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WHAT IS TABLE TENNIS??

HÜSEYİN CEM YUMUK 9-K


ABSTRACT

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want to prepare a booklet about table tennis because I like playing table tennis and I want to know much more about table tennis. I will talk to all of the people who are interested in table tennis and play table tennis in their lives as a hobby or being professional. I will talk about the history of table tennis. After that, I will talk about the equipment for table tennis, gameplay and finally I will talk about type of strokes.

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play with a serve, GENERAL INFORMATION and each player has

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able tennis, also known as Ping Pong , is a recreational and competitive game for singles or doubles competition. The object of the game is to hit a small ball over a net stretched across a table so that it hits the opposite side of the table. Points are scored when one player fails to return the ball over the net so that it bounces on the opponent’s side. The ball is put into

five consecutive turns serving.

HISTORY

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he game originated as a sport in England during the 1880s, where it was played among the upper-class as an after-dinner parlour game. It has been suggested that the game was first developed by British military officers in India or South Africa who brought it back with them. A row

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of books were stood up along the center of the table as a net, two more books served as rackets and were used to continuously hit a golfball from one end of the table to the other. Alternatively table tennis was played with paddles made of cigar box lids and balls made of champagne corks. The popularity of the game led game manufacturers to sell the equipment commercially. Early rackets were often pieces of

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parchment stretched upon a frame, and the sound generated in play gave the game its first nicknames of “wiff-waff ” and “ping-pong1”. A number of sources indicate that the game was first brought to the attention of Hamley’s of Regent Street under the name “Gossima”. The name “ping-pong” was in wide use before British manufacturer J. Jaques & Son

1Somewhere in the World people use the word “Table Tennis” or some of them use the word “Ping-Pong”

Ltd trademarked it in 1901. The name “ping-pong” then came to be used for the game played by the rather expensive Jaques’s equipment, with other manufacturers calling it table tennis. A similar situation arose in the United States, where Jaques sold the rights to the “ping-pong” name to Parker Brothers. The next major innovation was by James W Gibb, a British enthusiast of table tennis, who discov-

ered novelty celluloid balls on a trip to the US in 1901 and found them to be ideal for the game. This was followed by E.C. Goode who, in 1901, invented the modern version of the racket by fixing a sheet of pimpled, or stippled, rubber to the wooden blade. Table tennis was growing in popularity by 1901 to the extent that table tennis tournaments were being organized, books on table tennis were being

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written, and an unofficial world championship was held in 1902. During the early 1900s, the game was banned in Russia because the rulers at the time believed that playing the game had an adverse effect on players’ eyesight.[citation needed] In 1921, the Table Tennis Association was founded in Britain, and the International Table Tennis Federation followed in 1926. London hosted the first of-

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ficial World Championships in 1926. In 1933, the United States Table Tennis Association, now called USA Table Tennis, was formed. EQUIMPMENT Ball he international rules specify that the game is played with a light 2.7 gram, 40 mm diameter ball. The rules say that the ball shall bounce up 24–26 cm when dropped from a height of 30.5 cm on to a standard

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steel block thereby having a coefficient of restitution of 0.89 to 0.92. The 40 mm ball was introduced after the 2000 Olympic Games. However, this created some controversy as the Chinese National Team argued that this was merely to give non-Chinese players a better chance of winning since the new type of balls has a slower speed, while at that time most Chinese players were playing with fast attack

and smashes. A 40 mm table tennis ball is slower and spins less than the original 38 mm (1.5 inch) one. The ball is made of a high-bouncing air-filled celluloid or similar plastics material, colored white or orange, with a matte finish. The choice of ball color is made according to the table color and its surroundings. For example, a white ball is easier to see on a green or blue table than it is on a gray table. Stars on

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the ball indicate the quality of the ball. Three stars indicate that it is of the highest quality, and is used in official competition. Table Diagram of a table tennis table showing the unofficial dimensions

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he table is 2.74 m (9 ft) long, 1.52 m (5 ft) wide, and 76 cm (30 inch) high with a Masonite (a type of hardboard) or similarly manu-

factured timber, layered with a smooth, low-friction coating. The table or playing surface is divided into two halves by a 15.25 cm (6 inch) high net. An ITTF approved table surface must be in a green or blue color. Concrete tables with a steel net are sometimes available in public parks. PaddleMain article: Table tennis racket Players are equipped with a laminated wooden racket covered with rubber on

one or two sides depending on the grip of the player. The official ITTF term is “racket”, though “bat” is common in Britain, and “paddle” in the U.S. The wooden portion of the racket, often referred to as the “blade”, commonly features anywhere between one and seven plies of wood, though cork, glass fiber, carbon fiber, aluminum fiber, and Kevlar are sometimes used. According to the ITTF reg-

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ulations, at least 85% of the blade by thickness shall be of natural wood. Common wood types include Balsa, Limba, and Cypress or “Hinoki,” which is popular in Japan. The average size of the blade is about 6.5 inches (16.5 cm) long and 6 inches (15 cm) wide. Although the official restrictions only focus on the flatness and rigidness of the blade itself, these dimensions are optimal for most play styles.

