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100 年度人文社會科學優秀人才跨國培育先導型計畫 成果報告書

姓名:楊丹琪 學校:國立台灣大學 科系:國際企業學系 雙主修社會工作學系 進修期間:2011/09~2012/04


國立台灣大學

楊丹琪

(一)修課內容: Fall Semester (2011/09~2011/12): 1. Work and Occupations (Sociology) 此為二年級課程,授課內容以工業革命後各國的產業和職場發展為主,包含 資本主義工業化(capitalism industrialization)、全球化帶來的後福特主義 (post-Fordism);探討工作的優劣(jobs),以及對個人健康與家庭生活的影響; 並介紹生產工具所有權的另一種想像─worker cooperatives。課本和老師講課內 容以加拿大的歷史與現況為主,如過去英國殖民下的產業發展、NAFTA 和全球 化對於北美的影響與衝擊、移民和 visible minority 在勞動市場的劣勢,以及加拿 大目前政策與社會福利方面的因應。期中考後,老師於課堂中播放紀錄片─Inside Job (台灣譯為「監守自盜」),內容探討 2008 年美國經濟蕭條的成因與責任 歸屬議題。老師於課堂結束後要求學生據此撰寫 take-home test 並稍後於網路上 的課程平台公布題目。 扣除考試與影片,共有 10 堂課、每堂約 2 小時。老師授課內容主要根據當 周課前閱讀(包含課文和期刊選讀),利用投影片摘錄重點講課,其內容與進度 與課程大綱一致。全班約 200 人,老師常會提問,學生回答頗為踴躍且與主題相 關。課程評量方式包含期中考、期末考和 Take-home test(essay 形式)。課程雖 設置助教,但其只負責改考卷,並沒有設置 office hours。 老師於課堂上的表達與解釋能力佳,講課熱情,且語速適中、清晰易懂,課 程內容的編排連貫且一致,課程的負荷量亦適中。學生於課堂的參與率高,整體 而言,學習經驗佳。 2. Urban Sociology 此為二年級課程,內容包含說明加拿大都市化的歷程與動力、都市社會學的 相關理論與研究方法、都市生活相關議題(如居住、交通、都市更新、貧窮和社 會運動等)和社會病理學等;教授利用投影片講課,主要根據當周課前閱讀物(含 課文、期刊及 wikipedia 的資料),有時補充三峽大壩、中南美洲的貧民窟、美 加都市之比較等資訊。評量方式包含期中考、期末考,以及自訂主題之報告。 剛開學時大約 200 多人,少有師生互動;即便有問答時間,學生發言情形亦 不踴躍。此外,這學年首度將此課程此由一學年縮短至一學期(約 11 堂課), 因此教授時常趕課,難以完整、清楚地說明投影片之內容,甚至常有直接照課本 和投影片宣讀的情況。期中考後上課人數減為原先 1/4(含退選與翹課之學生)。 本課程設有助教並有定時的 office hours,期初時教授即不斷強調撰寫報告時與助 教討論的重要性,且表示他們願意替學生修改草稿與提供建議。整體而言,課堂 中的學習成效有限,反倒是撰寫報告以及與助教討論的過程較有收穫。 1


國立台灣大學

楊丹琪

3. Cross-Cultural Psychology 為三年級課程,聚焦於不同的文化脈絡如何影響人們的認知歷程、知覺、非 語言表達、腦部的發展和運作、情緒、兒童發展與社會化歷程、與他人關係之建 立和健康,以及文化的形成與變遷,共 11 堂課,每次約 2.5 小時(表定為 3 小 時)。講課內容依據當周課前閱讀(含課文與 2-3 篇期刊),大多以問答的方式 進行,前半段以投影片講解課本內容,後半段則以版書的方式講解期刊中的實驗 與結果。評量方式以田野觀察並撰寫實驗提案為主(共 4 次),並含期末考、一 次隨機課堂報告 (簡報當周課前閱讀的期刊)、以及課堂參與表現。課程雖設置 助教,但其只負責評分,直至學期後段因應學生要求才設置一次作業的問答時 間。 全班約 50 人,教授授課時熱情幽默,著重圖表分析,學生發言相當踴躍且 切合主題,整體而言學習經驗佳。 Winter Semester (2012/01~2012/04) 1. Classical Sociological Theory II – Inequality and Authority 此為二年級課程,以主題式探討社會學大家的理論,上學期為 Community and Religion,下學期為 Inequality and Authority,是社會學主修的學生之必修課,學 生擇一學期修習即可。課程進行的方式為每周探討一位思想家對於該主題的見解, 期中考前討論 inequality,含 Tocqueville、Marx、Weber、Simmel,之後則為 authority, 含上述理論家和 Durkheim。教授介紹思想家身處的歷史與社會的脈絡以及文本, 幫助學生比較與對照不同理論家之間的長處與盲點。 全班約 70 人,實際上課約 9 堂,每次約 2 小時。教授上課以幻燈片提供大 綱,每堂課教授會先介紹當周思想家的歷史與社會背景,才課後閱讀為該思想家 的文本(約 10 頁左右);此外,課堂中常有問答等師生互動機會。評量方式含 期中考、期末考與兩份報告(position papers),全班分為 3 組並分別配置 1 位助 教,設有不固定的 office hours。撰寫報告方面,教授設有網路平台,其上有過去 修課學生的報告樣本與助教評語做為參考,亦提供步驟式的引導,幫助學生釐清 思緒。 若依照課程安排的方式,僅能片斷式地學習該位思想家的論點,難以獲得全 盤了解(雖設有「社會學概論」為先修科目,但根據班上同學的說法,並沒有從 先修科目得到相關的先備知識);教授上課時仍是以介紹思想家的論點為主,因 此如果根據課程大綱的課程描述─激發學生批判性思考的能力─達成性亦略顯 不足。此外,教授上課時間總是比表定時間晚 10 分鐘才開始,且進度與課程大 綱不一致(如以 2 倍的表定時間討論 Marx 和 Engels,壓縮介紹 Weber 和 Simmel 2


國立台灣大學

楊丹琪

的時間),上課時討論思想家的論點也不見得與文本的主要概念直接相關,或甚 至介紹教授本身在歐洲的學術研究。讀本中僅 1/2 為課前指定閱讀,其餘為寫作 技巧指導與社會學詞彙表,前者對於實際撰寫報告的幫助有限,後者則與課程內 容無直接相關。另外,由於此課程設有 3 位助教,學生的報告分別由各自的助教 指導和批改,但是報告的評分方式僅含 6 個子項目,並分別分為強、中、弱,因 此與其他課程相較之下,評分方式略嫌簡略、一致性有待加強。以我個人經驗而 言,撰寫期中報告時,曾發生在 office hours 等不到助教的情況,而期末報告則 是發還後,發現助教並未完成評分表即批改分數,必須與助教另約時間、要求其 重新批閱。因此整體而言,這堂課不論在課堂或準備報告的收穫皆不如預期。 2. Sociology of Aging 為二年級課程,內容包含理論介紹、全球脈絡下的人口老化、老年健康、家 庭關係、勞動、照護與社會福利等議題,共 11 堂課(其中一次為觀賞紀錄片, 並成為期末考申論題的題目),每次約 2 小時。教授講課依據自行編製的講義, 於每次上課前一晚上傳至網路平台,課前閱讀為補充性質。評分方式包含期中考、 期末考、一份報告(含 2 次準備階段的作業)與 3 次課堂小考(根據當周課前閱 讀);設有常態的 office hours,與助教討論報告題目與方向時相當有幫助。 教授講課節奏快、內容豐富紮實且有組織性,講課時以教授老年社會學的整 體概念與相關理論為主,並重視全球脈絡之下的人口老化現象,而不僅止於探討 北美歷史與現象;此外,考題相當有鑑別度,相對於其他課程較偏重於資訊的記 憶,不論是選擇題或申論題,這門課的學生須充分了解並掌握課程的概念與文章 的論點方能作答。 3. Family Relations (Sociology) 為三年級課程,設有先修科目 Family Patterns,由同一位教授於上學期時介 紹加拿大家庭型態變遷之現況與成因;而這學期則聚焦於在意識形態與社會經濟 環境的改變下,家庭成員間的互動關係如何因應,課程內容包含伴侶間的親密關 係、婚姻、親職、照顧、離婚、親密伴侶暴力與相關社會福利等議題。 本學期共有 11 堂課、每堂約 2 小時,評分方式包含期中考、期末考以及兩 份報告。老師授課內容根據當周課前閱讀,並於課前於課程平台上傳列點式的大 綱;每次上課通常為介紹該議題的歷史背景與現況,接著介紹相關的研究結果與 論述(會強調當周選讀的課文和期刊選讀) ,討論的內容以北美的核心家庭為主, 鮮少提及其他國家、社會的情況與相關理論(如交換理論、資源論或是性別角色 觀點等),因此修習這門課雖可瞭解加拿大與北美的家庭與性別議題,但較難應 用與推廣習得之知識,也有隔靴搔癢之感。此外,教授為性別與家庭研究的權威, 因此課程中的各個議題最後常聚焦於「性別差異與不平等」的視角。 3


