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Healthy Acres



Photo By Leah Grunzke

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Bio-control Field Days Underway Across Montana By Bryce Christieans

In early June, 26 folks met in Missoula to learn about Mecinus janthiniformis, the Dalmatian toadflax bio-control agent, and collect them from established populations for redistribution across Montana. The event was just one of many bio-control field days, planned across Montana this summer by the Montana Biological Weed Control Working Group, focusing on the redistribution of agents for Dalmatian toadflax, leafy spurge and spotted knapweed. In addition to collecting over 10,000 insects, participants were also taught how to establish monitoring plots for their bio-control releases based on the SIMP (Standardized Impact Monitoring Protocol) used in Idaho. You can learn more about Idaho’s statewide monitoring program by visiting their website: Another field day was held on July 8th, this time for two bio-control agents to control leafy spurge. Thirty people came together to collect more than 150,000 flea beetles (Apthona spp.) and 2,500 Oberea spp. to be redistributed on leafy spurge infestations

across Montana. Carol Randall, Region 1 Biocontrol Coordinator with the U.S. Forest Service, was on hand to talk about the insects as well as demonstrate the SIMP protocols for leafy spurge. With collections for the Dalmatian toadflax stem weevils wrapped up and those for leafy spurge already winding down, we are looking ahead to spotted knapweed. The main bio-control insect targeted for collection is the root weevil Cyphocleonus achates, which is just starting to emerge (look at the tops of spotted knapweed flowers in the hot afternoons to see if you already have this insect on your property). Stay tuned for information on a field day for Cyphocleonus collection and to learn about how biological control of spotted knapweed can be integrated with other management tools for more effective control. Another great way to get information regarding bio-control in your area is by contacting your local area council’s biocontrol representative.

Here’s a list of the bio-control reps by area: Central Area Council – Brady Cannon, Fergus County Northeast Area Council – Clay Petersen, Roosevelt County South Central Area Council – Stephanie Naftal, Stillwater County Southeast Area Council – Jennifer Esp, Powder River County Southwest Area Council– Karen Laitala, Powell County Triangle Area Council – Terry Turner, Hill County Western Area Council – Bryce Christiaens, Missoula County healthy acres: SUMMER 2013

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New Invader spotlight Yellowflag iris (Iris pseudacorus) Habitat: Yellowflag iris has just begun to invade Missoula County. This plant readily grows in freshwater wetlands, ponds, lake shores, river and stream banks, wet pastures, and ditches. This Montana noxious weed often grows in shallow water, but can create extensive root mats and grow in deeper water. Yellowflag iris has been cultivated as a garden ornamental and used for landscaping purposes. This species is native to Europe, Asia and northern Africa. Identification: Yellowflag iris is easily identified by its large, showy, yellow flowers. In Missoula County, if you see a yellow flowering iris growing along a water way in an area that is not cultivated you have likely found yellowflag iris. Multiple yellow

blooms can grow on a single stem. Flowers typically bloom from May to July in Montana. Yellowflag iris has flat, pointed leaves that are folded and overlap one another at the base. The leaves are dark green to blue green. The fruits of this species are large capsules that grow up to 3 inches long. Yellowflag iris seeds are about Âź inch wide and readily float. After dispersing through the water, seeds deposited of the edge of the shore will germinate. This species can also spread via rhizome fragments. When not in bloom, yellowflag iris can be confused with cattails (Typha spp.), but cattails have leaves that are round at the base, while iris leaves are flattened along one plane. Impact: This plant can quickly invade an area, displacing vegetation along stream banks and reducing habitat needed by waterfowl and fish. Yellowflag iris clogs small streams and irrigation systems. Studies in Montana have shown that yellowflag iris can reduce stream width by up to 10 inches per year by trapping sediment, creating a new bank, and then dominating the newly created substrate with its seedlings that generate even more sediment retention. Livestock commonly avoid yellowflag iris. If ingested, all parts of the plant cause gastroenteritis in cattle and gastric distress in humans. The sap of yellowflag iris can cause skin irritation in sensitive individuals.