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Table tennis regulations allow different surfaces on each side of the racket. Various types of surfaces provide various levels of spin or speed, and in some cases they nullify spin. For example, a player may have a rubber that provides much spin on one side of his racket, and one that provides no spin on the other. By flipping the racket in play, different types of returns are possible. To help a player distinguish

between the rubber used by his opposing player, international rules specify that one side must be red while the other side must be black. The player has the right to inspect his opponent’s racket before a match to see the type of rubber used and what color it is. Despite high speed play and rapid exchanges, a player can see clearly what side of the racket was used to hit the ball. Current rules state that, unless damaged in

play, the racket cannot be exchanged for another racket at any time during a match. AMEPLAY

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Table tennis players toss a coin to determine who serves first. The server places the ball on the palm of the hand, throws it up vertically, and hits it with the racket. When throwing the ball, the server must keep the fingers straight and together, and the thumb extended. The

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hand must be behind the end of the table when the server hits the ball. The ball must bounce on the server’s side of the net, clear the net, and bounce on the opponent’s side. Service and return In game play, the player serving the ball commences a play. The server first stands with the ball held on the open palm of the hand not carrying the racket, called the freehand, and tosses the ball directly upward

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without spin, at least 16 centimeters (approximately 6 inches) high. The server strikes the ball with the racket on the ball’s descent so that it toucahes first his court and then touches directly the receiver’s court without touching the net assembly. In casual games, many players do not toss the ball upward; however, this is technically illegal and can give the serving player an unfair advantage.

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he ball must remain behind the endline and above the upper surface of the table, known as the playing surface, at all times during the service. The server cannot use his body or clothing to obstruct sight of the ball; the opponent and the umpire must have a clear view of the ball at all times. If the umpire is doubtful of the legality of a service they may first interrupt play and give a warning

to the server. If the serve is a clear failure or is doubted again by the umpire after the warning, receiver scores a point. f the service is “good”, then the receiver must make a “good” return by hitting the ball back before it bounces a second time on receiver’s side of the table so that the ball passes the net and touches the opponent’s court, either directly or after touching the net assembly. Thereaf-

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ter, the server and receiver must alternately make a return until the rally is over. Returning the serve is one of the most difficult parts of the game, as the server’s first move is often the least predictable and thus most advantageous shot due to the numerous spin and speed choices at his or her disposal. coring

rally: • Opponent fails to make a correct service or return. • After making a service or a return, the ball touches anything other than the net assembly before being struck by the opponent. • The ball passes over the player’s court or beyond his end line without touching his court, after being struck by the opponent. A point is scored by • The opponent obthe player for any of structs the ball. several results of the • The opponent

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strikes the ball twice successively. Note that the hand that is holding the racket counts as part of the racket and that making a good return off one’s hand or fingers is allowed. It is not a fault if the ball accidentally hits one’s hand or fingers and then subsequently hits the racket. • The opponent strikes the ball with a side of the racket blade whose surface is not covered with rubber. • The opponent

moves the playing surface or touches the net assembly. • The opponent’s free hand touches the playing surface. • As a receiver under the expedite system, completing 13 returns in a rally. • The opponent has been warned by umpire commits a second offense in the same individual match or team match. If the third offence happens, 2 points will be given to the player.[30] If the individual

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match or the team match has not ended, any unused penalty points can be transferred to the next game of that match. game shall be won by the player first scoring 11 points unless both players score 10 points, when the game shall be won by the first player subsequently gaining a lead of 2 points. A match shall consist of the best of any odd number of games. In competition play, matches

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are typically best of five or seven games. TYPES OF STROKES Offensive strokes Speed drive direct hit on the ball propelling it forward back to the opponent. This stroke differs from speed drives in other racket sports like tennis because the racket is primarily perpendicular to the direction of the stroke and most of the energy applied to the ball results in speed rather