國立台灣大學

楊丹琪

教授講課進度大致與課程大綱一致,課程內容講解地清晰易懂,且語速適中。 期中考結束後,曾以半節課的時間講解考卷,特別是申論題的作答方式,對於後 半學期的學期頗有幫助。

(二)研修心得: 1. 在知識上的收穫: 因教育部與多倫多大學的合約關係,無法修習原本的主修─社會工作─的相 關課程,因此修習較為相關的社會系課程為主;然而過去對於社會學的涉獵僅止 於在台大修習的「社會學丁」 ,因此在第一學期時不僅要適應全英文的學習環境, 也必須熟悉社會學的思維與論述方式。相對於自己原本的主修─國際企業和社會 工作等偏重實務經驗的課程,修習社會學訓練我抽象思考的能力。此外,由於台 灣的社會福利制度多師法國外的體制,如擷取各個國家體制之優缺點並加以改良, 然而在修習文化心理學與其他社會學的課程、約略了解加拿大的發展過程和社會 制度後,更能體會不同民情和文化的差異勢必影響社會福利的制定,如東西方老 人對於資源交換的看法如何照顧服務的輸送與相對應的福利措施。另一方面,台 灣社會工作的發展多以心理學和隨之而來的個案工作為取向,修習社會學的課程 幫助我認識社會結構和意識形態等隱而未現的影響力,也增加對於階級和性別的 敏銳度。 在正規課程之外,我也參加由學校的 Center of International Experience(CIE, 相當於國際事務處)開設的英語溝通課程(English Communication Program), 學生可依興趣選擇課程主題,每周兩小時、共十次。第一學期參加 Discussion and Debate,討論移民、各國大學評鑑指標等較為嚴肅的話題,而第二學期則是 Culture and Language。根據兩堂課的經驗,參與這類課程若慎選主題與講師,則可以以 不同的文化和學科的角度了解加拿大的文化與時事。 學習經驗方面,過去幾乎沒有在全英語的環境之下學習,也沒有英文論述文 寫作的先備知識,因此第一學期剛開學時頗為吃力;此外,對於社會學亦不熟悉, 因此課前閱讀以及自身的延伸閱讀顯得更為重要。由多倫多華人眾多,校內設有 東亞圖書館(East Asia Library),因此在課程緊湊、時間有限的考量下,借閱中 文相關書籍並自行閱讀相當有助於快速掌握該學科的整體概念;相對地,若在台 灣已修過類似的課程、擁有相關背景知識,對於學習的銜接與效果有很大的幫助 (如過去曾修過「婚姻與家庭」、「老人福利服務」,對於第二學期的課程掌握 性更高,並且也能比較台灣與加拿大之間的差異)。此外,也因語言與學科的障 礙,初期上課時主要是以「聽懂」為原則,少有餘力評估教授教學方面之優劣。 另一方面,授課講師與助教提供的幫助也是學習成效的關鍵。由於甫藉由第 二語言學習,在知識輸入與輸出的過程都較為費時費力,效率也相對較差,如講 4


國立台灣大學

楊丹琪

師是否於課前提供投影片、撰寫報告時是否有 office hours 和助教協助的可獲得 的程度,以及申論題是否事先公布題目或考試方向等。 2. 國外研修機構的制度特色: 多倫多大學分為秋季與冬季學期,每個學期共有 13 周,期中考於課堂中舉 行,而期末考於學期結束後的三周內,由校方統一安排時間、地點後舉行,扣除 第一周的課程介紹、期中考和溫書假,實際上課周數約 10 堂。此外 5 至 8 月另 有選擇性的夏季課程,每 2 個月為一學期。多倫多大學的學生申請入學時僅以 Arts and Sciences、Engineering、Life Sciences 等學院(faculty)作為分類,至第 一學年結束後才進一步選擇主修(major)、副修(minor)或專長(specialist)。 每位學生可選擇兩學科作為主修、或一門專長搭配一門副修。 沿襲過去英國殖民的體系,除了 faculty 的分類方式外,每位學生亦隸屬於 college 以照顧生活起居、修課規劃的需要。相異於台灣的「學系」體系,多倫 多大學的學生根據自身的興趣修課,因此同學之間的連結較少、非正式的資源流 通管道也較為薄弱。此外,因多倫多大學的學生人數眾多,課程的多樣性也相對 比台灣高(是否能選上則是另一回事),但也因此少有分組討論和上台報告的課 程設計,同學間多閉門造車。根據了解,社會學的課程幾乎沒有助教課的設計, 而修習的 5 門社會學課程皆不需要分組討論,因此較少有機會與同學進行知識的 交流與激盪。 由於沒有學系的體制以及選課多樣性的自由,相對於台灣,學生常須留意自 己興趣的發展來選擇主修、課程以及自行連結相關的資訊和資源;另一方面,配 合校方嚴格的給分措施,學生對於課業的專注度較台灣學生高,也才能夠確保自 己的成績能夠達到下一個年級的修課門檻。 此外,相較於過去在台灣大學的學習經驗,在多倫多大學上課時,教授講課 少有岔題的情形,且講課進度與課程大綱高度一致;因此即使遇到表達能力或教 學技巧有待加強的教授,學生大多也能依據表定的課前閱讀清單紮實地獲得相關 的知識。

3. 其他: 1)選課:選課統一由 CIE 的承辦人員手動操作。一般而言,交換學生或非學位 學生(non-degree student)的選課優先次序為所有學生之末;但根據兩個學期的 經驗,越早選課則選上的機會越高,一旦該課程人數額滿,就必須等待候補,無 法私下請講師加簽。此外,交換學生豁免於大多課程的先修科目之規定,除一年 級(課號為 100 開頭)與四年級的獨立研究等課程不得選修外,其餘課程通常無 修習資格的硬性規定。 5


國立台灣大學

楊丹琪

2)寫作中心:由學生所屬的學院或該課程隸屬的學院提供學生報告寫作方面的 指導,必須於 2 周前預約或等待候補名單。我修習的課程皆沒有另外開設寫作中 心的服務,因此只能選擇 Victoria College 的 3 位老師,第一學期時曾去過 4-5 次 左右。根據自身以及同學的經驗,一般而言,若非課程專門的寫作中心,通常老 師限於自身專業的限制,僅提供概略的建議(如學生可透過哪些管道蒐集資料, 這類幫助通常可透過課程助教得知);此外,由於該校嚴格防堵抄襲,寫作中心 的老師多半不願意直接修正學生文法上的錯誤、或協助釐清語焉不詳的語句,對 於文章架構的立即性指點也很少(老師會根據這方面的問題,告訴學生可以參考 哪本工具書;或者,提醒學生告知評分者自己為交換學生的身分,但大多助教不 會因此放寬評分標準)。 3)住宿:開學 3 周後搬進校內的宿舍,有強制的 meal plan,並設有高額的退宿 違約金。宿舍每層樓都有由學生擔任的 Don,常主動關心住宿生的生活適應和學 習的情況,並且提供相關資源。 4)交通:地鐵系統很不穩定,常有某一站停很久的狀況,很難預估通車時間, 若為長距離的通勤,則常有遲到的風險(如單程 1-1.5 小時的差距)。

(三)內部建議: 去年分發到多倫多大學後,選課時才得知教育部是與 Faculty of Arts and Sciences 簽約(隸屬於多倫多大學的學術單位,相當於國內大學中的「學院」), 而非整個多倫多大學,但社會工作另屬於另一平行的學術單位(Faculty of Social Work),因此無法依原先期待修習社會工作的相關課程,而改修社會學的課程。 由於沒有相關的基礎知識,必須花費額外的心力熟悉新的學科,與自身的興趣和 原先進修的期待亦不符合。未來甄選的時間較為充裕,或許可讓資訊更為流通和 透明,減少此種因資訊不對等的現象和衍生的後果。

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Soc205H1F Urban Sociology University of Toronto Fall 2011 (Sept - December) Thursday 6:00 – 8:00pm Room 128, Mining Building, 170 College St, Toronto Course website: https://portal.utoronto.ca (login using your utorid)

Instructor:

Brent Berry, Associate Professor, Sociology Dept, University of Toronto brent.berry@utoronto.ca Office Hours: Wednesdays 2-4pm & by appointment Room 366, 725 Spadina Ave

Teaching Assistant:

Matt Patterson, Doctoral Student, Sociology Dept, University of Toronto matt.patterson@utoronto.ca Office Hours are Thurs 10am-noon & by appointment Room 225, 725 Spadina Ave

Overview The theoretical and methodological underpinnings of urban sociology are broad, reflecting a range of disciplines and approaches. This course first reviews theories of urban genesis and urban form; the interrelationship of urbanization, industrialization and modernization, issues in urban living (housing, transportation, urban-renewal, poverty, unemployment, etc.); urban social networks (ethnic and cultural heterogeneity, neighbourhood, community and other voluntary associations). In doing so, we will compare and contrast different theoretical and methodological approaches for understanding urban life. Second, the course covers several special topic areas in urban sociology: homelessness, gentrification, multiethnic cities, globalization, residential segregation, crime, and public space. Third, the course offers real world observation and abundant examples that speak to the strength and limitations of particular theory, data, and methods for studying urban problems. You will undertake a research project observing and reflecting on real phenomena in the urban environment, as well as engaging with scholarly literature on your topic. Course Requirements and Grading There will be one term test (test 1) during class time and a final exam during the December exam period (date/time to be announced). Test 1 and the final exam are each worth 35% of your final grade. The remaining 30% of your grade will be based on your completion of an approved research project that will be discussed in class. Other important information: Late submissions are strongly discouraged; 10% deducted for each business day late, including part of a day. In addition to informing the instructor via email, students who have been absent from class for medical or other unavoidable reasons and require accommodation for missed or late term work must record their absence using the ROSI Absence Declaration (see http://www.artsci.utoronto.ca/current/undergraduate/absence). Instructors have the discretion to

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accept the Declaration as sufficient documentation, but may require further documentation such as the U of T Medical Certificate.

