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“Nothing happens until something moves � -Albert Einstein (1879 - 1955)


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The Ipod

The Fobwatch Nike

The Cassette Tape The Slinky

London Underground Map Lambretta Scooter Pinball Machine Taxi

VW Van

St Pancras Station


Technology,..bit boring, isn’t it? Geeky even...maybe. But look at the ipod. What makes it a must-have fashion icon isn’t just clever marketing, or cool colours - it’s the technology... The Ipod is not just seen as a music device or listened to as a MP3 player; this single product has brought Apple to the forefront of design, and ha revolutionized the digital music world. “ipod wasn’t the first digital music player on the market, but it was the first one that got it right” (p.58, Apple Inc. By Jason D.O’Grady, published in 2009, published by greenwood press). Since then it became a must-have gadget and an icon of modern day culture. Fashionable, now affordable, and most importantly user friendly, thanks to Mr Tony Fadell who brought this genius piece of equipment to life and to our fingertips, the ipod now walks hand in hand with today’s culture, becoming our new best friend, with thousands of new applications, keeping you company with its huge brain. It stores thousands of songs, and impressive amounts of movie, it has become a staple function of everyday living “The ipod branded by Apple is the first cultural consumer icon of the 21st century, it represents a perfect marriage between aesthetics and functionality...” (M. Bull, Department of Media and Film studies, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK.) The first ipod was white with a monochrome screen. It was easy to navigate with its mechanical scroll wheel and central button, and held around 10 hours of playback music time. Arguably due to this initial design, the ipod craze was born. Ipod had certainly made its mark in the musical world, and with its external design being clean cut and original, it wasn’t hard to distinguish this mp3 player from others.

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i POD

Although the aesthetics of the ipod classic have changed over the years, since its release on the 23 October 2001 it has always kept its recognizable traits, such as the mirrored backing, circular navigational system, rectangular shape and the screen that appears at the top of the ipod. The white headphones are a symbolic feature of this mp3; they show people that you are trendy enough to own a ipod. Its capabilities have always has the same principles, this being a small piece of technology that has mass storage for your entertainment needs.

CLASSIC

You can access your musical interests, and not just that, enjoy hours upon hours of brilliant movies at a touch of a button or should we say a scroll of a wheel? The Navigation component has become the ipod classic’s trademark. The system contains two parts, touch technology and a traditional central button, which both lie flat on the face of the ipod, below the screen. When the Ipod classic was born it not only wowed us with its impressive and superior capabilities but also served a beautiful fashion statement, a piece of luxury you could carry with you at all times. The combination of sound quality, unique click wheel user interface and a series of clever ad campaigns made the iPod one of the most successful and hottest consumer electronics devices to hit the market, and is still stronger than ever today.

POD The First ipod classic actually rotated and was not touch sensitive. After it became a hit it then evolved to the touch-sensitive scroll. The buttons however, that originally sat around the wheel moved to a row of buttons running under the screen in a straight line. However this new design was not meant to be, as shown in their later designs when the buttons went back where they were, becoming part of the scroll wheel. This then then led to the final clickable wheel which can be found on the ipod mini, nano, shuffle, and the ipod classics. This impressive design is still being used today, allowing effective use to blast through all your song and movie lists and control your ipod in a matter of seconds, by a simple rotational movement of the finger and a click of a button.

To date the ipod classic’s newest line can hold an awesome 160 gigabytes of data; so if we break that down, we can listen to an outstanding 40, 000 songs, look at 25000 photos or maybe catch up with some TV time of 200 hours of video playback. So we aren’t looking here just at marketing power or creative inspiration but underlying the incredible impact of the ipod as cutting-edge technology, that will leaving it’s mark on the 21st century! Maybe not so geeky after all...


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Now the swoosh is an internationally recognized brand due to the vast amounts of money that Nike invests into its advertising - also recruiting celebrities to market specific athletic wear. Michael Jordan was one of the most well known for the collaborative advertising of Nike basketball shoes and himself as a NBA basketball player.

The swoosh logo (commonly referred to as the ‘Nike tick’) was created by a women named Caroline Davidson, who was asked to design a logo which could be placed at the side of their trainers / shoes. Phil Knight specified that the logo be ‘stripe like’ ‘because Adidas used stripes as its logo, all athletic shoes logos, no matter what shape, were called stripes.’. The design of the stripes on athletics shoes was to serve as a ‘structural or functional purpose’ however in contrast, ‘from the outset the swoosh was a strictly symbolic and aesthetic accouterment’. Nike’s success is down to a number of factors, namely the technology they use to create outstanding sports wear, their innovative and unique designs, including their ability to combine their excellent sports science technology with their audience’s aesthetic needs. When the swoosh was first introduced it was commented as looking like a ‘fat check mark’, the logo had no meaning or relevance in any culture. However over time Nike used a great deal of advertising to create a value for the swoosh also teaming it with the slogan ‘Just Do It.’

