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PATHOLOGY Lecturer: Toby Hone

Pathology v’s Pathophysiology



Pathology v’s Pathophysiology • There are large areas of ‘overlaps’ where the two disciplines are similar • Pathology is usually applied to pathologists & physicians focussing on the structural change (gross or microscopic) of a diseased organ – usually post mortem • Pathophysiology studies the abnormal function of a diseased organ in a living patient

Patho’s • Pathophysiology; The functional changes associated with or resulting from disease or injury • Pathology; changes in body tissues and organs that cause or are caused by disease. • Pathogenesis; the cellular events and reactions and other pathologic mechanisms occurring in the development of disease.

AS HEALTH PRACTITIONERS, WHY STUDY DISEASE? ‘Music, to produce harmony, must study discord & medicine, to produce health, must study disease’ Plutarch

THE DIFFERENT PATHOLOGIES • The Greek word pathos actually covers a range of meanings from "experience" to "the human condition" to "suffering • Systemic pathology concerns itself with specific diseases that involve the various organ systems • General pathology studies disease that can affect the whole body. E.g. inflammation, neoplasia

TERMINOLOGY • A biopsy is tissue removed from a person during life • Signs are the clinician’s objective findings (swelling) • Symptoms are the patient's subjective experience (pain) • A syndrome is a cluster of related symptoms and/or signs • The etiology of a disease is its "cause” – intrinsic &/or extrinsic

TERMINOLOGY • Incidence is the frequency for a condition over a period of time (# of people infected with HIV/yr) • Prevalence the number of people with a condition at a particular time (# of people in Melbourne with AIDS)

TERMINOLOGY • Pathognomonic; a particular abnormality is found only in one condition - Hearing the foetal heart tone is pathognomonic of pregnancy, ‘Koplik’ spots for measles • Prognosis is the expected outcome for a condition • Complications are unlikely & undesirable outcomes; death

TERMINOLOGY • The risk of a disease is how much your unusual situation (typically some kind of exposure to an uncommon hazard) increases your chance of getting the disease compared with everybody else • The diagnosis is the name given to the particular disease, once it is identified

A Brief History • • • • •

Hippocrates 400BC Galen 150AD Paracelsus 1500AD Pasteur, Koch, Virchow 19thC & Beyond