Plagiarism is taken seriously at the University of Toronto. The University has prepared documents to make clear what differentiates acceptable from unacceptable practice. See http://www.writing.utoronto.ca/advice/using-sources/how-not-to-plagiarize. By taking this course, you acknowledge that your submitted work may be reviewed for textual similarity for the detection of plagiarism. Readings Most of the readings are from our course textbook. The textbook titled Urban Canada edited by Harry Hiller (2nd Edition, 2010) can be purchased at the University Bookstore. There are a couple of readings based on Wikipedia entries. The links are provided in the class schedule below. The remaining readings for this course are available for download from our course webpage (they are in pdf format). Readings listed as “supplemental” are not required reading. They are listed in case you wish to read further into a particular topic. Email Please ensure that any email to the instructor has Soc205H1F in the subject to ensure that it gets read. Email communication and the ability to access the course webpage are important for this course. Be sure that the email linked to your name on Blackboard is one that you check regularly. I will use email for reminders, clarifications, and notifications that cannot be made in class. Feel free to contact me or the teaching assistant if you have questions, requests or problems that were not --or could not be-addressed in class. We are here to help and want you to do well. Comments on Writing I encourage you to use the university's writing resources, which are described on their website (www.writing.utoronto.ca/home). The instructor and TA are willing to read over drafts of your work during visits to office hours. All too often, students’ papers are one or two drafts short of excellence when time expires. One rewrite can often make the difference between "C" and "A" work. Class Schedule and Required Readings Sept 15th -- Introduction, opening remarks, discuss syllabus and mutual expectations We will begin with an informal lecture on the history and development of urban sociology, and will discuss a range of issues to set the tone for the course. Time permitting; we may watch a short film No required readings for today Sept 22rd -- Canadian Urbanization in Historical and Global Perspective “Urbanization and the City” (Introduction, Urban Canada) “Canadian Urbanization in Historical and Global Perspective” (Chapter 1, Urban Canada) Michelson, William “Boom Time for Urban Sociology” Additional discussion of global urban problems; we will watch a short film Robert Neuwirth on “shadow cities” (time-permitting, 15 minutes) (http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/robert_neuwirth_on_our_shadow_cities.html) 2

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Sept 29th – Dynamics of Canadian Urbanization “The Dynamics of Canadian Urbanization” (Chapter 2, Urban Canada) “Toronto: The Form of the City” (Chapter 15, Urban Canada) Oct 6th – Perspectives for Analyzing and Interpreting Cities and their Inhabitants “Analyzing and Interpreting the City: Theory and Method” (Chapter 3, Urban Canada) “Rural and Urban: Differences and Common Ground” (Chapter 4, Urban Canada) Oct 13th – Social Ties, Social Capital, and Community “Social Ties and Community in Urban Places” (Chapter 5, Urban Canada) Read “Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft” entry from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gemeinschaft_and_Gesellschaft” Read “community” entry from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Community We will also discuss how the internet is changing communities and cities, and watch the short film – “Steven Johnson on the Web as a city” (time-permitting, 16 minutes) (http://www.ted.com/talks/steven_johnson_on_the_web_as_a_city.html) Oct 20th – Poverty and Inequality in Canadian Cities “Urban Inequality and Urban Social Movements” (Chapter 6, Urban Canada) Hulchanski, David J. 2007. “The Three Cities within Toronto: Income polarization among Toronto’s neighbourhoods, 1970-2000.” Centre for Urban & Community Studies Research Bulletin 41, December 2007, 12 pages. Oct 27th – Test 1 Nov 3rd – Immigration, Race, and Ethnicity in the City “Immigration and Race in the City” (Chapter 7, Urban Canada) Buzzelli, M. 2001. From Little Britain to Little Italy: An urban ethnic landscape study in Toronto. Journal of Historical Gerography 27, 4, 583 – 587 Short In-Class film (time permitting) Flemingdon Park: The global village 2002, audiovisual library (Media commons, 3rd floor, Robarts library), videocassette #00672, 46 minutes Nov 10th – The New Urban Political Economy “The New Urban Political Economy” (Chapter 11, Urban Canada) Mommaas, Hans 2004. “Culture clusters and the post-industrial city: towards the remapping of urban cultural policy” Urban Studies 41(3) 507-532 Further reading (optional):

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Michelson, William 2005 “The City as a Social Organization” Chapter 12 of the first edition of Urban Canada (Ed. Harry Hiller). Stren, Richard, et al. 2010 (June) “Governance in Toronto: Issues and Questions” Discussion Paper #1, Cities Centre, University of Toronto. (11 pages) Discussion of current issues of city finances, services, regionalism, city politics, conflict across levels of government, Toronto’s Harbourfront, the island airport and modernist and postmodernist visions of the city. Nov 17th – Cities and Social Pathology * project due today

“Cities and Social Pathology” (Chapter 9, Urban Canada) Bannister, Jon and Nick Fyfe. 2001. “Fear and the City.” Urban Studies, 38(5-6) 807 - 813 Pain, Rachel. 2001. “Gender, Race, Age and Fear in the City” Urban Studies 38(5-6): 899 - 913 Special Discussion: Gun violence in Toronto, The role of the media, television, and entertainment on our perceptions of crime and its urban dimensions? Short In-class Film (time-permitting): Indian Posse: Life in Aboriginal Gang Territory (1999) 40 min (audiovisual library 005358). A documentary of the lives of aboriginal youth in Winnipeg Nov 24th -- Consumer Society, Public Space and the Regulation of Visual Order in the City “Consumer Culture, City Space, and Urban Life” (Chapter 12, Urban Canada) Special Discussion: Urban signage as a lens for social inquiry Short video “Rob Forbes on ways of seeing” (time-permitting, 15 minutes) http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/rob_forbes_on_ways_of_seeing.html Short In-class film (time permitting) Parts of: The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces 1988 (40 min) Presents an engaging and informative tour of the urban landscape, while exploring how it can be made more hospitable for those who must live in it. This film also shows what can be learned through systematic observation of people in urban environments. Dec 1st – Sociology of Housing and Homelessness “Sociology of Housing”. (Chapter 13, Urban Canada) Stephen W. Hwang. 2001. “Homelessness and Health.” Canadian Medical Association Journal 164(1): 229-33. Ben-Shahar, Danny. 2007. “Tenure choice in the housing market: Psychological versus economic factors” Environment and Behavior 39: 841-858 Dietz, R. D. 2003. “The social consequences of homeownership.” Ohio State University Department of Economics and Center for Urban and Regional Analysis and the Homeownership Alliance Center Supplemental Reading (Optional): 4

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"The Subculture of Street Life", Chapter 3 in Snow, David and Leon Anderson. 1993. Down on Their Luck: A Study of Homeless Street People. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. Bill O'Grady & Stephen Gaetz. 2004. Homelessness, Gender and Subsistence: The Case of Toronto Street Youth. Journal of Youth Studies. 7, 4, pp. 397-416 Dietz, Robert and Donald Haurin. 2003. The Social and Private Micro-Level Consequences of Homeownership. Journal of Urban Economics 54(3): 401-450 [expanded version of Dietz paper above] In-Class film (time permitting) The Street: A Film With The Homeless * 1997-Canada-Biography/Illnesses & Disabilities/Social Issues, 58 minutes, Videocassette 004643, Description: An insightful, sympathetic and surprisingly intimate documentary portrait of three homeless men living on the streets of downtown Montreal. Director David Cross's odyssey into the world of hobos and panhandlers began in 1990. * I may substitute another film for this one Course evaluations today (last 15 minutes)

Final Exam will take place during the exam period (Dec 9-20th) It will cover material since test 1 ** Date, Time, and Location to be announced ** We strive to securely post grades within two weeks of the test.

