Issuu on Google+

•••••••••••4 ••••••< >••••• >••••<

•••< • ••<

• ••I

>•••<

•••••< )••••• •••••<

• •<

•••

«••-«««»<

11

II

»€

»••••••••

[II

l/Ij/y y ^ v

I)

)

> >

) vj

>

-\

C

(

r r

M (

to


Digitized by the Internet Archive in

2013

http://archive.org/details/roylichOOwald


Roy Lichtenstein


Roy Lichtenstein

by Diane Waldman

&UGGENH

EIM

MUSEUM


|993

!

New

Solomon R Guggenheim Foundation

he

i

Solomon K. Guggenheim Museum, New York

York

tober

8,

109-

Printed

man)

in

lei

b\ permission

Published 1071

(

i!(

I

5

softi

h\

<

over)

It

U

the

I

ÂŤ

1993 R.O)

I

ichtenstein.

Guggenheim Museum.

Avenue.

New

York,

New

I

York

10128

ml, ovei edition distributed b\

Rjzzoli International Publications,

300 Park Avenue South.

New

In<

York,

New

York

10010

Robert Mapplethorpe, Roy

Gelatin-silver print. 61 x 50.8

I

roni

1

1

Ko

cm

(2-4 \

20 inches)

Âťver:

Detail ol (fig.

1985

Lichtenstein,

Km

Lichtenstein, Gofoi Baroque, 1979

U

Li.

htenstein, Self-Portrait, 1978

(fig.

187).

April

1994

Ins

lei

Art,

man

In.

os Angeles

5,

Arts

1994

exhibition has been supported I

1

V 1994

September

grant from

(

rontispie< e

I

16,

The Montreal Museum of Fine M.i\ 26

All rights reserved

>"

Adilition.il

1.

fanuarj

Museum of Contemporary

he

January

lantz

Lichtenstein works

Ron

Used

1

1993

0-89207-108-7 (hardcover)

ISBN 0-89207

All

>,

(

All rights reserved

ISBN

Roy Lichtenstein

Owen

(

m

p.irt

.i

generous

heatham Foundation

support has been provided by

\irlines.

by

I

ufthansa


Contents

Preface

\u

Acknowledgments

1

I

2

(

3

he Early Yens

In

ho

1

into [cons

omi( Strips and Advertising Im

i

4

War Comics, 1962

5

Girls,

6

Landscapes, 1964

7

Brushstrokes, L965

s

Art

9

Mirrors. 1969 72, and

19

Pop Pictures

arly

I

45 i

91

64

1963 (^ Âť9

l

1

66

165

Deco and Modern, 1966-70 ( I

nl iblatures,

V

l

>7l

isi

76

205

1972-76

10

still

11

Futurism, Surrealism, and

I

ifes,

German

Expressionism, 1974

so

261

1980s

12

11k-

13

Interiors, L991

Âť99

93

n I

i

Sculpture, 1965 93

4

-.1 1

15

(

hi<

Murals. 1964 93

'

377 Bibliography

Index of Reproductions


Lenders to the Exhibition

Betty Asher, Beverly Hills, California

The Museum of Modern Art, New York The Patsy R. .md Raymond D.

Richard Brown Baker Irving Blum,

rhe

Eli

New York

and Edythe

Jean-Christophe

Leo

L.

Nfasher Collection, Dallas, Texas

Broad Collection

National Gallery of Art,

Castelli

Washington, D.C.

Castelli

Douglas

S.

Mr. and Mrs.

Cramer. Los Angeles

New

Collection,

Rose Art Museum, Brandeis

Museum

York

and Sculpture

Garden, Smithsonian Institution,

Washington. D.C.

Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Diisseldorf

Gordon Locksley and George T. Shea McCrory Collection, New York Steve Martin

York

and Andrew Saul

Scottish National Gallery of

Modern

Art,

Edinburgh Mr. and Mrs. Robert H. Shoenberg

Sonnabend Collection

New

York

Museum, Amsterdam Stephen and Nan Swid Collection. Stedehjk

New

York

Tate Gallery,

Co., Inc.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art,

New

)enise

New

Staatsgalerie Stuttgart

Mitchell Lichtenstein

Mazoh and

Robert and Jane Rosenhlum, I

Gian Enzo Sperone,

David Lichtenstein

Stephen

University,

Waltham, Massachusetts

Ronnie and Samuel Heyman, New York Hirshhorn

New house, Jr.

Elizabeth and Michael Rea. Connecticut

New York

David Geffen Collection

Helman

I.

Michael and Judy Ovitz

Stefan T. Edlis Collection

Larry Gagosian,

S.

York

Robert and Jane MeyerhofF, Phoenix, Maryland

Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, Texas

Museum Ludwig, Cologne Museum moderner Kunst, SammJung Ludwig, Vienna

London

Walker Art Center, Minneapolis Marcia Simon Weisman Trust

Whitney Museum of American

New

Art.

York

Mr. and Mrs. Baglcv Wright Yale University Art Gallery, Private collections

New Haven


Project

Team

Curatcd by Diane Waldman,

Deputy Director and Senior Curator

Elizabeth

hnician,

Administration

Richebourg Rea,

Consultant and Researcher

Neretm.

[osh

Museum

Technician Carpenter

Cassandra Lozano

Research Assistant

Julia Blaut,

Groom. Museum fa

Jocelyn

Clare Bell, Assistant Curator

William Smith,

Museum Technician Museum Technician

Susan Joan Schenk, Research Assistant

Dennis Vermullen.

Tracey Bashkoff, Curatorial Assistant

Guy

Walker,

Museum

Technician

Carol Strmgan. Associate Conservator Linda Thacher, Exhibitions Registrar

Pamela

L.

Myers, Administrator for

Programming

Exhibitions and

Cara Galowitz, Manager, Graphic Design

Husten. Manager of Budget

Amy

and Planning James

di

Pasquale

Robert McKeever Heather Ramsdell

Services

Michelle Martino, Graphic Designei

David Heald. Manager. Photographic

Karne Adamany. Curatorial

Intern

Cunningham,

Sarah Ellen

Curatorial Intern

Services

Intern Blythe Kingston, Curatorial

Lee Ewing, Photographer

Coordinator Samar Qandil, Photography

Museum

Laura Antonovv, Senior

Museum

Intern James Rondeau, Curatorial Ivy Sta. lglesia. Curatorial Intern

Technician. Lighting Christine Scinlli,

Michelle Mahonev. Curatorial Intern

Technician.

Michelle Smigallia. Curatorial Intern

Lighting and Planning Scott

Wixon, Manager of Installation and

Anthom

Collection Services Peter Read,

Jr..

Manager. Fabrication

Anibal Gonzalez-Rivera. Manager.

Joseph Adams. Senior

Museum

Technician

Museum Technical! Senior Museum Technician

Peter Costa. Senior

Timothy Ross. Technical

Specialist

John Brayshaw, Museum Technician/Carpenter ),\ id

I

Johnson.

Elizabeth

alnek.

Managing Editor

Lew. Production

Editoi

Museum

Technician/Carpenter Technician Robert Attanasio, Museum Museum Lisette Baron Adams.

Technician

James Cullinane,

Laura Morns, Assistant Editor Jennifer

Collection Services

Veater,

(

Editor Stephen Robert Frankel. Project

Services

David

Gltdl0ÂŁHC

Museum Technician

Knox,

Editorial r\ssistant

Shelly Lee

of Design by Takaaki Matsumoto

M

Plus

M

Inc.


The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation

Honorary

Trustees in Perpetuity

Solomon R. Guggenheim Justin K.

Trustees

The Right Honorable

Earl Castle Stewart

Mary Sharp Cronson

Thannhauser

Peggy Guggenheim

Elaine Dannheisser

Miehel David- Weil] President

Carlo

Peter Law son-Johnston

The Honorable Gianni De Michelis

Robm r I

Wendy

L-J.

McNeil

Robert M. Gardiner

Chandler Duke

Robert M. Gardiner

ice-Presidents

The Right Honorable

Benedetti

)e

I

Earl Castle Stewart

Jacques Hachuel

Moreno

Ramer Heubach Barbara Jonas

Thomas Krens Directoi

Peter Law son-Johnston

Thomas Krens

Samuel J. LeFrak Peter B. Lewis

Wendy

McNeil

L-J.

Edward H. Meyer Ronald

Perelman

C).

Michael M. Rea

Heinz Ruhnau Denise Saul

James

Sherwood

B.

Raja Sidawi

Seymour Peter

Slive

W Stroh

Stephen C. Swid

Rawleigh Warner,

Jr.

Weber

Jiirgen

Michael

F.

Wettac h

Donald M. Wilson William

T

Ylvisaker

Honorary Trustee

Mme Trusta

Luigi

Claude Pompidou

,

Ex

(

Officio

Mosehen

Director Emeritus

Thomas M. Messcr


Preface

As one of the art

artists

who

world with the new

imagery and "high established Ins

invented Pop

and borrowing the techniques

own unique

American consumer

the 1960s, R<>\

style

culture, his

and

I

ichtenstein shocked the

of his paintings and sculptures. Merging popular

visual syntax

art,"

art in

attitude.

oi advertising

Representing

oeuvre has exerted

a

and the comics, he

composite portrait

worldwide influence

.1

of

more than

for

three decades.

Lichtenstem and the Guggenheim

The Guggenheim mounted

its

first

Museum

a

long-standing relationship.

retrospective exhibition devoted to the works of this

most enduring and important American

we

have

1969; now, nearly twenty

artist in

five

years later,

present our second Lichtenstein retrospective. In addition, his paintings, sculptures,

.md works on paper figure proudly

works spanning

I

in

our permanent collection.

ichtenstein's entire career, this

bringing together

In

book and exhibition make evident

his

achievement. I

express

mv

sincere appreciation to the

artist for his

generous mk\ enthusiastic help

To Diane Waldman, Deputy Director and Senior Curator, whose curatorial and knowledge of Lichtenstein's work have brought this presentation and

in this project.

expertise

publication to fruition with sensitivity and intelligence, Finally,

it is

to the individuals

financial support that

1

owe

a

and foundations

great debt of -latitude.

Castelli for his aid to the project.

Foundation; Stephen and

who

Acknowledgment

is

1

am

especially thankful.

have generously given then

We

are especially thankful to

due

also

Nan Sw.d: Stephen Ma/oh and

The

to

Airlines for

its

Thomas Krens Director

My

appreciation

is

also

Co., Inc.; and

extended

continuing support of the Guggenheim and

to

all its

I

eo

Owen Cheatham The

Merrill

assistance have been and Emita E. Hastings Foundation; their contributions and

the success of this exhibition.

I

uftliansa

endeavors,

(

!

vital to

German


Acknowledgments

It

has been

second retrospective

rare privilege to organize this

a

paintings and sculptures.

Guggenheim Museum

I

had the pleasure of presenting

first

1969.

in

Roy

of

his

work

would have been impossible then

It

as

achieve such an undertaking without the generous cooperation of the grateful for the

he has shared

unwavering support

that

he has given

me

to audiences at the it

would be now

artist

in this project.

himself.

Over the

details

about

his

to

am

I

years,

and reminiscences And provided indispensable information on

his insights

influences, motivations, and

his

work. His keen perception and unfailing

have added greatly to our diseussions. That same boundless

humor

Lichtenstein's

exchange has enabled Lichtenstein to produce

spirit

body of work whose

a

of interaction and

originality of

expression and style are appreciated worldwide. Today, nearly twenty-five years after his first

museum, he continues

retrospective at this

enormous impact on

to have an

the art of

our time. As

traced the development of his oeuvre since the late

I

inquiries had to be

periods.

am

I

made

111

New

J(><>s,

was evident

it

that

new

locating the whereabouts of many key works from different

especially grateful to Elizabeth

painstaking contributions in

( l

Richebourg Rca

tor her tireless

and

and other areas of research and documentation.

this

information on Lichtenstein's work was brought to

my

attention by

many

colleagues, through personal conversations as well as published and unpublished materials.

My

gratitude

is

extended to those

recollections, including

generously volunteered their findings and

Richard Bellamy; Irving Blum; James Corcoran; Constance

Goodman; Joseph Helman; Tim Hunt, Director of The Warhol Foundation;

Glenn; James Ivan Karp;

who

Margo

Leavin;

Dorothy Lichtenstein; James Mayor; Lucy Mitchell-Innes,

Senior Vice-President of Contemporary Paintings

New

Sotheby's,

at

York; George Segal;

Daniel Templon; Phyllis Tuchman; Diane Upright, Vice-President of Contemporary Art at Christie's,

New

Curly Grogan for universities, details

York, and her his

staff;

and

Leslie

Waddington.

advice and support. To the staff

and museums

that

we

of Lichtenstein's exhibition

members

I

would at

the

also like to

numerous

thank

libraries,

contacted tor essential bibliographic information and history,

1

am

also

most

grateful.

This exhibition and publication could not have been accomplished without the help of

A deep debt of thanks is extended to many aspects of both projects, and for her

Lichtenstein's studio assistants.

Cassandra Lozano for

her enormous help on so

assistance in

facilitating the use

am

of the

sincerely grateful to

artist's

James

archives by

di Pasquale, Shelly Lee.

Ramsdell for their invaluable participation

show and

My

members of the Guggenheim Museum's

in the

stall

I

Robert McKeever, and Heather

planning and implementation of the

publication.

thanks are due especially to Leo Castelli and the staff of his gallery, in particular

Susan Brundage, Director, and Patty Brundage, Associate Director, for providing crucial

information about Lichtenstein's paintings and sculpture. To Larry Gagosian, Melissa

McGrath, Robert Pincus-Witten, and others Lichtenstein catalogue raisonne,

much-needed

An

I

at

the Gagosian Gallery

wish to extend

my

working on the Roy

gratitude for supplying us with

data as well as a range of important materials.

exhibition of this magnitude could never be achieved without the assistance of the

entire staff

Curator,

of the Guggenheim Museum.

who managed

I

am

deeply indebted to Clare

Bell, Assistant

every phase of the project, contributed to the research, and wrote


the chronology.

My

gratitude also goes to Tracey Bashkoff,

who

Blaut, Research Assistant,

compiled the bibliography; and Susan Joan Schenk,

Assistant. In addition,

Research

uratorial Assistant; Julia

(

would

I

like to

thank the dedicated interns

volunteered their services on the project over the course of several

who

years: Karrie

have

Ad. mum,

Sarah Ellen Cunningham, Blythe Kingston, Michelle Mahoney, James Rondeau. K\ Sta. Iglesia,

Among

and Michelle

Sinigallia.

those most involved with the presentation were

who

Registrar,

exhibition; Pamela Myers, Administrator for Exhibitions all

and Collection Services,

Lichtenstcms larger works into the galleries;

negotiated the complex

museum and

and Carol Strmgari. Associate

those staff members

(

installing

works

foi

m

Programming,

.\\k\

who. with the help

technical aspects of the installation and

Installation

inda Thacher, Exhibitions

1

coordinated the intricate details of transportation

oi

Scott

the

who

oversaw

Wixon, Manager of

of bringing

details

the ramps and

them on

town

ouservator, whose expertise was invaluable. To

Design in the areas of Fabrication. Lighting. Collection Services, and

who also gave their tune and energy to the project. am most grateful. A monograph of this scope could not have been accomplished without the talents o\ Anthony Calnek, Managing Editor, who supervised evei asp< Ct ol its publication, mu\ I

\

Stephen Robert Frankel, Editor of the monograph, whose advice were indispensable to m\

M Plus M

gratitude to the other

Production Editor, Editor,

essay.

Inc. for designing the book.

members of the

who

My 1

deep

would

critical

appreciation to also like to

Publii ations

extend

Others on the Guggenheim's

Assistant, for their expertise

staff

who

a

1

in

and

ol

sincere note ot

aura

on the

have worked diligently

editing,

Matsumoto

Department: Elizabeth

coordinated production of the book; and

and Jennifer Knox, Editorial

comments,

rakaaki

1

evy,

Morns.

Assistant

project.

helping to realize

this

of Budget and accompanying catalogue include Amy Husten, Manager Archivist; Son,.. Bay, Planning; Glory Jones, Public Affairs Officer; Ward Jackson, and Assistant Librarian; Stuart Gerstein, Director of Wholesale

exhibition and

its

Librarian; Tara Massarskv,

Assistant. Retail Operations; and Susan Landesmann, Production those names of lenders to the exhibition appear in the catalogue (except

The

wished

to

remain anonymous).

bring together

many of

I

I

Diane Waldman Deputy

Directot

."/</

to

without achtenstcins most important paintings and sculptures;

and enthusiastic

their generosity

thank them wholeheartedl) for enabling us

who

Seniot Curato\

assistance, this exhibition

would not be

possible.


?

I


Chapter

1

The Early Years


I.

Roy

Liechtenstein, Washington Crossing

lite

crion

Delaware

/,

ca

1951

<

>il

Oil

canvas,


One

of the most challenging decades

began at

1960s with the inception of the Pop

in the early

New

the Leo Castelli Gallery in

comic

paintings based on

and other

strips

York.

K.n

as

brought

to

ARTnewi make

a

as

common

to the

1963, Lichtenstein remarked to

In

a

It

was almost

a<

(

)ldenburg,

(

ol

seminal interview that his

painting that was so ••despicable" that no one would hang

-everybody was hanging everything.

1963, he

By/

sculpture, and effectively

Gene Swenson

critic

series oi

object, popular culture,

underlying theme of their paintings and

the

first

and Andy Warhol, many

end the long reign of Abstract Expressionism.

.\n

in

Segal,

art

In February 1962,

Jim Dine, Jasper Johns, Claes

were working independently, had turned

or the mass media

movement.

art

Lichtenstein exhibited his

Robert Rauschenberg, James Rosenquist, George

whom

entury rVmei u an

i

and advertising images of consumer goods.

of his generation such

artists

of twentieth

in the history

He

it.

lung

eptable to

in

ambition was to

noted that dripping paint rag,

a

commercial art." everybodx was accustomed to this. The one thing everyone hated was was concerned stated that his art—and Pop art in general—

In

the interview. Lichtenstein

become extremely romantic and with the world, and that "art since Cezanne has less and less to do with the world, unrealistic, feeding on art; it is Utopian. It has had looks inward." Although

I

ichtenstein maintained that his was not

.,

riti< al VOi< e,

i

it

he

anti-gettmg-away-from-thedeclared that he was "anti-contemplative, anti-nuance, anti pain. -quality, antityranny-of-the-rectangle. anti-movement and -light, anti-mystery,

Zen, and and-

of those

all

brilliant ideas

of preceding movements which every

understands so thoroughly"'

garde, had spread throughout the

Young

,op

2.

Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze. Washington

canvas, 387 5

New

x

644 7

cm

(149

x

Crossing the Delaware, 1851

255 inches). The Metropolitan

Museum

Oil

oil

of Art.

bottom 3.

The

art.

1953 Larry Rivers, Washington Crossing the Delaware,

Oil, graphite, and

States,

to 1962, located

on Eighth

Street,

late

mannerist

style

in

Manhattan, then

at

the

New

a

York School

Europe.

in

hub

York avant-

tor

from I'M"

artists

among the and the Cedar Bar on University Place were

landmarks that any ambitious young

but by the

and was gaining converts

Club, an important forum for

Heated debates raged on

York, Gift ofjohn Stewart Kennedy, 1897

United

"action painters" Hocked to Lenth Street

experimental

New

Expressionism completely dominated the

In the late 1950s, Abstract

artist

knew about

Club oxer

issues

or

would want

of concern to

New

to frequ<

ril

York School

artists,

exhausted itself and been repla. ed by 1950s abstract painting had largely Barnett Polio, without rage or grace. Few could emulate Jackson

a

I

charc oal Art.

on Unen. 212.4x283.5

New

cm

York Given inonymousl)

(83

Ixlll

inches)

Hie

Museum

of Modern

Newman or Clyfford Still, but there were legions of who content to follow in his wake, blatantly imitated he provided was

as

awesome

as

was deceptive, and

it

embryonic Willem de Koonings his

it

every gesture.

gave the

New

I

he shelter that

York

art

collective hangover. 1„

Mowing

manner: "Ifa painting

follows

another.