Yellowflag Iris

Management: The Missoula County weed district is actively working to control yellowflag iris throughout the county. By working collaboratively with landowners and managers we plan to contain and control this noxious weed. With long-term commitment, small infestations can be removed manually. All of the rhizome must be removed to effectively control yellowflag iris. If a rhizome fragment is left, the plant will regrow from these fragments. Seedlings can easily be pulled from damp, wet soil. It is important to protect skin while pulling plants to prevent irritation caused by sap. If large infestations are well established, herbicides may be needed to control the spread of yellowflag iris. Due to the proximity of this plant to water, it is crucial that herbicides used for control be labelled for aquatic application. If you would like an herbicide recommendation or have any questions regarding yellowflag iris please contact Ashley Juran, Missoula County Weed Prevention Coordinator, at (406) 258-4218 or

Yellowflag Iris

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3rd Annual Missoula County Extension Garden Planning Calendar Photo Contest

The Missoula County Extension Office is excited to announce the Third Annual Garden Planning Calendar Photo Contest! The Extension office has produced a widely popular Garden Planning Calendar over the last few years, which has been a great tool to help people plan sowing, transplanting, and harvesting dates for specific crops, as well as various other critical dates for successful garden management. This great resource is

Clark fork By Jed Little

I didn’t see the elk until it jumped, luckily away from me and back towards the river. “Elk!” I called out, as a courtesy to Ashley and Lindsey who got a thrill as the elk came crashing off of the island I was mapping and swam the river just above their raft. It was day one of mapping noxious weeds on the Clark Fork River. In 2009, with funding support from the BLM, we did an initial inventory of weeds on the Clark Fork, mapping 75 miles of the river from Garrison Junction to the Turah fishing access. That year we discovered

available at no cost and can be found at the Missoula County Extension office, select local nursery and garden centers, and at the Clark Fork Farmers Market. Over the last couple of years, we have been showcasing photos submitted by members of the community to blend aesthetics with function. Photo entries were encouraged through a photo contest open to all. We are hoping to continue to incorporate community photos in the development of this resource. This is your opportunity to show off some great photos that you have taken over the years. We are interested in photos of gardens, harvested fruits and veggies, landscapes (urban and natural), native plants, pollinators, and really all things related to horticulture. The age of the photo submitted is not important, but please keep the photos pertinent to the region (Missoula County).

After the deadline, we will be selecting one photo relevant for each month, and the “Best of Show” will be used on the cover of the calendar. Winners will be announced upon completion of the calendar. Prizes will be awarded for ALL monthly winners and a grand prize for the selected “Best of Show”. That is 13 winners in all! Thanks to generous donations from local businesses, there will be some great prizes this year.

perennial pepperweed, a noxious weed previously not known to exist in Western Montana. We found it all along the river, but it seemed to be in the early stages of invasion. Rarely did we find it more than a few yards from the river’s edge and mostly in moderate to low densities. The 2009 inventory spawned a perennial pepperweed control project that saw the whole 75-mile stretch treated in 2011 and the Missoula County portion retreated in 2012.

does it seem confined to the bank: we have mapped numerous upland pastures with moderate to high levels of pepperweed. The stretches of river that received one year of treatment don’t appear much different from when they were mapped pre-treatment, however the sections that received two years of treatment appear to have much less pepperweed. We still have a few more days of sunburn, wildlife encounters, and up-canyon winds before the real fun begins: analyzing the data and comparing photo points and weed inventory data. Stay tuned…

This year, we are remapping the entire 75 miles in addition to the newly opened section of river through the Milltown Dam site, which was off limits in 2009. In addition to close calls with elk, being chased off of a lunch spot by a herd of horses intent on stealing our bag of chips, being blown up a rapid by a strong upcanyon wind, and the relentless swarms of algae that coat every rock and shoe in the river, we have observed interesting changes in the pepperweed infestations. No longer

Deadline for submission is Friday November 1st. Please visit the Missoula County Extension website for more details about the photo contest, submission requirements, and of course the Garden Planning Calendar. Any specific questions, please contact Seth Swanson. healthy acres: SUMMER 2013

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Death, Taxes, and Hot Summers