Other Resources of Interest not listed above We will examine data from two websites in class: Toronto Neighbourhood Profiles: http://www.toronto.ca/demographics/neighbourhoods.htm Toronto Community Health Profiles: http://www.torontohealthprofiles.ca/ Short Video: “Steven Johnson tours the Ghost Map” [about the cholera outbreak in 1854 London and the impact it had on science, cities and modern society] (time-permitting, 10 minutes) http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/steven_johnson_tours_the_ghost_map.html Short Video: “Carolyn Steel: How food shapes our cities” (15 minutes) http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/carolyn_steel_how_food_shapes_our_cities.html Short video: “Ellen Dunham-Jones: Retrofitting suburbia” (19 minutes) http://www.ted.com/talks/ellen_dunham_jones_retrofitting_suburbia.html

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Psychology 321H: Cross-Cultural Psychology Fall 2011 Instructor: Nicholas Rule, Ph.D. TA: Konstantin Tskhay Assistant Professor Canada Research Chair in Social Perception and Cognition Office: Sidney Smith Hall 4049 Email: rule@psych.utoronto.ca Office hours: By appointment Class meetings: Sidney Smith Hall 1069, Wednesdays 6 pm – 9 pm Course website: Blackboard via http://portal.utoronto.ca (only available to students registered for the course)

Course prerequisites: PSY201H1 (Statistics I) or equivalent PSY220H1 (Social Psychology), and either PSY230H1 (Personality and its Transformations), or PSY240H1 (Abnormal Psychology). All students must have the stated U of T, St. George campus prerequisites or their UTM/UTSC equivalents. Students visiting from other universities should have the equivalent prerequisites from their home institutions. Waivers will not be considered at any time and students will be removed from the course if proof of possessing the prerequisites is not presented.

Course description: One of the hallmarks of human behaviour is its diversity. Some of the ways in which we are different are thought to be relatively idiosyncratic (e.g., specific aspects of personality), whereas others are known to be fairly systematic. Cultural psychology is one area of research in human behaviour that examines systematic differences resulting from individuals’ cultural backgrounds. This course will introduce you to the consideration of cultural variation in the study of human thought and behaviour. Course goals: By the end of this course, you will possess a firm understanding of how culture influences both your own and others’ cognitive processes, perceptions, nonverbal expressions, relationships, development, and brain structure and function. To achieve this, we will read both from a unified textbook and from primary sources in the psychological literature. You will engage in field assignments that will allow you the chance to apply what you are learning in class to what you see and participate in every day. Please note that this is a social sciences course that primarily relies on the use of empirically-derived research data to make its conclusions. At times, these data and their interpretations may differ from your own beliefs or experiences. This does not Last Updated: Monday, 12 September 2011

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mean that neither the data nor your experiences are invalid. It will be valuable to present your own thoughts and experiences in class but this should try to be done as objectively as possible, rather than relying on your personal opinions and feelings about how things are or should be (e.g., notice your feelings and report on them as evidence of something, rather than as truths about the world outside of your own mind). Class format: Generally, class will begin with an opening activity, followed by a review of the material covered in the reading. After a short break, we will then reconvene to discuss your thoughts on the material, go over any assignments, and to analyze and think critically about that day’s topic. Hence, the first part of class will emphasize your learning and understanding of the material and the second part of class will focus more on applying and thinking about the material and what it means.

Course assignments and requirements: 1) Field Assignments (60% of total grade): Ideas are generally best learned when they are applied to something tangible and transferred to other experiences. The bulk of your grade in this course will be based on your completion of four field assignments (15 points each) that aim to give you the opportunity to do just that. From the perspective of this course, you are all very fortunate to live in Toronto, one of the world’s most culturally diverse cities. In the field assignments, you will venture out into ―the field‖ to observe and experience these differences, interpreting them through the lens of the course material being covered that week to formulate an experiment proposal for a novel study that you might do to test a novel idea about the assignment’s topic. The assignments will be evaluated in three key areas: the novelty and originality of the experiment (5 points), the plausibility and feasibility of the experiment (5 points), and the overall quality of the written proposal (including, but not limited to, adhering to the assignment’s length, grammar, clarity of ideas, and relevance to the assigned topic; 5 points). Length for these assignments should be approximately one page (excluding references), single-spaced, with 1‖ margins, 12-pt Times New Roman font. You will therefore be challenged to communicate a great deal of information in very few words—realistic practice for scientific writing. The field assignments will be due both in hard copy and electronically at the beginning of class approximately every other week (see the course schedule for specific dates). Electronic submissions should be made to http://www.turnitin.com. Students not wishing to have their work checked for plagiarism by using Turnitin.com should upload their paper using the course Blackboard website via Portal. Electronic copies of the work must be submitted before class begins, otherwise they will be considered late. Indeed, it is important that both the hard and electronic copies be turned in on time, else you will lose 10% for every 24 hours (or part of 24 hours) that the assignment is late without exception. If you do not hand your paper in at the beginning of class, you must take it to the psychology department office on the 4 th floor of Sidney Smith Hall and ask that the paper be given to the course TA, Konstantin Tskhay. Papers given to Prof. Rule will result in further delays and will therefore incur an additional 10% late penalty.

Last Updated: Monday, 12 September 2011

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If you decide not to come to class and hand your paper to the Psychology Office the day that it is due, it will still be considered late. If you decide to skip class so that you can write your assignment and rush into class just before it ends with your paper, it will be considered late. If your printer breaks right before class and you can’t print your assignment, it will be considered late. If you have to miss class because of a personal emergency, it will be considered late. This may seem unfair but the late penalties are like insurance deductibles: it’s not your fault if a tree branch falls onto your car but you’re still the one who has to pay to get it fixed. 2) In-class Presentation (10% of total grade) Applying knowledge to the real world is an excellent way to learn things. Perhaps an even better way to learn things is by teaching them to other people. For one of the class meetings (and I won’t tell you which one—it’ll be a SURPRISE!) you will work in groups to present the course material to your peers. You will then evaluate one another on your performance and this will serve as a recommendation to me of what your grade should be for the presentation. 3) Final Test (25% of total grade): There will be a test covering the course material on the last day of class; November 30th. The test will not be a perfect measure of your knowledge or ability, and it may not even be a good one, but it will provide an assessment of what you know about what I think were the more important points throughout the course. Since I am interested more in your learning the material than I am in your ability to perform under pressure, you will each be allowed to bring notes with you to the test. However, what you may bring with you will be limited to the size of an index card that I will provide to you in advance of the test. The intention behind this is that you will study the course material and write notes to yourself about the material on the card that you may reference during the test. The effect of this is usually that students learn a great deal by reviewing the course material with the aim of choosing what is worthy of space on the card; I hope this strategy will also work well for you. 4) Participation (5% of total grade): Beyond just showing up, it is helpful when each individual contributes to the class discussion. This benefits both the student expressing his/her thoughts, as well as the class. We all have different interpersonal styles and we each vary in how we express ourselves. It is critical in a learning environment, however, that we approach one another with tolerances for our differences—both those that are inherent and those that result from experiences or choices. We should enter our discussions with an open-mind, always acknowledging the opportunity to learn from one another, even if we may ultimately disagree. Every individual’s experience is a valid one and it is essential that we have a classroom community that is based on respect for diversity of background, diversity of opinion, and diversity of choice. This is especially important and relevant in a course on cross-cultural differences and so it is critical that we all treat each other with patience and respect, even in the face of frustrations and disagreements. Receiving credit for class participation can seem daunting with 59 other students present. Moreover, as you will learn in this course, we all differ in terms of our levels of expressiveness and there can be some vast cultural differences. That said, for better or worse, this is a Western classroom that requires a Western style of class participation. However, this does not mean that students from Western cultures will be at an advantage. That is, your class participation grade will not be based upon who is the most extraverted or who speaks the most in class but the Last Updated: Monday, 12 September 2011

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quality of what you say in class and your manner of contributing to class discussion. Examples of how to do well in this regard are (a) being attentive, (b) contributing to class discussion, and (c) being respectful of others, including the professor. Examples of how not to do well are (a) surfing the web during class, (b) having private conversations with your neighbours, and (c) failing to silence your mobile phone. 4) Weekly greetings: Related to your participation in the course, we will have an exercise at the beginning of each class meeting to share and experience different cultural greeting behaviours. Ten volunteers will be solicited to present a different greeting representative of one of their cultural backgrounds for each of the 10 content-related class meetings that we have (i.e., excluding the first and last class meetings). Although volunteering to present a greeting will not explicitly factor into your grade, both presenting and participating in the greetings are good ways to show your participation in the class and will be looked upon favourably by the professor.

Grading: Generally, people dislike being evaluated, regardless of the context or outcome, and even games of solitaire can become competitive. I believe that the goal of a course is to learn. If you believe that the goal of a course is to earn a particular grade, this is not the right course for you. I strongly encourage you not to preoccupy yourselves with grades and numbers. As you know from your statistics classes, evaluation is imperfect and its purpose is to serve as a rough estimate of your progress in learning the course material. Your grades in this course are not an evaluation of your worth as an individual, nor are they a commodity that is earned. I strongly encourage you to think of your grades in this course like the degrees on a thermometer, rather than like the numbers on a pay-check. Being a university student is a very special time in your life when you get to learn a lot of interesting and useful information—what a pity it would be to expend all of your energy and focus by worrying about grades! A+ (90-100) Outstanding performance, exceeding even the A described below. A (80-89) Exceptional performance: strong evidence of original thinking; good organization, capacity to analyze and synthesize; superior grasp of subject matter with sound critical evaluations; evidence of extensive knowledge base. B (70-79) Good performance: evidence of grasp of subject matter; some evidence of critical capacity and analytic ability; reasonable understanding of relevant issues; evidence of familiarity with the literature. C (60-69) Intellectually adequate performance: student who is profiting from her or his university experience; understanding of the subject matter and ability to develop solutions to simple problems in the material. D (50-59) Minimally acceptable performance: some evidence of familiarity with subject matter and some evidence that critical and analytic skills have been developed.