,;

,„ event

"

What was

Rosenberg

distinction

remarkable

between

is

to go

on the

art

and

5

life."

and

life.

Mountain College ,„

a,,,,,,,

Chapter

1:

in

is

one action, the pamtmg

canvas." he pro, [aimed,

also believed that the

"new painting

and philosophy ofRauschenberg,

composer John

«

,ge,

exhibition

at

The Early Years

Museum ofModern An

,„

that

.

,

decided to in

a

tnfluenced In act

1952

,,,

at

the gap

Black

lor the catalogue ol Carol,,,,/) In a statement written

the

the

picture but

.,

down

in

action and event found

(Rauschenberg became friendly with Cage

North

"was no,

has broken

Rosenberg's commitment to

parallel in the attitudes

art

Rosenberg had described Action Painting

an action, the sketch

influential the chance theor.es of the

between

a

.

the influential critic Harold

1952

world

v-

1959, Rauschenberg wrote.


Am

incentive to paint

aways strongest when inevltability

,

opposed

less suitable to

canvas

I„

in spite

to

Neither can be made.

life.

„o

is

good

as

is

make

a

..

as

any other There

is

no poo.

tion, color, etc.

of com]

it

subject. Painting

appears

as a

.... t,

or an

relates to both souvenir or arrangement. Painting try to ac.

.1

..,

that

painting with than

A

gap between the two.)

wood,

nails,

turpentine,

is

art

and

pair ol socks

oil

and

fabric.

,

A

never empty.

1951-52 Rauschenberg made

a series

of Black

Paintings, in

many of which he

, IOS2-53. he produced his Elemental Sculptures, combined painting and newsprint. In the m which were shown at the Stable Callers memorable group of boxed found objects,

objects to his canvases; by began to attach three-dimensional and Rebus, paintings as Bed (fig. 14). Hymnal, 1955 he had created such epic combine years later m prototypes for images that appeared a few some of the images of which were double page ol comic early works. Rebus includes a several of Warhol's and Lichtenstein's features a among its evocations of urban life, and Hymnal strips front a Sunday newspaper poster. cover) and an F.B.I, "most wanted man Manhattan telephone directory (minus us winter of 1953-54, were profoundly Rauschenberg and [ohns, who first met in the because they celebrated mass culture by important to the development of Pop art For example, artifacts in a line-arts context. presenting some of us most cherished comas pages in his works throughout Rauschenberg incorporated portions of newspaper such as Coca Cola Plan, 1958, 1954-SS and Coca-Cola bottles in some of lus combines,

mtumn of 1953. He

also

(In cans in his Painted Bronze (Ale Cans) (fig. 5), I960. ,nd |ohns replicated Ballantine Ale the central figure of his painting Alleyalso used a comic-Strip image, basing

1958 Johns

"Alley-Oop") Both Rauschenberg and Johns when the eminent Dadaist renewed a dialogue begun bv Marcel Duchamp in 1913, In presenting these and other mounted a bicycle wheel on a painted wooden stool (fig. 4). he had signed "R. Mutt" and entitled found objects, such as the notorious urinal that Duchamp called into question the nature of the art Fountain (fig. 6), 1917. as works of art. of art itself. In reinterpreting Duchamp. both object w.thrn the larger issue of the meaning into uncommon works of art. Rauschenberg and Johns transformed common objects began making was a late convert to Abstract Expressionism. He

Oop on Vincent Hamlin's 1931

strip

Lichtenstein himself

paintings

m

remarkably

this

mode

in

late date to

1957 and did not abandon the

become an

style until 196(1.

Expressionist, as the high point

It

was

a

of the movement had

however. Abstract Expressionism was long since passed. From Lichtenstein's point of view, most artists living on the fringe of a the only viable alternative in the 1950s. Like afar— specifically, Ohio, where movement, he avidly followed its latest developments from

magazines devoted to the he was living and working, reading ARTnews and other paintings and sculpture of the at galleries

where,

Marcel Duchamp.

Bicycle Wheel, 1913 Original

od

and numbered

replicas,

md

metal

numbei

lost; lixth

eighi ol

m

inchi

12 ,-itt

of Mrs WiUiam

*

onroj

version

Gallcria

edition of eighl

i

Indiana University

An

as

York School.

He

also

made

several trips to

New

York,

Abstract Charles Egan's and Betty Parsons's, he could see the

June 1959. he exhibited some of his Abstract York. These canvases express Expressfonist paintings at the Condon Riley Gallery in New unintentional and that now. in retrospect, seems a self-conscious styhzation that was surely of Americana of 1949-51, his to be a link between his otherwise dissimilar paintings earlv 1960s. In and Abstract Expressionist phases, and his Pop paintings of the

Expressionists' 4.

such

New

work

firsthand. In

Cubist 196(1.

he made some paintings

in

which he used torn bedsheets

to apply the paint.


producing drips

from

this

resemble cascading ribbons of color

th.it

m

specific areas of

areas, or certain

canvas. Superficially, the

.1

many

paintings resemble the Abstract Expressionist idiom in that thc\ h ature

movement's mannerisms; however, there

them from

these canvases that separates

work of the Abstract

the

abandonment

tot.il

Expressionism, but he resisted

m

compelling inner necessity role

is

pictures than creating events.

through action, not

many

of the

artists

in the

New

metaphysical

its

which

poor match

a

the

came

into their

in the

Max

ot h crs

h a a fled Europe

vv } 10

Lichtenstem

a rejection

of European

Abstract Expressionist paintings.

show two important, form and an

manner of the

I

I

making

1

New

years before

ll

York of main

ol

during the Nazi occupation.

States

latter

movement was founded,

sonic measure.

in

American

authentically

.111

his ability to

Thus,

art.

as

ichtenstem's canvases seem studied, but they clearly

lasting features of his

m

interest in

approach to painting: an ..biding

the process of developing his

own method

with Bruce Glaser

>onald Du« k and Bugs

and things

tor

,m

urred to

me

would look

like

Bunny At

children, -.ml

the

in

I'"''

in thi

1

same time

I

as

was drawing

working from bubble

MkL-n Mouse. Mickey Mouses

little

gum wrapper

do one of these bubble gum wrappers,

to

painting

ol

he suddenly changed direction again. As he

when

Abstract Expressionists

in an interview

.

a

of their development,

the presence in

such began putting hidden comic images into those paintings,

o,

pl.i\

inclination to conceptualize his subject matter.

Lichtenstem was

mentioned

I

art oi

Ernst, Andre Masson, Yves L.ngnv, and

order to create

art in

An

the blank canvas 01

continuing dependence on Synthetic Cubism undermined

s

adapt to Abstract Expressionism, since the

on

m

for Surrealism sev(

it

in part, to

United

Abstract

world around him. Although

in the early stages

York School had been,

tor the

in

suited to

not

his inspiration

unconscious mind, but

own. This was due.

invoked

heroi< posture.

its

more temperamentally

for an artist

European Surrealists— Andre Breton,

haia< terizes the best

(

randomness, and spontaneity

intuition,

lchtenstem found

1

issues

and

go.ils

devoted advocates of Cubism, they had abandoned they

thai

Expressionists.

Lichtenstem understood many of the fundamental

prominent

of the

deliberation about even the most painterly of

a

is

other paintings

In

3)

I

complemented by painted

period, areas of bare canvas are

brushstrokes and colors are used only

(see fig.

as

is,

I

I

just to

irg.

In

n

ii

see *

I.

n

ii

"

The 5.

top

12

I

Painted bronze, 14 x 20.3 jasper Johns, Painted Bronze {Ah- Cms). I960

cm

,.,.«,,„

(5

6.

14x8x4

inches).

Marcel Duchamp,

[anis Gallery.

(

Ya

Nev

York

1951

ourtesj Sidney [anis Gallery,

Museum

Ludwig,

*

Pveadymade porcelain

lost; $e<

urinal. 61

I

cm

version

(24 inchi

Sidney

ol

Uusi henberg's and

nager) exis

i

for Tricky

to above, in the series oP'paste ups' Johns's 1950s works referred 1953, using ( I, * less [Collins] began in December

Coast

ologne

Fountain. 1917 Original

New

X

precedents lor Lichtenstein's use

uld's

Cad

Did

that

West

I

artist

Ins central figure (fig. 9),

West Coast

artist,

and

in the incorporation in 1959.

Ed Ruscha,

Moreover,

culled Richard Hamilton had been using images

York

collages such as the former's

,„, ,w„„

is

it

that

makes

today's

III, a Rich

I

I

m

of comic in

i

England, Eduardo Paolozzi and

Iron,

American magazines

Man's Plaything

to different, so

strips in

works by anoth

(fig. 7,

appealing? (fig

,

,

8),

to

make

1-47. and the latters

1956

I

d

la,

was

Ins rniage ol a

»fthe ideal Ameri, an home with spoofing the current postwar nod uummg and such as a house* ife modern living room full of absurd juxtapositions, ol , table belo* a framed displayed on

«

muscleman posing,

a

canned ham

Young Romance comics.

Chapter

1:

The Early Years

,

a


However

ichtenstein's paintings

I

Men, the

1940s and early 1950s already indicate sources. In an exhibition held at the

late

American preference for Americana and popular

his

Carlebach GaUery

in that

for

on images

features for the

it

in 1951,

he had found

that

painting from about 1952,

A

the subject.

he showed paintings of the Old West featuring American Native-American Indians, and popular images of

York

cowboys and

treaty signings,

folklore based

New

in

&

"Libby McNeill

in

/'/â&#x20AC;&#x17E;

books on Ufe and other magazines and in early work Explore, (fig. 10), is an important

an ad-here, an ad tune advertising copy taken directly from

first

Cooked Corned Beef"

Lirry's

(fig.

1

I)

that

accompanied an

article

Many the July 4. 1949 issue of Ufe magazine. about the opening of the American West in Fredenck nineteenth-century paintings, such as those by of his themes were derived front Alfred Jacob Miller, and William Charles Willson Peale, Frank B. Mayer, Remington,

Delaware

(tig. 2).

1851.

Crossing the EUnney and Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze's Washington around 1951 this well-known work, both painted Lichtenstein's two whimsical verstons of more celebrated version of 1953 (tig. 3). (see fig. 1). preceded Larry Puvers's matter for most of his work at the While Lichtenstein drew on early American subject

time, he was indebted to

European Modernists such

Picasso for the Matisse, loan Miro, and Pablo

Robert Rosenblum,

New

York

in 1954,

in his

way

in

as Vas.lv

Kandmsky. Paul Klee. Henri

which he used motifs

review of Lichtenstein's show

at

the

stylistically.

John Heller Gallery

in

between style and noted that these paintings "present an incongruity his mature work. that later became more evident in

subject." a characteristic feature

Rosenblum

Lichtenstein's singled out the "annoying quality of

Americana

in a Vart

pom

"attractively composed of large flat colorcontext" but praised the pictures for being and Indian-lore are unobtrusively [sic] planes into which the forms of his battle-scenes Varl

assimilated."

The

paintings of this period constitute Lichtenstein's

attempted

to define

first

use of an approach that

abstract style. In his popular subject matter within the context of dissonance between a 1960s, Lichtenstein magnified the

fully

developed work of the early 7.

Eduardo Paolozzi,

/

Was a Rich Manh Plaything,

<

a

1947

f the Tate

on papi

ollag.

(

Gallery,

1

m

subject and a fine-art style

commonplace by

Ion

isolating

was

this

and emphasizing these images

subject

at

this

media. Ten Dollar

development his

is

i(

that

makes

'

i

9.

I

i

different.

Jew

[Collins], Tricky Cad, 19

1

-.

I

Quel, 1954

(detail)

Notebook

controversial subjects

and

plane. It in relationship to the painting's picture

1950s paintings of Americana,

a

first

brought him to

common enough

Hill (fig.

in the 1950s.

works of the

m

.hanged when he began

consumer products and images

12), a

lithograph of 1956,

What

early 1960s

is

his

is

culled from the mass

indicative of Lichtenstein's

distinguishes this and his other

works of the period from

merging of popular images with

abstract forms.

Using

space. Lichtenstein fractured the motif and the Cubist precedent of fragmenting forms in with the foreground was integrated as a single entity

reorganized the

it

so that the subject in

background

of 19o1-(>2, he moved away from the disintegration figure/ground relationship as part of a new dynamic.

plane. In his paintings

of the subject and restated the

Zundel

,

New

homes so

Kunsthalle Tubingen

so appealing?, \95i

Sammlung

today's

The

L961.

in

1960s, featuring contemporary

Richard Hamilton, Just what

more

tough impassive style of his 1960s the time, lacked the clarity of image and the the to explore other American themes

work. However,

8.

far

style that notorious marriage of low-art subject and high-art

prominence beginning

/,i

by choosing

i

of twelve

Born on the Upper West Side of Manhattan on October in a happy, middle-class

home. His

father,

who

died

27, 1923, Lichtenstein

when Roy was

grew up

twenty-three, was a


and

realtor,

his

mother was

led an uneventful

Renee.

a

housewife. According to the

life.

His

End Avenue and then

When he was eight and nme. he spent his summers summers upstate New York; tins was followed by two .it

time that he

recalls

going with

Carnegie Hall

first

his

childhood tnend

Don Wolf to

younger

t.nnp Belgrade

at

Sagamore

Maine

in

fascinated « ith

ame

hear lienm

i

his horn*

n< ai

Camp

sister.

»

He

it.

Iman perform

<

in

It

al

interest in music. Lichtenstein took up

Because of Wolfs

later.

P.S 9

al

hues' camp,

.1

heard blues music on the radio and he,

few yean

a

his

years in grade school were spent attending

first

kindergarten near 104th Street and West

at tins

he and

artist,

the clarinet briefly. In 1936, Lichtenstein

school on Manhattan's

when he turned

Durum

Design I

began eighth grade

Upper West

Side.

at

the Frankhn S( hool

There were no

fo!

classes fourteen he began taking Saturday morning

his

high-school years he

heater and the Savo, Ballroom

in

at

Frankhn

Parsons

hool

Si

ol

the Apollo interested in jazz, frequenting

he ame

Harlem and

Boys, a pnvate

art classes offered at

listening ,0

band and

Count 11-

este,

I

as on and around Fifty-second Street, such Young on tenor sax. He went to jazz clubs and. mspired by the Famous Door, and Hickory louse; Kelly's Stables, the Three Deuces, -Ml he In based on portraits of jazz musicians. Picasso, he nude several paintings Keahst ial Students eagtie taught by Ame, an So, I

I.

I

enrolled in a

summer

class at the

i,

Art

I

pa.nt.ng remembers that the class, winch involved painter Reginald Marsh. Lichtenstein hardly saw Marsh one of Marsh's monitors and that he from a model, was supervised by

pursue Ins interest ,1, art and. school in 1940, he decided .0 After graduating from high -here he cot d program at Ohio State University „ hi, Ppints' urging, found a fine arts »43, and, State from 1940 to student at Lichtenstein was earn a bachelor s degree. d w.th his in 1946 and his military service, he reenrolled

Ohm

.,

completing

after

M.F.A. degree graduate stud,;, receiving an organization to the teachings of 1

Sua!

-stem

194

in

Sherman, one of fa.

1

, there.

profi

, of the relationship between a student Sherman' stressed the importance the downplayed the significance ofmabng drawing from a model, and

when

resemble the mode,.

mark and

Of particular

interest to

to the marks placed next

^h

for the after Lichtenstein left

,;,

briefly

dashed on the scree,

it.

the rel

Sherm

Sherman

later

army hut remodeled in a

darke

a class

taught

I

I'M,,

in

h

,es, ,„

attributes h,s

and . nous dr.

ip be-

using a

fed.

na

ash lab lante,

h

„lt

s he

o draw

student was expecte

ana

and from ,« the Stud, n. afterimage was very strong he or She had seen. The whole, As ,.„h,e„s,em has individual parts and the ;,;,, ,onsh,p between the go a, Le taught me h ,

h

NN

lt

t

f:;l

h

Orgamzed

p'erceptio

^z:::l

Chapter

1:

The Early Years

c

hat art

„,,„,„

is all

about.

1

i»™™^*™xz2F


t

bm^)*&*0&&? B ceF Ya\v&bU fcr JPxp krirf l(


n

didn't

r.

relish

..IK

for Kxplmr?

needed

military personnel were

When more

this job.""

his pilot instruction

of the Bulge,

after the Batik-

'^Valuable

doing

was cut short and

Europe

in

unit was shipped

Ins

Belgium, and Germany, until overseas in February 1945. He served in England, France, and the other members of Ins unit the war came to a close in Europe ... May. Lichtenstein war in Japan. When Japan waited to see if the} would receive orders to fight the 'MS. bringing World War II to an end. surrendered to the Allied nations on September 2. a time to serve as including his—were ordered to remain in Europe foi I

many units—

French and histor) policing forces. During that time, he studied in Paris. Later that year his father

and was to

and completed

State

graduating

his

home

so he was furloughed

When

he came

in

Ohio

State's

was domed tenure

work

there as a decorator.

Cleveland-teaching

M.F.A. program, was lured

engineering draftsman

Cooper School,

Republic

at

(the}

wt re divon ed

moved

a

commercial

decorating display windows part-time

at

art

at

of odd ,obs

working

work

dial

found

Isabel

foi

1

in

an

as

hckock

an architecture tun,, and

1954 and 1956, sons

Store, l„

Department

Halle's

when

hool;

s<

an

1949), and

at a series

doing black-and-white

Steel;

models Instrument Company; making project

Electrical

wanked

as

1965) and, after he

...

to Cleveland

the next sb< years, he

During

the

at

1949

State in 1951, they

Ohio

at

in

York

After

Bill.

1.

received his master's degree in instructor while pursuing his stud.es (he

continued to teach there until 1951. Lichtenstein married Isabel Wilson

New

to

back to the U.S.. he returned

undergraduate stud.es under the G.

|une 1946, he enrolled

in

ill,

discharged in January 1946.

finally

Ohio

became

the Cite Universitaire

at

bom. In 1968, Lichtenstein married David Hoyt and Mitchell Wilson were prepar York inautumn 1964 during th, Herzka, whom he had met in New asso, artists several by American Supermarket (featuring works

.1-

1

1

»

sfo,

fated with

exhibition called the

He returned University of

J ,

,„

en, lb,

Advert

••The

Ope

'.

ibb,

McNeill

&

Urry'.

Cooked

ed Beef,"

<

re,

luce

DnmadeEvenB ToldinPaindnp.-ii|e,july4.m9,p.48

...Hers,

New

York

first

where she worked.

when he was

Oswego, and remained on the

a,

fessor , t Douglass College,

yeat on

tl

,

,

uglass faculty,

I

offered

Rutgers University,

ichtenstein

tion

,

,„

the Stat,

New Jersey,

met Allan Kaprow, who I

Kap,ow

-

I

m of art

,;„;„)

evems

Thte

, whKl ,

,

called

utilized a series ofprops,

Happenings

ob

like

then precursors

e cs'and the actors

in

many 1

of, hen, larger-than-life

who accompanied the,

shared e M t,

in

1

959, he and

,

1

„.

Roy Uch.eo S .e o,T7,rE^«r,r.,

1952

Oiloncn™,

K>.7 »

Gallen,

Some

Mn

rheBudertetftuleofArne

Robert

Miller,

to

V

.,..

Ohio.Gifto.

1960

Chapter

1:

his

«

a,

the

1

oUeagues performed nunc

,

s.z

hfe ol

billing „

dtere .l.e.r

ere

an,

^^^ In

of

Ik

March and

p

,

were exhibited a the Martha of the props from the Happenings

i

(16lt ,4 inches)

Mi and

1

,1

"objects in motion.

and beginning

Reuben

had

)ada and Surreal

lie perceived, according to Oldenburg, as environments Number of 1958, Kapmw created two

,,„

w*

studied with

H

>S

,„

ega. (then completing

»

Whitman, who had both

and Robert FA.,. ,n, to Lucas Samaras

.,,

there u„„l he was

stall

to Oldenburg, Rutgers. Kaprow introduced him

at

a

through ^several he also met Robert Watts and, the year before. A, Douglass :ge Brecht, Geoffrey movement, includingG members of the burgeoning Fluxus *« *U and George Maciunas. Ka, neks DickHiggins, Alison Knowles, " ri e the new an Happenings (a tern, he invented todes, ,

8 B ofd1eWesttI

M

(

to teach,.,, mil-time in 1957

assistant

Ws

[n

„ ling „.

