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Digitized by the Internet Archive in

2013

http://archive.org/details/roylichOOwald


Roy Lichtenstein


Roy Lichtenstein

by Diane Waldman

&UGGENH

EIM

MUSEUM


|993

!

New

Solomon R Guggenheim Foundation

he

i

Solomon K. Guggenheim Museum, New York

York

tober

8,

109-

Printed

man)

in

lei

b\ permission

Published 1071

(

i!(

I

5

softi

h\

<

over)

It

U

the

I

ÂŤ

1993 R.O)

I

ichtenstein.

Guggenheim Museum.

Avenue.

New

York,

New

I

York

10128

ml, ovei edition distributed b\

Rjzzoli International Publications,

300 Park Avenue South.

New

In<

York,

New

York

10010

Robert Mapplethorpe, Roy

Gelatin-silver print. 61 x 50.8

I

roni

1

1

Ko

cm

(2-4 \

20 inches)

Âťver:

Detail ol (fig.

1985

Lichtenstein,

Km

Lichtenstein, Gofoi Baroque, 1979

U

Li.

htenstein, Self-Portrait, 1978

(fig.

187).

April

1994

Ins

lei

Art,

man

In.

os Angeles

5,

Arts

1994

exhibition has been supported I

1

V 1994

September

grant from

(

rontispie< e

I

16,

The Montreal Museum of Fine M.i\ 26

All rights reserved

>"

Adilition.il

1.

fanuarj

Museum of Contemporary

he

January

lantz

Lichtenstein works

Ron

Used

1

1993

0-89207-108-7 (hardcover)

ISBN 0-89207

All

>,

(

All rights reserved

ISBN

Roy Lichtenstein

Owen

(

m

p.irt

.i

generous

heatham Foundation

support has been provided by

\irlines.

by

I

ufthansa


Contents

Preface

\u

Acknowledgments

1

I

2

(

3

he Early Yens

In

ho

1

into [cons

omi( Strips and Advertising Im

i

4

War Comics, 1962

5

Girls,

6

Landscapes, 1964

7

Brushstrokes, L965

s

Art

9

Mirrors. 1969 72, and

19

Pop Pictures

arly

I

45 i

91

64

1963 (^ Âť9

l

1

66

165

Deco and Modern, 1966-70 ( I

nl iblatures,

V

l

>7l

isi

76

205

1972-76

10

still

11

Futurism, Surrealism, and

I

ifes,

German

Expressionism, 1974

so

261

1980s

12

11k-

13

Interiors, L991

Âť99

93

n I

i

Sculpture, 1965 93

4

-.1 1

15

(

hi<

Murals. 1964 93

'

377 Bibliography

Index of Reproductions


Lenders to the Exhibition

Betty Asher, Beverly Hills, California

The Museum of Modern Art, New York The Patsy R. .md Raymond D.

Richard Brown Baker Irving Blum,

rhe

Eli

New York

and Edythe

Jean-Christophe

Leo

L.

Nfasher Collection, Dallas, Texas

Broad Collection

National Gallery of Art,

Castelli

Washington, D.C.

Castelli

Douglas

S.

Mr. and Mrs.

Cramer. Los Angeles

New

Collection,

Rose Art Museum, Brandeis

Museum

York

and Sculpture

Garden, Smithsonian Institution,

Washington. D.C.

Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Diisseldorf

Gordon Locksley and George T. Shea McCrory Collection, New York Steve Martin

York

and Andrew Saul

Scottish National Gallery of

Modern

Art,

Edinburgh Mr. and Mrs. Robert H. Shoenberg

Sonnabend Collection

New

York

Museum, Amsterdam Stephen and Nan Swid Collection. Stedehjk

New

York

Tate Gallery,

Co., Inc.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art,

New

)enise

New

Staatsgalerie Stuttgart

Mitchell Lichtenstein

Mazoh and

Robert and Jane Rosenhlum, I

Gian Enzo Sperone,

David Lichtenstein

Stephen

University,

Waltham, Massachusetts

Ronnie and Samuel Heyman, New York Hirshhorn

New house, Jr.

Elizabeth and Michael Rea. Connecticut

New York

David Geffen Collection

Helman

I.

Michael and Judy Ovitz

Stefan T. Edlis Collection

Larry Gagosian,

S.

York

Robert and Jane MeyerhofF, Phoenix, Maryland

Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, Texas

Museum Ludwig, Cologne Museum moderner Kunst, SammJung Ludwig, Vienna

London

Walker Art Center, Minneapolis Marcia Simon Weisman Trust

Whitney Museum of American

New

Art.

York

Mr. and Mrs. Baglcv Wright Yale University Art Gallery, Private collections

New Haven


Project

Team

Curatcd by Diane Waldman,

Deputy Director and Senior Curator

Elizabeth

hnician,

Administration

Richebourg Rea,

Consultant and Researcher

Neretm.

[osh

Museum

Technician Carpenter

Cassandra Lozano

Research Assistant

Julia Blaut,

Groom. Museum fa

Jocelyn

Clare Bell, Assistant Curator

William Smith,

Museum Technician Museum Technician

Susan Joan Schenk, Research Assistant

Dennis Vermullen.

Tracey Bashkoff, Curatorial Assistant

Guy

Walker,

Museum

Technician

Carol Strmgan. Associate Conservator Linda Thacher, Exhibitions Registrar

Pamela

L.

Myers, Administrator for

Programming

Exhibitions and

Cara Galowitz, Manager, Graphic Design

Husten. Manager of Budget

Amy

and Planning James

di

Pasquale

Robert McKeever Heather Ramsdell

Services

Michelle Martino, Graphic Designei

David Heald. Manager. Photographic

Karne Adamany. Curatorial

Intern

Cunningham,

Sarah Ellen

Curatorial Intern

Services

Intern Blythe Kingston, Curatorial

Lee Ewing, Photographer

Coordinator Samar Qandil, Photography

Museum

Laura Antonovv, Senior

Museum

Intern James Rondeau, Curatorial Ivy Sta. lglesia. Curatorial Intern

Technician. Lighting Christine Scinlli,

Michelle Mahonev. Curatorial Intern

Technician.

Michelle Smigallia. Curatorial Intern

Lighting and Planning Scott

Wixon, Manager of Installation and

Anthom

Collection Services Peter Read,

Jr..

Manager. Fabrication

Anibal Gonzalez-Rivera. Manager.

Joseph Adams. Senior

Museum

Technician

Museum Technical! Senior Museum Technician

Peter Costa. Senior

Timothy Ross. Technical

Specialist

John Brayshaw, Museum Technician/Carpenter ),\ id

I

Johnson.

Elizabeth

alnek.

Managing Editor

Lew. Production

Editoi

Museum

Technician/Carpenter Technician Robert Attanasio, Museum Museum Lisette Baron Adams.

Technician

James Cullinane,

Laura Morns, Assistant Editor Jennifer

Collection Services

Veater,

(

Editor Stephen Robert Frankel. Project

Services

David

Gltdl0ÂŁHC

Museum Technician

Knox,

Editorial r\ssistant

Shelly Lee

of Design by Takaaki Matsumoto

M

Plus

M

Inc.


The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation

Honorary

Trustees in Perpetuity

Solomon R. Guggenheim Justin K.

Trustees

The Right Honorable

Earl Castle Stewart

Mary Sharp Cronson

Thannhauser

Peggy Guggenheim

Elaine Dannheisser

Miehel David- Weil] President

Carlo

Peter Law son-Johnston

The Honorable Gianni De Michelis

Robm r I

Wendy

L-J.

McNeil

Robert M. Gardiner

Chandler Duke

Robert M. Gardiner

ice-Presidents

The Right Honorable

Benedetti

)e

I

Earl Castle Stewart

Jacques Hachuel

Moreno

Ramer Heubach Barbara Jonas

Thomas Krens Directoi

Peter Law son-Johnston

Thomas Krens

Samuel J. LeFrak Peter B. Lewis

Wendy

McNeil

L-J.

Edward H. Meyer Ronald

Perelman

C).

Michael M. Rea

Heinz Ruhnau Denise Saul

James

Sherwood

B.

Raja Sidawi

Seymour Peter

Slive

W Stroh

Stephen C. Swid

Rawleigh Warner,

Jr.

Weber

Jiirgen

Michael

F.

Wettac h

Donald M. Wilson William

T

Ylvisaker

Honorary Trustee

Mme Trusta

Luigi

Claude Pompidou

,

Ex

(

Officio

Mosehen

Director Emeritus

Thomas M. Messcr


Preface

As one of the art

artists

who

world with the new

imagery and "high established Ins

invented Pop

and borrowing the techniques

own unique

American consumer

the 1960s, R<>\

style

culture, his

and

I

ichtenstein shocked the

of his paintings and sculptures. Merging popular

visual syntax

art,"

art in

attitude.

oi advertising

Representing

oeuvre has exerted

a

and the comics, he

composite portrait

worldwide influence

.1

of

more than

for

three decades.

Lichtenstem and the Guggenheim

The Guggenheim mounted

its

first

Museum

a

long-standing relationship.

retrospective exhibition devoted to the works of this

most enduring and important American

we

have

1969; now, nearly twenty

artist in

five

years later,

present our second Lichtenstein retrospective. In addition, his paintings, sculptures,

.md works on paper figure proudly

works spanning

I

in

our permanent collection.

ichtenstein's entire career, this

bringing together

In

book and exhibition make evident

his

achievement. I

express

mv

sincere appreciation to the

artist for his

generous mk\ enthusiastic help

To Diane Waldman, Deputy Director and Senior Curator, whose curatorial and knowledge of Lichtenstein's work have brought this presentation and

in this project.

expertise

publication to fruition with sensitivity and intelligence, Finally,

it is

to the individuals

financial support that

1

owe

a

and foundations

great debt of -latitude.

Castelli for his aid to the project.

Foundation; Stephen and

who

Acknowledgment

is

1

am

especially thankful.

have generously given then

We

are especially thankful to

due

also

Nan Sw.d: Stephen Ma/oh and

The

to

Airlines for

its

Thomas Krens Director

My

appreciation

is

also

Co., Inc.; and

extended

continuing support of the Guggenheim and

to

all its

I

eo

Owen Cheatham The

Merrill

assistance have been and Emita E. Hastings Foundation; their contributions and

the success of this exhibition.

I

uftliansa

endeavors,

(

!

vital to

German


Acknowledgments

It

has been

second retrospective

rare privilege to organize this

a

paintings and sculptures.

Guggenheim Museum

I

had the pleasure of presenting

first

1969.

in

Roy

of

his

work

would have been impossible then

It

as

achieve such an undertaking without the generous cooperation of the grateful for the

he has shared

unwavering support

that

he has given

me

to audiences at the it

would be now

artist

in this project.

himself.

Over the

details

about

his

to

am

I

years,

and reminiscences And provided indispensable information on

his insights

influences, motivations, and

his

work. His keen perception and unfailing

have added greatly to our diseussions. That same boundless

humor

Lichtenstein's

exchange has enabled Lichtenstein to produce

spirit

body of work whose

a

of interaction and

originality of

expression and style are appreciated worldwide. Today, nearly twenty-five years after his first

museum, he continues

retrospective at this

enormous impact on

to have an

the art of

our time. As

traced the development of his oeuvre since the late

I

inquiries had to be

periods.

am

I

made

111

New

J(><>s,

was evident

it

that

new

locating the whereabouts of many key works from different

especially grateful to Elizabeth

painstaking contributions in

( l

Richebourg Rca

tor her tireless

and

and other areas of research and documentation.

this

information on Lichtenstein's work was brought to

my

attention by

many

colleagues, through personal conversations as well as published and unpublished materials.

My

gratitude

is

extended to those

recollections, including

generously volunteered their findings and

Richard Bellamy; Irving Blum; James Corcoran; Constance

Goodman; Joseph Helman; Tim Hunt, Director of The Warhol Foundation;

Glenn; James Ivan Karp;

who

Margo

Leavin;

Dorothy Lichtenstein; James Mayor; Lucy Mitchell-Innes,

Senior Vice-President of Contemporary Paintings

New

Sotheby's,

at

York; George Segal;

Daniel Templon; Phyllis Tuchman; Diane Upright, Vice-President of Contemporary Art at Christie's,

New

Curly Grogan for universities, details

York, and her his

staff;

and

Leslie

Waddington.

advice and support. To the staff

and museums

that

we

of Lichtenstein's exhibition

members

I

would at

the

also like to

numerous

thank

libraries,

contacted tor essential bibliographic information and history,

1

am

also

most

grateful.

This exhibition and publication could not have been accomplished without the help of

A deep debt of thanks is extended to many aspects of both projects, and for her

Lichtenstein's studio assistants.

Cassandra Lozano for

her enormous help on so

assistance in

facilitating the use

am

of the

sincerely grateful to

artist's

James

archives by

di Pasquale, Shelly Lee.

Ramsdell for their invaluable participation

show and

My

members of the Guggenheim Museum's

in the

stall

I

Robert McKeever, and Heather

planning and implementation of the

publication.

thanks are due especially to Leo Castelli and the staff of his gallery, in particular

Susan Brundage, Director, and Patty Brundage, Associate Director, for providing crucial

information about Lichtenstein's paintings and sculpture. To Larry Gagosian, Melissa

McGrath, Robert Pincus-Witten, and others Lichtenstein catalogue raisonne,

much-needed

An

I

at

the Gagosian Gallery

wish to extend

my

working on the Roy

gratitude for supplying us with

data as well as a range of important materials.

exhibition of this magnitude could never be achieved without the assistance of the

entire staff

Curator,

of the Guggenheim Museum.

who managed

I

am

deeply indebted to Clare

Bell, Assistant

every phase of the project, contributed to the research, and wrote


the chronology.

My

gratitude also goes to Tracey Bashkoff,

who

Blaut, Research Assistant,

compiled the bibliography; and Susan Joan Schenk,

Assistant. In addition,

Research

uratorial Assistant; Julia

(

would

I

like to

thank the dedicated interns

volunteered their services on the project over the course of several

who

years: Karrie

have

Ad. mum,

Sarah Ellen Cunningham, Blythe Kingston, Michelle Mahoney, James Rondeau. K\ Sta. Iglesia,

Among

and Michelle

Sinigallia.

those most involved with the presentation were

who

Registrar,

exhibition; Pamela Myers, Administrator for Exhibitions all

and Collection Services,

Lichtenstcms larger works into the galleries;

negotiated the complex

museum and

and Carol Strmgari. Associate

those staff members

(

installing

works

foi

m

Programming,

.\\k\

who. with the help

technical aspects of the installation and

Installation

inda Thacher, Exhibitions

1

coordinated the intricate details of transportation

oi

Scott

the

who

oversaw

Wixon, Manager of

of bringing

details

the ramps and

them on

town

ouservator, whose expertise was invaluable. To

Design in the areas of Fabrication. Lighting. Collection Services, and

who also gave their tune and energy to the project. am most grateful. A monograph of this scope could not have been accomplished without the talents o\ Anthony Calnek, Managing Editor, who supervised evei asp< Ct ol its publication, mu\ I

\

Stephen Robert Frankel, Editor of the monograph, whose advice were indispensable to m\

M Plus M

gratitude to the other

Production Editor, Editor,

essay.

Inc. for designing the book.

members of the

who

My 1

deep

would

critical

appreciation to also like to

Publii ations

extend

Others on the Guggenheim's

Assistant, for their expertise

staff

who

a

1

in

and

ol

sincere note ot

aura

on the

have worked diligently

editing,

Matsumoto

Department: Elizabeth

coordinated production of the book; and

and Jennifer Knox, Editorial

comments,

rakaaki

1

evy,

Morns.

Assistant

project.

helping to realize

this

of Budget and accompanying catalogue include Amy Husten, Manager Archivist; Son,.. Bay, Planning; Glory Jones, Public Affairs Officer; Ward Jackson, and Assistant Librarian; Stuart Gerstein, Director of Wholesale

exhibition and

its

Librarian; Tara Massarskv,

Assistant. Retail Operations; and Susan Landesmann, Production those names of lenders to the exhibition appear in the catalogue (except

The

wished

to

remain anonymous).

bring together

many of

I

I

Diane Waldman Deputy

Directot

."/</

to

without achtenstcins most important paintings and sculptures;

and enthusiastic

their generosity

thank them wholeheartedl) for enabling us

who

Seniot Curato\

assistance, this exhibition

would not be

possible.


?

I


Chapter

1

The Early Years


I.

Roy

Liechtenstein, Washington Crossing

lite

crion

Delaware

/,

ca

1951

<

>il

Oil

canvas,


One

of the most challenging decades

began at

1960s with the inception of the Pop

in the early

New

the Leo Castelli Gallery in

comic

paintings based on

and other

strips

York.

K.n

as

brought

to

ARTnewi make

a

as

common

to the

1963, Lichtenstein remarked to

In

a

It

was almost

a<

(

)ldenburg,

(

ol

seminal interview that his

painting that was so ••despicable" that no one would hang

-everybody was hanging everything.

1963, he

By/

sculpture, and effectively

Gene Swenson

critic

series oi

object, popular culture,

underlying theme of their paintings and

the

first

and Andy Warhol, many

end the long reign of Abstract Expressionism.

.\n

in

Segal,

art

In February 1962,

Jim Dine, Jasper Johns, Claes

were working independently, had turned

or the mass media

movement.

art

Lichtenstein exhibited his

Robert Rauschenberg, James Rosenquist, George

whom

entury rVmei u an

i

and advertising images of consumer goods.

of his generation such

artists

of twentieth

in the history

He

it.

lung

eptable to

in

ambition was to

noted that dripping paint rag,

a

commercial art." everybodx was accustomed to this. The one thing everyone hated was was concerned stated that his art—and Pop art in general—

In

the interview. Lichtenstein

become extremely romantic and with the world, and that "art since Cezanne has less and less to do with the world, unrealistic, feeding on art; it is Utopian. It has had looks inward." Although

I

ichtenstein maintained that his was not

.,

riti< al VOi< e,

i

it

he

anti-gettmg-away-from-thedeclared that he was "anti-contemplative, anti-nuance, anti pain. -quality, antityranny-of-the-rectangle. anti-movement and -light, anti-mystery,

Zen, and and-

of those

all

brilliant ideas

of preceding movements which every

understands so thoroughly"'

garde, had spread throughout the

Young

,op

2.

Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze. Washington

canvas, 387 5

New

x

644 7

cm

(149

x

Crossing the Delaware, 1851

255 inches). The Metropolitan

Museum

Oil

oil

of Art.

bottom 3.

The

art.

1953 Larry Rivers, Washington Crossing the Delaware,

Oil, graphite, and

States,

to 1962, located

on Eighth

Street,

late

mannerist

style

in

Manhattan, then

at

the

New

a

York School

Europe.

in

hub

York avant-

tor

from I'M"

artists

among the and the Cedar Bar on University Place were

landmarks that any ambitious young

but by the

and was gaining converts

Club, an important forum for

Heated debates raged on

York, Gift ofjohn Stewart Kennedy, 1897

United

"action painters" Hocked to Lenth Street

experimental

New

Expressionism completely dominated the

In the late 1950s, Abstract

artist

knew about

Club oxer

issues

or

would want

of concern to

New

to frequ<

ril

York School

artists,

exhausted itself and been repla. ed by 1950s abstract painting had largely Barnett Polio, without rage or grace. Few could emulate Jackson

a

I

charc oal Art.

on Unen. 212.4x283.5

New

cm

York Given inonymousl)

(83

Ixlll

inches)

Hie

Museum

of Modern

Newman or Clyfford Still, but there were legions of who content to follow in his wake, blatantly imitated he provided was

as

awesome

as

was deceptive, and

it

embryonic Willem de Koonings his

it

every gesture.

gave the

New

I

he shelter that

York

art

collective hangover. 1„

Mowing

manner: "Ifa painting

follows

another.

,;

,„ event

"

What was

Rosenberg

distinction

remarkable

between

is

to go

on the

art

and

5

life."

and

life.

Mountain College ,„

a,,,,,,,

Chapter

1:

in

is

one action, the pamtmg

canvas." he pro, [aimed,

also believed that the

"new painting

and philosophy ofRauschenberg,

composer John

«

,ge,

exhibition

at

The Early Years

Museum ofModern An

,„

that

.

,

decided to in

a

tnfluenced In act

1952

,,,

at

the gap

Black

lor the catalogue ol Carol,,,,/) In a statement written

the

the

picture but

.,

down

in

action and event found

(Rauschenberg became friendly with Cage

North

"was no,

has broken

Rosenberg's commitment to

parallel in the attitudes

art

Rosenberg had described Action Painting

an action, the sketch

influential the chance theor.es of the

between

a

.

the influential critic Harold

1952

world

v-

1959, Rauschenberg wrote.


Am

incentive to paint

aways strongest when inevltability

,

opposed

less suitable to

canvas

I„

in spite

to

Neither can be made.

life.

„o

is

good

as

is

make

a

..

as

any other There

is

no poo.

tion, color, etc.

of com]

it

subject. Painting

appears

as a

.... t,

or an

relates to both souvenir or arrangement. Painting try to ac.

.1

..,

that

painting with than

A

gap between the two.)

wood,

nails,

turpentine,

is

art

and

pair ol socks

oil

and

fabric.

,

A

never empty.

1951-52 Rauschenberg made

a series

of Black

Paintings, in

many of which he

, IOS2-53. he produced his Elemental Sculptures, combined painting and newsprint. In the m which were shown at the Stable Callers memorable group of boxed found objects,

objects to his canvases; by began to attach three-dimensional and Rebus, paintings as Bed (fig. 14). Hymnal, 1955 he had created such epic combine years later m prototypes for images that appeared a few some of the images of which were double page ol comic early works. Rebus includes a several of Warhol's and Lichtenstein's features a among its evocations of urban life, and Hymnal strips front a Sunday newspaper poster. cover) and an F.B.I, "most wanted man Manhattan telephone directory (minus us winter of 1953-54, were profoundly Rauschenberg and [ohns, who first met in the because they celebrated mass culture by important to the development of Pop art For example, artifacts in a line-arts context. presenting some of us most cherished comas pages in his works throughout Rauschenberg incorporated portions of newspaper such as Coca Cola Plan, 1958, 1954-SS and Coca-Cola bottles in some of lus combines,

mtumn of 1953. He

also

(In cans in his Painted Bronze (Ale Cans) (fig. 5), I960. ,nd |ohns replicated Ballantine Ale the central figure of his painting Alleyalso used a comic-Strip image, basing

1958 Johns

"Alley-Oop") Both Rauschenberg and Johns when the eminent Dadaist renewed a dialogue begun bv Marcel Duchamp in 1913, In presenting these and other mounted a bicycle wheel on a painted wooden stool (fig. 4). he had signed "R. Mutt" and entitled found objects, such as the notorious urinal that Duchamp called into question the nature of the art Fountain (fig. 6), 1917. as works of art. of art itself. In reinterpreting Duchamp. both object w.thrn the larger issue of the meaning into uncommon works of art. Rauschenberg and Johns transformed common objects began making was a late convert to Abstract Expressionism. He

Oop on Vincent Hamlin's 1931

strip

Lichtenstein himself

paintings

m

remarkably

this

mode

in

late date to

1957 and did not abandon the

become an

style until 196(1.

Expressionist, as the high point

It

was

a

of the movement had

however. Abstract Expressionism was long since passed. From Lichtenstein's point of view, most artists living on the fringe of a the only viable alternative in the 1950s. Like afar— specifically, Ohio, where movement, he avidly followed its latest developments from

magazines devoted to the he was living and working, reading ARTnews and other paintings and sculpture of the at galleries

where,

Marcel Duchamp.

Bicycle Wheel, 1913 Original

od

and numbered

replicas,

md

metal

numbei

lost; lixth

eighi ol

m

inchi

12 ,-itt

of Mrs WiUiam

*

onroj

version

Gallcria

edition of eighl

i

Indiana University

An

as

York School.

He

also

made

several trips to

New

York,

Abstract Charles Egan's and Betty Parsons's, he could see the

June 1959. he exhibited some of his Abstract York. These canvases express Expressfonist paintings at the Condon Riley Gallery in New unintentional and that now. in retrospect, seems a self-conscious styhzation that was surely of Americana of 1949-51, his to be a link between his otherwise dissimilar paintings earlv 1960s. In and Abstract Expressionist phases, and his Pop paintings of the

Expressionists' 4.

such

New

work

firsthand. In

Cubist 196(1.

he made some paintings

in

which he used torn bedsheets

to apply the paint.


producing drips

from

this

resemble cascading ribbons of color

th.it

m

specific areas of

areas, or certain

canvas. Superficially, the

.1

many

paintings resemble the Abstract Expressionist idiom in that thc\ h ature

movement's mannerisms; however, there

them from

these canvases that separates

work of the Abstract

the

abandonment

tot.il

Expressionism, but he resisted

m

compelling inner necessity role

is

pictures than creating events.

through action, not

many

of the

artists

in the

New

metaphysical

its

which

poor match

a

the

came

into their

in the

Max

ot h crs

h a a fled Europe

vv } 10

Lichtenstem

a rejection

of European

Abstract Expressionist paintings.

show two important, form and an

manner of the

I

I

making

1

New

years before

ll

York of main

ol

during the Nazi occupation.

States

latter

movement was founded,

sonic measure.

in

American

authentically

.111

his ability to

Thus,

art.

as

ichtenstem's canvases seem studied, but they clearly

lasting features of his

m

interest in

approach to painting: an ..biding

the process of developing his

own method

with Bruce Glaser

>onald Du« k and Bugs

and things

tor

,m

urred to

me

would look

like

Bunny At

children, -.ml

the

in

I'"''

in thi

1

same time

I

as

was drawing

working from bubble

MkL-n Mouse. Mickey Mouses

little

gum wrapper

do one of these bubble gum wrappers,

to

painting

ol

he suddenly changed direction again. As he

when

Abstract Expressionists

in an interview

.

a

of their development,

the presence in

such began putting hidden comic images into those paintings,

o,

pl.i\

inclination to conceptualize his subject matter.

Lichtenstem was

mentioned

I

art oi

Ernst, Andre Masson, Yves L.ngnv, and

order to create

art in

An

the blank canvas 01

continuing dependence on Synthetic Cubism undermined

s

adapt to Abstract Expressionism, since the

on

m

for Surrealism sev(

it

in part, to

United

Abstract

world around him. Although

in the early stages

York School had been,

tor the

in

suited to

not

his inspiration

unconscious mind, but

own. This was due.

invoked

heroi< posture.

its

more temperamentally

for an artist

European Surrealists— Andre Breton,

haia< terizes the best

(

randomness, and spontaneity

intuition,

lchtenstem found

1

issues

and

go.ils

devoted advocates of Cubism, they had abandoned they

thai

Expressionists.

Lichtenstem understood many of the fundamental

prominent

of the

deliberation about even the most painterly of

a

is

other paintings

In

3)

I

complemented by painted

period, areas of bare canvas are

brushstrokes and colors are used only

(see fig.

as

is,

I

I

just to

irg.

In

n

ii

see *

I.

n

ii

"

The 5.

top

12

I

Painted bronze, 14 x 20.3 jasper Johns, Painted Bronze {Ah- Cms). I960

cm

,.,.«,,„

(5

6.

14x8x4

inches).

Marcel Duchamp,

[anis Gallery.

(

Ya

Nev

York

1951

ourtesj Sidney [anis Gallery,

Museum

Ludwig,

*

Pveadymade porcelain

lost; $e<

urinal. 61

I

cm

version

(24 inchi

Sidney

ol

Uusi henberg's and

nager) exis

i

for Tricky

to above, in the series oP'paste ups' Johns's 1950s works referred 1953, using ( I, * less [Collins] began in December

Coast

ologne

Fountain. 1917 Original

New

X

precedents lor Lichtenstein's use

uld's

Cad

Did

that

West

I

artist

Ins central figure (fig. 9),

West Coast

artist,

and

in the incorporation in 1959.

Ed Ruscha,

Moreover,

culled Richard Hamilton had been using images

York

collages such as the former's

,„, ,w„„

is

it

that

makes

today's

III, a Rich

I

I

m

of comic in

i

England, Eduardo Paolozzi and

Iron,

American magazines

Man's Plaything

to different, so

strips in

works by anoth

(fig. 7,

appealing? (fig

,

,

8),

to

make

1-47. and the latters

1956

I

d

la,

was

Ins rniage ol a

»fthe ideal Ameri, an home with spoofing the current postwar nod uummg and such as a house* ife modern living room full of absurd juxtapositions, ol , table belo* a framed displayed on

«

muscleman posing,

a

canned ham

Young Romance comics.

Chapter

1:

The Early Years

,

a


However

ichtenstein's paintings

I

Men, the

1940s and early 1950s already indicate sources. In an exhibition held at the

late

American preference for Americana and popular

his

Carlebach GaUery

in that

for

on images

features for the

it

in 1951,

he had found

that

painting from about 1952,

A

the subject.

he showed paintings of the Old West featuring American Native-American Indians, and popular images of

York

cowboys and

treaty signings,

folklore based

New

in

&

"Libby McNeill

in

/'/â&#x20AC;&#x17E;

books on Ufe and other magazines and in early work Explore, (fig. 10), is an important

an ad-here, an ad tune advertising copy taken directly from

first

Cooked Corned Beef"

Lirry's

(fig.

1

I)

that

accompanied an

article

Many the July 4. 1949 issue of Ufe magazine. about the opening of the American West in Fredenck nineteenth-century paintings, such as those by of his themes were derived front Alfred Jacob Miller, and William Charles Willson Peale, Frank B. Mayer, Remington,

Delaware

(tig. 2).

1851.

Crossing the EUnney and Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze's Washington around 1951 this well-known work, both painted Lichtenstein's two whimsical verstons of more celebrated version of 1953 (tig. 3). (see fig. 1). preceded Larry Puvers's matter for most of his work at the While Lichtenstein drew on early American subject

time, he was indebted to

European Modernists such

Picasso for the Matisse, loan Miro, and Pablo

Robert Rosenblum,

New

York

in 1954,

in his

way

in

as Vas.lv

Kandmsky. Paul Klee. Henri

which he used motifs

review of Lichtenstein's show

at

the

stylistically.

John Heller Gallery

in

between style and noted that these paintings "present an incongruity his mature work. that later became more evident in

subject." a characteristic feature

Rosenblum

Lichtenstein's singled out the "annoying quality of

Americana

in a Vart

pom

"attractively composed of large flat colorcontext" but praised the pictures for being and Indian-lore are unobtrusively [sic] planes into which the forms of his battle-scenes Varl

assimilated."

The

paintings of this period constitute Lichtenstein's

attempted

to define

first

use of an approach that

abstract style. In his popular subject matter within the context of dissonance between a 1960s, Lichtenstein magnified the

fully

developed work of the early 7.

Eduardo Paolozzi,

/

Was a Rich Manh Plaything,

<

a

1947

f the Tate

on papi

ollag.

(

Gallery,

1

m

subject and a fine-art style

commonplace by

Ion

isolating

was

this

and emphasizing these images

subject

at

this

media. Ten Dollar

development his

is

i(

that

makes

'

i

9.

I

i

different.

Jew

[Collins], Tricky Cad, 19

1

-.

I

Quel, 1954

(detail)

Notebook

controversial subjects

and

plane. It in relationship to the painting's picture

1950s paintings of Americana,

a

first

brought him to

common enough

Hill (fig.

in the 1950s.

works of the

m

.hanged when he began

consumer products and images

12), a

lithograph of 1956,

What

early 1960s

is

his

is

culled from the mass

indicative of Lichtenstein's

distinguishes this and his other

works of the period from

merging of popular images with

abstract forms.

Using

space. Lichtenstein fractured the motif and the Cubist precedent of fragmenting forms in with the foreground was integrated as a single entity

reorganized the

it

so that the subject in

background

of 19o1-(>2, he moved away from the disintegration figure/ground relationship as part of a new dynamic.

plane. In his paintings

of the subject and restated the

Zundel

,

New

homes so

Kunsthalle Tubingen

so appealing?, \95i

Sammlung

today's

The

L961.

in

1960s, featuring contemporary

Richard Hamilton, Just what

more

tough impassive style of his 1960s the time, lacked the clarity of image and the the to explore other American themes

work. However,

8.

far

style that notorious marriage of low-art subject and high-art

prominence beginning

/,i

by choosing

i

of twelve

Born on the Upper West Side of Manhattan on October in a happy, middle-class

home. His

father,

who

died

27, 1923, Lichtenstein

when Roy was

grew up

twenty-three, was a


and

realtor,

his

mother was

led an uneventful

Renee.

a

housewife. According to the

life.

His

End Avenue and then

When he was eight and nme. he spent his summers summers upstate New York; tins was followed by two .it

time that he

recalls

going with

Carnegie Hall

first

his

childhood tnend

Don Wolf to

younger

t.nnp Belgrade

at

Sagamore

Maine

in

fascinated « ith

ame

hear lienm

i

his horn*

n< ai

Camp

sister.

»

He

it.

Iman perform

<

in

It

al

interest in music. Lichtenstein took up

Because of Wolfs

later.

P.S 9

al

hues' camp,

.1

heard blues music on the radio and he,

few yean

a

his

years in grade school were spent attending

first

kindergarten near 104th Street and West

at tins

he and

artist,

the clarinet briefly. In 1936, Lichtenstein

school on Manhattan's

when he turned

Durum

Design I

began eighth grade

Upper West

Side.

at

the Frankhn S( hool

There were no

fo!

classes fourteen he began taking Saturday morning

his

high-school years he

heater and the Savo, Ballroom

in

at

Frankhn

Parsons

hool

Si

ol

the Apollo interested in jazz, frequenting

he ame

Harlem and

Boys, a pnvate

art classes offered at

listening ,0

band and

Count 11-

este,

I

as on and around Fifty-second Street, such Young on tenor sax. He went to jazz clubs and. mspired by the Famous Door, and Hickory louse; Kelly's Stables, the Three Deuces, -Ml he In based on portraits of jazz musicians. Picasso, he nude several paintings Keahst ial Students eagtie taught by Ame, an So, I

I.

I

enrolled in a

summer

class at the

i,

Art

I

pa.nt.ng remembers that the class, winch involved painter Reginald Marsh. Lichtenstein hardly saw Marsh one of Marsh's monitors and that he from a model, was supervised by

pursue Ins interest ,1, art and. school in 1940, he decided .0 After graduating from high -here he cot d program at Ohio State University „ hi, Ppints' urging, found a fine arts »43, and, State from 1940 to student at Lichtenstein was earn a bachelor s degree. d w.th his in 1946 and his military service, he reenrolled

Ohm

.,

completing

after

M.F.A. degree graduate stud,;, receiving an organization to the teachings of 1

Sua!

-stem

194

in

Sherman, one of fa.

1

, there.

profi

, of the relationship between a student Sherman' stressed the importance the downplayed the significance ofmabng drawing from a model, and

when

resemble the mode,.

mark and

Of particular

interest to

to the marks placed next

^h

for the after Lichtenstein left

,;,

briefly

dashed on the scree,

it.

the rel

Sherm

Sherman

later

army hut remodeled in a

darke

a class

taught

I

I'M,,

in

h

,es, ,„

attributes h,s

and . nous dr.

ip be-

using a

fed.

na

ash lab lante,

h

„lt

s he

o draw

student was expecte

ana

and from ,« the Stud, n. afterimage was very strong he or She had seen. The whole, As ,.„h,e„s,em has individual parts and the ;,;,, ,onsh,p between the go a, Le taught me h ,

h

NN

lt

t

f:;l

h

Orgamzed

p'erceptio

^z:::l

Chapter

1:

The Early Years

c

hat art

„,,„,„

is all

about.

1

i»™™^*™xz2F


t

bm^)*&*0&&? B ceF Ya\v&bU fcr JPxp krirf l(


n

didn't

r.

relish

..IK

for Kxplmr?

needed

military personnel were

When more

this job.""

his pilot instruction

of the Bulge,

after the Batik-

'^Valuable

doing

was cut short and

Europe

in

unit was shipped

Ins

Belgium, and Germany, until overseas in February 1945. He served in England, France, and the other members of Ins unit the war came to a close in Europe ... May. Lichtenstein war in Japan. When Japan waited to see if the} would receive orders to fight the 'MS. bringing World War II to an end. surrendered to the Allied nations on September 2. a time to serve as including his—were ordered to remain in Europe foi I

many units—

French and histor) policing forces. During that time, he studied in Paris. Later that year his father

and was to

and completed

State

graduating

his

home

so he was furloughed

When

he came

in

Ohio

State's

was domed tenure

work

there as a decorator.

Cleveland-teaching

M.F.A. program, was lured

engineering draftsman

Cooper School,

Republic

at

(the}

wt re divon ed

moved

a

commercial

decorating display windows part-time

at

art

at

of odd ,obs

working

work

dial

found

Isabel

foi

1

in

an

as

hckock

an architecture tun,, and

1954 and 1956, sons

Store, l„

Department

Halle's

when

hool;

s<

an

1949), and

at a series

doing black-and-white

Steel;

models Instrument Company; making project

Electrical

wanked

as

1965) and, after he

...

to Cleveland

the next sb< years, he

During

the

at

1949

State in 1951, they

Ohio

at

in

York

After

Bill.

1.

received his master's degree in instructor while pursuing his stud.es (he

continued to teach there until 1951. Lichtenstein married Isabel Wilson

New

to

back to the U.S.. he returned

undergraduate stud.es under the G.

|une 1946, he enrolled

in

ill,

discharged in January 1946.

finally

Ohio

became

the Cite Universitaire

at

bom. In 1968, Lichtenstein married David Hoyt and Mitchell Wilson were prepar York inautumn 1964 during th, Herzka, whom he had met in New asso, artists several by American Supermarket (featuring works

.1-

1

1

»

sfo,

fated with

exhibition called the

He returned University of

J ,

,„

en, lb,

Advert

••The

Ope

'.

ibb,

McNeill

&

Urry'.

Cooked

ed Beef,"

<

re,

luce

DnmadeEvenB ToldinPaindnp.-ii|e,july4.m9,p.48

...Hers,

New

York

first

where she worked.

when he was

Oswego, and remained on the

a,

fessor , t Douglass College,

yeat on

tl

,

,

uglass faculty,

I

offered

Rutgers University,

ichtenstein

tion

,

,„

the Stat,

New Jersey,

met Allan Kaprow, who I

Kap,ow

-

I

m of art

,;„;„)

evems

Thte

, whKl ,

,

called

utilized a series ofprops,

Happenings

ob

like

then precursors

e cs'and the actors

in

many 1

of, hen, larger-than-life

who accompanied the,

shared e M t,

in

1

959, he and

,

1

„.

Roy Uch.eo S .e o,T7,rE^«r,r.,

1952

Oiloncn™,

K>.7 »

Gallen,

Some

Mn

rheBudertetftuleofArne

Robert

Miller,

to

V

.,..

Ohio.Gifto.

1960

Chapter

1:

his

«

a,

the

1

oUeagues performed nunc

,

s.z

hfe ol

billing „

dtere .l.e.r

ere

an,

^^^ In

of

Ik

March and

p

,

were exhibited a the Martha of the props from the Happenings

i

(16lt ,4 inches)

Mi and

1

,1

"objects in motion.

and beginning

Reuben

had

)ada and Surreal

lie perceived, according to Oldenburg, as environments Number of 1958, Kapmw created two

,,„

w*

studied with

H

>S

,„

ega. (then completing

»

Whitman, who had both

and Robert FA.,. ,n, to Lucas Samaras

.,,

there u„„l he was

stall

to Oldenburg, Rutgers. Kaprow introduced him

at

a

through ^several he also met Robert Watts and, the year before. A, Douglass :ge Brecht, Geoffrey movement, includingG members of the burgeoning Fluxus *« *U and George Maciunas. Ka, neks DickHiggins, Alison Knowles, " ri e the new an Happenings (a tern, he invented todes, ,

8 B ofd1eWesttI

M

(

to teach,.,, mil-time in 1957

assistant

Ws

[n

„ ling „.

Bianchini

art scene) at the Paul

Pop

The Early Years


I

i^^iJiiy-

tiiV^:MmMdi

/77

12.

Roy Lichtenstein,

7Wi Dollar Bill, 1956 Lithograph numbei 10

>

i

in,

hi s

Pi

i\

iti

i

"ll'

i

don

n

18

i

u

13 ol

in edition


^=*

right

,,,„„,

13.

Roy

Lichtenstein, Untitled, 1960 Oil on Private

i

14.

Robert Rauschenberg, Bed, 1955

canvas, 121 9 K 177

pillow, quUt ,

ollccdon s

„„

,,f

»

Modem

(

ombine painting

191.1x80x20.3 and sheet on vvood supports,

,

Art.

,1 gift ...

New

York.

Leo Castelb

in

honor of Alfred

H

oil

and pencil on

cm (75^x31 Barr.Jr to

The Muse


David Anderson Gallery

association with the

staged six Happenings in 17.

and

Based on

18).

and encourage the

form

a

New

in

York, the Martha Jackson Gallery

presentation called Environments - Situations - Spaces

.1

performance

ol

was meant

art that

to utilize the five senses

participation of the audience, that exhibition featured Oldenburg's

full

months

07 East Second Street

installation

work The

in a rented

warehouse, former!) used to stoic dining-room furniture,

"Ray Gun Mfg. soaked

(which he re-created

Store

Go.").

The Store

mannequin with

bridal

*

onsisted o\ 107 items

bouquet, and various

a

six

later at

replicas

environment of

paint,

he renamed the

that

of pastries, clothes,

Dine had created

and with

.1

walls covered in canvas

room with

electric fans placed

the ceiling, from

pile oi tires entitled Yard

^d

piled into the courtyard of the gallery

fifty tires

which more

paint

behind

tin.

fabl

and

in the

— an

D. lie's Spring green

resin

acrylii

and paint buckets suspended from

i<

poured into the room. Turning

remnants for their inspiration, the perpetrators of

a

made from muslm

items

relicts oi similar

Environments - Situations - Spaces exhibition were Kaprow's

Cabinet.

I

wet plaster and thickK painted with bright colored enamels. Other works

in

16,

(figs.

this

new

art

to S0< utv's

signaled

a

mate]

tal

dramati<

departure from Abstract Expressionism. Lichtenstein attributes Ins renewed interest

exposure to Happenings and performance

KapIOW

that

Gallery

staged

at

him

I

lappeningS

the Martha Jackson

Kaprow

which Kaprow

He remembers

discussions with

like art. Lichtenstein,

newest paintings,

his

preparatory drawings exist (see

abstrai

fig.

15).

also frequent

Lichtenstein began his

first

for

1

anvases with cartoon figures such

in their

working

Pop

art

as

midst, ol whi( h today only

in

visitors to his studio in

Pop paintings shortly

Although the groundwork

1

encouraged by Kaprow's

Kaprow remembers being

the work, but urged Lichtenstein to continue

who were

informal

ol the

m

Donald Duck, Bugs Bunny, and Mickey Mouse

and Watts,

some

saw

the time to his

at

argued that painting did not have to look remarks, showed

He

al

Douglass and the exhibitions related to them

I960 and L961.

in

art.

popular imager)

in

tak< n

iba< k

b)

firs!

al

that direction— ami so did Segal

Highland Park,

New Jersey.

thereafter.

had been

laid

most Johns, Rivers, and others and by the Happenings,

by the work of kausi henberg. oi the art

world received

its

arrival

advertising' These were concepts

with shocked incredulity. Art based on cartoons- On was generally known and that deeply offended the notion of taste as it early 1960s, even I

he comic

among

strip,

ai

1

epted

in the

the most radical of the avant-garde.

with

its

ready-made drama, conquering heroes, and anxious heroines.

and the consumer products advertised

m

the

New

York Yellow Pages provided

while the Benday-dot screen Lichtenstein with a potentially explosive series of subjects, which gradations a method oi producing printed images in

technique used in advertising—

of shading are translated

...to a

new way of painting. Unlike from the subconscious.

I

system of dots reproduced by line engraving" -sue- Sted

the Abstract Expressionists,

ichtcnstc.n prefer*

who

d to work with

.1

preex.st.ngser.es of .mages.

confront the paintings that resembled cliches and. in so doing, to govern how we recognize ..rt as art. His ultimate cliches of art and the conventions that with art— common objects, the comic aim was to use subjects seen as incompatible

He wanted

strip-

as

to

make

the central matter of his

Although he washed

13

Chapter

1:

to

make

The Early Years

a

art.

and thus

painting that

a

externalized themes drawn

to force the issue

ofwhal

constitutes

art

was so -despicable- no one would hang

it.


15.

Roy â&#x20AC;¢

Lichtenstein, Donald Duck, 1958 India ink on pipe

24

in. In

-

Private collc< tion

r,

50


,

Lichtenstein was quick to assert .mother goal will to

form.

transform

its

When Swenson

that

the comic strip

but there

whatevei is

.....

foi

been no

h..s

is

mi<

visual syntax

really in

is

and claimed

for the

often not

community—who

art

challenge Thus, against for art

Pop

Is

.1

of admirers, and

this

slighi the

is

it

role that only a short

ru<

i

6om

ial

63

tune earlh

prompted the

arris,

its

the

in

I

inner

had belonged

1

Some

world

ari

other partisans of Abstract Expressionism, while

no longer saw

either

r\bstra<

i

eed(

su(

artei

i.

I

nent, "apparendy they didn't

this

-

-

m

its

IRTmw

htenstein

there was

I

.1

a

a

wii

ig

.

Parti,"

s

196

I,

s

m.

to

as a historic shift in

EightPai

share ol den

-

Expressionism

-

realism—were unprepared

to

urred two years

h,s interviev

I

consum.

ol a

ol an int. nse

many

derision In

\nswersl

Art:

work had more than

his

different,

however bui

and began what can now be seen

1963), pp 25, 62

scene Although

is

dun, em

the odds. Lichtenstein and his colleagi*

all

G[e „e]R Swenson. "What

(November

men

he purpose

I

I

form, whereas

omics hav. shapes

<

painting the results

in

ofa return

threat or envisioned the possibility

new audience

do

is

actually

is

t

transformation

ii

I

he presented the portrait

dnp. Lichtenstein's work was greeted with

segments of the

1

rent pla.

diffi

strip,

Benday dot

of the most vocal opposition came from

a

is

seem-

culture to an audience accustomed to

to the

a

difference

and attitude of advertising and the com.,

struggle,

does not

art

Lichtenstein proposed of cartoon imager} and advertising techniques, the Lool with which to identify American postwar society. Adapting

In his blatant use

new

And my work

intend to unify

some The

difference seems to

call

\\ hal

in

then. uitenseK unified

make

every mark

strips in that

importani to

is

ii

wouldn't

l

the sense I'm using the word, the

in

effort to 1

In

mean!

med

one intends to depicl and

a

1963 interview, wh« ther Pop

in his

isdifferem fiom comit strips—bui

my work

thmk

don't

,

well, the age-old ambition of the painter's

models, he replied:

think

I

him,

.tskeu

.is

62 no

first

all

i

I- that

direction.

onto the

bu,

bui

J

[advert

audien,

,1

enough

either."

2

The Club: For an

the Artists

of the Ne» YorkScI

(September 1965), pp 27

tan,

(in

to

11

;igh,h Street "

caUedit the Cedar B. ,ity

3.HaroldR

Place,

nberg,

rheir First

1

rhe Ceda, Ba,

51

first loca.

rndU

Clubandits:

in-depth disc,

;

its

d name

...

present location), aid that

was the

Ho«

'

<

eda, Stra

In

l»Ek

1963 (whe itsn

is still

*mC A*

Acti,

»

'

U

'

peoplewhofi*

ghn

was changed to the Cedar T,

"The American

hf

artists' lung...,,

U

Place)

and U,

.1-

tb

ingSandle,

Audience- rhemselves."

h.

I

i

.31

.

berl952).

I

pp. 22-23.

4 Cage had been the only pe, rtyardoftheM;

^..W.AUanKaprowinhisinstaUationy^.inthe Gallery,

[une 2^

Ne*

Env York, during the exhibition

|acl

,,„,; nts

Situai

- Spaces,

M*J 25

m

,,

performed with Cage

f 77*

*,« for *e

5.

exhibit

TheaurPieaNc

berg, excerpt

RobertR,

Millet (Nc-u York: nvironmenb

,„„„„„

1952, after they

1961

„,„„ n.ciacsOldcnburgduringtheinstalL /

in

Environments

Museum

from

me, I,

a,

Black

a mull

artisfs

Mo

-

lexhil

Uus,

ft.

I

became

henberg

R.

friends.

idiaeven!

statem.

-.«*

S

<

"

"

of Modern An. 1959), p 58

Spaces

Situations

isjlm Dine in

purchase a painting

his installation Sj

Situations -

I

Cabinet in the exhibition

„,,!„, ,,.„,.„,

Spaa

15

Chapter

Bruce Glaser/'OldenburgUchte

,,..,

1:

,

p.

21. Since ma.

The Early Years

;

he

b. said that the s,

mW, ,

bAD

;**-*

-

*

*"

>

,


Mickey, 1961, ,

i

M

7

may

no. have been

bubble gun, wrapper

..

I

le

does

recall,

however,

it

was

a

small

toon or comi< -strip panel

I

he

first

to seriousl, delve into

ta soutce in h,s

I

Busche illustrates I*. Bcptore. and ichtenstem's pre-Pop work. Ernst A.

(^(Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag, 1988), hook Roy Uchtenstem Das FrSter* 1942appeared-August Busche gives for the issue of [# in which the ad

29,

152-53. However, the date that

pp

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

[949

is

incorrect; the correct date

is

Jul) 4. 1949

(February 15, 1954), p 22. Lichtenstein," Art Digest 29, no. 10

8.

Robert] R[osenblum], "Roy

9.

and Lichtenstein's use ofi. For an in-depth discussion ofSherman's "flash lab" her,

(

that

Publications,

L

(I

os Angeles:

quoted

in

11. Lichtenstein,

quoted

(in

12.

13.

Swenson, "What

p.

New

)avid

Museum cat.,

ot

ed

York: Bizzoli International

Is

Fop Art?"

p. ''2.

English) in Busche. Uchtenstein: Das Friihwerk,

Claes Oldenburg, quoted

1965),

Art;

I

992), pp. 101-6.

ichtenstein,

1

Museum of Contemporary

student, sec

1955-62, exhib.

Art in Transition, Art. Los Angeles, Hand-Painted Pop. American

Russell Ferguson

as a

Artist," in the

of the American "Unsentimental Education: The Professionalization

ontemporan

Hi

F.

in

Michael Kirby,

ed., Happenings:

in

p.

Illustrated

17.

Anthology

(New

York: Dutton,

200.

The Benday

process of photoengraving was invented in 1879 and

York newspaper engraver, who

utilized a series

of celluloid screens with

patterns to produce halftone images for printing.

14. Lichtenstein,

quoted

in

Swenson. "What

Is

named

Pop

Art"-," p.

63.

after

raised

Benjamin Day.

a

New

images of dot and line


LOOK

MICKEY,

HOOKED A BIGA ONE// I'VE//

19.

Roy

69 im he

Lichtenstcin, Look Mickey, 1961

-

Partial

ind promisi d

gift to

Oil

on

the National

canvas, 121.9)1 175

(

..ill.

ry

I

cm

(48

k

of Art, Washington, D.C,


\

Look Mickey

(fig.

n ),

I

l

n C>l,

that Lichtenstein painted

one of several works with eartoon or comic-strip

is

beginning

spring of 1961. Lichtenstein

in the

recollection that he based the image on

panel ol

a

.1

comi<

wrapper, but efforts to locate the original source have so

remembers Bubble

Gum

teach

from something

it

like this"

with the image of Donald first"

but realized that

Duck

can't te.u

Lichtenstein then

in

it.

li

In

.

,

from 11

showed him

Kaprow admitted

bubble-gum

a

K a prow

Bazooka Double

a

Ce/annc. you

0I01 Ii.hii

1

subjects

vivid

unsuccessful/

he pointed to

that once, in a discussion with Lichtenstein,

wrapper and remarked. "You

strip

t.11

lias a

an

ÂŤ

I'd

just bi

en saying."

1

<

the painting he had

feeling "sort of nonplussed

Lichtenstein "had confirmed what

*

il

du\t

ai

3

Lichtenstein destroyed those earliest paintings featuring cartoon images, and shortly

he painted Look Mickey.

thereafter

expressionism

in it."

was, he recently remarked, his

It

work of many

In the 1950s, the

who were

artists

Pop idiom

to develop the

the influence of Abstract Expressionism. Rauschenberg acknowledged

Abstract Expressionism by painting

He

was committed

some record of the

to that

some of its most

movement's formal

rich diversity of real

both the nature of painting and the to his canvases reproductions

art

and

as if it

laid the

life,

groundwork

at

the

<

olor.

kauschenberg

astclli

(

in

in

indebtedness to

m

lived.

my snow WARM ENOUGH-

BRR

suit icTTT fu. put

ON A SWEATER TOO

which he showed

his series

of Flag and

at

the Tibor de

actions and events h\ collaging ind

ts

to record the

vated the banal to the level

el<

Target paintings

m

1^54-55

ol

Many of Rauschenberg's mid-

art.

Gallery in 1958.

Nagy

1

I

probed

[e

I

any

1

Rivers, anothei

seminal figure of that period, combined proto-Pop imagery with abstract painting canvases,

showed

ombination with

-

which he

By choosing

emergence of Pop Leo

still

illustrating various topical subjei

passages of pure

for the

1950s combines were shown

aesthetic, but onl)

meaning of e\vi\d.i\

were extraordinary,

his

exquisite passages in Rebus

of the world

and photographs

combining them with painted

commonplace

painting with no

"first

3

Gallery beginning (see fig. 80),

in

in his

1953. Johns began

and showed them

at Castelli

Rausc henhcrg, Although Lichtenstein and Warhol would have seen the work of

in 1958.

follow the lead of those three Rivers, and Johns during that period, they did not simply paintings 111 I960 and 1961. As but struck offin a new direction with their hist Pop the,. Both he ..nd Warhol Lichtenstein has noted, he was finished with expressionism by initially

turned

commercial images ex<

to

lusively for their subject matter.

It

was

this

imagery that distinguished them singular focus on advertising and cartoon/comic-strip

from their predecessors, and served In the spring

as the

foundation tor their subsequent development.

more artoon harai ters as and summer of 1961, Lichtenstein chose two and Wimpy Tweet) (fig. 24). to Mickey, and pamted Popeye (f.g. 22) .

subjects, in addition

Warhol had used paintings

BRR im STItL

his paintings

that

who

was

at that

time

based on cartoons or comic

he designed

in April

1961

fol

20.

Andy Warhol, Dick

4S inches) bottom

21.

60 inches)

David Geffen

t

Andy Warhol, Private

(

oll<

i

They, I960 \crylk on canvas, 200.7 icll4.3(

\crylic

on canvas

121.9

x 152.4

m

cm

Strips

and advertisements

Teller

on

I

ift)

seventh

Strip

first

artist,

in

the

exhibited five

window

Street in

ol

display

Manhattan.

were on view behind the mannequins three cartoon/com.c-stnp canvases that Km*-were painted in I960 and 1961. Other Superman, Saturday's Popeye, and The Uttle painted at that tune included two version cartoon/Comic-Strip canvases by Warhol based on Elzie (fig. 20), anothei painting Chester Gould's private-eye hen, Dick Tracy Warhol and and one otNancy (f.g- 21). Since

ollection

Nancy, 1961

ol his

well-known commercial

a

Bonwit

The top

some

similar characters the year before in

Warhol,

1

1

(48 x

Segar's Popeye (f.g

don

21

Chapter

2:

23),

one of Batman,

Early Pop Pictures


22.