Last Updated: Monday, 12 September 2011

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F (0-49) Inadequate performance: little evidence of even superficial understanding of the subject matter; weakness in critical and analytic skills; with limited or irrelevant use of literature.

Contesting a grade: My general advice to you would be not to take lightly the contest of a grade. Your instructors work very hard to grade course assignments and to challenge them is to indirectly criticize their work, which is generally not the road to their hearts. That said, everyone makes mistakes and if you think that a genuine mistake was made in the evaluation of your work, it may be worthwhile to inquire about it. To do so, you must submit a request for a re-grade in writing. Only requests that include adequate written justification of an error in the original grading will be considered. A legitimate request will result in the entire exam or assignment being re-graded. Your overall grade may be raised, lowered, or it may stay the same. If there has been an error in our arithmetic, please let us know and we will immediately recalculate your grade (no written request necessary). Please note that you will occasionally be disappointed with your marks and having ―worked hard‖ on a given assignment is not justification for a grade change. Endless people throughout history have devoted their lives to searching for places like Atlantis, El Dorado, and the Kingdom of Saguenay. Sometimes working smart is better than working hard, as it is in this course. Missed assignments: You must have a legitimate excuse to gain consideration for making up a missed assignment. Legitimate excuses include a bona fide, documented family emergency, or a documented severe illness making it impossible to be present for the assignment. There are only two ways to be excused from missing an assignment or presentation. You must either have a completed student medical certificate (downloadable here: http://www.healthservice.utoronto.ca/HealthService/Forms.htm#University_of_Toronto_Student_Medical_Certificate) or, in cases of nonmedical issues, your college registrar must contact the instructor to request an excuse on your behalf. Note: if you miss an assignment because you were not yet enrolled in the course, this is not a legitimate excuse. It is your responsibility to keep up with the work in any and all classes you might ultimately decide to take.

Late assignments: To reiterate from above, late assignments will lose 10% per day, no matter the reason. However, late penalties will be waived for documented, excused absences (see Missed Assignments above).

Students from UTSC and UTM If you are a student at UTSC or UTM coming to the St. George campus for this class, it is your responsibility to make sure in advance that your course and exam schedules at your home campus will not interfere with this course. The registrars’ offices at the three U of T campuses are not coordinated and the academic calendars may differ. Please work these conflicts out in

Last Updated: Monday, 12 September 2011

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advance and do not take this course if it conflicts with something immovable in your schedule at one of the other campuses.

Lecture slides, notes, and recordings The lecture slides will not be posted on Blackboard, nor will I give you copies of them. If you are trying to write down everything on the slides, you are missing the point. You will learn much better by reading, listening, and putting things into your own words. Recording devices (audio or video) will also not be allowed in class, unless an exception is made for a student with an accessibility concern. You do not need a copy of everything that I say. ―Notes‖ do not mean verbatim copies of everything that is said or shown in class. They are your interpretations. I will not be an accomplice to passive learning.

Communications and Email with the instructor/TA: If you have a question about the course material, it is best saved for class. Chances are that if you have a question, others have it too. Plus, we all benefit from thinking about these questions and working them out together. Thus, emails with content-related questions will not be returned, they will be saved for class. If there is an emergency, then you should email the instructor. When sending email, please include the course identifier in the Subject line with a concise and clear statement about the content (e.g., ―PSY321: Question about field assignment‖). This will increase the chances that the message will not be accidentally filtered out as spam. Due to virus and spyware concerns, no emails with attachments will be opened. Thus, all assignments should be submitted in hard-copy (see above). Before you email me, please make sure that you have exhausted all of the resources at your disposal (e.g., syllabus, Google) in attempting to find an answer, otherwise you may unintentionally communicate the impression that you are either careless, lazy, or incompetent; none of which are attributes valued in a student. The tenor of all communications with the instructor, TA, and fellow students should always be respectful in tone and language. The professor or TA should be the LAST resource you use in answering a question. Gratuitous emails, disrespectful emails, or emails asking questions that are answered in the syllabus or on the first search page of Google will result in a loss of participation points. Academic dishonesty and plagiarism: Although it sounds cliché, when you behave dishonestly in your work you really are only cheating yourself. You wouldn’t want to be treated by a doctor who cheated in medical school and you wouldn’t want to perform an operation on someone if you didn’t actually know how to do it because you cheated on the test, rather than actually learning it. Cheating does nothing to help you learn, is unfair to your classmates, and can become an addictive habit. It’s a bad life skill and we should all work together to see that it doesn’t happen. The university has therefore adopted strict policies to deal with cases of academic dishonesty that should help to deter you from the temptation (see http://www.utoronto.ca/academicintegrity/resourcesforstudents.html). It’s worthwhile to review this, as often students who are found to have acted dishonestly did so

Last Updated: Monday, 12 September 2011

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without realizing that what they were doing was wrong. Below are a few of the more serious offences: -

To use someone else’s ideas or words in one’s own work without acknowledging in a citation that those ideas/words are not one’s own. To include false, misleading or concocted citations in one’s work. To obtain unauthorized assistance on any assignment or to provide unauthorized assistance to another student. To use or possess an unauthorized aid in any test or exam. To submit work for credit in more than one course without permission of the instructor. To falsify or alter any documentation required by the University (e.g., doctors’ notes).

We will also be using the website Turnitin.com for this course. Normally, students will be required to submit their course essays to Turnitin.com for a review of textual similarity and detection of possible plagiarism. In doing so, students will allow their essays to be included as source documents in the Turnitin.com reference database, where they will be used solely for the purpose of detecting plagiarism. The terms that apply to the University's use of the Turnitin.com service are described on the Turnitin.com web site.

Resources: Accessibility Needs: The University of Toronto is committed to accessibility. If you require accommodations for a disability, or have any accessibility concerns about the course, the classroom or course materials, please contact Accessibility Services as soon as possible: disability.services@utoronto.ca or http://studentlife.utoronto.ca/accessibility Language and Writing: If you are not a native English speaker, help yourself and the TA grading you by using the university’s writing resources: www.writing.utoronto.ca/home Course text: Heine, S. J. (2008). Cultural psychology. New York: W. W. Norton. Important note: A syllabus is a contract. If you don’t like something about the course or the syllabus, it is your responsibility not to take the course. By remaining in the course, you agree to these terms.

Course schedule: We may occasionally make changes to the topics or readings in the course schedule to accommodate the class’s interests. Sept 14

Introduction and overview of course Last Updated: Monday, 12 September 2011

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Goal: Students will gain a basic understanding of the importance of culture on thought and behaviour. Students should obtain sufficient information to decide whether they wish to take the course. Reading: 1. Heine, Ch. 1 (pp. 1-42) 2. Heine, Ch. 3 (pp. 92-135)

Sept 21

Socialization Goal: Students will gain an understanding of how we come to learn a particular culture and incorporate its influence into our thoughts and behaviours. Reading: 1. Heine, Ch. 4 (pp. 136-175) 2. Rothbaum, F., Pott, M., Azuma, H., Miyake, K., & Weisz, J. (2000). The development of close relationships in Japan and the US: Paths of symbiotic harmony and generative tension. Child Development, 71, 1121-1142. Field Assignment 1: Due at the beginning of class on September 28 Visit a public park or shopping mall and observe parents interacting with their children. Note how you see the parents socializing/transmitting culture and cultural values to their children according to apparent cultural background. Propose a study based on what you see.

Sept 28

Self and Identity Goal: Students will gain an understanding of how culture affects our identities, particularly differences in how we conceptualize our notions of self. Reading: 1. Heine, Ch. 5 (pp. 176-226) 2. Cheryan, S., & Monin, B. (2005). ―Where are you really from?": Asian Americans and identity denial. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 717-730. 3. Kitayama, S., Markus, H. R., Matsumoto, H., & Norasakkunkit, V. (1997). Individual and collective processes in the construction of the self: Selfenhancement in the United States and self-criticism in Japan. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 72, 1245-1267

Oct 5

The Multicultural World Goal: Students will understand the cognitive and behavioural effects of living in a culturally diverse environment and how retaining multiple cultural identities can impact thought and behaviour. Reading: 1. Heine, Ch. 12 (pp. 508-546)

Last Updated: Monday, 12 September 2011

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2. Hong, Y., Morris, M. W., Chiu, C., Benet-Martinez, V. (2000). Multicultural minds: A dynamic constructivist approach to culture and cognition. American Psychologist, 55, 709-720. 3. Shih, M., Pitinsky, T., & Ambady, N. (1999). Stereotype susceptibility: Identity salience and shifts in quantitative performance. Psychological Science, 10, 80-83. Oct 12

Person Perception Goal: Students will understand how culture can affect the ways in which we perceive and form impressions about others that belong to both our own and other cultural groups. Reading: 1. Albright, L., Malloy, T. E., Dong, Q., Kenny, D. A., Fang, X., Winquist, L., et al. (1997). Cross-cultural consensus in personality judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 558–569. 2. Peng, Y., Zebrowitz, L. A., & Lee, H. K. (1993). The impact of cultural background and cross-cultural experience on impressions of American and Korean male speakers. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 24,203–220. 3. Rule, N. O., Ambady, N., Adams, R. B., Jr., Ozono, H., Nakashima, S., Yoshikawa, S., & Watabe, M. (2010). Polling the face: Prediction and consensus across cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, 1-15. 4. Zebrowitz, L. A., Montepare, J. M., & Lee, H. K. (1993). They don’t all look alike: Individuated impressions of other racial groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 85–101. Field Assignment 2: Due at the beginning of class on October 19 Different cultural groups express their identities in different ways. Observe some of the more salient differences between various cultural groups throughout Toronto. Propose an experiment testing a phenomenon that you notice.