Bianchini

art scene) at the Paul

Pop

The Early Years


I

i^^iJiiy-

tiiV^:MmMdi

/77

12.

Roy Lichtenstein,

7Wi Dollar Bill, 1956 Lithograph numbei 10

>

i

in,

hi s

Pi

i\

iti

i

"ll'

i

don

n

18

i

u

13 ol

in edition


^=*

right

,,,„„,

13.

Roy

Lichtenstein, Untitled, 1960 Oil on Private

i

14.

Robert Rauschenberg, Bed, 1955

canvas, 121 9 K 177

pillow, quUt ,

ollccdon s

„„

,,f

»

Modem

(

ombine painting

191.1x80x20.3 and sheet on vvood supports,

,

Art.

,1 gift ...

New

York.

Leo Castelb

in

honor of Alfred

H

oil

and pencil on

cm (75^x31 Barr.Jr to

The Muse


David Anderson Gallery

association with the

staged six Happenings in 17.

and

Based on

18).

and encourage the

form

a

New

in

York, the Martha Jackson Gallery

presentation called Environments - Situations - Spaces

.1

performance

ol

was meant

art that

to utilize the five senses

participation of the audience, that exhibition featured Oldenburg's

full

months

07 East Second Street

installation

work The

in a rented

warehouse, former!) used to stoic dining-room furniture,

"Ray Gun Mfg. soaked

(which he re-created

Store

Go.").

The Store

mannequin with

bridal

*

onsisted o\ 107 items

bouquet, and various

a

six

later at

replicas

environment of

paint,

he renamed the

that

of pastries, clothes,

Dine had created

and with

.1

walls covered in canvas

room with

electric fans placed

the ceiling, from

pile oi tires entitled Yard

^d

piled into the courtyard of the gallery

fifty tires

which more

paint

behind

tin.

fabl

and

in the

— an

D. lie's Spring green

resin

acrylii

and paint buckets suspended from

i<

poured into the room. Turning

remnants for their inspiration, the perpetrators of

a

made from muslm

items

relicts oi similar

Environments - Situations - Spaces exhibition were Kaprow's

Cabinet.

I

wet plaster and thickK painted with bright colored enamels. Other works

in

16,

(figs.

this

new

art

to S0< utv's

signaled

a

mate]

tal

dramati<

departure from Abstract Expressionism. Lichtenstein attributes Ins renewed interest

exposure to Happenings and performance

KapIOW

that

Gallery

staged

at

him

I

lappeningS

the Martha Jackson

Kaprow

which Kaprow

He remembers

discussions with

like art. Lichtenstein,

newest paintings,

his

preparatory drawings exist (see

abstrai

fig.

15).

also frequent

Lichtenstein began his

first

for

1

anvases with cartoon figures such

in their

working

Pop

art

as

midst, ol whi( h today only

in

visitors to his studio in

Pop paintings shortly

Although the groundwork

1

encouraged by Kaprow's

Kaprow remembers being

the work, but urged Lichtenstein to continue

who were

informal

ol the

m

Donald Duck, Bugs Bunny, and Mickey Mouse

and Watts,

some

saw

the time to his

at

argued that painting did not have to look remarks, showed

He

al

Douglass and the exhibitions related to them

I960 and L961.

in

art.

popular imager)

in

tak< n

iba< k

b)

firs!

al

that direction— ami so did Segal

Highland Park,

New Jersey.

thereafter.

had been

laid

most Johns, Rivers, and others and by the Happenings,

by the work of kausi henberg. oi the art

world received

its

arrival

advertising' These were concepts

with shocked incredulity. Art based on cartoons- On was generally known and that deeply offended the notion of taste as it early 1960s, even I

he comic

among

strip,

ai

1

epted

in the

the most radical of the avant-garde.

with

its

ready-made drama, conquering heroes, and anxious heroines.

and the consumer products advertised

m

the

New

York Yellow Pages provided

while the Benday-dot screen Lichtenstein with a potentially explosive series of subjects, which gradations a method oi producing printed images in

technique used in advertising—

of shading are translated

...to a

new way of painting. Unlike from the subconscious.

I

system of dots reproduced by line engraving" -sue- Sted

the Abstract Expressionists,

ichtcnstc.n prefer*

who

d to work with

.1

preex.st.ngser.es of .mages.

confront the paintings that resembled cliches and. in so doing, to govern how we recognize ..rt as art. His ultimate cliches of art and the conventions that with art— common objects, the comic aim was to use subjects seen as incompatible

He wanted

strip-

as

to

make

the central matter of his

Although he washed

13

Chapter

1:

to

make

The Early Years

a

art.

and thus

painting that

a

externalized themes drawn

to force the issue

ofwhal

constitutes

art

was so -despicable- no one would hang

it.


15.

Roy â&#x20AC;¢

Lichtenstein, Donald Duck, 1958 India ink on pipe

24

in. In

-

Private collc< tion

r,

50


,

Lichtenstein was quick to assert .mother goal will to

form.

transform

its

When Swenson

that

the comic strip

but there

whatevei is

.....

foi

been no

h..s

is

mi<

visual syntax

really in

is

and claimed

for the

often not

community—who

art

challenge Thus, against for art

Pop

Is

.1

of admirers, and

this

slighi the

is

it

role that only a short

ru<

i

6om

ial

63

tune earlh

prompted the

arris,

its

the

in

I

inner

had belonged

1

Some

world

ari

other partisans of Abstract Expressionism, while

no longer saw

either

r\bstra<

i

eed(

su(

artei

i.

I

nent, "apparendy they didn't

this

-

-

m

its

IRTmw

htenstein

there was

I

.1

a

a

wii

ig

.

Parti,"

s

196

I,

s

m.

to

as a historic shift in

EightPai

share ol den

-

Expressionism

-

realism—were unprepared

to

urred two years

h,s interviev

I

consum.

ol a

ol an int. nse

many

derision In

\nswersl

Art:

work had more than

his

different,

however bui

and began what can now be seen

1963), pp 25, 62

scene Although

is

dun, em

the odds. Lichtenstein and his colleagi*

all

G[e „e]R Swenson. "What

(November

men

he purpose

I

I

form, whereas

omics hav. shapes

<

painting the results

in

ofa return

threat or envisioned the possibility

new audience

do

is

actually

is

t

transformation

ii

I

he presented the portrait

dnp. Lichtenstein's work was greeted with

segments of the

1

rent pla.

diffi

strip,

Benday dot

of the most vocal opposition came from

a

is

seem-

culture to an audience accustomed to

to the

a

difference

and attitude of advertising and the com.,

struggle,

does not

art

Lichtenstein proposed of cartoon imager} and advertising techniques, the Lool with which to identify American postwar society. Adapting

In his blatant use

new

And my work

intend to unify

some The

difference seems to

call

\\ hal

in

then. uitenseK unified

make

every mark

strips in that

importani to

is

ii

wouldn't

l

the sense I'm using the word, the

in

effort to 1

In

mean!

med

one intends to depicl and

a

1963 interview, wh« ther Pop

in his

isdifferem fiom comit strips—bui

my work

thmk

don't

,

well, the age-old ambition of the painter's

models, he replied:

think

I

him,

.tskeu

.is

62 no

first

all

i

I- that

direction.

onto the

bu,

bui

J

[advert

audien,

,1

enough

either."

2

The Club: For an

the Artists

of the Ne» YorkScI

(September 1965), pp 27

tan,

(in

to

11

;igh,h Street "

caUedit the Cedar B. ,ity

3.HaroldR

Place,

nberg,

rheir First

1

rhe Ceda, Ba,

51

first loca.

rndU

Clubandits:

in-depth disc,

;

its

d name

...

present location), aid that

was the

Ho«

'

<

eda, Stra

In

l»Ek

1963 (whe itsn

is still

*mC A*

Acti,

»

'

U

'

peoplewhofi*

ghn

was changed to the Cedar T,

"The American

hf

artists' lung...,,

U

Place)

and U,

.1-

tb

ingSandle,

Audience- rhemselves."

h.

I

i

.31

.

berl952).

I

pp. 22-23.

4 Cage had been the only pe, rtyardoftheM;

^..W.AUanKaprowinhisinstaUationy^.inthe Gallery,

[une 2^

Ne*

Env York, during the exhibition

|acl

,,„,; nts

Situai

- Spaces,

M*J 25

m

,,

performed with Cage

f 77*

*,« for *e

5.

exhibit

TheaurPieaNc

berg, excerpt

RobertR,

Millet (Nc-u York: nvironmenb

,„„„„„

1952, after they

1961

„,„„ n.ciacsOldcnburgduringtheinstalL /

in

Environments

Museum

from

me, I,

a,

Black

a mull

artisfs

Mo

-

lexhil

Uus,

ft.

I

became

henberg

R.

friends.

idiaeven!

statem.

-.«*

S

<

"

"

of Modern An. 1959), p 58

Spaces

Situations

isjlm Dine in

purchase a painting

his installation Sj

Situations -

I

Cabinet in the exhibition

„,,!„, ,,.„,.„,

Spaa

15

Chapter

Bruce Glaser/'OldenburgUchte

,,..,

1:

,

p.

21. Since ma.

The Early Years

;

he

b. said that the s,

mW, ,

bAD

;**-*

-

*

*"

>

,


Mickey, 1961, ,

i

M

7

may

no. have been

bubble gun, wrapper

..

I

le

does

recall,

however,

it

was

a

small

toon or comi< -strip panel

I

he

first

to seriousl, delve into

ta soutce in h,s

I

Busche illustrates I*. Bcptore. and ichtenstem's pre-Pop work. Ernst A.

(^(Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag, 1988), hook Roy Uchtenstem Das FrSter* 1942appeared-August Busche gives for the issue of [# in which the ad

29,

152-53. However, the date that

pp

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

[949

is

incorrect; the correct date

is

Jul) 4. 1949

(February 15, 1954), p 22. Lichtenstein," Art Digest 29, no. 10

8.

Robert] R[osenblum], "Roy

9.

and Lichtenstein's use ofi. For an in-depth discussion ofSherman's "flash lab" her,

(

that

Publications,

L

(I

os Angeles:

quoted

in

11. Lichtenstein,

quoted

(in

12.

13.

Swenson, "What

p.

New

)avid

Museum cat.,

ot

ed

York: Bizzoli International

Is

Fop Art?"

p. ''2.

English) in Busche. Uchtenstein: Das Friihwerk,

Claes Oldenburg, quoted

1965),

Art;

I

992), pp. 101-6.

ichtenstein,

1

Museum of Contemporary

student, sec

1955-62, exhib.

Art in Transition, Art. Los Angeles, Hand-Painted Pop. American

Russell Ferguson

as a

Artist," in the

of the American "Unsentimental Education: The Professionalization

ontemporan

Hi

F.

in

Michael Kirby,

ed., Happenings:

in

p.

Illustrated

17.

Anthology

(New

York: Dutton,

200.

The Benday

process of photoengraving was invented in 1879 and

York newspaper engraver, who

utilized a series

of celluloid screens with

patterns to produce halftone images for printing.

14. Lichtenstein,

quoted

in

Swenson. "What

Is

named

Pop

Art"-," p.

63.

after

raised

Benjamin Day.

a

New

images of dot and line


LOOK

MICKEY,

HOOKED A BIGA ONE// I'VE//

19.

Roy

69 im he

Lichtenstcin, Look Mickey, 1961

-

Partial

ind promisi d

gift to

Oil

on

the National

canvas, 121.9)1 175

(

..ill.

ry

I

cm

(48

k

of Art, Washington, D.C,


\

Look Mickey

(fig.

n ),

I

l

n C>l,

that Lichtenstein painted

one of several works with eartoon or comic-strip

is

beginning

spring of 1961. Lichtenstein

in the

recollection that he based the image on

panel ol

a

.1

comi<

wrapper, but efforts to locate the original source have so

remembers Bubble

Gum

teach

from something

it

like this"

with the image of Donald first"

but realized that

Duck

can't te.u

Lichtenstein then

in

it.

li

In

.

,

from 11

showed him

Kaprow admitted

bubble-gum

a

K a prow

Bazooka Double

a

Ce/annc. you

0I01 Ii.hii

1

subjects

vivid

unsuccessful/

he pointed to

that once, in a discussion with Lichtenstein,

wrapper and remarked. "You

strip

t.11

lias a

an

ÂŤ

I'd

just bi

en saying."

1

<

the painting he had

feeling "sort of nonplussed

Lichtenstein "had confirmed what

*

il

du\t

ai

3

Lichtenstein destroyed those earliest paintings featuring cartoon images, and shortly

he painted Look Mickey.

thereafter

expressionism

in it."

was, he recently remarked, his

It

work of many

In the 1950s, the

who were

artists

Pop idiom

to develop the

the influence of Abstract Expressionism. Rauschenberg acknowledged

Abstract Expressionism by painting

He

was committed

some record of the

to that

some of its most

movement's formal

rich diversity of real

both the nature of painting and the to his canvases reproductions

art

and

as if it

laid the

life,

groundwork

at

the

<

olor.

kauschenberg

astclli

(

in

in

indebtedness to

m

lived.

my snow WARM ENOUGH-

BRR

suit icTTT fu. put

ON A SWEATER TOO

which he showed

his series

of Flag and

at

the Tibor de

actions and events h\ collaging ind

ts

to record the

vated the banal to the level

el<

Target paintings

m

1^54-55

ol

Many of Rauschenberg's mid-

art.

Gallery in 1958.

Nagy

1

I

probed

[e

I

any

1

Rivers, anothei

seminal figure of that period, combined proto-Pop imagery with abstract painting canvases,

showed

ombination with

-

which he

By choosing

emergence of Pop Leo

still

illustrating various topical subjei

passages of pure

for the

1950s combines were shown

aesthetic, but onl)

meaning of e\vi\d.i\

were extraordinary,

his

exquisite passages in Rebus

of the world

and photographs

combining them with painted

commonplace

painting with no

"first

3

Gallery beginning (see fig. 80),

in

in his

1953. Johns began

and showed them

at Castelli

Rausc henhcrg, Although Lichtenstein and Warhol would have seen the work of

in 1958.

follow the lead of those three Rivers, and Johns during that period, they did not simply paintings 111 I960 and 1961. As but struck offin a new direction with their hist Pop the,. Both he ..nd Warhol Lichtenstein has noted, he was finished with expressionism by initially

turned

commercial images ex<

to

lusively for their subject matter.

It

was

this

imagery that distinguished them singular focus on advertising and cartoon/comic-strip

from their predecessors, and served In the spring

as the

foundation tor their subsequent development.

more artoon harai ters as and summer of 1961, Lichtenstein chose two and Wimpy Tweet) (fig. 24). to Mickey, and pamted Popeye (f.g. 22) .

subjects, in addition

Warhol had used paintings

BRR im STItL

his paintings

that

who

was

at that

time

based on cartoons or comic

he designed

in April

1961

fol

20.

Andy Warhol, Dick

4S inches) bottom

21.

60 inches)

David Geffen

t

Andy Warhol, Private

(

oll<

i

They, I960 \crylk on canvas, 200.7 icll4.3(

\crylic

on canvas

121.9

x 152.4

m

cm

Strips

and advertisements

Teller

on

I

ift)

seventh

Strip

first

artist,

in

the

exhibited five

window

Street in

ol

display

Manhattan.

were on view behind the mannequins three cartoon/com.c-stnp canvases that Km*-were painted in I960 and 1961. Other Superman, Saturday's Popeye, and The Uttle painted at that tune included two version cartoon/Comic-Strip canvases by Warhol based on Elzie (fig. 20), anothei painting Chester Gould's private-eye hen, Dick Tracy Warhol and and one otNancy (f.g- 21). Since

ollection

Nancy, 1961

ol his

well-known commercial

a

Bonwit

The top

some

similar characters the year before in

Warhol,

1

1

(48 x

Segar's Popeye (f.g

don

21

Chapter

2:

23),

one of Batman,

Early Pop Pictures


22.

Ro> Lichtcnstcin. Popeyc,

1961

Oil

on

canvas, 106.7 x

142.2cm (42x


Lichtenstein had not yet met, and Lichtenstein painted Ins cartoon at

around the same tunc

likely that

Warhol showed

that

his

m

omi(

<

strip paintings

the department-Store windows,

each was unaware of what the other was doing and that they arrived

u

is

it

ill'

ii

choice of subjects independently.

Both Warhol and Lichtenstein approached the Lichtenstein

remembers

the dealer and his wife, lleana

eo Castelli Gallery

1

seeing Castelli earlier; in

( l

Sonnabend, but apparently

to exhibit them. In 1961, k.iprow suggested that he

mto

the gallery

New

in

Karp was

York when

1

instantly taken

show

his

Wirhol

the brownstone

at

he lived with

his

Ferus Gallery

in

also

cartoon/comic-strip to

that each offered Castelli.

him

When

paintings

s

a

23.

Andy Warhol,

Popeye, I960 Synthetic polymei painl on

i

am

is,

I

3 4

Sonnabend,

at

him

48 6

in (68

i

k

58

in<

hes)

was about

bai k in

that,

difticult to represent

.i

meet

to

Street in

Manhattan whi

was then

a dire< tOl "I the

open

to

a galler)

n

Paris,

in

spot. Lichtenstein held back, waiting foi an answei

Lichtenstein returned to the gallery, this time Castelli offered him

because Warhols work was so similar to

both of them, Castelli decided not

Nancy, and several canvases featuring I

come

to

tune that Karp look linn

Blum, who

who

Lichtenstein remembers seeing Warhol's work

x

paintings

the Castelli (".alien and were so taken with the work

show on the

one-person show. Believing

would be

this

on Lexington Avenue and Ninetieth

os Angeles, and

indents

oi

with the work .md selected several paintings from

was around

it

group

a

some of the new

lchtcnstcin brought

mother. West Coast dealer Irving 1

saw Lichtenstein

from

recalls that

spring 1961

his abstract paintings to

the group for Castelli to view. Castelli expressed interest but asked

few weeks. Lichtenstein

in late

were not interested enough

the}

Karp was speaking

paintings to Ivan Karp. director of the gallery.

from Finch College

he showed

^(>0

oca

<

<

at

the

gall. a

ami

ola bottles)

\

to

Li< ht( nsti in's,

(probably Dick

home.

at his

it

Warhol on

e

ll

I

a

m

Tracy,

In the

meantime,

Private collection

Warhol had seen Lichtenstein's work

at Castelli's

about the comic-Strip paintings he had seen

he

recalls the first

Following strip

painting of

a

man

in a

h.s visit to the Castelli Gallery,

images and shortly thereafter began

In

many ways both

advertising's

power

artists

"And

Warhol deeded to paint

to shape public opinion.

into

a

there

rocket ship with

were remarkably

media transformed everything

some of

there. In Warhol's

time he saw Lichtenstein \ work:

me about— a

telling

galler)

I

memoir I

I

him

told

j

published

saw wlui

a girl

an

1980,

in

red had

I

Hie background

in

to stop painting

i

artoon comi<

ampbclls soup cans.

(

pres, i.ni in

then understands

he) were fascinated b)

product regardless

the media's most formidable stereotypes

ted

after his friend

as

ol

its

wa) ...win,

th«

meaning.

ind the) sel

the

I,

.1

t< .

subjects for then paintings. Both

Benda) dol technique into a pivotal adapted its methods, Lichtenstein by converting the hard-sell t. hniques md formal device, and Warhol by paraphrasing the media's Despit ofp; g on.U using its silkscreening process as an equaUy effectiv method blind n significant differences. Warhol hose these similarities, however, there are and Lvil as Marilyn Monroe. Elizabeth 1,1products and the period's sex symbols, such Nearly e pulled from the front pages of newspapers. Presley, or images of disaster and many of the paintings reeked ol i

i

I

subject

Warhol touched was contemporary,

subjects were controversial Within sensationalism, tragedy, or death, lie htenste.n's

There w. but then origins were downplayed. work The brand names that appea,

brand

,

context of -high"

art,

refrigerators, socks, or tires in his

work

23

are Picasso.