Ro> Lichtcnstcin. Popeyc,

1961

Oil

on

canvas, 106.7 x

142.2cm (42x


Lichtenstein had not yet met, and Lichtenstein painted Ins cartoon at

around the same tunc

likely that

Warhol showed

that

his

m

omi(

<

strip paintings

the department-Store windows,

each was unaware of what the other was doing and that they arrived

u

is

it

ill'

ii

choice of subjects independently.

Both Warhol and Lichtenstein approached the Lichtenstein

remembers

the dealer and his wife, lleana

eo Castelli Gallery

1

seeing Castelli earlier; in

( l

Sonnabend, but apparently

to exhibit them. In 1961, k.iprow suggested that he

mto

the gallery

New

in

Karp was

York when

1

instantly taken

show

his

Wirhol

the brownstone

at

he lived with

his

Ferus Gallery

in

also

cartoon/comic-strip to

that each offered Castelli.

him

When

paintings

s

a

23.

Andy Warhol,

Popeye, I960 Synthetic polymei painl on

i

am

is,

I

3 4

Sonnabend,

at

him

48 6

in (68

i

k

58

in<

hes)

was about

bai k in

that,

difticult to represent

.i

meet

to

Street in

Manhattan whi

was then

a dire< tOl "I the

open

to

a galler)

n

Paris,

in

spot. Lichtenstein held back, waiting foi an answei

Lichtenstein returned to the gallery, this time Castelli offered him

because Warhols work was so similar to

both of them, Castelli decided not

Nancy, and several canvases featuring I

come

to

tune that Karp look linn

Blum, who

who

Lichtenstein remembers seeing Warhol's work

x

paintings

the Castelli (".alien and were so taken with the work

show on the

one-person show. Believing

would be

this

on Lexington Avenue and Ninetieth

os Angeles, and

indents

oi

with the work .md selected several paintings from

was around

it

group

a

some of the new

lchtcnstcin brought

mother. West Coast dealer Irving 1

saw Lichtenstein

from

recalls that

spring 1961

his abstract paintings to

the group for Castelli to view. Castelli expressed interest but asked

few weeks. Lichtenstein

in late

were not interested enough

the}

Karp was speaking

paintings to Ivan Karp. director of the gallery.

from Finch College

he showed

^(>0

oca

<

<

at

the

gall. a

ami

ola bottles)

\

to

Li< ht( nsti in's,

(probably Dick

home.

at his

it

Warhol on

e

ll

I

a

m

Tracy,

In the

meantime,

Private collection

Warhol had seen Lichtenstein's work

at Castelli's

about the comic-Strip paintings he had seen

he

recalls the first

Following strip

painting of

a

man

in a

h.s visit to the Castelli Gallery,

images and shortly thereafter began

In

many ways both

advertising's

power

artists

"And

Warhol deeded to paint

to shape public opinion.

into

a

there

rocket ship with

were remarkably

media transformed everything

some of

there. In Warhol's

time he saw Lichtenstein \ work:

me about— a

telling

galler)

I

memoir I

I

him

told

j

published

saw wlui

a girl

an

1980,

in

red had

I

Hie background

in

to stop painting

i

artoon comi<

ampbclls soup cans.

(

pres, i.ni in

then understands

he) were fascinated b)

product regardless

the media's most formidable stereotypes

ted

after his friend

as

ol

its

wa) ...win,

th«

meaning.

ind the) sel

the

I,

.1

t< .

subjects for then paintings. Both

Benda) dol technique into a pivotal adapted its methods, Lichtenstein by converting the hard-sell t. hniques md formal device, and Warhol by paraphrasing the media's Despit ofp; g on.U using its silkscreening process as an equaUy effectiv method blind n significant differences. Warhol hose these similarities, however, there are and Lvil as Marilyn Monroe. Elizabeth 1,1products and the period's sex symbols, such Nearly e pulled from the front pages of newspapers. Presley, or images of disaster and many of the paintings reeked ol i

i

I

subject

Warhol touched was contemporary,

subjects were controversial Within sensationalism, tragedy, or death, lie htenste.n's

There w. but then origins were downplayed. work The brand names that appea,

brand

,

context of -high"

art,

refrigerators, socks, or tires in his

work

23

are Picasso.

Chapter

2:

Cezanne, and

Early Pop Pictures

Piet

Mondrian or

u,

I

e

m htenstein

the infrequent historical subjeel

ii»

s

h as


24.

I

Roy

|6 K 20

Lichtenstein, H).

I

Wimpy Olll

I

(Tweet), 1961

""ii

Oil

ranvas

40.6

X

50.8

cm


George Washington. With the exception Popeye, and Wimpy, early subjects strips that

such famous characters

of

Other

subjects.

preference for the domestic setting and the

<

differences include

omi<

and white, whereas Warhol chose

m

dots

resemblance between the two

imagery that

down

He

m

Mickey, Lichtenstein initiated

terms

working

canvas,

in oils

for

ot

a

primary colors

m

much more

a

well as Popeye and

order of Lichtenstein's

Wimpy

and narrative

mu work

G

mark an abrupt imagery to the

from

shift

stylistic

provocative subject to the grand

the

pamtmgs of Americana,

manner of "high"

of style and content

meaning

art to

look

like a

model.

ot his

on whi<

Mi* key

I)

lacks the

igorou

i

new

a

Mi'

style

conventions of the

whn

in

framework of Ssnthetn Cubism. Here. test

Strip

comic-strip paintings, but Look Mickey

later

.\n absolute fidelity to the

his earlier

m

The image

(Tweet) have the freshness and naivete ol

and explicitness of the images and

omit

(

is

tune on

that

other early works, he drew the image

are standing and by a few scribbled waves.

stylistic

painterly

certain relative similarity, there

dun development from

to a cursory setting indicated primarily by the receding platfol

formal and

well as black

as

and emulating the bright primary colors of the

faithfully duplicated the illustrative

and Donald Duck

bold silhouetted

sequence of cartoon and

a

lasted until 1965. In this painting, as

on the

original.

artists

were

ollectively

i

u htenstein's

I

imagery, pastel colors, and

serial

technique. Although their subjects continued to show

With Look

and

strip panel,

forms and the mechanical look of printed Benday

directly

Mickey Mouse,

Lichtenstein tended to select products and comic

all,

were generic to American culture but which individually and

more anonymous than Warhol's

little

as

in

reproduction.

1

.is

cl n it}

artoon

i

he had adapted th

I.

ichtenstein

d

USi

a

an and painted an image

Once

the precedeni

painting was established, he turned to other sources, choosing comii

foi

in

In

strip panels thai

u ios, and artifu ial coloi with their awkward "how-to-draw-a-figure** look, contrived s< en and its cultUH more closely approximated the way in which he perceived postwai SO. iety

to

have evolved.

The term "popular critic

appeared

art" first

Lawrence Allowav.

London

In

and architects associated with the

in print in

in the

writing of the Hi

spring ot 1952, some fifteen

in the

Institute

1958

of Contemporary Art (K

'A)

write!

artisl

in<

itish

ludin

Alison and Petei Smithson, and Richard Hamilton and Eduardo Paolozzi, architects outside the ranks ol th. Reyner Banham and Allowayâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; formed a discussion group Institute

and thus became known

as

the Independent

i

.

(IG). Dissatisfied with

Group

advocates of popular culture, embracing postwar Britain's prevailing aesthetic, they became .ids, of the American mass media, such as automobile a new aesthetic based on images

comic

strips,

Hollywood movies,

Paolozzi exhibited

a

television.

group of collages

ien( e

s(

that he

,

key example of

Tomorrow, which opened

at

his early use

the

/

Was

a

In

and pop musi.

had made using

Collages such as postcards, and ads as his sources.

1947 are

-

I

s<

ien. e

ICA m August

Rich Man's Plaything

(fig

Th

twelve teams 1956, the IG assembled

create insuUa. sculptor, and an architect-to each one consisting of a painter, a arts to daih) the ambition of linking the visual featuring all the visual arts, with

Though not

c

25

J

ei [n this

Chapter

2:

collage Just what exhibited ,n the show. Hamilton's seminal

WO rk, Hamilton

Early Pop Pictures

satirized the

P nl 1952,

imagery,

I, tion

of Pop imagery. Lor the exhibition

\

bourgeois

Ameru

ulAW

is

1..

a thai

class

at

m

ÂŤt


,v.

'

u

^

mfS

/"

,..'

left

25.

Roy

177.8 x 121.9

Lichtcnstein, Black Flowers, 1961

Ncwhousc right

2(».

cm (70x48

inches)

(

ollection

Mr

Oil on canvas and Mrs S

|r

Pag<

from R.O) Lichtcnstein $ sourcebooks

ca

1960s

I


lioge. Truly, tht HibilCttt

dWfl on

m attention needtd. Thii * v tcorUt plant* in < indoor r* 1

nea-

.

..« oHemons

in


when

U

the

to

was beginning

S.

make

mark

us

in

Europe.

The

collage tc.uu.es v

nous

queen, a TV sec. and a a bodybuilder, a pinup symbols of popular cultnre, including magazine ). m OR.GINA! love & romance comics famed cover of Young Romance ("the purchased on the mstallment plan. that looks as if it were the living room of a home 1c a, a powerful lorcc.n advertising seriously, seeing it ton and his colleagues took la transplanted to the U. S., the term of contemporary life. When socia] , nd economic fabric ,

"Pop

came

art"

to

be used to descr.be the

art itself."

around a . American colleagues, however, centered chtenstein s relationship to his shared agenda. Although everyday usage rather than from a mutual respect for objects of media, influenced by some torn, ot the all of them were each worked independently, Lichtenstein's experience as a d.rect experience in the held. asionally as the rest.lt of o, washing machines presentation of kitchen stoves, draftsman is reflected in his spare sneakers, socks^etc. sodas, cherry pies, hot dogs, interiors, golf balls, ice-cream bathroo and as wipmg, spraying, depictions of such demesne rituals TKl „, his highly enlarged -

,

,

m

,

spongi„ g

(see, for

,„d Sponge

rtdenburg,

aids

who made

installation (fig. 28);

canvases;

and

painter to easel-size his skills as a billboard

American domestic l.tc. and other aspects of contemporary 3D). Add to these artists newspapers and magazines (see figs. 2. and

of cosmetic

based on ads from ,

Refrigerator, Spray,

figs.

soap-pad boxes. Rosenqu.st adapted

portrayals

Washing Machine, The

Warhol's experience as an illustrator 31, 56, 57. 58, on. and 61). Campbell's soup cans and to fabricate contributed to his decision to paint

II.

undoubtedly Brillo

example, Golf Ball Bathro

Segal,

larger-than-life-size sculptures

who

life-size plaster figures (see or bath with pure-white castings of

fig.

27).

For

all

Wbman Shaving Her Ug %

1963

65* Winches)

m. i

,

Mrs RobertB

(

I„ 1961

New

his wife and children and Lichtenstein briefly separated from

cm

BhmmM

(119

I

vinyl, tn.

I

J

Manhattan.

nearby Coenties .

for less than a year before

intario

Isabel again

„l die

variety

Highland Park,

He

rented

a loft

on Broad

moving back

and took

.,

loft at

to his family in

1961-62 such

New Jersey.

In 1963,

he separated

and the 36 West Twenty-sixth Street in Manhattan, Throughout this period he continued to work on a

moved to Princeton. single of subjects, among them paintings of

family

Street in

Slip,

x 204 x 252 inches) National Gallery

from

left

phenomenon

Lower Manhattan, between meeting several artists who lived on and Battery Park. Lichtenstein remembers Youngerman. He staved there particularly Robert Indiana and Jack

|ersey tor

W.ll Street

Claes Oldenburg, Bedroom

518.2x640.1 id

Collection

igo

fc(

2K.

metal porcelain, and

Plastei

ot them.

goal was the attainment ot

of a society whose common the media provided potent images cultural these artists isolated and amplified a the American dream. Together, 1960s. new to the painting and sculpture of the early np 27. George Segal,

room

a "realistic

bathroom sinks to his attached such utilitarian objects as actual chairs, table, bed. created "real-life" tableaux juxtaposing

Dine,

who

of food and

as Black Flowers (fig. 25),

objects. In single-object paintings

ot a Lichtenstein painted a careful rendition

rest

of still

newspaper (see fig. 26 for the type ot illustration from an advertisement he found in a arrangement, he made a startling and provocative he used). From a seemingly banal image tor , traditional look of a hand-painted punt,,,., in which he discarded the

life

To achieve this look. Lichtenstein mechanical one that resembled the reproduction. .mages by means of halftone screens of Benday simulated the newspaper process of printing them to stenciling dots onto a canvas and used dots He invented his own method of described the the flat wall behind the flowers. He suggest both the mass of the vase and


tonus of the flowers and the shape of the vase with

a series

p.untcd the image oi\\ black tabletop highlighted with reflections as a support for the vase.

dots used

on the

The

strokes oi white to suggest

fe\a

a

differences in scale between the very small Benda^

and the more boldk rendered

wall

ofblunt black marks, and

slight but perceptible rift in the surface plane.

1

of flowers and

wise

change

Ins

table

was

in scale

Furthermore,

was tempted to regard the

if one

flattened and foreshortened in

arrangements of

them with

fruit

— made

manner

a

To

this impossible.

the plane of the canvas,

1

O

similar to

table as

anne's

shortened tabletops and

fort

ichtenstein cropped the flowers and the

enabled him to keep the tonus firmly

Lichtenstein was

amused by the

He

paint.

idi<

i

he idea

I

done by

ulous to him that he decided that n was

with very

artists

seemed

"it

unartistic appearance. Also, art."

9

The

opposite

tin

this

as

art.

After

about w hat

it

all,

art

was that made

a

Don't test one brand alone

Until* olhen,

TRY THIS TIST!

Wo

«oy

PHIUP

.

.

.

w*

never oik you lo

.

.

illda*

.

olher ciq onlf l Then

fcw*>r»»-

PHILIP

whom

.

artists as

worl

challenged the

cholc*l

Gauguin and

onventions

i

and

formidable achievements Pointillists.

pOiiiJJJJJJj'jJUililJiu

a

i

ertain distance,

an ingloi iou

ol

still

paintin

liri

still

light.

1

I

lenri

lifes,

Mat

h ol

convi - d

244

29.

5

James Rosenquist, The

cm

Institution

bottom

(

30.

olle< tion

(~l

Va

\

96

ti

inches)

Washington, D.(

.

light Tliat Won't Fail

Hirshhorn

Museum

Gifi ol the Joseph

Magazine advertisement,

)5.4

I,

1961

<

>il

Oil

i

anvas, 182.1 X

and Sculptun Garden, Smithsonian

made

si

reens to his painting i"

h coloi theorists

system of dots

Pointillists utilized a precise

approximated the way

in

of the

which color,

da^

that,

as

H. Hirshhom Foundation, 1966

x 26.5 cm

(13

x

10

incho),ca

I

I960

such

informed bv

of black and white

Golf Ball 1962, and ma> be related to

Abstract Expressionists W.lle.n de Kooning,

fames Rosenquist

m

29

the 1940s and 1950s.

Chapter

his

knowledge

viewed from

n

ol theil

il"

in

I

i"

,

wori

post-industrial nature as artificial, irrevocably altered by society in the

ichtenstein's dramatic use as

is

harles Blan.

i—

optically blend

fellow

his

<

wh<

the

alls

by the Post-Impressionist Georges Seurat and

His perception of nature, however,

view of

essem

th<

ichtenstein, however, used

Pointillists an interest nature. Lichtenstein shares with Seurat and Ins fellov, top

\

the first in a series oi paintings that are th

Spurred on by the writings of sm

and C)^\ou Rood, the

in

this sub,

the twentieth centur) paintei

reductive form. Lichtenstem's adaptation ofBenda)

I NO CIGARETTE HANGOVER

made

'I

ussion

disi

ill'

-

i" rnakt

'I

And what mi aning do

irt

radically simplified the w.i\ in whi< h the) painted

black and white to produce

R.m.mb*r

ol

wish

hi

him

to

COnvei ion

[is

reopen that

it

wasn't realr)

it

the French nineteenth-century Post Impressionists

natural forms through their use ofcolor, texture

match

MOMIS agamil on,

mok* your o«n

Paul

also

to

long soliloquy on

a

our brand olon.

l*tl

compare pmur momis

MOMIS

alj!

1

2:

More

Early Pop Pictures

rt

plodding and

i

iwing appealed

di

What was

subject meaningful.

a fitting subject foi a

black-and-white image

Gogh and

wui

compare them

...

clumsy

the basis tor his painting.

have in our time? Black Flowers thus began

such unconventional

romantii

th<

the images]

subjective, and Lichtenstein wanted

is

newspaper reproduction

A

its

he wanted to

i

he reprodui tions wi

I

anything printed looked take or spurious and

raw material

I

mis without

pi.

subjei

a

ol

image into an "unartistic" painting was the preeise point

unartistic

about

[who gave

unartistic nature of the reprodui tion and

he could use

be( ause

training

little

obje(

ll

newspapers

in

ol advertising

heartfelt spilling-your-guts-out posture ot Abstract Expressionism

usually

h<

I

dimi nsion

use of black and white reprodui tions

of image because

liked this kind

tabli

ked into the picture plane,

lo<

and seed catalogues to advertise plants ami flowers. using color seemed so

shape

its

further neutralize the forms and m< rge

emphasis on linear shape rather than on the volumetric form of a thm also

linear in

solid object,

a

a

imm< diateh

riot

apparent because the vase oi flowers had few halftone dots and was basically structure.

leafed

(

I

tin

also a feature -i subsequ. nl

is

bin

I.

and-wh.tc paintings

p;

I

«

and Oth ranz Kline, Robert Motherwell,

to the point, perhaps,

I

i<

htenstein

i

hosi

this

nnag.


~

^ (-

nt "'' " U ' ofM °nd ^8 32), which was oi interest to „„„ a, the rime Here. Lichtenstem emulated Mondrian's reductive style and translated the Dutch artist's """'"' °' S1 mple plus and ,,n forms »'<» I* «ra series ol signs, " breaking down the , ,n bl "" « Section ofhooked marks surrounded ° bjecl '" ;;"","" by bold black outline

-

**

'

.,

In

GolfBallznd other single-object paintings ..the early 1960s, lit, nstein depicted some oi the most frequently advertised images of the time, modeling them after the ids bed clipped from magazines and newspapers i<

I

(» He collet ted images oi gre u subjects from the period that caught his attention. Relatively few became paintingsamong those that did, there is usually a complementary sour, in ari In this instance, the i

many

,

complement

make

to a generic

golfbaD

generic Mondrian. By using Mondrian's

is a

painting of such an object,

a

quaHty. This provocative mixing together of common objects, "high

".7

.'JHjrUt

?.';,--.'

abstract style,

m

syst,

ichtenstein called attention to the object's absti

I

which became the trademark of his

entire oeuvre,

i,

to

i

tmentar) and

art

tnsed the critics and

the public when Lichtenstein's work first appeared ... th, arl) 1960s. >n< w. might concede the method but not the subject; anoth. might admire the subject but not the w.n in which it was painted; but, blind to the development oi a nev, (

i

<

i.

i

I

idiom

most people

yu v<

at that

Geo^c Washington

"«*-» :.«

34), 1962, reprises the subjeel oi (see, foi

Washington Crossing the Delaware

I],

famous

^vMk.VII^

(fig.

Lichtenstein had worked with before

Based on

.

\merican presidents

one ofhis two versions

1951, and Ten Dollat

ca.

relationship

m

iii

Black Flowers and the freestanding

form

than either oi those paintings, because

strut black-and-white composition

cheeked Stuart portrait

"i

i

ol

(

rendering the figure familiar depiction

***toss off your

official portrait,

i,

— he has used red Bendaj

— and because of

108

32. Piet

'08

*

<

Mondrian, Composition

m

|

12

n

4:

in

in, hes). State

i

anvas

stepped

Kroller-Miiller, Otterlo,

forms

Roj

Lichtenstein's sourcebooks, ca

..musing

both can be considered

But

in's d<

m some

is

it

parture from re<

the

ill

ways

thi

commanding on<

presence

dollai

on the dollar

bill d(

valid interpretations; both, as

I

i(

ii

roi

While capturing man)

p fen r* e to the

president. Suite the portrait

1960s

1

ichtenstein carves

down from Mount Kushmore

.\nd

Benday

simultaneously 33. Page fiom

first

George Washington.

The Netherlands '""'"»,

of our

.in

rilberi Stuart's

(

"I

b\

bill's

iv

I

Mom

S

htenstein

implies in his work, describe something signifi< anl about our culture. In his graphi*

Black and White, 1917 Oil on

Museum

reproduction,

as a

oi

1956).

12],

allover figure 'ground

dots to

historical subject.

its

thai

*

portrait of '"/'

version oi

hi) Ball.

mi,

in,

the features of Stuart's portrait, he has reduced Washington's

,\n

Bill [fig.

of Washington, the painting mediates between the

portrait

less radical

[fig.

exampl.

Hungarian newspaper's reproduction ofa wood*

a

painting,

in

time simply could not admire both

is

dots.

one

maneuver between

I

lis

of the

more impressive

tomtit

— one

might

that

h

arrangement ofbold black-and-white

in

volume and

feats ol his earl)

work,

as

is

flatness

hen

his ability

and iconic image. a

(

ommon

relinquishing the features that distinguish artists.

"i

granite figure

use of these simple elements to evoke

abstract shape

Lichtenstein's ability to

— oui

,i

it

as

Oldenburg pursued the creation of the

object inn-

hi

il-ai.i.

i

form, w ithout

an object, separates him from obje.

I

in

his fellow

Pop

another way. by making an often

rsize, painterly version of the original. Lichtenstein's use of a single-image,

figure/ground format was the means left

31.

!

Roy

" ••

Lichtcnstein, Golf Ball. 1962 Oil on canvas 81

Pri\

3

k

si

J

cm

(32

l>\

whi. h he

made

object within the picture plane. For the transmutation

i

necessary to maintain

Ilection

31

Chapter

2:

.\n

<>!

explii ill'

ii

the

arti<

objeel to

be

ulation ol the successful,

equilibrium between the object and the translation

Early Pop Pictures

ol

it.

In

it

was


ichtenstein's paintings, the tne ins ol achieving this entails the conjoining oi

I

and ,m abstract

The

the actual object.

of the

literalness

w

lule

abstract style,

placed

make

statement about the

re<

about the object

laim the three-dinu-nsiou.il objei

rei

1

By

emphasis ou the physical attributes of an object Johns's great

image

.in

olfa flag 01

development from

is a

outcome of the work ofjohns and Rauschenberg

mounted on

a

both

target

and

obje<

a literal

t

i<

I

between

I

hamp

>u<

simpl) b}

art,

object and the concept that altered

recall the original

01 the .mist, the

I

change from the original soup

the

apparent. In this regard, none of the other 1960s Pop

hair-splitting balance that he created

a

htenstein reverses this process, offering us

when

the most effective

a

we can

the concept-as-reformed-image from which is

and

1

Ibis statement

urinal to be works ol

common

so doing, both the original

process of conversion

1

Juchamp's concept of the read) made,

1

stool

that object are present in the altered objei

least

to recall

end the

to trans,

tangle (or the circle in relation to the rectangle).

a bicycle wheel

signing them.

image

"real"

.1

we need

the data

it all

however, serves another function:

the direct

is

maximum

contribution was to

declared

image brings with

its re.iliix

"objectness" of Pop

artists

m

use of such

object. This allows Lichtenstein to

he subverts

The Both

The

style.

artists a<

hieved the same

and

the actual subject

e

altered image,

its

the selection of subjects, and the necessity

in

while preserving the essem

e ol thi

ii

original nature. In tins

k foreign

of subjects an aesthetic orientation 'inn,

common

Because of the potential conflict between ground, Lichtenstein was toned

(abstract)

permitted

a

converting them into works

ol

a

to then original

he accentuated

it.

By emphasizing both

character and the flatness of

he established

a dialectical

the obje<

.1

-I,

I

areas ol

1

and ground

1

that

has returned to

repeatedly. Temple

it

[polio (fig.

oj

is

one

121

he

that

relationship,

is

majoi Strength

a

1

examples

the Benda)

ol

ol

doi

ambiguity

Ins

I

for

obviousl) relishes

1964, and

Âť.

to th<

1

Benda) dots,

essful

anvas unite figure and Held

between two-dimensional and three-dimensional

objei

ol

magnified screen

of.,

tension between the subje<

Golf Ball bare

ondil

dim< nsional

(

m

1

nying the figure ground

and hi) lull are su< of his single-object paintings. Both Black Flowers h.s imagery h\ means unified this dialectic. In Black Flowers, the artist screen, whereas

an

neutral

a

mi Hi,

potentially tin-

depiction bv means

its

ol

solution that sacritn ed neithei bul

mutual coexistence, lor him, therefore, the relationship

picture plane was of utmost importance, far from

ol

way, he confers on the mosi

representational figure and

to find

of he

1

process of transmutation brings mto focus two of his majoi concepts: the importance

choice

the

is

sort

he

Three Pyramids

structures translated mto emphati. 1969 are but two examples of volumetric

ally

1

In- nst, in

contain all the data of the originals. dimensional images that nevertheless on which it was reared and produced an art that subverts tin vct) foundation I

i<

has

that,

1

thus

paradoxically, derives left

34.

[51

k

Lichtenstein, George Washington, L962 Oil on canvas

Roy

18 inches)

Collection Jean-< hristophe

<

129

5

n

96

-

strength from this subversion

For Lichtenstein to have mounted

cm it

utelli

its

was necessary

him

tor

to have a

twentieth-century Modernism, pag,

)4

35.

Roy

canvas, 172.7 * 142.2

36.

â&#x20AC;˘

in\

u

Roy

172.7

Thus he quoted

on Lichtenstein, Portrait of Madame Cezanne, 1962 Magna

cm

(68 x 56 inches)

Lichtenstein,

x 121.9 cm

Femme

Private collection,

New York

dans unfauteuil, 1963 Oil and

(68 x 4s inches)

painting. Mag

The

the

idea

(fig

Private collection

33

Chapter

method

2:

Early Pop Pictures

sue h as art

is

ol d. aling is

mam

variables

Mondr.an,

Pi- asso,

^\

(

tins issue.

His

Inn. to

Jezanne

part of a venerable tradition, bul

with

Portrait oj

illusiomsm,

ol

rhe history

which he was an avid student, enabled

work of artists

1962 for example,

35)

ol

theconcepi

successful challenge to

profound grasp ofits

of quoting from

dters the traditional

i

a

I

...

u

ol so.

h.s

htenstein

Madame Ci

in another ofhis comments on the way

do

anne

which we vie*

....


It is

based on Erie Loran's diagram in Loran's

published

notion of such

a

ol

book Cizannt's

diagram

ezanne's

I

Compositions

1943.

in

"1 wasn't crying to berate Erie

was

portrait, whii h

renowned

1

ichtenstein obji bui

oran

I

.

such an

is

it

first

ted to the

uses his rei< htenstein A. B, ( V oversimplification trying to explain a painting by us the is modified, to remind creation of the Loran diagram, in which very little I

.

Cezanne from a diagram: " h. le liked the irony of diagramming original. anne calling it Madame such a complex painting. Taking an outline and I

<

ezanne

is

in itself

is

1

I

humorous,

^ diagramming

particularly the idea

outline escaped n,c

penchant of some

'

In painting a

critics

and

art

Cezanne when

a

diagram of a diagram, he

,,,„„„, d'Alger

anne

i

calls

said,

attention to the

historians to reduce art to simple formulas.

[Women of Algiers]

(fig.

1963,

d> We,, (fig. 39),

,nother vein, Lichtensicn's painting Fe

ta

i

I

was meant to look

40), 1955,

assos

Pi.

aft!

I

«

,

«

like

u

I

he wa>

wanted this painting to r. ft cheap reproduction of the ongm.,1. Lichtenstein of reproduction. It is also a tongue-in culture views art largel) b) means in

which our

md

cheek comment on Pica 1834

The

issue

of intention

is

his appropriation

still

«

whii b

1863

Vherbe,

the

h

Pablo Picasso.

m

(28

,

Woman md, Flow,„i

23 inches) Morton

Ha,. 1939-40

G Neumann

(

Kl

on

canvas, 71

I

«

Sift

and hu

its

singular features, and

«

k

am,

,

restat,

Lichtenste

md position of the original, but subs*

I

.,ki

aUy

I

alters

art.

Rauschenberg,

too,

W^J^J

cl^wimjuxtfp

limag,

contain aauschenberg's works also

37.

Roy I27«

Lich,e„s«ein. i

(50x40

I*

inches)

B"™* "« "M

'

'"

""'

,,,„, „„. A

r

37

CHAPTER

2.

EARLY POP PICTURES

,

„,

*,~

-

Mondnan

*—

ejdsten t,

.

indirectly

to*.

a ,

"

.e also

:

Private collection

^

kq

^— S— ^^^TdZ'

^"^£2 J L*:rj^^^-=--

^

*

*

^^t^^i^JZ^-^' ,

h,

I

-

-

Rauschenberg

reproductions. Of products and

he

P-trngs.

gthel

the or.gmal

.mages from 1 IKautobiography. In juxtaposmg within the real creates a fictive tune paraphrases Lichtenstein, however,

the art

gmal subject and

eta,

•^XZ^ZZZZZZZ*

-

''"

°'

style.

I

I

,

5

««

I

£^ofio««»ton^lhod-to»«di«be «««d

Family Collection

rnmterpreta,

W

«

«

,

identity the subject, isolate and

wto

tb

fo.

artist

m

more than

as,

the original

Ifeer,

vaii

'•

artis.

wish to submerge tecE Lichtenstein does no. on the Rk mitv j, Mdi ta so doing comment with established lust rtTcourse, the same method he .

a

i

Delacroixs Fe

pr, t

remains unclc.„-.,rc themselv. is

is

Femme

lourcesfo,

he,

is itself based

case, the subject subject. In Lichtenstein's

)g.

A

b

ol critical here, for Picasso's versions

d-Algermd Edouard Manet's Dijeune, Giorgione's Tempest, 1505-10, which iconography

of Eugene D.

vie

« Culture


commenting on each of these

complexity, irony, and humor. In creating

dialogue with their

a

work about

the formal bases of aesthetics

Excluding the cartoon/comic-strip paintings,

1961-63

Lichtenstein

artists,

is

als [so

itself.

subjects of his paintings from

some of the

are:

i

hoi dogs

nine

magnifying

offe<

ii

jpi

glasses

ords

i

in

i

engagement

re

.

goir balls goll oaus

'

><

ins

washing ma< nines

skates

sneakers

flower arrangements

>

stoves

6 igerators

rollei

rings

on

stop

Picasso

it

i\

Mondrian

ups

<

curtains ele<

sponges

of twine

balls

I

.

orge Washington

^s

idition has been painting's mosl fundamental B

The mo of representational imagery

ol values.

a hieran h) throughout the history of art, but almost always preserving so that a comi. strip, ichtenstein has chosen to standardize his images

i

and

goli baU,

a

I

Picasso h.,ve the consistency.

same

His choice

relative value.

ol subj.

ts

i

has us

own

intei

rial

of George Washington and the socks be considered along with hot dogs and

virtue of then- familiarity, the figure

By

and Mondria

paintings of Picasso

popular images.

1

interchangeable

as

socks, „. and the Mondrian, the hot dogs and have been comme images because of the wa> in whi. h they was to a, knowledge this aspe has explained, Ins obje

he IV

as

ass,,

art

and

But, as Lichtenstein

When

something of his own:

to bring to this issue

commerce and I

do

a

"Mondrian" or

became I'm trying to make

a

"Picasso,"

40.

Us Femmes

Pablo Picasso,

!

,

i

d\A\R er, February

"

1955

(

>il

;rcialized

inches)

„„,

it

also.

So.

it's

,,„,!„

be involved in

this

is

i

ra

Irt

el'mver,

"utiles;

tithasa:

kofar,

»i

I

result that

ofart which has other qualities*;

=

I-

Pica

styl,

hoi

.ndit's

heAbswe,

M

b

«

fere:

towan

Expressionist paintii

Lichtenlin's appropriate

For paintings such

"

,r

don't™

,..

Ive,

•>

"'

only a mod,

*

But the

ffc<

completely rearranged ithasbe

;nize that this

n

sharp, ning

I

M

ktobe;

getting

because the style that Is

.workbe to

,

think,

I

nist painting, let's sa,

T ned with

rebu Uding aspect to

on canvas

has,

alized Picas

a

.ercializedAbs I

ii

,

"Mondri

as Non-objective

I

and

as,,.,

Non-objectiv.

U

(figs

<*^£[%Z H and

42),

both

>64,

b

b. ed them as the 1, gs "Mondrian's p: versio " however. Lichtenstein appropriated " Pi( ISS0S For his Ptcass. his fimshed canvases. identical to Picasso's [

^del'he

of

his

own

,

y

fc/i

39.

Roy

68

Lichtenstein,

in< hes)

Femme

d'Alger, 1963 Oil on

cam

ii

203.2

Jer

Private collection

39

ana

h part of the canvas another original) to version ofthe Cubist

repositioning an

1

*

Chapter

2:

arm

oi a breast,

Early Pop P.ctures

Benday-dot


left

Roy

41.

Lichtcnstein, Non-objective

I,

1964

(

>il

and Magna

anvas,

142.2*

\1

Roy

Lichtcnstein, Non-objective Sonnal

121 9

: i

ini

hes)

Hie

I

li

tnd Edythe

I

Broad

<

olle.

don

II.

I

<

196 oil

I

<

111

and Mum,,

01

I

IS,


screening of the image and other techniques derived from advertising were also paramount in these re-creations

of

genre to look

this

changes

'>

Chapter

in

Kaprow, quoted

2

(New

made

own

in his

New

in

Calvin [bmkins and

York: Harry N. Abrams. 1988),

York City,

significant

image.

Bob Adelman, Roy

p.

21.

November 30, 1992

Mickey and some of the earlier cartoon paintings such

</

/

extent, however, that he

indeed remade Picasso

Calvin Tomkins, "Brushstrokes,"

in

onv< rsarion with the artist in

1

To the

I

Mural with Blue Brushstroke

Uchtenstein

i

reproductions.

like

As he indicated, he wanted paintings

in Lichtenstein's style.

in their formal resolution, he has

See Note

1

ofPicasso

Popeye and

as

were not

'impy (Tweet)

II

exhibited publicly until 1982,

comments

are

Rauschenberg and the

I//

K. irp's

5

included

ondon

1

I

See

8

See Peter Selz, the

moderator

tor a panel

better

9

tor the

movement

Museum,

was reprinted

as

I

I

12

.

13,

p.

Neo-Dada

Southampton.

is

no

Roy

to several

single painting

Architectural Design

New

NY,

It

(New York and

by lichtenstein

2* (February 1958),

was decided

p.

85.

at

Pore Ashton, Henry

the panel that

September

1.

1

I

(September

Bop

art

was

''''2

in

Roy

Uchtenstein, exhib. cat

with the Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, 1967),

no. S

that

Realism

Lichtenstein" in Artforum

(.2,

Robert

Magazine 37. no, 7 (April 1963), pp. 36â&#x20AC;&#x201D;45. Selz served

39. For Loran's response to Lichtenstein

Copy Cats?" ARTnews

'60s.

1962. Included in the discussion were

or

Wall

tin-

works

John Coplans, "Roy Lichtenstein: An Interview."

in collaboration

"Talking with

passage appears on

than

artist,

Lichtenstein, quoted in

(Pasadena Art

Artists or

on December

[bmkins, Off

alvin

(

York Penguin Hooks. L980), pp. 173-74.

Kramer. Stanley Kunitz, and Leo Steinberg

onversation with the

(

10.

name

Art." Arts

in

POPism The Warhol

Bat Hackett,

Warhol may have been referring

"A Symposium on Bop

Seldzahler, Hilton

(

Andy Warhol and

awrence Alloway, "The Arts and the Mass Media,"

7

as

in

New

Ian ourt Brace Jovanovich, 1980), pp. 6-7. Since there

this description.

1

description of the encounter

World of Our Time (Middlesex and

See Warhol's comments

fits

in a

I

no. 9

5, s

(May

1967),

where

the quoted

use of his diagram, see Lrle

'".3), pp.

15; this ess.n

p.

1

oran.

"Bop

48-49, 61.

Lichtenstein. ibid.

1

ichtenstein,

quoted

m

l.iihtt n>i(in,

p.

transcript of

a

television interview broadcast fanuar)

Alan Solomon, "Conversation with Lichtenstein," special issue ol

(in English),

1972),

from an edited

68.

l\tiit,i~>iiui

I.

in

in

New

York,

Alberto Boatto and Giordano Falzoni, eds

no. 2 (July-August 1^6r>),

reprinted in John Coplans, ed., Roy Lichtenstein

1966

p.

S

(in Italian)

and pp. 38â&#x20AC;&#x201D;39

(New York and Washington.

D.C.: Braeger,

,

,i


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Single object painting? such virtue of their subject.

Got) Ball

.is

We know

th.it

.1

golf ball

project the additional dimension onto such

We

not be depicted in that manner.

two-dimensional image even though

.1

Our

In the

combine painting Monogram

it

goat with

a stuffed

a tire

his

earn

waist.

its

he spectator

1

in

forms and to accept the canvas

onl\ one

45.

Robert Rauschenbcrg, Monogram, 1955-59 .„,,„, ,,,„„. 122.1 k

183x183 cm

Stuffed goat,

^

(48

«

tire,

I

between painting and sculpture or between the

Modcrna

inch.

cans

ale

often relied on the presence o\ object with

real

..

it

is

I

into an

three dimensional

a

its

ind

ol the original

and

i\

Bui both

illusion.

its

replii

image

like

them have

-i

flat

plane.

It

is

and appreciate the complex nature of the subject

its

the

in his

use ol

«

w

is

11

artifi. e,

thai

.

a

ertaint) thai

from the wa)

we know

an object,

oi

ciink on

fiction involved in the presentation ol the imag.

our awareness of the

ot his

to signify thai illusion oi have juxtaposed

on an impla( ably

Hat shape

a

obje(

some

near duplicate

I

i

Lichtenstein, however, ivl.es

pamted one.

no matter how much we read depicted that

a real

m

often blurred the distin. tion

actual ODJ<

and Lichtenstein, they are concerned with the object

Stockholm

a

three dimensional

foi

on

flag

as a

(fig. 5)

aluminum package. Both Johns and Rauschenbcrg have

mvas

.

bronze facsimile of

a

forced to confront

is

several objects. Johns,

among

best-known works, painted the two-dimensional image of a canvas and created

and placing on

Hat oil the floor

as

the space traditionall) reserved

two-dimensional painting placed as

works bv Rauschenberg and Johns.

L955 59, for example, Raus< henberg has

(fig, 4=>),

around

experience of these single object

see certain

usurped the space of the sculptor by situating top of

may

it

oi the object as ,m

bring to the image our knowledge

way we

quite different from the

is

three dimi nsional, and so must of us

is

entity that occupies a particular, concrete space.

paintings

by

31), L962, suggest spatial illusion largely

(fig.

ind

in

an folly

i

central role in his larger pictorial

statement. Paintings such as Emeralds significant departure

w

,,„,,,,, (fig

.

from the imager,

24).

.,11

1961,

Bellamy

50) and Mi

(fig.

ol

where

I

ook Mfcfa

(fig

19),

y (fig.

1961, represents

1

I").

Popeye

the emphasis was ph. ed

(fig.

ind

3

!

the famou,

....

Wimpy

Pop. y. and Mouse and Donald Du, characten and their adventures. Mickey cartoons, dizzy and iill, and full ol fun were portrayed as they appeared in the the firs, k heroi< adventures fo. grown-ups, ind Mi Bellamy, however, are in a series ol on the theme of the male hero engaged I

meralds

I

in a series

,

narratives focusing

dramas

ge

emphasize action and event. Each introduces

that

the her newspaper comic-strip panel featuring

ly

a,

images ft rime Lichtenstein was scavenging advertisements for the inter elepho„e directory and newspaper

da

.v.

fiwni

.1

vohme setting^ *Uow ™»8

*

1.

t.

(nK5 6)ortheappUanceinM&/.^Macftm

L£ the image for Cat

(fig.

43).

e

(fig.57),bothl961,andg

ab

ako 1961

The very notion of using

bjectof.

t

his

di

imetei

bottom

left

m

Roy

Pri\

44. 16

k

it<

Lichtcnstein, Car. 1961

Oil

on

canvas,

80

cm

I

H

in<

seriousness.

I

av

collet rion

Roy

Lichtcnstein, Magnifying Glass, 1963

16 inches)

<

>il

on

(

ui\

is

K).6

d humor,

.„„. the

>

Duchamp,

firs,

Klee.

satire,

to tes.

Man

or irony

,

Ray, Mir6.fi

,

ssfii.

Prh

it(

ollei

I

I'

J)

47

Chapter

3:

Images Comic Strips and Advertising

.nitiall,

an «•"*

<*«««.

'^^°^*

-of ,

fa,

"hold,

.1

nan

the mos. banal the limits ofar. by taking

n

.to

books

th;

Picabia Picasso, and

Sr^onstothem.andpresentmgthemasart, •

.mager, bu

.mplement to

adeeph

asaniconofhighartish 43.

strip

o

^

^adnotyet

kittyli.

one or two primary sources fo, decided to focus exclusively on con* strips in newspapers rather seems t „ Kave been drawn to

g

'

Batl

...

.1

t

s

I

I

ob,

Duchamp

.

«.

making

challenged other


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47. Advertisement for section ol the Veu

let,

46.

Roy

Mount \in Lodg<

York

P

*

[ravel"

Hmk

Lichtcnstein. Girl with Ball, 1961 ..,.

Pennsylvania, in the

i

,,

K

Museum of Modern

<

Vr.

>il

on

Ne*

i

anvas, 153

York

k

"I 9

m

Gift of Philip Jol


taboos

weU, exploring transvestism

,,s

Selavy, submitting as his

which he had drawn transliterated as ,,

boxed

a

own

artwork

issues bui

h

i

Among

the Abstract Expressionists, de

appreciation tor the comedic

from

lips

a

Camel

them with

to neat

:s

none of then

their threatening quality but

complex

ichtenstein sees the

1

sei

his entire

forces

an} ol

pla,

ai

work

life's

as

life's

disarming them of some

levity,

ol

umsness stands out as

Kooning

of life.

well as the tragic aspects

as

on

is,,

1

vulgar French phrase, "hi. h he

a

and packaging

for the tide) (fig. 67),

L.H.O.O.Q.,

most demanding

same-size reproduction of the Mini.,

a

beard and mustache (and using

of reproductions.

set

an invented female persona that he called Rrose

as

Woman

cigarette ad in his painting

painter with an

.,

206), 1950,

(fig.

lusion oi

lis in.

I

pai. ol

a

an open

is

the

popular culture and prefigures acknowledgment ofhis admiration of American hey have used hum,,, Oldenburg attitudes of such 1960s artists as fuhtenstem and

m

I

work

their

as a

way

rather than black

humor,

lit,,

not existentialists,

,,-e

with

as

humor some of the Complex

comic

strip

Oldenburg

fashion

has

continued by Dadaists Expressionists Arshile

teXences Pablo Picasso, Bather with Beach

tn4 .6cm(57 ,,ii ol

ix 45 Winches)

R.onaldS Uudei >o

I

In

Ball, Boisgeloup, August L932

,

,,i

on

Modern

Art.

New

use

done

I

s.

and

others.

it

ur. B,

aus,

i.

I

htensteins

u i

se

hrs pa.nt.ngs are a

f the absurd aspect, ol .

od

wha

uh

strip

s

Abstract

,

appre

Mr. Bell y rf drawing in Emeralds and differs fiom the cartoo stripimages ofthe same year

rhe

th.

an,

ixt oi

within the

reframing

haractenst,

,,,,.

I

iver,

1

Since sex has been commodified

than seeing

and

ol

,1.

he,

I

mui h .he same using

Mm.

Picabia, Surrealists

through the images

al

begun by Picasso and

trad

humor stems fiom his

Vbrt

^appropriate P

al

Gorky and de Kooning, and

-

in

both have treated sex in d

atologi.

figures as stereotypes oi sex

our cultural condi.

y

larly,

veakd

,1

has used his oversize

Oldenburg ver,

satire

al

well as cnti.

as

admiring

ichtenstein has don.

Duchamp and

are indirect, expressed

offemaie

though through

were, hut have been enlightening u, time,

issue

so in the

celebration ofthe ironic, their

of anonymous done, ind promised

Partial gift

Museum,

Oil

Us

foibles;

that they are

artists

painting. S

ind

art,

while targeting society's weaknesses, the, have

many 1950s

props to critique society's

4K.

our culture and our

innocence and naivete, and have shown

its

canvas, ca

ting

lam]

ol

hi

b

dverasementf

on

iwspaper-based

com.c

ageryof^Atoj

ZZXZZZZttZttfz ir^trzrX"^=r^ * — isss^^ssss '

b^

,

,

Overgard's newspaper comic

19.

Roy

Lichtenstein, Mr. Btllamy, 1961

inches)

njaminj Nikkei. Cloves, 50.

I

68

k68

Modern An Museum

rdlar

New

Memorial

f

on Worth. Museum Purchas

I

Acquired ftom the

<

olleci

of

Emerald,. 1961

Collecrion Denise and

Oil

on

tteve Koper,

y;:;:;:;::;:;::::::.:t:,.,.,.,,n,o..-

fVemon

Mexico, 1982

Roy Uchtetutein, inches)

[hisr.

ol

Oiloncanvaj 143.5 X 108 cm

strip

Zi'-

;;"-;;

yi

canvas, 174 a l"l

.

"'

In

Andrew Saul

49

image in which a compl. figure 4f,i L96l, however, the r»i ,i Rl /i /tut -+<»)Girl with Ball (tig.

he saMR

.

is

treated in very

fc

as;

bject,

with a separate identity but

manner

as

GolfBall

Chapter

3:

s.ng Images Com.c Strips and Advert.

,

,

closely

,

k

,

to

me

slll

i„

,


abow

51.

201 9

cm

Roy

Lichtenstcin, Tht Engagement Ring, 1961 '

(i

''

•""'"

(

1 1

on

"" Samuel Heyman N( 1

right

52.

Sunday

Martin Branncr,

Jul)

16

1961

panels from

'

Winnie

\\ inkle,'

in

Chieqgo Tribune,


7*tRR? PLANS TO SURPRISE TANYA WITH A PIECE OF JEWELRY ORALSWIFT, TANYA'S AGENT, HAS A SURPRISE OF A

IUMMI

IJ

I

I

VUU UHbN IHEkd

J

'

ORAL..WHATS

THE GOOD

TWO WEEKS

!

j|

NEWS ?

O/FFERENT MATURE..

•whoopee LUE

*

BUT

HEV ^ONJT :&A'.'JRE

}TICS /

2

lEA/ VHILE,.

Rr K f S

PERRY

ABOUT THIS PIECE OF JEWELRy yOU'RE PLANNING TO BUY FOR TANYA „

I JUST

WANT TO

IT5...IT5

SHOW HER HOW MUCH SHE MEANS TO ME /WINNIE /

ENGAGEMENT RING ,15 IT?

(«>

?y*

NOT AN

-}.

,

i

'ii,

|

i,.

PKI

OK

The

11

/*%.»'

'

hit «»•'

Irilmnv


WHY, BRAD DARLIN6,THIS PAINTING IS A MASTERPIECE/ MY, SOON YOU'LL HAVE ALL OF NEW YORK CLAMORING

FOR YOUR WORK/


''

plane of the picture support. Lichtenstein chose to enlarge the figure of the bather in order to bring her nearer to the picture plane. A compai ison oi the painting with the id

from which

was adapted

it

the original. In the

the photographic image

.\d,

Lichtenstein substituted

more

He

distorted.

black outline,

edged

a

in black,

also

figure

a

drawn

of the

girl

cartoonist might have rendered

as a

and further underscored the

of the beach

Bather with Beach Ball bathers, Lichtenstein

(fig.

48), 1932.

m

While there

in

one of

no overt

is

In appropriating the figure of

Lodge

Poconos

in the

newspapers

resort area

New

in the

tossing

a girl

common

of a woman. This updated version of such I'MOs movie other images

like

They

disingenuous. figure very

when

it,

much

the ad

first

appealed to him represented

in

vogue

ran

American postwar

male

As

life as a

a

This figure

Poconos, she

in the

recent press release from

a

of iconoclastic female

figures,

and

bathing-suited iders in 1955,

emblem

also an

is

Airy

one

odge

I

asp.-,

i

figure in the

a

routine stock figure

new Anuin an

arl

She joins

ol

indi< ates,

ichtenstein

I

advertising to

in

notable group

..

including Manet's Olympia, L863, Picasso's Les Demoi

1907, and de Kooning's three series

of Women, begun around

( I

she

the great

ol

the ultimate success stor) of wealth and material comfort.

model of the new American

[vignon,

Betty Grable, and

as

ed to n

Mount

anil signifies

exploited this symbolic value, converting her from

,/'.

—introdui

image

stock image. Although she was used specifically to

resembles "Miss Liberty brandishing her torch"

American dream,

pinups

of the glamorous female,

ideal

honeymooning

society.

tropes of the d.i\ tor the

star

Airy

in several

precisely because they were so obvious

in the 1950s.

started

pleasures of

promote the

a

Mount

fol

News and the Neie

area, including the Daily

one of the most

t,

ol Ins figure.

from an m\

ail

subjei

which he reduces form

of Pennsylvania (which was published

York metropolitan

York Times), Lichtenstein found

a

in

.///

(

between the two

similarity

way

a ball in tin

on the

his paintings

few incisive shapes and conveys movement by the position

to a

oi a

this painting. In this respect.

clearly indebted to Picasso fol the

is

tin- waist.

conve) the heady atmosphere

to

most reductive

at its

is

reminiscent of Picasso's frolicking bather

Bill! is

below

few bold strokes, he delineated her form

a

and managed nonetheless

ball

vacation. Indeed, his rendering with

the fingers and

at

so striking that he could .\iYon\ to dispense with the lengthy

is

message that accompanied the original. With that

incisive

white wave

a

of the figure by merging her

flatness

silhouette with the shape of the wave and cropping her

and

only slightly

it,

yellow backdrop, and

a brilliant

to

looms out from the page, while

emphasized her two-dimensional form by means of an

screen of red Bcndav dots,

Lichtenstein's depiction

made

47) indicates the significant changes Lichtenstein

(fig.

elks

M< and >

classic female form. A continued through the 1950s, which broke with the tradition of the use of the image, in painting durable fixture in advertising, made famous by Lichtenstein's

became

she

The

the 1960s successor to the European and

painting

imagery and

is

a tribute to Lichtenstein's

his

own profound

ability to

convert

a

ion

cliche into an after his Inst

1961 cartoon paintings,

cartoons, he turned to Look Mickey. Discarding images based on animated including newspaper comic strips or combed !).( romance and wai COmi< books—

such

as

:.

53.

Roy

Lichtenstein, Masterpiece, 1962 Oil on canvas,

chcs)

Private collection,

New

I

^

2

x

I

J7 2

Hearts, Girls' Romances, G.I. Combat,

cm

Fighting Forces

York

55

her.

understanding of the power of advertising

working method gradually changed

Lichtenstein's

American models who preceded

Chapter

3:

1

for illustrations,

Our Army

at

War, All American

sometimes combining

Comic Strips and Advertising Images

several

Men

oj

W-fcr,

and

S <

com.es panels into one

>wi


image, which he then

was

satisfied

with the

made result,

into a small sketch.

He

and then ,wkk\\ color

continued to revise the sketch

to

freehand on the canvas, he applied the dots In hand using

a

spaced

and then pressing the

dipping the brush into

plastic bristles,

against the canvas

ofBenday

with

it

on the

paint

a

small scrub brush.

larger areas because

it

Soon he switched

dots.)

stencil, using a roller to distribute paint

through

paint

dog brush with

painting Popeye, he had merely dragged

(In his

canvas to create the look

(lie oil

until

he

After redrawing the image

it.

regularly bristles

dry brush across the

a

ovei to

handmade metal

a

evenly across the screen and then pushing paint

Beginning

1962,

in

decided to work with \\.\^\u

In-

was easier to make changes with

when

it

he needed

to

He moved the dot screen from one area of the cam to another until he covered its entire surface. He then applied his primary colors to unprimed canvas and finished an image IS

with one or more black

Because the screen was not the same

lines.

dots were painted by hand, the effect was

less

reproductions. This would have pleased l.ichtcnstc

1963,

In

would

ichtenstein developed a

1

began I

to ,\dd

The

because

this process

Lichtenstem liked

le

method

m

amount

a certain

necessary tor

him

oi intuition

to supervise even the

delineated

a

strand

1

a

an aid

aspe<

whi< h

in

of hair; the juxtaposition ofBenday dots

he stated

that

"Cezanne

and

a line

its

in the reaction against Abstract

up

personally engaged

in his

work:

for, like

Expressionism.

in fact, Ins

man\

He

medium

is

some green

saw

203.2

v

Roy 172 7

Lichtenstcin, hornet

cm

(80

k

68 inches)

It!

Forget

Aft-.',

1962

<

)il

and

Rose Art Museum, Brandeis

M igna

on

University,

i

am

Waltham.

rvite-Mnuchin Purchase Fund

le

Once

used these colors

line

artists ol

is

And

it

it

(fig.

58) and

Ice

was frequently used

<

in

'.ream

despite

defined an eyebrow

ol

3:

01

a

squan

color Stripe.

When

a

a

I

or

lrcle.

his

worl

the time, he W3S

mean

night

i

that he was not

evident everywhere. l

ii

hti

nstein used very few

strength, imitating the

hi illianf

and there hues he In

Soda, both 1962, he used a certain shade of blue

graphic design.

in the original

m\

I..

Th<

(tig

59)

Refrigerator, the crisp,

Comic Strips and Advertising Images

cool

blue-

are effectively balanced b) white

with the Benday screen neutralizing the three-dimensionality

Chapter

was

against solid blocks ofcolor;

did not

involvement

at full

he was

his paintings to

yellow, purplish-blue, black, and white predominate,

shadows of the interiorâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; not areas,

57

I

fol

impact the) mid. magazine ads and commercial packaging, impressed by the

in

because

is,

lemon

as well.

The Refrigerator 54.

red.

necessary

work.

oi his

ts

wanted a

In the comic-strip paintings and paintings of single objects,

colors:

it

image.

tin

placement; or the width

Lichtenstem was also speaking of himself,

his

i

the original.

"I

about having to remove himself from

said a lot

nng

transfi

made

the play of an irregular form against the pure gcoineti\ of a red ingle

the thickness or thinness of

m

dots.

ichtenstein

wealth of detail: the wa\

who

At thai time he

the resolution ot the images,

most me< hanical

the economical and impersonal impression that

convey, they contained

m

dots onto the

boughi primed

order to capture the feeling

was invoked

painting

an assistant

ol

to the surfai e oi store as

"I

i

ni\

m\ hand."