Oct 19

Emotion Goal: Students will understand how the expression and perception of emotions differs across cultures. Reading: 1. Heine, Ch. 8 (pp. 311-354) 2. Elfenbein, H. A. & Ambady, N. (2003). When familiarity breeds accuracy: Cultural exposure and facial emotion recognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 276-290. 3. Marsh, A. A., Elfenbein, H. A., & Ambady, N. (2003). Nonverbal ―Accents‖: Cultural differences in judging nonverbal behavior. Psychological Science, 14, 373-376.

Last Updated: Monday, 12 September 2011

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Oct 26

Perception and Cognition Goal: By the end of this class, students should have a firm grasp of the role that cultural differences play on basic cognition and perception. Reading: 1. Heine, Ch. 9 (pp. 356-407) 2. Ji, L-J., Peng, K., & Nisbett, R. E. (2000). Culture, control, and perception of relationships in the environment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 943-955. 3. Nisbett, R. E., & Masuda, T. (2003). Culture and point of view. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100, 11162-11170. 4. Peng, K., & Nisbett, R. E. (1999). Culture, dialectics, and reasoning about cognition. American Psychologist, 54, 741-754. Field Assignment 3: Due at the beginning of class on November 2 Culture can dramatically affect the way that we perceive and think about things. Propose an experiment that might address an unresolved question regarding the influence of culture on perception and cognition.

Nov 2

Morality Goal: Students will gain understanding from a psychological perspective of how cultures influence what we think of as right and wrong. Reading: 1. Heine, Chapter 7 (pp. 273-310) 2. Cohen, A. B., Rozin, P. (2001). Religion and the morality of mentality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 697-710. 3. Miller, J. G., & Bersoff, D. M. (1992). Culture and moral development: How are conflicts between justice and interpersonal responsibilities resolved? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 541-554.

Nov 9

Attraction and relationships Goal: Students will understand how relationships are conceived and function differently in different cultures and how culture may affect what is valued in a partner. Reading: 1. Heine, Chapter 11 (pp. 462-507) 2. Cunningham, M. R., Roberts, A. R., Barbee, A. P., Druen, P. B., & Wu, C. (1995). ―Their ideas of beauty are, on the whole, the same as ours‖: Consistency and variability in the cross-cultural perception of female physical attractiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 261–279. 3. Zebrowitz, L. A. (1997). Reading Faces: Window to the soul? Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Chapter 6

Nov 16

Cultural Evolution Last Updated: Monday, 12 September 2011

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Goal: Students will gain an understanding of how culture forms, changes, and evolves. Reading: 1. Heine, Ch. 2 (pp. 43-91) 2. Labov, W. A. (June, 1972). Academic ignorance and Black intelligence. Atlantic Monthly, 59-67. 3. Weisbuch, M., Pauker, K., & Ambady, N. (2009). The subtle transmission of race bias via nonverbal behavior. Science, 326, 1711-1714. Field Assignment 4: Due at the beginning of class on November 23 Culture is always changing and evolving and even the local culture in Toronto exemplifies some major changes in recent decades. Propose an experiment to test a question relating to cultural change that could be conducted and tested in Toronto.

Nov 23

Culture and health Goal: Students will understand the impact that cultural differences in thought and behaviour can exert upon mental and physical health. Reading: 1. Heine, Ch. 10 (pp. 408-461) 2. Ngui, P. W. (1969). The koro ―epidemic‖ in Singapore. Singapore Journal of Medicine, 10, 234-242. SKIM 3. Rozin, P., Kabnick, K., Pete, E., Fischler, C., & Shields, C. (2003). The ecology of eating: Smaller portion sizes in France than in the United States help to explain the French Paradox. Psychological Science, 14, 450-454. 4. Wilkinson, R. G. (1992). Income distribution and life expectancy. British Medical Journal, 304, 165-168.

Nov 30

Final test during class meeting (6pm-9pm) Location: Examination Centre, 255 McCaul Street, Room 300

Last Updated: Monday, 12 September 2011

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Sociology of Aging Sociology 246H1-S Sidney Smith 2117 Wednesdays, 10a-12p Instructor: Markus Schafer, PhD Teaching Assistant: Tara Hahmann, M.A. Phone: 416-946-5900 E-mail: markus.schafer@utoronto.ca; tara.hahmann@utoronto.ca Office: Sociology 368 (725 Spadina Ave.) Office Hours: Tuesday/Thursday, 8:30a-9:30a, Thursday, 3:00p-4:00p, and by appointment DESCRIPTION Lodged as we are in time’s grip, all things in our world undergo aging. Sociology of Aging examines two consequences of this ubiquitous process: (a) people grow older in a social context and (b) human populations themselves have an age structure, which has important implications for social institutions and individuals. Aging is tightly connected to many of the core themes in sociology, including social inequality, the overlapping of institutions such as family and the workplace, and the potential for divergent interests to generate political tensions. Throughout the semester, we will visit these (and other) themes, considering the challenges and opportunities embedded in a “graying-society.” While most topics we cover will be informed by a broad consideration of the entire life course, special attention will be given to middle- and older-age. Course material is global in scope, though our emphasis will be on the North American context. PREREQUISITE Students are expected to have passed SOC101Y1, SOC102H1, or SOC103H1. Students lacking the prerequisite can be removed at any time without notice. OBJECTIVES By the end of the semester, students should be able to: - Describe different theoretical orientations to the aging process and articulate the distinctiveness of a sociological approach - Explain the dynamics of population aging and account for global variability in these processes - Critically evaluate age-based population forecasts - Appreciate the multidimensionality of health and the complex connections between aging and health decline

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Explain how the roles of work and family in the life course have changed in recent years Understand the basic framework of old-age policy and describe the worldwide challenges related to pension funds and health insurance Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of an age-related issue of their choice, as reflected in a focused essay

READING Readings for this course are available through Blackboard in PDF format. BLACKBOARD This course will use Blackboard, an online course management program. Blackboard is accessible through the U of T Portal system. Please refer to Blackboard on a regular basis—that is the place where you can find announcements, online readings, grades, and other pertinent course information. STUDENT ACCOMODATIONS Please see me if you have a disability or other need that requires accommodation or classroom modification. I will be glad to help you in whatever way I can. GRADE DISTRIBUTION Component

Points

Percent of Final Grade

In-class test Final exam Paper Paper, preliminary assignment I Paper, preliminary assignment II Reading response 1 Reading response 2 Reading response 3

100 points 100 points 50 points 10 points 10 points 10 points 10 points 10 points

33.3% 33.3% 16.7% 3.3% 3.3% 3.3% 3.3% 3.3%

Total:

300 points

100%

TEST AND EXAM Both the in-class test and the final exam in this course will consist of multiple-choice, short answer, and essay questions. Questions will be taken from class lectures, assigned readings, and films viewed in class. The final exam will be administered by the Faculty at a time, date, and location to be announced. The exam will not be cumulative, but will only include material covered in Class 7 and onward.

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Please let me know ahead of time if you must miss class the day of the test. Missing for unexcused reasons will result in a “0” grade. Students missing the final exam will need to contact their College Registrar to file a petition. PAPER The paper assignment for this class is intended to deepen your interest and understanding of the sociology of aging. Students are to select a topic related to aging and the life course that interests them. Ideally, the topic should be on something that is not covered extensively in the course. The paper, worth 16.7% of your final grade, will consist of several smaller assignments through the course of semester. The first of these exercises is simply to help you narrow your focus and decide on a topic. On February 1, students will hand in a short paragraph which describes the question their paper will address. The second exercise is a tentative bibliography for your paper. On February 29, students will hand in a typed list of at least 5 scholarly sources that they intend to use for their paper. This does not obligate you to use these articles or books in your final paper—you may find other sources that are more useful in the course of your research. The purpose of both exercises is to help you keep making progress toward the final paper. The due date for your paper is March 21; it must be handed in during class on that day. In the case of late papers, ten points will be deducted per business day. Papers are to be written in clear English prose with appropriate spelling, punctuation, grammar, and in the tone of an academic essay. Students are encouraged to take advantage of the University’s excellent Writing Centers (http://www.writing.utoronto.ca/writing-centres/centres/arts-and-science). There, knowledgeable and helpful instructors will work with you to hone your essay. The goal is to express your ideas competently and compellingly, and there are excellent resources at the U of T to help you do just that. Specific details for the paper (e.g., formatting, length, citation style) can be found in a supplemental document on Blackboard entitled “Sociology of Aging: Essay Guidelines.” We will discuss particulars of the paper in class on January 25. To deter and detect plagiarism, this course will make use of the turnitin.com system. In addition to submitting a hard copy of the paper in class on the due date, each student must upload the paper to Turnitin.com. Students agree that by taking this course all required papers may be subject to textual similarity review to detect plagiarism. All submitted papers will be included as source documents in the Turnitin.com reference database solely for the purpose of detecting plagiarism of such papers. The terms that apply to the University's use of the Turnitin.com service are described on the Turnitin.com web site. Please see the following website for the more information on university policies related to Turnitin.com: http://www.utoronto.ca/ota/turnitin/index.html. READING RESPONSES On three randomly-selected class days, I will give a short quiz at the beginning of class. The purpose of these short-answer quizzes will be to assess your completion and comprehension of the assigned reading for that day. The written responses will be very straightforward and should help boost your overall grade. These assessments will not be announced ahead of time, so consistent classroom attendance and good reading habits are vital for earning the allotted points. No make-ups will be allowed for unexcused absences.