By Seth Swanson, Horticulturist

Benjamin Franklin wrote in a 1789 letter that “ this world nothing can be said to be certain, except for death and taxes.� Well sure, but apparently Ben never made a trip west to Montana in August; it is hot and dry and you can count on that. In the semi-arid west, water is often one of the limiting factors in a healthy landscape environment, and as the temperatures rise and natural precipitation ceases, our landscape plants can become stressed. Though water is often in short supply naturally, supplemental irrigation must be managed properly so that a balance can be formed between healthy plant growth and conservation. In Missoula, residents use over two times as much water during the month of July as they do in the month of February. On average, 1.2 trillion gallons

of water are used by Missoula residents during the month of July compared to 5.3 billion gallons in February. I am guilty of requiring two showers some days in the summer, but the boost in water consumption can be largely attributed to use in the landscape. Excess use in the landscape can stress available water needed for agriculture and environmental applications. Improper use of water in the landscape is often typified by the dark green lawn that is irrigated every day, and often times during the heat of the afternoon. Our lawns and landscapes have a multitude of benefits from aesthetics to climate control, so it is important to maintain healthy plant growth. The balance of healthy plant growth and water conservation can be struck with a few key management practices. Getting Native on the Landscape: Incorporating native or naturalized vegetation in the landscape can provide a number of benefits, including water conservation. By selecting native plants, and more specifically those species adapted to environmental conditions closely related to your home landscape, the demand for supplemental water(irrigation) can be reduced. These plants are often adapted to conditions of the arid west and once they have become established in the landscape, they are able to survive on much less water than introduced or exotic species. There are many native alternatives to both lawn and landscape species and integrating such plants into the home yard and garden can reduce overall demand for supplemental irrigation. Don’t Panic, Get Organic: Ensuring that the soil in your yard and garden has ample organic matter can help improve soil structure. Soil structure refers to the physical characteristics of soil that influence water-holding capacity and gas exchange, or porosity. Clay is a type of soil with high waterholding capacity, but low gas exchange,

and consequently, poor drainage. Sandy soils, on the other side, have poor water-holding capacity, but drain fast, and have ample gas exchange. These relatively poor soils can be improved by adding organic matter (e.g. compost and manure). Soil organic matter can improve both water-holding capacity and drainage by incorporating various particle sizes and pore space to the soil structure. Soil conditions beneath the turf can be improved or maintained by using a mulching mower and leaving grass blades in place or by applying thin layers of compost over the top of the lawn. Right Place, Right Time, Right Amount: Plants require water for various functions of development: photosynthesis, transpiration, and structural support to name a few. Without water, plant growth and development will be limited and the plant may eventually cease growth all together and die. Plants are continually losing water through transpiration (the movement of water through a plant from the soil to the leaves where it is exhausted as water vapor). This process drives the movement of water and is the reason trees can move water from the soil up hundreds of feet to the canopy. Similar to transpiration, evaporation results in the movement of water from the soil to the atmosphere. Evapotranspiration (ET ) accounts for water loss from both plants and soil. As could be expected, hot, sunny, and windy days result in greater water loss compared to cool moist days. Plant growth and development can be maintained by replacing what is lost by ET. Different plants in different areas have varying ET rates (depending on total size of the plant, leaf surface area, average temperature, relative humidity, etc.), but estimations can be made for some plants. Since turfgrass lawns are relative monocultures, ET rates can be estimated based upon historical climatic information for our region and some assumptions about plant growth. A customized irrigation schedule can be determined based upon these averages and the output of your healthy acres: SUMMER 2013

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irrigation system. The Turfgrass Irrigation Calculator can be found on the Missoula County Extension website to help guide these irrigation decisions. In general, lawns need about one to two inches of water every three to five days. Three to five days? Yes, irrigating your lawn less frequently but in greater quantities (watering deeply) can encourage the roots of your grass to grow deeper into the soil profile. This will aid in the development of a greater root architecture that will be more resilient to stressful conditions. For instance, instead of irrigating 10 minutes every day, try irrigating 30 minutes every three days. Timing is also important in water conservation and adequate water replacement. Early mornings are typically the best time to irrigate the yard. By watering early in the morning, you are ensuring that adequate water is available during peak times of use; the irrigation is not running while the yard is being used for recreation or relaxation; and that

the leaf surfaces are able to dry relatively quickly. Many plant pathogens require water for movement and infection and the longer the leaves remain moist, the greater the chance for infection. Watering in the evening or night hours results in plants remaining wet for a longer period of time compared to watering in the morning, resulting in a greater potential for pathogen proliferation. Irrigating during the afternoon hours can result in excessive evaporative losses; as much as 30% of applied water can be lost to evaporation during the heat of the day. Irrigation also needs to be tapered during the latter part of the season so that excessive growth is limited. Heavy irrigation and fertilization (see the Fertilizing Trees in Your Landscape article) late in the season can stimulate new growth, which can ultimately be susceptible to frost and freeze damage in the fall. Plants need time to transition into dormancy, so we don’t want to encourage excess growth late in