The development of Nike first began in January 1964 establishing themselves as a sportswear retail outlet, formerly known as ‘Blue Ribbon Sports’, founded by a man named Phil Knight. The company was later renamed as ‘Nike’ in 1978, after the Greek Goddess of Victory. Nike continued to grow, forming subsidiary companies with names such as ‘Nike Golf’, ‘Nike Air’ and ‘Nike pro’, causing the company to become increasingly successful, and as a result of this growing success, today they are currently the ‘leading supplier of athletic shoes and apparel’.

www.nike.co.uk

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Nike’s main aim is not only to create athletic sports wear and training shoes, despite always designing apparel which finds itself fitting in the midst of the last fashion trends, they have in recent years designed trainers solely for the recreational and fashion demands of people all over the world. However these shoes have taken inspiration from many of the sports trainers, for example ‘Nike High - Tops’ which are popular at the moment in many fashion cultures,have been inspired by basketball training shoes. They are now designed in a range of colours, patterns and designs and have essentially created their own fashion movement.

with CRAZY

Since the beginning of Nike they have continued to be successful and still are today. They created a brand which is so strong that they can simply continue to release new designs and its audience will continue to buy them for the straightforward reason that is; it is, Nike. Although the brand is extremely well established Nike continues to advertise as there are constantly new competitors who enter into the market and Nike needs to keep ahead of the game in order to hold its position at the top of the market. Nike has been progressively more lucrative since its establishment and for this and all of the above reasons, this makes Nike a classic Piece of Graphic Design.

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Using celebrities to advertise Nike generates a hype around that product increasing sales as the public aspire to be like them. The adverts make them audience believe that if they buy the product they can be as good as their sporting heros/ heroines. Every couple of years Nike successfully breaks into a new area of sports culture, for example recently they broke into the Hip-Hop community. Not only presenting them with the latest technology in dance shoe innovation but equally fulfilling the increasing desire for ʻretro


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Illustrations and Article by Michelle Charlton

Drew, Rob (2005) ‘Mixed Blessings: The Commercial Mix and the Future of Music Aggregation’, Popular Music and Society, 28: 4, 534

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The Slinky. That slightly annoying little toy, that everybody has seen, played with and got bored of. In summary, it flops down stairs. However the history behind the Slinky is slightly less mundane. The Slinky was a complete accident. Richard James was a United States marine engineer employed at the Cramp Shipyard outside Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, during World War II. He was devising a spring that would hold shipboard marine torsion meters steady when he accidentally knocked over one of the springs. He watched as the spring stepped in a series of arcs from the shelf, to a stack of books, to a tabletop, to the floor, where it recoiled itself and stood upright. In that single moment of clumsiness, the slinky was born. After repeated experiments proved the spring’s now famous ability to climb down stairs, James’ wife, Betty, realised the device’s potential as a plaything. She also invented a name for it: the Slinky, a Swedish word meaning stealthy, sleek and sinuous. In 1945, Richard and Betty used a $500 loan to pay a company for manufacturing a small quantity of Slinks and an attempt was made to sell it through retail outlets in Philadelphia. James and Betty had a lot of trouble finding a buyer for their product. Shops were initially very dubious of its potential to sell. However,

in 1945, the Slinky exhibited their new toy, at the Gimbel’s Department Store in downtown Philadelphia. To the delight of the store they sold 400 Slinky’s in 90 minutes. Since then, over three hundred million Slinky’s have been sold worldwide. A factory was established in Philadelphia, and Richard quit his job at the shipyard to devote full time to the Slinky, which was the hit of the 1946

American Toy Fair in New York City. During the 1950’s business boomed, but Richard James’ life took a course that led to his going to South America in 1960. This is the most intriguing part of the history of the Slinky. In 1960, the inventor, James Richards, dramatically abandoned his family and his business to join a religious cult in Bolivia, leaving behind a wife, six children and a very high profitable business. Left

with the responsibility of six children and now a floundering business, Betty James began a rebirth of the Slinky dream by relocating the factory to her hometown of Hollidaysburg, a small town adjacent to Altoona. By 1960, Betty had a unique co-op advertising plan in full swing, aided by the production of a “jingle” that is still the sound behind Slinky television commercials. Slinky sales continued to increase through the years and a number of new items were added to the James Industries line of toys. In 1990, a national survey by a publication revealed that 89.8 percent of the people in America knew what a Slinky was or were familiar with the jingle. Purchased in 1998 by Poof Products, a leading American toy company, Slinky is firmly entrenched as one of the leading staples of the toy industry and is one of America’s most recognised brand names. The hero of the story, hands down, is obviously James Richards – knocked over a spring, abandoned his family for a cult in Bolivia, and in the process created possibly the most renown children’s toy of all time. The history of the Slinky, in my