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MISSED DEADLINES, TESTS & FINAL EXAM Medical Issues: For SOC246H1, please note that requests for medically based exemptions for the assignment, test and final exam must be accompanied by a U. of T. medical form, signed in legible handwriting and completely filled out with address and CPSO registration number. The original form must be given to me in person. Forms that are scanned or Xeroxed will not be accepted. The U. of T medical form is available at www.healthservice.utoronto.ca/pdfs/medcert.htm Missed test/examination/deadlines: You must take the test and the final exam as scheduled. The only exception is when a student meets conditions that will be accepted by the University. You must take a make-up test as soon as possible, usually within the 6 days following the test date. Making up the final exam requires an application through your registrar. Please notify me promptly if you miss the test/assignment deadlines and provide documentation as soon as possible. Under university regulations I am not required to give make-up tests or provide extensions if the student informs me of her/his circumstance more than 7 days after the missed test or assignment due date or gives me a medical excuse more than 7 days after the missed test or assignment due date. If you miss a test or the final exam without proper documentation, you will receive a grade of zero for the missed test or final exam. These grades of zero will be included in your total grade. ACADEMIC INTEGRITY Students are expected to know and adhere to the University’s principles of academic integrity. Any act of plagiarism or other unethical behavior will be addressed in accordance with University guidelines. Students should be aware that turning in an old paper, or large parts thereof, for credit in a second course, is considered an academic offense. Please see the “Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters” (http://www.governingcouncil.utoronto.ca/policies/behaveac.htm) for specific information on academic integrity at the U of T.

SCHEDULE AND READINGS Class 1, January 11 Introduction to the course No Reading Class 2, January 18 Key theories and concepts in the study of aging Reading: “The Seductiveness of Agelessness”, Molly Andrews, Ageing and Society, 1999. (BLACKBOARD) “Life Course: Innovations and Challenges for Social Research”, Walter R. Heinz and Helga Kruger, Current Sociology, 2001. (BLACKBOARD)

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Class 3, January 25 Population aging in international context, part I Reading: “Misconceptions and Misapprehensions about Population Aging”, Ellen M. Gee, International Journal of Epidemiology, 2002. (BLACKBOARD) Class 4, February 1 Population aging in international context, part II Reading: “Mature Societies: Planning for our Future Selves”, Sarah Harper, Daedalus, 2006. (BLACKBOARD) *DUE: Paper, preliminary assignment part I (single paragraph answering: what question will your paper address?)* Class 5, February 8 Aging and health Reading: “Aging, Natural Death, and the Compression of Morbidity”, James F. Fries, The New England Journal of Medicine, 1980. (BLACKBOARD) “The Health Transition: The Cultural Inflation of Morbidity during the Decline or Mortality”, S. Ryan Johansson, Health Transition Review, 1991. (BLACKBOARD) “The Living Dead? The Construction of People with Alzheimer’s Disease as Zombies”, Susan M. Behuniak, Ageing and Society, 2011. (BLACKBOARD)

Class 6, February 15 *IN-CLASS TEST*

READING WEEK – NO CLASS FEBRUARY 22 Class 7, FEBRUARY 29 Aging and family relationships Reading: “Exchange and Reciprocity among Two Generations of Japanese and American Women”, Hiroko Akiyama, Toni C. Antonucci, and Ruth Campbell, 2009 (in The Cultural Context of Aging, 3rd Ed., web book). (BLACKBOARD) “A Study of Sexuality and Health among Older Adults in the United States”, The New England Journal of Medicine, 2007. (BLACKBOARD)

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*DUE: Paper, preliminary assignment part II (preliminary list of scholarly sources for your paper)* Class 8, March 7 Work, employment, and retirement Reading: “No Career for You: Is that a Good or Bad Thing?”, David J. Ekerdt, 2008 (in Social Structures and Aging Individuals: Continuing Challenges) (BLACKBOARD) “A Life Course Perspective on Information Technology Work”, Victor Marshall, Journal of Applied Gerontology, 2010. (BLACKBOARD) Class 9, March 14 The welfare state, financial security, and generational politics Reading: “Age Integration or Age Conflict as Society Ages?”, Anne Foner, The Gerontologist, 2000. (BLACKBOARD) “Public Policy and the Construction of Old Age in Europe”, Alan Walker, The Gerontologist, 2000. (BLACKBOARD) Class 10, March 21 Care for aging persons, I No reading *DUE: Paper* Class 11, March 28 Care for aging persons, II Reading: “’But I Am Not Moving’: Residents' Perspectives on Transitions within a Continuing Care Retirement Community”, Tetyana Pylypiv Shippee, The Gerontologist, 2009. (BLACKBOARD) “Reimagining Nursing Homes: The Art of the Possible”, Robert L. Kane, Journal of Aging and Social Policy, 2010. (BLACKBOARD) Class 12, April 4 Death and dying Reading: “Historical and Cultural Variants on the Good Death”, Tony Walter, British Medical Journal, 2003. (BLACKBOARD) *FINAL EXAM, time and date TBA*

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FAMILY RELATIONS Soc. 314H1S Winter 2012 Professor Bonnie Fox 725 Spadina Ave., Room 382 416 978-4213 bfox@chass.utoronto.ca Website: www.chass.utoronto.ca/~bfox/soc314 Teaching Assistant: Melissa Moyser

Class Time: Tuesday 12-2 Location: RW117 Office Hour: Tues. 3-4 Prerequisite: SOC. 214H Office Hour: Tues. 2-3, Room 225

This course focuses on the relationships at the heart of families. We begin by situating families and family trends in their context – the economic insecurity of late capitalism, the consumer frenzy characterizing popular culture, the enduring nature of family ideals despite heightened individualism, changes in gender relations. Then we turn to individuals and their relationships, exploring the complexities of intimate relationships and sexuality, before turning to cohabiting and married life (and the “white weddings” that symbolize marriage). Because parenthood is central to families, we spend considerable time looking at people’s journeys into parenthood, the life-altering and gender-differentiated effects of parenthood, and the stresses on mothers. We also consider caring relations over the life course. Then we turn to a range of challenges and problems in family life: the incompatibility of employment and family responsibilities, divorce and its aftermath, and violence against women and children. We conclude with a look at different policy approaches affecting families. Gender differences, divisions and inequalities; social-class differences; lesbian and gay realities; racial differences; and age differences will be central in all of our discussions. Required Texts: Bonnie Fox, editor, 2009. Family Patterns, Gender Relations. Third Edition. Toronto: Oxford University Press Kathleen Gerson, 2010. The Unfinished Revolution: How a New Generation is Reshaping Family, Work, and Gender in America. New York: Oxford University Press ‘Coursepack’, Canadian Scholars Press All these materials are available, for purchase, at the University of Toronto Bookstore. Other required readings are available online; the links are on the website.