the summer. The same principals can be applied to garden and landscape trees: water in the morning and water deeply. Landscape trees may require two to three gallons of water per week, whereas gardens need to be irrigated to a depth of six to twelve inches once per week. These are generalized estimates of water demand and need to be determined based upon the species, stage of development, site, and environmental conditions. Trees, shrubs, and gardens can be irrigated more efficiently than the lawns through targeted irrigation from a drip system. Site specific decisions are essential in establishing a proper watering schedule for your own lawn and landscape. Additional resources are available to evaluate your soil, find native alternatives to turfgrass and landscape plants, and other water conservation practices. Please contact Seth for more information.

Fertilizing trees in your landscaping By Sandy Perrin

We get lots of questions about when to fertilize landscape trees. In the absence of a soil test, shoot growth is the best indicator of the need for additional fertilizer. If new shoot growth is more than 6 inches, then fertilization is probably not necessary. If shoot growth is less than 2 inches, then fertilizer applications may help the growth of your tree. Leaf color is another indicator of the need for fertilizer. Yellow or “off- color� leaves may indicate the need for fertilizer. A final indicator of the need for fertilizer is the history of the landscape. Trees in fertilized lawns rarely need supplemental fertilizer. Trees rowing

in naturalized areas, where little or no mowing takes place and leaves are not collected, usually will not need regular fertilizing. If the only indicator of the need for fertilizer is slow shoot growth, then a high nitrogen fertilizer should be applied. If, however, the leaves of the tree are yellowing, or there is some other indication of a nutrient deficiency, then it is best to take a soil test

from around the root zone of the tree. Leaf yellowing may be due to another nutrient deficiency. The most common cause of leaf yellowing in Montana is a lack of iron. Iron deficiencies are common due to high soil pH (above 7.0) rather than a lack of iron in the soil. Because different trees do best at different pH levels, soils should be checked for pH before planting. If you know that your soil has a pH of 7.0 or higher, be sure to choose trees that can take up iron under healthy acres: SUMMER 2013

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high pH conditions. If a sensitive tree has already been planted on a high pH site, pH can be reduced by amending the soil with elemental sulfur and using a fertilizer high in ammonium nitrogen, such as ammonium sulfate. Reducing the pH of a soil may take many years to correct. Some tree and shrub species that can tolerate higher pH include silver maple, paper birch, hackberry, redosier dogwood, bur oak, linden, arborvitae, Rocky Mountain juniper, pines (limber, lodgepole, mugo, ponderosa, and Scotch), and Black Hills and Colorado blue spruce.

For 4-H members, Summer is Fair season By Campbell Barrett Extension Agent, 4-H Youth Development

Throughout the school year, while everyone is busy with sports, school work, and other activities, 4-H members are busy with those same things – but

Pesticide Applicator Training Opportunities The final Pesticide Applicator Training Recertification Opportunity for 2013 Region 1 Private/Pesticide Applicator License holders will occur in December of this year. Applicators must have 6 recertification credits to qualify for renewal.

When is the best time to fertilize trees? Most trees put out a single flush of growth in the spring followed by slower growth throughout the summer and fall. Because of this single flush of growth, nutrients should be available to the tree before this growth occurs in the spring. The best time to apply fertilizer, especially nitrogen fertilizer, is between the time when soil temperatures rise consistently above 45 degrees at the time of new growth in early May. On sandy soils, applications many have the added responsibility of getting up early to feed animals and do chores, while their classmates sleep another hour. Others spend time after school learning about their woodworking project, leathercraft, quilting, sewing, cooking, and a variety of other skills, the results of which will be on display at the Western Montana Fair August 6th through 11th. Items on display in the 4-H Exhibit Building and in the Livestock Barns are the result of many hours of work, learning, practice, trial, error, and success. Many are fortunate enough to have adult 4-H volunteer project leaders to guide them, but many more are on their own, learning as they go, assisted by their parents.

should be split: half in early spring and half in mid- to late May. If trees show yellowing leaves or extremely slow growth, then fertilizer can be applied until the end of June or in the fall after foliage has begun to color and drop. After July 1, trees should not be fertilized since new growth stimulated by the fertilizer may not have sufficient time to harden off before winter.

in the 4-H Dog Show, Horse Show, and Shooting Sports Exhibition. Each member exhibiting at the Fair must sit down for a project interview with a judge and present their up-to-date project records as they discuss what they learned and how they have grown from their experiences. For market animal project members, including beef, miniature beef, goats, sheep, and hogs, their project will end with the 4-H/ FFA Livestock Sale at the Fairgrounds on Saturday, August 10th, starting at 8am in the 4-H Sale Barn. Everyone is invited to come to the sale, whether you plan to buy or not, and support the hard work these youth have put into raising their animals while learning about small-scale agriculture and locally grown food.