"i sten< iling his

enabled him to reinvent

it

want

on the paintings hunsell

else

with the drawing, he began to apply the Benday

Since

ol

distortion created by projecting an image

on the canvas

and the

invas

i

nun

appi

thi

said, "I

soon enlisted the help

he started using an opaque projectoi

to redraw the sketch

satisfied

precise l

Magna Undcrpaintmg

ater that year

sketch to the canvas.

him

more

he finished everything

white

who once

in,

want to hide the record

1

manufactured metal screen

a

in the dots;

fill

canvases.

been programmed

has

it

usmg

canvas,

also

it

a

me< hanical and more painterly than he

intended. Nonetheless, to the first-time viewer, the paintings had

to look as

size as

ot the femali

form and


the refrigerator. In both paintings, the

unmodulated blue

shade of printing-process blue to create (fig.

25). 1961,

both

is

a still life

.is

.is

formal composition

.1

to dupli< ate

much

certain formal effect,

.1

well

meant

is

particular

a

Black Flowers

as

black and white.

in

Lichtenstem's emulation of printing's process colors can be seen

an implicit criticism

as

of some of the Abstract Expressionists. While many of the first-generation New York School painters gave new meaning to a color or used it to convey sp< cifn emotion or 1

evoke

a

mood,

the "inheritors" of the

movement,

.is

the

criti<

I

Rosenberg

[arold

called

1

them, tended to use color diminished.

By

way primary

such

in

.1

manner

gratuitous

using color reductively, however,

colors and black and white had

introduction of the secondary color green,

only exception to

his

1

singularly intense

.1

primary palette and was meant

chief!)

used exactly the same shade of painting. In tor the

Blonde Waiting

woman's

unifying device

presenting

is

hair, the

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; much

1

br.iss

he used Benday dots

-he

an abstraction of our experience of

In the early comic-strip paintings,

I

the

of drawing

of the devices,

shade

"l"i as

-

borrowed strips

.1

what he was

thai

simplified drawing

hair with just

.1

ol Emeralds call

and

brief stroke.

1

e

le

comics or

image, and there

oi Popeye, stressing

and .1

small

11

nli. e ol

is

tli.

attention to the canvas support and to I

i(

htenstein's use oi

comic-strip balloon to frame the narrative text separated the words from the a

ol

example, redu<

foi

identified entirely with the

emphasize the two-dimensionality of the image. More important,

image,

redu< tive,

and some related examples

bordei around the edge ofthi

border also served to

yellow

<>i

1

structural elements in Ins paintings. Mr. Bellamy

copyright mark painted onto the surface

as

he often

strips,

a single

was emphasizing

Emeralds are both framed by

The

ounterpoint to the

onnotations, SU< h

bedpost. 1U using

woman's

a

which were

the

is

for several different objects in a

as

the paintings.

1

cue from the comic

with brand-name advertising, .1

<

as a

1

he saw there, he could,

thai

volume of a form and render shadows on

incorporated several

ai

u

and biting hue,

re.iln\

ichtenstein

technique and several devices from certain comic advertising. Imitating the kind

it

1964, for example, he used

12),

alarm clock, and the

.is

his

unmodulated color

flat,

(fig.

Taking

sky."

to

echo the

our culture. (His

to function in

other colors.) Lichtenstein used individual colors to key spe<

"yellow equals hair" or "blue equals

purpose was usually

its

ichtenstein was attempting to

begun

in

that

departure from the twentieth-century tradition

ol in<

rest

a

oi the

orporating lettering into the

body of the composition from Cubism on. The balloon became an integral part of the composition, beginning with

his first

early paintings such as Emeralds I

Uptych

in

(fig.

72) and Forget

themselves and acted

.is

III

.1

cartoon/comic-strip painting. Look Mickey. In other

and Mr. Bellamy and two paintings from 1962, Eddie

Forget

Mel

of

slapstick, the

sign.

also distinctive shapes

were

54). the balloons

counterpoint to the angular tonus of the

also thrust the lettering into a position

between image and

(tig.

figures.

The balloons

of unusual prominence and augmented the contrast

Where.is Look Mickey

is

broad

<

comic-strip paintings that followed, such

omedy and as Mr.

into the category

falls

Bellamy or Emeralds, evoke

mosl ofLi< htenstein's tension, anxiety, or implied threat, an attitude of crisis that pervades instances the popularity comic-strip paintings, especially those with text balloons. In many

of the original comic "

35.

Roy 121.9

Lichtenstein, Half Face with Collar, 1963 Oil and

cm

(48

x 48

inches)

<

ollecrion

Magna on

(

strips

hinged on the amount of terror or

hearts of their readers- the greater the fear, the

mvas,

of the mysteries on radio

Gian Enzo Sperone New York

59

Chapter

3:

in

the 1940s and the

Comic Strips and Advertising Images

more popular

te.ir

the

that they struck in the

strip.

Buck Rogers movie

I

he same was true

serials.

Much

of the


56 .RoyUchten.tein,B«l/,

I9„6

hcsJ.CoUec,

ro om,l961

Mi

Oil

tndMrs.S.1 Ncwh.

124.4

x 176.5 en


57.

Roy

Lichtenstein, Washing Machine, 1961

ÂŤ68 Bakei

inches)

B

\

Yale University

1935

\rt Gallery,

Oil on

New

i

anvas

143

5

X

174

cm

Haven Lent by Richard


OF U.S. PHARMACOPOEb £T8 ALL REQUIREMENTS

anxiety hinged on building up the audience's expectations of an imminent action, playing

CLEAN AND SWEI REFRIQERATOI Soda

is

up and delaying

it

maximum

for the

exploited the dramatic possibilities

exaggeration

the cleanser

mended by

it

dramatic

— and the irony inherent

manufacturers. Sprii cloth and w surfaces. Wash ice tn other containers wit tion of 3 ths. so< quart of water.

damp

.is

work. Rather than using language asjust an accessor) to the

remain

While the viewer can be

that

it

that

genre based on

a

dominant

.1

way when the

engrossing

.is

feature ol the

visual motif, he Eon ed

narrative

passive

front ol an image,

111

is

enough and

sufficiently large

is

it

far

IV

those that were presented on radio and

as

more

"MHlN'l

fVRJ

I

I'D

!

RATHER sink

m

emotional outbursts are

-

-

I

HAN

CA1

BB

I

\l>

I

OR

Ml

I

enough n

spe< tatoi to

so ici

or in the movies court

response as the spectator reads: "OKAY, hot-shot, okay! I'm pouring!"

a

.1

diffu uli i"

aggressive

encroaches upon the audience's mental space and challenges the

Dramas

this,

between the spectator and the message contained within the

direct confrontation

narrative.

such

in

understood

purely visual terms.

in

Lichtenstein achieved an unusual effect In utilizing text

refrig*

who

effect. Lichtenstein,

p!" (fig.

()

(fig.

106)

marked contrast to the coolness of the technique,

a

^> 01

h

I

1

ontrast that

Lichtenstein emphasizes.

As Lichtenstein indicated lettering that

commenting

so effective in advertising,

is

went with the

an earl} interview, he prefi rred the straightforward

in

'uninteresting' shapes."

1

1

his

Abstract Expressionists, who, following the R.o)

foi

I

ichtenstein,

Thi

Refrigcrato

was

"the 'uninteresting' lettering

clear d< parture

.1

1962

71, for example), integrated then writing into the in the

same wax

pointed out

noted

I

)e

);

m

the same

.is

a

way

letters

rund.1ment.1l part

that

he shaped

group

in his

of the

total

(see fig.

though not always li.

I

less

and then painted them out," and

scattered throughout de Kooning's painting

whereas Robert Motherwell,

1955, used language

brush

E was

painting,

frequent!) buried his letters and words (I liom.is

"de Kooning usually began with

that

that the letter

1955-56

Kooning

body of the

of the

from the practice

example of Picasso and Braque

ubisi

(

thai

I

image, drawing

his pictorial passages.

Monday

astei

of /< t'aime paintings,

begun

with the

his letters

Moreover.

in

ol

...... <x

are replete with poetic Motherwell's paintings, such asjc t'aime No. /I' (fig 68), 1955,

associations,

him, and

both

in the

in their use

of the French language, which seemed exoti< and remote to

choice of an intimate phrase, whereas de Kooning's

'•read" primarily for

its

formal qualities.

words

as

images

The

use of

in this

century

movements

Expressionism but other m.

leti

1

m

ncompasses not only Cubism and Abstract

'

including Futurism,

as well,

:onstru< tivism,

(

also used lettering

and ierald Murphy Dada, and Surrealism. Americans Stuart )avis onsnme, merchandise ol many of their compositions, as part of the.. depi< tions I

1

(

razors, cigarette packs,

tempo of the modern associations 1

U htenstein

and images city.

I

01

of

newspapers

the most part,

between language and purely

abandoned

this

it

in

is

pictorial

symbiotic role

...

a

an effort to captur. tradition

...

the

'

in<

ichtenstein.

hi

The

Refrigerator, 1962

Oil

on

canvas

172

"

v

imagery have been mutually supports

favor of language as sign.

he

I

St)

.

...

142

Private collection

t

.

6

60.

Roy

Lichtenstein, Spray, 1962 Oil rii

i

mvas 91

1

mood and

I

I

I.

which the symbolii

.

!<.»>

su.

...

I.

ol

proved ideal foi onveying an ironic, the comic snaps and in advertising h, pra. ace ol projecting wends as both subject and obje, inti-aesthetic distance and foi of Johns, but Johns used langn has a precedent ,n the work using lettering as a subject originated the play on illusion and realit) that different end. His lettering continued t0 ing False In his p; ol the .mage or obj. doubt on the s ith Cubism by casting the field ol the painting, sten( iled the names ol colors into Start (U£ 69), 1959, |ohns

lettering used 58

be

W

i

Stuttgan

63

Chapter

1

3:

Comic Strips ano Advertising Images

.


I


name

deliberately mismatching the

By

described.

of almost ever}

olor with the image

<

and

reality ol the sign,

blurring the contours ol the words he negated them

in

forms. Conversely, the stenciled lettering questioned the

undermining

supposedly

it

calling attention to the surface with his brushstrokes, he challenged the

spontaneity. In

its

made

painting. Lichtenstein

\n

.

66), 1962,

(fig.

known

little

.1

but important earl)

the object quality of a sign con< rete In using

that lllusionistically projected the

word forward.

U

of the gesture

validity

concrete

as

heavy shadow

a

Utilizing the simple form

an outline,

>>i

he kept the figure and ground on the same plane. By capitalizing on the knowledge language, too,

is

merely

series of codes used to represent the visual world

.1

subverted the very nature of meaning translated art into left

word,

a

with the concept of

connotations

re<

become

ognize

well the

as

ind rendered

Ii

on the entrance door

than

of artists

for a later generation

for

whom

language

is

su< h

is

I

Sin< e he

and we

art

onvi n

1

70)'

(fig

\

isn.il

.is

phenomi

—which was

— were thus

of its

\n

power

its

are

a

na mi'

1

inspired In

early pre< edents

..wrence Werner, Joseph Kosuth, and |cnn\

I

l.-l/er.

"Art."

enlarged each panel chosen from in scale.

/;/

to

Gristede's supermarket

Lichtenstein expanded the role of the text

)ust as

change

.1

back into

it

htenstein

i<

1

to question

physical image. In stripping

as a

power of advertising

to

open

Lichtenstein Ion es us to recognize

marketing devices. Art and another painting of 1W>2, the IN sign

it

impossible to translate

as a sign rather

it

phenomenon,

as a visual

slogan and to

has

it

its.

that

Though

a

comic

strip,

his

111

comii

exploiting the

impa<

di.un.iii.

ups

similar to Oldenburg's giganti< blov>

he

Strip paintings,

ol

1

gunk

the

"I

ordinary household

fixtures or supermarket products. Lichtenstem's enlargement, came nowhere neai the

dimension of much of Oldenburg's work and hid none

larger-than-life-size

colleague's painterly brushwork. qualities

more

exe< Ution. In this respect, his

its

gestural

New

components of a

61.

16

4

cm

(40

Lichtenstein, Sponge IL 1962

Roy

)il

on

(

uit

''I

is

4

91

x

4

cm

projecting his ,

Lichtenstein, Large Spool, 1963 Magna on canvas

36 inches)

x

(

Private collection

inches)

67 62.

pagt

•J|

Roy

Sonnabend

<

I

'I

1

6

a

itself

63.

91

4cm

Roy

Lichtenstein, Large Jewels, 1963 OilandMagn;

(68x J6 inches)

Museum Ludwig (Ludwig Donation

*

work and

172

canvas

70 64.

pagt

71

172 Partial

Roy cm

142

2

65.

Roy

m

v

56 inches)

Helman

<

ollection,

New

York

I

Lichtenstein, Grrrrrrrrrrr!!, 1965 Oil and Magna on (68

and promised

x 56

inches)

gifl ol th«

Solomon R Guggenheim Museum,

(

im

New

I

The

York,

(

69

Chapter

I

admired

h<

to the abstrai

ofcoloi

and

In.

ichtcnsteins

1

1

need

to

method

ollaged onto portions Ol Hi-

.

easel.

made

love established what the subject mattei

want

I

it

to

come through

<pressionism its

in that

it

-1

I

read the image

reality, to a

1

distinction, however,

ol

th(

invas,

.chtenstem often worked on

doesn't symbolize what

concern with form but rather

is

going to be

I

am

Comic Strips and Advertising Images

not interested

a

as tin

between

his

differs

fiom

<

ubism

the subject matter

leaves

its

ind

is

subject matter

on cartoon or comi.

...

it

-1 the

with the immediate impact

Popart

early paintings from L961 -62, based

3:

response to the

ritical

assurance and resolution products, or domestic interiors, lack the

irtisi

ni

statem<

of the Abstract Expressionists:

symbolize

scale, his use

image from

.chtenstem

comics Probably the formal content

canvas, Lichtenstein, Baseball Manager, 1963 Oil and Magna on

(68

isolate the

being.

as

it

inymore, although pagt

.1

related to Abstract Expressionism.

mirror to further

that

Once

ologne

to be

commitment

was often spun around on the

abstraction he regarded left

understanding of

were taped, pieces of paper wen

anvas, their edges

canvas using

ollection

his

a

to his selei tion ol imager} rather

Oldenburg, however,

ike

I

period was

that

of the

redraw., on images onto the canvas distorted them. Although they were

and the painting

x

m

painting,

work was very much

unify, his

work appeared

In his particular

York School.

from

-Mimed

1

models of Abstract Expressionism.

the artists of the

6

His flamboyance was

restraint.

early

wmk

of Abstract Expressionism, lichtenstem's

of precision and than to

While Oldenburg's

of Ins

work manifested some

\b

aboul

II

do

m'l

1 .

strip images,

mmer

ol Ins late, paintings.


68.

Robert Motherwell, Je ,

67.

Marcel Duchamp. L.H.O.O.Q., 1919 Rectified readymad<

reproduction

pages

19.7

~2-~< 66.

91.4x1

I

!

Roy

1

cm

(1

i

n

4

Lichtenstein,

inches)

An,

Privat.

pencil

on

coUection

1962 Oil and

Magna on

<

invas,

68 inches). CoUection Gordon Locksley and George 1

Shea

l0 o

inches)

I'aimc No. IV, 1955 Oil on

Staatsgalerii

cam

moderner Kunst, Munich

is

177

>

255

.

m


The

genera] tenor of his tonus in 1961-62 was

work nut

it

even

after that, but,

many of Ins

so,

more

tested or completer) realized. Despite

full)

more cohesive and

— the dot

was when

It

pattern, line, shape, and

consistent pictoi

i

From around

ilh

J

imagery

in his

the earlier work,

in

passages, his sense of

ichtenstein started to adopt

I

olor

.

I'"'

out

laid

some awkward

placement and balance of tonus was impeccable. certain formal elements

tentative than the

concepts were

initial

that the

some of

on,

work became

the devices that

had appeared occasionally in the paintings of 1961-62 began to occur with increasing

curved And

frequency:

a

clouds to

woman's

a

times almost baroque

at

hair; the

spiraling cloud formations ot his landscapes

diagonals of the

Modem

paintings o\ 1966

which could describe anything from

line,

sharp zigzag of the

eomn

snip,

ot the

the most important features of his paintings

the use ot

and

is

canvas

image with the picture plane.

to identity the

m

a

the

his

And is

achieved not with

paintings of

hgurc/ground

a

more moderate

composition, which undoubtedly derives from

Ins

in the

interiors,

tin'

sense ol open-endedness

size, this

observation

o\

'In

ndcdiicss

<

oeuvre

through the use

relationship, but

One

to enlarge

open

This sense ot

landscapes, the Brushstrokes, the Modern series, the Mirrors, die Entablatures,

many of Ins

into fields

and rigid screen.

a taut

cropped image

originated with the comic-Strip paintings and occurs throughout

others. In

in the

zooming

which expands

70; the dot matrix,

of modulated color and creates on the surface

field

which reappears

1964-65 and again

*>i

ot an allovei

and experimentation

ol

with Abstract Expressionism.

Within the context of the

form be 69. Jasper

S4 inches)

Johns, False

Start,

1959 Oil on canvas, 170.8 x 137.2cm

a

against form, color against color, coloi against form.

consummate

transforming

(67

effe<

Ins

<>i

I

example of his supreme

Private colle< tion

hey do things

wasn't

ven

matter what

i

farther until

skill ai

i

omposing.

<

resembles othi

like the Little

I

this

>l

pi

i

<

wh) should

it

iirl

(fig

it

196

l'"').

It

to

through the >.

an early

is

work he noted:

riods ol

be?

ichtenstein pr0V( d himsi

he revamped

I

s.iw

a reference that most people will gel

was

I

perhaps unl nowini

irl

lokusai waves in the Drowning

lear in this regard it

his subject,

formal devices. Drowning

itself sometimes

Cartooning I

No

painter.

working

relationship', he established in his compositions,

ii

<

unl il

But

tirl

th< n

tin-

original

pushed

il

Little

.i

isaway of crystallizing

the style by exaggeration

woodcuts Lichtenstein enjoyed playinga cartoon image against one of the mosl famous n« ing both of the nineteenth century, Katsushika Hoknsai's The Wave, ca. 1820, and n fl

in

Drowning

Girl.

A comparison

ot the original

comic ship panel

(tig.

I

r.

07) with

lbs extraordinar) sense oi Lichtenstein's rendition clearly indicates the liberties he took,

organization, his

encompassing waves, major image

I

to use a

ability

hair,

he w.iv

m

Drowning Ctrl or one of

sweeping curve and manipulate

and even the

which

his

text balloon,

for

whom

artists

Composition

II.

Drowning

75

Chapter

3:

To emphasize

its

initial

(

it

(tigs.

subject into it

75, 76, and

77).

suggests comparisons unl. the work

lezanne,

Mondi

ian, Picasso,

a

was

de

ol

Kooning-

criterion in painting.

Girl,

different order: an ordinary school

childhood.

that

he has quoted -including

like

transformed the

composition-notebook paintings

form was the ultimate

into an allover pattern,

ichtenstein structured an image, whether

I

1964-65, was so thorough and unyielding

many of the

it

nature

is

an allover painting, but

its

sub,-

t is

notebook din anyone would recognize as

of an lion.

an object. L.chtcnsUm painted the front

Comic Strips and Advertising Images

entirely

SUrl

I


70.

Roy

Lichtcnstein,

In,

1962

(

)il

on canvas, 132.1 x 172.7

Solomon R Guggenheim Museum Nevi York

Partial

cm

(52 \ 68 Inches)

and promised

gift

of th(

artisi


(

Composition

with varnish but kept the

II

replicate an actual

notebook binding

Lichtenstein felt tree to press the issue

concessions to

dimension

its

reminiscent of Pollock (see the painting:

None

of

this data

extent that the rendering

segments of the

composition

Drowning Girl howev<

r,

is

girl's

hand

very expli<

is

as

through the

cea< hes

it

is

wooden support

1

any sense of "reality" that

-curtail

tew paintings like Composition

a

change

on a

a series of

that you'd see

(see fig. 79). Composition

m

another principally in the style

of the

Pasted pape.

gouache

ind charcoal, 65.4

Universitj Gallery of Art. St

x 50.1

cm

ifter

(25

Novembw

Xx

Louis. University Purchase,

1

18,

1912

hes)

isolated

suggested

win.

in

I.

obj<

thi

othei versions of the

as th<

II.

and

include,

and the other

ichtenstein mad.

1

i

Portrait oj

11

othi

a

variations

i

61), both

(fig

identical portraits

rwo

.Is

exa.

-

the second version

...

example, Sponge and Sponge

a subje<

from the

it

omposition III differ from

l

addition of "59*"

foi

sav,

Ulan Kaprow, wer.

in

attempt to paint

Rauschenberg had painted Factum subtle changes in his two versions md Factum II in 1957. But whereas Rauschenberg made tun identical paintings. In addition th. image of the same subject, Lichtenstein produ< ed le intend, d to do a no resemblance to either Karp or Kaprow in the paintings bears ripleting -In- tv weaned ol the idea tfte group of twelve identical portraits, but and certain parallels to Johns's target As a subject, the composition notebook offered

two Bottle of Suzc. Paris,

Composition

<

II

.s

you turned the painting around and

only once has he duplicated

entitled Portrait oil,:,, Karp

Pablo Picasso, Glass and

The

paintings featuring the image o[a stretchei fram.

lettering in the third version.

subject—early ones

single

1962—but

71.

I.

il

such

details

the water.

oi

by the light blue

hoed

1

two completely coincided with the rectangle, including the composition notebook and

i

because the figure has been stylized to such an

it

along with her blue hair— which

figure,

surfa<

only an approximation of an actual form.

Lichtenstein produced only

back

informed by the

htenstein used the

78) and overlapping forms that direct one's attention into

Benday-dot pattern of the waves

the

u

I

is

her face, the top oi her shoulder juxtaposed against her

thumb touching

the tip of her hair. etc.

fig.

wave framing the

a

In

to

without making any

status as object

lere, the allover

1

— which was meant

inherently two-dimensional,

is

it

of conveying a sense of spatial depth with a series of arabesques

method

traditional

of its

in actuality

Youngerman.

paintings of Still and

edge of the canvas

left

matte. Because

Washington

identical versions of the

same

subject,

much

I

as

I

Kende Sale Fund 1946

flags

seen

Nether as

an object,

common the

artist

m.nd

was interested

as a real

thing

in the subje<

in itself.

I

Johns chose the

visual cliches, or. objects because they were

as

he

hara,

.

-

et<

,

^

on

^

' ,

to the

1

ren,

I,

mneteenth-centurv

realist

subject, for

media

77

Chapter

ti most part,

culture. covets products, and views

3:

th.

1

,

class

, Kture

Lichtensteins

P^^J~J

"

,

''

Uo. and

I. ,

real

ts

,,

and what

,,

whos 'r; ourb :ise

painter Gustave

hXof subject, the rural bourgeoisie, was considered was the American middle

,

seen and

-,. ol pami

el

mages created a.

a

things

m,

uaUy

work

viewers' notions ofwhat but both approaches helped to blur

compare him

u

th<

perception of reality philosophical issues concerning our

deadpan mechanical presentation off "

rized

t<

were so familiar that they wer. already knows," images that

to

effect,

the target, and Othei

flag,

to give him "room not looked at" and thus neutral enough (i.e., the surface concentrate on the quality ofhis painting

color,

having the painting

per se but rather in

«

.

***££"*

^**^£^

rniddle-class ., ambition was to depict

Images Comic Strips and Advertising


s

,

HAVE SOMETHING FOR VOU TO EAT IN THE KITCHEN, PEAR I'M NOT HUNGRY MOTHER/ PLEASE, I JUST WANT TO CO TO MY ROOM/^g^"

TRIEP TO

I

REASON OUT/

I

I

.

IT

TRIEP

TO SEE THINGS FROM MOM ANP PAP'S

VI

EW-

POI NT/

I

TRIED NOT TO THINK OF EPPIE, SO

MY MINP WOULD BE CLEAR ANP

COMMON SENSE COULP TAKE OVER / BUT EPPIE

KEPT C0MIN6 BACK

. ,

72.

Roy

Lichtcnstein, Eddie Diptych, 1962

*0.6cm(44x 52

16 inches); right

in, lici overall

111.8x91

Sonnabend

(

I

(

>U

cm

"II" tion

on

(44

.

anvas,

two

panels;

lefi

111.8 x

LH.8* 132.1cm

.


and

its

culture through

Courbet, carries

a

of which he

he was

a part,

is

panning. Furthermore,

his

images are not related to

Courbet's monumental depictions up. hut remain

oi

to be

a certain

>>i

on

intent

look of "insincerity"

a

specific events or occurrences,

family burial

a

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; and continues

distance from his subject matter mu\ capturing

where he grew

point of view that, unlike

a

deep streak of irony. Although Lichtenstein undoubtedly has

a

affection for the society

maintaining

modes of mechanized reproduction,

its

in his

were

.is

laborers from the countryside

much more detached and

m\ of the sentiment

lack

expressed b\ Courbet. Several paintings from 1963,

among them

Ball

Twim and Large Spool

oj

62) reflect

(fig.

u htenstem's continuing interest in depicting the single object. In Large Spool win.

1

features a

cone-shaped object containing

of black

absolute flatness of the form. In Hill

Benday-screen background

as a

of

grouped into

lines

employed the same figure/ground arrangement

pattern, he

1

series

a

as in

Golf Bali

lie

used

From 1964 offered

a

neutral

ground

made

on, Lichtenstein

him

way

a

ol

his field

the single-object paintings of 1961

dots

the use ol Benday

working every

ol

main

for

63.

regular feature of his work.

a

part of the canvas, his

a

however.

this time,

lchtenstem had not yet decided to use the Hendav screen exclusively to unify

and often chose

Ii

herringbone

to maintain the

Twine, though, as in Black Flowers,

counterpoint to the central form. At

a

own

personal equivalent to

It

tin-

Abstract Expressionists' use of the allowi image, Lichtenstein occasionally used

reference

is

donor

portraits that

industrial era. Lichtenstein

narratives but

on-Can

first

with Leg

of images.

In

began to use 73), 1961,

(fig.

it

found

m

this

format ideally suited to

Eddie Diptych

its

(fig.

counterpart 72), 1962,

New

74). 1962, feature a before-and-after set

(fig.

mended.

le

I

mu\ We Rose

New, the

Like

in

p Slowly

I

what the young blond woman

us

thinking; but as

we

(fig.

at

the right.

The

of the period, unfulfilled

narrative smacks as the

longmg

"Sincerely Yours" Liechtenstein's

unnamed heroine

to

m

ol tin

be with "Eddie" IXC. Comics'

two panels operate

curves that

first

appeared

in

Girl.

balance of forms indicate the extent of Diptych, both

79

Chapter

3:

image and dialogue

are

is

his

is

in

108), 1964, using one panel of t<

I

pam

I

at

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the daughter

Is

caught b\ the dialogue between

ti

i

and dialogue,

a pastil h<

-l

oncerned mother and the unhapp)

I

/>

way, with

Romance comit books, and movies

Slowly, based

thi

panel nukes

from the kind

Drowning

pictured in one image

on

panel from

a

Romances, no. SI (January 1962)

in a similar

itself benefits

I

In lie Rose

seduction. Here, the narrowness of the text

image, and the image

k from the

aloud about her parents' wishes and her

frets

Girls'

ii

ight-hand panel

soaps. True

of daytime

ibl

In Eddie Diptych, the

I

mclodrain.itw

girlhood trauma, are echoed by the images

The

in tin

read her thoughts, our attention

mother and daughter

I

slight

explored other aspects of the diptych

each diptych just for text and the other for the image. left tells

of the

paintings based on newspaper and magazine ads. Step-

and Like

is

the

as

comic-Strip

his

Step-on-Can with Leg, Lichtenstein modifies the image only

damaged while

daughter.

most obvious

Its

were made obsolete by the secular concerns

left-hand panel to the right-hand one: and

the

1961.

in

to the iconography of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, such

crucifixions or the

modern

diptych format beginning

a

I

ol

..

te

I

(fig.

enham mg

mo.,

i

ffi

i

tiv

i

ontrast to the

expansive imagers .uk\ languorous

superb he organization ol the painting and the

development between 1962 and

compressed into

Comic Strips and Advertising Images

109),

the image ol

a relative!)

tight

l<K,4. In

ipa< e, a

visual

Eddie


.

^

.

'•"..•,:.,".*.".*.•.•.•.•. \\*.". •

.'.*

-••.•.•.•.•.•..

~^m

^H

'."-

"."..'.'.".*.".

•'.''.•'.•'.•'.'.'.'.

.

^ .'.' .'.'

*.

^^^Bv

.^^i

*

.

XvXv/!l •".*.*.*."•".

^^^^

.*.'..•.

^H

k

-'•HA* *^H >^B ^B

^k *

*^H

'...•'.•y. ''.'.•'.-'.•'.

.'.'.' '.'.'.'

.

!^^

".".'.'.."

hkll*!*i>!*

B^P

•.•..

.'".*

•:•:•:•:•:•: .'.'.'.

•'•'•B. ...*..-

'.."."•"."-. ..".".• "••»%•,

•••.••

.

-^ftv

.

^k.

^H ^H

i^k "•*•".' ."

.'."."

.".•..•. x : :

:':

tSVv

;".;.;.'

: :

.-.•.•.-..•.•.•

.*.•.

•"•*•"•*.*•*•"•".".*,*.* *.".".*.".".

.'.*."

•"•

'•*•"• *• "•*•'•

v.v.w.v.

'.

".

*.*.

bW

".

.'..'.*.*.".*^H .••.•.-.

%%»«««».

«.

~^^H ^^

,*^

'"" , •.

.

.*•*."

.

.•.*.*

.

•"

.

"'-*.'.'.. •

•*

' •.'•*•'.

*••' •••

•*

"

t*

..".

.

"

-'

71.

Roy Uehumfln, Sttp-on-Can

with

Ug,

1961

.•.".*." "

.

.'.

''.'.'

.*.•.*. •..*.•."

*

^^^^B

.".'

.' -

ipaneli si K

o,l

66cm

•:•'.•.'•*.•:•;•:•:

*.*..*.

..".'.".

each

""

B1

'"" '

.•.•.• ,i

Kai$ei

Wilhelm

M

I

U


:•:•:•:::•::*

m-:-:'': :

,,„

U^ UchtoMfin,UkeNw,

71

M

H.4> l42

>ch;91

en

rail

I

"

ll

""

*

I

'"'""

""'

;

!

blum N< w

,,,..,

1962 Oilon

u

i

Ro) Uchtensttln

7S

I

potllhnh 1964

Oil ind

Magna fiirMod I

i.

it,

FormcrKarl!

'

hcrCoUcc.

)arm$tadi

Roj

76.

,ndMa Sonnabi nd

(

i

"

'

'"'

'"""

"

''"''

"''


J


drama of the

strategy that heightens the

narrative

embracing couple another diagonal

positioned on

is

painting, the areas

up

set

is

We

formalized than in

much more

is

in

.1

text

its

some-

original

made

Lichtenstein

strip.

.1

r Slowly

I

first

(lii5 v

207 inches)

I

Autumn Rhythm. 1950

he Metropolitan

Museum

Oil

on

ol Art

canvas, 266.7

New

525.8

«

York, George

cm

not in the

naturalistic, at least

A

work ofCourbet,

agri, ultural society.

Hearn Fund, 1957

htor.il

images

reality

Surrealism, and

encompassed

perception, but each defines

colleagues featured

mam

different

art

...

reality

thi

the othei frames ol

a

innoi be thought ol as

j

dial originated

Age

in the

nineteenth century,

es ol the world,

experiem

the

.1

was

ury, the

ubism

<

as

with an

redefined. In the twentieth

us

own

light. In the

society in their

era, Abstrai

postwar

further redefined OU1 pen eption

new urban

a

in eai h

>ada,

1

nature ol abstraction arc the result of significant changes in the

modern

Expressionism and Pop

But

time and elevated them to the status

in

view of the world

would be

inevitable that the concept ol reality

notion of

p Slowly, th<

I

coloi to the overall work.

&om

single firame

the onset of the Industrial

With

Ro

sense of the term. Naturalism in painting, such

parallels a

example,

for

W

In

to stabilize the images.

images, of signs, Although he worked with representational 78. Jackson Pollock,

of mother and

both strangely complete and considerably different from

it

his alteration sealed the

I

Rose

vertit al text

vertical figures

add another texture and

In his comic-strip paintings, by isolating

comic

rangement of the

diagonal axis directed away from the text panel, while

opposition to the

occupied by

ai

and the

panel, counterbalanced by the hoi tzontal balloons

daughter,

he

I

ol reality

viewing people

art,

1

and

ht. nst. in

ii

I

ms

in tei

Ins

ol their

indirecdy In way ol m< hani al often approa. hing the material world mollis was derived from ,< hleiisienfs stvl./alion ol 1

artifacts,

The conscious

reproduction

perhaps

comic

strip

reality

Comic

at least in

strips

of testing

possibility

tin

I

saw

part because he

,.

,-'

an effective way

as

and consumer-product advertising images offered us, on, b; most of his major assumptions not,

I

Dting

ichtenstein the bul nearly

all at

th tl to question the role ol art in the late thev provided him with the means imps away we ome to understand it? II centurv What is an art object and how do how does one de, tde wlia, will art as ., precious object, most Of the assumptions al do we "legitimate" as art. .,,,,1 how legitimate work of art? What is replace it as

OIKtf

.

.

I

..

avewealread, accepte,

irally assign its value? Can we accept What mything an "artist" declares to be art art?

Lichtenstein

is

;„„,,, to incorporate

all

of these queues into

,„

with the defini oevtvre that remains aligned

an

artist

concerned with the most

traditional artist.

w

.

ls

,

Every theme

way rf testing

all

inets

that

bai

he chose

Within

this

1

"high

of painting,

such early pioneers incorporate no. only the ideas of Ge but movements such as Futurism.

'

l.u

77.

Roy

Licht.nstcin. CtmfosiHtm /«. 1965

142.2 x 121.9

cm (56

x 48 inches)

(

ollection

;onc

OilandMagna

IrvingBlum,

Ne»

87

,

from

Chapter

artist

,

3:

this

art,

as

of pi

all

of the

<

*

tap.

art ,0 lollou

Images Comic Str.ps and Advertising

*

-* *

as

— ,£*

-stnr

throughout

tins

asbeenabfe casso .an, and M d «-. -' * - hs I,

I,*r*1

bh.»

and the

period defines

the ass

y,

ndereda

«

Ire,

L*-

Hlv stylistically to further h

;L approach!

h,s art

S

Ot an

however, that fKhtcnste,

hts sens,

akingtheco

mMSWork '

creating

It

k. Lichtens

gfi,

all-encomp:

do

the ,

a,

art."

been,

1

to

that he

to treat:

of these assumptions-uucstio

ixample, or abstraction, issues that century.

work, while

his

;e

,

that

^

,

'

"*"

"who "

'

,

htsconceptsv

I.

thait


79.

Roy

Lichtcnstcin, Stretcher Frame with Cross Bars

canvas, 121 9

k

1

42 2

cm

I

18

k

56 inches]

Prh

in

III,

collection

1968

(

>il

and Magna on


Comic

1

paintings

strip panels

wen

included

Cultun (Octobei

Magna, an

2

and sold

Hoc our

at h.s store.

M irk

and

artists.

quoted

was reprinted

in John

<

on p

(February

5.

1966),

7.ThomasB

Roy

9

i

as far as

font canva I

surmounted by lour

* 66

cm

inches); overall (with

The Museum

(26

x 26

tinted plaster faces in

inches):

box

wood box

in

riches)

(33

ofModem Art. New York GiftofMi andMn

Robert

(

"Roy

irtforum 4, no.

t

he could with the idea

quoted

reate of

"< >ld< in Glaser,

(

loplans,

Lichtenstein

\n

\rtfomm

3:

Nev, York's informal

ol

Kenneth Noland

Interview," in

Roy

I

kson

u

Lichtenstein,

no 9 (May 1967), where

i

ichtenstein Warhol:

I

exhib

cai

this essay p. 12; th(

quoted

A

Discussion,"

\rtfomm

4,

no 6

nburg

I

Ne* YbrkSd

i

QUc* York Harry

<

isolat.

u

ht,

lift

tbandoned

ailed Flat, but

d words

on

a

nstein Warhol,"

nstein

An

N

I

Found

Abrams, 1972). p

Museum of Modern

(Nev, Vbrk

cat

painting

'Roy

Lichtenstein

painting

,

of the

Artists

Fr,

1

hen

(Septembei 1965), p 31.

I

<.>«»>*» (New York

ScuU

Chapter

one

il

Art, 1968), p

sin. e

I-

fi

H thai

sing Images Comic Strips and Advert,

!8

SO

he had

invas

i

|

Interview." p

16,

and

in "

Roy

talking

39.

H.johns. quoted in Richard

89

ouis,

paintings.

"Oldenburg

Hess. Willem de Kooning, exhib

p.

I

Street,

some of their

Diane Waldman, Roy

Lichtenstein, quoted in

Lichtenstein,"

<26*

(closed

box open) 85.3 x 66 x 7.6 cm

„,

with hinged

ond

se<

iround 1941

ui

22

quoted

ichtenstein,

\damGopnik

1

on 1955 Assemblage encaustic and collage 80. jasper Johns, Target with Four Faces, canvas with objects,

in

Lichtenstein" in

Lichtenstein had also intended to

gone

ind

and Populat

\><

Art Center, Minneapolis, L967), in collaboration with the Walker

Audience—Themselves,"

Lichtenstein,

8.

ifty

l

Hov, the Rosenberg, quoted in Irving Sandler. "The Club

First

6

p.

ss: Wesl

...

Magna

Lichtenstein, quoted in Bruce Glaser,

4.

Modem

low

and turpentine, was developed by Leonard B

1950s, such artists as Morris

oplans

ichtenstein assources tor his

I

1991), organized by KirkVarnedoi

15,

oil

publications used In

Art's exhibition High ,mJ

of Modern

lolors

(

used

ilso

"Talking with

as

passage appears

Artists

During the

Rothko

Museum,

Pasadena Art

Museum

mixable with

acrylic resin

Lichtenstein,

3

the

in

Comics

several ol these D.<

1990 through January

.

gathering places tor iv.lkn k,

&om

Abbeville Press. 1984). pp

20

U


\yr\r\

1 i,

HOT- SHOT,

OKAY! I'M P0URIN6


81.

Roy

Lichtcnstein, Blam, 1962 Oil on canvas,

BOinches) Yale Univerait) \rtGaller)

H A 1935

l

7

2"

x

New Haven.Lentty

203

2

cm

(68

k

Richard Brown Baker,


most potent twentieth-century evocation of wai

In painting, the

to the Spanish Republic,

town by

the destruction ofa Basque

of myth. Joan Mir6's

to the level .i

the

ascists,

I

Ufe with

Still

A

response to Picasso's allegorical masterpiece. b\

objects—an old shoe, an apple pierced ofa loaf of bread— it

is

and the comic

w .in

it

engendered.

contribution to one of

own

bis

momentous

monumental painting In 1962,

was

him

to

the language ol advertising

Using

war Wbat

strip

a ploy, a

is

when Liehtenstem

better

w.,r.

way

still

ith

to

ntury

1 1

be

ating the mod.

and

art

,

twe

was just beginning

u

of presenting a serious subject in

remarkable series

initiated Ins

w

has so often glorified

which

strip,

in a style suitable to late-

of Vietnam, and was

conflict

ichtenstein's use ol narrative enabled

I

while reintroducing narrative

midst of the cold

in the

and part

in paper,

subject ol war and the tradition ol epic narrative painting

choice of the comic

an inflammatory manner, ol

onsidered

t

four symbolit

ol

bonk- wrapped

great themes.

art's

than by using the formula of the comic [.ichtenstein's

a

he updated Western civilization's obsession with

strip,

to ta< kle the

composed

painting

fork, a gin

a

from

it

an impassioned protest against the horrors of the Spanish Civil War

and the povertv and suffering

make

transforming

devastating event

>M Shoe, 1937, has long been

<

of

tragic subject

through which he elevated the

•uemiea, 1937,

(

great lament

Pii asso's

is

art.

ol

wai p innings, the

te

mired

recycling images ol World Wat

S

the escalating

in

heroism

II

U

mam

in

areas

the snips [is wai paintings esagg rati of our culture, especially movies and comic ol camaraderii the fighting spirit and of war's -uand subjects heroism and sacrifice,

hi

lit

i

I

soldiers.", id the belief that

considered

is,

issue I

"just"

a

war

is

hell

but

full

to tear the nation apart. In tin

men

leading ichtenstein took his subjects, the

War

heroes By overstating then

II

wartime hero

image

[f the

and '50s seemed reprehensible to than war was one of the burning

mvth of the warrior be of any

Bv presenting such doubt on then

coherence

king

validity

m ,

made

projected in

I

his

men

now

was. and

onfli,

,

the

I

win, h

authenn, World

as

mm

theii ,,

ho pos ol

L<

11

19 10s

lollywood film

generation raised on the Beatles, and

the

,1

nth.

pea<

I

,

of wai and th issues of the 1960s, could the concept

value to

1

ichtenstein o, an,

oth

i

post* a

A

u

u

I

I

ol civilization s

most

in art.

that separates

as a series pet

them from

celebrated Bop

1961, Ins ambition was to

no one would hang themes

be sec,

one while continuing the tradition of

not intended

,n h,s

to

mi stereotypes in an ironic and questioning

fundamental themes

Though

a

ichtenstein

I

Wayne

that Job,.

meant

&Om

however, and exaggerating

roles,

and powerful weapons.

fearless attitude,

are

Strips

nil

II

Vietnam

ol the

war b> most Americans, but by the time

of war threatened

War

of glory nonetheless. World

i,"< In

Ins

te,

war paintings

Lit h.eiistein's

other genre sub, , ith

i,

make

Uok

is

Mickey

I,

of th, pe (fig.

19)

,v,

I

I

began « hen he ar

and othe,

"a painting that was des,

mal

fo,

,

gh

bl

m

a «q V painting he the year or so that followed, inter, domestic products, e, -strip images, con

at ol

bating among comic

relating to th. work canvas, as well as pamtmgs George Washington, and words on heir Most of these images gamed Cezanne Mondrian, and Picasso. «ous lalong in fact, many of the subjects j p™ble'' subjects, but „l days O, -

,

93

3

Chapter

Had rher.

4:

ecu Haunted

The

in the face

of the public

gmar accomplishment,

War Comics. 1962-64

si

w,

4

,

images gs of updated genre


THE EXHAUSTED SOLDIERS, SLEEPLESS FOP FIVE AND SIX DAYS AT A TIME, ALWAYS HUNGPY FOP DECENT CHOW, SUFFERING FROM THE TPOPICAL FUNGUS INFECTIONS, KEPT FIGHTING/

82.

Roy

Lichtenstein, Takka Takka, 1962 Oil and in.

hcs

Musi

am

I

udw

ig,

<

ologne

Magna on

<

invas

143* 173 cm


^

might have been

THB EXHAU ? T ! D "Si GUADALCANAL and six tSbI. sleepless for fis/e HUNGRN FOR TIME, AL^NS JijBS AT A THE FROM SUFFERING CHW StrlwT iFECTIONS, KEPT ON tIoP CAt FUNGUS »

accompanied Initially,

controversial had

less

then,,

it

Ken

not

the comic-strip paintings thai

foi

so offensive that the)

which were

.

arried

tin-

others

was limited

strip narrative

Lichtenstein's entry into the area ol corn*

wake

in their

tew

to a

n. harai ters in Mi Bellamy Ju.se military dramatic themes, lor Ins subjects, he domestii dramas in The Engagement Rmg Emeralds (fig. 50), both 1961, 01

.

<

I

1

(fig

and

4'))

and in Masterpiece g si) also 1961, 1962 ft comparison of TTie

(

53) and Forget

(fig.

Me!

Forget

It!

(fig.

both

54),

fi

B««m«i

Branner's strip

"Winnie Winkle"

(fig.

depicting the most highly charged strip's narrative,

characters

Ki»j with us source,

52), reveals that

moment

imparted the scene with

a

1

panel iron, Martin

htenstein

i<

and, isolating

,™

..

hose the panel

1

from the cont, *

it

the

ol

comic

dynami, between the male and female evolves

the see,,,, In each of these paintings

1

parti, ulai in, ident; ,„

1

Bellamy the leading men pla, contained. In both Emeralds and Mr. llingove. lus he tl to report to his superior and passive roles, with one waiting ing « ith Blam up in the war paintings beg olursc of action things star, to heat Idle of the conflid the viewe, righi in 1962, which seems to thrust (fie 81) * ol plan, the impac, ol the resonates with the sound of gunfire,

each the icdon

is

.

1

Jm

I

breaking up.

si .Source for

Roy

Lichtenstrin,

lilrk,

Mm,

doesn't

I.

has the

need one; the

sound and narrative

1962

the exclamation "B, AM."

is

fin, ol

and which explodes behind the plane

anticipates conflict taking place. B/am

such paintings> culminatingin

monumental

lest

point of the action

fo< j

is

the

canvases as

I

ierv,

Whaam!

th,

1

,

(fig.

10).

«»«<»

63, and

1

... which

J 96

^^T^^ 1;

82),

has the epic qua!

e.

i

it

in the painttng

^^^M^Zs!

the«

Opened Fire (fig. 91), 1964. 'Anotherearlywarpaintingofgreatsig while relatively

*

Th,

the act

imp

narrative, bu.

Blam eschews

teal e

a

1

machine gun, whose

repetitive

ns look ,

,l,

^^^z^~£: -Z^^^^^SS^ ttZZE^*^* ^^^S ^ en,

.

?

"oXsep

the g the text fiom

wrd the canvas ten percent surroundi ng frame, making b. the bottom; and added the overaU image at

He

also

that

added a few forms th atesthe

do

Idle tier

Lichtenstein based the

95

CHAPTE.

*,

";;;''„,

,

-

""'"T ^mthep

n of the composmon As

,,,

«"

^

whichitisbased.isasuteme

strip

^

'

S^rsiT-^^ fiom the comic

»*

„-

f,

!

.*.

^ ^^-SW

princtpal^O^H,

"Haunted fank

WAR COMICS. 1962-64

vs.

Kite

ran*

>

(fig.

95), 1963.

on

a panel

h


84.

Roy

Lichtcnstein. Tbrpedo

Losl, 1963

Private colle< lion

Oil and

Magna on

canvas

172.7 *


>£P?HAPS IT

WITH THE

l€>

ANOTHER SHIP, HERR KAPfTAN WITH THS SAA\e

NUM&eR *

HOLS

I

I.,

SAME TORPEDO

IH IT£»

HULL, FOOL. *

NO— IT /* THE S03 f A SALVA&BP JUNK HEAP

Comics* G./. Combat, no 94 Qune

.

made

right-hand portion of the panel but

warplane and

'

rr once- r W/LL CO IT AGAIN #e>4£>Y All FORYVAG& V^Hfe'CO

i OEsrp^yec?

and

figure

f

dialogue balloon.

balloon, replacing ,

pancK

&om

Men

oj

I

It

is

helmet for

programs were under wa, is

way they were

pilot appears to

in the space that, in the comi(

effectively 85

|..,„j,„„„

M

Oetobe.

that

...

.ere

earlier paintings.

drastically

laid

out

zoom strip,

He

copped and

II

19,

;

(

that they

omics

were an

in the panel foi "1

and the

USSR,

internal

lar

to the

in earlier

was occupied oi

lose

1

much of the

as in

enlarged,

the

..1

at a

Although

Kill

fairh.

1

that

the original a

u

1

...

hcen

his

war comics paintmgs he

aus.

trips, b.

c

d so

us. 1

fell

,

shallow two plan,

n lationship,

the absolute ;

h

ome

hadb,

,

*•

uchasthesill

eco

....

,-

Haunted Tank

>

front ol the plane

dramati. impa,

Here, the large figure of the

fig

texcUma

1

d» pan.

...

b, dispensing

I

«

fiom

with

*the

pilotd

plane.areso te supporting images, such a overaU image; but the smaller tscale.se that the abrupt si integrated with the pilot's head id and backgmund in breg be, 1 that abrupt shift effective. Lichtenstein f< awkwardness o, their lorsan, appealing as the garish proce

^ughly omic

strips as

i„ g

.

,„i.

.

He exploited these in his /the melodramatic

Sglgthecoiioc

3

Jfig.

84), 1963,

s

where the

^tothri-conticsp 1

-r-;

97

Chapter

4:

his

,

shapes and marks paintings, he used certain distinctive

ichtenstein heightened

original narr,

I.

h.

ibatpiloi

b} the oth

up imagery

fthepil "voomp!," the Unes in the craggy f denoting volume on the Killer Tank." and the marks

I

«

taunted rank

frequently employed images

way they appear

'^Jokal'Hot-Shot!,

J

whips

reli

>.<

I

plane and explosion out of the painting while the

establishing effective formal device. B>

he had

97), in

(fig

space while a. the same dme maint he could ereate the illusion of plane, in relation to the pi Harness and frontal.tv of the image

haUmark. As

dialogue

pilot's

ild

fighter pilot's helmet

in the U.S.

.

pi

es

of the painting, he kept the

kind Okay, Hoi Shot! emphasizes the

fi

World War

when

ire

0«r FfeM*

a

time

,„k" so that the

W

headgear interesting to note that he updated the

astronaut's

space-flight

&om

panel

by substituting an

consistent with the

in

.1

V

a

the second

foi

98, 99 and 100), pubUshed in the same issue,

figs.

he dtered the external propor

Battle ofthc Ghost Ships!

in

pilot

I

"voomp!"

htenstein also changed the remaining

u

substituting

test,

iron, seve, War, no 89 (January-February 1962); and,

"Star [ockey" (see

of the warplanes,

the images

considerable changes to the

with one that he found

it

Imerican

lomics' All

kept the larger figure in the

burst of gunfire containing the exclamation

..

his

He

1962)

[uh.

f

,

paintings as a action.

I

i

ichtenstein often plays up

....

commander

,.,„,

"

'

,';';',;;, daylights

torpedo harks out the order to

th,

;-;----;:;;:;';:;:;:;:

rzzzxzzzs*^

War Comics. 1962-64

£aden

ementtoh

i

th«

:

-


RIGHT NOW--

If

THEY

PEL

WATCHIN'ME--THEVVE0OT TO MAKE UP THEIR MINDS 'WHETHER I PONTJNOW

THEY'RE HERE-- AND WILL PASS BY-LETTIN' THE OUT;

™%%

SUCKED

INTO A TRARJ

*-AND AM ABOUT TO FIRE AT THEM BUT WHERE DID THEY COME FROM ? NOT THE

KNOW

OR WHETHER THEY'RE HERE I

--

SEA- -WE'VE HAD OUR EYES OLUED TO \V AND WE KNOW THERE AIN'T AN AIR FIELD ON THIS ISLAND' WHERE D THEY COME FROM? #

WHEREV COME FROM /

l,ii

to right

86.

two

Roy

panels

left:

16 in. In-.i

<

Ammo

Lichtcnstein, Live

I

cl

172

]2 1

k

1 -

1

1

6

m

12 2

i

in (68

(Tike Cover), 1962

<

md Magna on

>il

invas

(6$

k

92

ini

hes) ovi

Morton

rail

I

Neumann

i

I

amily

ollection

87.

Roy Lichtenstcm,

203.2 88.

(68

x 80

inches)

Roy Lichtemtcin,

142.2 89.

cm

Ammo

["he

live

Ammo

Museum

of Ari

(Tzingl), 1962

and Magna on

>il

*

(

in

I

ind

>il

M igna

on

in\ u

Galleries

cm

Walter

(Blangl), 1962

Seibu

ci

Roy

172.7

live

I'

Lichtenstein, live (68 x 68 inches) (

hryslei

|i

Ammo

(Halhalhal), 1962

(

>il

on

i

anvas,

i

rhe Chrysler Museum Norfolk, Virginia Giftol

THEY


Roy

90.

Lichtcnstcin, Whaaml, 1963 Oil ind

172.7 x 210.8

cm

rate

ondon Pun

<

rallery,

I

(68 x 83 inches) each; 172 hasi

1966

"

t

M 121.6

invas

cm

two

68 x 166

i

panels,


91.

Roy

panels ovi

r

ji

Lichtenstein, As

172.7 x 142.2

Stedehjk

cm

Mum

I

Opened

Fire, 1964

(68 x 56 inches) each;

urn,

Amsterdam

(

1

*il

'

ind

M Igna

on

am ic

is

threi

168 inches)


W

••poorly"

J

town, and

the composition

is

squeezed into us frame

as

it

was

m me ongmal

senocormc drama of model, Lichtenstein converted the terfuUv recomposing his wamor. commentary on the image of the male the original into an ironic executed dunng the monumental war paintings that Lichtenstem

I

,

,

M

,

vlmh

2

is

one of two

1963-64 He modeled Whaam! on

Deri od

„,,

-

he t00k

that Hot-Shot!), making several alterations he image of a plane for (X,,, pane. rather substantial. In the comtc-stnp

t

insigni fica„, bu, are in fact

u „

first seeffl

92)

the centra] element vel the

tory

stnp from panel Iron, "Star jockey" (the same

a

enemy

the airplane

is

aircraft.

Although

on the

it

left,

K o dominated by .

"WHAAM-ywhereas

in

.s

a tar

,

major

the huge letter, o the

shows

exclamanon

conquering plane and the explodrng bad balances the good guys agamst the

ichtenstein's version, the

The

prominence.

pl a„e are given equal

euvs and

1

at a disti

a

conveys the impact of the explos.on,

smaUer>

which has jus. scored

painting

more compelling image

as a result.

images d,d not seen, to interested in the fact that the As Lichtenstein noted, he was two separate but this idea by creating to one another. He enforced relate compositio nally are the predommant panel, the airplane and pilot contiguous panels. In the left-hand k ins.gnff.cant posttton a balloon consigned to a relatively ,-.,„„ s with the narrative-text

top:

ia

M,

Starjockcy,

IrvNovick, panel!

92.

n

Fcbruar

'62

D.<

90 (March

I//

American

Men

-

oj

<

"WingmatC of D

93.jcrrvGrandine«t,.p.n„l,.