Chapter

2:

Cezanne, and

Early Pop Pictures

Piet

Mondrian or

u,

I

e

m htenstein

the infrequent historical subjeel

ii»

s

h as


24.

I

Roy

|6 K 20

Lichtenstein, H).

I

Wimpy Olll

I

(Tweet), 1961

""ii

Oil

ranvas

40.6

X

50.8

cm


George Washington. With the exception Popeye, and Wimpy, early subjects strips that

such famous characters

of

Other

subjects.

preference for the domestic setting and the

<

differences include

omi<

and white, whereas Warhol chose

m

dots

resemblance between the two

imagery that

down

He

m

Mickey, Lichtenstein initiated

terms

working

canvas,

in oils

for

ot

a

primary colors

m

much more

a

well as Popeye and

order of Lichtenstein's

Wimpy

and narrative

mu work

G

mark an abrupt imagery to the

from

shift

stylistic

provocative subject to the grand

the

pamtmgs of Americana,

manner of "high"

of style and content

meaning

art to

look

like a

model.

ot his

on whi<

Mi* key

I)

lacks the

igorou

i

new

a

Mi'

style

conventions of the

whn

in

framework of Ssnthetn Cubism. Here. test

Strip

comic-strip paintings, but Look Mickey

later

.\n absolute fidelity to the

his earlier

m

The image

(Tweet) have the freshness and naivete ol

and explicitness of the images and

omit

(

is

tune on

that

other early works, he drew the image

are standing and by a few scribbled waves.

stylistic

painterly

certain relative similarity, there

dun development from

to a cursory setting indicated primarily by the receding platfol

formal and

well as black

as

and emulating the bright primary colors of the

faithfully duplicated the illustrative

and Donald Duck

bold silhouetted

sequence of cartoon and

a

lasted until 1965. In this painting, as

on the

original.

artists

were

ollectively

i

u htenstein's

I

imagery, pastel colors, and

serial

technique. Although their subjects continued to show

With Look

and

strip panel,

forms and the mechanical look of printed Benday

directly

Mickey Mouse,

Lichtenstein tended to select products and comic

all,

were generic to American culture but which individually and

more anonymous than Warhol's

little

as

in

reproduction.

1

.is

cl n it}

artoon

i

he had adapted th

I.

ichtenstein

d

USi

a

an and painted an image

Once

the precedeni

painting was established, he turned to other sources, choosing comii

foi

in

In

strip panels thai

u ios, and artifu ial coloi with their awkward "how-to-draw-a-figure** look, contrived s< en and its cultUH more closely approximated the way in which he perceived postwai SO. iety

to

have evolved.

The term "popular critic

appeared

art" first

Lawrence Allowav.

London

In

and architects associated with the

in print in

in the

writing of the Hi

spring ot 1952, some fifteen

in the

Institute

1958

of Contemporary Art (K

'A)

write!

artisl

in<

itish

ludin

Alison and Petei Smithson, and Richard Hamilton and Eduardo Paolozzi, architects outside the ranks ol th. Reyner Banham and Allowayâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; formed a discussion group Institute

and thus became known

as

the Independent

i

.

(IG). Dissatisfied with

Group

advocates of popular culture, embracing postwar Britain's prevailing aesthetic, they became .ids, of the American mass media, such as automobile a new aesthetic based on images

comic

strips,

Hollywood movies,

Paolozzi exhibited

a

television.

group of collages

ien( e

s(

that he

,

key example of

Tomorrow, which opened

at

his early use

the

/

Was

a

In

and pop musi.

had made using

Collages such as postcards, and ads as his sources.

1947 are

-

I

s<

ien. e

ICA m August

Rich Man's Plaything

(fig

Th

twelve teams 1956, the IG assembled

create insuUa. sculptor, and an architect-to each one consisting of a painter, a arts to daih) the ambition of linking the visual featuring all the visual arts, with

Though not

c

25

J

ei [n this

Chapter

2:

collage Just what exhibited ,n the show. Hamilton's seminal

WO rk, Hamilton

Early Pop Pictures

satirized the

P nl 1952,

imagery,

I, tion

of Pop imagery. Lor the exhibition

\

bourgeois

Ameru

ulAW

is

1..

a thai

class

at

m

ÂŤt


,v.

'

u

^

mfS

/"

,..'

left

25.

Roy

177.8 x 121.9

Lichtcnstein, Black Flowers, 1961

Ncwhousc right

2(».

cm (70x48

inches)

(

ollection

Mr

Oil on canvas and Mrs S

|r

Pag<

from R.O) Lichtcnstein $ sourcebooks

ca

1960s

I


lioge. Truly, tht HibilCttt

dWfl on

m attention needtd. Thii * v tcorUt plant* in < indoor r* 1

nea-

.

..« oHemons

in


when

U

the

to

was beginning

S.

make

mark

us

in

Europe.

The

collage tc.uu.es v

nous

queen, a TV sec. and a a bodybuilder, a pinup symbols of popular cultnre, including magazine ). m OR.GINA! love & romance comics famed cover of Young Romance ("the purchased on the mstallment plan. that looks as if it were the living room of a home 1c a, a powerful lorcc.n advertising seriously, seeing it ton and his colleagues took la transplanted to the U. S., the term of contemporary life. When socia] , nd economic fabric ,

"Pop

came

art"

to

be used to descr.be the

art itself."

around a . American colleagues, however, centered chtenstein s relationship to his shared agenda. Although everyday usage rather than from a mutual respect for objects of media, influenced by some torn, ot the all of them were each worked independently, Lichtenstein's experience as a d.rect experience in the held. asionally as the rest.lt of o, washing machines presentation of kitchen stoves, draftsman is reflected in his spare sneakers, socks^etc. sodas, cherry pies, hot dogs, interiors, golf balls, ice-cream bathroo and as wipmg, spraying, depictions of such demesne rituals TKl „, his highly enlarged -

,

,

m

,

spongi„ g

(see, for

,„d Sponge

rtdenburg,

aids

who made

installation (fig. 28);

canvases;

and

painter to easel-size his skills as a billboard

American domestic l.tc. and other aspects of contemporary 3D). Add to these artists newspapers and magazines (see figs. 2. and

of cosmetic

based on ads from ,

Refrigerator, Spray,

figs.

soap-pad boxes. Rosenqu.st adapted

portrayals

Washing Machine, The

Warhol's experience as an illustrator 31, 56, 57. 58, on. and 61). Campbell's soup cans and to fabricate contributed to his decision to paint

II.

undoubtedly Brillo

example, Golf Ball Bathro

Segal,

larger-than-life-size sculptures

who

life-size plaster figures (see or bath with pure-white castings of

fig.

27).

For

all

Wbman Shaving Her Ug %

1963

65* Winches)

m. i

,

Mrs RobertB

(

I„ 1961

New

his wife and children and Lichtenstein briefly separated from

cm

BhmmM

(119

I

vinyl, tn.

I

J

Manhattan.

nearby Coenties .

for less than a year before

intario

Isabel again

„l die

variety

Highland Park,

He

rented

a loft

on Broad

moving back

and took

.,

loft at

to his family in

1961-62 such

New Jersey.

In 1963,

he separated

and the 36 West Twenty-sixth Street in Manhattan, Throughout this period he continued to work on a

moved to Princeton. single of subjects, among them paintings of

family

Street in

Slip,

x 204 x 252 inches) National Gallery

from

left

phenomenon

Lower Manhattan, between meeting several artists who lived on and Battery Park. Lichtenstein remembers Youngerman. He staved there particularly Robert Indiana and Jack

|ersey tor

W.ll Street

Claes Oldenburg, Bedroom

518.2x640.1 id

Collection

igo

fc(

2K.

metal porcelain, and

Plastei

ot them.

goal was the attainment ot

of a society whose common the media provided potent images cultural these artists isolated and amplified a the American dream. Together, 1960s. new to the painting and sculpture of the early np 27. George Segal,

room

a "realistic

bathroom sinks to his attached such utilitarian objects as actual chairs, table, bed. created "real-life" tableaux juxtaposing

Dine,

who

of food and

as Black Flowers (fig. 25),

objects. In single-object paintings

ot a Lichtenstein painted a careful rendition

rest

of still

newspaper (see fig. 26 for the type ot illustration from an advertisement he found in a arrangement, he made a startling and provocative he used). From a seemingly banal image tor , traditional look of a hand-painted punt,,,., in which he discarded the

life

To achieve this look. Lichtenstein mechanical one that resembled the reproduction. .mages by means of halftone screens of Benday simulated the newspaper process of printing them to stenciling dots onto a canvas and used dots He invented his own method of described the the flat wall behind the flowers. He suggest both the mass of the vase and


tonus of the flowers and the shape of the vase with

a series

p.untcd the image oi\\ black tabletop highlighted with reflections as a support for the vase.

dots used

on the

The

strokes oi white to suggest

fe\a

a

differences in scale between the very small Benda^

and the more boldk rendered

wall

ofblunt black marks, and

slight but perceptible rift in the surface plane.

1

of flowers and

wise

change

Ins

table

was

in scale

Furthermore,

was tempted to regard the

if one

flattened and foreshortened in

arrangements of

them with

fruit

— made

manner

a

To

this impossible.

the plane of the canvas,

1

O

similar to

table as

anne's

shortened tabletops and

fort

ichtenstein cropped the flowers and the

enabled him to keep the tonus firmly

Lichtenstein was

amused by the

He

paint.

idi<

i

he idea

I

done by

ulous to him that he decided that n was

with very

artists

seemed

"it

unartistic appearance. Also, art."

9

The

opposite

tin

this

as

art.

After

about w hat

it

all,

art

was that made

a

Don't test one brand alone

Until* olhen,

TRY THIS TIST!

Wo

«oy

PHIUP

.

.

.

w*

never oik you lo

.

.

illda*

.

olher ciq onlf l Then

fcw*>r»»-

PHILIP

whom

.

artists as

worl

challenged the

cholc*l

Gauguin and

onventions

i

and

formidable achievements Pointillists.

pOiiiJJJJJJj'jJUililJiu

a

i

ertain distance,

an ingloi iou

ol

still

paintin

liri

still

light.

1

I

lenri

lifes,

Mat

h ol

convi - d

244

29.

5

James Rosenquist, The

cm

Institution

bottom

(

30.

olle< tion

(~l

Va

\

96

ti

inches)

Washington, D.(

.

light Tliat Won't Fail

Hirshhorn

Museum

Gifi ol the Joseph

Magazine advertisement,

)5.4

I,

1961

<

>il

Oil

i

anvas, 182.1 X

and Sculptun Garden, Smithsonian

made

si

reens to his painting i"

h coloi theorists

system of dots

Pointillists utilized a precise

approximated the way

in

of the

which color,

da^

that,

as

H. Hirshhom Foundation, 1966

x 26.5 cm

(13

x

10

incho),ca

I

I960

such

informed bv

of black and white

Golf Ball 1962, and ma> be related to

Abstract Expressionists W.lle.n de Kooning,

fames Rosenquist

m

29

the 1940s and 1950s.

Chapter

his

knowledge

viewed from

n

ol theil

il"

in

I

i"

,

wori

post-industrial nature as artificial, irrevocably altered by society in the

ichtenstein's dramatic use as

is

harles Blan.

i—

optically blend

fellow

his

<

wh<

the

alls

by the Post-Impressionist Georges Seurat and

His perception of nature, however,

view of

essem

th<

ichtenstein, however, used

Pointillists an interest nature. Lichtenstein shares with Seurat and Ins fellov, top

\

the first in a series oi paintings that are th

Spurred on by the writings of sm

and C)^\ou Rood, the

in

this sub,

the twentieth centur) paintei

reductive form. Lichtenstem's adaptation ofBenda)

I NO CIGARETTE HANGOVER

made

'I

ussion

disi

ill'

-

i" rnakt

'I

And what mi aning do

irt

radically simplified the w.i\ in whi< h the) painted

black and white to produce

R.m.mb*r

ol

wish

hi

him

to

COnvei ion

[is

reopen that

it

wasn't realr)

it

the French nineteenth-century Post Impressionists

natural forms through their use ofcolor, texture

match

MOMIS agamil on,

mok* your o«n

Paul

also

to

long soliloquy on

a

our brand olon.

l*tl

compare pmur momis

MOMIS

alj!

1

2:

More

Early Pop Pictures

rt

plodding and

i

iwing appealed

di

What was

subject meaningful.

a fitting subject foi a

black-and-white image

Gogh and

wui

compare them

...

clumsy

the basis tor his painting.

have in our time? Black Flowers thus began

such unconventional

romantii

th<

the images]

subjective, and Lichtenstein wanted

is

newspaper reproduction

A

its

he wanted to

i

he reprodui tions wi

I

anything printed looked take or spurious and

raw material

I

mis without

pi.

subjei

a

ol

image into an "unartistic" painting was the preeise point

unartistic

about

[who gave

unartistic nature of the reprodui tion and

he could use

be( ause

training

little

obje(

ll

newspapers

in

ol advertising

heartfelt spilling-your-guts-out posture ot Abstract Expressionism

usually

h<

I

dimi nsion

use of black and white reprodui tions

of image because

liked this kind

tabli

ked into the picture plane,

lo<

and seed catalogues to advertise plants ami flowers. using color seemed so

shape

its

further neutralize the forms and m< rge

emphasis on linear shape rather than on the volumetric form of a thm also

linear in

solid object,

a

a

imm< diateh

riot

apparent because the vase oi flowers had few halftone dots and was basically structure.

leafed

(

I

tin

also a feature -i subsequ. nl

is

bin

I.

and-wh.tc paintings

p;

I

«

and Oth ranz Kline, Robert Motherwell,

to the point, perhaps,

I

i<

htenstein

i

hosi

this

nnag.


~

^ (-

nt "'' " U ' ofM °nd ^8 32), which was oi interest to „„„ a, the rime Here. Lichtenstem emulated Mondrian's reductive style and translated the Dutch artist's """'"' °' S1 mple plus and ,,n forms »'<» I* «ra series ol signs, " breaking down the , ,n bl "" « Section ofhooked marks surrounded ° bjecl '" ;;"","" by bold black outline

-

**

'

.,

In

GolfBallznd other single-object paintings ..the early 1960s, lit, nstein depicted some oi the most frequently advertised images of the time, modeling them after the ids bed clipped from magazines and newspapers i<

I

(» He collet ted images oi gre u subjects from the period that caught his attention. Relatively few became paintingsamong those that did, there is usually a complementary sour, in ari In this instance, the i

many

,

complement

make

to a generic

golfbaD

generic Mondrian. By using Mondrian's

is a

painting of such an object,

a

quaHty. This provocative mixing together of common objects, "high

".7

.'JHjrUt

?.';,--.'

abstract style,

m

syst,

ichtenstein called attention to the object's absti

I

which became the trademark of his

entire oeuvre,

i,

to

i

tmentar) and

art

tnsed the critics and

the public when Lichtenstein's work first appeared ... th, arl) 1960s. >n< w. might concede the method but not the subject; anoth. might admire the subject but not the w.n in which it was painted; but, blind to the development oi a nev, (

i

<

i.

i

I

idiom

most people

yu v<

at that

Geo^c Washington

"«*-» :.«

34), 1962, reprises the subjeel oi (see, foi

Washington Crossing the Delaware

I],

famous

^vMk.VII^

(fig.

Lichtenstein had worked with before

Based on

.

\merican presidents

one ofhis two versions

1951, and Ten Dollat

ca.

relationship

m

iii

Black Flowers and the freestanding

form

than either oi those paintings, because

strut black-and-white composition

cheeked Stuart portrait

"i

i

ol

(

rendering the figure familiar depiction

***toss off your

official portrait,

i,

— he has used red Bendaj

— and because of

108

32. Piet

'08

*

<

Mondrian, Composition

m

|

12

n

4:

in

in, hes). State

i

anvas

stepped

Kroller-Miiller, Otterlo,

forms

Roj

Lichtenstein's sourcebooks, ca

..musing

both can be considered

But

in's d<

m some

is

it

parture from re<

the

ill

ways

thi

commanding on<

presence

dollai

on the dollar

bill d(

valid interpretations; both, as

I

i(

ii

roi

While capturing man)

p fen r* e to the

president. Suite the portrait

1960s

1

ichtenstein carves

down from Mount Kushmore

.\nd

Benday

simultaneously 33. Page fiom

first

George Washington.

The Netherlands '""'"»,

of our

.in

rilberi Stuart's

(

"I

b\

bill's

iv

I

Mom

S

htenstein

implies in his work, describe something signifi< anl about our culture. In his graphi*

Black and White, 1917 Oil on

Museum

reproduction,

as a

oi

1956).

12],

allover figure 'ground

dots to

historical subject.

its

thai

*

portrait of '"/'

version oi

hi) Ball.

mi,

in,

the features of Stuart's portrait, he has reduced Washington's

,\n

Bill [fig.

of Washington, the painting mediates between the

portrait

less radical

[fig.

exampl.

Hungarian newspaper's reproduction ofa wood*

a

painting,

in

time simply could not admire both

is

dots.

one

maneuver between

I

lis

of the

more impressive

tomtit

— one

might

that

h

arrangement ofbold black-and-white

in

volume and

feats ol his earl)

work,

as

is

flatness

hen

his ability

and iconic image. a

(

ommon

relinquishing the features that distinguish artists.

"i

granite figure

use of these simple elements to evoke

abstract shape

Lichtenstein's ability to

— oui

,i

it

as

Oldenburg pursued the creation of the

object inn-

hi

il-ai.i.

i

form, w ithout

an object, separates him from obje.

I

in

his fellow

Pop

another way. by making an often

rsize, painterly version of the original. Lichtenstein's use of a single-image,

figure/ground format was the means left

31.

!

Roy

" ••

Lichtcnstein, Golf Ball. 1962 Oil on canvas 81

Pri\

3

k

si

J

cm

(32

l>\

whi. h he

made

object within the picture plane. For the transmutation

i

necessary to maintain

Ilection

31

Chapter

2:

.\n

<>!

explii ill'

ii

the

arti<

objeel to

be

ulation ol the successful,

equilibrium between the object and the translation

Early Pop Pictures

ol

it.

In

it

was


ichtenstein's paintings, the tne ins ol achieving this entails the conjoining oi

I

and ,m abstract

The

the actual object.

of the

literalness

w

lule

abstract style,

placed

make

statement about the

re<

about the object

laim the three-dinu-nsiou.il objei

rei

1

By

emphasis ou the physical attributes of an object Johns's great

image

.in

olfa flag 01

development from

is a

outcome of the work ofjohns and Rauschenberg

mounted on

a

both

target

and

obje<

a literal

t

i<

I

between

I

hamp

>u<

simpl) b}

art,

object and the concept that altered

recall the original

01 the .mist, the

I

change from the original soup

the

apparent. In this regard, none of the other 1960s Pop

hair-splitting balance that he created

a

htenstein reverses this process, offering us

when

the most effective

a

we can

the concept-as-reformed-image from which is

and

1

Ibis statement

urinal to be works ol

common

so doing, both the original

process of conversion

1

Juchamp's concept of the read) made,

1

stool

that object are present in the altered objei

least

to recall

end the

to trans,

tangle (or the circle in relation to the rectangle).

a bicycle wheel

signing them.

image

"real"

.1

we need

the data

it all

however, serves another function:

the direct

is

maximum

contribution was to

declared

image brings with

its re.iliix

"objectness" of Pop

artists

m

use of such

object. This allows Lichtenstein to

he subverts

The Both

The

style.

artists a<

hieved the same

and

the actual subject

e

altered image,

its

the selection of subjects, and the necessity

in

while preserving the essem

e ol thi

ii

original nature. In tins

k foreign

of subjects an aesthetic orientation 'inn,

common

Because of the potential conflict between ground, Lichtenstein was toned

(abstract)

permitted

a

converting them into works

ol

a

to then original

he accentuated

it.