By the official start of the Fair, Missoula 4-H members have already exhibited entries

If you are not sure if you have 6 Credits, first locate your license number. You must have your license number to access your credits. Go to and enter your first and last name under “Single Licensee Private”, and click “View Credits”. You can also call the Department of Agriculture license hotline at 406-444-4900. On Wednesday, October 9th, at Ruby’s Inn and Conference Center, Missoula County Weed District will be hosting a final 6 credit recertification opportunity. This

all-day class will qualify you for renewal of your license in December of this year. To view the agenda follow this link: http:// agenda.pdf \ Cost for the Pest Management Tour is $10 and includes lunch. Reservation is required, so please contact Steffany at to register. healthy acres: SUMMER 2013

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Photo By Leah Grunzke

Youth crew By Leah Grunzke

It’s the inaugural summer of the Missoula County Weed District’s Youth in Restoration crew, and the season is in full swing. This June, four high school students were hired to spend eight weeks participating in land stewardship projects throughout the region. The program is a partnership with the

Bureau of Land Management, and is built on the idea that education and outreach are key factors in a sustainable, long-term conservation strategy. By working alongside professionals from numerous land management agencies and organizations, these kids are gaining real-world experience and producing tangible results.

participating in diverse stream restoration projects. By working on a wide range of programs with groups like the Blackfoot Challenge, City and County Parks, the University of Montana, Trout Unlimited, USFS, and BLM, the crew is gaining a broad understanding and appreciation of the natural areas of western Montana.

On a typical day, you might find the Youth Crew pulling houndstongue in the county parks, collecting native wildflower seeds, protecting local bull trout populations, transplanting in the City Parks & Rec greenhouse, educating homeowners about new invasive species, conducting vegetation surveys on public lands, monitoring waterways for aquatic weeds, collecting and releasing bio-control insects, or

Cooperative programs like this are an important part of building collaborative partnerships between diverse land management organizations, while providing kids with career mentoring and on-theground training in natural resource conservation work. As we watch the success of this summer unfold, we hope to see programs like this grow inthe coming seasons. So far, we’re off to a great start. healthy acres: SUMMER 2013

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a unique salsa that your family and friends will rave about!

SALSA! By Kelly Moore, Missoula County Extension, Family and Consumer Science Agent

You are probably wondering if I am referring to the lively Latin dance or something spicy to serve at your next party. Regardless, you’re going to need a lot of energy, creativity, guidance, good technique, and practice in order to achieve greatness. Because I’m a little more comfortable with the making of salsa (not dancing the Salsa, so much) I’ll stick to that subject. In the next few weeks, well-tended gardens and local farmer’s market will produce a bounty of ripe tomatoes. With a little time, equipment, and know-how, you can create

It’s best to use quality paste tomatoes, such as Roma, to produce a thicker salsa. Salsa can contain a variety of vegetables, fruits, and spices. It can be eaten fresh, frozen, or canned. When you want to make salsa in greater quantities, canning is often the preferred method. Most salsa combinations include low acid ingredients such as onions and peppers, with acid ingredients, such as tomatoes. When canning, it’s very important to use recipes that have been researched and tested for safety (ex. Ball Complete Book of Home Preserving; So Easy To Preserve-Cooperative Extension, University of Georgia). It’s also important not to increase the amount of ingredients in the recipe. Instead of adding more jalapenos, for a hotter flavor, try substituting with the same amount of Habanero peppers. Altering the proportions of vegetables to acid and tomatoes could make the salsa unsafe to eat. The acid ingredients in canned salsa recipes, help to preserve the salsa in a hot water bath canner when processed correctly.