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than spin, creating a shot that does not arc much, but is fast enough that it can be difficult to return. A speed drive is used mostly for keeping the ball in play, applying pressure on the opponent, and potentially opening up an opportunity for a more powerful attack. Counter-drive

high loop drives. The racket is held closed and near to the ball, which is hit with a short movement “off the bounce� (immediately after hitting the table) so that the ball travels faster to the other side. A well-timed, accurate counter-drive can be as effective as a smash. Smash he offensive he countrump card is ter-drive is the smash. A usually a player will typicalcounterattack against ly execute a smash drives, normally when his or her op-

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ponent has returned a ball that bounces too high or too close to the net. Smashing is essentially self-explanatory— large backswing and rapid acceleration imparting as much speed on the ball as possible. The goal of a smash is to get the ball to move so quickly that the opponent simply cannot return it. Because the ball speed is the main aim of this shot, often the spin on the ball is something other than top-

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spin. Sidespin can be used effectively with a smash to alter the ball’s trajectory significantly, although most intermediate players will smash the ball with little or no spin. An offensive table tennis player will think of a rally as a build-up to a winning smash; only a calculated series of smashes can guarantee a point against a good opponent. However, most players will be able to return at most one or two smashes con-

sistently. Provided that the opponent is not too close to the table or too far away from the ball, a smash can be lobbed, chopped, blocked or even counter-looped, albeit with some difficulty. A player who smashes generally works out a series of smashes (and possibly drop-shots) to rush the opponent out of position, put him off balance, or both. Smashers who fail to do this find it difficult to win a point against an ex-

cellent defense. Defensive strokes hopA chop is the defensive, backspin counterpart to the offensive loop drive. A chop is essentially a bigger, heavier push, taken well back from the table. The racket face points primarily horizontally, perhaps a little bit upward, and the direction of the stroke is straight down. The object of a defensive chop is to match the topspin of the opponent’s shot

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with backspin. A good chop will float nearly horizontally back to the table, in some cases having so much backspin that the ball actually rises. Such a chop can be extremely difficult to return due to its enormous amount of backspin. Some defensive players can also impart no-spin or sidespin variations of the chop. Block he block is a simple shot, but nonetheless can be devas-

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tating against an attacking opponent. A block is executed by simply placing the racket in front of the ball right after the ball bounces; thus, the ball rebounds back toward the opponent with nearly as much energy as it came in with. This is not as easy as it sounds, because the ball’s spin, speed, and location all influence the correct angle of a block. It is very possible for an opponent to execute a perfect loop,

drive, or smash, only to have the blocked shot come back at him just as fast. Due to the power involved in offensive strokes, often an opponent simply cannot recover quickly enough, and will be unable to return the blocked shot. Blocks almost always produce the same spin as was received, usually topspin. Effects of spin Backspin ackspin is where the bottom half of the

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ball is rotating away from the player, and is imparted by striking the base of the ball with a downward movement. At the professional level, backspin is usually used defensively in order to keep the ball low.[43] Backspin is commonly employed in service because it is harder to produce an offensive return, especially on a short serve. Due to the initial lift of the ball, there is a limit on how much speed with which

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one can hit the ball without missing the opponent’s side of the table. However, backspin also makes it harder for the opponent to return the ball with great speed because of the required angular precision of the return. Alterations are frequently made to regulations regarding equipment in an effort to maintain a balance between defensive and offensive spin choices.[citation needed] It is actually possible to smash

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with backspin offensively, but only on high balls that are close to the net. Topspin he harder-tolearn topspin stroke has a smaller influence on the first part of the ball-curve. Like the backspin stroke, however, the axis of spin remains roughly perpendicular to the trajectory of the ball thus allowing for the Magnus effect to dictate the subsequent curvature. After the apex of the curve,

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the ball dips downwards as it approaches the opposing side, before bouncing. On the bounce, the topspin will accelerate the ball, much in the same way that a wheel which is already spinning would accelerate upon making contact with the ground. Again, the most significant change appears when the opponent attempts to return the ball (with a smooth, pimples inwards rubber). Due to the topspin,

the ball jumps upwards and the opponent is forced to compensate for the topspin by adjusting the angle of his or her racket. This is commonly known as “closing the racket�. The speed limitation of the topspin stroke is minor compared to the backspin stroke. This stroke is the predominant technique used in professional competition because it gives the opponent less time to respond. In table tennis top-

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spin is regarded as an offensive technique due to increased ball speed, lower bio-mechanical efficiency and the pressure that it puts on the opponent by reducing reaction time. (It is possible to play defensive topspin-lobs from far behind the table, but only highly skilled players use this stroke with any tactical efficiency.) Topspin is the least common type of spin to be found in service at the professional level, simply

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because it is much easier to attack a top-spun ball that is not moving at high speed.


TABLE TENNIS