By emphasizing both

character and the flatness of

he established

a dialectical

the obje<

.1

-I,

I

areas ol

1

and ground

1

that

has returned to

repeatedly. Temple

it

[polio (fig.

oj

is

one

121

he

that

relationship,

is

majoi Strength

a

1

examples

the Benda)

ol

ol

doi

ambiguity

Ins

I

for

obviousl) relishes

1964, and

Âť.

to th<

1

Benda) dots,

essful

anvas unite figure and Held

between two-dimensional and three-dimensional

objei

ol

magnified screen

of.,

tension between the subje<

Golf Ball bare

ondil

dim< nsional

(

m

1

nying the figure ground

and hi) lull are su< of his single-object paintings. Both Black Flowers h.s imagery h\ means unified this dialectic. In Black Flowers, the artist screen, whereas

an

neutral

a

mi Hi,

potentially tin-

depiction bv means

its

ol

solution that sacritn ed neithei bul

mutual coexistence, lor him, therefore, the relationship

picture plane was of utmost importance, far from

ol

way, he confers on the mosi

representational figure and

to find

of he

1

process of transmutation brings mto focus two of his majoi concepts: the importance

choice

the

is

sort

he

Three Pyramids

structures translated mto emphati. 1969 are but two examples of volumetric

ally

1

In- nst, in

contain all the data of the originals. dimensional images that nevertheless on which it was reared and produced an art that subverts tin vct) foundation I

i<

has

that,

1

thus

paradoxically, derives left

34.

[51

k

Lichtenstein, George Washington, L962 Oil on canvas

Roy

18 inches)

Collection Jean-< hristophe

<

129

5

n

96

-

strength from this subversion

For Lichtenstein to have mounted

cm it

utelli

its

was necessary

him

tor

to have a

twentieth-century Modernism, pag,

)4

35.

Roy

canvas, 172.7 * 142.2

36.

â&#x20AC;˘

in\

u

Roy

172.7

Thus he quoted

on Lichtenstein, Portrait of Madame Cezanne, 1962 Magna

cm

(68 x 56 inches)

Lichtenstein,

x 121.9 cm

Femme

Private collection,

New York

dans unfauteuil, 1963 Oil and

(68 x 4s inches)

painting. Mag

The

the

idea

(fig

Private collection

33

Chapter

method

2:

Early Pop Pictures

sue h as art

is

ol d. aling is

mam

variables

Mondr.an,

Pi- asso,

^\

(

tins issue.

His

Inn. to

Jezanne

part of a venerable tradition, bul

with

Portrait oj

illusiomsm,

ol

rhe history

which he was an avid student, enabled

work of artists

1962 for example,

35)

ol

theconcepi

successful challenge to

profound grasp ofits

of quoting from

dters the traditional

i

a

I

...

u

ol so.

h.s

htenstein

Madame Ci

in another ofhis comments on the way

do

anne

which we vie*

....


It is

based on Erie Loran's diagram in Loran's

published

notion of such

a

ol

book Cizannt's

diagram

ezanne's

I

Compositions

1943.

in

"1 wasn't crying to berate Erie

was

portrait, whii h

renowned

1

ichtenstein obji bui

oran

I

.

such an

is

it

first

ted to the

uses his rei< htenstein A. B, ( V oversimplification trying to explain a painting by us the is modified, to remind creation of the Loran diagram, in which very little I

.

Cezanne from a diagram: " h. le liked the irony of diagramming original. anne calling it Madame such a complex painting. Taking an outline and I

<

ezanne

is

in itself

is

1

I

humorous,

^ diagramming

particularly the idea

outline escaped n,c

penchant of some

'

In painting a

critics

and

art

Cezanne when

a

diagram of a diagram, he

,,,„„„, d'Alger

anne

i

calls

said,

attention to the

historians to reduce art to simple formulas.

[Women of Algiers]

(fig.

1963,

d> We,, (fig. 39),

,nother vein, Lichtensicn's painting Fe

ta

i

I

was meant to look

40), 1955,

assos

Pi.

aft!

I

«

,

«

like

u

I

he wa>

wanted this painting to r. ft cheap reproduction of the ongm.,1. Lichtenstein of reproduction. It is also a tongue-in culture views art largel) b) means in

which our

md

cheek comment on Pica 1834

The

issue

of intention

is

his appropriation

still

«

whii b

1863

Vherbe,

the

h

Pablo Picasso.

m

(28

,

Woman md, Flow,„i

23 inches) Morton

Ha,. 1939-40

G Neumann

(

Kl

on

canvas, 71

I

«

Sift

and hu

its

singular features, and

«

k

am,

,

restat,

Lichtenste

md position of the original, but subs*

I

.,ki

aUy

I

alters

art.

Rauschenberg,

too,

W^J^J

cl^wimjuxtfp

limag,

contain aauschenberg's works also

37.

Roy I27«

Lich,e„s«ein. i

(50x40

I*

inches)

B"™* "« "M

'

'"

""'

,,,„, „„. A

r

37

CHAPTER

2.

EARLY POP PICTURES

,

„,

*,~

-

Mondnan

*—

ejdsten t,

.

indirectly

to*.

a ,

"

.e also

:

Private collection

^

kq

^— S— ^^^TdZ'

^"^£2 J L*:rj^^^-=--

^

*

*

^^t^^i^JZ^-^' ,

h,

I

-

-

Rauschenberg

reproductions. Of products and

he

P-trngs.

gthel

the or.gmal

.mages from 1 IKautobiography. In juxtaposmg within the real creates a fictive tune paraphrases Lichtenstein, however,

the art

gmal subject and

eta,

•^XZ^ZZZZZZZ*

-

''"

°'

style.

I

I

,

5

««

I

£^ofio««»ton^lhod-to»«di«be «««d

Family Collection

rnmterpreta,

W

«

«

,

identity the subject, isolate and

wto

tb

fo.

artist

m

more than

as,

the original

Ifeer,

vaii

'•

artis.

wish to submerge tecE Lichtenstein does no. on the Rk mitv j, Mdi ta so doing comment with established lust rtTcourse, the same method he .

a

i

Delacroixs Fe

pr, t

remains unclc.„-.,rc themselv. is

is

Femme

lourcesfo,

he,

is itself based

case, the subject subject. In Lichtenstein's

)g.

A

b

ol critical here, for Picasso's versions

d-Algermd Edouard Manet's Dijeune, Giorgione's Tempest, 1505-10, which iconography

of Eugene D.

vie

« Culture


commenting on each of these

complexity, irony, and humor. In creating

dialogue with their

a

work about

the formal bases of aesthetics

Excluding the cartoon/comic-strip paintings,

1961-63

Lichtenstein

artists,

is

als [so

itself.

subjects of his paintings from

some of the

are:

i

hoi dogs

nine

magnifying

offe<

ii

jpi

glasses

ords

i

in

i

engagement

re

.

goir balls goll oaus

'

><

ins

washing ma< nines

skates

sneakers

flower arrangements

>

stoves

6 igerators

rollei

rings

on

stop

Picasso

it

i\

Mondrian

ups

<

curtains ele<

sponges

of twine

balls

I

.

orge Washington

^s

idition has been painting's mosl fundamental B

The mo of representational imagery

ol values.

a hieran h) throughout the history of art, but almost always preserving so that a comi. strip, ichtenstein has chosen to standardize his images

i

and

goli baU,

a

I

Picasso h.,ve the consistency.

same

His choice

relative value.

ol subj.

ts

i

has us

own

intei

rial

of George Washington and the socks be considered along with hot dogs and

virtue of then- familiarity, the figure

By

and Mondria

paintings of Picasso

popular images.

1

interchangeable

as

socks, „. and the Mondrian, the hot dogs and have been comme images because of the wa> in whi. h they was to a, knowledge this aspe has explained, Ins obje

he IV

as

ass,,

art

and

But, as Lichtenstein

When

something of his own:

to bring to this issue

commerce and I

do

a

"Mondrian" or

became I'm trying to make

a

"Picasso,"

40.

Us Femmes

Pablo Picasso,

!

,

i

d\A\R er, February

"

1955

(

>il

;rcialized

inches)

„„,

it

also.

So.

it's

,,„,!„

be involved in

this

is

i

ra

Irt

el'mver,

"utiles;

tithasa:

kofar,

»i

I

result that

ofart which has other qualities*;

=

I-

Pica

styl,

hoi

.ndit's

heAbswe,

M

b

«

fere:

towan

Expressionist paintii

Lichtenlin's appropriate

For paintings such

"

,r

don't™

,..

Ive,

•>

"'

only a mod,

*

But the

ffc<

completely rearranged ithasbe

;nize that this

n

sharp, ning

I

M

ktobe;

getting

because the style that Is

.workbe to

,

think,

I

nist painting, let's sa,

T ned with

rebu Uding aspect to

on canvas

has,

alized Picas

a

.ercializedAbs I

ii

,

"Mondri

as Non-objective

I

and

as,,.,

Non-objectiv.

U

(figs

<*^£[%Z H and

42),

both

>64,

b

b. ed them as the 1, gs "Mondrian's p: versio " however. Lichtenstein appropriated " Pi( ISS0S For his Ptcass. his fimshed canvases. identical to Picasso's [

^del'he

of

his

own

,

y

fc/i

39.

Roy

68

Lichtenstein,

in< hes)

Femme

d'Alger, 1963 Oil on

cam

ii

203.2

Jer

Private collection

39

ana

h part of the canvas another original) to version ofthe Cubist

repositioning an

1

*

Chapter

2:

arm

oi a breast,

Early Pop P.ctures

Benday-dot


left

Roy

41.

Lichtcnstein, Non-objective

I,

1964

(

>il

and Magna

anvas,

142.2*

\1

Roy

Lichtcnstein, Non-objective Sonnal

121 9

: i

ini

hes)

Hie

I

li

tnd Edythe

I

Broad

<

olle.

don

II.

I

<

196 oil

I

<

111

and Mum,,

01

I

IS,


screening of the image and other techniques derived from advertising were also paramount in these re-creations

of

genre to look

this

changes

'>

Chapter

in

Kaprow, quoted

2

(New

made

own

in his

New

in

Calvin [bmkins and

York: Harry N. Abrams. 1988),

York City,

significant

image.

Bob Adelman, Roy

p.

21.

November 30, 1992

Mickey and some of the earlier cartoon paintings such

</

/

extent, however, that he

indeed remade Picasso

Calvin Tomkins, "Brushstrokes,"

in

onv< rsarion with the artist in

1

To the

I

Mural with Blue Brushstroke

Uchtenstein

i

reproductions.

like

As he indicated, he wanted paintings

in Lichtenstein's style.

in their formal resolution, he has

See Note

1

ofPicasso

Popeye and

as

were not

'impy (Tweet)

II

exhibited publicly until 1982,

comments

are

Rauschenberg and the

I//

K. irp's

5

included

ondon

1

I

See

8

See Peter Selz, the

moderator

tor a panel

better

9

tor the

movement

Museum,

was reprinted

as

I

I

12

.

13,

p.

Neo-Dada

Southampton.

is

no

Roy

to several

single painting

Architectural Design

New

NY,

It

(New York and

by lichtenstein

2* (February 1958),

was decided

p.

85.

at

Pore Ashton, Henry

the panel that

September

1.

1

I

(September

Bop

art

was

''''2

in

Roy

Uchtenstein, exhib. cat

with the Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, 1967),

no. S

that

Realism

Lichtenstein" in Artforum

(.2,

Robert

Magazine 37. no, 7 (April 1963), pp. 36â&#x20AC;&#x201D;45. Selz served

39. For Loran's response to Lichtenstein

Copy Cats?" ARTnews

'60s.

1962. Included in the discussion were

or

Wall

tin-

works

John Coplans, "Roy Lichtenstein: An Interview."

in collaboration

"Talking with

passage appears on

than

artist,

Lichtenstein, quoted in

(Pasadena Art

Artists or

on December

[bmkins, Off

alvin

(

York Penguin Hooks. L980), pp. 173-74.

Kramer. Stanley Kunitz, and Leo Steinberg

onversation with the

(

10.

name

Art." Arts

in

POPism The Warhol

Bat Hackett,

Warhol may have been referring

"A Symposium on Bop

Seldzahler, Hilton

(

Andy Warhol and

awrence Alloway, "The Arts and the Mass Media,"

7

as

in

New

Ian ourt Brace Jovanovich, 1980), pp. 6-7. Since there

this description.

1

description of the encounter

World of Our Time (Middlesex and

See Warhol's comments

fits

in a

I

no. 9

5, s

(May

1967),

where

the quoted

use of his diagram, see Lrle

'".3), pp.

15; this ess.n

p.

1

oran.

"Bop

48-49, 61.

Lichtenstein. ibid.

1

ichtenstein,

quoted

m

l.iihtt n>i(in,

p.

transcript of

a

television interview broadcast fanuar)

Alan Solomon, "Conversation with Lichtenstein," special issue ol

(in English),

1972),

from an edited

68.

l\tiit,i~>iiui

I.

in

in

New

York,

Alberto Boatto and Giordano Falzoni, eds

no. 2 (July-August 1^6r>),

reprinted in John Coplans, ed., Roy Lichtenstein

1966

p.

S

(in Italian)

and pp. 38â&#x20AC;&#x201D;39

(New York and Washington.

D.C.: Braeger,

,

,i


••••• ^^^M ^^^m

«^^Vt ^> ^^^^p • • ^H^v Ak# • HL« ^H ^^^* iflHI •

• •

«^^^r • • •

*

»

.

^^^•^^^V ^H • • • ^^•••••• ^H ^^r •

^^^m

.

• •

••••••«

•.•.

•••••• ••••••• •

t •

t

i

^^L

^^^ • • • ^L • • • • • • ^^t ^^L • • •

i

• • •

• • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

V. •

••••

-••••V •

•-•-.

-

»

•«•

••••••• •••* • •

V

v.v.'.

• •

-•-

# •

• • • • • • • •

a


««•••«••«••

y.y.y.y.w.y.yj^^^ ^^^jly.y.\v.y.y.v.y.y.y.y.\y.y.v.v.\ y.y.y.y.y.y.y^^^* «•••*•*••••• •^^^lv.v.v.v.v.v.v.v.v.v.v.v.v.v.v. •.v.v.v.v.y. .^^m • •««••«•••••••« •%%;.v;":av:.v/::.v:.v.v».v;, .... •

.

.

. .

j^h •«•«•••«•••••••• |Mm/::::::;:://.v:.v;.v.v.v.v.v.

v^^v • •••••••••••••••# fmmv.v.v.v.v.v.v.v.v.v.v.v.v.v. ;.^H* •••••*•••••••••#« «m My.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.

••••••••••••••••# .y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y/.y.y.y.y.y. •••' ••••••••••••••••••• ^y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y/.y.y.y.

y!y.y.y.y.Bb*

••••••••••••••••••• • »y/.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y. ••••••••••••••••••« y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.*. •••••••••••••••••• »Y.Y.y.y.Y.y.yy.y.Y.y.y.y.y. .v.w.v.v.vM m* ••••••••••••••••••« ».y.y/.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y MM*.*.V.V.V.V.V.V.V.V.V.V.V.V.V

v.v.v.v.vj .y.y.y.y.y.Mm*

y/.y.y.y.yMw

•••••••••#«•#

,v:.v.v.v.vMl« .v.v.v.v.v.vmm* •••••••••••••••• ^^.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y '^Mfc'.-.v.v.v.v.v.v.v.v.v.v.v.v.v. Y.Y.Y.Y.Y.Y.T^«»

••••••••••••••^^^fcfc^/.V.V.V.V.V.V.V.V.V.V.V.*.

W.Y.Y.Y.Y.Y.T^^Lf

•••••••••••••• :^^Wm ••••••••# * ^fl K^.

^".v.v.'.v.v.IMk •••••••••••• Y.Y/.Y.Y.Y.Y.Y.Y^H^^ , ,

::.v:;::::::.v. .'.

.^g|^<< • • • ma

^^y.y.y.y.y/.y.y.y.y.y.y ^Uto.V.V.V.V.V.V.V.V.V

V^Vi^^k. ^Bkil'vXv.

y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.y.

V.Y.Y.Y.Y.Y.Y.Y.Y.Y.Y.Y.Y.Y.Y.Y.Y.Y.Y.Y.Y.Y.Y.Y.Y.Y.Y.Y.Y//.* '

**

•••*•••••••%••»»»»•

*

v.v.v.v

*

VA*

..............................


Single object painting? such virtue of their subject.

Got) Ball

.is

We know

th.it

.1

golf ball

project the additional dimension onto such

We

not be depicted in that manner.

two-dimensional image even though

.1

Our

In the

combine painting Monogram

it

goat with

a stuffed

a tire

his

earn

waist.

its

he spectator

1

in

forms and to accept the canvas

onl\ one

45.

Robert Rauschenbcrg, Monogram, 1955-59 .„,,„, ,,,„„. 122.1 k

183x183 cm

Stuffed goat,

^

(48

«

tire,

I

between painting and sculpture or between the

Modcrna

inch.

cans

ale

often relied on the presence o\ object with

real

..

it

is

I

into an

three dimensional

a

its

ind

ol the original

and

i\

Bui both

illusion.

its

replii

image

like

them have

-i

flat

plane.

It

is

and appreciate the complex nature of the subject

its

the

in his

use ol

«

w

is

11

artifi. e,

thai

.

a

ertaint) thai

from the wa)

we know

an object,

oi

ciink on

fiction involved in the presentation ol the imag.

our awareness of the

ot his

to signify thai illusion oi have juxtaposed

on an impla( ably

Hat shape

a

obje(

some

near duplicate

I

i

Lichtenstein, however, ivl.es

pamted one.

no matter how much we read depicted that

a real

m

often blurred the distin. tion

actual ODJ<

and Lichtenstein, they are concerned with the object

Stockholm

a

three dimensional

foi

on

flag

as a

(fig. 5)

aluminum package. Both Johns and Rauschenbcrg have

mvas

.

bronze facsimile of

a

forced to confront

is

several objects. Johns,

among

best-known works, painted the two-dimensional image of a canvas and created

and placing on

Hat oil the floor

as

the space traditionall) reserved

two-dimensional painting placed as

works bv Rauschenberg and Johns.

L955 59, for example, Raus< henberg has

(fig, 4=>),

around

experience of these single object

see certain

usurped the space of the sculptor by situating top of

may

it

oi the object as ,m

bring to the image our knowledge

way we

quite different from the

is

three dimi nsional, and so must of us

is

entity that occupies a particular, concrete space.

paintings

by

31), L962, suggest spatial illusion largely

(fig.

ind

in

an folly

i

central role in his larger pictorial

statement. Paintings such as Emeralds significant departure

w

,,„,,,,, (fig

.

from the imager,

24).

.,11

1961,

Bellamy

50) and Mi

(fig.

ol

where

I

ook Mfcfa

(fig

19),

y (fig.

1961, represents

1

I").

Popeye

the emphasis was ph. ed

(fig.

ind

3

!

the famou,

....

Wimpy

Pop. y. and Mouse and Donald Du, characten and their adventures. Mickey cartoons, dizzy and iill, and full ol fun were portrayed as they appeared in the the firs, k heroi< adventures fo. grown-ups, ind Mi Bellamy, however, are in a series ol on the theme of the male hero engaged I

meralds

I

in a series

,

narratives focusing

dramas

ge

emphasize action and event. Each introduces

that

the her newspaper comic-strip panel featuring

ly

a,

images ft rime Lichtenstein was scavenging advertisements for the inter elepho„e directory and newspaper

da

.v.

fiwni

.1

vohme setting^ *Uow ™»8

*

1.

t.

(nK5 6)ortheappUanceinM&/.^Macftm

L£ the image for Cat

(fig.

43).

e

(fig.57),bothl961,andg

ab

ako 1961

The very notion of using

bjectof.

t

his

di

imetei

bottom

left

m

Roy

Pri\

44. 16

k

it<

Lichtcnstein, Car. 1961

Oil

on

canvas,

80

cm

I

H

in<

seriousness.

I

av

collet rion

Roy

Lichtcnstein, Magnifying Glass, 1963

16 inches)

<

>il

on

(

ui\

is

K).6

d humor,

.„„. the

>

Duchamp,

firs,

Klee.

satire,

to tes.