Wmo/Wir.no

in

\prill962

I

"in

I"

'

the canvas>

^

.

thfi

iirpblu

,

s

depicted

,

, sl ,„.p

diagonal to create the .mpress.on

the exclamanon and subdivided in another way, with of depth. The right-hand panel is the flames; the exploston . with the dominant shape of the exploding Pbne competing and verucal axes of the canvas, ^Jhead-on entered, and aligned with the horizontal pa.nt.ngs. These placement of the image in the single-object rather akin to the neutral depiction of the event as two

of force serve to .enforce Lichtenstein's tins respect. and the result of that action. In , sequence: an action, parts separate P Step-on-C ofbefore-and-after situation he used m ein continue d the type hte

different lines

^

J

,

I

<v (fig

73), 1961,

and Like

New

(fig.

wth

74). 1962.

of the forms is deUberate. The Cosed form panel the arrangement of his while in the r.ght-han Ijnel shape of the narrative balloon, lane , reiterated bv the exdamation whaam. the convulsive lettering of the VIolcnt explosion is echoed by the burst of relationship of cause and effect, .s What links the two panels, other than the band that zooms across two depicted as a narrow horizontal gunfire from the airplane, that the only form in the p«*ng Lds of the lower portion of both canvases. It is a.so *ft the subjects ,„ both Step^n-Can distinctive images. Where bridge S the two otherwise

*

n

;,,, h

_

J

,

,

,,,

L

Like

New

are essentially repetitive

images with only minor changes

M haam ,

a

method and the asymmetry. Lichtenstein used tins patting composed o^ a balanced panel to subvert any suggest-on of that occurs from panel to ffl. change in focus elements wxth great e*e separate and seemingly unrelated ilKwo ls ,„. manipulating such recalls the way , two primary figures and the field The tension treated between the his around and space in the his stripes or -zips" to activate w inch Barnett Newman used dialeaic Lichtenstein was concerned w.th the

J

CQl0I field (see flg 04). Like .

berween the

Newman

Hat picture plane

created

horizontal

Newman.

field,

.,

Whereas could convey the illusion oi depth. an equally flat positioning flat vertical stnpe aga.ns,

and forms

sense of depth bv

lichtenstein did so with

reconciled with the

flat

picture plane by

that

.,

two images

that suggest

volume and

means of the Benday-dot ground

that are

against

which


,

they are presented. Despite his emphasis on the paintings were not entirely unmodulated. differentiated brushstrokes

underneath the

tape.

The

tape, created

The pronounced

stripe.

tape .1

left

off against the

one ofNewman's singular achievements.

Newman's,

ike

I

best limited, for any reference to depth

is

surface plane. So, for example, the diagonal

dm, don

it

bottom edge

parallel to the

horizontally of the composition. 94. Barncet ,.,

i

Newman,

nc hB) Hirshhorn

Washington. D.I

Gift

Com.,,,,,, 1949

OB

on

Museum and Sculpmrc

ofJoseph

H

Hirshh

canvas, 121

3x 151.4cm

Garden, Smithsonian

he narrative

I

ol ch«

1

1

:ai

1

is

thi

arion 1

tun plane thi

held

emphasize the

the

in

pii

a

"zip," to activao

anvas, to

ball

ho ostein

ii

01

tivir,

at

aligned with the

is

the

ol

the

in

ol the airplane implii

Newman's

like Lichtenstein uses the narrow band of gunfire

by keeping

the space

counteracted by the

second panel into space, while the explosion in the

md

expanse

lateral

space and conveyed the sense of the void thai was

color field created an illusion of deep

at

set

of the "zip"

them,

an otherwise regulai

in

faint but discernible irregularity

flontality

the effects he desired

-

which had bled

and the paint,

slight edge,

.1

ith subtly

areas ol a canvas with tape, painted over

more

with his stripes, he masked off one or

and removed the

produi

Ins "zips." In ordei to

and with

«

le articulated his surfat es

1

Newman's

color field of the canvas,

flat

hand panel

left

relatively

is

inspired the painting, whereas the ex, lamaoon unobtrusive, as in the comic strip that equivaleni ol a sound effeel which ichtenstein has turned into the visual

I

Institul

••whaam'"

I

penetrates the space of the painting through

I""-'

its

overlapping

and

letters

its

supei imposition

explosion are sin, ,k ftondlike flames shooting out from the and straightforward, neutral image of the pilot ornamental, in contrast to the more

The

over the image.

which ernes the burden of the

lirplane, I

i(

htenstein chose to

nuke b

format that he used so successfully

>pened Fire as

<

1

narrative.

in

Whaamlh

I

enemy

aircraft, el

He

battle.

gunfire

Lde

comic

.ke the

is

g on the excitement and

from changing the

War, .,

no 90 (March Spnl opening

pilo.

the

litde in

way

is

that

al

bod

d

of the nose of the plane, the

do

the images in the sec

c strip

>

se

A:

I

and

... lose,

,ue

***

I

is

a

still

and

o. events,

third panels are

close-up o th

he ha I,

I

and the

War Comics. 1962-64

Wl

/

As

in the

cormc

strip,

the

re,

''

ered th

that they an

^^^^7^1*

abstract than the one in

Chapter

die third

Lichtenstein has no, changed th

guns and their accomp

105

I

^hidden

syllables,

nedtheorg,

Buthehastig

p)

it tl

fig their rounds ofi

Le

the barrage ol ,

,

waV in which

an

1

those few seconds ol

s

the add in the third panel (although

.,„„„ „ g the hrst image

;,„,,. While

three panels

"dratatat! and BRATA of exclamations-"BRAT!." and adding vta! middle panel's "bratatat!" to "bp vtatai

that they cohere

pLls so

/

I

a series

by the yellow band of nam three

M

ne of the narrative text and altered

conveyed by

"B^

based on a seque

stnp, the painting describes and depicts

ibon

change,

•^arly to

three panel painting, expanding th

Imerican

&om "WingmateofDoom"(fig.93),in/lH 1962)

is

a

6

•«>


THROUGH MY WINDSHIELD,

'^TTBLB^ATB £ltiOUGH\ W£'V£ GCT 7&&eT VQPACH THAT GUM IN ) A BO&ST UP FRCM

eTOW£Z,J£&!^~^ scMemzRE !

1H

FORGET...

\

? .

'

I SAW A S&HT tf.1 NEVER m .^ rT KEEP POURINO \

i.irl.H

I

'

/./(

96.

Mow

ombat,

l

97.

War,

Rasa Heath, no

''i |

Rum Heath,

no 89

|

|anuar}

98, 99. irv

left

American

Men

War,

,•/

panel from "Haunted luK

|un«

1962), D.<

Rmkvs (

panel from "Aces Wild,' I

ebruarj

1962

Noviek,

,

panels

no B9 (January

in

Inifriran

l/l

Men

oj

omii

D.<

I

from

"Stai |ockey," in

February

1962), D.(

ion. irv Novi»-k, panel from "Stai [ockey,

below

lank,"

Killer

omics

ill

<

omia

1

no 89

|

I

iiMi.u

\

I

,

hi

ii

,m\

[96

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i

u

in

,„,,„

(

I//

Imerfani Vfew

,

?v

/r WA€> LIKE

ONE

RUNNING A GANTLET... ONLY TN/S

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I'H

203

95. 2 k

Roy 172.7

Lichtenstcin, Okny, Hot-Shot!, 196

cm

(80

k

68 inches) David G(

fli

n

I

I

*

>il

and

ollei tion

Magna

\

IS

KA/.t:

...

I READ YOU,

TEX *

Z READ YOU I &UT--HANG

ON A

LITTLE LONGER I

\


the tngled nose of the plane

panel As

brought

it

if in

acknowledgment

1.

2,

a series

was

During

a

subject with

this

fom

panel to

no happy ending, Lichtenstein

same period, while working on the war-

of of paintings based on comic-strip images

girls.

blonds have more fun, don't they:

(U,

Pari

and the action from diagonal to diagonal

that this

to a conclusion in 1964.

comics paintings, he began all,

move

I

ARTnews

I."

See

ich.enstein,

I

62,

quoted

no

7

in

G[eâ&#x20AC;&#x17E;e]

(November

tenth) GeesSeckler, "Folklore

R

Swenson, "What

1963),

p.

Is

Pop

Art?:

Answers from Eight

Painters,

25.

of the Banal," .1,, ta

50, no, 4 (winter 1962),

p.

60.

After


•I*-

:•:

•!•

»!•

•:•

•!•


Girls! girls! girls!

— or

appeared with

heroine, usually blond, poised center stage in

a

so

seemed

it

dramas. Images of women appeared Ball

was painted.

(fig. 4(>)

of roles, including in

Aloha

1962 (and

ego, the housewife, busy

<

the Dorothy

as

bye

l;ihhI

in

The Kiss

(fig.

domestic and domesticated woman, whose is

the role assigned to her by a

male-dominated

woman who, this,

from

was

.1

society.

She

given.

is

In

made

We Rose

I

'/>

threaten the image of mother.

We

recognize

ichtenstein,

1

Drowning Girl

104),

Slowly

women

and the

stage for a series of "girls"

111

and Seductive

filled

12),

(

I

ill

tirl,

I

from

I

*>64.

with fabricated emotions

is

/;/

the

Cat

around love

deputed

(fig.

whi<

.

.

.

Hut

The women

In Hopeless .ind affairs,

.

.

woman

depicted

These

<

evokes

a\

.

lie Rose

women

I

Ill),

m

protagonists

Drowning

<

to,

Just as

mood of resignation,

which he modeled them. for

I

oi

.is

in

set

the

most

ai

I'

Blonde

these dramas

exampl<

drown Hun

with sileno appan

he altered the war comics only

he was relatively

ot

Comics' "Run

are

1

nai

nth,

1

thi ii

ask foi hei

pn vailing

as

ove'-

md

in

when

the

than the most minimal changes to the

(t.g.

.s

derived from one

105), in Secret Hearts, no.

nstein did • 1

omi<

demands of form

from which he took these

Hopeless and Drowning Girl, tor example.

which

u hti

the ads or roman<

faithful to the original sources

In Hopeless,

I

I

ichtenstein

a ot th«

felt

it

book panels on panels from

DA

83 (November 1962), the

to yellow, the shape of the principal changes are in the color of the hair from blue /e/,101.Roy Iichte n ,tein,7^1O-„, 1962 o„

,

203.2 x 172.7

on

(80 *

the w., in whi, h the flgur, II dialogue balloon, the addition ofthe g.rfs hand, and Hopeless features a close-up compressed into the frame. ike many ofthe other paintings, «

113

Chapter

5:

Girls. 1963-65

a

Slowly.

'/>

women. In both unnecessary to make more images

men

with one displaying helplessness (she

not invent them; they or their counterparts can be found

required him

dramas.

Good Morning

foi

)irl

are not heroines but supplicants to the male ego,

books of the time.

the

li

nt seductress,

(fig.

tl

out the window. In contrast to these paintings, bourgeois eroin

stares stonily

m

a

WOmi

oi

<»ni

been

has

These paintings

miserable.

1

from

from 1963, and

all

103),

affair, in

as

woman

in a series ol fantasy

collapsing in tears) and the other defiance (she would rather

lovers help). In th the

and

loo

heroines appear as victims ofunhapp) love

shown

engaged

are

and

ot sex

this

representations

*s

next door" or the innoi

ove You,

iu

husband. In

various states ol apparent anxiety, nervousness,

Ohjej)

Darling,

I

106),

are usually

are portrayed as "the girl

Waiting

scenes

(fig.

wall,

further from the

knowledge of her

and the media

women

108), 1964, revolve

(fig.

(fig.

SOCiet)

alter

household

safe lor her

would not

clearly in control

of whom

home

the

embodiment

(fig.

and her a

cultural stereotype ind a

a

the

OUr consciousness by

larole

(

home and who

homemaker. she could not be

into

alike

the ideal 1950s figure, the

as

other paintings by

Hopeless

is

Nothing could be both

individual and collective experiences but also because our

drummed

variety

.1

smiling figure and appears to be content with

as a

psychological point ot view,

her destined role

therefore she

portrayed

this portrayal

a

in

amoui look

I

101), 1962

revolves around the

life

questions her existence. She

of course, but

Girl with

example). In these and other related paintings,

(see fig. 58, for

the female figure appears either isolated or fragmented. She

truth,

when

L961,

.is

of comely females

leaning the refrigerator or sponging or spraying

bathroom surface

kitchen, or

— such

anothei

aftei

succession of soap- opera

as earl}

h\ a succession

woman

a

smaller version painted that same year) and the

in a

war hero

kissing her

work

ichtenstein's

1

of the glamorous

that

102),

(fig.

Lombard type

in

was followed

hat

I

mid-1960s when one painting

the

in


„ kfi

102.

Roy ...

i:

Lichtcnstein, Aloha, [962

Helman

<

ollection,

New

OU on Vork

-

canvas,

l

1 - " *

'"-

,03.R<yUch..

***& S«tu.hN

;.U«

Modern Ar,.B


1


view ofa female face that one might sec

YJ THAT'S THE H 0BGUN.' BUT

Whereas

IT'S

HOPELESS.'

Hopeless has

dialogue balloon to

a

meaning

tides to give

in

to the expression

an advertisemeni

make

right to exist

One

is

drama

challenged b\ the notion that she

of the few career

women

one of the myths

is

do

either lived like this or aspired to

so.

in

still

it

The male

which

a

(see

Nurse

Bui

in control.

notion

woman

..I

were portrayed

as'

ways

in

objects,

that it

were acceptable

was not

difficult for

worn, n

all

"object"

is

singled out im

man.

ike the appliances

I

equipment or food products, these young women

clothing, the sports

that

all

them

ol

women much

ichtenstein to use theii images in

I

way he had depicted consumer products.

the same

a

was the e..K

the tune. Since these voting

at

lively,

1964), and

10],

1

this

as le

in

behavm-

[fig.

does today) was

I

acting or

theit

....

...1

woman's happiness and

the period. reinforced in Lichtenstein's choice of stereotypes from ... waiting for the home, performing domestic chores

of women

di p.

and collo

face. Individually

muse

.1

and elearb nol

that existed then (as

magazine or on TV.

vulnerable.

is

to appear here

she. too, appears frightened, submissive,

1960s, and

.1

.1

point, othei paintings

its

on the woman's

the scenes presented in these paintings enact

01

and w.

irti.

..

les

of than

m....

....

height oi mater,..!

that represented the one group among many of the cultural stereotypes aspired. Lichtenstein has singled them oui ichievement to which American society complement to the ma< ho wai dominant female stereotypes of the postwar era. the iz and Marilyn we to Lichtenstein what he portrayed ,11 h.s p.untmgs. They are

the

as I

I

h, j though without any true identity ol then own objects before human puts celluloid glamour and consumer I

Warhol, our society's

cliches,

products ofa culture that

achievement, dignity and individual or collective "in the comic 105.

Tony Abruzzo,

panel from

"Run

Foi Love!"

...

Sam

II,,,:

,„ 8

I

mike

strip,

olor are used

and graphic elements such as Benda> dots, line,

relatively the figures and actions appear

more

naturalistic

...

hen

and give depi

representations

nbei 1962), D.C.

Comic

al e his language of the surroundings. Lichtenstein recasts the ... empties the cartoon ol an) semblanc, of the female figure more artificial. He her, his one line abuts emphasizing the manner in whi. h

I

verisimilitude bv

fla

ihasu his use of the Benda, dots juxtaposition of primary colors, and ma « htenstem further figure from her ongmal context, ln isolatin8 the female onl, male gaze women as ornaments, positioned for the society's codification of those of 1963 -65 ,s ol 1961 62 and The difference between Lichtenstein's girls >67 He ( loplans in this in an interview with John

pi

I

-

I

pronounced.

ichtenstein noted

I

Zted his early lack of sophistication to the fact th

dm "in

Ae

pressionis. cartoons after years of painting Abstra, was looking foratawdry type o. 1

early ones

be more

«

1./.

104.

111.8

cm

Roy

Lichtenstein, Hopclt,,. 1963 Oil and

(44 x 44 inches)

<

ollecoon Pete.

....I

Irene

Magna I

udwig, on

anvas,

ills

loan 10

I

Iffendi.

he

J

skillfully

Chapter

rendered by commercial

en draw themselves

this

.certain shape and

do

is

c„

whac.ed,

hat's

Girls. 1963-65

I

artists

ahs

I

i,

he note

akeup

,

iture

,„ ,.k

Y

Tr^

id.

of girb.

,e 1

They

akeup, was g

,

omme,

-.. ,

leal

I

eemed

thai these

really i,

cert: their hair to resemble a

I've alw.

to

.,u htenstein was refernng

than the others.

wa,

very intrigumg.

interaction that

5:

interesting for me."

wearing glamorous makeup

Kunslsanimlung Basel, Kunstmuseum

117

i.

bund

inspn fhey were a great source of

dh

JLetypicaJ beauty became more

wo

canvases

added that

I

I

Pages of the telephone

„„.,c df a

ebeenun

,

he,rh p!

th

.onebttafa

I

to


dots on hei face, ind

lips,

forth

l

Ins

developed into

dnncnsion.il symbols on

Lichtenstein has expressed

women seem

removed from

He

abstraction.

process." that ex

person or

a real

noted that "even the

takes

25], 1961, tor example).

it

photograph

a

drawing

oi

The blond

man. but here shown

as helpless,

1964,

13).

to.

a

uses

-I

blai

a

ind-

1

realism (see Black llour,^

104), L963,

makeup

probably because she has been

.is

a

prototype of the

a

is

me. ins

245 and

figs.

her

oi getting

Another. Frightened

jilted.

the counterpart to his ceramic heads (see

is

mechanical look

strips this

away from

who

the printing

ol

reproduction

in Hopeless (fig.

the one

function

comic

JUS! as a

step further

were almost an

that the}

the) looked was

\\a\

one

-nl that Lichtenstein was referring

1

putting two

n sted in

mechanical method

hs girls of 1963 -65 share with the original

bouquet of Mowers

Girl (fig.

was mi.

1

for the

removes them from any semblance of reality,

lute

[fig.

I

admiration

his

I

and so

it,

was part of the process of comic book reproduction, which made the images

that

so far

ceramic sculpture he. ids.

tin-

three-dimensional obji

.i

on

yellow dyed wig with black lines drawn

.<

r6), a

I

two-dimensional version of a three-dimensional object.

Although we recognize people

whom

we know

the emotional side of

Frightened Girl

we

so that

cultural ,1k he. she

as a

men and women, hie has noted was oka^ for women to cry but

he focused on

-.••:•"«

W <*«'»«9»

_» —

....

.

lit**'

»

.

men were

particular cultural

not exp<

phenomenon-

become Breck shampoo's blond twins. American Similarly, he showed the macho

"

'

MJB - *

confident in victory and brave

*»* t >—» *> *

granted

.-*

a

in

i

death.

the illustrators

who

continued

this a

time

when

who

up

grev,

much u.i.u

taken

'

D.<

(

"Run

panel from

For

I

ove!'

in

Secret

Hearts,

no B3 (Novembei

The

sexes

many

that

>-

new

after the victory

ofWorld War

II.

but

adversary in the cold war that followed

technology changed the way people

lived,

providing

it

I

American lfter

left

106.

66

i

inches)

lohnson Fund indgiftofMi

I

Ik-

Girl, 1963

Mm. um

indMrs

ol

<

>U

and Magna on canvas, 171

Modern

Art,

New

<>

K

life

and a carefully

the war than

and

Bagle) Wright

119

it

Chapter

5:

„,.

rigidly

also ted

world powe, and an

on Amei

much of the a,

i,

ol

feai

a

nation with

compi

cal<

denned gender rol« was

ulated

had bec, before,

had become widespread flghting the war.

York, Philip

as a

ideal

raising th<

its

I

b,

u

.

,en

glimmer

a

.

challenge to conventional sexual stereotypes.

.

Enforcement of separate,

Roy Lichtenstein, Drowning

upL

Postwai prosperity and advances

these changes were not imaginable material comfort, but ,i

b)

both

ol

intasy because tfaq repres. nted teenagers themselves found them appealing would hud everlasting love with hoped would translate into reality: the heroine

economic giant

i

foi

knowledged,

images to their audience of teenagers

s.„e foreve, for the peril her hero, and America would be made America's new role American family. This fiction was based on

powerful

to

nun

male, best exemplifi< d by war heroes,

.1

little

l» Ins paintings,

expected to play

the Ivors snap bab.es

there was

i

Tony Abruzzo,

107.

il

distin. tion

gendei

These stereotypes were pretty

to tl'cd these

thai

led to shov, theii feelings,

and endorsed, even society in the 1950s and early 1960s

U

to

between

that

men and women were

roles that

sav,

people learned from the culture around them

...

no outcry over the

distim tion he

a

that

publishers played to and was struck by the way comic-book Lichtenstein chose these ready-made images of stereotypes

or

enough

similar

can eas,K recognize the type. In drawing attention to

Lichtenstein was emphasizing

women,

is

in the

Women

wo

stratagem

II

anything

il

pari oi

«*s even strong,

tole reve, protective stance againsl the

men « and the workplace while the

had taken ova

,f these

Girls, 1963-65

home

as a

a!

d

gr

the jobs of the absent

me

ne discovered tha, they liked the,,

ffi.

;al

,

that

q

« les.

and Hut

when


We ROSE UP SLOWLY ...AS IF

WE

DIDN'T

BELONG TO THE OUTSIDE

WORLD ANY L0N6ER ...LIKE

SWIMMERS IN A

SHADOWY DREAM...

WHO DIDN'T

NEED TO BREATHE...

108.

Roy

panels;

Left

Lichtenstein, 172.7 x 61

We Rose

cm

(68

L'p Slowly, 1964

'i

«

inches); right

i

<

i

..IK

.

(inn

I

>

ii

ill

Oil and

172.7

k

Magna on

172

7

Museum mi Modernt

mstadt

cm

(68

Kunsl

canvas,

n

68

two

inches);

Frankfurt


wax the} had been, with the soldiers returned, they expected conditions to go ba< k to the

*We rose up

men

as

deviation from this

...AS IFt

made

DIDN'T

great

ro THE

them would become marginal

artists,

the actresses

WORLD ANY LONGER

who

portrayed career

many young women

for

m

hitects. law vers,

,,,

A

DREAM...

down

let

WHO

the 1950s and afterward

on in Girls'

Romances, no si (January

who

Tough and ambitious,

own game. The)

m

femme

real life, as

fatale

today are business executives.

the\

(or in terms

m

moved

men's

keeping with

more often portrayed

l

women

.In

n

in

the

media

on. entl Ited

,

tollywood notions of celluloid

of celebrity images perpetuated by the

the equally stereotypical images of

and

when

ourse, but also the

i

exemplified by Marilyn Monroe. While Warhol

m

ircles

I

could also be glamorous and.

or the helpless female

on creating images of these stereotypes

glamour

omi<

to the

and acted out

BREATHE.

Yours," panc ] from "Sincerely

like.

at their

mosl oi

that

1940s, were role models

Hepburns of the

ol their guard, vulnerable. This was anothei stereotype,

complement

DIDN'T NEED TO

:„,,.

them

Often outwitted

SHADOWY

and the

knowledge

Among the fe>A ex< eptions to this norm were women in the movies or on TV. These women, the

[oan Crawfords and BetteDavises and Katharine

LIKE $WIMMERS

home. Any

.it

to society.

...

SN

their traditional duties

writers, composers, or performers did so with the

BELONG

become

OUTSIDE

resuming

norm was frowned upon. Women who chose to have careers often personal sacrifices to <.\o so; men who chose to uetv the male Stereotype to

SLOWLY WE.

women

the breadwinners and

performing

tabloids). Lichtenstein focused

the- roles

i

onsigned to them b)

comi. those romanticized in the pages of newspapers and society and the media, especially

1962),

-

books. was nol matti early choice o) subje, Lichtenstein was a produce of this era, but his be exploited his position on the fringe by disingenuous; it was deliberate. A- an artist, humorous way his own understated but wryh. attacking social and cultural stereotypes in right on targ seems that some of those dunces were In the politically engaged 1990s, it i

I

I

Lichtenstein, quoted in John

,

(

loplans,

(

P„,d,n, Art Museum, incollabon

was printed

'

as

passage appears on

ralking with p.

R

"R

ein:

th .he

Walker

ht< nstein'

-

An

Interview;

.

An 5,

M

39.

l2

l

Conversation with the

Chapter

5:

artist.

Girls. 1963-65

Southampton, N.Y., September

Roy

fob

/.„»— U .

196

')

p

no 9 (May 1967), where the

2. Ibid.

3.

in

II. I"''

16; th,

q,

I


w.v.v:

110.

Roy

Lichtcnstcin, Nurse, 1964 Oil ind Pi

i\

hi

i

oll<

i

iK'ii

Magna on

canvas

121.9 x 121.9

cm


111.

Mag,

Roy

Lichtenstein, Oh, Jeff.

,,

tnva!

121.9* 121.9

I

Love You, Too

48x48inches)

Stefan

But I

.

Edlis

<

1964 oil,,,

<

»il

and


112.

Roy

Lichtenstcin, Blonde Wailing, 1964 Oil and Magna on

mi (48

x

18

mi

li<

-m

(

ollei nnii

i

irrj

(

lagosian,

New

Ybi

I

<

in\

IS,

[21 9

X


113.

Roy

121.9

cm

Lichtenstein, Frightened Girl. 1964 Oil (48 x 4S inches).

(

ollection Irving

Blum.

wd Magna Nov

York

on

canvas, 121.9 x


Âť

1

14.

Roy

Lichtenstein, Sound of Music, 1964

m

hes)

*

olli el

(

>il

ind

Magn on

Barbara and Rj< hard s

i

I

tn<

i

m\

is

121.9


115.

Roy

121 9

k

I

Lichtcnstein,

21

9

cm

4s

x

CM with

48 inches)

Hair Ribbon. 1965 Private

i

ollection

< '.I

and Magna on

anvas


9

%w^

w

%mmmmw %wm

%

m

m

m 9 m^ m^

»X«Z«I«Z*NNNNNl«NNNl<

>x«i*z*i*z#z*x«x»z*x#x«z*x«x<

• !• >!•!• 2*2*2*2*2*2*2»2*!*!«!*2*t*t*!*2*!»! # t # 2 # 2 #

!••


116.

Roy Lichtemtein, nchcs

Sinking Sun, 1964

1

1

linn,

t

(

ollecrion

>il

and Magna on

New

York

i

anvas,

I


began painting landscapes,

In 1964, Lichtenstein

throughout

history.

They

represent his

they afforded him an opportunity to artificial

con< erted efforl

the

test

subject that

full

Claude Monet, and Paul Cezanne

undermining

fundamental

its

working

at

an

as

M.W.

Turner,

altered the conventions of depicting nature, but without

where. is

verity,

its

u htenstein denies th.n reality altogether,

1

reproduction

beginning with the invention of photography Edgar Degas and Vincent van Gogh,

for

mass media.

in the

influence of mechanical reproduction on the fine

The

image

comic-strip

in his early

diverse asj.

as

As such,

in series.

potential of the landscape

Bcndav dots 1'amters

asking us to recall landscape through

of their paintings.

fascinated artists

lias

construct, using the formal devices he had introduced

paintings, such as black outline and

The

first

a

been

arts has

example, used photographs

and German Dadaists has been an influence on the illustrations in mail-order catalogues, which played

strong one,

nineteenth century. Such

in the

invention of photomontage

a

in the art a

as

.1

some

basis for

1920s by Russian

of the 1980s and

artists as

onstructivists

(

and

'90s;

work

significant role in the

Max

of

work

Pop

media-orient Ernst and Joan Miro, found a contemporary parallel in the conventions the media to simulate of the artists. None of the latter, however, used .1

natural

ol

phenomena.

both of them related to the Lichtenstein created two kinds of cliches for landscape, he first, inspiri .1 b) first established m his comic-Strip paintings.

conventions that he had comic-strip imagery,

is

I

Sun

best represented by his Sinking

second, determined by the formal means he developed suggested in his White Cloud

^The source comic

strip

(tig.

already

is

has here shifted to a subject that

and altered facsimiles of

light

He

and shade,

.s

clearl}

He has bent nature landscape.

reality,

[fig.

<

strip paintings,

omi<

Iron, real

•-.

a

a

,

1

omic-Strip painting

Even though

life,

is

1

u

in thai

much

reality

liters,, in

landscape

the waj his comi.

shapes,

-its

its

volum.

I- deprivi

shorthand version ofil

bla<

to depi. 25. 1961]) or used primary colors

I

-

itrip

its

S,

th.

and whiti earth,

as

-I

si j

heav, black outlines thai to his design, a design that includes

He

has

changed organi( forms

in the

created

highly structured image from

a less

a

origin, he otters us radically simplified

he has rendered some of the

not exist a

that to,

which challenge

reflections—but gives us

he did with Black Flowers

from

real in

presents the basic elements

its

the

L964; and the

16),

1

L964.

once removed

that subject,

landscapes of much of their

water

19), also

for a landscape painting differs

or cartoon

paintings do.

1

in

(fig.

orderly

M

inl

,\o

« md b*

I

realit}

the comic-Strip paintings is in th. U the landscape paintings differ from are so stereotypical, many ol the landscapes emphasis, tor although both are deliberately thai in matter and the degree ol utifi MlQ nearly abstract that their subject Cloud White true ol success as paintings. This is especially subject are less essential to their minimum of imagery and consist prima, ,1, ol md other reductive pamtmgs. which have a

Where

p ^ng

mtc simple areas of color, all translated an incisive silhouette and one or two the obvious cliche ^^ landscape, is among dots. Yet Sinking Sun. an Benday

largely because successful of these landscape paintings,

it

s

bal; strikes such an effective

demands of,

and the Ing subject, the conventions of the comic of the comic-strip-derived bnds, * Z stressing tne strip,

its

I

u

P

•,,

htenstein propose

artificiality

new

131

formL

Chapter

6:

landscape painting.

Landscapes. 1964-69

The predetermined

fiction

of the CO

Strip

enabled

a


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1

119.

Roy

Lichtenstein. White Cloud. 1964 Oil and inchi

«

-II"

i

Irving

Magna on

Blum Nevi York

canvas

I

1 i 1.1 * 1 1 1 • 1 1 1

MA'A'J

>\»

'


him

to present the illusionistic

reality ot the picture plane.

image

As

landscape in terms that confirm the Active

oi the

had in the past.

lie

representational subject matter by belying

ichtenstein was able to subvert the

1

and conforming instead

reality

its

reproduction and, ultimately, the even more fundamental

ot a

Beginning

Rowlux

L966, Lichtenstein created

in

series of collages using a plastic

a

he divided the image area into two horizontal

Row In

containing the heavily patterned

The

contrast

between the

-,

increased this sense of trompe

which enabled the Rowlux different types of

#/

Seascape

(fig.

which projected

Row lux

reflective Surface ot the

several other

by

Rowlux

separated by

To

few inches

attai Inn.:

1

a

,

a

the top of the collage, he

make

look even more translucent; and he combined

Benday-dot screen representing the

Cloud and Sea

(see

1

1964

skv. In

baked enamel on

[fig.

reate

1

reflecting surfaces; he painted

between translucent and

in

a

of the collages.

development, he used dots, as in Electru

revolving light drum,

drum

the light

vinyl to

contrast

of landscapes

d

volved,

r<

steel to further

image on

photograph

a

1965,

.\\k\

.111

and to

nature

his belief in

Lichtenstein ^\\v great

as a synthetic

autonomy

with

ot the sea

I

heighten the sense of

make

to

art

o\\\ red screen

in his landscapes

on top of a

it

...id

in a

the confinement of the black outline. In the most radical,

Benday

18),

W

blue

S<

it

in

le

I

from

it

nothing bul

-I

large

Cloud and Sea or the single

giving viewers the illusion of having very Sinking Sun puts

a

almost be an enticing

overblown

as

new

tw.st

come-on

on

a

format

that,

a c

particular motif

I

sue

loud with setting sun I

little

(

Sinking Sun

I

he

like a

life

.

I

id

ID Igazini

omposition

.s

Landscapes. 1964-69

I

tual

a.

larg.

-the up,

los. ,

the lands( ap<

them and

-strip paintings.

omic

for a vac at.on parad.se.

White Cloud was lean and spare.

...

ording

1

an

ol

the single

as

makes the scene look

distance betwe. H

ichtenstein's

I.

he image Ill

he,

IS

ÂŤ

ould florid

.

divided horizontally

detailing four distinctive modes, each one into four separate registers, in

6:

ai

eves see, and conveys the spa< iousness

way our

proportion of the motif to the overall im

Chapter

'loud

(

make

not the most powerful, ot

L964, the entire painting consists

landscape. In the landscapes that focus on

135

to

i]

White

In

reen to

few instances freeing

paintings are horizontally oriented,

to convention, imitates the

md

tangible

in a

dots.

Most of the landscape

cloud

iality

to his sense ol iron)

which appealed

Benday dots

continued to perfect the dot pattern, enlarging

I

n

it

I

the ephemeral

how contrived purple, and to suggest the haziness of the atmosphere, no matter

these images, such as Littoral(f\g.

a

construct in painting.

to the

and other paintings, he used an overlay

m

l'lexiglas

form. In these relatively brief experiments. Lichtenstein explored variou

create the illusion of nature using industrial materials,

I'oeil in

ichtenstein also produ( ed

As he has indicated, he wished

17], 1964).

it

exciting visual

.111

concrete, to reduce nature's reality to an abstraction, and to re-create nature

new

ichtenstein

I

Lichtenstein played with illusionism and trompe

he combined Rowlux and

ways too:

attai hi

when

of the image;

in front

ofBenda)

screen

.1

several

Benday

ot

part

movement,

In a later

narrow band

use ol trompi

its

paper and the matte

motOl behind

move up and down.

section to

120), 1967. a

I'oeil

suggested different times of day.

series

paper called

one

sections,

piper, the other consisting ot

surface of the painted dots was sufficient to create the illusion ot

it

i

to further underscore the artificiality of his landscapes. In the earliest of these

I'oeil materials,

two

cm

of the

reality

works, which are tongue-in-cheek commentaries on Cubist collage and

dots.

to the reality

,

different aspect


'>•.•-•.••-

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120.

Roy

Lichtenstein. Electric Seascape Ui, 1967 1

28 inches) ilomon

Mi

i

-in-.

Sosland

Kans

i i

I

i

metal

(

Iding

ollage

Rowlux and

papei

and lamp, 56.8x72.1

K Guggenheim Museum, New York

Gifi "t

cm

tettttttOW^


of the landscape: rolling

sun. clouds, and sky.

lulls,

The

billowing curves

formation are emphasized by white borders edged with black curves of the waves

Drowning Girl

in

and separates the four

and

registers,

106), 1963.

(fig.

one

is

ot the

forms are defined by

a

which

the sun's rays or the portion of the sky just behind them,

While

image reads up and down, without any sense of depth.

this gives us the

a fluid

stylized nature.

a series

of

canvas.

What we

He

are offered, then,

can amuse ourselves, but which not what

is

landscape into

we come

asking them to accept the painted

of reality it is

image

we

only one of

is

true that white can equal

way of telling

These conventions generally hold

image—

a

at least

moment

for the

certain verisimilitude,

When we

Although, to

fictions. a

cloud, that

with their resemblance or dissimilarity

rendition,

one

a

a

I

ao

than basing

on

it

and Temple

II.

of Western

art.

In several

a

I

Ol

I

usually balan«

si

-

fai

d

image has

thai the

I

the image

certain extent in

much of an

ene

as a

representation

his landscapes,

all

i

an

attempt to approximati OUl

to a comic-strip landscape <

(

mon

:ioud have

than will,

to

do

then relation

'bud seems to be

looser

a

rathei ichtenstein might have created entirely from his imagination

reproduction. Sinking Sun

1965— stereotypical

is

more

like

examples oflandscapes

other landscapes from 1964 and 1965,

compositions to

fol

as the objei

epl thi

Hi. n

are representations of landscape, but White

that

trui

us that ill

ichtenstein emphasizes the

sense of actuality, the differences between Sinking Sun and White

Both

we

combination of blue and red Benday dots

represent the sky, or yellow the earth, without

to nature.

onto the

oi a landscape

to recognize as the artist's

are faced with the realization

many

a

for landscape with whi< h

of conventions

artificiality of his representation of landscape.

relation to reality,

ot

into his

However, unlike Cezanne or Monet, whose depiction of nature

abstraction with observation and

little

depiction

his

requires of the viewer the willing suspension ol disbelief,

representational painting, which

itself.

ichtenstein's

much the same mannei own construct, using

in very

forms

to transcribe the

a series

is

appears to be.

it

one

a static

abstra< ted nature's

and colors

dots, lines, shapes,

the image

I

rendered without

are

the overall

which Seurat

the composition, ol

impression that the ravs are situated behind the clouds,

silhouette.

in

m

Because man}

hills

bold black outline, they are more pronounced than

Lichtenstein rendered

loud

i

the graceful

he use ol hl.uk dramatically defines

1

most active elements

reinforcing the shape of the Benday-dot clouds and

ol the

lines, recalling

date. In these paintings, an

of two or three large areas of Benday

image

I

is

Temple that

oj

we know

ated

htensi

suggested

men

dots. In Littoral, sea. land,

and

121

[polio (fig.

\)

j.

1964,

from the history

In-

u

most

th«

ju

absti m

i

ion

ta|

sky are suggested

and blue dots tog by the use of bine double-pattern Benday representation Iron, a new dire and bine dots alone. Paintings like these approached Uthe. a cursor, notal An examination ofhis sketches reveals that he started with only to working With did, he went ,1 than developing an elaborate drawing, as he usually the result >ne an conclude the image lor the painting. dots, red

respectively,

Ins

Benday screens

that his

I

to create

primary ambition

in

making

reduce us constituent elements and .pproach to his landscapes. fe,

still

painting was to discover j.

have an image. To emphasize

- fa he could this

,.

Chapter

6:

is

al

as any areas ol pure whiti ichtenstein eliminated line as well

dot: m the image; and because the aUover pattern of each Benda,depth anywhe

unmodulated, there

137

I

this

i

no suggestion of volume or perspective

Landscapes. 1964-69

-

he


*•

•*••!•! •!•!•!• *••*•*!• ! , «*I*v! ,, !''''!'^B»' «''' •'•"•• '•'•'•'.•'.''•' ,

l2!.RoyLichtcnstei„. 125

i

cm

Ihttple oj

ipotlo, 1964

"""'

Oil and

Mag

net.


with so painting. In order to convey the impression of a landscape

KOPINOOI(APXAIA)

masses, with the he divided the canvas into three unequal

strip in the

land,

its

characteristically uneven, "hilly"

middle (with

and the blue single-dot pattern

opportunity to embrace

water, the narrow, reddish-purple

the

conclude from paintings such

links

bottom representing the

a

upper edge) representing

the top representing the sky.

at

information,

denser-blue mass (the

larger,

at

blue double-dot pattern)

little

possible to

It is

Lichtenstein found in landscape an

as Littoral that

certain level of abstraction, thus loosening almost entirely the

between the object and

conventional representation that had been so

its

critical for

the paintings of 1961-63. Temple of Apollo and Temple

With

same period but based on

the landscapes of the are closer in subject

common

objects as Golf Ball

which they otherwise

1963, with

between

share

and

paintings, the relative weights of land, sea,

the simple contrasts

classical references.

The temple

paintings

matter to his paintings based on Cezanne, Mondrian, and Picasso than

to those depicting such (fig. (.2).

Lichtenstein initiated a series of paintings related to

II.

Lu^e Spool

formal similarity. In the temple

a

sky,

or just land and sky, are conveyed by pattern(s). Traditionally,

and Benday-dot

solid color

31), 1962, or

(fig.

we

hav<

volume to the twobeen taught to expect an accommodation of every three-dimensional tendered a drastic dimensional canvas. In discarding conventional perspective. Lichtenstein and far-reaching solution

to the

Temple of Apollo conveys

such

Mr. Bellamy

as

The background

(fig.

a

problem of representation

sense of context

in Temple of

similar to that of earlier paintings

somewhat

49), 1961, or Masterpiece

(fig.

in the 1960s.

53), 1962, but

Ipollo suggests a landscape,

but

a

with even

rather minimal

less detail.

one

that

does not define the temples location. Lichtenstein \ depiction of the temple in the extreme foreground seems to make the background recede into the distance. This distinction 122. Soi

I

i>

In.

ii.

i.

in.

Tempi

oj

Ipollo,

1964

yellow

is

landâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; the

reinforced by the perceptual anomaly of the image representing

strip at the

bottom

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;appearing

occupy

to

a different plane than either the black-

and-white temple or the deep blue Benday sea and paler blue landscape into land.

"monumentality"

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

sea. a

and sky

stabilizes the

conceit that

is

also

temple and

sky.

acts as

The

division of the

an effective

foil to its

reduced by the heavy black shadow that

falls

over

diminished the ground and the temple steps and breaks the temple's form. Lichtenstein mass of the temple by eliminating the rear portion of the structure and by indicating volume in only the most cursory fashion. This summary treatment was extended even the detailing of the lower steps,

the right are rendered only

which on the left-hand

as a Mat

shape.

side have

However, the nearly

part of the top step appears to be aligned with the horizon line

edges of the canvas. Although

we know

that this type

The

idea of painting an

image

as

an

o\\\

artificial

restaurants.

before (fig.

it

He

began

a

model

at

straight line

a

to

on

of the upper

and the top and bottom in the

has been used here to

construct. silver stenciled

one of Lichtenstein's

wallpaper

favorite

Greek

painting with the wallpaper in mind, but abandoned the

was finished and instead used

122) as the

it

temple came from the

containing repeated images of the Parthenon

definition but

of distortion can occur

rendering o\\\ three-dimensional structure in perspective,

emphasize the image of the temple

some

tin

work

postcard with the image of the Parthenon

for Temple of Apollo. His rendition

of the temple adheres closely to

sunlight, the the postcard image, with the same horizon line behind the temple, the raking


deep shadows, and even the cracks and

ale,

s<

contrast

its

with

in the facade. Yet the painting,

of stark black and white with

mu<

its

h largei

yellov ground and

a brilliant

atmospheric blue Benday dots, communicates something of the magnitude of a temple

once again addressed the question of

that the postcard could not. In tins painting, he art's

legitimate subjects,

raised in the comi<

first

of evoking an object or an image by painting

ip

sti

ii

p tintings, and reiterated the notion

the intei vening

ia

\

ol

filtei

meeli.mie.il

.1

reproduction. Temple across in

derived from an illustration of

//.

.1

book,

is

similar in

many

temple rragm<

.1

Tempi

respects to

that

nl

[polio.

oj

htenst( in

ii

I

has

It

(

ame

the trademarks

all

ofa reproduction faithfully enlarged to the scale of the canvas. Like the earlier painting, reproduces

it

the features

all

we

ognize

re<

in

temple and

a

barren landscape and the scorching sunlight of midday. but

we

recognize the temple from

generic one, and

a

knowledge of

that often serve as

The

cultures.

lum. a

much

few years

meant

om

.1

the idea ol

earlier.

The

appealed to him. with

6

w

1

we

01

iÂŤ)

1

i"

omii

soun

e ol

knowledge

to signify an entire

them

to

11

itui

J

1

ulture ippeali d to

haw

symbolize how we

was these signs

It

hosen

1

p tinting had

a

reprodui tion also

a

series ol signs.

a

those

oi

panel transformed into

strip

media into

translation by the

that Lichtenstein painted, using

is

It

the surviving fragments of ancient civilization

iron) "t representing "< ivilization" in terms ol

its

have seen.

an} partii ular

ill

re<

n to the

visited the site.

ma} not have

111

dov

roundings,

ichtenstcin alludes to the fragmi ntai

I

olumns meant

cartoon

..

di.

rathei

or even oiu onl\

primary oi

way

thai

the past, and Imi.ilK

absurdity

as

be read

to

We

sui

the ads or travel hroehures that

all

depi< ting a temple nun.

monument. By >>ni

is

its

10 represent

ourselves and our culture. the same Lichtenstein also completed several versions of the -real pyramid with

scheme

ot yellow, black,

(see figs. I'l

theme

between

of prints

0,1

After an edition

,â&#x20AC;˘/

01 iginal

tin

He

but

[potto,

of300 had been

in this

h ol the

a<

si

u

Pyramids

more

exaggeration and

.1,

paintings he breaks

1

down

had also begun

it

I

...to threi

.un\ pla<

ol them

in

a

...

the ink was

befor

1

1

e for

th.

one

ot

the su< tage th

two dimension;

.1

many

configuration similai to

stage

the

sional forms.

di

.he photographs as the sou,,

paintings demonstrates a

..

hai than like a child's triangular papei part)

123). L969,

(fig.

-1

"monument"

ol the

ked them on top of each -In

disintegration of the mass of the pyramid into

instances looks

group

be assembled

to

muds of Giza, photographed them, and used I

continuation

oloi

Frame paintings

Stretchei

printed, he started to sign .hem, then realized that

took three of the spoiled prints

the pyramid paintings.

a

in the

pyramid and the finished image.

same theme, meant

the

used

first

paintings are

were ruined because the printer had dry.

he

that

The pyramid

123).

began with Temple

thai

relationship series

and

and white

1

...

it

pyramid.

some

Three

pyramids whii h, b) onsists ot three receding overlapping

precise rendition

of silhouette, appear more convincing

as a set ol

triangles than pyi imicls

admired, Although the Egyptian pyramids were very mu< h

depicted by twentieth-century [like to

work ftom

binat like a

141

Chapter

6:

fth.

artists.

Ellsworth

Once

window, or a fragment ofa

Landscapes. 1964-69

lllJl

""

ma while piec.

I

wen

infr.

qu. ntl}

interest in Kelly, in 1964, discussed his

things that Is.

two.

.hex

work

diiectl^

of architecture,

o.

'"

"" ll1

''

h

I

legs; 1

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'

I

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123. •13.4

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564 2

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?:*;â&#x20AC;¢ 124.

Roy

Lichtcnstcin, Rouen Cathcdr.il (Seen

Set HI, 1969

OilandMagn;

42 mi hes)

li

<

a<

Private

i

at

l

\m Different Times

canvas, five separate panels, 160 x 106

ollei lion

pj tin

Day)


'•MAX?:?:*!;!;?! •!•:

• • • •

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••••••••••?-


•••••••


THE PAINTING H4AS DESTROVED VOICE 'WAS SILENCED...

.

.

.

When

THE

the Brmh<twkv paintings o\ 1965-66 were

thought

be

to

.1

comment on

interviews he gave

at

replete with drips,

seemed

New

the time.

a

hilarious spoof

issues ot vital

which Harold Rosenberg redefined

painting,

he .mist admitted

as a

much

as

in

of the bravura brushstroke,

on the subject of the mannerisms of the

importance

and the involvement

gesture,

I

lcluenstein's interpretation

1

be

to

York School. Aesthetic

Pollock, and Kline

exhibited, they were generally

first

Abstract Expressionism.

to artists such as de

body

ot the entire

Kooning,

the act of

in

spontaneous "action" or "event"

were reduced by Lichtenstein to the single brushstroke, which

became

the raisotl d'etre

tor an entire series of paintings. In satirizing Abstract Expressionism by focusing on characteristic brushstroke.

I

its

ichtenstem unlinked process (the action or event) \nd end-

product (the record of that action or event) and thus diminished the ineffable mystery creation. His emphasis on one of the most obvious

artistic

School painting of the 1950s would seem

m

gave voice

New

haracteristics ot

summed up

Gene Swenson two

interview with

his

to have

i

«>l

Ybrl

which he

the obje< dons to

years earlier.' Similarly, the fact that

he singled out the drip, one of the most distinctive features of Action Painting, could be interpreted

dig

as a sly

the

at

way

in

which an important component

painting style bad been corrupted into an obligatory signature by

movement. Furthermore, AKTnews magazine was notorious 127. Panel from

Charlton

(

"The

Painting,"

in

Strang*

Suspensi

Stories,

no 12 (October 1964)

of paintings

details

omio

to

parody by

in

its

artists less in thrall to

1950s for their slavish emulation of de Kooning's

style

also

innermost feelings could

become

a stereotype in the

Although there

is

Expressionism, the Painting"

(fig.

Brushstrokes

holding are

easily

became known

initial

126), 1965,

(fig.

.s

situated

is

at

a direct repr.se «

panel from the comic

of that panel. In

orner

ol the

72 (Octobi

this painting,

Ted drips.

holding the brush and the a series

developed cartoonist indicated paint. Iron, this image he

way

is

Dutch is

a

the

body of painterly painting from

portrait painter Trans

foremost example ot

rich tradition in

left

126.

121 9

cm

canvas. 121.9 x Lichtenstein, Brushstrokes, 1965 Oil and Magna on

Roy (48

x

4s inches)

151

European

[als,

art

figures,

was

brushwork

in

Chapter

and of itself

7:

hand

a

to the right

il

wl.x

I.

the

that

explored

th<

Bru hstrok

Si

Brushstrokes. 1965-66

iding ;our< n

e foi

Seventeen.

mentions

I, .

pre( ursor to the

1

I

lals

t

is

context. beir to a

iSlOIUStS

J ,

...ore cxccss.vc

ichtenstein.

whom

AbstKU

entl

in tins

one whose extravagant brushwori

technique was no

for Other painters, both past and present,

1

htenste... frequently

In

that interested

1

the Kena.ssa

and an obvious

Hals's painting

Ins

whom

painterly painter,

While

end

Private collection

a

I

paintings it

1964).

i

the art of painting.

that the ovi In a recent discussion. Lichtenstein stated series

I

...

i

i

he

I

iditenstein

ofworks

house paint to the mm-' various aspects of painting, from the most basic

commentary on

strip "

anvas while above

i

of paint and

vertical strokes

summary rendering of the hand

liked the

a

Strange Suspense Stories, no.

the lower-lefl

few bold horizontal and

a

had

a style that

artists.

source for the series was

Comics'

ol

the painter and Ins

connection between the Brushstroke paintings and Absti.u

127), in Charlton

brush

a

a real

in the late

of painting. Their pair imitation

have induced Lichtenstein to reinterpret

hands o( less-capable

itself

supporters

its

genius in capturing on canvas the spontaneous interaction between

his

(In

emphasizing

for frequently

the movement's mannerisms than

Generations of younger Abstract Expressionists

realized.

m

lesser painters

so that this emphasis lent

much

pages during the 1950s, so

ol an Original

than Ins gesticulating

takes

l.,s pi u

-

beside

many

appears to be an the spontaneous gesture


i

!

128.

Roy

91 4

J

Lichtcnstein, Yellow Brushstroke i

'•<•

x

108

in<

hes)

1965 Oil and Magni

//,

Private coll(

i

tion

i

m\

a


Brushstroke paintings" origins, it [udging from Lichtenstein's varied comments on the for him. Above all, it is about the that the series had several differing meanings

Brushstroke

of painting and the meaning of a mark or brushstroke,

contemporary

history, Lichtenstein from the multiple perspectives of

Since his

interpreted by

suggests

and advertising.

part

art,

painterly, Lichtenstein's style of painting not generally thought of as Duchamp's possession of the this subject is no less tongue-in-cheek than

a

is

as

Mona

Dada

source for that

Lisa, the

manner of Duchamp,

1919, In the

rich tradition of painting

and

laid

the subject and the content of this as a subject,

brushstroke

With

is

paintings of

body of work.

main

artists

even more intractable by

a visual

limited as

fairly

is

no

trace

of the

in his

m

means and

his

another,

m

two-dimensional brushstroke,

a

found

overlapping them or placing

them

by

converted

a

strip for their

made

is

it is

and format and

are

more

as paintings,

of the

its

own,

usually acting only as a signifier

does

enlarging the brushstroke and making has provided

it

with such an

identity.

it

self-referential, as the subject

The

Brushstroke paintings

from

fall

loosely related to images from the

Little

comic

Big Painting

strip;

(fig.

131), 1965,

and

that

way

And those

Brushstrokes

(fig.

129),

m

which

allover

as Yellow

Roy "'-â&#x20AC;˘-.

Magna Frankfurl

129.

Gift

Lichtcnstein, Yellow and Green Brushstrokes, 1966 Oil and 160

cm (84 x

of the Scrohcr

famil)

180 inches)

Darmstadt

Museum

fui

Moderni Kunst,

laiuKi apes, they its

most

basic

and Benday-dot screen of the comic

eschew narrative

symbol

in favor

(the brushstroke).

of reducing

Much

a

in

such

strips' pictorial

the

illusion

is

it is

artists as

OUK( a

11 sets

totally

as

Is it

he had issue of

uninflected

as

is

hit

I

i

signature on

artist's

and

to a sign

style bul

(

used on then

in

l<

a

blai k

i

a

thai

om

"I

common

form into

objei

ti

in I"

I

ol a

lines

-

i

il

relationship with the canvas

of a brushstroke, suggesting anvas.

onvej

I

>ir<

i

tion

notion

il"

Hut

speed

ol

the

.ion Brushstrokes, tor example, where

way he had shown explosiv

Whaam!

90),

(fig

1963, and

I

I

Hon

a<

in

thi

i<

some

Opened Fin

Hi

iuggested h\

is

to

ability

while containing his forms within the picture plane <

Or

of tin- period,

brushstroke

time and place. Lichtenstein's

in

styles

terizes Style in art.

onteni

i

reated the essence

across the surfa<

visibility

with the signature

y\^\\c xx

foi

[<

I

the result of the transmutation

up an almost perfectly symmetry

much

such

of art

White Brushstroke /ami other paintings

of movement

depicted

work

in a

it

even be determined by an In

a

sharp

(fig

is

ol the

tivit)

of Ins earliei

1964.

91),

m

which the

(iiacomo

Balla

sitter

was viewed from multiple slutting perspectives, whili

and Carlo Carta portrayed

I

he Futurists

scaffolding for their shifting tonus to

align

them with

on

non-objective paintings. grid of plus and minus signs. In his otherwise implacably Hat

a

the picture plane.

Mondnan

created the slightest perception

the edges of his canvas

when he chose

-I

to

a

extrapolated from

movement

Chapter

7:

Brushstrokes. 1965-66

at

<

Llbism

a

i

onstru<

I

based

the intersection of Ins signs and

end one or more of

edge. Beginning in the 1950s, Pollock created a sense

157

motion

employed the Cubist method of creating

at

depicted. White

figures in

often

Mondnan

subject (in this case, painting) to

which

ol

,i

Both the Cubists and the Futurists conveyed movement and speed by fragmenting and Braque faceting their forms within the shallow plane ofthe picture support. Picasso and

(fig.

of their impact stems from the relationship

between the choice of subject matter and the way

hand

and used

brushstroke'

of these?

large-scale paintings,

and Green

strip, but, like

is,

.is

dot pattern provides

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; non-tactile and

-to address the

which paint can be dragged

brushstrokes

may be

devices with the simplicity of the landscapes. Thus, the Brushstroke paintings contain the

\54-55

in

gave us portraits

but they did permit him to combine some of the comic

all

o\' a style

particularly striking in Yellow and

1966

clear outline, process colors,

embrace

convey the

This series did not allow Lichtenstein the wide variety of options offered by the comicstrip paintings,

it

it

painter's

the Benday-dot background freezes the form

those that recall the earlier single-object

imagery takes precedence, such

dl ips,

i

characteristic of painterly painting

the uneven contours of the form, while the

into

paintings in their emphasis on figure/ground relationships, such as Yellow Brushstroke II 12S), 1965;

of painting a brushstroke

of facture.

rectangle. In this painting. In htenstein

three basic categories: those that are similar in configuration to the aforementioned 1965

painting entitled Brushstrokes, such as

is

brushstroke

a

Mondnan

and

artist's

Yellow Brushstroke

cited

no concrete

period

that

means by which we recognize not only

the

of the paintings, he

this

he notion

I

Lichtenstein implies that painting tan be reduced

By enormously

in painting.