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The Lambretta Scooter was created in 1947 in Italy to get people mobile post the second world war. Scooters were a reasonably priced method of transport and with the introduction of the Lambretta and the Vespa etc sales of scooters were triple that of motorcycles. During the 1950s the Lambretta Scooter encouraged social gatherings, gymkhanas, games etc. It wasn’t until the late 50s and early 60s that association with British youth culture formed. More prominently however,the Scooterwere used to transport the Mods to the seaside at the weekend. Meetings would be orgaised the working class young men would use their days off from their relatively lowed paid, semi­skilled jobs to cause some mischief. The Mod youth culture was heavily associated with drugs, riots and music. Strong music influences came from the Who and the Rolling Stones, the Who’s logo target was often shared with the Mod and Lambretta logo and frequently found on the Scooters themselves. Around this period the most desired Lambretta was the Series 3 TV 175, the young men on their basic salaries however could rarely afford such a vehicle. Most Mods settled for the Series 2 LI 150s, Lambrettas biggest selling scooter. During the 1970s the Mod culture faded out and the scooters were used for racing. The movie Quadrophenia, was released in 1979 and is considered an accurate reflection on youth in the 1960’s. The main character, Jimmy rode a Lambretta. This film was a big influence on the Mod revival where Britain

witnessed the reoccurrence of Mod travel, Mod fashion, Mod music and Mod attitude. Nowadays the Lambretta Scooter is a key representation of youth culture in the 50s and 60s, its memory is honoured by fans all over the world. Old Lambretta Scooters are restored by enthusiasts. The Lambretta Scooter is a true British design classic. Its body, square, simple and clean working alongside with crazy paint jobs reflect art around the 50s and period. The classic Lambretta has exclusive retro metal bodywork, manual shifting mechanisms and kick starters. This is in contrast to futuristic, panels and automatic shifting found on modern scooters today.The scooter is a design classic because of its vital role in British history.The 1950s and 60s were an exciting period for the youth of this time. Through fashion, music they could give themselves an identity, a new cultural group was formed. For the first time people were noticing and paying attention to them,the youth were earning their increased columns in newspapers and recognition through their bizarre behaviour and rebellion.


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a mbretta In Britain throughout the 1950s and 1960s the Lambretta Scooter was the iconic vehicle of youth culture. The Mods adopted this vehicle into the running of their everyday lives.

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r’ n ys nd pty pe lled er n ee la u m d fr ep ro u 47 lip ro od tio e d e r ed ‘H 9 ‘F nt m uc th ing ha an am ear e; in 1 the co y’s od in all at n e g p tim y’ d it da tr or inb h he er ap is pt ce m; to e in ess t P e. W al t s w e th m du is d h oc gh g ic ne at nd Du tro han ape y. T pr ou ic a han chi st ou g in in c h la cro br on ec a lid e s s ar in m nd e p mi ’s ctr m al m so e ur ed id e a m e 60 le as ic to er ct as no th w fa b le ga th 19 e e ut an in e u ly o by e of te th o ech ped er an in c S d th rld la to ed m lo th m ma tri se en as o W u s c h w in art tro ve 32 nie es, Ele be w t’ ng ine t c de i s e 19 pa hin o. to 0’s tac ur ach el ow of m c g n 93 on . D l M ng of n d co a ica a C d l lo s 1 m ‘ g en 0 all Ch be id e uce nba e, a line ory . ar i d h m 15 nb am od P ur r ut e w ec g pi l tr 2 t he ib lt e pe al n in ar fac ot ntr ha th ans ,s nb a f W u y o re f ic o n . s r n c e y Pi s o , i a t n l a e e ol m th ot , w end me ble The gu nd ec g o g n rt e i A a . be a ff sin h t Th hin mb s. in e f d w d t a o n s h r e ’ o n e eb is gn e s ac sy an tio eff r t n ffo e ad 0 tli nd m nd cr d si th en M n c 5 c o h e t a u m o e i n c r . n y i t i a ga ru a ft ti r a in ll h o a t so w utl ll d y o . L ns el or on an nt er c i st w a ra fo ta ba ug G ns ou a l m e ic ic e g e n ith gr d o inb avi day ico tre le f y/ er e on er in o by e er m on w co th ev gen ing nt f p thr d Ney ing As n tr m in l k e o s ry an . P he he rt ex ap all A ta no t te rn . e to w ec s n e r e o s a s e ’ w r t d v a r d r g po d st B el te gh d le n Ho ne lo ible ge’ 40 in yn chu sig dri ed nt me , tu a te ye lie of s ve a ing ly’: es be . g a a m d e en ou ure sca ee , i o a i l a ere ss a 19 om Wa er de lly us ere eti es t e in um ers w t Fe nd plic pl s r ure an pr am be am sa d r rk er a n iff m hin ha w ce en e t y t lth c e t g d n v c s le F n . c a c m a A ufa r th be min oun a lo r s ac old lat ere gne Pa aft ani fte . D so ac s’ t ey. ul on e y e s r o es re m e n co tra alw r c isi hin be mp ms de ine ir ‘g e w si y n h t s v an ea e ga sur e b am e a s o o o d a c a a he e . m n ad e Th ’s de er sig ec a os e in am m as pul tele ma an ex dd m ach rat v g t e w a s i w c m h c l e A e o 60 ith t L de r m all urp ng ert e g for re o s in en de , th ure al d ve ga an nd u t po , in fu m e im 0 m lab , e i ev e 70 ult pt an t m s w a m tis ic he b p bli c re n ha op Fr ts a d fil ert es ; pr ‘Th ll t 27 e ds th 9 c ke ns ar lass ot Pin ling am nto d ‘f d i fea ue ble Som r a , ed n es t ry a d c cc ll ’ e i o n u e s e . c a i of -1 nd till fa r h th es b g in le tu b oo e u ol , i g s t s d b he 20 lis o b r s 40 n a s ed w m am of ted ar as he n l p ea l h s in ch ta en ts td e o in lliam g t of uti s, s d to o s t t u a w P C n i n ga r g es ra aw e c f t isc ega ar stil an ra nt n ke o 19 sig ll i ica o b o W ti rd es hic s a ts ct o a b o l n l m i h ic f ts i nd f d l o t f i m s p de b d e ns t w o ui d a rp rs a 5 e e e i n hi eco am rap ht ec tra s s l s ga co he uld any ere oid rta wn es cor Pi f d nb ig 1 e ll r rn ns e b p r G g lig eff at in ot co M w av ce to th in o Pi or of Th ba pu tu pi cu ta to