Man

or irony

,

Ray, Mir6.fi

,

ssfii.

Prh

it(

ollei

I

I'

J)

47

Chapter

3:

Images Comic Strips and Advertising

.nitiall,

an «•"*

<*«««.

'^^°^*

-of ,

fa,

"hold,

.1

nan

the mos. banal the limits ofar. by taking

n

.to

books

th;

Picabia Picasso, and

Sr^onstothem.andpresentmgthemasart, •

.mager, bu

.mplement to

adeeph

asaniconofhighartish 43.

strip

o

^

^adnotyet

kittyli.

one or two primary sources fo, decided to focus exclusively on con* strips in newspapers rather seems t „ Kave been drawn to

g

'

Batl

...

.1

t

s

I

I

ob,

Duchamp

.

«.

making

challenged other


FREE

BROCHURE TO HELP YOU FLAN the Perfect

P0C0N0 HONEYMOON OR VACATION

t'l

INDOOR POOL HEALTH CLUB

ROOM

I STEAM •

Entertainment and Dancing Nitely

Only 10 frnm Carrtelbaek Ski Area.

Mm

Honeymooner*: Bklt. B Vacationer*: Bkll. V

OPEN ALL YEAR

Mwot/lfty

Ufa

m

MT POCONO

i

PA.

2,

717-839-7133 DIRECT LIME «K fi MAI NYC Suburb. CA ••° 842 Tfl:

&

N.Y.C. Phone: Oil 4-6617 (open daily A Suyim i

47. Advertisement for section ol the Veu

let,

46.

Roy

Mount \in Lodg<

York

P

*

[ravel"

Hmk

Lichtcnstein. Girl with Ball, 1961 ..,.

Pennsylvania, in the

i

,,

K

Museum of Modern

<

Vr.

>il

on

Ne*

i

anvas, 153

York

k

"I 9

m

Gift of Philip Jol


taboos

weU, exploring transvestism

,,s

Selavy, submitting as his

which he had drawn transliterated as ,,

boxed

a

own

artwork

issues bui

h

i

Among

the Abstract Expressionists, de

appreciation tor the comedic

from

lips

a

Camel

them with

to neat

:s

none of then

their threatening quality but

complex

ichtenstein sees the

1

sei

his entire

forces

an} ol

pla,

ai

work

life's

as

life's

disarming them of some

levity,

ol

umsness stands out as

Kooning

of life.

well as the tragic aspects

as

on

is,,

1

vulgar French phrase, "hi. h he

a

and packaging

for the tide) (fig. 67),

L.H.O.O.Q.,

most demanding

same-size reproduction of the Mini.,

a

beard and mustache (and using

of reproductions.

set

an invented female persona that he called Rrose

as

Woman

cigarette ad in his painting

painter with an

.,

206), 1950,

(fig.

lusion oi

lis in.

I

pai. ol

a

an open

is

the

popular culture and prefigures acknowledgment ofhis admiration of American hey have used hum,,, Oldenburg attitudes of such 1960s artists as fuhtenstem and

m

I

work

their

as a

way

rather than black

humor,

lit,,

not existentialists,

,,-e

with

as

humor some of the Complex

comic

strip

Oldenburg

fashion

has

continued by Dadaists Expressionists Arshile

teXences Pablo Picasso, Bather with Beach

tn4 .6cm(57 ,,ii ol

ix 45 Winches)

R.onaldS Uudei >o

I

In

Ball, Boisgeloup, August L932

,

,,i

on

Modern

Art.

New

use

done

I

s.

and

others.

it

ur. B,

aus,

i.

I

htensteins

u i

se

hrs pa.nt.ngs are a

f the absurd aspect, ol .

od

wha

uh

strip

s

Abstract

,

appre

Mr. Bell y rf drawing in Emeralds and differs fiom the cartoo stripimages ofthe same year

rhe

th.

an,

ixt oi

within the

reframing

haractenst,

,,,,.

I

iver,

1

Since sex has been commodified

than seeing

and

ol

,1.

he,

I

mui h .he same using

Mm.

Picabia, Surrealists

through the images

al

begun by Picasso and

trad

humor stems fiom his

Vbrt

^appropriate P

al

Gorky and de Kooning, and

-

in

both have treated sex in d

atologi.

figures as stereotypes oi sex

our cultural condi.

y

larly,

veakd

,1

has used his oversize

Oldenburg ver,

satire

al

well as cnti.

as

admiring

ichtenstein has don.

Duchamp and

are indirect, expressed

offemaie

though through

were, hut have been enlightening u, time,

issue

so in the

celebration ofthe ironic, their

of anonymous done, ind promised

Partial gift

Museum,

Oil

Us

foibles;

that they are

artists

painting. S

ind

art,

while targeting society's weaknesses, the, have

many 1950s

props to critique society's

4K.

our culture and our

innocence and naivete, and have shown

its

canvas, ca

ting

lam]

ol

hi

b

dverasementf

on

iwspaper-based

com.c

ageryof^Atoj

ZZXZZZZttZttfz ir^trzrX"^=r^ * — isss^^ssss '

b^

,

,

Overgard's newspaper comic

19.

Roy

Lichtenstein, Mr. Btllamy, 1961

inches)

njaminj Nikkei. Cloves, 50.

I

68

k68

Modern An Museum

rdlar

New

Memorial

f

on Worth. Museum Purchas

I

Acquired ftom the

<

olleci

of

Emerald,. 1961

Collecrion Denise and

Oil

on

tteve Koper,

y;:;:;:;::;:;::::::.:t:,.,.,.,,n,o..-

fVemon

Mexico, 1982

Roy Uchtetutein, inches)

[hisr.

ol

Oiloncanvaj 143.5 X 108 cm

strip

Zi'-

;;"-;;

yi

canvas, 174 a l"l

.

"'

In

Andrew Saul

49

image in which a compl. figure 4f,i L96l, however, the r»i ,i Rl /i /tut -+<»)Girl with Ball (tig.

he saMR

.

is

treated in very

fc

as;

bject,

with a separate identity but

manner

as

GolfBall

Chapter

3:

s.ng Images Com.c Strips and Advert.

,

,

closely

,

k

,

to

me

slll

i„

,


abow

51.

201 9

cm

Roy

Lichtenstcin, Tht Engagement Ring, 1961 '

(i

''

•""'"

(

1 1

on

"" Samuel Heyman N( 1

right

52.

Sunday

Martin Branncr,

Jul)

16

1961

panels from

'

Winnie

\\ inkle,'

in

Chieqgo Tribune,


7*tRR? PLANS TO SURPRISE TANYA WITH A PIECE OF JEWELRY ORALSWIFT, TANYA'S AGENT, HAS A SURPRISE OF A

IUMMI

IJ

I

I

VUU UHbN IHEkd

J

'

ORAL..WHATS

THE GOOD

TWO WEEKS

!

j|

NEWS ?

O/FFERENT MATURE..

•whoopee LUE

*

BUT

HEV ^ONJT :&A'.'JRE

}TICS /

2

lEA/ VHILE,.

Rr K f S

PERRY

ABOUT THIS PIECE OF JEWELRy yOU'RE PLANNING TO BUY FOR TANYA „

I JUST

WANT TO

IT5...IT5

SHOW HER HOW MUCH SHE MEANS TO ME /WINNIE /

ENGAGEMENT RING ,15 IT?

(«>

?y*

NOT AN

-}.

,

i

'ii,

|

i,.

PKI

OK

The

11

/*%.»'

'

hit «»•'

Irilmnv


WHY, BRAD DARLIN6,THIS PAINTING IS A MASTERPIECE/ MY, SOON YOU'LL HAVE ALL OF NEW YORK CLAMORING

FOR YOUR WORK/


''

plane of the picture support. Lichtenstein chose to enlarge the figure of the bather in order to bring her nearer to the picture plane. A compai ison oi the painting with the id

from which

was adapted

it

the original. In the

the photographic image

.\d,

Lichtenstein substituted

more

He

distorted.

black outline,

edged

a

in black,

also

figure

a

drawn

of the

girl

cartoonist might have rendered

as a

and further underscored the

of the beach

Bather with Beach Ball bathers, Lichtenstein

(fig.

48), 1932.

m

While there

in

one of

no overt

is

In appropriating the figure of

Lodge

Poconos

in the

newspapers

resort area

New

in the

tossing

a girl

common

of a woman. This updated version of such I'MOs movie other images

like

They

disingenuous. figure very

when

it,

much

the ad

first

appealed to him represented

in

vogue

ran

American postwar

male

As

life as a

a

This figure

Poconos, she

in the

recent press release from

a

of iconoclastic female

figures,

and

bathing-suited iders in 1955,

emblem

also an

is

Airy

one

odge

I

asp.-,

i

figure in the

a

routine stock figure

new Anuin an

arl

She joins

ol

indi< ates,

ichtenstein

I

advertising to

in

notable group

..

including Manet's Olympia, L863, Picasso's Les Demoi

1907, and de Kooning's three series

of Women, begun around

( I

she

the great

ol

the ultimate success stor) of wealth and material comfort.

model of the new American

[vignon,

Betty Grable, and

as

ed to n

Mount

anil signifies

exploited this symbolic value, converting her from

,/'.

—introdui

image

stock image. Although she was used specifically to

resembles "Miss Liberty brandishing her torch"

American dream,

pinups

of the glamorous female,

ideal

honeymooning

society.

tropes of the d.i\ tor the

star

Airy

in several

precisely because they were so obvious

in the 1950s.

started

pleasures of

promote the

a

Mount

fol

News and the Neie

area, including the Daily

one of the most

t,

ol Ins figure.

from an m\

ail

subjei

which he reduces form

of Pennsylvania (which was published

York metropolitan

York Times), Lichtenstein found

a

in

.///

(

between the two

similarity

way

a ball in tin

on the

his paintings

few incisive shapes and conveys movement by the position

to a

oi a

this painting. In this respect.

clearly indebted to Picasso fol the

is

tin- waist.

conve) the heady atmosphere

to

most reductive

at its

is

reminiscent of Picasso's frolicking bather

Bill! is

below

few bold strokes, he delineated her form

a

and managed nonetheless

ball

vacation. Indeed, his rendering with

the fingers and

at

so striking that he could .\iYon\ to dispense with the lengthy

is

message that accompanied the original. With that

incisive

white wave

a

of the figure by merging her

flatness

silhouette with the shape of the wave and cropping her

and

only slightly

it,

yellow backdrop, and

a brilliant

to

looms out from the page, while

emphasized her two-dimensional form by means of an

screen of red Bcndav dots,

Lichtenstein's depiction

made

47) indicates the significant changes Lichtenstein

(fig.

elks

M< and >

classic female form. A continued through the 1950s, which broke with the tradition of the use of the image, in painting durable fixture in advertising, made famous by Lichtenstein's

became

she

The

the 1960s successor to the European and

painting

imagery and

is

a tribute to Lichtenstein's

his

own profound

ability to

convert

a

ion

cliche into an after his Inst

1961 cartoon paintings,

cartoons, he turned to Look Mickey. Discarding images based on animated including newspaper comic strips or combed !).( romance and wai COmi< books—

such

as

:.

53.

Roy

Lichtenstein, Masterpiece, 1962 Oil on canvas,

chcs)

Private collection,

New

I

^

2

x

I

J7 2

Hearts, Girls' Romances, G.I. Combat,

cm

Fighting Forces

York

55

her.

understanding of the power of advertising

working method gradually changed

Lichtenstein's

American models who preceded

Chapter

3:

1

for illustrations,

Our Army

at

War, All American

sometimes combining

Comic Strips and Advertising Images

several

Men

oj

W-fcr,

and

S <

com.es panels into one

>wi


image, which he then

was

satisfied

with the

made result,

into a small sketch.

He

and then ,wkk\\ color

continued to revise the sketch

to

freehand on the canvas, he applied the dots In hand using

a

spaced

and then pressing the

dipping the brush into

plastic bristles,

against the canvas

ofBenday

with

it

on the

paint

a

small scrub brush.

larger areas because

it

Soon he switched

dots.)

stencil, using a roller to distribute paint

through

paint

dog brush with

painting Popeye, he had merely dragged

(In his

canvas to create the look

(lie oil

until

he

After redrawing the image

it.

regularly bristles

dry brush across the

a

ovei to

handmade metal

a

evenly across the screen and then pushing paint

Beginning

1962,

in

decided to work with \\.\^\u

In-

was easier to make changes with

when

it

he needed

to

He moved the dot screen from one area of the cam to another until he covered its entire surface. He then applied his primary colors to unprimed canvas and finished an image IS

with one or more black

Because the screen was not the same

lines.

dots were painted by hand, the effect was

less

reproductions. This would have pleased l.ichtcnstc

1963,

In

would

ichtenstein developed a

1

began I

to ,\dd

The

because

this process

Lichtenstem liked

le

method

m

amount

a certain

necessary tor

him

oi intuition

to supervise even the

delineated

a

strand

1

a

an aid

aspe<

whi< h

in

of hair; the juxtaposition ofBenday dots

he stated

that

"Cezanne

and

a line

its

in the reaction against Abstract

up

personally engaged

in his

work:

for, like

Expressionism.

in fact, Ins

man\

He

medium

is

some green

saw

203.2

v

Roy 172 7

Lichtenstcin, hornet

cm

(80

k

68 inches)

It!

Forget

Aft-.',

1962

<

)il

and

Rose Art Museum, Brandeis

M igna

on

University,

i

am

Waltham.

rvite-Mnuchin Purchase Fund

le

Once

used these colors

line

artists ol

is

And

it

it

(fig.

58) and

Ice

was frequently used

<

in

'.ream

despite

defined an eyebrow

ol

3:

01

a

squan

color Stripe.

When

a

a

I

or

lrcle.

his

worl

the time, he W3S

mean

night

i

that he was not

evident everywhere. l

ii

hti

nstein used very few

strength, imitating the

hi illianf

and there hues he In

Soda, both 1962, he used a certain shade of blue

graphic design.

in the original

m\

I..

Th<

(tig

59)

Refrigerator, the crisp,

Comic Strips and Advertising Images

cool

blue-

are effectively balanced b) white

with the Benday screen neutralizing the three-dimensionality

Chapter

was

against solid blocks ofcolor;

did not

involvement

at full

he was

his paintings to

yellow, purplish-blue, black, and white predominate,

shadows of the interiorâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; not areas,

57

I

fol

impact the) mid. magazine ads and commercial packaging, impressed by the

in

because

is,

lemon

as well.

The Refrigerator 54.

red.

necessary

work.

oi his

ts

wanted a

In the comic-strip paintings and paintings of single objects,

colors:

it

image.

tin

placement; or the width

Lichtenstem was also speaking of himself,

his

i

the original.

"I

about having to remove himself from

said a lot

nng

transfi

made

the play of an irregular form against the pure gcoineti\ of a red ingle

the thickness or thinness of

m

dots.

ichtenstein

wealth of detail: the wa\

who

At thai time he

the resolution ot the images,

most me< hanical

the economical and impersonal impression that

convey, they contained

m

dots onto the

boughi primed

order to capture the feeling

was invoked

painting

an assistant

ol

to the surfai e oi store as

"I

i

ni\

m\ hand."

"i sten< iling his

enabled him to reinvent

it

want

on the paintings hunsell

else

with the drawing, he began to apply the Benday

Since

ol

distortion created by projecting an image

on the canvas

and the

invas

i

nun

appi

thi

said, "I

soon enlisted the help

he started using an opaque projectoi

to redraw the sketch

satisfied

precise l

Magna Undcrpaintmg

ater that year

sketch to the canvas.

him

more

he finished everything

white

who once

in,

want to hide the record

1

manufactured metal screen

a

in the dots;

fill

canvases.

been programmed

has

it

usmg

canvas,

also

it

a

me< hanical and more painterly than he

intended. Nonetheless, to the first-time viewer, the paintings had

to look as

size as

ot the femali

form and


the refrigerator. In both paintings, the

unmodulated blue

shade of printing-process blue to create (fig.

25). 1961,

both

is

a still life

.is

.is

formal composition

.1

to dupli< ate

much

certain formal effect,

.1

well

meant

is

particular

a

Black Flowers

as

black and white.

in

Lichtenstem's emulation of printing's process colors can be seen

an implicit criticism

as

of some of the Abstract Expressionists. While many of the first-generation New York School painters gave new meaning to a color or used it to convey sp< cifn emotion or 1

evoke

a

mood,

the "inheritors" of the

movement,

.is

the

criti<

I

Rosenberg

[arold

called

1

them, tended to use color diminished.

By

way primary

such

in

.1

manner

gratuitous

using color reductively, however,

colors and black and white had

introduction of the secondary color green,

only exception to

his

1

singularly intense

.1

primary palette and was meant

chief!)

used exactly the same shade of painting. In tor the

Blonde Waiting

woman's

unifying device

presenting

is

hair, the

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; much

1

br.iss

he used Benday dots

-he

an abstraction of our experience of

In the early comic-strip paintings,

I

the

of drawing

of the devices,

shade

"l"i as

-

borrowed strips

.1

what he was

thai

simplified drawing

hair with just

.1

ol Emeralds call

and

brief stroke.

1

e

le

comics or

image, and there

oi Popeye, stressing

and .1

small

11

nli. e ol

is

tli.

attention to the canvas support and to I

i(

htenstein's use oi

comic-strip balloon to frame the narrative text separated the words from the a

ol

example, redu<

foi

identified entirely with the

emphasize the two-dimensionality of the image. More important,

image,

redu< tive,

and some related examples

bordei around the edge ofthi

border also served to

yellow

<>i

1

structural elements in Ins paintings. Mr. Bellamy

copyright mark painted onto the surface

as

he often

strips,

a single

was emphasizing

Emeralds are both framed by

The

ounterpoint to the

onnotations, SU< h

bedpost. 1U using

woman's

a

which were

the

is

for several different objects in a

as

the paintings.

1

cue from the comic

with brand-name advertising, .1

<

as a

1

he saw there, he could,

thai

volume of a form and render shadows on

incorporated several

ai

u

and biting hue,

re.iln\

ichtenstein

technique and several devices from certain comic advertising. Imitating the kind

it

1964, for example, he used

12),

alarm clock, and the

.is

his

unmodulated color

flat,

(fig.

Taking

sky."

to

echo the

our culture. (His

to function in

other colors.) Lichtenstein used individual colors to key spe<

"yellow equals hair" or "blue equals

purpose was usually

its

ichtenstein was attempting to

begun

in

that

departure from the twentieth-century tradition

ol in<

rest

a

oi the

orporating lettering into the

body of the composition from Cubism on. The balloon became an integral part of the composition, beginning with

his first

early paintings such as Emeralds I

Uptych

in

(fig.

72) and Forget

themselves and acted

.is

III

.1

cartoon/comic-strip painting. Look Mickey. In other

and Mr. Bellamy and two paintings from 1962, Eddie

Forget

Mel

of

slapstick, the

sign.

also distinctive shapes

were

54). the balloons

counterpoint to the angular tonus of the

also thrust the lettering into a position

between image and

(tig.

figures.

The balloons

of unusual prominence and augmented the contrast

Where.is Look Mickey

is

broad

<

comic-strip paintings that followed, such

omedy and as Mr.

into the category

falls

Bellamy or Emeralds, evoke

mosl ofLi< htenstein's tension, anxiety, or implied threat, an attitude of crisis that pervades instances the popularity comic-strip paintings, especially those with text balloons. In many

of the original comic "

35.

Roy 121.9

Lichtenstein, Half Face with Collar, 1963 Oil and

cm

(48

x 48

inches)

<

ollecrion

Magna on

(

strips

hinged on the amount of terror or

hearts of their readers- the greater the fear, the

mvas,

of the mysteries on radio

Gian Enzo Sperone New York

59

Chapter

3:

in

the 1940s and the

Comic Strips and Advertising Images

more popular

te.ir

the

that they struck in the

strip.

Buck Rogers movie

I

he same was true

serials.

Much

of the


56 .RoyUchten.tein,B«l/,

I9„6

hcsJ.CoUec,

ro om,l961

Mi

Oil

tndMrs.S.1 Ncwh.

124.4

x 176.5 en


57.