Picasso,

mother? Or could

the Brushstroke paintings vary in size

of form

signature

defined by an

Is it

above, contain any direct reference to the comic strip that inspired the series. Before

identity of

as the

of Cezanne,

conveying the merest

Lichtenstein painted this series, the brushstroke had been a construct with

shadows.

and the record of the

artist

brushwork

in relation to

None, except the painting from 1965

improvisational.

to suggest

Lichtenstein took particular note of Abstract Expressionism's emphasis on the

in

simple form into an image with multiple meanings.

impact and efficacy

the lower-right- hand portion of the canvas, past

of)

tall

diametrically opposed to that kind

Unlike the comic-strip paintings, which depended on the preconceived format of the

comic

that appears to

method of painting

Lichtenstein's

suggestion of shadow by means of a few black marks, or in his placement of a series of drips, Lichtenstein

upward curve of the brushstroke. And

to reinforce the three-dimensionality of the image, Lichtenstein has

it

freedom of handling

contrast to the

form. In altering the way in

side, in

subtle balance to the

caricature of the painterly tradition. Moreover, the Benday

exaggeration of the obvious that he forces

side

a

to turn

drips in the lower-right

concrete form, carried to the extreme degree of precisely shaped

However,

one brushstroke

As

place.

of black paint

strokes

fluid style that characterizes the

in adjusting

hand corner, onh

tt

I*

is

and

up from the middle-left

n travels

.is

toward the lowei

k dovÂť n

of 1961-63,

furls active

is

bottom edge of the canvas support. He enhances the sense of volume by using broad

the

construct, and the results appear

new

<

added an extra drip

object.

unyielding brushstroke, which

the viewer to confront the issue of painting itself as a see

both

of criteria for the

symbiotic relationship to the picture plane.

the simplicity of Lichtenstein's

which we

new

set

m

form

and identifying the

painterly equivalent of the

a

establish a

throughout history its

In isolating

as

follow the curve of the shape

anvas and w hips ba<

brushstroke

[ere, the

I

the drips that run off the bottom of the lower edges of the brushstroke funiK an< hoi the

the salient aspects of the

involved some complex mental juggling on

There

relatively straightforward.

upon

claim to the history of art using the brushstroke

mind, Lichtenstein could

this goal in

Lichtenstein's part, the subject

be

Lichtenstein has seized

Lichtenstein created

brushstroke. Although the project

to

rectified

artist's

We

movement.

the

<>f

corner of the canvas create

67),

(fig.

like the single-object paintings

once more and swing up again toward the opposite corner. The

appropriation of

readymade L.H.O.O.Q.

example,

foi

centrally placed in relation to the framing edge.

appears

essential nature

132). 1965,

(fig.

I

Ins

forms

just short of the

of shallow depth and dynami*


Brushstroke

I

132), L965, for example, like the single-object paintings of 1961-63,

(fig.

brushstroke centrally placed in relation to the framing edge. Here, the

movement.

suggests

We

follow the curve of the shape

travels

it

up from the middle-left

the lower-left-hand corner, only to turn

down toward

and whips back

part of the canvas

.is

and

fairly a< tive

is

is

drips in (he lower right once more and swing up again toward the opposite comer. The upward curve of the brushstroke. And cornel of the canvas create a subtle balance to the

bottom of

the drips that run off the

form

As

in place.

if

added an extra drip

bottom edge of

the

the lower edges of the brushstroke hrniK anchor the

that appears to

the

fall

anvas support.

(

I

le

enhances the sense of volume by using broad

The notion of painting

brushstroke- as

a

shaped drips, form, carried to the extreme degree of precisely

rete

<

ichtenstem has

I

off the lower-right-hand portion of the canvas, past

strokes of black paint to suggest shadows.

con

of the image.

to reinforce the three-dimensionalitv

freedom of handling

contrast to the

Lichtenstein's

method of painting

a

that

is

characteristic

I

sharp

a

oi painterl) painting

no., tactile

brushstroke

ofcoursi

dot pattern provides

Bcnday

caricature of the painterly tradition. Moreover, the

is.

a

and

totally

un.ntlec.ed— is

diametrically opposed to that kind offacture.

of the

and the record of the

artist

brushwork

as

painter's

and Mondrian

another?

does

Or

could

embrace

it

all

Is

n the

of these?

In

of art.

it—as he had

result

even be determined by an

it

work

in a

-to address the issue

defined by an artists brushstroke?

it

hand

the signature o\a style and used

Picasso,

Of Cezanne,

K

on the visibility particular note of Abstract Expressionism's emphasis

Khtcns.cn took

I

<>i

artist's

White Brushstroke

I

focused on then

le

I

with the signature StyL

don.

of what char.,

transmutation

.h.

signature

on

a

a

one form

ol

common

and other paintings

redu( ed to a sign and that Lichtenstein implies that painting can be Style but content. the means by winch we recognize not only

Style in arl

tei iz<

obj<

into

Ctl

<

>r

oi the pel iod,

an be

brushstrok.

.1 almost perfectly symmetrical relationship with Yellow Brushstroke //sets u P an the essence ol a brushstroke, suggesting the rectangle In this painting, Lichtenstein created

way the

m

which paint can be dragged

across the surfa.

e

of a

(

anvas. Direction

hues convev the notion uneven contours of the form, while the black

background

the Benday-dot

convey the

illusion

particularly striking

brushstrokes

of ...

freezes the torn, in time and pla(

movement while

containing

his

e.

1

large-scale paintings,

speed

oi

But to

ichtenstein's abilit)

forms within the picture plane

example, Yellow and Green Brushstrokes, for

where the

much the way he had shown explosive a, tion Opened such as Whaaml (fig. 90), 1963, and As 1

depicted

is

suggested 1,

is

...

tivit,

(fig

91),

IS

ol

the

...

Fin

>64 1

fragmenting and conveyed movement and speed by Picasso and Braque shallow plane of the picture support. faceting their forms within the perspectives, vim, was viewed Iron, multiple shifting portrait, ... which the sitter Futurists

Both the Cubist, and the

gave us

such

artists as

(

,

no

Balla

and Carlo Carra portrayed

often

employed the Cubist method of creating

align

them with

the picture plane.

on^gridofplus and minus

Mondrian

s^

a

figures in

mo

I

he

I

utunsts

forms to scaffolding for the,, shifting

extrapolated from

Cubism.

«*taed

gns movement at .he intersection of h. created the slightest perception of L, forms ,USt when he chose to end one or more ol at the edges of his canvas depth and dynamic created a sense of shallow edge Banning in the 1950s, Pollock

Mondrian

157

Chapter

7:

Brushstrokes. 1965-66

nd


130.

Roy

1965. Uchten*teln l Big PaI«ttng No.6, I

M

'— '

OU and M*

ngNordhein-We.tfalen,

Mori


movement

Autumn Rhythm

in his series ofintricate labyrinthine paintings (see

[fig.

78],

1950, for example). In placing an unprimed canvas on the Moor and moving around

while he poured paint onto it

the imprint of his

surface, Pollock created an allover

its

method of painting. Depth was suggested

of thick and thin paint and

and repositioning

his figures

layers

movement was

De Kooning conveyed

suggested by the complex network of interlocking forms.

with

that carried

superimposed

in the

of found objects, and

in his occasional use

impression of movement by splicing

image

it

the

their limbs in different

portions of the canvas, and activated their surfaces and the space around them with richly textured paint and vivid, contrasting colors.

movement

ichtenstein chose to suggest depth and

I

not by fracturing and faceting tonus but In enlarging

into an active shape aligned with the surface plane of the painting. activity

of the brush and the character of paint

Cubists and their successors, from Lichtenstein derived a construct

overlapping

layers.

Both the

in

which

figure .\nd

the concept of painterly painting, and

he made

a

its

Other works the physi(

al

it

such

He

quality

more

No. 6

enlarged surface incident, so important to the subject oi this series. In enlarging the

of the weight and significance ot the itself.

Big Painting,

reinforced by

among

its

the Abstract Expressionists.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;of which other examples

oncentrate even more strongly on

<

the brushstroke,

ol it

Added impact. The

compact form. As

Yellow

Big Painting

Little

are the large canvas

and the aforementioned

130),

(fig.

in slightly

a result, this

nearly approaches the kind ofglorious brushstroke of the most significant

gestural painters

paintings

is

atured the

the Abstract Expressionists,

imagery of the comic-strip paintings, gives

powerful thrust of the brushstroke

i<

brushed onto the canvas. From the

of a brushstroke. The extreme magnifii ation

similar to the close-up

painting

it

all

as Little

ai

i

however, were bound into the

field,

was bom, painting

in this series,

le

1

brushstroke exists on one plane or

a

made

microscopic form carry

macrocosm from which

is

it

Mondnan. and from

composition by means of the Benday dot.

detail,

as

o\ a brushstroke

a detail

of the same

is

one of several

year, Big Painting

Green Brushstrokesâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;in which

,/>/</

Lichtenstein used overlapping forms rather than centering one form or placing two side.

b)

sidi

This arrangement of dense, impacted tonus creates the illusion of active shapes

in a

shallow space; but because they lack any sense of relief or depth and have been reduced to

between

Hat colors and a single bold outline, without any subtle contrasts

they read

as flat

forms on

a

light

and shade,

Hat plane.

In Big Painting So. 6 .\nd Yellow

and Green Brushstrokes,

I

i<

htenstein dramati< ally

enlarged the size of the canvas and increased the dynamic activity that was so mu(

of Little Big

Painting.

Although

shape of the brushstroke

Yellow and

recalls Pollock's.

(

I

Ween Brushstrokes has his

selection of colors

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

paraphrase the value contrasts the older

artist's

ot Pollock's, as

color.

is

I

tradition

is

Chapter

7:

no means

particularly those of the principal in Pollock's paintings,

painting that refers to

neither inconsistent with the

Pollock's influence

161

In

complex

as

form

>|'|"

m

direct

without being

the intimation of space between the two forms ind a

on 1960s

art.

Brushstrokes. 1965-66

ii

i

very defined form, the

u htenstem's broad sweeping gesture, however,

And their ground. To make

p.

can be attributed to the type of loop or

continuous curve we recognize from Pollock, though

Even the

a

h a

theme

And of course,

a

is

"

s

a

form.

to

emulation

-I

also reminiscent

between the forms

master of twcnticth-c enturv painted)

ot the series

nor out of keeping with

there are significant differences between


movement

of intricate labyrinthine paintings

in his series

1950, for example).

while he poured paint onto it

the imprint of his

(sec

Autumn Rhythm

surface, Pollock created an allover

its

method of painting. Depth was suggested

of thick and thin paint and

[fig.

78],

an unprimed canvas on the floor and moving around

In placing

in his

in

image

impression of movement bv splicing

v

1

it

arried with lay< rs

movement was

Kooning onveyed

the

<

and repositioning

his figures

<

the superimposed

occasional use ol found objects, and

suggested by the complex network of interlocking tonus

that

their limbs in different

portions of the canvas, and actuated their surfaces and the Space around them with ih textured paint and vivid, contrasting colors.

htcnstcin chose to suggest depth and

ic

I

not by fracturing and faceting forms but by enlarging

movement

of the brush and the character of paint

overlapping

construct

a

Both the

layers.

in

figure

which and

composition by means of the Bend.i\

he made

macrocosm from which

it

.\

such

is

among

howi

thi

rom

1

the

in slightly

were bound into the

vei

enlarged surface incident, so important to the subject of this series. In enlarging the

weight and significance

ol the

ol the

itself.

concentrate even more strongly on

The extreme magnifr

reinforced by

its

the Abstract Expressionists.

paintings—of which other examples

ation ol the brushstroke,

compa<

I

impai

idd< d

it

form. As

Big Painting

Little

are the large canvas

is

of the same

and the aforementioned Yellow and Green

130),

(tig.

nuatured

I

1

1"

a result, this

nc.irK approaches the kind of glorious brushstroke ot the mosl significant

gestural painters

No. 6

i

the Abstract Expressionists,

of the comic-strip paintings, gives

powerful thrust of the brushstroke

[i

brushed onto the canvas

as Little Big Painting,

brushstroke.

similar to the close-up imagery

more

ill

it

was bom. painting

in this series,

the physical quality ^(

painting

He

made

I

brushstroke exists on one plane or

its field,

microscopic form carr}

a

Other works

a

dot.

the concept of painterly painting, and detail,

is

it

Mondnan. and from

Cubists and then successors, from Lichtcnstein derived

as

of a brushstroke

a detail

into an active shape aligned with the surface plane of the painting activity

hi}

ol several

year, Big Painting

Brushstrokes

Lichtenstem used overlapping forms rather than centering one form

our

-in which

01

ing

pla<

two

b)

sid<

illusion ol a< tive shapes m a This arrangement of dense, impacted forms creates the or depth and have Inc., reduced to shallow space: but because they lack am sense of relief subtle contrasts between light and shade. a single bold outline, without any side.

flat

colors and

they read 1,,

forms on

as flat

a fiat plane.

Big Painting No. 6 and Yellow and Green Brushstrokes,

I

ichtenstein dramatically

dynamic activity that was so mu< I. a enlarged the size of the canvas and increased the Brushstroke hasaven defined form, the of Little Big Painting. Although Yellow and Green 01 an be attributed CO the typ< ol loop his shape of the brushstroke recalls Pollock's. i

I

continuous curve

we

recognize from Pollock, though by no means particularly those of the principal

Even the selection ofcoloi paraphrase the value contrasts

••••••••••••••••••••••••i5 # •••••••••••••••••••••••••••

the older

artist's

in Pollock's

Lichtcnstein, Utile Big Painting, 1965 Oil and lOinchi

Purchase with funds from th<

ipp< an

in direel

a

form

to

emu!

mon

ol

mmiscent broad sweeping gesture however, is all and between the space between the two forms I

of Pollocks Roy

form

pamt.ngs. without being

>le>

as

color. Lichtenstein's

?.%?•%!•:•%?•:•?•?•:•:•?•?•

131-

.

Whitney Museum

Friends of du Whitney

ol

M

igna

on

VmericanAn

Museum

ol

i

invas

is

the intimation ol

and then .round,

New York

\mcrican

as

tradition

\ri

is

Chapter

7:

make

a

painting that refers to

neither inconsistent with the

Pollock's influence

161

[b

on 1960s

art.

Brushstrokes. 1965-66

theme

And of course,

a

maste, of twentieth

(

entur) painterl,

With of the series nor on. ol keeping there are

signifl-

-

difl

between


own

predecessors and Ins

work of Lichtenstein's

the

rendition of that painterly tradition

In representing the archetypal Abstract Expressionist brushstroke, he

lias

codified the

notions of intuition, chance, and randomness without practicing them. In they are conspicuously absent, as are the rich palette

and the myriad

summed up

grand tradition

a

in

its

In introducing the

meaning of painterly painting and

he drew our attention to

this series,

has created

structural element,

has traditionally played in painting.

it

had been neglected since the 1950s. He has succeeded

that

the

element of parody into

most obvious

single

the brushstroke, focusing attention on the role that

of light and

painterliness. Nonetheless,

shadow, atmosphere, and depth usually associated with Lichtenstein

his Brushstrokes,

effects

m

raising

some of the most

<

new

a

subject

questions about

ompelling and

provocative works in his entire oeuvre.

See Lichtenstein, quoted

1.

cat.

(Pasadena Art

essay

was reprinted

referred to appears

2.

as

on

in

Coplans.

Roy

'Talking with p.

work based on

a

1

An

htenstein:

u

Lichtenstein"

in

Artforum

Is

Pop

Art?:

located the

brushstroke.

My

i

omiÂŤ

is

Answers

on

strip

pp. 25,

&om

I

163

Conversation with the

Chapter

7:

5,

no. 9

(May

ighi Painters, Part

62-63 ofth(

panel that served

as

L967),

artist.

tftii

I,"

p.

where

ARTnews

i

Khib.

IS, this

th<

pas

Southampton.

Brushstrokes, 1965-66

NY.

August 1992.

62, no. 7

l<

the original sour,

i

thanks to Matthew Armstrong lor providing us with

containing the panel.

4.

Interview," in Roy lichtenstein,

36.

1963). Lichtenstein's discussion

Matthew Armstrong

"Roy

collaboration with the Walker Art (enter, Minneapolis, 1967),

See G[ene] R. Swenson, "What

(November 3.

Museum,

mjohn

fori th(

ii

C(

ht< nstein's firsi

1

k


the

work of Lichtenstein s

predecessors and his

own

rendition of that painterly tradition

In representing the archetypal Abstract Expressionist brushstroke, he has codified the

notions of intuition, chance, and randomness without practicing them. they are conspicuously absent,

.is

and the nun. id

are the rich palette

In his Brushstrokes^

effet tS oi light

and

shadow, atmosphere, and depth usually associated with p.inueiimess. Nonetheless, Lichtenstein

summed up

grand tradition

a

in

its

the brushstroke, focusing attention on the role that In introducing the element ot parody

meaning of painterly painting and

the

it

into this series,

had been neglected since the 1950s. He

that

most obvious

single

structural element,

has traditionally played

he drew our attention to

has succeeded in raising

has created stun,

ol tin-

painting.

in

subject

a

new questions about

most compelling and

provocative works in his entire oeuvre.

1.

cat

See Lichtenstein, quoted (Pasadena Art

essay

was reprinted

referred to appears

2

as

on

p.

work based on

in

i

Lichtenstein:

elaboration with the Walker ii

I

An

An

"What

Is

htenstein" in .lithium

Pop Art ; Answers from

located the comi<

a brushstroke.

Conversation with the

My

:

is

on

pp. 25, 62

I

Roy

Lichtenstcin, White Brushstroke

121.9 x 142.2

New

cm

(48 x 56 inches

/,

1965

*

>il

and Magna

Collection Ronnit ind Samuel

l>

artist,

Heyman,

York

Chapter

7:

Lichtenstein,

no. 9

(Ma) 196

'),

p.

where

i

>chib

15; this

the passage

Brushstrokes. 1965-66

NY.

I."

[RTnews 62, no.

7

63 of tru .mule

Matthew Armstrong

Southampton,

IS

163

5.

ight Painters, Part

stop panel that served

thanks to

!•!•! •!•»?• T»?»T»r»T«I»~«

132.

Roy

Center, Minneapolis, 1967),

.is

foi

containing the panel.

4.

Interview," in

36.

Lichtenstein 's discussion

Matthew Armstrong

"Roy

fohn Coplans,

"Talking with R<>\

See G[ene] R. Swenson,

(November 1963) 3.

Museum,

m

August 1992.

the original source

foi

I

ichtenstein's

proi iding us with the comi<

book

firs!


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!

Modem

he

began with

series

Center

for Lincoln

133).

(fig.

poster that

a

Its

subject

1930s. Although Art Deco originated des arts dkoratifs

it

to attract attention outside

began

Internationale

Europe soon

design. Lichtenstein was interested in isolating

afterward and slowly infiltrated American

and re-creating the most significant motifs Rockefeller Center

1925 (with the Exposition

in Paris in

industriels modernes),

et

summer of 1966

ichtenstein designed in the

1

the architecture and design of the 1920s and

is

period: the stepped-back skyscrapers

oi the

oi

Manhattan, the ornate detailing on theater marquees and

in

throughout the interiors of the grandest theaters and movie palaces—exemplified by the plush overstuffed furniture, brass ornaments, geometrii wallpaper, and other decor

York

(

Radio City Music

Sty's

[all

I

(fig.

I

and the period's elegant accessories and

*5)

mood

streamlined industrial design. But he also wanted to convey the general

Thus, the paintings its

haw

love of ornament,

m

feeling

of nostalgia about them

com ems

khtenstein's work, such

However,

as

interest in

form and composition. While the preceding

all

departure from Lichtenstein's practice of using eithei imagery, the

he was

series represents a return

subsumed by

are

working on the

still

e

of the 1930s,

alternative to the Brushstrokes, and he began the

murals.

overriding

his

a less esoteric subject.

of sorts to

Brushstroke paintings.

its

of Brushstroke paintings w

series

The Art first in a

1

work on them, but

to

the rage since then. Lichtenstein designed the poster for

all

em

era.

ontroversial subjects or recognizable

i

was not popular when he began

a style that

encapsulate

become

Modem

for the innO(

of the

and colors, us movie madness, and

patterns, textures,

its

of I

a

New

at

I

1

in<

oln

it

hey has

Vnier while

(

o tonus provided an

>e<

series

of Art Deco paintings

shortly after he completed the poster. top

134.

canvas,

New

Frank

Stella,

Harran

II,

!'"•"

1'olymci and fluorcsccni polymer paini

Solomon

J04.8 sdiw.i.cra il2<) \ 24(» inches)

York, Gift ot

Mr

Irving

on

series focused

Although the Modern

a

clearly

defined

style

comparisons with the geometric paintings of such Dutch De

R Guggenheim Museum,

and period,

Stijl artists

.is

lent itself to

it

Mondrian,

influenced Art van Doesburg, and Georges Vantongerloo, whose work had strongly he painted when Deco. Lichtenstein first expressed an interest ... the De Stijl movement

Mum. IW2

Theo

133. c.r.ind Foyer Stamisc. K.uiio Cit\

bottom

on

Musk

H.iII.

New

V..ik

h,s versions

ofMondrian's non-objective paintings

and Non-objective

II [fig.

synthesizing that

artist's

42]).

I

L964

in

(see Non-objective

here, he re-created the prototypical

[fig.

I

image. signature style rather than by appropriating any single

might appear

making Mondnans

but within the boundaries thai

style

his subject,

of painting

own

as his

Lichtenstein had already established

Color

series also parallels late 1960s

it

formal

ind signature style

idi as

Field painting.

in

I

h« re

is

II [fig.

134], for example),

I

an un< ann}

design and repeated patten,, coincidental, kinship between the geometric

paintings (see Harran

I

le

reproduction, thus

as

Stella's Protractor

U

"Mondrian"

was intent on capturing the look of a Mondrian

Modern

41]

begun

...

ol

I

he

though

rank

1967,

md

decorative motifs in paintings; both series were derived from similar has not commented on the spe. ifi< 1930s an hitecture and design. Although i< htenstein works by the Color Field and Minimalist relationship of h,s Art Deco paintings to shared many of similarities, espe( ially since he painters, he was obviously aware of certain Lichtenstein's

Modem

I

their formal concerns.

"kind ofblindl) geometric." Lichtenstein has noted that the 1930s were appealed to him: forms of the period and the naivete of the Style

I

hi

geometric /.//

76 J

Roy

133.

.

m

1

15

Screcnprint, Lichtcnstrfn, Linco/ii C«ifrr Poittr, L966 v

30 inches). I»ubli>hed b>

1

isi

\rt

Posten

New

I

16

4

n

I

think the) believed that simpli<

andlogi.

Yori

167

Chapter

8:

il

lb

me there is:

It)

was

art

ithinghu.

Art Deco and Modern, 1966-70

I

he> believed Ver> mu< h us in

in -Ik- rational

being that logical and rational


The Modem

began with

series

for Lincoln Center

133).

(fig,

poster that

.1

subject

Its

Although Art Deco originated

1930s.

is

ichtenstein designed in the

I

it

1925 (with the

began to

Rockefeller ("enter

/

1

"-'*

I

xposition Internationale

attract attention outside

afterward and slowly infiltrated American design.

and re-creating the most

of

the architecture and design of the 1920s and

in Paris in

des arts dicoratifs et industrieh modernes),

summer

Europe soon

ichtenstein was interested in isolating

I

of the period, the stepped-back skyscrapers of

significant motifs

Manhattan, the ornate detailing on theater marquees and

in

throughout the interiors of the grandest theaters and movie palaces â&#x20AC;&#x201D;exemplified by the plush overstuffed furniture, brass ornaments, geometric wallpapi

York

City's \<.\d\<^

Music

itv

(

lall

I

(fig.

its

love of ornament,

m

its

a

onvey

1

patterns, textures, and colors,

com ems

interest in

form and composition. While the preceding

of Lichtenstem's work, such

departure from Lichtenstem's

prai

e "i

ti<

imagery, the .Modem scries represents

become he was

all

a style that

using either

1

working on the

ichtenstein

1

subsumed

are

Brushstroke paintings.

alternative to the Brushstrokes, and he began the

overriding

his

esoteiu subjei

less

.1

1

l<>i

I

m< "In

h

I

work on them, but

to

signed the poster

d(

In

murals.

its

was

.1

ontroversial subjects or recognizable

was not popular when he began

the rage since then.

still

era.

series of Brushstroke paintings

return ol soils to

a

movie madness, and

its

as

encapsulate

mood of the

general

thi

feeling of nostalgia about them for the innocence of the 1930s,

However,

.ill

New

at

135)- and the period's elegant accessories and

itreamlined industrial design. But he also wanted to

Thus, the paintings have

and other decor

r,

â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

has

it

enter while

(

he Art Deco forms provided an

I

first in a

series ol

An

)eco paintings

I

shortly after he completed the poster. fop

134.

(.hums.

New

Frank

304 8

609

x

York. Gift

bottom

Stella, Hit r rati II. 1967

<>f

6cm (120x240

Mr

Polymer and fluorescent polymer paint on

inches)

Solomon

k

<

iuggenhi im

Museum

Theo <

it)

Mum.

Hall,

series

focused on

defined style and period, H lent

a clearly

comparisons with the geometric paintings of such

Irving Blum, 1982

135. Grand Foyer Staircase, Radio

Although the \dodem

New York

Hitch

I

)e Stijl artists

1

Mondl

.is

his versions

first

expressed an interest

the

111

II [fig.

movement when

)e Stijl

I

m

of Mondnan's non-objee :tive paintings

and Non-objective

1964

(see Non-objective

There, he re-created the prototypical "Mondi

42]).

was intent on capturing the look

making Mondnan's

style

of

.1

Modem

series also parallels late

coincidental, kinship between Stella's Protractor

Lichtenstem's

( l

Mondii.m

>()Os

Color

painters, he

\\

nliin the

in

I

bound

here

is

paintings to

was obviously aware

of

1

I

works bv the Color

1

image

style.

begun

in

I

Roy

Lichtenstein. Lincoln Center Poster, 1966 Screenprint, 116.4 JOinches)

Published b)

List

\n

Posters

Mew

[think they believed that simplicity wasarl

>

and

York

167

Chapter

8:

logical

I-

me

there

is

something

Art Deco and Modern, 1966-70

In

rhey

1967, and itiv

rous

mi

being thai

motifs

in

specifii

field mk\ Minimalist

ri(

Hi-

appealed to him:

beli.

he

I

ommented on the

Lichtenstein has noted that the 1930s were "kind of blindly ge

133.

[1

rank

their formal concerns.

left

I

an uncanny, though

ertain similarities, especially since he shared

of the style

by

111

u ies th.it

were derived from similar decoi

ichtenstein has not

41

reproduction, thus

formal ideas and signature

134], foi example)

geometric forms of the period and the naivete

PMILWAPMONIC-MALL

might appear

field painting.

[fig.

paintings; both series

An DeCO

it

[fig.

I

1.

the geometric design ,un\ repeated patterns of

1930s architecture and design. Although relationship of his

own

as his

paintings (see Harran II

Modem

,is

Ins subject, bin

of painting

Lichtenstein had already established

FILM -FESTIVAL

ian,

he painti d

synthesizing that artist's signature style rather than by appropriating any single

4'"^

to

van Doesburg, and Georges Vantongerloo, whose work had strongly influenced Art

Deco. Lichtenstein

SEPTEMBER 12-22 196

itsell

much logical

in the rational ind rational

many

of


about

.i

work

using

ol art-

another and using

arcs that

diagonal thai goes from one corner

a

have their midpoint

very logical things: dividing pictures into halves times or five tunes

would be

art.

I

oi

thirds

oi the picture. All these are

repeating images threi

oi

hey used these formulas because the) thought

Aetn.ilK

it

i

in

be

would make

believing that logi<

edge

th<

at

ol the picture to

that

they did

il

There are two things here: the naive quality art,

and the

possibility

thai

il

it

ol

could

Lichtenstein constituted the compositions of these paintings out of a basic

set ol

circle semicircle, rectangle, square, and triangle â&#x20AC;&#x201D;arranged in the mannei

forms classic

Deco

Art

design (in sets of threes or fours,

repetitions activate each composition, creating a

parameters of the canvas.

I

the densely packed forms.

mes of speed or

huh of energy contained

only by the

vectors appear to converge or diverge

The energy generated by

ol

example). These subdivisions and

foi

these strategies

is

among

boosted by the

tension between jagged or irregular silhouettes and self-contained geometrk shapes.

Because quietude

lchteiistcin's images, if not his

I

136), 1967,

(fig.

There are exceptions, such

in his paintings.

which has the frozen

active, there

means, are so as

Modem

Painting with

1930s

classicism typical oi

rarely a sense ol

is

Si

<

Head

'lassu

despite

ulptural reliefs,

even in the most dynamii the variegated forms and patterns of the background. But mi verticals and these paintings, the forms are locked in plai e l>\ a series of domm. horizontals and the activity

is

neutralized by the abundance

somewhat

ofBenday

ol

screens

reased throughout each composition. Lichtenstein \ stenciling of these screens, whi( h in< different serves two technical proficiency and in the size of the dots during the 1960s,

functions

in these paintings.

Applied

as a

uniform screen over many of the forms,

some an

reinforce the two-dimensionalitv of the picture plane; hut in

IS

in

ol

they

ofthe

I

Iverall, dots to convey sculptural shading paintings, Lichtenstein graded the size ofhis outlines reinforced by the black the feeling of two-dimensionalitv reigns, further (

surrounding most ofthe forms and by areas

work

Painting with C/e/(fig. 137), 1967, a large

Modern ofthe

ot Hat color.

series,

and among Lichtenstein \ most complex statements

popular sources and non-objective motifs play dominant

W-co

Art

series are

sources and

G

its

resolution

as a

painting.

almost entirely abstract, even the

degree of allusion.

Of a

The

title

clef that spans the

full

of

this

work

least

triple

bal in, e

_

"

71

Roy Lichtens

137.

Magna, and pencU on canvas, three eac h

S<

Âť54

ulptun

J

(

K

4ss

iatden

i

cm

(ion

Smithsonian

<

I

Insi

ein,

1

Modern Painting with

panels.

2S4 3

OH inc ho) L

\\.

x

152.7cm

overall

ahington

Clef,

100

Hirshhorn I

"

I

lifi

I

"'

(

ÂŤ60

Museum of |oseph

geometry

that

all

inches)

this "rational"

penchant

ind

Clef,

169

Chapter

8:

I

first

some son

ol

its

in th<

some

gnizable image

.ull

and second panels

are

representational imagery

ichtenstein evokes

tin-

;tyl.

ol

the

I

layers n.

dominates the painting.

1

,

louds, lend

ike a plant interje.

geometry and show something ofthe

form or i

a

some a

relief

from the

m

sunburst pattern

..

note -I -he unexpected amid

period's sophistication and

tor sivlization.

Benday dots

Hirshhorn, 1972

successfully balances

and the nearly perl and quadruple repetitions of geometric forms shapes, whi. h ofthe painting. lowever, two ire u ol freely drawn

In the paintings tha(

1

which both

representational seems to contain

areas 1930s painting or design, the two free-form

>il

m

-

key paii

a

is

and many others

it

height ofthe canvas where the

resemble isolated segments of landscapes or rigid

It

to date

refers to the stylized but

or period references. In Modern Painting with

period through

roles.

Although

contain joined; similarly, most ofthe other paintings

asymmetrical

in three panels,

as

preceded the

Modem

ser.es. Lichtenstein

had worked to establish

the stability ol the picture plane. the principal elemenl maintaining

Art Deco and Modern. 1966-70

I

he


iboul I

a

wi

ol art

trk

— using

.1

diagonal that goes from one cornet of the theii tnidpoini

anothei and using arcs thai have

dividing pictures into halves

\cr\ logical things

times or

\

times

five

would be

hi

a,

\i tually,

repeating images three

01 thirds, 01

thai

ind the possibility that

in

circle, semicircle, rectangle, square,

Deco

Art

classic

of threes or

(in sets

design

and

quietude

in his paintings.

136), 1967,

(fig.

s

1

basi<

oi

set

manm

the

huh of energy contained onU

a

The

energy generated by these strategies

images,

There

if

not

his

means, are so .hum such

are exceptions,

ol

t

the

b)

among

boosted by the

is

ometri< shapes.

g<

there

Modern

as

IS

1

irel)

Painting with

.1

sense ol

Head

'toil

(

1930s sculptural reliefs, despite

has the frozen classi< ism typical o\

which

in

rhesc subdivisions and

tension between jagged or irregular silhouettes and self-contained

Because Lichtenstein

ol

ines of speed or vectors appear to converge Ol diverge

1

the densely packed forms.

ol

— arranged

fours, for example),

repetitions activate each composition, creating

parameters of the canvas

triangle

it

could

it

Lichtenstein constructed the compositions of these paintings out

forms

they did

it

There are two things here the naive quality

can be.

it

would make

believing that logic

the edge of the picture. All these are

hey used these formulas because they thought

I

ture to

pi<

even in the mosl dynami< the variegated forms .uk\ patterns of the hack-round. But these paintings, the forms are locked in place by

horizontals And the activity

is

I

of dominant

neutralized by the abundan<

somewhat

throughout each composition.

a series

ichtenstein's stenciling

of

Benday

these screens, whi« h (

the technical proficiency and in the size of the dots during

functions in these paintings. Applied

and

verticals e ol

l

serves

>(>ns,

two

some

hut in reinforce the tWO-dimensionalit) of the picture plane; dots paintings, Lichtenstein graded the size ol his

convey

...

s(

areas of

diff

mm

reens

s<

in.

uniform screen over many of the forms,

as a

ol

reased

in

rem they

the

ral ol

ulptural shad...-. Overall,

reinforced by the black outlines the feeling of two-dimensionality reigns, further

surrounding most of the tonus and by

areas ol a

Modern Painting with Clef (fig. 137), L967, of the

series,

and

among

flal

1

oIoj

work

large

most complex

Lichtenstein's

Deco

and

n es

its

resolution

series are almost entirely abstract,

degree of allusion.

ofa

G

The

title

of

as

.,

painting.

even the

tins

work

least

three panels,

roles.

Although

ii

It

with or period references. In Alo.lm, Painting

where the

ontain (

U

I

painting

ey

both

successfully balances

some

first

sort

still

its

the

in

representational seems to contain

clef that spans the full height of the canvas ,

I ,

and many others

refers to the stylized but

paintings joined; similarly, most oi the other

is

statements to date in whi. h

dominant popular sources and non-ohjcct.vc motifs play Art

...

some

recognizabl.

11

and second panels

of representational

ar,

im;

5

Of the U htenstein evokes the Style

perfect

period through

triple

asymmetrical balance

.onus and the nearly and quadruple repetitions of geometric di iwn shap. , whi. L> of the painting. lowever, two areas of fie

or resemble isolated segments of landscapes rigid

geometry

that

layers

dominates the painting. Like

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••• pages

136.

Roy

Lichtcnstcin, Modern Painting with Classic Head. 1967 Oil and Magna

on canvas, 172.7

\

208 2

<

m

(68 x 82

in< In

s)

*

oIle<

don

Irving Blum, Ncv. York

170-71

Roy

137.

Lichtenstein, Modern Painting with Clef, 1967

Magna, and pencil on canvas, three each; 2^4

J

-.

4Ss

i

m

C

(100

x

panels,

180

2^

J

x 152.7 erall

Sculpturt Garden, Smithsonian [nscicudon, Washington,

cm

(100

Hirshhorn

DX

<

60

Museum

Gifi ol |oseph

1930s painting or design, the two

>u\

this "rational"

in

all

and

penchant for

h

I

free-1

areas

geometry and show something

of clouds, lend a

plant form 0. ject;

I

so,,., rek, a

m

the

m

sunburst pattern ie

unexpected

ol the period's sophistication

a

;

and

stylization.

,

had worked to estabhsh preceded the Modern series, Lichtenstein ta the paintings that he he picture plane, maintaining the stal Benday dots as the principal element

H

I

Hirshhorn, 1972

169

Chapter

8:

Art Deco and Modern. 1966-70


Modem

paintings represent

were almost

subjects

a shift

entirely

11011

three-dimensional form

as

Where

a figure

In this painting,

it

into the

h\ translating

figure, he has at

I

edge of the canvas, cropping her long

sweeping

arc

running behind her neck from one

reinforces the sharp thrust of

half

as

stretches

it

tresses

from

a tripartite

just left

of hair, reverses

side to the other.

1930s art and design, Lichtenstein

and anchors

(fig.

balam

1

form

1

a

urve also in

L38), 1968, also in three panels,

is

e

third ol the canvas

As

in a gieat deal ol

between

and

verticals

tonus. In keeping with the best

static

he used repetition held

left

in place.

it

careful to stuk.

is

diagonals, curves and straight edges, dynamic and

Preparedness

This

n\~

diagonal form that divides the painting nearlx

effectively offsets the energized diagonal

of the period's style,

the middle

direi tion to

of the bottom middle of the canvas to the upper-right

corner. At the same time, the figure's occupation of the entire

examples

a

volumes into Hat

its

To reinforce the flatness of this merged her forms with those surrounding hei hus a curve that begins lett

in

is

it

composition

planes, without even a hint of modeling.

the

as

he used 1930s stvh/ation to render

two dimensional shape

.1

to the fact that Ins

introduced,

is

Head, Lichtenstein has integrated

Classii

two-dimensional image.

as a

measure

in large

-representational and two-dimensional, and therefore

did not require the same type of treatment.

.Modem Painting with

due

direction,

ill

check by fixed geometiu form.

in

ichtensteins conscious attempt to

I

paraphrase the themes and the look of murals commissioned by the government's Works Progress Administration (W.P.A.), which was inaugurated

much

in

an interview: "They are pseudo-murals,

social-political look

W.I'.

in

1935.

A. murals,

I

u

and they mutate the

of the 1930s. They have an eager optimism. You

realize that I'm not

serious about the glory of defending our shores against foreign devils,

would

imply. But the purpose

composition." Preparedness painting

in

about the

onl\ tin reverse.

isn't

recalls

which the dynamic of

modern

the

city

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;most

World War

II

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; but

it

also serves to

emphasized here by the difference

-<

l~-

Roy

MM H\

three panels.

216 inches)

138.

\H2

lichtenstein. Preparedness, 1968

'an

Solon on

over.ill

(12o

K

c

72 inches) each;

\

''"4

(

8

k

Museum, New

iii^enheiin

>il

and Magna on canvas

548

7

cm

interior.

making such

a distinction,

This panel.

study

.1

1930s by American

V< -rk

artist

1

n ate

as

Roy

139.

M igna (12'. \

1

mnc

2n inches)

p.i icl$.

overall

Kin

M>(. 7 \

7

Private collection,

cm

(42 x 12 inches)

New

<

ich;

120 x

^n^n

two by means

it

lift

on

~~

.

140.

anvas

Roy

(100 x ISO inches) overal

\

I

^2

I

cm

(100

x

60 im

he$) each;

254

our nation preparing

.1

striking pattern

of receding forms

ol Preparedness into three left

panels

in

is

hand panel and the two

to

its

which the

in

deputed on the

and white, depicts the smoking chimneys

ol

.1

builds, recalling similar vistas in paintings ot the

details

of girders and machine

panels. Benciay-dot screens in

and White Cloud

x 45

(fig.

I

some segments of blue Bcnday

whose fulcrum

Curves, which were free-form

lichtenstein. Peace Through Chemistry. 1970 Oil and

three p>nels. 2^4

hope

sense of

Charles Demuth. The other two panels, whose tonality

o\.\ blue quarter circle,

constellation of diagonals

York

two pages

a

h< roi<

another

is

parts.

Lichtenstein brilliantly accomplishes the transition from the left-hand panel to the other

Lichtenstein, Modular Painting with Nine Panels, 1968 Oil and

ram.is,

onvey

an introduction to the images

predominantly red and yellow, feature workers m^\ I'll

1

he was echoing Renaissance precedents

in blue, black,

munitions factory mk\ the cannons

(120 x

to

141). 1919,

likely a referem e to

between the

in colors

exterior wings of panel paintings served pages

works

these

also a statement about ity (fig.

I

was meant

The division

the lower portion of the middle panel.

right. In

as

future. In Lichtenstein's painting, the row of helinctcd heads symbolizes

America's military and industrial strength itself for

It

is

Fernand Legers The

htenstein noted as

19),

all

bisects the black vertical

three panels again

in earlier paintings,

175

Chapter

8:

and

boundary

a

ol the first

onve) eithei volume or as

Drowning Girl

(fig.

flatness.

106), 1963,

1964, are absolutely mechanical in this canvas. In another

three-panel work. Peace Through Chemistry

Private collection

such

1

dots,

Art Deco and Modern, 1966-70

(fig.

140), 1970, Lichtenstein repeated the color


Modem

paintings represent

subjects

wee

Modem

Painting with

shut

a

in direction,

due

measure to the

in large

fact that Ins

almost entirely non-representational and two-dimensional, and therefore did not require the same type of treatment. Where a figure is introduced, as it is ,n as a

Head,

lassi<

(

two-dimensional image.

three-dimensional form

as

.,

planes, without even a hint

I

htenstein has integrated

it

In this painting,

into th

it

two-dimensional shape by translating

of modeling,

fo reinforce the Harness

merged her forms with those surrounding

nposition

he used 1930s stylization to render

rhus

her.

its

volumes into

of this

at the

ed-e of the canvas, cropping her long tresses of ham reverses direction sweeping arc running behind her neck from one side to the other. This the

middle

left

half as

stretches

it

o\' a tripartite

from just

corner. At the same tune, the figure's occupation effectively offsets the energized diagonal

1930s

and design, Lichtenstein

art

ol the

and anchors

diagonals, curves and straight edges, dynamic and

examples of the period's Preparedness

(fig.

in

three panels,

paraphrase the themes and the look

ol

murals

(

is

"They

an interview:

m

As

right

of the canvas great deal

a

between

..I

and

verticals

keeping with the

In

,,,

best

ichtenstein's conscious attempt to

I

ommissioned

Progress Administration (W.P.A.), which was inaugurated in

to the uppei

third

Left

forms

stati<

1968, also

much

also

he used repetition held in check by fixed geometrii form

style,

138),

ntdre

I

in place.

it

careful to strike a kilan. e

is

a

diagonal form that divides the painting in.,,K

of the bottom middle of the canvas

left

oi

form

to

curve

reinforces the sharp thrust

flat

figure, he has

curve that begins

a

a

b\ the govt

1935.

in

nment's Works

I

noted

icht< nstein

I

as

pseudo murals. W.P.A. murals, and they imitate the

are

social-political look of the 1930s.

They have

You

an eager optimism.

realize that I'm not

serious about the glory of defending OU1 shores against foreign devils, as these works

would

imply. But the purpose

composition." Preparedness painting in

isn't

which the dynamit

only the reverse.

Fernand

recalls

eger's

modern

the

ol

I

city

The

America's military and industrial itself for

World War

II

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; but

it

emphasized here by the difference

making such

right. In

a

distinction, he was

~*

threepancb 216 inches

138. 104.8

overall

Roy

Lichtenstein, Preparedness, 1968

x 182.9

cm

Solomon

(120 x 72 inches

(

>il

and Magna

J04.8 x 548.7

each

cm

"ii

cam

interior.

is,

his panel, a stuck

T

in blue, blac k,

munitions factory and the cannons

(120

R Guggenheim Museum New York

1930s by American

artist

(

as

harles

I

it

e<

139.

Roy

Magna on

Lichtenstein, Modular Painting with Nine Panels, 1968

canvas, nine panels, 106.7

(126 x 126 inches) overall

x 106

'

Private collection,

cm(42>

12 inches) each

<

>il

120 x

and 120

Lichtenstein brilliantly cm

Nevi York

pagi

176

Magna on |lMI â&#x20AC;˘

i

am

140.

is,

180 inches

Roy

constellation of diagonals

Lichtenstein, Peace Through Chemistry, 1970

three panels, overall

^4\

152.4

cm

(100 x 60 inches

i

each

(

254

>il

<

and

(

\S1 2

cm

panels.

urves,

which were free-form (fig.

175

Chapter

8:

ol Prepared^

|

adA

white-, depi<

I

e prei

ts thi

i

edents

in

Art Deco and Modern. 1966-70

in

is

i"

its

whii h the

left

of blue

tonality

and inn hine

hand panel

Bendav

panels again

c

onvev either

dots,

(fig.

Âť1

i

is

parts.

to the other

and

vol

Drowning Girl

mechanical in

i

paintings of the

whose

details of girders

in earlier paintings, sin h as

Through Chemistry

u-K

smoking chimni

IStas in

\

he othei two panels,

some segments

thn

>.n

ing

11

forms

ling

into thre<

fuleruin Insects the black vertical boundary Ol in all

prep

natii mi

hand panel and Hie two

left

hoing Ken.iiss.nn

119), 1964, are absolutely

three-panel work. Peaa

Private colle< tion

whose

Bendav-dot screens

and White Cloud

circle,

our

ing pattern "I

still

omplishes the transition from the

two by means of a blue quarter

two

"

a<

asenseofhopi

an introduction to the images depi< ted on the

predominantly red And yellow, feature workers and left:

141), 1919, anothei

to conve)

helm< ted heads symbolizes

builds, recalling simil.n

)enniili

statement about 'heroii

a

(fig

'ity

(

between the

in colors

also

likely a referen< e n>

Hie division

exterior wings of panel paintings served 172

"i

also serves to create a

the lower portion of the middle panel.

is

was meant

about the future. In Lichtenstein's painting, the row strength - most

It

i

i

e 01 (fig.

this canvas. In

he

first

flatness.

106), 1963,

another

140), 1970, Lichtenstein repeated thecoloi


different motifs and restricting scheme and compositional devices of Preparedness, using unmodulated mode. Here, the middle panel lacks the the areas of Bcnday dots to their flat,

yellow Of the two outside panels differences are

much

In Preparedness

less

(as

well as the blue of the left-hand panel), but the

noticeable than the color shift in Preparedness.

and other paintings of the

Modem

series, the

diagonal

is

the principal

of energizing the composition. This is means of dividing and organizing the space and Panels (fig. 13';). 1968, Lichtenstein's most especially true of Modular Painting with Nine images, ,n which the play of curve against successful attempt at working with repeated diagonal reaches its apogee. Lichtenstem, who was curve, arc against arc, diagonal against

of repetitive

interested in the type

Pernand Uger, The

City, 1919

Oilon

canvas

231

I

x

150.8

cm

A

I

I

iallatin

(

this

i,

(91

x

within Philadelphia Mus< "in ol \ri

made by Donald Judd during

panel could be placed anywhere in the period, created h.s Modular works so that each pattern. In this respect, Lichtenstein's Art Deco square's grid without changing the overall despite their similar sources. Whereas paintings differ markedly from Stella's of that time, into three panels, each of which is a htenstein divided a painting such as Preparedness each of his paintings as a single unified image potentially separate image. Stella conceived I

141.

structural units

Lichtenstem was corresponding shape. Though cognizant of shape and edge,

a

oilcction

In the primarily concerned with the internal organization of a painting.

manner

in

which he divided

organization of space in

space

his

still

Stella's Protractor

has

its

paintings has

ourse, the reference to reality, htenstein's

1,

I

work, whereas

it

its

roots in the allover painting of

1960s Minimalist

diminished,

is

peripheral in

Stella's, for.

although

is

1950s/earl)

relationship of Stella's motifs to the 1930s, this aspect

is

series, the

Cubism, whereas the

own late no matter how

1950s Abstract Expressionism and his i

roots in

Modem

always

a

style.

And, of

factor in

we

are

aware of the

not the most significant feature of

work's overriding emphasis on abstract form.

his

Lichtenstem

summed up

the difference

between

his

Art

Deco

paintings and the art and

attached to design of the 1920s and 1930s by stating that there was a "kind of absurdity their

concern with

noted, "In

logic."

my work

kind of irony.

It

knows

u htenstein views

I

u htenstein,

i

Xnr 2.

I

4

like to relate

I

it's

York

I.

no

all

quoted I

(J.

art

in

iihi.ua

to his

work and

is

also

especially his

Paul Katz,

of his contemporaries, he

"Ro)

I

m

own

art.

But

today's

work

has a

The same can be said of Lichtenstein's insight into his work in general, for

unusual to be rational

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

that

the 1930s to todays rational

paintings, but the statement

Modem I

With regard

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

ichtenstein:

."'

as partly rational

Modern

and

partly ironic.

Sculpture with Velvet Rope," Art \o\r

1969), n p

Ibid

I

ichtenstein,

[bid.,

p 28

quoted

in

Diane Waldman, Roy Lichtenstem (New York Harry N. Abrams, 1972),

p.

26


Chapter

9

Mirrors, 1969-72, and Entablatures, 1971-76


TYRE BROTHERS

begun

Lichtenstein*s Mirror series,

class company

on the nature

to date

and

of reality

1969,

in

illusion.

minors

(see fig.

He

143).

way

liked the

most successful discourses

oi Ins

was living on the Bowery

le

1

was attracted to the printed brochures he saw .\nd

one

constitutes

<

windows

in the

the time tnd

ii

ot the stores that sold glass

the brochures rendered mirrors "with

ail

brushed mirror symbols, reflecting nothing." Lichtenstein had toyed with the idea 1

some of his

reflections in Gold L»af Ovol 2301—Glass Suo 20«3O

Pop

early

paintings, drawings, and enamels, as well

Modern paintings and sculptures, but now he began

Overo"

terms of image, shape, reflection, in

the series.

It

connects several ofl

cam-as, as in Cat

(fig.

43), 1961, the black-and-white

1961, the opacity of Magnifying Glass 144), 1964. Just as the initial

(fig,

Overall

their cursory renderings, he

magnify the

illustrations in the catalogues he

began

reflected in Gold Laaf 2304—Glass SUo

Him

tions in

i

these nev»

Bowery

the

in

a

the Yellow Pages. Inspired b\

cosmeti< mirrors used to

ol

He

mirror, but in images that did not

was nol

refle<

I

im

rested in a clear

int(

exai

discovered

oi

He

il\.

used

Igi

of these sources

all

for his series ot Mirror paintings. 2O..-.0

ZAVtnAAVt

Glass Si" Overall,

found

patterns that wen- already abstract

which he noticed

\.\cl\ in

as

photographs

to take

shapes, shadows, and reflections that he liked.

Overall

ofrefli

22x34 Vi

or reproductions from one of his regular sources, such

28T.I

first

of Black Flowers (fig, 25),

Pop images had been based on reproductions,

images of mirrors were modeled on

Gold L*af Oval 2302— Glass Slie. 2O«30

imagery

the

is

in

uniting a circul.n

In

1963, and the pattern

44),

(fig.

142). 1969,

(fig.

I

com ems

htenstem's earlier

i<

as in his

to explore them more thoroughly,

dn^ shadow. Mirroi U

light,

ol

In early

34Vi«44Vi

still lifes

such

as

Ik htenstem's reprodu<

Black Flowers,

tion oi

newspaper

a

2862 -Glass Sue

30«4fl Overall 34V..52V.

was

illustration

essential to the dialei

popular subject and

make

a

painting o\\\

catalogue. 143.

IVc

from bro. lure

for

Ivrc Brothers Glass

(

ompan)

1

its re

reation as

i

common

t

resemble

H

in Mirroi

painted image. Similarly,

a

household produc

he was only

Initially,

he established between the representation

that

ti(

I

sought to

Ik-

reprodui tion from

.i

ol a

a

mil roi

noted

partially successful for, as he

os tageles

M\

first

mirror p.imiin^s didn'l n

k-.irnin^ to

make them understandable

the brushstroke paintings.

Reflections,

i<>i

example.

Lichtenstein was correct (see

chapter 7)

than most,

less

in

I

vcr)

com

think

I

n

ti

comparing

lymbols

the

\dirro\

However, whereas

his

thin

lml<-

a

true ol

is

-

ephemeral

were

Like the Landscapes (see chapter

6),

far

omi<

i

i

more

things.

and

(in

made

i

image, due to

the Brushstrokes) radical

difficult to

compose a

in

fol

cognizable *

iewers

distint

COgnh

into P

sees

r<

>!

I

the Mirror paintings hardei

the Mirror: evolved into

discourse on the abstra<

t

ould be made into shapes with

more

serii

elusive subjects

-strip

images of brushstrokes arc

to decode. Furthermore, the brushstrokes

a

required

paintings to the Brushstroke

abstract qualities

brushstrokes, the blank reflecting surfaces

became

foi

brushstrokes and reflections are

on the images'

Silhouettes, while the mirrors

li

same

tin-

immediately accessible to the viewer than

alteration of scale.

objective

mirrors to people

mirrors

.is

make

like to

like

2

in the sense that

Lichtenstein's emphasis

as

look

all)

ible

images.

which the ultimate

nature of reality and pure form.

I

the pattern for the Mirror #/. though rendered only in black and white, establishes

121.9

cm

Lichtenstein, Mirror #i, 1969 Oil and Magna on canvas, 152.4

an overall oval shape and

early

represent

example

a

a

I.

enough information

type of image exists I

onsists

of one

flat,

m

Chapter

9:

a

set

oi

BO

i

odes— in

uze what

Magnifying Glass, one of Li.

abstract shape

(60 x 48 inches) Collection] Douglas S Cramer, Los Angeles

183

ol

pattern ol elongated, irregular black-and-white

mirror, giving us just

ot this

invented images, whit

K

predominantly abstract image consisting

this instance,

An Roy

a

It

motifs—to

142.

employs

entire series.

Mirrors, 1969-72. and Entablatures. 1971-76

(a

circle filled

it

htenstem's

with dots)

is.

first


Lichtenstein's Mirror series,

begun

1

in

on the nature of reality and

to date

mk\ mirrors

He was

illusion.

some of his

the scries.

It

early

(fig.

Mirro\ B

stoics that sold glass

minors "with

dm

I

images of mirrors were modeled on

imager)

142). 1969,

which he

he found

illustrations in the catalogues

noti.

ed patterns

shades, shadows, and reflections that he liked. reflected

...

a

for his series

mirror, but

of Mirrm

such

bro. hure foi

lwt Brothers

(

ilass

(

ompanj

as

Black Flowers,

l

Yelk™

the

as

essential to the dialectic that

os Vngeles

Initially,

its

a

,

he was only

make them

R»eflei tions, foi

su<

partially

understandabl.

i

I

like to

than most,

less

tin-

sec

Lichtenstein's emphasis

i

essful for, as

a

rs

as

I

..II

w ry

ig<

ol these sour,

paringtheM

ssible to

on the images'

a discourse

^lie,Item*

pap.

ol a tu

Itreq

i

ol a

ghtto

#* he!

I

mi,

roi

.

ilitd.

I

althi

.ymbolsforep

and

the vie>

on

i

Brushstrol

tings to th(

r,

refle, tions are

.an;

m

subj

lusw, strip

«

imag

due to

Brushstrokes ij*ed

abstract quahties an,

»

okesar.

.detheiW

into shapes

d

-rs

gsh«de

,

^

todnew

«

~

"ff

''

and pure! the abstract nature ofreaUty

mL#J, though rendered only in black and white,,co hTTnZce,

<

think d» samethingwas

mak< ver

ore louettl, while the mirrors were n theMn ;,:;,, /.W.,,, .see eV

ent

d

us<

im

leai

reprodu, tion from

look like mirrors to people

the blank reflecting surface

became

tu

3ow<

he noted:

could be made decode Furthermore, the brushstrokes

objective

reprodui tion

whereas his images of brus deration of scale. However,

t0

1

thes<

the

he established between the representation

tha. brushstrokes

immediately,

fjlnokes.

tly

Him

in

Kampl.

