoki Ridges.
Strategy Outline • develop on ridge lines • buffer waterways and emphemeral streams to create ecological connecivity • retire slopes over 15 degrees to prevent erosion • create residential housing for commuters • create public open space network to incorporate native bush patches • invigorate local business and provide opportunity • ‘blend’ area between old and new development to retain rural character
Increase Residential Density • High Density - Crescent Townhouses - Commuters/ first home buyers - 3 storey compact form with garages below, accessed from service lane behind. Small courtyard + balconies to connect to landscape through borrowed views. Approximately 145 homes could be constructed on 250sq.m lots, housing 535 people. • Medium Density - Mix of 1 or 2 storey residential, suburban style family houses, with aim to support local school role. Connect to landscape though gardens + views across valley from north-facing slopes. Approximately 395 homes could be constructed on 500sq.m lots, housing 1185 people. • Low Density - Large 1 or 2 storey family houses, to retain as lifestyle blocks with aim to act as diffusion zone + blend with existing village context to retain rural character. Approximately 45 homes could be constructed on 0.5Ha lots, housing 135 people. • Potentially, 585 new homes could be created with the suggested densities, accommodating roughly 1255 people with an average of 3 people per household (using Auckland Council household size data from http://monitorauckland.arc.govt.nz). Greater numbers of people could be accommodated by decreasing lot sizes in high and medium density areas.
PART FOUR: DESIGN DEVELOPMENT + STRATEGY Establish Connectivity • ‘Green Fingers’ reach out between existing rural village centre and new development, providing ecological connectivity between patches of native forest with riparian buffers, with community connectivity along pedestrian paths following revegetated corridors. Exisiting farm roads and tracks along ridges used to establish new road network through development. • Revitalised town centre to provide rural service centre and commuter transport hub - bus shuttle depot to + from Silverdale/ Albany and Kaukapapa/ Helensville. • Supporting local business establishment to cater for commuters and influx of residents - cafes, pubs, restaurants + boutique retail that showcase local produce i.e. Matakana, Clevedon. • Community facilities centred between new and old development - transitional, adaptive space for markets, performances, gatherings. • Potential to develop further south-west in area identified from initial l landscape analysis, consequently connection points left open to develop as + when needed, with flexibility to develop appropriately to market demands. Retain Rural Landscape Character • ‘Best quality’ soils conserved for productive agriculture and horticulture industry surrounding new development (according to Land Use Capability Class, or LUC Class). • Good soils within development areas retained as lifestyle blocks for boutique crops/ farming, blending existing land uses (rural) with newly planned areas (urban), diffusing rural lots and lifestyle blocks closer to existing settlement node to retain perception of Waitoki as rural village. • Waterways + slopes revegated to create ‘green fingers’ network to provide ecological connectivity and to reduce erosion of good quality productive soils. • Create protected ‘Green Heart’ comprising open space/ native forest , on meso-scale in centre of development, to create new public space that re-focuses community centre away from main roads.
Waitoki Ridges Development Plan
Legend Walkway + Cycle Path Public Transport Hub Retail + Commercial Development School Secondary Roads Primary Roads 20m Revegetated Riparian margin
Low Density Housing 2 homes/ ha Medium Density Housing 8 homes/ ha High Density Housing 16 homes/ ha Open Space + Event Centre Retired + Revegtated Slopes
EXISTING RETAIL/ COMMERCIAL ENHANCEMENT
ECOLOGICAL CORRIDOR - RIPARIAN REVEGETAION
LOW DENSITY ON LOWER SLOPES
MEDIUM DENSITY ON HIGHER SLOPES
HIGH DENSITY ON RIDGES
PUBLIC AMENTITIES - OPEN SPACE, NATIVE FOREST + STORM WATER
PEDESTRIAN AND LOCAL ROAD CIRCULATION PATTERN
WAITOKI RIDGES: VIEW SOUTH
NEW RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT IN HILLS
RIPARIAN BUFFERS PROVIDE ECOLOGICAL AND PEDESTRIAN CONNECTIVITY AND BLENDING ZONE BETWEEN OLD AND NEW
COMMERCIAL CENTRE, TRANSPORT HUB AND SCHOOL
WAITOKI RIDGES: AERIAL VIEW NORTH
http://sh16.co.nz/home3.html www.djscott.co.nz http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Crescent http://matakanavillage.co.nz/about/landscape-design/ http://monitorauckland.arc.govt.nz