BL4CK T4X1S By Marie Balendran

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1823 was the year that the hackney cabs were developed into two seated and two wheeled carriages named a Cabriolet, this was admired by the public due to its speed and comfort. The design of the Cabriolet became a form of transport that individuals were very fond of and this is where the name ‘cab’ derived from. The 19th century consisted of two types of cabs which dominated the streets of London, the two wheeled Hanson

Berseys the first motor cabs that were electrically powered in London, were developed from London Electrical Cab Company. These cabs were nicknamed ‘Hummingbirds’ due to the noise that they made. With these particular cabs 25 were introduce then a further 50, although these were seen to be unreliable and were involved in a large

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The black taxicabs started off as hackney coaches and hackney cabs, this comes from the Norman French word ‘Hacquenée’ which means a horse for hire. The first of hackney coaches for hire were on the streets of London in 1588. The hackney coaches became more and more popular as the years went by streets were full of what they called ‘hackney hell carts’ causing congestion around London. The hackney carriages had grown to become a useful and practical form of transport for individuals in this time.

and the fast and elegant carriage which were four wheeled known as the ‘growler’. The ‘growler’ was usually found outside rail station’s as they were spacious and practical for those with luggage.

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Black taxicabs are known to be part of London’s identity; it is a classic design as it has been part of the UK for generations.

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number of accidents. Its public confidence died out and was withdrawn by 1900. The first petrol powered cab was introduced in 1903, although this was growing to be popular the taxi trade was going downhill due to the situations of the First World War as young men were sent out to war limiting the amount of taxi drivers which influenced taxi prices to rise. Today, cabs in the UK are known to be traditionally to be designed in black. There are many in London and other major cities in the UK and are named ‘black cabs’. Cabs have also been designed in different colors and covered advertising.

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During the Queen’s Golden Jubilee celebrations in 2002, there were 50 golden cabs produced for the celebrations, this shows us that black cabs are a classic design that takes part in British culture hence why it was involved in the Golden Jubilee celebrations.

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Black cabs are used in London’s souvenirs and tourist recognize hem just as we recognize the distinct yellow cabs in New York. Black cabs have also been used as something that people have as exclusively such as Nubar Gulbenkian oil millionaire drove a custom-built gold and black taxi with a Rolls-Royce engine. There are other celebrities that have also used and kept black cabs as possessions such as Stephen Fry. They have also been used as recording studios for indie band performances and have also been used in the art world such as photography. Black cabs have developed into something that is identifiable and its design and use is developing as years go by. The design of the black cabs has developed from carriages to motor vehicles and has become part of the identity of London and has become part of major cities around the UK today.


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Movement Chapter  

Classic Designs book - movement chapter

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