Roy

Lichtenstein, Washing Machine, 1961

ÂŤ68 Bakei

inches)

B

\

Yale University

1935

\rt Gallery,

Oil on

New

i

anvas

143

5

X

174

cm

Haven Lent by Richard


OF U.S. PHARMACOPOEb £T8 ALL REQUIREMENTS

anxiety hinged on building up the audience's expectations of an imminent action, playing

CLEAN AND SWEI REFRIQERATOI Soda

is

up and delaying

it

maximum

for the

exploited the dramatic possibilities

exaggeration

the cleanser

mended by

it

dramatic

— and the irony inherent

manufacturers. Sprii cloth and w surfaces. Wash ice tn other containers wit tion of 3 ths. so< quart of water.

damp

.is

work. Rather than using language asjust an accessor) to the

remain

While the viewer can be

that

it

that

genre based on

a

dominant

.1

way when the

engrossing

.is

feature ol the

visual motif, he Eon ed

narrative

passive

front ol an image,

111

is

enough and

sufficiently large

is

it

far

IV

those that were presented on radio and

as

more

"MHlN'l

fVRJ

I

I'D

!

RATHER sink

m

emotional outbursts are

-

-

I

HAN

CA1

BB

I

\l>

I

OR

Ml

I

enough n

spe< tatoi to

so ici

or in the movies court

response as the spectator reads: "OKAY, hot-shot, okay! I'm pouring!"

a

.1

diffu uli i"

aggressive

encroaches upon the audience's mental space and challenges the

Dramas

this,

between the spectator and the message contained within the

direct confrontation

narrative.

such

in

understood

purely visual terms.

in

Lichtenstein achieved an unusual effect In utilizing text

refrig*

who

effect. Lichtenstein,

p!" (fig.

()

(fig.

106)

marked contrast to the coolness of the technique,

a

^> 01

h

I

1

ontrast that

Lichtenstein emphasizes.

As Lichtenstein indicated lettering that

commenting

so effective in advertising,

is

went with the

an earl} interview, he prefi rred the straightforward

in

'uninteresting' shapes."

1

1

his

Abstract Expressionists, who, following the R.o)

foi

I

ichtenstein,

Thi

Refrigcrato

was

"the 'uninteresting' lettering

clear d< parture

.1

1962

71, for example), integrated then writing into the in the

same wax

pointed out

noted

I

)e

);

m

the same

.is

a

way

letters

rund.1ment.1l part

that

he shaped

group

in his

of the

total

(see fig.

though not always li.

I

less

and then painted them out," and

scattered throughout de Kooning's painting

whereas Robert Motherwell,

1955, used language

brush

E was

painting,

frequent!) buried his letters and words (I liom.is

"de Kooning usually began with

that

that the letter

1955-56

Kooning

body of the

of the

from the practice

example of Picasso and Braque

ubisi

(

thai

I

image, drawing

his pictorial passages.

Monday

astei

of /< t'aime paintings,

begun

with the

his letters

Moreover.

in

ol

...... <x

are replete with poetic Motherwell's paintings, such asjc t'aime No. /I' (fig 68), 1955,

associations,

him, and

both

in the

in their use

of the French language, which seemed exoti< and remote to

choice of an intimate phrase, whereas de Kooning's

'•read" primarily for

its

formal qualities.

words

as

images

The

use of

in this

century

movements

Expressionism but other m.

leti

1

m

ncompasses not only Cubism and Abstract

'

including Futurism,

as well,

:onstru< tivism,

(

also used lettering

and ierald Murphy Dada, and Surrealism. Americans Stuart )avis onsnme, merchandise ol many of their compositions, as part of the.. depi< tions I

1

(

razors, cigarette packs,

tempo of the modern associations 1

U htenstein

and images city.

I

01

of

newspapers

the most part,

between language and purely

abandoned

this

it

in

is

pictorial

symbiotic role

...

a

an effort to captur. tradition

...

the

'

in<

ichtenstein.

hi

The

Refrigerator, 1962

Oil

on

canvas

172

"

v

imagery have been mutually supports

favor of language as sign.

he

I

St)

.

...

142

Private collection

t

.

6

60.

Roy

Lichtenstein, Spray, 1962 Oil rii

i

mvas 91

1

mood and

I

I

I.

which the symbolii

.

!<.»>

su.

...

I.

ol

proved ideal foi onveying an ironic, the comic snaps and in advertising h, pra. ace ol projecting wends as both subject and obje, inti-aesthetic distance and foi of Johns, but Johns used langn has a precedent ,n the work using lettering as a subject originated the play on illusion and realit) that different end. His lettering continued t0 ing False In his p; ol the .mage or obj. doubt on the s ith Cubism by casting the field ol the painting, sten( iled the names ol colors into Start (U£ 69), 1959, |ohns

lettering used 58

be

W

i

Stuttgan

63

Chapter

1

3:

Comic Strips ano Advertising Images

.


I


name

deliberately mismatching the

By

described.

of almost ever}

olor with the image

<

and

reality ol the sign,

blurring the contours ol the words he negated them

in

forms. Conversely, the stenciled lettering questioned the

undermining

supposedly

it

calling attention to the surface with his brushstrokes, he challenged the

spontaneity. In

its

made

painting. Lichtenstein

\n

.

66), 1962,

(fig.

known

little

.1

but important earl)

the object quality of a sign con< rete In using

that lllusionistically projected the

word forward.

U

of the gesture

validity

concrete

as

heavy shadow

a

Utilizing the simple form

an outline,

>>i

he kept the figure and ground on the same plane. By capitalizing on the knowledge language, too,

is

merely

series of codes used to represent the visual world

.1

subverted the very nature of meaning translated art into left

word,

a

with the concept of

connotations

re<

become

ognize

well the

as

ind rendered

Ii

on the entrance door

than

of artists

for a later generation

for

whom

language

is

su< h

is

I

Sin< e he

and we

art

onvi n

1

70)'

(fig

\

isn.il

.is

phenomi

—which was

— were thus

of its

\n

power

its

are

a

na mi'

1

inspired In

early pre< edents

..wrence Werner, Joseph Kosuth, and |cnn\

I

l.-l/er.

"Art."

enlarged each panel chosen from in scale.

/;/

to

Gristede's supermarket

Lichtenstein expanded the role of the text

)ust as

change

.1

back into

it

htenstein

i<

1

to question

physical image. In stripping

as a

power of advertising

to

open

Lichtenstein Ion es us to recognize

marketing devices. Art and another painting of 1W>2, the IN sign

it

impossible to translate

as a sign rather

it

phenomenon,

as a visual

slogan and to

has

it

its.

that

Though

a

comic

strip,

his

111

comii

exploiting the

impa<

di.un.iii.

ups

similar to Oldenburg's giganti< blov>

he

Strip paintings,

ol

1

gunk

the

"I

ordinary household

fixtures or supermarket products. Lichtenstem's enlargement, came nowhere neai the

dimension of much of Oldenburg's work and hid none

larger-than-life-size

colleague's painterly brushwork. qualities

more

exe< Ution. In this respect, his

its

gestural

New

components of a

61.

16

4

cm

(40

Lichtenstein, Sponge IL 1962

Roy

)il

on

(

uit

''I

is

4

91

x

4

cm

projecting his ,

Lichtenstein, Large Spool, 1963 Magna on canvas

36 inches)

x

(

Private collection

inches)

67 62.

pagt

•J|

Roy

Sonnabend

<

I

'I

1

6

a

itself

63.

91

4cm

Roy

Lichtenstein, Large Jewels, 1963 OilandMagn;

(68x J6 inches)

Museum Ludwig (Ludwig Donation

*

work and

172

canvas

70 64.

pagt

71

172 Partial

Roy cm

142

2

65.

Roy

m

v

56 inches)

Helman

<

ollection,

New

York

I

Lichtenstein, Grrrrrrrrrrr!!, 1965 Oil and Magna on (68

and promised

x 56

inches)

gifl ol th«

Solomon R Guggenheim Museum,

(

im

New

I

The

York,

(

69

Chapter

I

admired

h<

to the abstrai

ofcoloi

and

In.

ichtcnsteins

1

1

need

to

method

ollaged onto portions Ol Hi-

.

easel.

made

love established what the subject mattei

want

I

it

to

come through

<pressionism its

in that

it

-1

I

read the image

reality, to a

1

distinction, however,

ol

th(

invas,

.chtenstem often worked on

doesn't symbolize what

concern with form but rather

is

going to be

I

am

Comic Strips and Advertising Images

not interested

a

as tin

between

his

differs

fiom

<

ubism

the subject matter

leaves

its

ind

is

subject matter

on cartoon or comi.

...

it

-1 the

with the immediate impact

Popart

early paintings from L961 -62, based

3:

response to the

ritical

assurance and resolution products, or domestic interiors, lack the

irtisi

ni

statem<

of the Abstract Expressionists:

symbolize

scale, his use

image from

.chtenstem

comics Probably the formal content

canvas, Lichtenstein, Baseball Manager, 1963 Oil and Magna on

(68

isolate the

being.

as

it

inymore, although pagt

.1

related to Abstract Expressionism.

mirror to further

that

Once

ologne

to be

commitment

was often spun around on the

abstraction he regarded left

understanding of

were taped, pieces of paper wen

anvas, their edges

canvas using

ollection

his

a

to his selei tion ol imager} rather

Oldenburg, however,

ike

I

period was

that

of the

redraw., on images onto the canvas distorted them. Although they were

and the painting

x

m

painting,

work was very much

unify, his

work appeared

In his particular

York School.

from

-Mimed

1

models of Abstract Expressionism.

the artists of the

6

His flamboyance was

restraint.

early

wmk

of Abstract Expressionism, lichtenstem's

of precision and than to

While Oldenburg's

of Ins

work manifested some

\b

aboul

II

do

m'l

1 .

strip images,

mmer

ol Ins late, paintings.


68.

Robert Motherwell, Je ,

67.

Marcel Duchamp. L.H.O.O.Q., 1919 Rectified readymad<

reproduction

pages

19.7

~2-~< 66.

91.4x1

I

!

Roy

1

cm

(1

i

n

4

Lichtenstein,

inches)

An,

Privat.

pencil

on

coUection

1962 Oil and

Magna on

<

invas,

68 inches). CoUection Gordon Locksley and George 1

Shea

l0 o

inches)

I'aimc No. IV, 1955 Oil on

Staatsgalerii

cam

moderner Kunst, Munich

is

177

>

255

.

m


The

genera] tenor of his tonus in 1961-62 was

work nut

it

even

after that, but,

many of Ins

so,

more

tested or completer) realized. Despite

full)

more cohesive and

— the dot

was when

It

pattern, line, shape, and

consistent pictoi

i

From around

ilh

J

imagery

in his

the earlier work,

in

passages, his sense of

ichtenstein started to adopt

I

olor

.

I'"'

out

laid

some awkward

placement and balance of tonus was impeccable. certain formal elements

tentative than the

concepts were

initial

that the

some of

on,

work became

the devices that

had appeared occasionally in the paintings of 1961-62 began to occur with increasing

curved And

frequency:

a

clouds to

woman's

a

times almost baroque

at

hair; the

spiraling cloud formations ot his landscapes

diagonals of the

Modem

paintings o\ 1966

which could describe anything from

line,

sharp zigzag of the

eomn

snip,

ot the

the most important features of his paintings

the use ot

and

is

canvas

image with the picture plane.

to identity the

m

a

the

his

And is

achieved not with

paintings of

hgurc/ground

a

more moderate

composition, which undoubtedly derives from

Ins

in the

interiors,

tin'

sense ol open-endedness

size, this

observation

o\

'In

ndcdiicss

<

oeuvre

through the use

relationship, but

One

to enlarge

open

This sense ot

landscapes, the Brushstrokes, the Modern series, the Mirrors, die Entablatures,

many of Ins

into fields

and rigid screen.

a taut

cropped image

originated with the comic-Strip paintings and occurs throughout

others. In

in the

zooming

which expands

70; the dot matrix,

of modulated color and creates on the surface

field

which reappears

1964-65 and again

*>i

ot an allovei

and experimentation

ol

with Abstract Expressionism.

Within the context of the

form be 69. Jasper

S4 inches)

Johns, False

Start,

1959 Oil on canvas, 170.8 x 137.2cm

a

against form, color against color, coloi against form.

consummate

transforming

(67

effe<

Ins

<>i

I

example of his supreme

Private colle< tion

hey do things

wasn't

ven

matter what

i

farther until

skill ai

i

omposing.

<

resembles othi

like the Little

I

this

>l

pi

i

<

wh) should

it

iirl

(fig

it

196

l'"').

It

to

through the >.

an early

is

work he noted:

riods ol

be?

ichtenstein pr0V( d himsi

he revamped

I

s.iw

a reference that most people will gel

was

I

perhaps unl nowini

irl

lokusai waves in the Drowning

lear in this regard it

his subject,

formal devices. Drowning

itself sometimes

Cartooning I

No

painter.

working

relationship', he established in his compositions,

ii

<

unl il

But

tirl

th< n

tin-

original

pushed

il

Little

.i

isaway of crystallizing

the style by exaggeration

woodcuts Lichtenstein enjoyed playinga cartoon image against one of the mosl famous n« ing both of the nineteenth century, Katsushika Hoknsai's The Wave, ca. 1820, and n fl

in

Drowning

Girl.

A comparison

ot the original

comic ship panel

(tig.

I

r.

07) with

lbs extraordinar) sense oi Lichtenstein's rendition clearly indicates the liberties he took,

organization, his

encompassing waves, major image

I

to use a

ability

hair,

he w.iv

m

Drowning Ctrl or one of

sweeping curve and manipulate

and even the

which

his

text balloon,

for

whom

artists

Composition

II.

Drowning

75

Chapter

3:

To emphasize

its

initial

(

it

(tigs.

subject into it

75, 76, and

77).

suggests comparisons unl. the work

lezanne,

Mondi

ian, Picasso,

a

was

de

ol

Kooning-

criterion in painting.

Girl,

different order: an ordinary school

childhood.

that

he has quoted -including

like

transformed the

composition-notebook paintings

form was the ultimate

into an allover pattern,

ichtenstein structured an image, whether

I

1964-65, was so thorough and unyielding

many of the

it

nature

is

an allover painting, but

its

sub,-

t is

notebook din anyone would recognize as

of an lion.

an object. L.chtcnsUm painted the front

Comic Strips and Advertising Images

entirely

SUrl

I


70.

Roy

Lichtcnstein,

In,

1962

(

)il

on canvas, 132.1 x 172.7

Solomon R Guggenheim Museum Nevi York

Partial

cm

(52 \ 68 Inches)

and promised

gift

of th(

artisi


(

Composition

with varnish but kept the

II

replicate an actual

notebook binding

Lichtenstein felt tree to press the issue

concessions to

dimension

its

reminiscent of Pollock (see the painting:

None

of

this data

extent that the rendering

segments of the

composition

Drowning Girl howev<

r,

is

girl's

hand

very expli<

is

as

through the

cea< hes

it

is

wooden support

1

any sense of "reality" that

-curtail

tew paintings like Composition

a

change

on a

a series of

that you'd see

(see fig. 79). Composition

m

another principally in the style

of the

Pasted pape.

gouache

ind charcoal, 65.4

Universitj Gallery of Art. St

x 50.1

cm

ifter

(25

Novembw

Xx

Louis. University Purchase,

1

18,

1912

hes)

isolated

suggested

win.

in

I.

obj<

thi

othei versions of the

as th<

II.

and

include,

and the other

ichtenstein mad.

1

i

Portrait oj

11

othi

a

variations

i

61), both

(fig

identical portraits

rwo

.Is

exa.

-

the second version

...

example, Sponge and Sponge

a subje<

from the

it

omposition III differ from

l

addition of "59*"

foi

sav,

Ulan Kaprow, wer.

in

attempt to paint

Rauschenberg had painted Factum subtle changes in his two versions md Factum II in 1957. But whereas Rauschenberg made tun identical paintings. In addition th. image of the same subject, Lichtenstein produ< ed le intend, d to do a no resemblance to either Karp or Kaprow in the paintings bears ripleting -In- tv weaned ol the idea tfte group of twelve identical portraits, but and certain parallels to Johns's target As a subject, the composition notebook offered

two Bottle of Suzc. Paris,

Composition

<

II

.s

you turned the painting around and

only once has he duplicated

entitled Portrait oil,:,, Karp

Pablo Picasso, Glass and

The

paintings featuring the image o[a stretchei fram.

lettering in the third version.

subject—early ones

single

1962—but

71.

I.

il

such

details

the water.

oi

by the light blue

hoed

1

two completely coincided with the rectangle, including the composition notebook and

i

because the figure has been stylized to such an

it

along with her blue hair— which

figure,

surfa<

only an approximation of an actual form.

Lichtenstein produced only

back

informed by the

htenstein used the

78) and overlapping forms that direct one's attention into

Benday-dot pattern of the waves

the

u

I

is

her face, the top oi her shoulder juxtaposed against her

thumb touching

the tip of her hair. etc.

fig.

wave framing the

a

In

to

without making any

status as object

lere, the allover

1

— which was meant

inherently two-dimensional,

is

it

of conveying a sense of spatial depth with a series of arabesques

method

traditional

of its

in actuality

Youngerman.

paintings of Still and

edge of the canvas

left

matte. Because

Washington

identical versions of the

same

subject,

much

I

as

I

Kende Sale Fund 1946

flags

seen

Nether as

an object,

common the

artist

m.nd

was interested

as a real

thing

in the subje<

in itself.

I

Johns chose the

visual cliches, or. objects because they were

as

he

hara,

.

-

et<

,

^

on

^

' ,

to the

1

ren,

I,

mneteenth-centurv

realist

subject, for

media

77

Chapter

ti most part,

culture. covets products, and views

3:

th.

1

,

class

, Kture

Lichtensteins

P^^J~J

"

,

''

Uo. and

I. ,

real

ts

,,

and what

,,

whos 'r; ourb :ise

painter Gustave

hXof subject, the rural bourgeoisie, was considered was the American middle

,

seen and

-,. ol pami

el

mages created a.

a

things

m,

uaUy

work

viewers' notions ofwhat but both approaches helped to blur

compare him

u

th<

perception of reality philosophical issues concerning our

deadpan mechanical presentation off "

rized

t<

were so familiar that they wer. already knows," images that

to

effect,

the target, and Othei

flag,

to give him "room not looked at" and thus neutral enough (i.e., the surface concentrate on the quality ofhis painting

color,

having the painting

per se but rather in

«

.

***££"*

^**^£^

rniddle-class ., ambition was to depict

Images Comic Strips and Advertising


s

,

HAVE SOMETHING FOR VOU TO EAT IN THE KITCHEN, PEAR I'M NOT HUNGRY MOTHER/ PLEASE, I JUST WANT TO CO TO MY ROOM/^g^"

TRIEP TO

I

REASON OUT/

I

I

.

IT

TRIEP

TO SEE THINGS FROM MOM ANP PAP'S

VI

EW-

POI NT/

I

TRIED NOT TO THINK OF EPPIE, SO

MY MINP WOULD BE CLEAR ANP

COMMON SENSE COULP TAKE OVER / BUT EPPIE

KEPT C0MIN6 BACK

. ,

72.

Roy

Lichtcnstein, Eddie Diptych, 1962

*0.6cm(44x 52

16 inches); right

in, lici overall

111.8x91

Sonnabend

(

I

(

>U

cm

"II" tion

on

(44

.

anvas,

two

panels;

lefi

111.8 x

LH.8* 132.1cm

.


and

its

culture through

Courbet, carries

a

of which he

he was

a part,

is

panning. Furthermore,

his

images are not related to

Courbet's monumental depictions up. hut remain

oi

to be

a certain

>>i

on

intent

look of "insincerity"

a

specific events or occurrences,

family burial

a

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; and continues

distance from his subject matter mu\ capturing

where he grew

point of view that, unlike

a

deep streak of irony. Although Lichtenstein undoubtedly has

a

affection for the society

maintaining

modes of mechanized reproduction,

its

in his

were

.is

laborers from the countryside

much more detached and

m\ of the sentiment

lack

expressed b\ Courbet. Several paintings from 1963,

among them

Ball

Twim and Large Spool

oj

62) reflect

(fig.

u htenstem's continuing interest in depicting the single object. In Large Spool win.