Being prepared with quality ingredients, equipment, and expertise will ensure a salsa you can be proud to call your own! • If it’s your first time canning, it may seem like a daunting task. County Extension Offices offer canning classes for all levels of expertise. Contact them for a schedule of upcoming classes in your area. Zest y Salsa Tags: tomatoes, green bell peppers, onion, chili peppers, bell peppers, green peppers, peppers, chilies, hungarian peppers, serrano, jalapeno, medium, waterbath canning Makes about 6 (16 oz) pints or 12 (8 oz) half pints. Traditional salsa with a kick! Use whatever type of chili peppers your family prefer and add hot pepper sauce if your tastes are even more daring. Continued on next page . . . healthy acres: SUMMER 2013

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You will need: • 10 cups chopped, cored, peeled tomatoes (about 25 med.) • 5 cups chopped, seeded, green bell peppers (about 4 large) • 5 cups chopped onions (about 6 to 8 med.) • 2-1/2 cups chopped, seeded chili peppers, such as hot banana, Hungarian wax, Serrano or jalapeño (about 13 med.) • 1-1/4 cups cider vinegar • 3 cloves garlic, finely chopped • 2 Tbsp finely chopped cilantro • 1 Tbsp salt • 1 tsp hot pepper sauce, optional • 6 (16 oz) pint or 12 (8 oz) half pint glass preserving jars with lids and bands

hot salsa. Wipe rim. Center lid on jar. Directions: 1.) PREPARE boiling water canner. Heat jars Apply band until fit is fingertip tight. and lids in simmering water until ready 4.) PROCESS both pint and half pint jars for use. Do not boil. Set bands aside. in a boiling water canner for 15 minutes, adjusting for altitude. Remove jars and 2.) COMBINE tomatoes, green peppers, cool. Check lids for seal after 24 onions, chili peppers, vinegar, garlic, hours. Lid should not flex up and down cilantro, salt and hot pepper sauce, if using, in a large stainless steel saucepan. when center is pressed. Bring to a boil over medium-high heat, stirring constantly. Reduce heat and boil From: Ball/ The Complete Book of Home gently, stirring frequently, until slightly Preserving; Edited by Judi Kingry and Lauren Devine; 2006 thickened, about 10 minutes. 3.) LADLE hot salsa into hot jars, leaving 1/2 inch headspace. Remove air bubbles and adjust headspace, if necessary, by adding

Zucchini, Tomatoes, and more!! Is your garden overflowing with zucchini, tomatoes, cucumbers and more vegetables? Below are some suggestions for using all those vegetables. Try a new recipe (see below) Grill them • Stir fry them all together. • Eat them raw with dips. • Add them to sandwiches. • Freeze or can. (For current & safe directions contact your local Extension Agent.) • Give to neighbors and friends or donate them to your local food bank.

Summer Italian Vegetables • 1 onion, chopped • ½ teaspoon Italian seasoning • 1 zucchini or crock neck squash, diced • 2 tomatoes diced • ½ cup shredded Mozzarella Cheese • 1 green or red pepper, chopped

or more vegetables. Nutrition: ½ cup = 60 calories, 2 grams fat, 1 gram fiber, 4 grams protein.

Preheat oven to 350. Cut up vegetables and place in large baking pan. Sprinkle with Italian seasoning. Bake uncovered for 20 to 30 minutes. Top with cheese and bake another 4 to 5 minutes until cheese is melted. Be creative – add 1 pound of seasoned cooked chicken, turkey or beef

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Stuffed Zucchini • 3 med. zucchini (plump zucchini work best) • 2 Tablespoon vegetable oil • ½ cup finely chopped onion • 1 pound ground beef • 1 teaspoon oregano • ½ cup tomato sauce Preheat oven to 350. Lightly grease baking sheet. Wash zucchini, trim and discard ends. Cut in half lengthwise. Spoon out seeds. Heat vegetable oil in skillet over medium heat. Add onion and cook until

soft, about 5 minutes. Add beef and cook until no longer pink. Stir in salt, pepper & oregano. Stuff zucchini with meat mixture. Place on baking sheet. Cover with tomato sauce. Bake for 40 minutes. Be creative: add 1 cup cooked rice. Written by Diann Pommer, EFNEP Extension Agent 258-4208

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If you would like to sign up to receive this newsletter you can contact Steffany at, visit our website at, or find us on facebook (Missoula-County-Weed-District). healthy acres: SUMMER 2013

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Profile for Bryce Christiaens

Healthy Acres  

Healthy Acres Summer Newsletter

Healthy Acres  

Healthy Acres Summer Newsletter