Lichtenstein was correct in

chapter 7) in

m

-

1

household product resemble

ommon

che brushstroke painting,.

(see

25),

(fig.

discovered

01

I

a

...

Minor re-creation as a painted image. Similarly, in

My first mirror paintings didn't really [earning to

1

in

first

mirrors used to

le was not interested fl.

the

miliar

i

Pages. Inspired by

already abstra.

wer.

u htenstein's

was

painting of

is

iii

paintings.

illustration

a

I

thai

no! p

lifes

catalogue.

&om

^\

thai

still

make 143. Page

images

In early

popular subject and

I

...

I

Black Flowers

ol

ol cosmeti< their cursory renderings, he began to take photographs

face, in

ol

and the pattern of reflections

or reproductions from one ofhis regular sources, such

magnify the

id, a

Pop images had been based on reproductions,

144), 1964. Just as the initial

air-

well as in his

as

b\ uniting

concerns

earlier

44). 1963,

(fig.

the tunc and

ai

them more thoroughly,

to explore

43), 1961, the black-and whiti

1961, the opacity of Magnifying Glass (fig.

windows of the

Pop paintings, drawings, and enamels,

connects several ofl lchtcnsteins

canvas, as in Cat

on the Bower)

ichtenstein had toy d with the

1

Modern paintings and sculptures, but now he began terms ofimage, shape, reflection, light, and shadow in

must successful discourses

ol his

living

in the

brushed mirror symbols, reflecting nothing."' reflections in

one

constitutes

liked the way the brochures rendered

He

(sec fig. 143).

"'"

brochures he saw

to the printed

was attracted

I

predominantly absu

ge

Mm

go

n I

ase

a

tab*

pattern of e.ong an ovendlov!d shape and a

for the

e^ .nd-wfcte

»^^->rr?tTS^S^*asfirssixs;

^tiTto^re

ablatuRES. 1971-76 M.RRORS. 1969-72, ano En ,

183

Chapter

9:


representing dots).

magnifying glassâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;superimposed on another

a

Using

Ins characteristic

Benday

image without describing any of the surface

showing only an opaque

with smaller

filled

compelling graphic

a

magnifying

characteristics of the

composed of bold

surface

square

(a

screen, Lichtenstein treated

glass,

black hues and Benday dots and not

a

hint of shimmer or reflection. In the Mirror series,

had

in several

of the

/

landscape to look like

magnified I2

l

>.

a flat,

two-dimensional image

(see fig.

1

a fully

mirror was used

ot

van Eyck's Giovanni Arnoljini and His Bride (Wedding

velazquez's The Maids of Honor, L656,

pictorial device, an

a

Western painting to create the

in

a

mirror

illusion ot space. In

1434, and

Portrait),

shown

is

Diego

in

reflecting figures that are clearly

placed outside the frame of the painting. Centuries later, Juan Gris elaborated

concept

in his

Cubist collages,

among them The

Washstand

actual slivers o\\\ mirror in his work, (ins spoke of this

You want i

to

know w

In

I

had to

reated and volumes reinterpreted in

whose

surface

nothing

else to

is

on

stick .i

picture, but

always changing and which should

do but

stick

on

.1

m

whal

Unlike van Eyck or Velazquez, however,

I'M 4:

om

is

do iboul

to

I"

as a

means of transforming

who were

intent

the mirrored glass into

its

flatness

surface as

a

145. (35

x

Juan Gris, The Washst.nd, In

'.-

inches)

\'>\2

Oil and pasted glass on canvas, 24

N

18

cm

Joseph Cornell,

non

box constructions such

in his

painting's picture

of a

way

lllusionistic

as

suggest that even something solid can convey

I

a

s<

rise oi

By choosing

source, he eliminates

already

two

steps

a

its

reproduction of

illusion

rudimentary

removed from the

Hie

real thing.

making

shapes, and colors. Thus,

it

contained within the Mirror paintings

it

mo

to subvert

e in his

between

illustration

his

->t

it.

boxes, and to

hani.

SS ol

impossible for the

as

one could the

<

basis

as his

image

even further into

it

is

its

..presentation

n produ. ed

all)

easier to reduce

l

image and mirror

..

three-dimensionality, thus beginning the proi

represents only the -idea'' n[\i mirror,

amalgam of lines,

a

played with

"he ephemeral and the intangible.

distance In Mirror #/, however, lichtenstein widens the in reality.

ot

(Chocolai Menier),

Entitled

I

dimension oi spa( 1952, also used mirror fragments to enhance the

Private i< lection

i

translating real space- into

on

circumventing the medium's limitations. Like van Eyck and Velazquez, suggest reality and the notion of ambiguity, using the mirror fragments to artist

is

pictorial spa<

(iris

American

n

mirroi

i

even the spectator? rhere

reflect

an illusiomstic pictorial equivalent, Gris accentuated the

embedded

this

real pi<

Like his predecessors. Gris used the mirror

plane and

on

145), 1912, b\ including

(fig.

piece ol mirror! well, surfaces can

a

01

126, 128, and

figs.

pen eption. As

rolling

a

example)

16, for

developed, concrete image (see

for example), he again plays with the notion in a

which he deputed

andscape and Brushstroke paintings, in

brushstroke into

a

image reflected |an

ichtenstein further complicates the issue of illusionism. As he

1

a flat

iewer to embrace the

illusion

...

even the most

or Cornell, because Lichtenstein's are metaphysical work of van Eyck, Velazquez, (ins. are ultimately unattainable. Moreover, hereductive images of intangible reflections that abstract, taking his dies not from the has made these .mages intentionally opaque and uses the tropes of the shadow 01 realm of art but from the realm of advertising. He

reflection as they are rendered in the

that /ÂŤ/r

144.

Roy

42.9cm(21

Lichtenstein, Vim,

ix16

-.inches).

The

l%4

<

Iraphite

and louche on paper. S4 S x

Saint Louis Art

we can

Mirror

recognize the image

#/ and

185

Chapter

9:

us just

enough

ot these deta.ls so

mirror.

were Lie htenstc.n's most the tond. and oval canvases that followed

concentrated efforts to date

Museum.

as a

media and gives

in

exploring the issue of painting

1971-76 Mirrors. 1969-72. and Entablatures.

as object.

Their most


glass—superimposed on another

represent!.,- a magnifying

Using

dots).

surfai

i

in several

i

a flat,

two-dimensional image

brushstroke into

a

and Benday dots and not

lines

a

As he u htenstem further complicates the issue of illusionism.

I

of the Landscape and Brushstroke paintings,

landscape to look like

magnified

compelling graphii

a

or reflection.

In the Mirrot series,

had

with smaller

filled

haracteristics of the magnifying glass,

showing only an opaque surface composed of bold black

shimmer

square

Benday screen, Lichtenstein created

Ins characteristic

image without describing any of the

hint of

(a

...

which he deputed

(see fig.

1

rolling

example) or

16, fol

developed, concrete image

a folly

a

(see figs

128, and

>6,

I

of perception. As , pi, torial devi< e, an 129, for example), he again plays with the notion Western p anting to create the illusion ol spa( e. In image reflected in a mirror was used in

Diego His Bride (Wedding Portrait), L434, and in (an van Eyck's Giovanni Arnolfini and figures that are clearly Honor, a mirror is shown reflecting

Velazquez's The Maids

L656,

of

Centuries later, Juan iris laborated on this placed outside the frame of the painting. Washstand (fig. 145), 1912. by including his Cubist collages, among them The «

<

concept

in

actual shvers

in his

of a mirror

You want

to

knew why

I

work. Gris spoke of this had to

stick

created and volumes reinterpreted

whose

surface

nothing

cist-

a piece of mirror? Well, surfaces can

in a pi< ture,

but whai

always changing and which should

is

to

on

do but

stick

on

in 1914:

refli

is

I .

one

to

even

do about sp.

th.

i

re

mirroi

a

tato.

here

I

is

a real pie< e

spa, mirror as a means of transforming pictorial Like his predecessors, Gris used the who were intent on translating real space mto Unlike van Eyck or Velazquez, however, .,„

illusionistic pictorial equivalent,

p] tne

and embedded the mirrored

Gris accentuated the flatne glass into

its

i

painting's picture

van Eyck and Velazquez, circumventing the medium's limitations. Like mirror fragments to suggest realit, and the notion of ambiguity, using the I

American 145.

Juan Gris,

(35 x 10

77..

inches)

Washstand, 1912 Oil and pasted

glass

on canvas, 24

N

18

artist Joseph

way

surface as a non-illusionisti<

Cornell, in his box constructions

su, b as

-

'ntitled

played with

is

li

to subvert (<

Private collection

By choosing

reahty.

source he eliminates already

two

steps

a

its

reproduct.on of a rudimentary

removed

lllusi

Iron, the real thing.

; n contai „ed within the Mirror paintings

^physical work of van

is

as

easie, to redu, e

impossible for

one could the

th,

it

nude

*e

to

embrace the

»

ill.

I**"""

these images intentionally

opaque and

abstract, taking his cues

the tropes

42.9cm

Roy (21

Lichtcnstein,

*x

16%

Him, 1964 Graphite and touche on

inches)

[*he Saint

Louis Art

we

can recognize the image

as a

not from the

o the shadow or details so

mirror.

most that followed were Lichtensteuis the tondi and oval canvases object. Then most the issue of painting as concentrated efforts to date in exploring

M.norUl and

paper, S4 s x

Museum

185

Chapter

9:

-

are because Eyck. Velazquez, Gris, „r Cornel,, Moreover, he that are ultimately unatumable.

of advertising. He uses realm of art but from the realm enough of these the media and gives us just reflection as they are rendered in that

ms

eve,, further into a flat

reflections reductive images of intangible

has

:ror as

The mechanically reproduced .mage

of a mirror, making -

n oflines, shapes, and colors. Thus,

JLlgam

illustration ol a

the process of representation three-dimensionality, thus beginning

represents only the "idea"

144.

Men*),

lal

I

..

tid to in hisb, to enhance the dimension oi space 1952 also used mirror fragments and the .ntangible. can convey a sense of the ephemeral suggest that even something solid image and its basis widens the distance IIn Muror #/, however, Lichtenstein

cm

m

left

oi

1971-76 Mirrors. 1969-72. and Entablatures.


146.

Roy

Lichtcnstcin. Mirror: 24" Diameter

UN,

1970

(

>il

and

Magna on

-

mvas,

«,i (l)

cm

i

illection

Mitchell

I

Roy

147.

,

,,,

>4

Lichtcnstcin, Mirror: 24" Diameter #7, 1970 in«

diami

l'.

t<

i

Privat<

olli

i

*

>il

and Magna on canvas,

cion

ichtenstein

right

,

148.

anvas, 121

Roy 9

Lichtcnstcin, Mirror (48" Diameter), 1972 Oil and

cm

i4« inches) diameter

Private collet cion

Magna on


notable predecessors in Ins

school notebook. However,

Composition

in

using the image

76), 1964, for example,

11 (fig.

between the shape

established a correlation

made

arc the paintings he

own oeuvre

and

oi the object

vers,,,,,

painted

its

htenstein

i.

1

ol a

by relating

differentiating between the matte surface of the the image to the canvas rectangle and bv paintings, he used the and the glossier surface of the cove, h, the M

notebook binding

to establish Such chape of the canvas, rather than the image,

The

oval Mirror paintings (see

figs.

correspondence.

a

150 and 151) are lean and elegant images that

overlaid with Bencfcn dot sevens Lichtenstein created out ofa white held ,

minimal application

oi

color and

and leaving most ol theii surface calm

line,

uninterrupted. In these works, he achieves transcends even such deliberate evo,

and Non-objeetive

II (fig.

is

high degree of abstraction

a

Lichtenstein has applied color,

line,

way

in a

as Non-objective

of pure abstraction

I

(see figs. 146. 147.

both 1964. In the Mirrortondi

42),

onh.

.,,,,1

in his charai

and Benday dot patterns

t,

i

that

(fig

1

and

1

148),

manner,

istii

each panning and bordering the anvas with a generally select,,,- one color to dominate sparse areas ol dots, and small consisting variably n( segments ol black line, <

narrow band

to tins are the tondi in

wedges of color. Exceptions uiding one or

more

colors.

To

photographs of reflections

in

of reflections and shadows

create the rippling effect

other Mirror paintings, he depicted the

these.' as in

lights

and darks

that

Vfirror

areas ol solid black and mirrors by juxtaposing amorphic

,„ unmodulated zones of vertical

bands of Bcndav

of blue The reflections

panels

are

dots.

mind

to

.,

Modem

(Lichtenstein used

fin 86-89]

.,

lolor Field paintings

few (remarkably

,„ Mirror in Six Panels

and others

Painting with Cle)

the Leo Castelli Gallery and

like

it,

such

a

«

i<

shown

as

abstract,,,,, .range,

Red

an ensemble

[fig.

I

53], 1966)

(fig.

Pop works, Uve

when

it

It

also recalls

which Monet captured the very

essence

(fig

was

1

do the

as

as his

own

138),

1968

Ammo

displayed pubh, K

firs,

and sold thereafter, bu, was divided up

.atural torn,

by

,

as a

some of his more

ol light

Nfe«

Monet's epic see

19)

color

-Ellsworth Kelly

and Preparedness

abstract

rUection.

m

monumental canvases

137), 1967,

at several sites

htenstein's superb sense ol

the four-panel Mirro,

as

cousin of such

(fig.

I

recalls

Il

array

.,

This sublime painting of a minor diptych and three single panels, achieves a heightened sense landscape paintings in whi. h he

tits arencv.

and shaped

one such example, an

is

Ins earliest five-panel forma, in one of

1962, which was

mnln panel

exemplify

(such as Blue, Green, Yellow,

ofNoland and Stella-and

multi-panel

(

several large-scale

and and yellow complemented by diagonal sections sliver hes ol bla< k, and fev

both an acknowledgment of 1960s color

come

paintings

t

panned

Si* Panels (fig. 152), 1971,

in

red, white,

abstract torn,. This painting

L971

ovals, Lichtenstein

large-scale paintings that rival the best of the

canvases of the 1960s. Mirro,

in

,„ Ins

he found

others of graduated Benday dots

Along With the tondi and

color by

a field ol

which he interrupts

and shade.

«- L** »

.eying the atmosphere

depart

o s

ichtenstein did no. paintings, water garden in Giverny. In the Mirro, very 5 ed « fo, paintings derived from Ins firs. comic-Strip system of formal elements panning as reprodu, nonol m rely on the look ofa afferent ends. He continued to enough to apply then, to an elements and altered the concept JUS. original but refined the was tree o had established his system o codes, h, abstraction. Now that he fr

1

his

1

.,

1,11

.

149.

urns

Roy

ichtenstein.

Minor

ttt

(it,

roiup,„eU.243>ls4S7an(96»

"2 inches] iiwi

ill

Prune

4 perils If X

6%

1971.

18 inches) each; 243.8

I

CM

.....I

182.9

\1

cm

exploration of

I

Jprovise on any

ce.lkclion

189

Chapter

9:

subject.

Through

colors, the economical use of forms,

1971-76 M.rrors. 1969-72. and Entablatures.

textures, he


notable predecessors

in his

own oeuvre

he made using the image of

arc the paintings

school notebook. However, in Coiii/wifioi/

// (fig.

76), 1964, for example,

between the shape of the object and

established a correlation

ichtenstein

1

painted version by relating

its

between the matte surfa< the image to the canvas rectangle and by differentiating

md

notebook binding

oval Mirror paintings (see

a

correspondence.

150 and 151) arc lean and elegant images

figs.

oi a

minimal application of coloi and

line,

leaving most of their surface calm and

uninterrupted. In these works, he achieves

high degree of abstra< tion

a

transcends even such deliberate evocations of pure abstraction

md

Non-objective

both 1964.

42).

II (fig.

adding one or more

to this are the tondi in

create the rippling effe<

To

in

way

Son-objective

I

that

41)

(tig.

L46, 147. and

his chara<

which he interrupts 1

.he lights these, as in other Mirror paintings, he depict, d

photographs of reflections

.1

tei isti(

1

*8),

manner, ..

variably

colors.

...

in

dominate each painting and bordering the canvas will. of segments of black line, sparse areas of dots, and small

generally selecting one color to

wedges of color. Exceptions

.is

In the Mirrortondi (sec figs.

patterns Lichtenstein has applied color, line, and Bcndav- dot

narrow band consisting

thai

white held overlaid with Bcndav dot screens and onl)

:"

Lichtenstein created out a

of the

e

used the the glossier surface of the cover. In the Mirrot paintings, he

shape of the canvas, rather than the image, to establish such

The

.1

ol reflections

and darks

.,

field

of color by

and shadows

that

he found

mirrors by juxtaposing amoi phi( areas of solid

in

his

...

bla< k

and

others of graduated Benday dots.

Along with the tondi and

mult, panel ovals, Lichtenstein painted several large-scale

of the large-scale Color Field paintings and shaped Mirrot paintings that rival the best 1971, is one such example, an arraj canvases of the 1960s. Mirror in Si* Panels (fig. 152), omplemehted b) diagonal se< tions and of unmodulated /ones of red, white, and yellov, 1

vertical

bands of Bcndav dots,

ofblue The reflections

in

panels

are

in Six

and others

to

mind

(such

as Blue,

like

it,

such

as the fou,

Green, Yellow, Orange, Red

ofNoland and Stella-and

a

ol

1

o\ 1960s color abstraction

both an acknowledgment

come

paintings

a

Mirror

abstract form. This painting

1971

and a sliver few (remarkably few) touches of black, superb sens, i< htenstein's Panels exemplify panel Wrroi

M

(fig.

oloi

-Ellsworth K< Ik

ISM- 1966),

[fig.

cousin of such monumental

,

anvases

149),

-

as

as his

,1,.

the

own

1968. 137). 1967, and Preparedness (fig. 138), multi-panel Modern Painting with C/e/(fig. of his earliest Pop works. Uve \m (Lichtenstein used a f.ve-panel format in one ensemble when it was first displayed publN K 1962, which was show,, as an [figs 86-89] up and sold but was Gallery and at several sites thereafter, it the I eo ( :astelli some of his more This sublime painting oi a mirror recalls diptych and three single panels., and shade he achieves a heightened sense ol ighl abstract landscape paintings in which

d^UA

transparency, and reflection.

which Monet captured his

water garden

in

It

also recalls

left

149.

canvas

Roy

Lichtenstein, Mirror

fourpanels

i

rail

M

(in

4 panels 8' x

243.8x45.7 cm 96 x 18 Pi ivate

(

oil*

i

6'),

1971

<

>il

and

He

epic series

Giverny. In the Mirror

continued to

rel)

of Nymphias (Watet Uhes),m

form by conveying the atmospher, not depart from ichtenstein paintings.

the very essence of natural

derived from system of formal elements different ends.

Monet's

I

his first

on the look

1

M

exploration of

inches) each; 243.8 x 182.9

his

tor very comic-strip paintings but used , of a painting as a reproduction oi an

... appl, and altered the concept just enough Original but refined the elements ol codes, that he had established his system abstraction.

M

ol

Now

h

them

to an

was

tree to

colors, and textures, he the economical use of forms, improvise on any subject. Through

rion

189

Chapter

9:

1971-76 M.rrors. 1969-72. and Entablatures.


<••• <•••«

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.

.

.

• •

I

«

••••• ••••• • • ••••• • • • ••••• • • • •••••

I

I

• • •

• • • •

Roy UchttBMtoln, Oval Mirror 6* *3'M,

151.

150.

Roy

Lichtcnstcin, Oval Mirror

6'

xJ'W, I'M

(

h\

and Magna on ,

canvas,

182.8x91

4

cm

(72 x 36 inches] Collection Irving

Blum New

York

[g2.8

x ''i

lemi

.'

J6 inches)

I

1971

ollcction

Da

Oil ind

Magna on ft

in


151.

Roy

canva,,

Liehtenstcin, Oval Mirror

isjs

>c91

h

6^ V '

i

Ul. 1971

Oil and Maglli

oUecrion David

I

ichtensiein


Orange, Red. 1966 153. Ellsworth Kelly, B/iu\ Greet,, Yellow,

p.mck /;':'

overall

1

52 3

v

1

Solomon

21

''cm

R

x

((><>

48 inches) each

152

3

x

609

5

i

*

»il

m

on

60

k

i

succeeded

anvas, five

in

depicting the subtleties ofephemer.il reflections while he staked OUl new

image and

territory in the area ofhis abiding interest, uniting

240 inches)

entity.

Guggenheim Museum. New York

Perhaps the nature of the subject

itself, all

reflections

abstrat tion into a

new

and shadows, treed him from

him

enabled the sometimes confining equation of art-as-reproduction-as-abstraction, and to appropriate

M

own

•'•/••I

from the Abstract Expressionists the domain

that of the sublime. In these paintings, the canvas

meditations about the beauty of things

Lichtenstein began

a series

have already established for

Art

his

often Entablatures

(see figs.

oi

foi

hi

a

itself.

for

We

example).

work with another-

ol

reliefs.

Although the

issues as the Mirrors,

he was

fori

many of the same formal

photographed some buildings

m

different subject, lor this series.

.1

the financial district oi

I

I

from Greek and

architectural details primarily from friezes adapted

(see figs.

a vai ietj

Roman

postcard reproduction oi

his painting a

of the Temple

photograph

oj

o\ a temple, so

Apollo

(fig.

155

oi

originals. Just

;;•;:•

ichtenstem had based

ed to

ichtenst< in

ower Manhattan

newspapers, selecting and 156) and tore out photographs of banks from

I

series of

surfaces of mirrors to motifs derived from architei im.il

find different solutions to paint such

as

their

foi

studio on the Bowery,

157 and 158,

tendency to alternate one type

laimed

the arena

world and the meaning in his

<

Deco

Entablatures deal with ':'•

had

the example, following the Abstract Expressionist Brushstrokes of the mid-1960s with and now he went from the patterns of the Modem series m the late 1960s

shimmering

became

while continuing to work on the Mirrors series

In 1971,

§

in this

chat they

on

121), 1964,

a

he enjoyed the idea of working

mot. Is. which had been widely used to with these thrice-removed images ofarch.tectur.il ... America earlier in this adorn facades of banks, courthouses, museums, and hbrar.es

'.';;..•

?•;.'•

buildings century. Lichtenstein photographed the details

PS

showed up

basis for his initial

in

I

sharp

relief.

He

used

group of paintings,

all

this

of

at

midday,

time

a

when

the

shadows and

dramatic pattern oi light and dark as the

the...

rendered

...

white hese Entablatures include significant areas of solid

black and white

...

the canvases,

as

...

the

present the visual equivaleni ol their subjects' Minors. But in contrast to the Mirrors, whii h unvarying images in the Entablatures are charai ti rized by fluid, reflective surfaces, the

geometry and deep shadows left

152.

Roy

Lichtenstein, Mirror

.... s 3J55.8 cm

cam, h.

.!

MX, Mil

I

II

l\ ivati .It,

,

<>ll<

,

in

Six Panels, 1971

Oil ind

M

(120 x 22 inches) each; 304.8 x 335.2

cm

(120 x

193

He

canvas. In this hrst

group of

Chapter

9:

r.

1

esses to create the impression ol solidity

and three-

surface plane of the also used the frieze motif to emphasize the format ichtenstein established a long horizontal Entablatures,

dimensional form.

to parallel that

tloll

ind

of an actual

frieze

I

from one of Manhattan's stone buildings. Despite the

Mirrors. 1969-72. and Entablatures. 197!


Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, 1966 153. Ellsworth Kelly, Blue, pancls

152.3 x 121 9

overall

Solomon

R

cm

(60 x 4s inches) each; 152 3

x

609

5

,

<

m

on

Ml

(60

«

anvas

succeeded

fiw

wink- he staked out new depicting the subdeties of ephemeral reflections

in

territory in the area ofhis abiding interest, uniting

240 inches)

entity Perhaps the nature of the subject

Guggenheim Museum, Ne« York

image and abstraction

new

and shadows, lived him from

reflections

itself, all

a

i

reprodui tion-as-abstraction, and enabled him the sometimes confining equation ofart-as their Expressionists the domain that the) had laimed foi to appropriate from the Abstract i

own

In these paintings, the canvas

of the sublime.

-that

meditations about the beauty In 1971,

while continuing to work on the

Lichtenstein began

Ins

I

shimmering

surfaces

ntablatures deal

of mirrors

with man,

ol .Ik-

ol

same formal

and

now

its.

I

II

the Bowery,

on

We

mid 1960s «

was

Fo. .Ins series,

I

.(

gh

Ml

reliefs

issues as the Mirrors, h, I

ith th,

he wen. Iron, the

from an hitectural

such a different subje( find different solutions to paint

ai

work with mother

Expressionist Brushstrokes ol .he

to motifs derived

ol

in his studio

aseri.

t

157 and 158, tor example).

patterns of the Modern series in the late 1960s

Deco

Art

\dirrors series

tendency to alternate one type

example, following the Abstra.

tor

world and the meaning

series of ten Entablatures (see figs.

a

have already established

I

of things in tins

became

the arei

for,

th,

ed to

htenstem

(see figs 155 district of Lower Manhattan photographed some buildings in the financial tet) o ofbanks from newspapers, selecting a va. and 56) and tore out photographs tgmals.just Greek and R primarily from friezes adapted iron, I

architectural details

1

k htenstem had based

postcard reproduction of

of the Temple

his painting a

pi

gi tph ol

p

so

me

I

I

1964 on

121),

[polio (fig.

ol

idea ol

a

working

lei, used to architectural motifs, wind, had bee with these thrice-removed images of this museums, and libraries in Amen, a earner in adorn facades ofbanks. courthouses, when .he shadows and the buildings a. midday, a time century. Lichtenstein photographed

details

showed

bas i s for his

These

Wnm

.

harp

u,

initial

relief.

liut in contrast to the Mirrors,

left

152.

i

Roy

«

Lichtenstein, Mirror in Six Panels, 1971

panels

lies)

overall

M)4.8

Private

55 8

i

cm

(120

>

ich

<

104.8

Lensional

Magna on

tZlln

>

all

images

form.

this first

He

also

m

193

Chapter

'Ugh. and dark as the

dramati, pat.

of them rendered

9:

which present the

in bla, k

te

,

s,

anvases as

impress

solidity a,

e

ol

Manhattan

1971-76 M.rrors. 1969-72. and Entablatures.

the

s

ymg

and h cc-

plane of the

Lichtenstein established a long

one

m

by unva,

hara, te

the used the frieze motif to emphasize

group of Entabl

and white.

subjects visual equivalent o. then

the Entablatures are

recesses to ere;

from to parallel that of an actual frieze

olle< tion

tins

as ol solid white in .1Entablatures include significant an

geometry and deep shadows and and

used

group of paintings,

the fluid, reflective surfaces,

'.I

He

stone buildings.

^formal I

Kspitc the


faithful rendering,

however, the paintings are more closely related to the photographs on

which they were based. Mis

translation

of architectural forms into two dimensional images

based on photographs helps maintain an appeal m<

oi artifit iality.

i

re\erted to black and white, as in his early 1960s series ol (fig.

still

lifes,

such

as

Golf Ball

31), 1962, while the subject can also be considered an elaboration on

paintings of monuments, such as Temple friezes

\pollo

qj

resemble images that one might find

the connection

in a

between the monument and

subject of these new

its

and Temple

//.

he has

[ere again,

I

mid 1960s

his

L965. These paintings of

commercial catalogue, thus keeping

reproduction, whi< h together form the

paintings.

After Liechtenstein completed this group of Entablatures, he went on to paint

which preoccupied him from 1972

still lifes,

and 1976, however, he

to

1976

Between

(see next chapter).

group of

also painted another, very distinctive

a series of l l

)74

Entablatures (see figs.

159, for example). In these later works, he reduced the size of the canvases,

154 and

intact

though he were giving

us close-up views

of a smaller section

metallic paint and sand to lend the images Mirrors, these later Entablatures

building of no particular

<

onve)

i

i

in

building, and intTOdui ed

i

greater sense of texture- and mass.

a

ike the

I

ertain neutrality, appearing to be fragments oi

images one recognizes

style or character,

they are striking paintings

ol

as

terms of their color, texture,

vaguely

as

and quality

size,

classical.

a

Bui

of light.

Moreover, he no longer limited himself to the unmodulated surfaces and primary olors ..I that he had long favored, thus making his first significant departure from the nexus I

frfrrtr/rt/rrtrttiffftrifttrrf/rrrffft/f/frrff/ff*

formal elements he had been using since

photographs to give him the convincing

specific details

as architectural friezes.

I

le

And

his early paintings.

he relied

less

on

his

he needed to make the paintings look

began

with

to invent lot ins

a

generic look and

alluded to architectural details in only the most cursory fashion. Although his use of the metallic paint and sand imparted a quality that emphasizes the sculptural relief

lat<

I

with the Mirrors, Entablatures appear even more abstract than the earlier ones. Together represent ichtcnstcins most complete statement to date about color and

these paintings 155, 156. Photographs \l mli

154.

Roy

Lichtenstein, Entablature, 1974 1.4

x 254

i

in

(60 x

I

ii-

hi

s

l

Magna

>i]

Pi

n

in

i

ind metallii

ill.

m.

I

.1

t.iki-i

by

Roy

1

abstract form, an area pioneered by

Lichtcnstein of various entablatures around

approached almost

1970

paint with sand

decade

a

earlier

Kelly,

Noland.

.\nd Stella,

when he began

poster he designed for Lincoln Center

(fig.

and bear comparison

to

Noland

133). 1966

stained the canvases with acrylic, sand. Hut both artists

most of the

I

ichtenstein used

he

I

later Entablatures retain a

new range of

a

horizontal paintings

s

fust

the series of Modem paintings with the

minimal reference to architecture while introducing

olle< tion

and which he

colors into Ins work,

1966-70. Unlike Noland.

o\~

oil paint.

Magna,

metallic paint,

who and

divided the canvases into horizontal bands of unequal width, and

later Entablatures, as in

Nolands

Trans

Median

I.

1968,

I

m

ichtenstein painted

contrast to the field in narrow bands of color near the top and bottom ofthe canvas, m and black). he between (which he restricted to a palette of predominantly white, gray, I

Entablatures its

initial

expand the concept of reductive form

purpose

paintings ofthe early 1960s such

the most minimal paintings in

Littoral (fig.

1

.\n

landscape paintings, the entire series

Several ofthe

among

m

to

I

as

entire

bod)

of

work, well beyond

GolJ Ball.

of Mirrors, and the

ichtenstein \ oeuvre. In the landscape painting

landscape through the 1964, for example, he created the illusion of a Bcndav dots un>lonn-s./e simple forms made from stenciled screens of

IK).

juxtaposition of

Bendav and other forms made from overlapping screens o( different-size

195

Chapter

9:

Entablatures are

Mirrors. 1969-72, and Entablatures, 1971-76

dots. In the MirrOi


faithful rendering,

however, the paintings arc more closely related

which they were based.

I

lis

based on photographs helps maintain an appearance

oi artificiality.

1

friezes

monuments, such

Temple of Apollo and Temple

.is

resemble images that one might find

in a

the connection

between the monument and

subject of these

new

ial

mid-1960s

his

L965. These paintings of

II.

atalogue, thus keeping inta<

i

I

reproduction, whi< h together form the

paintings.

After Lichtenstein completed still lifes,

its

commen

lias

Golf Ball

.is

on

an elaboration 31). 1962, while the subject can also be considered

paintings of

he

[ere again,

1960s series of Still hies, such

reverted to black and white, as in his earU (fig.

photographs on

to the

translation of architectural tonus into two-dimensional images

this

group

which preoccupied him from

1 1

he went on to paint

oi Entablatures,

154 and 159, for example). In these

though he were giving

us

c

group

latei

metallic paint and sand to lend the images

convey

a

ol

!

ntablatures (see flgS

works, he reduced the size of the canvases,

lose-up views of a smaller section

Mirrors, these later Entablatures

Between L974

>72 to 1976 (see next chapter).

also painted another, very distinctive

and 1976, however, he

series of

.,

..

greater sense

..s

building, and introduced

olfa

of texture and mass

1

il

the

e

certain neutrality, appearing to I- fragments ol

a

But

as vaguely classical. building of no particular style or character, images one recognizes size, and quality ol light they are striking paintings m terms of their color, texture, ind primary coloi longer limited himself to the unmodulated surfaces

Moreover, he no that

he had long favored, thus making

his first significant

formal elements he had been using since

convincing

as

architectural friezes.

1

le

paintings.

his early

specific details

photographs to give him the

departure from the nexus

And he

he needed to make

began

to invent

metallic paint and sand imparted Entablatures appear even

more

a

a

generic look and

Although

quality that emphasizes the sculptural

M

approached almost >nli

itl

in

i

i

1970

decade

a

earlier

Noland, and

when he began

the

latei

fog thei with the Mirrors,

abstract than the earliei on.

Kelly, abstract form, an area pioneered by

h.s use ol

relief,

\ most complete statement to date these paintings represent Lichtenstein entablatures around 155, 156. Photographs taken by K<>\ Lichtenstein of various

on

the paintings lock

forms with

cursors fashion alluded to architectural details in only the most

relied less

ol

his

al

and which he

Stella,

the series ol

Modem

I

-'I- and

first

paintings With the

retain a 133). L966. II, late. Entablatures poster he designed for Lincoln Center (fig. new range ol colors into his work, reference to architecture while introducing ,

minimal

and bear comparison

Stained the canvases with

sand But both

most Qfthe

|

artists

,â&#x20AC;&#x17E;.,

,

a.

.Ah.

its initial

lichtenstein used

as in

narrmv bands oi\o\or near the

Entablatures

-

to P

Noland's Trans

and bottom

restricted to a palette of

expand the concept of reductive

purpose

in

Magna.

oil paint.

metalli<

paint,

and

unequal width; and divided the canvases into horizontal bands of Median I. L968, u htenstein painted

lllMllmr ,

between (which he

who

70. Unlike Noland, to Noland's horizontal paintings of 1966

I

held of the canvas, in contrast to the

predominantly white,

gray,

as

<

in

and black .The

well torn, to an entire bock ol work,

paintings of the early 1960s such

m

beyond

Bali

MJ

the / ntablai the entire series of Mirrors, and Several of the landscape paintings, painting Lichtenstein s oeuvre. In the landscape among the most minimal paintings in through the he created the illusion ol lands, tpe Uttoralite US). 1964, for example, x

juxtaposition of Simple tonus

made from

stenciled screens of

screens of different and other forms made from overlapping

195

Chapter

9:

1971-76 Mirr ors. 1969-/2. and Entablatures.

uniform -size

size

Benda,

tad* to*

dots, in the Mirror


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paintings, he used these stenciled screens, supported

by broad expanses of color or black

evoke the sensation of pure reflection and to capture the

line, to

on an objects shape and

distortion

form, which, with just

a

flat

shadows.

The

Entablatures are essays in reductive

tew details of one repeated pattern or another, convey the

connoting Greek Revival architecture.

illusion o\\\ flat plane as a frieze

color, equally

its

effect o\\\ mirror's

In his use

black lines, and unmodulated Benday-dot screens for most

works, Lichtenstein was exploring some of the same aesthetic territory

as

of flat

of these

the Minimalist

establishing and Color Field painters cited above, although he departed from their goals by

from the

first his

Each of these him,

comic

as

expanded

series has

strips

Mondnan, roamed

He

Europe.

Modern

classical

in

among

time

American

has also addressed

realm of Fop culture.

The

relationship to its

earlier, to

make

a relatively

banal subject

and contemporary art and the history of

rebellious

culture, in the

Deco and

Entablatures are part

its

its

European

ancestry,

as

Neoclassical revivals

the various forms of art

the aesthetics of Art

hen. then

exploration of formal issues, and enabled

Greek architecture and

George Washington,

complex

stylized or abstract.

and Post-Impressionism, such twentieth-century innovators

culture. Impressionism

Lichtenstein

his initial

and consumer objects had

the focal point of a dialectic with

Picasso and

however

interest in representation,

and culture of Western

form of the iconic

figure of

Abstract Expressionism, and the larger

of his exploration of American cultures first as

Europe's

artistic stepchild,

then

its

and independent cousin. Lichtenstein tackles such momentous

derived subjects with modesty, wit, and irony, as well as ambition, using the format that he

from the comic

I

I

i<

htenstein,

1970-IVMh I

ii

tober

strip as the

quoted

exhib. cat

14-November

in

armature on which he built

Lichtenstein." in

Roy

Lichtenstein Graphic Work:

Museum of American

Art,

Downtown

"An Interview with Roy

(New

York: Whitney

25. 1981

|,

his response.

Branch,

n.p

2. Ibid.

3.

(.ns.

quoted

in

Lund Humphries.

Daniel-1 lenry Kahnweiler,Jw*H Gris: His Life and Work, trans. Douglas 1947), pp. 87-88.

Cooper (London:


Lichtenstein's 1970s

the earlier

still-life

paintings differ significantl) from those of the 1960s. In

tended

lifes, lie

images of familiar household

to favor

roasted turkey, hot dogs, an ice-cream soda, or

rib, a

TV

still

commercials or

on

plane of solid color or

generic product,

a

Benday

.1

item with high image recognition.

new

a

range of subjects.

simply rendered objects such

bowl, or

in a

group of objects

a

(fig.

Bowl

composed

161), 1912. Lichtenstein

three goldfish in

a

cylindrical glass

his

howl on

i

m\

Gift

Henri Mattisc, Goldfish and iv.

116.2x 100

5

cm

(46 \ 39

Sculpture, [ssy-les-Moulineaux, 1912

-

inches)

I

'lu-

Museum

New

a grapefruit.

York.

which

a plate,

in

is a<

lead,

painting Golf Ball

a

To

31), 1962.

(fig.

life

are to

be found

bowl,

vase,

and

room, both the

in

1

ami

htenstein chose to

L(

this

ensemble

his

own work

light

and shade.

color

harmony

Matisse's

a

for a

In

inches)

plate

all

table

painted

in

show

1

It is

a

blue table

in

as well as

an essay

in

207

Chapter

1

done by depicting

window

a

«.!

I

made

[e

win. h contain the same motifs thai

in a

— together with

which Matisse

blur interior. In this color saturated

are painted the

I'd Studio

same shade

(fig.

has bathed a studio interior and

ability to use color

the

The

ol blue,

painting

with is

an

using color to suggest form and volume,

both

its

and

to describe Space

who

172), 191

I. a

study in

contents in red to suggest flatness, to

turned to h

is

the source

interiors that he painted beginning in 1973.

followed some of the basic elements of

Life with Goldfish Howl, Lichtenstein

Even where he made changes, such

similarities,

leai ol a tn

also to close off the rear ol the interioi

similar to the extraordinary The

consummate

SHU

earlier

own

part ol Ins

the same light blue-green hue

and the surrounding interior

he was quoting Matisse,

Private collection

own

the earliest of the paintings. Here, Matisse placed the goldfish

in this,

group of studio

frontahty.

cm (52x42

as

centuries- old tradition in

Matisse's innovative composition, while reinforcing Matisse's emphasis

canvas, 132 x [06 6

ol

replaced by

is

lchtcnstcm added

I

delineate living and inanimate forms, inspired Lichtenstein,

I

ife

an interior

in his paintings starting in 1906,

of this interior with goldfish, two

evocation of pure color,

Magna

I

sprig of

a

only an incomplete outline suggesting the distinction between the two.

with Goldfish Bowl, 1972 Oil and

SHU

is

using the same motii

COmpanied by

to the out-of-doors as Matisse had

it

pinkish-tan terra-cotta sculpture on

Still Life

earlier

garden.

several versions

Lichtenstein,

own

practice he has continued to this day; bin whereas Matisse featured one of his

a

Matisse began to feature

Roy

of

works,

overlooking

160.

painting

art,

rather than opening

'•"

from

lifes

Western

philodendron, using the plant to suggest nature but

of Mi and Mrs John Hay Whitney

still

and situating them

Following Matisse's

his

the latter

ichtcnstcin's version

I

still

still-life

Lichtenstein included in this painting an image ol one ol his

sculptures, a luxurious reclining nude.

Oil on

of Modern Art.

simple vase on

lemons and

three

161.

in a

emphasis was

In his

Matisse's Goldfish and Sculpture

Matissean a table,

Matisse did. In Matisse's version, the goldfish bowl

nasturtiums

composed

bunch of green grapes

a

Aiming

artists.

on Henri

160), 1972, based

(fig.

25), 1961

(tig.

field

and compositions based on

work of other

the

on

more

rather than

between depicting arrangements

alternated

in his studio,

work or on images derived from with Goldfish

He

yellow bananas and grapefruit or

as

steak

a

.is

featured

.is

dots. In either case, the

the 1970s, Lichtenstein turned his attention to the idea of traditional

and explored

pie,

fliers,

was usually isolated against

screen of

a

common

a

staples siu h

of cherry

e

with the outstanding exception of Black Flowers

In his 1960s paintings, the single object flat

sli(

newspaper advertisements or supermarket

in

traditional genre subjects,

of a

.1

who

as

used these motifs

on

flatness

and

adding the lemons and the philodendron.

in

many of his

paintings. Despite the

however, there are some fundamental differences between Lichtenstem's

10: Still Lifes.

1972-76


Roy

162. 130

i

..

Lichtenstein,

152.7

cm

(51

i

SHU Ufe c60

with Silver Pitcher, 1972 Oil and

inches)

<

ollection

Mr andMrs

Magna on

Bagle} Wright

canvas,


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163.

Roy

"ii canvas,

Lichtenstein, 107.9 x 122.5

Sfi'M Li/r

cm

(42

Vi

with Glass and Peeled Lemon,

x 48

V*

inches)

Helman

(

( l

>72 Oil and

ollecrion,

New

M.ipu

Yorl


version and Matisse's. Matisse's painting

which brings

particular scene to

a

applied his perceptual experien<

but he never relinquished palette

necessarily

less

studs in sensate color and tranquil form,

com.

In

life >>l

power

its

more schematic,

far

is

e

a

is

ing

\

mood and

its

atmosphere. Matisse

color to his explorations of color to refer to

as

I

ichtenstein's

attuned to the sensations that colors can evoke and not

determined by the objects usually associated with them. While the

true of Matisse,

m

Lichtenstein's case

more extreme, because

is

it

And where

Matisse conveys

sense ot

a

and intimacy,

t.unili.ii ii\

latter

also

is

the process colors that he

uses distance the objects that are depicted even farther from nature than colors.

an abstract entity,

original source in nature.

its

1

rauvc

(U) Matisse's

uhtenstem

is

impersonal and generic. Lichtenstein and his contemporary Ellsworth Kelly both viewed color

independent as well as

"naming"

had derived

entity. Kelly, like Matisse,

from man-made forms, but color'

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

that

is,

m

relationship with other colors or

yellow

a

common

its

used

in a single

Waiting

[fig.

1

work

12],

as stated earlier,

to describe

same unmodulated shade

the

a girl's hair, a

iw>4). Although

in its

assm iation with .m object. Lichtenstein's use

from the media, favoring the artificial-looking process colors used

reproduction. Hence,

nature

in

yellow, without reference to

as

of color was never completely dependent on the actual color of an object. palette

an

1970s he expressed an interest

in the early

identifying

as

from forms found

his palette

gold clock, and

"I

a brass

I

in

derived

le

me. linn,

his al

Uov could be

\>

bedpost

Lichtenstein followed Matisse's basii

(see Blonde

olor scheme

1

in

Life with Goldfish Bowl, he maintained the independence of Ins colors from the tonus

Still

they described by substituting the process versions of those colors

continued to define form,

departure from Matisse's

a

juxtaposing areas of contrasting colors ami using In Still Life with Goldfish Bowl,

much

closer to the picture

me

pi.

1

line

ichtenstein also

than Matisse did

practi< e 111

mik

<>t

I

01

I

i<

htenstein,

defining shap<

lini

I

the most minimal fashion

brought the tabletop arrangement in

and

toldfish

(

Sculpture, eliminating the

front portion of the table and most of the rear of the interior. Matisse counteracted

the

flat,

schematic space of

his painting

of the rounded forms of his sculpture,

with

is

In

1

ot objeÂŤ

modulated

He

pattern and

precise black outline for Matisse's

a

been

also

used

rather than

flat

a

The

1

olors,

and substituted

uneven contours,

a

recurring interest of

In other variations

132.1 x 106.7

Vu

with Crystal Bowl, 1973 Oil and

cm (52x42 inches)

Whitney

Magna on

Museum of American

Art,

his.

dating back to Ins

on the

Still-life

image back into

UttlOn

theme, such

211

Ufe With GlaSS and

(fig.

his 164), 1973, Liehtenstein again arranged

Chapter

Si

ulptures

Pct'lrd

(fig.

10: Still Lifes.

1972-76

as

as Still

own

a

three-dunensi.

flatness

in

by casting

..I

form,

his

as a sculpture. I

163), both 1972,

Still

of fruit With traditional tableware, such

York, Purchase, with fiindsfiom Frances and Sydney Lewis

ol

form and two-dimensional space has paintings of 1961. In the Goldfish Bowl

interpretation of Matisse's painting Goldfish and Sculpture

Still Life

inflected brushstrokes,

subsequent series

updating the issue of the relationship of space and volume to

Lichtenstein,

Bend.iv-dot

.1

relationship of three-dimensional

sculptures, he converted Ins two-dimensional

Roy

background.

light-filled surfaces.

(see fig. 261).

164.

in the

ichtenstein's version, any suggestion ol

Lichtenstein used Matisse's goldfish-bowl motif in

ÂĽ

tS

squeezed out of the painting, making every three-dimensional form look two

dimensional.

and

convincing though cursory depiction

diminution

his

and the view looking out into the garden.

volume

his

ife will,

and

settings,

Silvei Pitchei (fig.

Still

Ufi uHth

<

tystal

162),

Bowl

combining simple bunches

an elaborate cut-crystal goblet,

a fruit

bowl, or


165.

Roy

152.4

Lichtcnstcin, Cape

x 187.9

cm (60x74

Cod

inches)

Still Life II,

1973 Oil U>d Magna on

Private collei tion

cai


a silver

pitcher and

He

tray.

appropriated the images of these objects from

catalogues or newspaper and magazine advertisements, and placed them

them

that rivaled

Although

in banality.

emulating the look of the tabloids it

was rendered

media,

in the

the seventeenth-century

he renders

artists,

it

and exaggerating these

a

re-creating the look these

in

than

still

engaged

in

01 silvei

.is

of glass

display the virtuosity

lifes

braided

its

larnett

1

and John

taking advantage

lite,

grape, an apple,

and

still

surroundings

in

ichtenstein was

William M.

l'ocil as

his subjects larger

a curtain

I

a glass,

tie

or

a

or

But

in

many of them he

and white

parallel black

Crystal Howl) or

still

painting.

life

replaced the Benday screen with

lines in a horizontal configuration (see. tor

on the diagonal

SHU

(see

Life with Silver Pitcher),

such an effective substitute that he continued to use them

I

change

inherent part of his signature style over the

in direction in his

embrace more In another

Cod

vacation

traditional

example, SHU

anyone

who

some of his

I

(fig.

211), 1985, in

a single

Men

landscape. Each of the objects a

ledge gazing out toward

of place on

in pride

painting.

in a

knickknacks; and, flanking the a relatively straightforward in

(fig.

its

,

I

Life

166),

tOUl

II (tig. C 1

He

of objects, including

table,

scene

deputing

ball that

some

is

this

still

and

still

enough

of rope,

its

a

also

shallow space that

be interpreted

as a

is

I

(tig.

167),

use ol

and

life

perched

unwrappi

d,

lull of

uh.it appears

ichtenstein has used

surroundings (note, tor example,

and shadow

n 01

iented

on

contiguous objects

for

supposed to be an interior room with

porch

— neither

paintings he had imitated the crudely

unfamiliar.

10: Still Lifes,

1972-76

.i

entirely inside or outside).

drawn images

the format of the tradition-laden genre of the

Chapter

ape

a seashell, a

and pulleys. However,

conveying the awkward drawing and rendering of the amateur

213

its

seagull

,i

lobster, just

a

a pie< e

with ambiguities.

lite

Baroque

usually finds in a beach shop

one

fishnets

filled

for

htenstein has fused

(

has also collapsed relative depth between the foreground and background, thus

giving us

could

a

familiar to

art

LSI

complex composition and

the diagonal), and contradictory elements of lighting it.

h id

panied

i

hes "I the

lu

.

the table oriented to the grid of the canvass edges, but the wall behind

in

thai

165), L973, anti< ipates

Go

>7K.

lighthouse; in the foreground,

a tabletop full

multiple perspectives

u

ha

— ami combined them into

the painting seems plausible

and the kind of net-wrapped

starfish,

be

Razzmatazz

as

SHU

",od

(

such

'Mage

multiple perspectives in

on

and lighthouse

brochure or the kind of CUrbside

has visited a seaside resort. Cape

later paintings,

ok ions

Ik htenstein took the most

lifes,

a tourist

I

and

adi

i

I

themes

lobster, fishnet, seagull,

1979, and Mountain

di

Life with

he diagonal stripes were

choice of subject matter, away from the mass produ< ed object to

group of still

paintings that recall

last

ol

pattern of bold

a

subsequent series

in

souk

in

represent a departure for Lichtenstein from the look of newspaper reproduction

become an

on

peel. In focusing

its

Lichtenstein continued to use his stenciled versions ol Benday-dot screens still lifes.

ike

1

and using every

a plate,

lemon and

PetO.

F.

every highlight,

ol

he makes use of both the snob appeal exploited by the mass

details,

media and the esoteric approach of classical

these

of

painters and the precision ofsuch nineteenth-

Still-life

every reflection on the surface of cliche imaginable, be

work by

in his

century American masters of trompe these

evident that

compositions

his

Hutch

is

it

ommercial

<

still

m

life

By

(but

deliberately

painter, just as in earlier

newspaper

enough

window

to

ads,

make

he hoped to it

fresh

and

alter

i<>


166.

Roy

I

ichtenstein, Razzmatazz, 1978 i

i

I'll." in

Maryland

,,11,.

<

> 1 1

and

Hon Rob< n md

mvas,

fan<

M<

â&#x20AC;˘<

rhofl


167.

Roy Ueheenstein, Go Jot Bamqut,

Magna Private

i

-

olli

i

tion

!71

c424.1ci

1979 6

I

in

>il

ind


I

i<

htenstein continued Ins dialogue with the work

began the same year

interiors he

Studio No.

Artist's

(Look Mickey)

I

Cod

(\ijn-

.is

and

Still Life II

171), 1973,

(fig.

Matisse in the series of studio

ol

is

loosely based

Bowl

with Crystal

Still Life

on

Matisse's

The Red Studio, Lichtenstein adopted the configuration of the room, replaced the

vase ol

nasturtiums with the pewter jug and ivy from other paintings by Matisse, and included

own

selection of his

one of his

paintings:

portion of Look Mickey

a

Frame painting,

Mirroi paintings, a Stretcher

not vet painted

made

comic-strip dialogue balloon that he

OVER THERE? THAT'S 'CURXY' GROGAN.

TOWN!"

joking reference to

a

own

sculpture stands)

and numerous references

arrangement of

early

)).

image

His

who

MOB RUN

169.

Fernand Leger, Marie

92 inches)

G

Jcrie

I

ouise

I

I'acrohale,

eiris,

1934 Oil on

4

x

233.6

cm

(73 \

ca.

images

— taken from

mi

HAL1

"Dancers"

In Artist's Studio,

Paris

time ringing

changes on

his

Matisse's original, altered Matisse's

to

a

is IN

ki-

1

\

lis

1

le also

I

door,

I

(

ouch,

.in

In

The Pewtei Jug,

as

174). 1925.

(fig.

ichtenstein again quoted Matisse, this

As he had

173), 1909.

(fig

his

image closer

own

his

in Still Life

to the picture plane than

work

carina

here,

a

1964. As before, he flattened and formularized

some of the a

i

lyricism

of the original

lose his exploration

expand upon

Matisse's art while he continued to

M

drawings or paintings.

earlier

and depicted

brought to

this painting, Lichtenstein

1

"Dance"

life,

apture

i

>74,

composed

still

14),

1

managed

Matisse's imagery but

With

(fig.

l

with

Still Life

With Goldfish Bowl, Lichtenstein again

portion of Sound of Music

(

170),

(fig.

B

gi

atop one of Matisse's

it

The Baluster

eger's

I

ol a

has an obsession with gangsters

to other

L917, he included the central image from

he had

that

image

im\i baldhj \imi>

i

addition to borrowing images from other paintings bv Matisse, such canvas, 185

one

lands* ape

reads, *\i

telephone (depicting

n\\\

and an entablature

fruit,

AND

Ill

incorporated his

which

up,

close friend

a

new

a

I

(but did so the following year)-— and an

work

as a full-size

(fig.

'

1961, two panels from

1

his

own

figures.

of one aspect

interest in

still

life,

ol

albeit in

a

fundamentally different form.

1972-73, Lichtenstein completed anothei

In

pamtmgs, including Trompe

\'( )eil

combined

canvas. Lichtenstein

with

I

kges

references to

series of

Head and I

still

lifes, a

Paintbrush

(fig.

as

and PetO, he has depicted

larnett

I

butterfly, a paintbrush, a small square

of an image bv

eger

I

atta<

hed

with trompe-roeil shadows). (fig.

I

to

he

a

1

faux-woodgrain

eger head

is a

Cubism

as

several unrelated items

wall,

two

from

detail

Imitating such

bois.

of paper, an envelope containing

nails, envelope, 169), 1934; the trompe-roeil

lexicon of Analytic

168), 1973. In this

eger with references to nineteenth century

American trompe-l'oei] painting and twentieth-century Cubistfaux masters of the genre

group oftrompe-roeil

a letter,

of then,

h.s

with

painting

and woodgrain pattern

..

a

fragment

nails

(shown

\4arie Vacrobate

are

pan

ol the

well as of the nineteenth-century Ameri. an painters

I

trompe-l'oeil painting, paintbrush, which could easily belong to nineteenth-century to Johns, who used such obj Brushstroke paintings or a reference his

be

a

play

to call

own

on

into question

I'oeil device, the

fragment of one.

''r

168.

Oil and

Roy

Lichtenstein. Trompe I'Oeil with Leger Head and Paintbrush, 19

Magna on

canvas,

116.8x91

Jem

(46 x J6 inches)

Privatt

I

whether

U

to

In

some

219

Chapter

is

the ba< k of the

work

One

a

a

stretcher frame, but leaves us to hazard

a

one of

Ins

woodgrain panel or the

of the leading painters

among

1972-76

front

of one

guess

ot h.s paintings.

of achtenstein's Surrealist period,

also anti< ipates the paintings

master ofillusion, and especially adept

10: Still Lifes.

own

canvases, or rathei

to reveal

gives us a glimpse of

He

tins

a

one tromperelationship to reality. Lichtenstein also peels away

woodgrain wallpaper,

to 1979.

Magr.tte was

collection

art's

respects, this

from 1^77

he

m

I

the original Surrealists,

at

stripping away

Rene

disguises to reveal


170.