1

features a

cone-shaped object containing

of black

absolute flatness of the form. In Hill

Benday-screen background

as a

of

grouped into

lines

employed the same figure/ground arrangement

pattern, he

1

series

a

as in

Golf Bali

lie

used

From 1964 offered

a

neutral

ground

made

on, Lichtenstein

him

way

a

ol

his field

the single-object paintings of 1961

dots

the use ol Benday

working every

ol

main

for

63.

regular feature of his work.

a

part of the canvas, his

a

however.

this time,

lchtenstem had not yet decided to use the Hendav screen exclusively to unify

and often chose

Ii

herringbone

to maintain the

Twine, though, as in Black Flowers,

counterpoint to the central form. At

a

own

personal equivalent to

It

tin-

Abstract Expressionists' use of the allowi image, Lichtenstein occasionally used

reference

is

donor

portraits that

industrial era. Lichtenstein

narratives but

on-Can

first

with Leg

of images.

In

began to use 73), 1961,

(fig.

it

found

m

this

format ideally suited to

Eddie Diptych

its

(fig.

counterpart 72), 1962,

New

74). 1962, feature a before-and-after set

(fig.

mended.

le

I

mu\ We Rose

New, the

Like

in

p Slowly

I

what the young blond woman

us

thinking; but as

we

(fig.

at

the right.

The

of the period, unfulfilled

narrative smacks as the

longmg

"Sincerely Yours" Liechtenstein's

unnamed heroine

to

m

ol tin

be with "Eddie" IXC. Comics'

two panels operate

curves that

first

appeared

in

Girl.

balance of forms indicate the extent of Diptych, both

79

Chapter

3:

image and dialogue

are

is

his

is

in

108), 1964, using one panel of t<

I

pam

I

at

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the daughter

Is

caught b\ the dialogue between

ti

i

and dialogue,

a pastil h<

-l

oncerned mother and the unhapp)

I

/>

way, with

Romance comit books, and movies

Slowly, based

thi

panel nukes

from the kind

Drowning

pictured in one image

on

panel from

a

Romances, no. SI (January 1962)

in a similar

itself benefits

I

In lie Rose

seduction. Here, the narrowness of the text

image, and the image

k from the

aloud about her parents' wishes and her

frets

Girls'

ii

ight-hand panel

soaps. True

of daytime

ibl

In Eddie Diptych, the

I

mclodrain.itw

girlhood trauma, are echoed by the images

The

in tin

read her thoughts, our attention

mother and daughter

I

slight

explored other aspects of the diptych

each diptych just for text and the other for the image. left tells

of the

paintings based on newspaper and magazine ads. Step-

and Like

is

the

as

comic-Strip

his

Step-on-Can with Leg, Lichtenstein modifies the image only

damaged while

daughter.

most obvious

Its

were made obsolete by the secular concerns

left-hand panel to the right-hand one: and

the

1961.

in

to the iconography of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, such

crucifixions or the

modern

diptych format beginning

a

I

ol

..

te

I

(fig.

enham mg

mo.,

i

ffi

i

tiv

i

ontrast to the

expansive imagers .uk\ languorous

superb he organization ol the painting and the

development between 1962 and

compressed into

Comic Strips and Advertising Images

109),

the image ol

a relative!)

tight

l<K,4. In

ipa< e, a

visual

Eddie


.

^

.

'•"..•,:.,".*.".*.•.•.•.•. \\*.". •

.'.*

-••.•.•.•.•.•..

~^m

^H

'."-

"."..'.'.".*.".

•'.''.•'.•'.•'.'.'.'.

.

^ .'.' .'.'

*.

^^^Bv

.^^i

*

.

XvXv/!l •".*.*.*."•".

^^^^

.*.'..•.

^H

k

-'•HA* *^H >^B ^B

^k *

*^H

'...•'.•y. ''.'.•'.-'.•'.

.'.'.' '.'.'.'

.

!^^

".".'.'.."

hkll*!*i>!*

B^P

•.•..

.'".*

•:•:•:•:•:•: .'.'.'.

•'•'•B. ...*..-

'.."."•"."-. ..".".• "••»%•,

•••.••

.

-^ftv

.

^k.

^H ^H

i^k "•*•".' ."

.'."."

.".•..•. x : :

:':

tSVv

;".;.;.'

: :

.-.•.•.-..•.•.•

.*.•.

•"•*•"•*.*•*•"•".".*,*.* *.".".*.".".

.'.*."

•"•

'•*•"• *• "•*•'•

v.v.w.v.

'.

".

*.*.

bW

".

.'..'.*.*.".*^H .••.•.-.

%%»«««».

«.

~^^H ^^

,*^

'"" , •.

.

.*•*."

.

.•.*.*

.

•"

.

"'-*.'.'.. •

•*

' •.'•*•'.

*••' •••

•*

"

t*

..".

.

"

-'

71.

Roy Uehumfln, Sttp-on-Can

with

Ug,

1961

.•.".*." "

.

.'.

''.'.'

.*.•.*. •..*.•."

*

^^^^B

.".'

.' -

ipaneli si K

o,l

66cm

•:•'.•.'•*.•:•;•:•:

*.*..*.

..".'.".

each

""

B1

'"" '

.•.•.• ,i

Kai$ei

Wilhelm

M

I

U


:•:•:•:::•::*

m-:-:'': :

,,„

U^ UchtoMfin,UkeNw,

71

M

H.4> l42

>ch;91

en

rail

I

"

ll

""

*

I

'"'""

""'

;

!

blum N< w

,,,..,

1962 Oilon

u

i

Ro) Uchtensttln

7S

I

potllhnh 1964

Oil ind

Magna fiirMod I

i.

it,

FormcrKarl!

'

hcrCoUcc.

)arm$tadi

Roj

76.

,ndMa Sonnabi nd

(

i

"

'

'"'

'"""

"

''"''

"''


J


drama of the

strategy that heightens the

narrative

embracing couple another diagonal

positioned on

is

painting, the areas

up

set

is

We

formalized than in

much more

is

in

.1

text

its

some-

original

made

Lichtenstein

strip.

.1

r Slowly

I

first

(lii5 v

207 inches)

I

Autumn Rhythm. 1950

he Metropolitan

Museum

Oil

on

ol Art

canvas, 266.7

New

525.8

«

York, George

cm

not in the

naturalistic, at least

A

work ofCourbet,

agri, ultural society.

Hearn Fund, 1957

htor.il

images

reality

Surrealism, and

encompassed

perception, but each defines

colleagues featured

mam

different

art

...

reality

thi

the othei frames ol

a

innoi be thought ol as

j

dial originated

Age

in the

nineteenth century,

es ol the world,

experiem

the

.1

was

ury, the

ubism

<

as

with an

redefined. In the twentieth

us

own

light. In the

society in their

era, Abstrai

postwar

further redefined OU1 pen eption

new urban

a

in eai h

>ada,

1

nature ol abstraction arc the result of significant changes in the

modern

Expressionism and Pop

But

time and elevated them to the status

in

view of the world

would be

inevitable that the concept ol reality

notion of

p Slowly, th<

I

coloi to the overall work.

&om

single firame

the onset of the Industrial

With

Ro

sense of the term. Naturalism in painting, such

parallels a

example,

for

W

In

to stabilize the images.

images, of signs, Although he worked with representational 78. Jackson Pollock,

of mother and

both strangely complete and considerably different from

it

his alteration sealed the

I

Rose

vertit al text

vertical figures

add another texture and

In his comic-strip paintings, by isolating

comic

rangement of the

diagonal axis directed away from the text panel, while

opposition to the

occupied by

ai

and the

panel, counterbalanced by the hoi tzontal balloons

daughter,

he

I

ol reality

viewing people

art,

1

and

ht. nst. in

ii

I

ms

in tei

Ins

ol their

indirecdy In way ol m< hani al often approa. hing the material world mollis was derived from ,< hleiisienfs stvl./alion ol 1

artifacts,

The conscious

reproduction

perhaps

comic

strip

reality

Comic

at least in

strips

of testing

possibility

tin

I

saw

part because he

,.

,-'

an effective way

as

and consumer-product advertising images offered us, on, b; most of his major assumptions not,

I

Dting

ichtenstein the bul nearly

all at

th tl to question the role ol art in the late thev provided him with the means imps away we ome to understand it? II centurv What is an art object and how do how does one de, tde wlia, will art as ., precious object, most Of the assumptions al do we "legitimate" as art. .,,,,1 how legitimate work of art? What is replace it as

OIKtf

.

.

I

..

avewealread, accepte,

irally assign its value? Can we accept What mything an "artist" declares to be art art?

Lichtenstein

is

;„„,,, to incorporate

all

of these queues into

,„

with the defini oevtvre that remains aligned

an

artist

concerned with the most

traditional artist.

w

.

ls

,

Every theme

way rf testing

all

inets

that

bai

he chose

Within

this

1

"high

of painting,

such early pioneers incorporate no. only the ideas of Ge but movements such as Futurism.

'

l.u

77.

Roy

Licht.nstcin. CtmfosiHtm /«. 1965

142.2 x 121.9

cm (56

x 48 inches)

(

ollection

;onc

OilandMagna

IrvingBlum,

Ne»

87

,

from

Chapter

artist

,

3:

this

art,

as

of pi

all

of the

<

*

tap.

art ,0 lollou

Images Comic Str.ps and Advertising

*

-* *

as

— ,£*

-stnr

throughout

tins

asbeenabfe casso .an, and M d «-. -' * - hs I,

I,*r*1

bh.»

and the

period defines

the ass

y,

ndereda

«

Ire,

L*-

Hlv stylistically to further h

;L approach!

h,s art

S

Ot an

however, that fKhtcnste,

hts sens,

akingtheco

mMSWork '

creating

It

k. Lichtens

gfi,

all-encomp:

do

the ,

a,

art."

been,

1

to

that he

to treat:

of these assumptions-uucstio

ixample, or abstraction, issues that century.

work, while

his

;e

,

that

^

,

'

"*"

"who "

'

,

htsconceptsv

I.

thait


79.

Roy

Lichtcnstcin, Stretcher Frame with Cross Bars

canvas, 121 9

k

1

42 2

cm

I

18

k

56 inches]

Prh

in

III,

collection

1968

(

>il

and Magna on


Comic

1

paintings

strip panels

wen

included

Cultun (Octobei

Magna, an

2

and sold

Hoc our

at h.s store.

M irk

and

artists.

quoted

was reprinted

in John

<

on p

(February

5.

1966),

7.ThomasB

Roy

9

i

as far as

font canva I

surmounted by lour

* 66

cm

inches); overall (with

The Museum

(26

x 26

tinted plaster faces in

inches):

box

wood box

in

riches)

(33

ofModem Art. New York GiftofMi andMn

Robert

(

"Roy

irtforum 4, no.

t

he could with the idea

quoted

reate of

"< >ld< in Glaser,

(

loplans,

Lichtenstein

\n

\rtfomm

3:

Nev, York's informal

ol

Kenneth Noland

Interview," in

Roy

I

kson

u

Lichtenstein,

no 9 (May 1967), where

i

ichtenstein Warhol:

I

exhib

cai

this essay p. 12; th(

quoted

A

Discussion,"

\rtfomm

4,

no 6

nburg

I

Ne* YbrkSd

i

QUc* York Harry

<

isolat.

u

ht,

lift

tbandoned

ailed Flat, but

d words

on

a

nstein Warhol,"

nstein

An

N

I

Found

Abrams, 1972). p

Museum of Modern

(Nev, Vbrk

cat

painting

'Roy

Lichtenstein

painting

,

of the

Artists

Fr,

1

hen

(Septembei 1965), p 31.

I

<.>«»>*» (New York

ScuU

Chapter

one

il

Art, 1968), p

sin. e

I-

fi

H thai

sing Images Comic Strips and Advert,

!8

SO

he had

invas

i

|

Interview." p

16,

and

in "

Roy

talking

39.

H.johns. quoted in Richard

89

ouis,

paintings.

"Oldenburg

Hess. Willem de Kooning, exhib

p.

I

Street,

some of their

Diane Waldman, Roy

Lichtenstein, quoted in

Lichtenstein,"

<26*

(closed

box open) 85.3 x 66 x 7.6 cm

„,

with hinged

ond

se<

iround 1941

ui

22

quoted

ichtenstein,

\damGopnik

1

on 1955 Assemblage encaustic and collage 80. jasper Johns, Target with Four Faces, canvas with objects,

in

Lichtenstein" in

Lichtenstein had also intended to

gone

ind

and Populat

\><

Art Center, Minneapolis, L967), in collaboration with the Walker

Audience—Themselves,"

Lichtenstein,

8.

ifty

l

Hov, the Rosenberg, quoted in Irving Sandler. "The Club

First

6

p.

ss: Wesl

...

Magna

Lichtenstein, quoted in Bruce Glaser,

4.

Modem

low

and turpentine, was developed by Leonard B

1950s, such artists as Morris

oplans

ichtenstein assources tor his

I

1991), organized by KirkVarnedoi

15,

oil

publications used In

Art's exhibition High ,mJ

of Modern

lolors

(

used

ilso

"Talking with

as

passage appears

Artists

During the

Rothko

Museum,

Pasadena Art

Museum

mixable with

acrylic resin

Lichtenstein,

3

the

in

Comics

several ol these D.<

1990 through January

.

gathering places tor iv.lkn k,

&om

Abbeville Press. 1984). pp

20

U


\yr\r\

1 i,

HOT- SHOT,

OKAY! I'M P0URIN6


81.

Roy

Lichtcnstein, Blam, 1962 Oil on canvas,

BOinches) Yale Univerait) \rtGaller)

H A 1935

l

7

2"

x

New Haven.Lentty

203

2

cm

(68

k

Richard Brown Baker,


most potent twentieth-century evocation of wai

In painting, the

to the Spanish Republic,

town by

the destruction ofa Basque

of myth. Joan Mir6's

to the level .i

the

ascists,

I

Ufe with

Still

A

response to Picasso's allegorical masterpiece. b\

objects—an old shoe, an apple pierced ofa loaf of bread— it

is

and the comic

w .in

it

engendered.

contribution to one of

own

bis

momentous

monumental painting In 1962,

was

him

to

the language ol advertising

Using

war Wbat

strip

a ploy, a

is

when Liehtenstem

better

w.,r.

way

still

ith

to

ntury

1 1

be

ating the mod.

and

art

,

twe

was just beginning

u

of presenting a serious subject in

remarkable series

initiated Ins

w

has so often glorified

which

strip,

in a style suitable to late-

of Vietnam, and was

conflict

ichtenstein's use ol narrative enabled

I

while reintroducing narrative

midst of the cold

in the

and part

in paper,

subject ol war and the tradition ol epic narrative painting

choice of the comic

an inflammatory manner, ol

onsidered

t

four symbolit

ol

bonk- wrapped

great themes.

art's

than by using the formula of the comic [.ichtenstein's

a

he updated Western civilization's obsession with

strip,

to ta< kle the

composed

painting

fork, a gin

a

from

it

an impassioned protest against the horrors of the Spanish Civil War

and the povertv and suffering

make

transforming

devastating event

>M Shoe, 1937, has long been

<

of

tragic subject

through which he elevated the

•uemiea, 1937,

(

great lament

Pii asso's

is

art.

ol

wai p innings, the

te

mired

recycling images ol World Wat

S

the escalating

in

heroism

II

U

mam

in

areas

the snips [is wai paintings esagg rati of our culture, especially movies and comic ol camaraderii the fighting spirit and of war's -uand subjects heroism and sacrifice,

hi

lit

i

I

soldiers.", id the belief that

considered

is,

issue I

"just"

a

war

is

hell

but

full

to tear the nation apart. In tin

men

leading ichtenstein took his subjects, the

War

heroes By overstating then

II

wartime hero

image

[f the

and '50s seemed reprehensible to than war was one of the burning

mvth of the warrior be of any

Bv presenting such doubt on then

coherence

king

validity

m ,

made

projected in

I

his

men

now

was. and

onfli,

,

the

I

win, h

authenn, World

as

mm

theii ,,

ho pos ol

L<

11

19 10s

lollywood film

generation raised on the Beatles, and

the

,1

nth.

pea<

I

,

of wai and th issues of the 1960s, could the concept

value to

1

ichtenstein o, an,

oth

i

post* a

A

u

u

I

I

ol civilization s

most

in art.

that separates

as a series pet

them from

celebrated Bop

1961, Ins ambition was to

no one would hang themes

be sec,

one while continuing the tradition of

not intended

,n h,s

to

mi stereotypes in an ironic and questioning

fundamental themes

Though

a

ichtenstein

I

Wayne

that Job,.

meant

&Om

however, and exaggerating

roles,

and powerful weapons.

fearless attitude,

are

Strips

nil

II

Vietnam

ol the

war b> most Americans, but by the time

of war threatened

War

of glory nonetheless. World

i,"< In

Ins

te,

war paintings

Lit h.eiistein's

other genre sub, , ith

i,

make

Uok

is

Mickey

I,

of th, pe (fig.

19)

,v,

I

I

began « hen he ar

and othe,

"a painting that was des,

mal

fo,

,

gh

bl

m

a «q V painting he the year or so that followed, inter, domestic products, e, -strip images, con

at ol

bating among comic

relating to th. work canvas, as well as pamtmgs George Washington, and words on heir Most of these images gamed Cezanne Mondrian, and Picasso. «ous lalong in fact, many of the subjects j p™ble'' subjects, but „l days O, -

,

93

3

Chapter

Had rher.

4:

ecu Haunted

The

in the face

of the public

gmar accomplishment,

War Comics. 1962-64

si

w,

4

,

images gs of updated genre


THE EXHAUSTED SOLDIERS, SLEEPLESS FOP FIVE AND SIX DAYS AT A TIME, ALWAYS HUNGPY FOP DECENT CHOW, SUFFERING FROM THE TPOPICAL FUNGUS INFECTIONS, KEPT FIGHTING/

82.

Roy

Lichtenstein, Takka Takka, 1962 Oil and in.

hcs

Musi

am

I

udw

ig,

<

ologne

Magna on

<

invas

143* 173 cm


^

might have been

THB EXHAU ? T ! D "Si GUADALCANAL and six tSbI. sleepless for fis/e HUNGRN FOR TIME, AL^NS JijBS AT A THE FROM SUFFERING CHW StrlwT iFECTIONS, KEPT ON tIoP CAt FUNGUS »

accompanied Initially,

controversial had

less

then,,

it

Ken

not

the comic-strip paintings thai

foi

so offensive that the)

which were

.

arried

tin-

others

was limited

strip narrative

Lichtenstein's entry into the area ol corn*

wake

in their

tew

to a

n. harai ters in Mi Bellamy Ju.se military dramatic themes, lor Ins subjects, he domestii dramas in The Engagement Rmg Emeralds (fig. 50), both 1961, 01

.

<

I

1

(fig

and

4'))

and in Masterpiece g si) also 1961, 1962 ft comparison of TTie

(

53) and Forget

(fig.

Me!

Forget

It!

(fig.

both

54),

fi

B««m«i

Branner's strip

"Winnie Winkle"

(fig.

depicting the most highly charged strip's narrative,

characters

Ki»j with us source,

52), reveals that

moment

imparted the scene with

a

1

panel iron, Martin

htenstein

i<

and, isolating

,™

..

hose the panel

1

from the cont, *

it

the

ol

comic

dynami, between the male and female evolves

the see,,,, In each of these paintings

1

parti, ulai in, ident; ,„

1

Bellamy the leading men pla, contained. In both Emeralds and Mr. llingove. lus he tl to report to his superior and passive roles, with one waiting ing « ith Blam up in the war paintings beg olursc of action things star, to heat Idle of the conflid the viewe, righi in 1962, which seems to thrust (fie 81) * ol plan, the impac, ol the resonates with the sound of gunfire,

each the icdon

is

.

1

Jm

I

breaking up.

si .Source for

Roy

Lichtenstrin,

lilrk,

Mm,

doesn't

I.

has the

need one; the