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Note: Students without the prerequisite (SOC 214H) can be removed from the course at any time, without notice. Students who have already taken SOC 214Y can also be removed. Grading:

weights

dates

First test

30%

Feb. 28

Final exam

30%

Exam period

First essay

15%

Feb. 7

Second essay

25%

Apr. 3

Requirements: Tests: There will be an in-class test and a final exam (held during the exam period) that will include both multiple-choice and essay questions. To do well on the test and exam, you need to know the specific arguments in each of the readings and lectures, and be able to discuss the main issues covered in both the readings and lectures. The test and exam are synthetic, so you should think over main themes and arguments discussed in the course, and review the key arguments in each reading, to prepare for them. The date of the test is on the course outline (and above). The exam will be held in the exam period. Make-up Tests: In the case of illness that prevents you from taking the test, you must inform Professor Fox during the week the test is given. Messages may be left on the office voice mail or sent as emails, and these should include your name, student number, telephone number and email address so that you can be reached with information about the make-up test. Make-up tests will only be given to students who have certifiable reasons for having missed the test: for illness, you need a U of T Medical Certificate signed by your doctor; for other problems, you need a letter from your college registrar. The make-up tests will be given within two weeks of the missed test. Essays: Two short essays are required. The first will be a report based on an interview conducted with a young adult. Preparation for this assignment will take place in class. The assignment, the list of questions that structure the interview, and the necessary information sheet and consent forms, will be available on the website. The second essay will be based on the book, The Unfinished Revolution, and structured around a series of questions I will discuss in class. Late essays may be handed in only if I have given you permission beforehand. You will lose 2 percentage points for every day an essay is late, and both assignments must be completed. If a personal or family crisis prevents you from meeting an essay deadline, you must get a letter from your college registrar and talk to me as well. If there is a legitimate reason why you missed a deadline, I am willing to work out another deadline. Once you have my permission to hand in the work, attach the registrar’s letter to the essay when you hand it in. Work handed in outside of class, or late, should be put in the second-year mailbox in room 225 in the Sociology Department building (at 725 Spadina Ave., from Mon.-Fri. 9:00-5:00). Alternatively, it can be slid

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under my office door (before 5 pm any week day). (Students must keep copies of their work, in case assignments are lost. Students are responsible for assignments that are lost.) Students are expected to acquaint themselves with the rules concerning plagiarism: From the Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters -- “It shall be an offence for a student knowingly: to represent as one’s own any idea or expression of an idea or work of another in any academic examination or term test or in connection with any other form of academic work, i.e. to commit plagiarism. Wherever in the Code an offence is described as depending on ‘knowing’, the offence shall likewise be deemed to have been committed if the person ought reasonably to have known.” In short, do not “borrow” passages from books or articles or websites without citing them. If you use the words of other people, put quotation marks around them and cite the reference (author, date, page number). Plagiarizing can produce a very serious penalty, and any suspected case will be turned over to the Office of Academic Integrity. Please also be aware that turning in an old paper, or large parts thereof, for credit in a second (or third etc.) course, is considered an academic offense that results in students being referred to the Office of Academic Integrity. Please note: Test/Assignment Dates are fixed and non-negotiable: Plan your schedule around them. Accessibility Needs: The University of Toronto is committed to accessibility. If you require accommodations or have any accessibility concerns, please visit http://studentlife.utoronto.ca/accessibility as soon as possible. Students who have questions or concerns about writing should make an appointment to see me or Melissa during our office hours. I recommend using the very helpful website, “Writing at the University of Toronto,” at www.writing.utoronto.ca. Look under “advice” and then “style and editing.” Writing workshops are also available for students; for information on them go to www.writing.utoronto.ca/news/writing-plus A helpful guide to writing is: Margot Northey and Margaret Procter, Writer’s Choice: A Portable Guide for Canadian Writers (Prentice Hall Cda). And Wm. Strunk and E.B. White’s The Elements of Style is the best general summary of the rules of grammar and good writing. Some words of advice: Write short, simple sentences and make sure that every paragraph contains a single theme or idea. When you begin a new theme, start a new paragraph. Attendance: Students are responsible for attending every lecture. Lectures synthesize large bodies of research findings and, in the absence of a textbook that reviews the research in the field, are essential. I strongly recommend that you read the required material before coming to class: you will better understand both the lecture and the readings if you do. Class procedures: The two hours will be used for lecture, but students should feel free at any time during the lecture to raise questions or comment on the material. A point-form outline of the lecture will be presented in the form of slides during lectures. These slides are not lecture notes. They are posted on my website at www.chass.utoronto.ca/~bfox/soc314. They are meant to help you take notes in class, and will be posted before class. Contacting Us: I am best reached either by email (if you put “SOC 314” in the subject field) or by coming to my office during office hours on Tues. 3-4. I am happy to answer brief, simple questions by email – and will usually do so within 24 hours – but longer questions should be

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asked in person. Melissa Moyser’s office hours are on Tues. between 2:00 and 3:00, in room 225 in the Sociology Department (at 725 Spadina Ave.)

OUTLINE 10 Jan.

Introduction

17 Jan.

A Changing Social Context and Changing Individuals

Readings: Bonnie Fox with Jessica Yiu, 2009. As times change: a review of trends in family life. Pp. 180-208 in Fox, ed., Family Patterns, Gender Relations. Third Edition. Kathleen Gerson, 2010. Chapters 1 & 2 (pp. 1-45) in The Unfinished Revolution: How a New Generation is Reshaping Family, Work, and Gender in America. 24 Jan.

Searching for Intimacy: Sexuality and Dating

Readings: Amy Schalet, 2010. Sex, love, and autonomy in the teenage sleepover. Contexts 9, 3, pp. 16-21 Sharon Sassler and Amanda Miller, 2011. Waiting to be asked: gender, power and relationship progression among cohabiting couples. Journal of Family Issues 32, 4, pp. 482-506 Jill Weigt, 2010. ‘I feel like it’s a heavier burden’: The gendered contours of heterosexual partnering after welfare reform. Gender & Society 24, 5, pp. 565-590 Kathleen Gerson, 2010. Chapter 5 (pp. 103-123) in The Unfinished Revolution. 31 Jan.

Marrying – or Not

Readings: Kathryn Edin, Maria Kefalas, and Joanna Reed, 2004. A peek inside the black box: what marriage means for poor unmarried parents. Journal of Marriage and Family 66, pp. 10071014 Dawn Currie, 2009 (1993). Here comes the bride: The making of a modern traditional wedding in Western culture. Pp. 242-258 in Fox text Naomi Gerstel and Natalia Sarkisian, 2006. Marriage: the good, the bad, and the greedy. Contexts 5, 4, pp. 16-21 Kathleen Gerson, 2010. Chapters 6 & 7 (pp. 124-188) in The Unfinished Revolution. Interview Assignment (Essay) due 7 Feb. at the beginning of class. 7 Feb.

Having Children, Becoming Parents

Readings: Gillian Ranson, 2009 (1998). Education, work and family decision making. Pp. 277289 in Fox text

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Gillian Dunne, 2009 (2000). Opting into motherhood: Lesbians blurring the boundaries and transforming the meaning of parenthood and kinship. Pp. 343-364 in Fox text. Bonnie Fox, 2009. When the baby comes home: The dynamics of gender in the making of family. Pp. 292-309 in Fox text 14 Feb.

The Challenges of Parenthood

Readings: Harriet Rosenberg, 2009 (1987). Motherwork, stress and depression: The costs of privatized social reproduction. Pp. 310-324 in Fox text Diana Worts, 2009. ‘Like a family’: Reproductive work in a co-operative setting. Pp. 325-342 in Fox text A.Lareau, 2011 (2002). Invisible inequality: social class and childrearing in black families and white families. From S. Ferguson, ed. Shifting the Center. In coursepack Allison Pugh, 2011 (2010). Consumption as care and belonging: economies of dignity in children’s daily lives. From S. Ferguson, Shifting the Center. In coursepack READING WEEK -- No class 28 Feb. TEST 6 Mar.

Older Children, Older Parents

Readings: Margaret Nelson, 2010. Introduction: no playpen. From Parenting out of control. In coursepack Teresa Toguchi Swartz, 2008. Family capital and the invisible transfer of privilege: Intergenerational support and social class in early adulthood. From New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development 119, pp. 11-24. In coursepack Luisa Margolies, 2011. My mother’s hip: Lessons from the world of eldercare. From S. Ferguson, ed. Shifting the Center. In coursepack 13 Mar.

Juggling Earning and Caring: Two-Earner Couples

Readings: Veronica Tichenor, 2011. Gendered bargain: Why wives cannot trade their money for housework. From S. Ferguson, Shifting the Center, in coursepack Harriet Presser, 2004. The economy that never sleeps. Contexts 3, 2, pp. 42-49 Pierrette Hondagneu-Sotelo, 2001. Selections from Domestica (pp 145-56, 171-79 and 193203). In coursepack 20 Mar.

Divorce and Life Afterwards

Readings: Frank Furstenberg and Andrew Cherlin, 2009 (1991). Childrens’ adjustment to divorce. Pp. 543-551 in Fox text

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Carol Smart, Bren Neale, and Amanda Wade, 2005. ‘Doing’ post-divorce childhood. From Andrew Cherlin, ed., Public and Private Families. 4th Edition. In coursepack Sara McLanahan, 2002. Life without father: What happens to the children? Contexts 1, 1, pp. 35-44 27 Mar.

Violence in Families

Readings: Rosemary Gartner, Myrna Dawson, and Maria Crawford, 2009 (1998). Confronting violence in women’s lives. Pp. 525-542 in Fox text Ann Duffy and Julianne Momirov, 2005. Family violence: a twenty-first century issue. From N. Mandell and A. Duffy, ed, Canadian Families. Third Edition. In coursepack Essay due 3 April at the beginning of class. 3 Apr.

State Support of Families?

Readings: Kathleen Gerson, 2010. Chaps. 8 & 9 (pp. 189-226) in The Unfinished Revolution. Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay, 2009. Quebec’s policies for work-family balance: A model for Canada? From M.G. Cohen and J. Pulkingham, eds., Public Policy for Women. In coursepack Evelyn Nakano Glenn, 2000. Creating a caring society. Contemporary Sociology 29, 1, pp. 8494

EXAM -- In Exam Period

 

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