Roy

Lichtenslein, Artist's Studio, 'â&#x20AC;¢Dancers.'' 1974 Oil U

244.1 x 325.4 Gift ol

Mi

cm

"'.I

Mi

inchei

9i

i

S

I

Nt whousi

|i

Hie

Mum

f Modern

An New^


171.

Roy

Lichtenstein. ArlhiS Studio

canvas. 244.2 x 325.4

|ud}

cm

(96

!

md Kenneth Dayton and

k

th<

128 I

i

.V...

/

(Look Mickey), 1973

inches)

Walker Art Centei

B Walker Foundation

1981

<

til

and Magna on

Minneapolis. Gift

ol


173.

1909 172.

Henri Matisse,

Red

Tlie

Studio.

Iss)

let

Moulineaux

1911

x 219.1

Mn

Simi

m

cm I

(71

Suggi

i

x 86

nheim

I

i

inches)

und

["he

Museum of Modern

(

li]

on

Oil on canvas si

181

Henri Matisse,

Art,

New York

Petersburg

i

invas,

Still Lift

89

k

I

16

with "Dance," I-a -les-Mouline lux

cm

(35

k

45

Hi

inches)

autumn-winter

The Hermitage Museum,


yet another mask.

demonstrates

a

Although there

kindred

Departing from

no overt reference here

is

of play

spirit

of either depicting

his usual practice

ground or covering the canvas with

a scries

used the faux woodgrain to create

frame w

a

to

Magntte, Liechtenstein

with questions of

in dealing

and

reality

illusion.

single large object against a

a

of closely juxtaposed images or patterns, he it

Inn

frame and then placed each of his

a

trompe-l'oeil images against a different piece of the "frame." Despite such overlapping, the obviousness of this fake "collage" negated the sense of three-dimensional ity that the

images might otherwise have had.

He

of string dangling from

also painted a piece

to unite the Leger head with the picture plane of the canvas.

The woodgrain

pattern

represents not only an art-historical reference to nineteenth- and twentieth-ccntui

trompe was

a

l'oeil

new way

but also a

for Lichtenstein to treat the surface

of his

line,

played with the shape of

much

Less obvious in this painting than his sources in l'oeil

painting Tlic Blind Swimmer

and

to his admirers

among

(fig.

him

179), 1934,

whose

frottages of the

no

for the array

found

that his imagination

of fantastic images

Ernst's Histoire naturelle, executed in 1925

.

rhe

mi, lu is)

heim

I

Baluster, 1925

Oil on canvas,

Museum of Modern

Art.

New

12'' 5 x

York. Mrs.

97 2

i

m

—he

und

1928

Ernst's

work, which included

did see the

to 1976. Lichtenstein

175)

(fig.

diagonal

stripes.

To

than the

k

i

ila

172

7

cm

(90

x

68 inches). National Galley

\cheson Wallace 1983 50 227

176.

Roy

s

v.

152

1974 Oil and Magna on canvas, ••<

Art,

Washington, D.<

Gift of

I

Lichtenstcin, Cubist

Magna on canvas 243

Still Life,

1

Still Life

cm (96 x 60 inches)

189], for example),

retrospective exhibition of

with Playing Cm/5, 1974 Oil and

a

selected

as

225

therefore not surprising that

just a few years later. a

variety of approaches to

with Playing Cards

some of the

newspaper, faux

(fig.

176).

to look like reproductions

first

still life.

both 1974,

Cubists' favorite motifs-

woodgrain— and combined

clouds and sky, sections of an entablature,

time he appropriated

of Cubist works but

also to

a pattern o\ this style,

be read

Cubism. Although

he

as

own

several of these paintings contain references to

less important Cubist compositions, especially the work of Gris, the imagery is paintings related to idiom that he was trying to re-create, which is not true of his

specific Matisse, such as the fitter's Goldfish and Sculpture.

I

ichtenstein's interest

.11

art had Cubism focused on the way in which this seminal movement in twentieth-century still lite is Cubist a version of emerged as a phenomenon of popular culture. Lichtenstcin s

a

homogenized one,

a synthesis

of the originals with the look

reworking Cubism. Lichtenstein introduced

Private collection

It is

end. he dissected his images and recomposed them, creating his

this

variation of Synthetic specific

He

Still Life

As Lichtenstein intended from the

wanted these paintings Lichtensteins.

experimented with

guitar, playing cards, bottle,

them with some of his own. such

Lichtenstcin, Cubist

[fig.

is

— when

1926) and Magritte's False

in

frottages.

of works

in a series

and Cubist

he explored the Cubist approach.

mandolin and

important

several

he explored Surrealism more deeply

Roy

them. While there

190) (one of the works in

(fig.

Guggenheim Museum's 1975

Mirror,

In Cubist Still Life

175.

and published

I

surfaces and used

Simon

From 1974

'26

111

indication of a direct link between Ernst and Lichtenstcin until 1977

referred to the image of an eye from The Wheel of Light

Fernand Leger, The

Surrealists

American Abstract Expressionist painters, including

Lichtenstein, in a series of Surrealist paintings (see Girl with Tear

174.

mid-1920s and

were of seminal importance to the

Motherwell and Newman. Ernst made rubbings of floorboards and other

them

to

in his paintings.

American nineteenth-century and

the likely influence of Ernst,

is

It

he manipulated the thickness or thinness

experiment with creating the appearance of other textures

Cubist trompe

his canvases.

knot, or varied the color. This led

a

\

would remain

striking-looking alternative to the Benday dots, and one that

completely recognizable no matter how

of

nail

.1

Chapter

10: Still Lifes,

1972-76

in

o\\i

hand-me-down.

In

these paintings elements from his previous


177.

on

Roy

Liechtenstein, Coir Triptych

(Cow Going

Abstract), 1974

veral]

Magna

Oil and

canvas, three panels, 11

Collection Robert and Jane MeyerhofF, Phoenix

I

cm

Maryland


work andmvented some new touches

that fit the aesthetic of the earlier movement just the Cubists had, he incorporated sand into his pigments. From the faux-woodgrain wallpaper of the Cubists he made his own painterly equivalent of woodgrain textures To then- use of materials he added his own, in the form of metallic paints, which he first

-

used

in his series

of Entablatures. That same

Abstract) (hg. 177), 1974, a play

geometric forms to connote

and

starting

develops

a

with

a

on De

form

a

year, he also painted

and Constructive

Stijl

Using

in nature.

rudimentary image of a cow

wry composition

that concludes

Cow

a palette

artists'

use

of yellow,

ofbask

with

non-objective composition with

a

In paintings such as Purist Painting with Pitcher, Glass, Classical

Cubist

still lifes,

Lichtenstein created his

and white

black,

in the left-hand panel, Lichtenstein

shghtly altered palette in the right-hand panel. (This third panel later served Lichtenstein s Perfect paintings, 1985-86.)

in his

(Cow Going

Triptych

own updated

(

Column

a

the bas.s for

as

178). 1975

(fig.

as

version of an important early

Modern movement.

Here, he appropriated the fundamental devices of Purism, an offshoot of Cubism, from Amedee Ozenfant, Charles-Edouard Jeanneret [Le Corbusier], and Leger.

The

elements that made the Purist

neoplastic form,

subdued

heavy black outline around

and Benday-dot

screens,

noteworthy were

style

and opaque paint

color,

of color, using

solid areas

and reducing everything

its

focus

By

surfaces.

on

made

Purism seem

to the straight line

179.

Max

Ernst, Tlie Blind Swimmer, 1934

The Museum of Modern

lies).

Art.

New

(

>il

on

i

anvas,

92

3 K

73.5

<

Mr-

his office

still lifes

Pierre Matisse and

it

had looked since

chairs to create a small lifes

of the period, the

are spare compositions,

New

to the

made

its

and the curve,

classical

commonplace

None of these

art.

the short-lived

1918. In his

in

forms

to

movement of own quixotic

once again

vital

commen

storage cabinets,

office

still lifes

combining is

a

are

ial

few rectangular forms with equally few

Lichtenstein chose for these works because he

and equipment.

He

felt

gi iys

that they

used graphite borders

i

is

perhaps an offshoot of the preceding series of Purist

recall the

most ordinary

dense blue pigment to

still lifes,

stylistic features,

li

9

178.

5

Roy

Oil and

Lichtenstein, Purist Painting with Pitcher, Glass, Classical Column,

Magna on

canvas,

152.4x101.6 cm (60x40

inches)

Collection

however, came

"â&#x20AC;˘

180.

ss

''

Roy '"

I3i

images,

well as

as

Interiors (see figs.

233 and 236.

for

fig.

new

ideas for landscape paintings,

and

of his canvases. As an alternative to Benday

a

Lichtenstein,

Still Life

54inches)

with Table

Lamp, 1976 Oil and Magna

Private collection

231

While there

they are

bound by

is

no one

new freedom

in

more

Chapter

1972-76

10: Still Lifes.

styles in art,

each of which

is

m

in

1991

From

still lifes.

it,

handling the

began using woodgrain and a

new

characteristic that unites the different groups

several ideas consistent with his general

re-creations of one or

distinctive

219) of 1983 mk\

example) begun

dots, he

them

dots, using

some of its most

diagonal stripes, and in each of the series discussed above he introduced colors.

232

this series'

the late 1970s, Lichtenstein had exhausted his interest in painting

surfaces

hristophe CastelL

of

reappear in the series entitled Two Paintings (see

the series of large-scale

By

Many

recall

they are becomingly

unassuming. In these paintings, Lichtenstein again dispenses with Benday diagonal stripes instead.

II

colors.

the hues of pencils and ballpoint ink. While the paintings have an austerity about that

si,

h

and blues, colors that

would

.uk\

He

atalogues.

i

drawers, desks, and

tile

modest indeed. Like the Entablatm

an unusual palette of neutral

approach

a

woodgrain,

group of paintings. In contrast to some of the more bombastic

work, however,

office furniture

make

inception

its

of 1976, Lichtenstein turned again

appropriated images of the most

Helena Rubinstein Fund

the

dated than

way, Lichtenstein renewed Purism and

m

For York. Gift of

the paintings look frivolous, but they did

less

styli

his diagonal stripes, faux

Lichtenstein underscored the stylized representational aspect of Purist

touches

highly

delineating ea< h form with

to art.

of particular

set

of still

They

interest to

of lifes,

are


Lichtenstein

With

as a

familiar

example of "high

art," translated

created a variety of opportunities to quote his that

I.

he applied with even greater mastery

Sec Diane Waldman, Ellsworth Kelly

Society,

233

into his

these works, he continued to appropriate the styles of the

( l

)71),

p.

24.

Chapter 10: Still

Lifes.

1972-76

Drawings,

own

in later

<

ollages,

early

own

idiosyncratic style.

Modern

masters and

work, exploring new avenues

paintings

Printi

(Greenwich

<

onn

New

York Graphii


u


Roy

181.

284

-i

cm

Lichtenstein. Red Horseman, 1974 (84

x

1

12 inches)

Sammlung

I

<

)il

and Magna on

udwig, Mus.

um

i

i

anvas, 21

lerner Kunst,

Vienna


Lichtenstein's exploration of various historical styles reached

1970s.

Even

from the Old West, or the occasional history painting a

subject. In

many ways

his first

concern with

between

that followed,

their genre subject

meaning, form, content, and

and

a

Carlo Carra, Horse and Rider, or

paper, pasted

on

26

canvas.

X

36

cm

(10

Tlie

i

Red

X 14

I

Rider, 1913

in<

Iks)

(fig.

Ink and tempera on

Riccardo and Magdajuckei

Italian Futurist

182), 1913, an

is

s

(fig.

interest in questions

new

Expressionism.

181), 1974,

Horse and Ruhr, also

art

of arts

One

ot the

which Lichtenstein

known

that exemplifies the Futurist love of

Futurist manifesto of 1909, by Italian poet Filippo

founder, called for a

these and in the paintings

between 1974 and 1980, he

and German

Red Horseman

Carlo Carra

image

emphasizing the

as

The Red Rider

movement. The

Tommaso Mannetti,

first

the movement's

that would express and encourage speed and dynamism,

loan to Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan.

On

,„,„,

style. In

that Lichtenstein painted

of works

most notable of these paintings

182.

high-art

a work's

style.

focused especially on Futurism, Surrealism,

based on

from

Lichtenstein introduced

paintings in 1961, pointedly

he has continued to demonstrate an abiding

In successive series

of early Modernism,

in the context

became even more charged when

this issue

mid-to-late

in the

style as a distinctive issue in painting quite apart

comic-strip and consumer-product

difference

apogee

of Americana, which presented subjects derived

in his youthful paintings

he showed

its

violence and destruction:

We

shall sing the love

of danger, the habit of energy and

that the world's magnificence has

A

racing car

breath

whose hood

a roaring car that

of Samothrace

Led by Mannetti,

seems

to

nde

affirm

new beauty: the beaut)

a

great pipes, like serpents ol

on grapeshot

is

more

ol

speed

cplosivt

i

beautiful than the

I

Ictory

'

the the Futurist painters and poets sought to liberate Italy from

stranglehold imposed libraries as

adorned with

is

been enriched by

We

fearlessness.

upon

it

by

its

past.

They

attacked the

museums, academies, and

cemeteries of lost dreams and exhorted their followers to

the action of the present.

They

commit themselves

to

traditional declared themselves vehemently opposed to the

world order based on modern values of an agrarian society and fought for a revolutionary were heralded In the Futurists as a technology. Anarchy, militarism, and patriotism embrace of their work by the Fascists under progressive part of their agenda and led to the the leadership of Mussolini.

torpedo missions by fighter planes Although Lichtenstein had featured bombing and his Futurist-style paintings do not include any and submarines in his comic-strip paintings, many of the Futurists, concentrating instead on of the battle scenes that had preoccupied World War II. despite speed, and energy. For Lichtenstein. the depiction of motion, all

the destruction

it

caused, was

a

justified

war fought

to preserve

in his

democracy;

he chose to sidestep the political and SO, ial appropriation of Futurist imagery however, movement. He was War and formed the basis of the Italian issues that

preceded World

aware of the

social

and

twentieth century, but was

produced and 183.

\8

91

19:

k

cm

I

184.

137

Roy

I

(42

Roy ,.n

Lichtenstein, Self-Portrait, 1976 Oil and Magna k

)6 inches)

(

ollection

Mr

Lichtenstein, Self-Portrait

(7ii

\ S4 inches)

...id

II,

Oil

....

(

less

their adaptation

agendas of many of the major

of the Cubist

suggests constant flux. In transcribing invas,

art

movements

as

style,

Futurism.

Cam's

Cam's Red Ruin

is all

about

small-scale image onto

relatively

p as less

light a

I

and

u

a rigid network or colors, Benday-screen shading, and canvas using unmodulated sense of rapid froze the image, suspending the arcs and lines, Lichtenstein

Ex P R ESS O N FUTUR.SM. SURREAL. SM. AND GERMAN .

237

W

especially by what he regarded

intersecting

Private collection

ot the early

that interested in these issues than in the images

important offshoots of Cubism, such

canvas,

Mrs. Robert Shoenberg.

1976 Oil and Magna

I

political

CHAPTER

11:

.

S

M.

1974-80


.

v.Vv-v::-.

••••V

V.-'-v.v-v.v.

mm. IV • • • -• •••••• vv.vy.v.-y//.. •••••• ••«••• A* • • • • ••••••••


motion of the horse and

and then progression through space and time.

rider

of painting

uses his typical style

to fashion tins statu

image

as

an ironic

1

ichtenstein

commentary on

the dynamism of the original, negating the sense of speed that the Futurists believed

in

with such ardor.

Many initially (fig.

of the Futurists, including Carra, Gino Severini, and Umberto Boccioni, were

Two

influenced by Cubism,

183) and Self-Portrait

Self-Portrait (fig.

II (fig.

1912-13.

186),

ofLichtenstein's Futurist takeoffs, Self-Portrait

184),

The

both

on

are based

(

)7(.,

1

Severini portrait

is

a

Severini's

lubistic

(

penetrating study

ol the artist

seen from multiple perspectives, characterized by movement, heightened color, ind surface. Lichtenstein has simplified

He

emulated Severini's Cubist

forms, but substituted his

brushwork. With the

like

enough from

1

style,

tie still

(

and further flattened

lubistic,

matrix and diagonal

sti

ipes for Sevei ini's

image not only looks quite

from the original but

different

more

II is

has said that

them not

is

make

his

models but more

Gucomo

of Red Horseman). 1914,

as

wanted

lie

abstra<

and just different

t,

own

point of departure (with the exception

as his

the

in his

versions of particular paintings, and

own

oj

of Futurism

to create the effect

Balk's Mercury Passing

the antecedent for Eclipse

tive

a<

Italian's

Severini's Self-Portrait to appear totally convincing as Lichtcnstein \

He

it.

imitating the Italian painter's fragmented and faceted

in place but the cigarette and othei features of the

Futurist-inspired works rather than

Telescope,

even more

it

ichtenstein himself Self-Portrail

insightful self-portrait.

thus has used

made

own Benday-dot

self-portrait eliminated, the

remarkably

it.

tactile

Front

in

Sun

Sun

the

oj

Seen through a

as

ISS), L975. In this painting,

II (fig.

.un\ thrust Lichtcnstein has captured the centrifugal force, the intersecting arcs, the energy

of the original and. 1X6.

Gino

Severini, Self-Portrait, 1912-13.

OU on

canvas,

55 X

16

cm

21

as

with the Severini and the Carra,

made

own

his

into interpretation of the innovations that catapulted the Futurists

Private collection

among

a

Stylistic

prominent position

the early twentieth-century Modernists.

seized Surrealism, founded by French poet Andre Breton in 1924,

and the interpretation of dream imagery Breton and fellow poets Paul Eluard and

as

upon

the fundamental premise of

Tristan Tzar,

the unconsi ious

its

program.

were joined by such painters

m

as f

mk\ Tangu) ... their sean I. foi a nev Arp, Salvador Dali, Ernst. Magritte, Masson, Miro, subconscious. Ea< I. ol the Surrealist language with which to express the nine, world of the painters evolved an individual

being and each remained rationale for their

own

The) became involved

means of expression with which

faithful, for a time, to the

experiments in

dream

in the

movement.

psychoanalyti(

al

to I

convey

this

,

I

he Surrealists found

resear. hes oi

Sigmund Freud.

observations analysis and began to apply Freud's

interpretation and the role of language in

dream

to their poet.N

a

and painting

the the irrational, and the accidental, like Surrealists, exploiting the bizarre,

I

I

on dream

he

>ad,.sts

he) on the formal and rational order ot ( ub.sm before them, staged an outright assault drawings, improvised sp< u ,ote automatic texts and created automatic and outrageous manner. In the process, they created a m * >nd generally behaved in an orthodox Futurism, was stylistically diverse. Within the highly original art which, like literal tendencies can be observed, one based on a Surrealist canon, two general Magritte, Tanguy, and the other based on automatism interpretation of a dream landscape, Masson with the latter; the former tendency, Miro and Dali ire usually identified with I

185.

Roy l^T s

Lichtcnstein, Eclipse of the Sun

cm

(74

x

70 inches)

Private

1

11,

1975 Oil uid Magna on

ollecnon

EXP R ES S .0 N SM FUTUR.SM. SURREAL. SM, AND GERMAN ,

241

CHAPTER

11:

1974-80 .


Ernst defies categorization. Lichtenstein usually chose the to

more

forms of Surrealism

literal

work from. At

own

glance, Surrealism

first

formal concerns

that

pop

interest in

him too

and formal order and

to a rational

work from

would seem

as to offer

of the

to the

and

Surrealists

to be

to

little

subject so remote from Lichtenstein

.1

work

with. Lichtenstein's

align

m

common. What like

it,

comic

him

attracted

movements with whi<

art

was

to Surrealism

or consumer-product ads

strips

Thus, Surrealism's characteristic

style

when

Lichtenstein's Surrealist imagery

Sometimes, he juxtaposed two

is

often based on that of Magritte, Pali, and Ernst.

as in his

and

reality

illusion in several different ways.

identical images, portraying

painting The

Human

at

the very

least,

since

real,

is

the othei

of course,

as

are depictions

world

he knew

as

and

it

..1

was

his duplicitOUS universe

so closely mirrored the

it

one

Condition, 1933. Both,

but the conviction with which Magritte portrayed

disarming

— the

and techniques became the subject of Lichtenstein's

Magritte played with the relationship between

reality;

for that matter

carried to an extreme.

is

it

contained

it

of paintings.

series

invented,

to

he seemingly had

h

very orthodoxy;

its

— or Cubism,

seeds ot a stereotype, as does any form of art or culture

new

commitment

Lichtenstein's overview of twentieth-century art and his affinity for

histoncism propelled him to explore several

within

his

the quotidian surroundings of their

world, his sense of irony and his intellectual detachment compete with his

little in

his

with the work of the Cubists. Although

it

culture parallels the Cubists' interest

Cubism. However,

commitment

concept of compositional unity distinguish

as

it

appeared to the spectator. Magritte's "duplicitOUS universe" consists most often of

unexpected or impossible juxtapositions, transformations, or

surprise achieved by contradicting or confusing our expectations of 188.

Rene Magritte, The Son

ii,

Ik-s)

(

olleition

of Man, 1964. Oil on canvas, 115.5

Harry Torczyner,

New

\

88.9

cm

(45

A X

x

"normal"

and

reality to be,

unexpected or impossible

York

which

a figure

with the

elisions,

effe<

is

pictured in a scale that

is

of

what we assume

by creating an otherwise "normal" context for

(usually)

thai

world

situation. Magritte frequently created a troinpe-1'oeil

or an object

t

in

at

odds with the other figures and

objects in the space of a painting. In most of his canvases, the figures and objects appear as

though they could spectator.

He

also

step out

took pleasure in the incongruity of metamorphoses, showing

being transformed into

trompe

l'oeil

of the stage space they inhabit and enter the domain of the

a

woman,

a

pair of boots into feet.

and transformation, Magritte

is

and

The Rape

(fig.

188),

1

1978, and Stepping Out

duplicating any one painting per

se.

Surrealism, without challenging his

gamesmanship into

Surrealists

from 187.

m

Roy (70

Lichtenstein, Self-Pot (rail, 1978 Oil and x

54 inches)

Magna on

canvas, 177 S x

his

243

Chapter

play,

own

earlier

such (fig.

is

77/.

I

ai

Mirror, 1^28,

1

L937 and The Son

as Girl with

liar

I

qj

Man

189), 1977,

(fig.

195), 1978, without, however,

Merely to duplicate would produce pastiches styles

merging

work—and,

and

its

1

il

stratagems. Instead, Lichtenstein brought

prototypical subjects from any .\nd conflating

in so doing, creating a

new

set

one

ot the

major

them with images drawn

of images

in

which the

Surrealism.

of Lichtenstein's

11:

its

Principle,

with the outstanding images of another

underlying theme

One

Private collection

The Pleasure

%4— for several of his paintings,

Self-Portrait (fig. 187),

nude torso reminiscent of the body

194), 1934, an eye similar to that in

several self-portraits, including

(fig.

a

his interest in

for Lichtenstein.

ready-made material

Lichtenstein borrows several motifs from Magritte in Magritte's

Because of

a fish

most memorable Surrealist-inspired images

1974-80 Futurism. Surrealism, and German Expressionism.

is

his

1978

Self-Portrait,


based on Magntte's paintings

which the image

of an apple hides most of the

upper part of an empty

portrait featuring the his early

1960s black-and-white works, and

that, in Ml'm>r series style,

white space and color,

Great War, 1964, and

'/'//<

shows only

edged with

is

and white. Other

a

ai fist's

\>Âť/ 0/ .\/,m. self portraits in

/'//<

face.

htenstein's painting

i(

1

executed

T-shirt,

the rudimentary

in

a

Bcndawdot

bustol

styli

amid empty

"reflections"

narrow frame made up of sections ofB<

a

a

rectangular mirror (representing his head)

tew rippling

dots, solid

ud.i\

he made around that tune indicate

self-portraits that

is

that

Lichtenstein experimented with different attire for the figure. In two studies, he has drawn a

jacket with an open-necked

painting

1977, features

Portrait,

1962 painting

Sii'i^

of cheese

a slice

which

Cheese, in

background ofBenday

and with

print shirt

floral

effacing" to the extreme and confronting the viewer with a

Nevens

radio interview with Jean

question about the image of the apple hiding the face At

the visible but hidden

the

e

fai

of the person

us.

see.

I

here

is

This interest

might

say,

.m interest

m

take the

0111

between the

tli.u

form

visible

dot

which "i is

It's

something

and win.

liut.lv n

is

quite intense feeling,

i

hut. ten

realism in 190.

Max

Ernst. The Wheel of Light, 1925

i2cm(9 ix 191.

Salvador Dali, Hie Persistence of Memory, 1931 J

in.

hes)

was influenced by the

;

In his paintings, Pali

Private collection, Switzerland

16 finches)

!

n

Frottagc era)

< >'l

The Museum of Modern An New

â&#x20AC;˘>"

earl) canvases

appropriated the image o(

York, Given

The

iousI)

Persistence

a

teardrop or X[

m â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Jhe

a

191), 1931,

a

made

the

pair of lips (the latter probably

Lores. 1932-34).

onsi ind)

<

hidden In what

is

son is

a

.>.

onflii

1

t,

shov

"in

apparent

became

before he

hallucinatory form of

his use

I

figures.

of disorienting ichtenstein

I

signal Surrealist painting.

)ali's

into Girt mil, Tear L 1977,

it

year. All three paintings, as well as

same

strand

a

ofblond

borrowed from

hair

Man

of paintings

In Lichtenstein's trio

...

comb...,., on with

Kay's

we

(

can see several aspet

Freudian-based emphasis on sexuality, and note surrogate for male sexuality, Lichtenstein chose as a

with Lichtenstein's interpretation

///

ill

Teat

I

and

its

companion

ot the Surrealist vocabulary

Chirico, Dali. and Tanguv. while recalling

to recast

paintings present us

and the deepl) recessed Ins

own

paintings ot female

Roy i

Lichtenstein, Girl with Tear 50inches)

I,

1977

(

>il

and Magna on

i

m\

SolomonR Guggenheim Museum, New

[fig

is

48]

1932) and

beach

combined them with

his

ball,

own

and cabana

245

Chapter

11:

U,

(see Bather with Beach Ball

lauds, ape motifi

ol\^ female head, in others he paired multiple views

York

I.

1977

bather, picasso^S Surrealist paintings of a 189.

ts

whereas

Beach lull other paintings in the series, such as Girl with figures in the early 1960s. In forms and images from Lichtenstein freely borrowed some ot the

Uld

a

)bservatory

.ts

imagery into female forms. Girl with

,Uk

hiding

that

Dali used the limp watch

dream space

a

metaphysical painter Giorgio de Chirico

and transformed

similar nature, feature an eve and

of Surrealism, especially

Dali's

Italian

of visually incongruous

related paintings that he

one of three others of

.1

Cubism

melted pocket watch from

of Memory (W^

responding to

h the visible doesn'i

emulated de Chirico's stagelike space,

perspectives, and his juxtaposition

canvas,

of

1

vocabulary of the dream. Like Magritte. Dali

in the

which he depicted objects

happens

that

Surrealism. By 1929, however, he had invented

interested in

notion of "self-

apple

thi

fac<

nut the visible thai

Like other Surrealists. Dali had experimented with

tenures

Great War, said

The

in

own

that reflects onl}

ot L964,

always wanl to se< whai

we

Everything we see hides another thing,

we

end

the

at

his

depicted against a

'mirror"

you have the apparent

Well so

the face parti)

least it hides

quotation from

(.1

mx ing the

1

a

while the

tie;

Lichtenstein negates his

Self-Portrait,

with the imageless mirror, topping Magritte's visual pun b\

void. Magritte, in

head

in place of the

of Swiss cheese was

a slab

1978

dots). In the

collared shirt and

.1

a

and brushstroke,

manner reminiscent

Expressionism. 1974-80 Futurism, Surreal. sm. and German

ot PicaSSO

in

and


192.

Roy

Magna on

Lichtcnstcin, Landscape with Figures, canvas,

and Nan Swid

I

162.6x254

oUection,

cm

New

(64* 100

York

( l

inches)

'77

Oil Hid

Stephen


,

of

his

own

early Picassoesque lltmi.m

mirror and

a

in'///

Flowered Hat

fragment of one of his landscapes

down

to

essential vocabulary

its

and enhanced by

commentary. While they do not share Surrealism's of art could be shaped from the unconscious measure of

large

its

wit,

and not

a

— they have captured

oi

little bit

its

of Dali and Tanguy, and

was the

that Ernst

seminal

this

1925 (and reproduced

work were

for Lichtenstein

of Ernsts work of

him

it

because

Among it

that

language

a

style, a

dream landscapes

in the

most admired, primarily

Surrealist artist he

1926).

in

Surrealists

pathos

fig.

represented

190).

The

,i

illustrations in

eye was

window

for

Histoire naturelle,

the most important

those that featured an eye (see

motif in the work of the

and thus

The

visual

much of its

was undoubtedly aware of Ernst's

his inventive techniques. Lichtenstein in

own

his

fund.unent.il premise

Recently. Lichtenstein has said that he was largely interested

executed

oi a

193], 1977).

[fig

and most of Lichtenstein's other Surrealist-style works give us

Gir/ in/// Tear paintings

Surrealism pared

Female Head

(see

with part

37), 1963,

(fig.

re<

.i

urrent

into the unconscious,

was one of the principal symbols of Surrealism. Other aspects pioneering

interest to Lichtenstein include his

The

create spontaneous images.

&ottag( to help

ol

us<

made from

patterns that Ernst

his

rubbings of

and floorboards were remarkably similar to the faux-woodgrain wallpaper used by Braque differed Picasso in their seminal Cubist collages (although Ernst's hallucinatory images

who

from those of Braque and Picasso, simulation of reality

used the woodgrain wallpapei

predominantly

in their

of which led to Lichtenstem's use

o\\\

abstract,

wood-ram

pattern

dots or diagonal stripes to create an area surrounding (see Cubist Still Life with Playing Cards,

wood-ram

Lichtenstein points out that his

Formica, 194.

Rene Magritte. inches

fhe Menil

Rape, 1934 Oil on canvas, 28.9 X 21.5

Tin-

<

ollection,

cm (11

a

laminated

[fig.

plastic finish that

is

a

as

form or

generic vocabulary rather than (fig.

195),

znd Razzmatazz

(fig.

incorporate quotations from

from paintings related bill

bits

as

often used

166),

his earlier Teat

works, such

as a substitute for

I

of landscape, Swiss cheese, and

6ger's painting

The Country Outing

(fig.

as

the

wood-rain

more cosdy wood.

1970s, bin as pari ol his

late

lips. eve.

and Others of the same

eve.

and

(

)ui

167),

19

tress

of blond hair

series, as well as the goll

office furniture. Stepping lips,

itself

However.

both 1978, and Gofot Baroquefrg.

juxtaposing simplicity of his Surrealist paintings, I

the form

in

fill

central subject. Paintings such as Stepping

,ts

to Girl with

to

to look like

meant

is

of the Surrealism continued to affect L.chtenste.n's work

Houston

an alternative to his Be. .J as

176], 1974, for example).

pattern

an illusionistic

as

two-dimensional compositions)—all

<

)ul retains

and hair with

..

and

mata

196), 1954, whereas Raz

the

relatlV.

male head from i

>

fin

Lchtenstein murals. In these two works. the complexity of large-scale od Still as Cape such he had developed in paintings elaborates on a type of imagery that a composition With when he juxtaposed disparate elements Life II (fig 165), 1973, h organ* and threads his way through tableaux in whi. multiple perspectives. Here, he 1

Baroque have

all

(

m

wedges of Swiss cheese, geometric forms, female heads, and birds jacket cactus, snails, and

paintings in

which Lichtenstein

larger than the

left

193.

Roy

Lichtenstein, Female Head, 1977 50

,,,.

bi

(

Oil and

Magna on

oUectlon El.z.ibeth and MkIucI Rcj.

canvas

152.4*

ln hls

all

sum

of

its

coexist in

249

.1:

abinetS, plants, a

somewhat uneasy harmony

I

mans

hese are

whole

parts.

workings ofFuturism and

CAP."

.

the viewer, the re-presents his processed imagery to

Surrealism, Lichtenstein loosened his

them compositional unity and brought to

ConneUKUt

filing

a

£ »««~ Furu.,S«. SURREALISM, A„0 G

nod

)l

decdedly measure of inspiration chat was

EXP.E

SS ON ,

,

M

1974-80 .


different

from

He

their originators.

reinfused Futurism with

that the Futurists themselves had rejected in then

unleashed

more

a

and creating

When

panoply of imagery

a

he turned to

German

Like the Futurist

to

cosmopolitan

around 1920,

and then became the

196

-

1

Leger, The Country Outing, 1954 Oil on canvas, 245

19 inches).

Âť

101

cm

in

capital

which Berlin was

concerned with the

A

created

its

most characteristic

features.

initially

It

developed

prospered fiom 1910

ii

German Empire

the capital of the

of the new German republic. By 1918, the dramatic

increasingly

scenes.

Kmand

re

previous work

his

Kpressionism was born of rebellion, but the

of Dresden, Munich, mk\ Berlin, where

Germany

underwent

1

structure

paintings he

one wild form on top of another

he intertwined with forms from

that

Expressionism, he

upheavals in

social values. In Berlin

in Ins Surrealist

rebellion that SOUght relief and renewal in nature.

a

cities

decade

a

work; and

nature, layering

movement, German

German movement was in the

of his

fanciful aspect

some of the Cubist

War

caused by World

political

during the 1920s,

I

were reflected

torment

in

its

which became

art,

countr) and

of the

its

drastically altered

German Expressionism became

radii

and

ilized

dramatic change, with devastating street scenes replacing the earlier pastoral

a

leading force in making Berlin

cultural center

a

showcase

experiment and

for

was Herwarth Waldcn, the founder and guiding

a

European

the magazine

spirit of

Dct Sturm [The Storm) and the Sturm Gallery, introducing Expressionists, Cubists,

Fondarion Maeght, Saint-Paul dc Ven

Futurists, city

and Construetivists

to Berlin.

and inexorably altered the

German Expressionism

life

oi

its

But

it

was the war

changed the

that

of the

fa< e

painters.

gave twentieth-century

art a

new

artistic

language, imparting

an intense psychological expression to painting through the use oi distorted forms,

jagged

and violent

lines,

colors.

Aware of their

meaning, reinterpreted color

as

it

as

landscape and the figure with new

applied to form, and reinvented the woodcut.

turned Christian mythology into an eloquent metaphor recorded the decadence of the city

m

ashes.

Above

all,

artist's

a

period

in

the tragedy oi

left

history that

marked

whu

h be<

a

a

ame

all

life.

work of such German

Expressionists as

Ernst

Kirchner. Franz Marc, Enul Noldc, and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff. As noted

many of Jawlensky's

lite,

the passing ot

Beckmann, Otto Dix, George Grosz, Erich Meckel, Alexei Jawlensky,

seen

Th

modern

us a collective portrait ol

traditional dialogue with nature,

but completely overshadowed by urban Lichtenstein was well aware of the

foi

utv of Berlin, and

brilliant

they recorded

and the end of the

political era

German

great historical antecedents.

Expressionists reinvigorated such timeless subjects

Constructivist images of heads

(figs.

200. 20

I .

Max Ludwig he had

earlier,

and 202) from

when he visited Pasadena in 1968. And on a visit during a period when he was making WOod( UtS based on

the Galka E. Scheyer Collection to Los Angeles

m

1978,

collection ot Native-American Indian imagery, he saw Robert Gore Rifkind's important German wood< UtS as German Expressionist graphic works, after which he began to use

the basis for Roy Lichtenstein, in

-

86

v

" in hes)

on Wallace

Gift,

Foundation, n

<

Swid,

Museum

Magna on

of Art,

New

canvas,

ln<

Gifts,

.

H

Hazen Foundation,

Walter Bareiss, Marie

218

4 X

York, Purchase,

Arthur Hoppock Hearn Fund. Arthur Lejwa

and rhe Bernhill Fundjoseph

\'P

hi

he Metropolitan

l

i

Stepping Out, 1978 Oil and

In<

I

und

honoi

in

Samuel

I

of

German

1980

251

the look paintings, sculptures, and prints. Lichtenstein emulated

Expressionism principally by emphasizing

sharper contrasts

m

both 1979,

works bv Jawlensky and

(fig.

Bannon McHenry, Louise Smith

some of his

recall

203). 1980,

is

his colors. Portrait

Woman

oj a

I

(tig

).x (see fig.

its

intersecting planes and

L99) and

Dr.

Waldmann

i

r<

(fig

ating 197),

198, for example); and Forest Scene

inspired by the forest scenes of Mare.

Hie vivid colors .md bold

brushstrokes used bv most of these artists are contours, angular forms and impetuous which red. yellow, blue, green, black, and regularized by Lichtenstein into a system in

Chapter

11:

Expressionism. 1974-80 Futurism. Surrealism, and German


— which echo the hatching

white form the basic color scheme, while diagonal stripes

German

woodcuts

Expressionist

organizing device.

German

and commitment to

generally replace the Benday-dot pattern

the overall

Expressionism's emotional intensity, psychological meaning,

m

political expression are largely absent

his Expressionist

did with Futurism and Surrealism, Lichtenstein was more interested

movement's fundamental

.is

in

probing

pictorial aspects than in

its

works. As he

capturing the

in

underlying beliefs and

ideologies.

Rather than appropriating particular paintings, Lichtenstein preferred to find

He

Expressionist.

more generic images

that

would

German

that

one would

he made composite landscapes

that

find in a portrait

look

Expressionist color scheme, occasionally adding

Benday dots

German

the

like

Marc, often

to convey

some

left his

sense of modeling.

own

his

deep green and

a

using

light,

movements

He made

a

German

style.

sculpture and into

that inspired the paintings discussed above,

answer to Abstract Expressionism, which was indebted

movement 198.

Otto Dix, Dr. Mayer-Hermann, 1926 Oil and tempera on wood, 149-2 9 in< Iks)

The Museum of Modern

Art.

New

in early

him

to

in

F|ihppo)

is

expand

painting

his ideas into

arguabU

his

twentieth-century German)

T(ommasol Mannetti.

translated

German

in issues ol

"Fond......,,

el

manifeste du futurisme,"

U

February 20,

!

1

York, Gift ot Philip 19(i')

il

no small way to the pioneering

X 1.

on mechann

it

figurative paintings that are

of landscapes and

ol

German woodcuts.

recall

Expressionist pictorial innovations led a series

dark

few obligatory references to

Expressionism that connects most directly with Liechtenstein's interest

and

a

minimal pattern

a

Expressionists' painterliness, but otherwise preferred to rely

three

version of a

In contrast to these dark colors,

animal forms

black outlines and heavy diagonal stripes to

Of the

lash ion,

landscapes by Marc or Heckel without

like

blue to evoke the darkness and depth of the forest

however, he,

in man

by Beckmann. In similar

Marc's distinctive color palette. As noted above, he worked within

German

(

to particularize these compositions or to emulate every aspect of

making any attempt

basic

as

to resemble the kind ot

Waldmann, which he painted

as Dr.

read

Pi< asso,

01

female head, and continue d

began with the quintessential form of a

with other heads, such cosmopolitan

he did with Matisse

as

W

by R.

Flinl as

Manifesto of Futurism 1909;

The Founding and

Umbro

in

Apollonio

Ml ed.. Futurisl Manifestos

2

I.,

October 1911, Boccioni and

work ofLeger,

Cam

(New York Viking

Cam

Press, 1973), p. 21.

attended the Salon

Albert Gleizes.Jean Metzinger, and

to poet and critic

Cubist paintings

K

I

lenri

I

d'Automne

...

Paris,

where

Fauconnier Severini introduced B

e

Kahnweiler, Guillaume Apollinaire and dealer Daniel-Henry

Picasso and Braque See Giovanni

I

ista,

the) discovered the

Futurism (Nev, York

who show

Unive,

.1

I

Bool

112.

3.

(Nev, Vbrl Magritte, quoted in David Sylvester. Magrittt

N. Abrams,

larry

I

Foundation, 1992), p 24

kfi

197.

Roy

Lichtenstein, Dr. Waldmann, 50

in< hes)

I

')7'»

Oil Mid

Magna on

canvas, 152.4 k

Private collection

253

CHAPTER

11:

FUTURISM. SuRREAUSM. AND GERMAN

EXP R

E S

S

I

ON

,

S

M

1974-80 .

Ii»

and

ii

and The Menil

i


>0Q

Oilonpapei mountedon

Alexeijawlensky, Winter, 1921 ,

6.6 >

|

um

26.4cm

Pasadena,

(

(14

alifornia,

k

10

["he

inches)

Norton Simon

Blue Four-Galka

heyei

201. Alexei Jawlcnsky, Sounds of Winter. 1927 Oil on linen board, 42.5 a J2.7 Pasadena,

(

cm

alifornia

(16 Y* x 12

rhe Blue Foui

inches)

finish

Norton Simon Museum,

Galka Scheyei

(

oil

n

202

on

199.

Roy

Lichtcnstein. Portrait of a

Magna

Oil and

i

on canvas, 177 h \ 137

ollecdon

I

i

Woman, 1979

m

(70

k

54 inches)

invas

mountedo

,v<».

4, I

1931 (Meditation Head), 1937 Oil

Iboard

Norton Simon Museum, Pasadena, s,

don

i

Alcxci Jawlcnsky.

heyei

*

ollei

don

"'

<

'

"

'

Jifornia,

cm rh<

(11

Blui

B

inch.

Foui

Galka


203.

Roy

Lichtenstein. Forrsl Sunt. 1980 "II'

" i

I

I

(

HI

and Magna

m

is,

W3.8

>


204.

Roy Lichtcmicin. 104 8 .in (84

*

Indian Composition, 1979

120 incheÂť) Prima

colli

(

>il

and

M

I


4 »

• t

» •

• I

*

f

>•

tiffing

# t

»

••' •.!*.

J:

•«

i

•••••••,

1


p

I


I

>unng

the 1980s, Lichtenstein pursued both

working in

an Expressionist mode,

in

appearance to small

' series of

new and

He continued

familiar themes.

employing contrived brushstroke images (similar Brushstroke paintings of the mid-1960s) in three groups ofnev, workslifes done in 1980-81, group oflandscapes in 1981- 82, and , series

his

still

at first

.,

of four Woman paintings,

1981-82, based on de

also

Koo

g's

thud

Woman

sei les ol

He

paintings.

then began incorporating looser, more Expressionist brushstrokes and areas of freely brushed paint in sections ofhis Two Paintings and Paintings series. 1982-84,

and

continued

from

this

classical

approach

on

traditional landscapes or

painting or sculpture. 1985-88. Ea< h work

series juxtaposes series.

in a series based

two contrasting

1988-90, he developed

some

styles Iron,

this idea

on themes derived

the Two Paintings and Paintii

...

m

of his earlier series,

by combining an image of one

the Reflections

ol

and

[985-88, and

Imperfect series.

ofMondnan. he resumed

in Plus

appropriated from

a

Bauhaus

monumental Woman

(see He///,///

III.

tig.

paintings from the n.Sns (see

fig.

206) are

pamtmg. but they

New

homage

are also au

York School. De Kooning's

paintings were

first

shown

In the Perfect

on the work

series based

Bauhaus Stairway,

in

tl.

rough an image

Oskar Schlemmer.

artist.

His tour paintings of female figures

the

neu

a

an exploration of pure abstraction; while

he reconsidered the merging of flgural and geometric form

also 198K,

gestural

and Minus, 1988,

earlier

flis

paintings (or one by Picasso or Warhol) with motifs from the Mirroi series

one

to

Woman

third

205) based on de Kooning's

ol the

series

a

parody of gesture and

foremost gestural painters

oi

n\'

provoked controversy when the

1953 and for decades afterward. Passionate advoi

in

ates of his preceding series of black-and-white abstractions argued that the Women represented a

retreat

from

his earlier,

more

"radical" work, while other critics debated his

relationship with his subject. But tin Willem de Kooning, Woman, 1950 Âť.5cm(14

ixll

hk

lu

si

(

Âťil

From the

enamel, and pasted paper on paper, collection

of Thomas B.

owned b) rhe Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York and .

\

contemporary American painting, .md

come

have it

was

in those

the heirs ol

works was inspired

b\ Surrealism,

n Hess, 1984

but became dissatisfied with

subsequently finished Gallery in creating

sources

March

of the

a series

as

With

of female

Mesopotamia!!

it

and

advertisements. ,\nd the

other

and Ameri< an

i

Lilt

1

figure

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; movie

another painting

like. In

cm,///

Lichtenstein. Although his

paintings ,i

at

mi

i

his almosl

He began Woman

/in 1950 it

He

the Sidney finis

new phase

m

his

oeuvre.

many of his New York

S.

hoo)

details in a painting to focus the

his

i

De Kooni

Marilyn Monroe.

newspapi

stars, billboards,

in the third series,

mouth from

anatomical tonus

bend and warp from the

into a picture plane that appeared to

all

1

hate

ol

pervaded even

1940s.

low

ons

and mid-1940s,

Kooning entered

the collage element of an illustration of a

and the eye

th.it

i<

figures ot goddesslike proportions, inspired by such diverse idols

painted limbs and breasts, and compressed

Like

five

these works, de

was fascinated by American popular culture

combined

late

as

eighteen months and temporarily abandoned

and showed

it,

1953.

after

it

in the early

influence

.\n

entirely abstract black-and-white paintings

be recognized

this that attracted

de Kooning worked with the image of the figure

Hess,

to

a

lie///,///,

Camel

.\nd

I

he

also 1950,

cigarette

,k\

with

impastoed surfaces

figures' active distortion

oUeagues, de Kooning often relied on one or two

image. In the

serve to pull together an

Woman

paintings, the

mouth,

the breast,

amalgam of fractured ami fragmented forms, out

of which de Kooning created many memorable images of heroic and vulnerable women. 205.

Roy

Lichtenstein,

56 inches

Privat<

Woman

III,

1982 Oil and Magna on

i

anvas,

203 2

x

He Kooning,

in these

works, seems to have eollaged various elements of the figure

together without relinquishing their resemblance to the

collection

263

Chapter

12: The

1980s

human form;

but. alter the

first


W//W/////////W///, W//mpm//////t^


one, he altered

his seated figure,

plane. Lichtenstein, like de

cropping her

legs

Kooning, progressed

and bringing her closer

recognizable though dramatically altered figure to an image suggestion of a female eye and l\

the least

,

abstract

on

literal

of the

mouth

and leg

it

any

compositions of the mid-1950s. Lichtenstein based

in the

same positions But

appear to be variations on variations

m

de Kooning's

making

own

Ins

Woman

first

used

Kooning's

in this series

it

an active

am

who

to construct

is

I

he may be

[ere,

of the

lost sight

form

precedent for Lichtenstein's emphasis on the independent brushstroke can be found

in the

work of Johns.

as a central

reality

In canvases

such

1959, [ohns depicted words

as False Start (fig. 69),

element of each composition

to explore issues relating to the representation "I

m

and the disjunctions and ambiguities inherent

OU1 pen eption "I

In this

il

other paintings featuring the names of colors, he deliberately "mismatched" almost

name with

!

.

\thenodorus,

i

.in

in

md

copj of

ccnturj

1st

\

D

(..reck sculpture,

Polydorus of Rhodes Marble, 213.4

cm

perhaps

In

(84 inches)

usmg

the color he was

area,

it

and so on). Johns thus challenged the

or with the coloi of th<

paintings, vanes this

and

o

surrounding

area

Sten< lied in black against

identities "i

became autonomous.

the brushstrokes themselves

Museums, Rome

to paint

example, ORANG1 was painted white, or RED was

(for

Roman

The Laocobn Gump,

of the

brushstroke to build

often separate part of the image.

if

primary function ofbrushwork, which

208.

arm.

lips, breast,

modeled on

his

Woman

and Woman IV

III,

painting rather than

who

"I d<

painting

month,

Woman

II,

parodying third- or fourth-generation followers of de Kooning

A

head) One

its

his first

the eyes,

Woman

Unlike de Kooning,

series.

barest

seems to have been bent on distinguishing the brushstroke from

his figures, Lichtenstein

the figure and

Woman, 1950, with Lichtenstein's

which onl) the

in

clearl)

a

whatsoever. Lichtenstein's

realitj

closcb resembles (except tor

series,

close reading of de Kooning's

a

lend

to the picture

of women from

in his paintings

both the words and the

Lichtenstein, in Ins four

il

yellow

a

olors,

i

and

Woman

the separation between the image and the

theme by emphasizing

brushstrokes that serve to describe the female anatomy 01 to situate one form

in relation to

another. Creating the image of the brushstroke as an independent form .\nd neutralizing the a

ground around the

volume and

the canvas support as

void.

a

Me Kooning

within an anonymous background (he called

making

it

as painterly as the figures

three-dimensional nature of

own

his

fascination with the brushstroke [ohns's painterly gesture, but

appearance has

it

it

is

as a

is

(see figs. 264, 270, a\k\

27

ol die I).

"no-cm ironment").

it

manifested

in

a

The

-'"7.

Roy Lichtcnstein, Laocoon, 1988 I-' 11

n

102 inches)

(

>il

and Magna on

i

anvas,

his

Privat< collection

265

Woman

Chapter

series

12: The

a

sets

up

dialectic betwi

a

i(

th<

htenstem's

ea< h

in

Woman

series

whi< h nu^\

of the mid-1960s,

in

m i

1981 n thi

of one. This distinction

fabricated imitation

a

and from

ol his

I

ii

brushstrokes are

More

like

sets

htenstein's

more

the self

which the brushstroke was

isolated

from

painting a\k\ turned into An independent motif, the brushstrokes

keep their identity even

1980s

I

different fashion here. In this sen.

integrated within the overall composition.

the other elements of

104.8 X

between

up)

i

originate with de Kooning's and

may

brushstroke image

other Expressionist paintings of the 1980s,

referential Brushstroke series

Oi

fully

white ground, their tough and impassive

a

the four canvases apart from de Kooning's third

more

was

look of the Brushstroke sculptures he began

"natural" hand-painted brushstroke and

painterly and

but he insisted on

painting, he chose to distinguish

concrete form

as

to situate his figures

u htenstein

I

brushstrokes and the space thc\

silhouetted against

something

wished

tOO,

supported. Although

method of

conversant with de Kooning's

of the brushstrokes

between the brushstroke

figure, he established a striking contrast

as the)

Coalesce into

a

Luge, Iigural mi

in


////////// 209.

Roy

218.4 en

Lichtenstein, Reflections I

oll<

i

II,

don

1988

(

)il

and Magna on

Steve Martin

i

am

is,

177 6

K


!10

Roy

Lichtenstcin, Sky and Water, 1985 Oil and

a (66 > 96 inches)

Private

i

ollection

Magna on

canvas, 16


211.

Roy

Lichiem.ci... Mountain

I

-'/.,„,

'

i

PI

ii

i

M iryland

'

«1

>nd

Magr*

i

on fcoberi mdjaiu Mcyerhofl


212.

Roy

Lichtenstein. Figures i,

in

is, 144 inches)

landscape, 1985

<

ollection

(

til

ind

Douglas S

(

Magna on ramei

i

anvas,

Los \ngeles


In his Expressionist paintings such (fig.

211). and

.is

Sky and Wate\

Figures in Landscape (fig. 212),

210), Mountain

(fig.

1985, and Laocodn

all

I

'Mage

207), 1988,

(fig.

Lichtenstein applied this heightened emphasis on the brushstroke to the figure mk\ the landscape. These bravura landscape paintings are

of the mid-1960s were

earlier landscapes

extreme

as

in their p.unterliness as his

reductiveness. All tour are based on

in their

traditional themes. In Laocodn, however. Lichtenstein appropriated the

of figures

from

a

Rom.iu copy of a Greek sculpture

that reads convincingly as a classical setting.

By means of his

Lichtenstein updated this image from antiquity and

1980s Neo-Expressionism. which derived some of sources. In

all

four, Lichtenstein

not often allow himself (which he had Brushstrokes

may

on

earlier,

.i

landsi

ipi

been commenting on

images from the same historical

its

painter, a luxury that

grander

a

in

painterly brushstroke,

also have

once again the virtuoso

is

well-known im

them

208), placing

(tig.

he does

with Yellow and

scale,

wee;/

<

129], 1966), usually holding bravura technique in check with his sense oi

[fig.

irony and detachment. Here, areas of pure painting serve no Other purpose then then traditional ones

enhance

to define shape, articulate spaec, or

boldness of his stroke,

size in relation to

its

its

form, and the

However,

color.

w.i\

which

in

shape and differentiate between sky and water, figure and landscape,

m

an accommodation with de Kooning Lichtenstein

modeled

of the same name

B,iithiiu>

display for

many

iconic status,

years in the stairwell of

Schlemmer, who taught

figures

New

organic

as ".in

numerous works, of which Bauhaus complex

which

.is

Stairway

well as is

mechanical movement

nice

in

is

of Bauhaus Stairway

213 and 214)

of special .is

crisscrossed lines; the

title refers

rectangular frame, thus turning several

more

the Bauhaus during

He produced

Schlemmer's focus

to

triangles that doesn't "fit."

and

compositions that consist

formed within the

it

into

a

shaped canvas.

1986, and continued with

in

Cam

triangles'

to Lichtenstein's occasional deformation "I the "perfi

c.mwxs projects out beyond one of

The shaped

at

union."'

(see tig. 279).

are abstract

a

I

its

rectilinear edges

le

followed

group

rectangle appears to be slightly warped, or in

Field

i

interest in relation to

mural

a

entirely of interlocking triangles and the quadrilaterals

Color

a]

Art.

an urban, industrialized society (also pursued by

Imperfect paintings (see figs.

the canvas.

ham.

nl

shared with Purists O/enfant and Jeanneiet) and his portrayal o\

Lichtenstein's later adaptation

which the

Modern

and sculpture

Schlemmer

promini

its

arguably the best, in which he created

Leger). Schlemmer's mastery of mural painting

1985 with

of

from geometric forms. Lichtenstein was attracted

on pure form (which he

The

a

from

in part

Museum

York's

in general.

hlemmer's 1932 work

series, this painting b\

gained

it

stage design, mural painting,

man

the 1920s, believed in

Woman

216). Like de Kooning's

(fig.

him because of its

intrigued

2 IS). L988, after S«

(fig.

the

in

can depict

ichtenstein reaches

I

and Expressionism

particular

Stairway

it

m

ol

which

.i

Perfect

canvases

in

i

I

painting in

m

1986-88

small segment of the

a

order to

accommodate one

of the

Rather than truncate the triangle. Lichtenstein wittily extends

canvas had been

and Minimalist

painters.

in

vogue

in

the early and mid-1960!

imong mam.

Such artists— including Charles Hmman. Sven

using a rectangular canvas, Lukin, and Frank Stella— broke with the convention of or some other unusual shape, or altering the it with a trapezoid, a zigzag, replacing

traditional shape by

extending the edge

at certain

notching the canvas (removing small segments).

271

Chapter

12: The

1980s

points

In

(as just

described above) or In

most of these works, the perimetei

ol


213.

Rov

I

u hicnsuin. Imperfect Painting

{Gold)

,e|

iv i

led

i

>2

1x121


conformed

the canvas

of the

to the logic

overall

putting the image and the frame into perfect alignment,

compositions

paintings (see

on

2 IS)

works around

( I

)

I

Dutch

the

and, in Plus and Minus (Yellow)

marks.

a

The prominent weave

raw canvas, and recalls Like

217),

(fig.

a

New

with

a stylistic

nod

oval configuration featured in his

another alternative matrix

Among

if

he had

series, as

to a series

own

Paintings: Radiator

1983, and

a

and Folded Sheets

a

Head

to call attention to

15 inches

.

rhc

Museum

of Modern Art,

'.I

on

i

New York

160.9 k 114.3

invas,

Gift

cm

of Philip Johnson

two

image

radiator, folded sheets,

h.s

1976

(

office Still

Life

<

anvases.

image I

ol

a

i

Two

Paintings: Radiatot

some

and Folded

inches. striped wall, separated by only a few

by

Roy lichtenstein, Bauhaus Stairway,

215.

left

238

7

k

cm

167 6

[94

x

1988 Oil

wdMagn;

two-dimensional

as

&am es,

one can

m

canvas, 101

mt ,

Im

279 ,„

Roy

1988 Lichtenstein. Plus and Minus (Yellow),

6x81 2 cm

218.

Roy

|2 7 u 96.5

(40

x 32

inches)

(

oUection Leo

(

<

Kl

depicted

astelli

(50 x 38 inches)

Lines

lb out

Private collection

277

in

could

Chapter

12:

are

While

same

The 1980s

..

a

urtained

(

at,

and

folded sheets

ol

a set

wall, setting

up

a viewei

a

the illusion

.mages side by side

in

.

-.1

a.

h oi

ol

realit)

example, the Brush the

same diagonal-

undoubtedly reads both

room with

what appears as

its

own

section of wall and

a

pa.ntmg and the radiator to be

a

...

Brushstroke

m

tins scent

window But

the

the shading on I

.

he subverts the -real,.

itablishing -

.1

u ht.

nstem

"windo^

white and vellow squares separated

be an abstract painting. B>

looking

Minor

a

framed Brushstroke with

domestic

the most reductive fashion

what we

domestic

depictions of paintings), since they are both contain scene as a somewhat flattened and foreshortened

to the Brushstroke

just as easily

a

Picasso head, and

shown hanging on

of an actual thrcc-di.ncnsional

frames has depicted a curtain that

ad

Oil and Magna on Lichtenstein, Plus and Minus VI, 1988

cm

Next

220), both

222). both 1984, he

table lamp,

Sheets, tor

repeated on painting and with the diagonal stripes

66 inches) Private collection

the radiator 278 217.

(i.e.. as

also read the

but convincing view

anvas

Two

In

(fig.

intriguing questions about the

are painting and the domestic interior painting

images

»*x

u iously,

\

mum

In placing sue h different

latter.

these four paintings. Lichtenstein poses see. In

(fig.

two -dimensionality of the former and

disjunction between the obvious

what we

1

depicted the Brushstroke punting and

le has

each other on the the domestic interior hanging next to

three-dimensionality in the

.,

(

from

Dagwood

of,

a

a

mem

recycled Brushstroke painting. In this work. Lichtenstein

several of his earlier motifs, including a 1960s

from one of

with an

sol works that

I

Paintings

his

as well as

each of which he pairs

in

the comic strip Blondie,

a

s<

entitled Reflections,

219) and Two

But here

to his Hend.i\ dots.

Two Paintings: Radiatot and Folded Sheets combine.,

window, and another framed (

1982,

in

section of a Brushstroke painting with

framed scene of a room showing

Stairway, 1932

series

surface.

its

in the process finds

and

221) and Paintings: Mirro\

(fig.

Dagwood Bumstead from

pa.ntmg

Oskar Schlemmcr, Bauhaus

new

a series

(fig.

htenstein uses the pattern

of paintings by Mondrian

group of canvases, begun

Paintings: Picasso

juxtaposed

216.

this

a

shown damaged and

is

i(

I

1970s series of Mirrors,

only for

images of two different paintings, and

interior,

earlier,

Lichtenstein's varied oeuvre in the 1980s are

special consideration,

against whi( h to set his black

74), 1962, in whi< h fabri<

(tig.

of the enhanced and enlarged weave of the canvas it

limited palette

a

Lichtenstem's Plus and Minus series echoes the weave ol

in

then repaired. In the Plus and Minus

he combines

in

white or gra\ ground

,i

one

pale yellow

of

black vertical and

a series of

rectangular canvas, using

neutral colors for the background. Lichtenstein chose

series

Mondrian had

use of the grid. As

artist's

2- 14. Lichtenstein arranged

horizontal strokes within an oval inscribed on

of pale,

Li< htenstein's Imperfect

took up the work of Mondrian again, basing an entire

217 and

figs.

his first abstract

he wit of

I

between these two elements.

arises from the conflict that he has set up

In 1988, Lichtenstein

-composition,

usually symmetrical

I, bold black

sense ol urn ertaint> ,

either interpretation.

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221.

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198.1x135.9

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229.

Roy

Lichtcnstcin, Reflections on Painter and Model, 1990 Oil and i

ollcction Lari

Ma

New

York


Lichtenstein presents

in False Start,

of ambiguities, making one

series

a

"reality" contradict

the other, and thus questions the absolute validity of human perception

between one form of and

166), 1978,

and another

illusion

Go for

Baroque

use in such Surrealist paintings

Dagwood,

own

I

l

In

l

a feature

— and

/79

of such paintings

l l

become

J77,

we

image with

preceded

the history ol

are

persuaded once again to look

cartoon.

a

.\u

idea that

Pop imagery

his classic

|62.2cm(51

k

63

i

inches)

Hie

Museum of Modem

Art,

)agWOod with an

at

each

images his

norm.

presented with

is

the juxtaposition "t an

Duck, 1958

/)(>//.//«/

15], fol

[fig.

Dagwood when

.is

he

protO-Pop paintings, but

is

treated as

in the

Headznd

Paintings: Mirror,

and from

I

i<

htenstein again

different periods. In Paintings

1960s Temple of Apollo and Landscape series

another alternative form), and superimposes earlier landscapes in

its

Benday

consists

of segments

m

traditional Style, each

seemmg

belong

to

dots.

both

corresponding

approach

Brushstroke,

and

a

Dagwood

is

no such thing

any more "logical

art

[e characteristically

I

composite image

stripes instead of

heightened by

is

Strip "I

a

Style (in licnd.n dots)

ind

a

a

oi

its

frame that

more ornate

resulting hybl

Brushstroke panning mu\

making

id

a

a

more hard edged

is

as

a

about?

Or

as

the

"norm

all

it

is

head confronts

four paintings,

for

1

ichtenstein

no one interpretation is

part of the

ol

an

artist's ...tent,

nvim

I

..

often allied with the beautiful.

e U!

And

to

that the isn't

that

is it?

Lichtenstein closed the decade with Reflections II (fig

Mirror. In

a

sense of the ridiculous ind

perfectlv acceptable because

is all

flees a Brushstroke, a PicaSSO

than another. This, of course,

enliven the discussion of illusion with

what

loud

one or the other painting but the

Brushstroke pans off with

demonstrates that there

ncdiculQUS

and

them through techniques of mechanical reproduction- -but presenting domestic intei 101 this series, the frames around a Brushstroke and a

subvert their various "realities,-

is

a

equals. In

competing

image

I

painterly approach of Abstract Expressionism a\h\

filtered

equal.

disparate

dots, diagonal stupes,

dissonance between two contrasting ways

a

its

Head, he updates

Picasso

right, separated In

its

modern

to

and

painting that resembles one of his

to neither. Paintings: Mirror juxtaposes a

Mirror painting, creating

painting— the

The ambiguity of tin.

a simple,

combines

composed of blue diagonal

is

Brushstroke painting to

a

against a

it

Benday

simple division into earth, skv. and

represents the earth as vellow. but the sky

rival

its

in the

with an image of a canvas featuring

Picasso head embellished with touches of shading (using

juxtaposition with

ones. In his pairing "l

no longer submerged

in different stvles

the customary

mous

is

was

it

favor of anon)

abstract painting, the cartoon figure

In Paintings: Picasso

New York

m

he abandoned famous cartoon images

overall image, 230. Pablo Picasso, The Painter and His Model, 1928 Oil on canvas, 131.1 x

the

to

used images of Mickey Mouse, Popeye, and Wimpy, but that he dropped the idea

when I

(fig.

:

begun

surfaced in the paintings and drawings thai

first

1961 (see

in

Ami

arl

example). Lichtenstein recalls that he thought of using an image of first

Razzmataz

as

the bipolarity that he had

Conversation (fig. 266),

(

artistic history as well as

such conviction that

just

.is

167),

inten hange

mirrors, Picasso, and the brushstroke are subjects that evoke Liehtenstein's

personal and

abstract

(fig.

his

l

a series

209), 1988, like Figures

in

of Reflections. Reflections, L985, .«nd

Landscape and Laocoon,

eai h consists of a

m

w

brushstrokes combined with patches composition featuring loose, freely Expressionistic or pari of an

ol

incorporate his appropriation diagonal stripes Subsequent Reflections into Warhol's) with motifs from the Wrroi series spliced earher painting (his own, Picasso's, ifi( work, as in based on his own earlier paintings refer to a spe< oi

it.

295

The

Chapter

Reflections

12:

The 1980s

ill


231.

Roy

Liechtenstein, Reflections on Interior with Girl Drawing. 1990

m canvas, ÂŤ

olle<

don

5

x 108 inches)

["he Eli

and Edythe

'il

<

1

and Broad


Reflections:

Nurse

(fig.

Whaaml

226), 198*. 01 Reflections:

Pagwood

figure from a specific work, such as the figure of

228), 1989; or to a series,

(fig.

colleague Warhol, with

Warhols

treats

(fig.

is

it

as

an image reflected I

m

mirror.

a

<

ol the

based on paintings by Picasso in the collection

223 and 224,

figs.

who

his

had died

Pop

just

two

the Mirror paintings,

unique Drawing

,irl

loo

has the inno< en< e and naivete of

It

ichtenstein's

229) and Reflections on Interim with

and

interests,

I

reminiscence on

a bittersweet

he had shared so main

but interpreted through

figure,

and Model

225). 1989,

combining Warhol's painting with motifs from

years before. In

Lichtenstem

whom

(fig.

)oo

in Reflection*..

the Reflections on Brushstrokes (see

as in

Nancy

Reflections on

both 1990).

227), 1990; to a single

(fig.

style

Reflections on Painte\

(fig.

231). both 1990, an

Museum ofModern

Art

(figs.

2 SO

A comparison of the two paintings by Picasso with LichtensteuVs versions of originals as fol fascinating as much for what the younger artist has retained Oi the

and 232).

them

is

what he has changed. Picasso reduced the compositional elements 232. Pablo Picasso, [95

cm pi

i

x

76

â&#x20AC;˘

Interior with a Girl

inches)

Drawing, 1935

The Museum ofModern

( >il

on

(

Mivas

130.7 X

few

to a Art,

New

York. Nelson A

series

basic colors

of paintings

and shapes. In The

that Picasso

made on

Paintei

the

and His Model

theme of the

(tig.

artist's

in

both of

his paintings

230), 1928-

one

ol a

studio- black and whin

predominate, supplemented by red, yellow blue, and gray and ton. h( ol gn en and tonus brown, and most of the forms are delineated by a black outline, with rectangula.

Rockefeller Bequest

used to suggest windows and sexual attributes in

a

single figure,

merged, much

interior are

a circle to

as

describe

and he

a breasl

le

I

also positioned his

Matisse did in The Red Studio

i

ombined male and female

tonus so

(fig.

and

that figures

172). 1911. L.chtenste.n

the of Picasso's basic compositional scheme but downplayed oi eliminated Ins Benda) dol of both works), painting's surface texture (which is an integral part painter with his of the model, and overlaid hei form and that of the

altered

little

Md

screen to the face

mirror-reflection motif

composed ofBenday

dots, diagonal stripes,

and hands

ol

oloi

i

I

peach, and blueâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; and. most important of also added three colorsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; a secondary yellow, 2 a, Rawing In Picasso's Interio) with a a frame surrounding the entire composition. and rectilinearit) of The Paintei and His Model have been I

(

(fig.

Ii

all,

I

232), 1935, the flatness

replaced by

a

shallow stage space and

a

proliferation of curves, organu shapes, and

fundamental angles. Lichtenstem retained the

arrangement of the figures and ;ome

odd ol

the

Ction green, while one e again adding his mirror-n Original colors, such as purple and to motif m.rror-retlect.on also added just a bit of motifi and a surrounding frame. He (which shows the reflection nol ol the what appears to be a mirror in Picasso's painting thus turned two i< htenste.n and its frame) -tl.

girl

but of a detail of another painting

I

ongoing dialogue with that signature works by Picasso into part of his

peter Seh, Art in Ouf Times

,

Harry N. Abr.uus. 1980), p

2

in

ivrhap L914,

Erame"

297

Pictorial

in.

luding

of

<

tin-

12: The

U

md

image.

1980s

History

t890-1980{Hc* York Harcourt Brace jovanovich/

27..

the earliest precedent for

as part

Chapter

l

artist.

1

ichte

Bottle oj Bass

M

"mo.

\

ftam.

and Wp. and \dusu Sa

'

is

,

series ol papien colli u

h ol

M

I.

has

...

l,

mad,

enow

'

Picasso k


233.

Roy

Lichtenstein, Interior with Mirrored Wall, 1991

Solomon R

<

<

)il

and

luggenheim Mu.i

)

UIVM,

I

um

N< w


work. Lichtenstein picks up on the theme of the domestic

In his recent

he

began

first

to explore in paintings such

Bathroom

.is

Then,

56), 1961.

(fig.

interior, whi< h

now,

.is

his

images ot domestic interiors and household products were drawn from magazine reproductions, newspaper advertisements, or

the Yellow Pages. Although the

.ids in

subjects depicted were innocent enough, his alteration of the scale

small advertisement to the

was particularly Black Flowers

much

(fig.

1961,

25),

it

many of his

the

artist's

172). 191

(fig.

I.

as

studio. In these interiors.

I

more ambitious

a tar

lehtenstein

some of his

them) on the walls of the rooms he was depi< ting

Mickey

(fig.

1961,

19),

first

studio interior

and

Baseball

Manager

m

an explosion

Landscape,

a

(fig.

Mirroi painting,

a

[e

I

64),

1963, in

ami

\4irroi

Roy

I

ichtenstein's sourcebooks, ca

For

1990

a

to

Interiors,

him, both

classical motifs.

When

a

Italian

and American,

class that, in the 1990s,

I

m

still

possessions can bring happiness. In

schematic drawing conveys sofas, curtains,

and so on;

with Mirrored Wall to the original

so

(fig.

it

a

some of them

used

le

I

aspires to

a

the dream

233). 1991, features

He compounds

a

.rating the

one

Rome

(fig.

in the

.k\.

pretty

a

One

feels all

enveloped four sides,

1961

in

much

ol

one a

of the

in

Rome, he

appeared

\

it,

as if

dim

,|,

thai

th.

mati nil ids, a

tte set,

is

i

hairs,

the series, Merioi

in

first

ition

illusti

dn mis to

mon

01

appealed

thai

as tin

relatively faithful

of the painting

scali

enhani ed

a

sensation that

it

continued beyond

is

the

......

Med

in

K doubling Ins

He

own also

To the othen

it.

whimsical idded

the painting, the plants are

a

i

tOU.

second

blatant

flÂŤ

plant to

tion,

anything Other than two with no attempt on Lichtenstem's part to convey that the) an dimensional simulations of natural tonus

Unlike the

301

Chapter

13:

Artist's

Studio interiors

Interiors. 1991-93

is

using the the boundlessness of the overall image by

reproductions of his paintings.

Like everything else

in Ins

Yellow Pages,

money and

that

234). Becaus.

pictured in the ad. Lichtenstein

room with

and

hanges

omposite form. The

i

living-room interioi

device of a mirror to enlarge the space of the room,

room

nev\

there for the taking.

by Lichtenstem's interrupting the image on

the

I

billboard outside

a

or living-room ensemble,

largeâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; more than 10 by 13 feetâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; one

banal living

cups,

York, he began painting the

u htenstcin's re-creation

drawing in the Yellow Pages

edges of the painting.

the

in

painting oi

a

used

first

the Yellow Pages served up largc-s,

bedroom

is all

ook

eramii

i

ouch,

<

basing his motifs on these images and on othei advi rtisements

and the thumbnail sketches

middle

New

he returned to

in the advertisements and recombined others into in ads

oi

I

mad< majoi

clipped images of kitchens, bedrooms, and living rooms from the

new

I

the Yellow Pages again for Ins source material.

upon

furniture advertisement that he saw in 1989 on

along with some

s<

i

the kind ol domestic interior that he

Lichtenstein drew

this series.

Inspired by

upon

ol

121). 1964, in the fourth. In the recent domestii

(fig.

interiors, Liehtenstein used the scale ot the studio interior but

subject matter, expanding

(or portii ins

Frame panning

Stretchet

a

second interior; an Entablature and

a

theme of

the

works

ai liei

*

thud, and two drawings from 1962, Foot Medication and

a

section from Temple of Apollo

234. Page from

on

im orporated images

171); another Stretchet Frame, anothei

(fig,

using Matisse's

scale,

foui variations

foi

as

1973-74,

In

combined elements from Matisse with

subjects that he had used previously, often featui ing of

awkward, so dumb.

so

working model

the

disturbing. Bathroom

other black-and-white subjects, such

was so uningratiating,

he approached the subject of the interior on

The Red Studio

made them appear

larger canvas

irritating because, like

of the image from the

of 1973-74, which consistently

recapitulate Ins


235.

Roy

Lichtenstcin. Interior with Bonsai Tree, 1991

I

ik N (40 inchi

Private collection

(

)il

and Magna on


236. 289.6

Roy .

Lichtcnstein. Interior with Africa,, Mask. 1991

>70.8cm(114

n

146 inches) The

Eli

and Edyth<

I

<

)il

and Magna

Broad

<

olle.

ivai


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:

237.

Roy

I

ulm-.isti-in. Inttrioi with

Yvu

Klein Sculpture, 1991

*

)il

ind


238.

Roy

Lichtcnstcin. Bedroom [65

ill,,,

nix,

Maryland

m,

I,,

at Aries,

> i

1992

ollet tion

< >il

Mid

UN

a

B obi n ind [anc Meyi rhofl


some of

earlier motifs,

forms of an ever-inventive these paintings also incorporate the latest

Thus, in Interim with Extern

artist.

of George Washington

portrait

the interior as

Waters),

(Still

1991, Lichtenstein quotes his 1962

conventional domestic ensemble by including

a

he plays havoc with

34); but in Interior with Mirrored Wall

(fig.

a

framed image of one of

standard-brand furniture. Most of the paintings above an arrangement of type that one still sees in the Yellow Pages, of furnishings in Lichtenstein's interiors are the for his purposes. In Interior with Yves Klein a characterless averageness that is perfect his

1980s

Sculpture

Perfect

(fig.

of the absurd to a commonplace 237). 1991, however, he adds the element one wall, eve. , sofa, is his Benday-dot version of a portrait ot

On

domestic interior.

Henry table,

on the adjoining

VIII;

and

loveseat.

a

reproduction of the Greek Discus Thrower; and

at

painting of an overstuffed chair,

a

is

the extreme right are

at

lamp; just visible

a

over

wall,

the hand and foot of a

bottom

the

right

is

a

life-size

what looks

like a

the surface of the canvas) very unusual plant (which he has created by sponging paint onto 1959, a sculpture but which is actually his version of Yves Klein's Blue Sponge (fig. 239), sponge saturated with cobalt blue pigment. (Lichtenstein also used this consisting of a

sponging technique for the bonsai Klein sculpture

aristocratic, if faceless, portrait

companion

in this average

completely out of place

is

to the painting

nothing of hanging

a

at

painting

Arks

above the loveseat. The owners of such

of place

buy the

lh Bedroom

middle-class 239.

mem in synthetii

Yves Klein, Blue Spongt id

and stone

Museum New

basi

99.1 era

York, Gift of

Mn

19 inches) high-

Vndrew

I'

Fuller,

resin

on sponge with

Solomon R Guggenheim 1964

taste.

catalogues, and originals.

original,

(fig.

m

entire ensemble.

238), 1992. based

on

a calendar

van

Gogh

hesitate,

in his

reproduction of van Gogh's 1SSS

been reduced to the to

level

of average

buying from mail-order

better from reproductions than is

from seeing the

much

bigger than the

enormous, but Lichtenstein's regularized forms and process colors

have reduced the psychological intensity of van Gogh's vision. As paintings that are "copies" of

works by other

the distance between the original and

imposes on

as a

this culture

many of his works. However,

we have grown accustomed

we know

is

the

domicile would think

Nothing could be further from

240). the image has

(fig.

Today,

impact

a

American home. Nor would they

the average

Because Lichtenstein's version of van Gogh's Bedroom its

is

more preposterous

of Henry VIII, which appears even

than the "high art" depicted by Lichtenstein in so

Bedroom

living-room scene; and

so

reproduction of English royalty over the sofa, a piece of furniture

that usually takes pride for that matter, to

The

tree in Interior with Bonsai Tree [fig. 235], 1991.)

a

artists, this

m

Lichtenstein's

all

painting succeeds in conveying

reproduction and the additional distance that he

his version.

Since 1992, Lichtenstein has been working on a group of interiors that are smaller than the

first series,

(fig.

but their impact

241). 1992, he has

just as strong. In Interior with

is

combined

a

Surrealist Girl with Tear series, 1977, uitli

Motel

Room

Painting, 1992.

another bedroom interior) and

shown near

portion of a

and

a

portion of

a

a

wall

room

in

hung with

a

a

(fig.

his

Interior

ot a canvas chair

A

is

third canvas in

242). 1992, features a living-room interior

bathroom placed on

a wall

of the living room. To complicate

bathroom

interior

skewed the perspective

in Black

matters. Lichtenstein has subverted the straightforward illusion of the

by tipping the Moor plane toward the viewer

from

framed painting (of

which the back

the framed picture of the same chair as seen from the front.

framed painting ot

Painting

interior with the motif

framed image of a swimming pool. In

he has depicted a

the series. Interior with Bathroom Painting

with

a

bedroom

Swimming Pool

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

just as he


Flowers by adjusting the tabletop in order to bring

Furthermore, the

we

impression that what

are seeing

trained painting of the bathroom.

portion of it reflected

in

be two brushstroke images floating a

dizzying, and dazzling, for

meant

it is

one

feel that

is

standing

for

tell

an image with

Although Lichtenstein reminds

Interior with

colors

new

he always does

as

warm and

Bathroom Painting features

"mcenl van

Gogh

l'>'><

<

alendai published In

featuring van Gogh's The Bedroom, 1888,

I

&om

the collection

occurred

Graphiquc de France,

ofThe \n

Institute

of

of

we

us that

newer work

on

are

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; when he

cool grays and browns,

newest sculpture. Ritual Mask

his

in the Entablature series,

pigment into

his

work

with Table

Still Life

hicago

is

presents

range n(

a

to his work, evocative of pewter and galvanized steel, materials that he used

process colors that he chose for his I

this

the Yellow Pages, he leaves

as

the best of his

in

throughout the 1970s and 1980s, he has selected colors

nl"

of

result

more than one meaning.

in the various versions

240. Cover

The

of these ambiguities heighten the tension between the image

to represent.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

a

has painted what appear to

ertain.

I

again dealing with subject matter taken from sources such the source tar behind

bathroom and seeing

the

in

a

in the

lower right corner, probably part of a Brushstroke

in the

fragment to be able to

all

appears so large

Most confusing of all, he

the mirror.

sculpture, but too isolated

mirror reflecting the bathroom rather than

is a

The image of the bathroom

foreground that one might almost

and what

into alignment with the picture plane.

it

of the entire painting and the distortion of the image create the

size

l

Pop

K><)s

when

from the

change

Lichtenstein incorporated silver and bron (

Still Lifes

>//'<<

first

>

of 1976, such

as

of dark blue and gl

ISO), he used a distinctive palette

(fig.

[ere, as

I

paintings. As noted earlier, the

159, for example). In Ins

(see tig.

/../////>

l

268), 1992

(fig.

that are quite different

metallic paint to simulate the feeling o\\\ sterile office environment. This predominantly

two-color scheme recurs

most recent

in several of the

our consumer

culture, as

the art that he depicts

as

one

paintings.

original concerns.

He

a bathroom, bedroom, or living room, which

still

In these 1990s Interiors, Lichtenstein restates

images from the media, such

Interioi

reality,

some of his

And compares and contrasts them with the

on the living-room

walls

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; two

reflections;

he

and suggests all

that everything

of art and

another

series

life is a

Lewis Carroll In

alters the perspective o\ a floor to

in a passage

moment

as

the

of reflections and

left

behind

as different as possible

I

Chapter

p.

illusions, a

Then

u

is

i

real

the Looking-( lightly

down

on<

I

13

13: Interiors.

1991-93

little

[nd

and uninteresting Inn

1}

old man, and grinned

What Alice Found

"I the painting

ilas

into the

fliere

a

blazing awa^

at

fire

;c.

as

ill

brightly

what the rest

seemed

th.

the

fire in

ili.u

thai

For instance, the pictures on the wall next to the

ooking-Glass) had got the hue of.,

somi

conveys the notion that

she began looking about, and noticed

common

In

mirror's

notion wonderfully evoked by

and had jumped

to find that then

Lewis Carroll, Through the Looking-Gh

[1871]),

309

I

He

reality itself.

and the very clock on the chimney piece (you know you c

all alive,

in the

glass,

of the fiction

Hie very fust thing she did was to look whethei there was

could he seen from the old room was quite

was

us

near the beginning of Through

and she was quite pleased

one she had

including

fiction,

Alice was through the

Looking-Glass room fireplace,

is

remind

a

typifj

reality ol

different levels ot illusion

of the paintings, without depicting a mirror, he creates the impression ot

uses

to be

back of il

he.

(Ne* York BantamBooks, 1988


left

241.

Roy

Magna on

Uchtenstein, Interior with Swimming Pool Painting,

canvas, in: 9

x

152 4

on

(72 x 60 inches)

1

I

Private collection,

"':

Oil and

New

York.

above

Magna on i

I,,,

Roy

242.

pi

i

Lichtenstein. Interior with Bathroom Painting. 1992 Oil and

canvas, 152.4

in/

x 203.2 cm

(60


*

Il

I

/


Over

the course of the

three decades, Lichtenstein has produced a significant

last

body of

sculpture based for the most part on images in his paintings. His enameled steel sculptures of

1965

1965

(see fig. 243, for

example) are all modeled after the painting Varoom! (fig. 244), Between 1963 and 1965. Lichtenstein had been using enamel instead of oil paint or

.

Magna

many of his works, such

in

and Crying

subway

the

he saw

signs

The

1964.

Girl, all

representational images.

With

Cloud and Sea

hard finish and reflective surface of the

New York— had

in

in Mirror,

could only suggest

dimensional image

such

Composition

as

1

(fig.

75) and Composition

motifs

as

almost

as flat as his paintings.

the explosion in Varoom!

tabletop sculpture, and

heads derived from

(59

X

Roy

Lichtenstein, Varoom!, 1965. Oil and M.igna on canvas, 149 H x 149 H

cm

as a

pictorial images

— including such

of women

in the

He

district

dots,

in

1

<>t

'lightened Girl

>64. Lichtenstein

both suggests and negates

The same

contradicted but the real three-dimensionality of sculpture.

this effect

stylized

true of the ceramic heads, only here

by treating the surfaces

manner

imposing

is

his

as

though they were

the waves and tresses of

flat,

1964, served

13),

I

of volume

is

his

an array of bold black lines and

sense of volume. that

of ceramic

Plastii ine

a

as Ins Frightened Girl (fig.

Composed I

(

wall relief,

as a

of Manhattan, near

painted one of them and used

ceramic heads of 1965.

of process colors and Benday

areas

flat

76),

anti-naturalistii

a series

245 and 246). Late

(figs.

hat-manufacturing

the second one. Paintings such

as inspiration for the

make

freestanding form, he began to

his paintings

found two mannequin heads

compound on

II (fig.

he

into three-dimensional forms that frequently look

studio on West Twenty-sixth Street.

59 inches). Collection John and Kimiko Powers

that

an object. Most ofLichtenstein's sculptures to date have been based

as

At the same time that Lichtenstein explored the form of the explosion

244.

two

1965, and he reinforced the role of the two-

III (fig. 77),

of his two-dimensional

his translation

17),

I

the effect of subverting the illusionism of his

the hard, slick enamel, Lichtenstein accomplished

in paintings

both 1964, and Composition

as a

(fig.

enamel— inspired by

he was able to more closely achieve the look of mechanical perfection

objectives:

on

the paintings Girl

as

it is

indicating in

the hair, facial features,

a

not just the illusion

He

achieved

reductive

a

ami shadows, and

two-dimensional Benday-dot pattern across the entire t\cc and neck and

in

highlights of the hair. In 1965, Lichtenstein also created a series of cup-and -saucer

sculptures that

(figs.

247, 248, and 249)

he had made

in

1962

—and

dimensional equivalents of

a

painting and

tea-set sculptures.

made

to look

a

drawing of a cup of coffee

These objects too

his single-object paintings.

the tea sets were objects that he

them

— based on

c.w\

be seen

The ceramic cups and

like real ones,

the look of cheap cafeteria-style dishes, and stacked

saucers and

but were unusable.

some of them

as

it

as three-

I

[e

they had

question of their just been used and were ready to be washed. To further contuse the "reality,"

he decorated the surfaces of the tableware with Benday-dot ••shadows" and

"reflections," in

much

the

same manner

as

the heads (and,

later,

the

Minor paintings

[see chapter 9|).

To achieve the

desired look of the ceramic heads and dishes, Lichtenstein

closely with ceramicist

commercial molds, or

Hui Ka Kwong, else

molds

that

a

colleague from Douglass College.

Hui made

worked

They used

to Lichtenstein's spe< ifications,

and

glaz<

.1

colors and Benday dots. the ceramic forms to approximate Lichtenstein's process left

243.

Roy

Lichtenstein, Explosion

(88 x mi indies)

McCrory

Collection.

II,

New

1965 Enamel on

steel.

223

5 x 152.4

cm

Lichtenstein has said that they started with "decals

primarily for the faces,

York.

315

Chapter

14:

I

made

Sculpture. 1965-93

a tape

made of ceramic

material m^\ then,

with evenly punched holes whi<

I,

was

fairly flexible so


245.

Roy

Lichtcnstcin, Head with Black Shadow. 1965 Glazed ceramic

20.9 x 20.3

cm

(15

x8K

k

8 inches) Collection Leo

<

astellj

38

I

x


24h.

Roy

Lichtenstein, Head with Blue Shadow.

20.9x20.3 (

ollection

Ch

cm (15 Dallas,

I

B

Pal \

wdRaymondD

Ns


247.

Roy

Lichtcnstein. Ceramic Sculpture 11, 1965. Glazed ceramic,

inches) high

Collection Betty Ashcr. Beverly

Hills, California.

19

I

Itl


Lichtenstein, Ceramic Sculpture

248.

Roy

(3

inches) high

'

Collection Leo

C jstclh.

2,

1965

ÂŤ

ilazed ceramic, 8.8

cm


that

could adjust

I

rest so the glaze

The

it

and bend

conform

to

it

could be sprayed. The

I960,

indebted to

is

glass has a

by the spoon. Picasso thus created

glass.

between

similar dialectic

contradicts

humorous

whose

.

between

and

its

real

the Picasso,

on top oi

rest

painted

a

fani ifuily

a

were

as if it

And imaginary e dei

east

and

objects,

oration. Johns

while Lichtenstein

real object,

real-world model, and

<

covered with

glass are

non-realistic surfat

its

[bsinthe (fig.

Painted Bronze (Ale

l'oeil. In

spoon

qj

hand."'

up

set

a

surface treatment thai

a

three-dimensionality. Like Picasso, Lichtenstein sees something

real

its

—and

oftrompe

off the

of color were painted by

Both sugar cube and

a dialectic

a facsimile

would mask

I

Picasso's Glass

is

for Johns,

bronze version of a

a

Then

simulated shadow painted to look

between the three-dimensional bronze and emulated Picasso in creating

areas

silver sugar-straining

painted bronze sculpture of a liqueur

and the surface of the

him and

this masterful bit

bronze cube of sugar and an actual

dots,

and some

historic precedent for Lichtenstein's ceramics

250), 1914, a source of inspiration for (fig. 5),

lines

to the contours.

quite

human

in the precarious stacking

of forms, and found

in the

disjunction between perception and reality an idea worth pursuing Lichtenstein*s earliest Art Deco-style sculpture. linear structure that offers

occupying

to the

little

viewer

made

defined space. Although he

a

mode

the dominant sculptural

American

in

Modem

the

in

this

way

Sculpture

252), 1967,

(fig.

is

a

concrete form

o\\\ traditional

work when Minimalism had become

art. all that

it

shares with that

movement

is

the repetition of forms and the use of industrial materials. Whereas the Minimalists soughl to create resolutely abstract total

absence of external reference, Lichtenstein's Art

referential.

These works

250. Pablo Picasso, Glass of Absinthe, Paris spring 1914

x 8.5

absinthe spoon, 21.6 x 16.4

silver

Ikm diameter. The

iik

cm

Museum of Modern

Art.

New

York,

6.3

bast

incomplete one.

linear

Roy

249.

m

lu

Lichtenstein, Ceramic Sculpture, 1965

(

Hazed cerami<

22 8

cm

front

front

high. Private collection

s)

Brass .ind mirror,

136

Roy

page 324,

is: 8

x

"x

"

\

Roy em

52

'4-25, center

1968

66 1

5

x

Brass

38

I

inches)

\ Brass

and

2~ inches)

tvvo

Solomon

252.

left

Lichtenstein, Modern Sculpture with

number

19 inches)

V: x

of an

R

(83

!

Private

.

(

edition

of three, 94 6

x

Tliree Discs,

and back

flatness versus

volume. Modern

Sculpture, consisting

>>t

346 7x48.2

cm

is

253.

Roy

x

20

x 2-, N

inches)

'

st

railings

ulpture

is inches)

and 149.8

x

ol three,

63 5x38.1

two

em

Roy

on

parts,

glass,

..umber three ol an edition of three, 246

is

open

empty

left

x

66

x

how

the

Although

two

5

cm

(97 x 26

it

has a clear orientation— i.e.,

interrelate.

the rear. Higher up, though, there

and the three-bar

illusion

and

•"railing" is

I

is

a bit

a

he lowei portion of the

nothing

element

at

it

to the floor,

in fronl

that rises

abruptly truncated

reality, its reflecting brass surfaces

recompose

itself.

In the Art

Lichtenstein simplified the relationships

(59

68

at

space;

of each work, resulting

J

time.

and stretches across the back

to dematenalize and

211.4 x

or on the

from the

the right.

flooi

il

Other

beyond the point of intersection with

among

in less spatial ambiguity.

and

shifting, unstable elements, appears

Deco-style sculptures

that followed,

the forms and stressed the overall linearity

Relationships of forms to floor, tabletop

each sculpture reads as a single plane. wall are essentially two-dimensional, and contemporaneous paintings, are based on Lichtenstein's Modem sculptures, like his

and

Lichtenstein, Modern Sculpture with Glass Wave, 196

254.

at all clear

same

both

1

ollection

right

not

the

is

sculpture and another element, cutting off the connections between oik portion of the he entire structure, with its pla) another and thus making a logical reading impossible.

Marcia Simon Weisman Trust

of an edition

it is

at

elements also end abruptly after extending just

Lichtenstein, Modern Sculpture with Velvet Rope, three

bottom

the

Lichtenstein, Modern Sculpture, 1967 Brass and mirror.

(72 \ 31

a

network of

a

defined by an L-shaped base and a small curved arch that anchor

right side but

1967

Guggenheim Museum. New York

and velvet rope number

cm

chromed-steel

furniture, but they maintain their identity as pure

and three-dimensional

while the back 122-23 251.

and

ulptuies are

straight and curved brass rods and bars topped by a round mirroi framed in brass,

Bertram Smith

left

Deco—based

that closely resemble

si

opposing the functional with the non-functional, the complete form versus the

cm

of Mrs.

(.irt

regulai proportions

all)

lacking any useful purpose. As sculpture, they play with various levels of ambiguity by

bronze with

inches

(8

of elements

consist

and portions of Art Deco l'.imted

modular works with mathematii

x

architectural

Sonnabend Collection

321

Chapter

14:

ornament of the period.

Sculpture. 1965-93

brass. In these sculptures. Lichtenstein used


V


id


and other materials that had been popular m alununum, mirrored glass, Plexiglas, marble, the stair They recall Rolls Royce automobile grilles or Art Deco interiors and accessories. railings

New

of

Cry Mus.c

Radio

York's

Hall

(tig.

details 135), or resemble the decorative

Guggenheim Frank Lloyd Wright designed for the

that

Modem

Rope

Sculpture with Velvet

both 1967, and

Sculpture with Three Discs (fig. 251),

Modem

Glass Wave (fig 254) and

253). 1968,

(fig.

all

Sculpture with

Museum. Modern

have the same 1930s machine

and sleek materials. The three intersecting and the velvet three tan-shaped segments in the second, curves in the first, the z.gzag with period without appropriating a specific work. rope in the thud instantly evoke the Rope exploits the stanchion-supported sign, Modem Sculpture with 'elvel geometric forms, precision, pattern repetition,

I

Inspired by a

on

and the

pictorial illusionism

and

frontal in orientation

and

are linear

These sculptures

work

different materials to create a witty

two very

contrasting qualities of

art.

reflect L.chtensteins

plane. Lichtenstein sees sculpture as a

flat

ot

emphasis

two-dimensional

construct:

The kind of organization which

form and then

Contrast ma) be created

...

am

...

a

shadow or

cast

conceivable way.

in

Now.

.is

Since

a

a

drawing

fundamental

him

natural for

always

it

to the

.

.

you turn the sculpture, or move your position, of contrast to contrast, rather

work. So, even though

two-dimensional relationship to

issue

art has

of Lichtenstems

three-dimensional form

a

I

realize

me—or as

.t

is

three-

two-dimensional

been the contradiction inherent

work of David Smith,

Art

his

in

within the limits of the Hat picture plane,

have pursued the implications of

to

Because of the two-dimensional nature of

compared

a

create contrast.

cast shadow, or contrast .an be

differently Its the relationship

it

a

form which

is

the representation of is

is

it

Sculpture might have an

artist

the illusion ^'

as

than volume to volume, which makes

dimensional,

about has to do with the sense of positions

has changes within that

.t

you continually perceive

it is

and direction from the

existing at a related distance

exterior

think

I

this issue in

the realm of sculpture.

sculptures, they have

Deco

and, indeed, both

artists

it

been

explored such issues

as

sculptures. In the early 1950s, pictonality, frontality. planarity, and reflection in their (see influenced by Picasso and his compatriot, sculptor Julio Gonzalez

Smith

(

reated

early 1960s, his

work

is

Woman Combing Her Hair H, -

I

bottom

inches)

256. Pablo Picasso, Figure,

Moderna Museet, <

Jctobei 1928 inches)

Stoi

1934 Iron, 121 k 60

Pi( asso,

and

1

winter: and is

|st.unless steel

.1

|

it

these stainless steel

depend

a

is

great deal .1

sort

Paris

I

J

on

blue cast to in that

it

It

pieces— that

the reflective

I

have ever been able to

power of light,

of golden color reflected by the

[the sculpture] reflects a

docs have

sense because

Lichtenstein never strayed that far

kholm

Metal wire and iheei mi

Muse<

wrote:

afternoon, and there

blue, there

255. Julio Gonzalez,

He

time— m

the only

utilize light,

tin

light into

Smith embellished the surfaces of his Cubi sculptures to incorporate

This

top

the sculptures that resemble "drawings in space" (see fig. 257). In

many

(see tig. 258).

late

255 and 256),

figs.

late

rather golden color; and a

in this case,

afternoon

when

semi-mirror reflection, and

no other material

in sculpture can

I

do

it

that.

work from

the 1950s and '60s, his Art

sculptures are mostly linear in orientation and often involve the play of light

abstract form.

is

from his representational sources, but undermined their

traditional descriptive qualities. Like Smith's

reflection, but they are ultimately

is

sun in

the sky like

it

about the relationship between

and

the object and

its

Deco


.

Lichtenstein's series

of painted bronzes, which he began

sculptural versions of motifs

the

hfes (see

still

1977. and Goldfish Bowl

medium

the

sculpture by

from

his paintings

259 and 261,

figs.

1978

II,

of the

late

1960s and early

example)— but some, such

for

on

261), are based

(fig.

1977, are freestanding

in

earlier

1970s—mostly

Mirror

as

works.

260),

II (fig.

He chose bronze

as

to give these linear sculptures a sense of solidity. Lichtenstein began each

making

of sketches, then translating them into

a series

maquettes

full-size

before casting. Several were sand-cast, while others were cast using the lost-wax process.

Most of the

on motiN from

Head IV (Barcelona Head)

Mask

m

image of a

typical African sculpture

L991, and

made

variations

plated zinc, and plated

reproduction,

m

of it

With

from

his

in a variety

272), 1990.

(fig.

L984; Brushstroke has also

[(

I

271), 1987, and painted galvanized

(fig.

Ritual Mask,

painting

1

ichtenstein was quoting the

Interioi with

is

Mask

[fiican

of other materials, too.

Here again. Lichtenstein

tin.

were sealed with

'onversation* (fig. 265),

(

Brushstroke

268), 1992.

(fig

The

269), L987; and Airplane as

all

range of subjects to include Expressionist Head

264), 1981;

(fig.

(fig.

worked with painted aluminum, steel, as in Ritual

his

patinatcd;

he continued to make painted bronzes based

'90s,

expanding

his paintings,

263), 1980; Brushstroke

(fig.

some were

sculptures were painted, and

polyurethane enamel. In the 1980s and

(fig.

among them

commenting upon

arl

sculpture as interpreted by Picasso or replicated as

this case tribal

236),

pewter,

a

commercial mass-produced object.

Between L979 and L992, Lichtenstein produced sculptures.

y

earliest

Most of them

of them. The Mermaid

Theater

Performing

for the

enamel, and incorporating ,

waves next

setting,

a

Arts,

is

palm

commissioned

273). 1979,

(fig.

to a real

he has added

form, mixing the

a

palm

Made

unique.

and

tree

tree.

a

pool

filled

it

Here, Lichtenstein

steel.

is

dazzlingly

a

silly

striped mermaid perched on her own

Threatening the otherwise perfect

cloud made of gray

bin the

es,

and polyurethane

steel,

with water,

large sc.ilc

Miami Beach

In the

of concrete,

with the synthetic, interjecting

real

<»l

ideas already explored in his smallei pie<

piece. Lichtenstein has envisioned a

and provocative steel

on

are based

small but notable group

a

a

is

of

bliss

this tropin

al

running true to

comment or two about the

setting

.

8?

itself,

fl

Miami, which he saw

as a

model of middle-class

culture,

absurdity of creating sculpture from such painterly forms.

He

and highlighting the

enlarged upon the concept

brushstroke, of painterly sculpture by stressing painting's basic building block, the two vertical sculptures that followed, such as Brushstroke, 1987, which consists ol

brushstrokes linked together, and Barcelona Head

-^

,

similar to the smaller Brushstroke architect/artist red. blue,

257.

fop

<16

107 ..i

J

258.

cm

(111

Australia, 1951

inches); base:

Modern An. New

froHom

66

David Smith,

Painted

steel,

87

York, Gifi

K x 34

x

274

the

x 41

45.5x35.6x35.6 cm (18x14x14 inches

rheMuseum

inches)

Stain!

'

8

k

222.8

x

Solomon R Guggenheim Museum, New York.

tiles,

Summer Olympic Games

was

there.

installed in

Barcelona in Jul)

By turning

of color mk\ gesture

full

normally associate with painting, .md placing

much

or mass but by "drawing

as Pi, asso

I

it

Gonzalez,

his .\m\

to,

work

oi yellow,

1992 to

Lichtenstein downplayed the element

sculpture in Brushstroke and Barcelona Head,

graceful three-dimensional form,

nature of sculpture,

by exchange

Inspired by the

Gaudi, the 64-foot-high Barcelona Head, made

and black ceramic

humor of the Miami

270), 1992, an explosive brushstroki

Head IV (Barcelona Head).

effective realization as trompe-l'oeil sculpture.

ofWUliam Rubin

David Smith, Cubi XXVII, March 1965 k

202

Antom

(fig.

in tin

(

oi

I

orange,

ommemorate

of outright

using instead on their

brushstroke image into a

other

traits that

we

the in space, Lichtenstein challenges

and Smith challenged

it,

not with volume

in space."

most other postwar sculpture, having Overall. Lichtenstein's sculpture differs from

327

Chapter

14: Sculpture.

atalan

1965-93

little


259.

Roy

Lichtenstein.

of an edition of thre. .

ollet cion

Lamp

II,

1

''77

219.1 x 70.2 x 44.8

I'.iniud .uul p.iim.it< A bronze

an

(86

K x 27

ix 17

I

number one

inches). Private


260.

Roy Lichtemtein.

an edition of thro

Mirror

151.8]

6.2

II,

1977

Painted uid patinatcd bronz.

c30.4cm(59

numl

'


261.

Roy

aumber

Lichtenstcin, Goldfish Bowl

three of an edition

Private collection

II,

1978

Painted and patinated bronze,

of three 99.1 x 64.1 x 28.6 cm

[ltf inches)


262.

Roy

number

Lichtenstein, Double Glass, L979 Painted and patinated bronze,

three ol an edition

Private collection

of three 142.2* 106 6x43.1 cm

(56

k42x

17

ii


lef,

263.

Roy

with painted

bronze 1980 Painted and patinated Lichtens.ein, Expressionist Head,

wooden

(55x41 x 18

ba^e,

inches); base:

number four of an 51.4x76.2 x

f six, 139.7

editi

52.1

20Xx30x20

x 104.1 x 45.7 en, inches). Private

collection

264.

right

Roy

numbei one I'm

u

t

i

ollei

Painted Lichtenstein, Brushstroke, 1981.

ol an edition ol six

don

7Q-7 '

^s "Sx s

v

i<> 16

5cm

(31

...,1

patinated br

ix 13

ix6

*

inches)


common

in

with the Dada aesthetic oflate-1950s assemblage or 1960s Minimalism.

work

Instead, his three-dimensional

more

relates

to the sculpture thai arose out oi Abstract

Expressionism, especially that of David Smith and the generation

ol sculptors inspired In

Smith. Assemblage or junk sculpture b\ John Chamberlain, Mark also

evolved out of Abstract Expressionism, but

On

street-based art of found objects.

a

while

his East

his

among

Roy

Lichtcnstein, The Conversation, 1977 Oil and Magna mi canvas 91

4

cm

(36 x 50 inches)

Private

i

detritus,

Although

I

ichtenstein's ceramic sculptures

of the

later

three-dimensional works

Anthony Caro and Ellsworth

artists as

Kelly.

haw

closer links to

British-bom

aro V

C

— with whom he

has often been

compared—

(

iro

<

reated his

own form

of

»

minimal 127

Ed Kienhol/ fashioned three-

environments using urban

the most notable of the sculptors inspired by Smith. Like Smith, and unlike the

Minimalists 266.

art.

Modern sculptures and

the sculptures of such

s^^sW

primarily

Pop objects produced by Dine. Johns, Oldenburg, k.msi henberg,

relate to the

and Warhol,

real-life

-became

Coast counterparts Oldenburg, Segal, and Tom Wesselmann mined similar

veins within the context of Pop

mid-1960s

Suvero, and others

— influenced by Dada

the West Coast,

dimensional tableaux of seed) and often lurid

di

abstract sculpture based

on

ti.it

color planes and linear elements arranged

in

ollecrion

made

horizontal configurations. Kelly also

them

to simple rectangular or

sculpture using

flat

planes

oi

olor,

i

rounded shapes based on the natural tonus

reducing

in Ins

Isomorphic paintings of the 1950s. Lichtenstem's sculptures have focused on

including art-historical

styles,

of

into the other, motifs

as

streaming from

a

lamp,

a

his

range of themes over several de<

Art \)^\n design, and his

been addressing

characteristic irony, Lichtcnstein has his sculptural versions

a

own

issues of

ides.

invented forms. With

three-dimensional space

via

two-dimensional images, translating motifs from one realm

varied

as

mirror reflections, steam using from

a

coffee cup, light

whiplash brushstroke, and an Expressionist head. By maintaining

the flatness, altering the scale, and applying process coloi and Benday dots, he deliberately

undermines

his representation

of the object and our perception of

of such twentieth-century

tradition

artists as

it.

and continues the

Picasso ind Johns in exploring

new

paths

in

sculpture.

1.

Lichtcnstein. quoted

m

Constance

California State University, 1977), p

2. Ibid-.

3.

pp

1

Smith, quoted in

Gene Bare

ed

265.

number

Roy five ol

Paint, d

Lichtcnstein, The Conversation, 1984 an edition

ol six,

123 2

<

104

1

I

x -" 8

-

m

(48

and

pi

k41 x

ated

11

bronze

Private collection.

Chapter

14:

Sculpture,

exhib cat

(1

ong

Bi

ach

19

"Some

Late

Words from David Smith,"

Lichtenstein based both his painting The Conversation

K inches)

335

Ceraml

l" International

9 no ,

v>

painting Conversation, 1908-09/1912

left

Glenn, Roy Uchtenstein

7- is

bei 1965), p

4

W

Sculpture, 1965-93

I977,andthis 1984 sculpture on Matisse's


267.

i

Roy

dition ol

Lichtcnstcin, Archaic Head VI, 1988 Patinatcd bronze, numbi six,

148.5

x 47 x 25.4

i

m

!

(58

ic

18

34

x 10

in( hi

â&#x20AC;¢

Prh

i

lle<

foui ol

tion

in


268. [29.9

Roy Liehtcimiin,

Ritual Mask, 1992

P


left

269.

Roy

Lichtenstein, Brushstroke Head

and patinated bronze, number one JO

right

270.

sculpture bast

<

Roy 14

Ban

i

1.6

fe<

lona

i

x 2.6

(Barcelona Head), 1987

of six

108 5

x 50.8

x 26 6

Painted

i

m

Private collection.

Lichtenstein, Barcelona Head,

2 x

0m (19

S< iport,

inches)

10

h

ol an edition

IV

m

(46

feel 7

8 inches) high; overall

inches 19 6

\<>'>2

\

m

^

l

C

oncrete and ceramii

kit

i

inches

x

8

feet

(64 feet 2 inches) high

<>

c

tiles;

inches);

Hympic


left

2

271.

Roy

Lichtenstcin, Brushstroke, l')87 Painted aluminum, 9.15 X 5.19 X

19 in (30 feet k 17 feet

right

272.

Roy

proof,274 l>

k

7 feel 6 in< ties)

<

ourtc%\ Stephen M.i/oh .ukI

(

o

Lichtenstcin, Airplane. 1990 Painted and padnated bronze, "

l.6cm

108

>

14

H x 29 inches)

Private collection

.

Im

.irtisi's


t


p

M

ft

1

I

I

kUni^v flyi^^v --

H\\i\ ^^^ •

^

a

{

I

^V^Npaal^gJU .

OBMv»-

'1

|*;|

ic? i

-j

1

^w :r#^l.«_L_i n A^Vrrai

1(

4

....

|

|

i

^

^ i^K

?§§


1

274.

Roy

Lichtenstein, Mobile

number one ofan

III,

1990 Painted and patinated bronze,

edition ofsix. 144.8x132.1

k

cm

33

(57 x 52 x 13 inches)

Private collection

left

273.

Roy

enamel palm

Miami Beach

Lichtenstein, The Mermaid, 1979 tree,

and water. 6.4 x 7.3 x 3.3

fheater

foi

m (21

the Performing Arts,

(

oncrete, steel, polyurethanc

feet

x 24

feet

Miami Beach.

x

1 1

Florida


::V.v

?

!••<

r%

^

(


T

* % ^H


Lichtenstein painted his Philip Johnson and

Richard Foster

one often painters and

sculptors-

measuring

4 feet

who

officials,

by 4

mur.il. entitled

arranged

feet,

before a

For

created

a

(

Uncle Sam's ,

hat.

p.istel

ire. is .-I

portion oi

tones

letters E.

Roscmjuist

A, and its

a

T

drinking

a

the sign was turned

her arms

c

on Broadway), and

too

it

indicated

it

a

Highland Park

house

in

to that

New

oil .\nd

studio,

Magna ow

Jersey and completing

greater degree the distance between

However,

resulted.

a

it

its

did not succeed

an earlier painting rather than

Rosenuuist's succeeded

as a

and

there.

Although

275, 276.

two w

.IK

3

6

Lichtenstein, Brushstrokes, 1970

Roy \ I" 7

m

(12 feet

n

J5 feet);

two

walls

Mag

3.6x7

n plasti

6

m

I

foul walls;

(12 feci k

25

feet)

and gave man) Lichtenstein

ol

mural,

i

Inrilv

148-49 277.

Magna and femporar)

Roy

Lichtenstein, Greene Street Mural, 1983

Of the

jilkscreened wallpaper, installation

ai

Leo

(

5 5 x

29 2

astelh Gallerj

m

(18 feet

Greene

*

95

Street,

feel

New

8!

made by

inches)

the

artist,

in ulai

bulbs outlining the

m

ausi d a probli

fail

foi

»pen w indov*

i

a

the t.m

laughing

punted the 20-

le

I

•>!

I

it

iii

into

against the garage wall ol his

khtenstein's subject was

siinil.u a\)

even

because

it

was

.i

larger version ol

and because

ten artworks

tailed to take

it

commissioned

for the

the curved wall, and onl)

it

provided them with to

work on

a

a

publi(

forum

large stale for the

tor their

first

foi

work

time

School ot his second mural for the University of Diisseldorf 's (figs.

275 and 276), completed

Carlene Meeker (with the help of two other

assistant

(desl

light

until, at the request

based on his 1960s pamtmgs of the same subject. Executed pagei

i

tor the site

worked with

Medicine. The mural, entitled Brushstrokes

School oi Medicine, University ofDusseldorf

drinking straw, and

with broadl) brushed

mural perse. Nevertheless, the commission was important

them an opportunity

made

ol

soun e in the COmi( Strip and the image thai

new image created

Lichtenstein and the others in that kjl

Fop images

place to eat inside the pavilion

outside, placing

it

as a

Kelly's

a

Roscnejuist

artist,

Since the work was too large i"

wood

into account the circular shape of the building. pavilion, only Rosenquist's

along with

i

large size ol die mural painting n infon ed to

of his other Fop imagery, the

it

pi)

he worked on

fail

to lawsuiis,

Fichtenstem's painting featured the figure ot

rossed over her chest, leaning out an

by- 16-foot image in his

off.

twi<

disparate

electric

and demanded to know where the restaurant was located,

woman,

at

shots

black disks (fabricated by the firm that employed

of the visitors thought that

officials,

mug

Rauschenberg created an

glass ,\nd striped

with

sign. Eat,

set against large

works

each ol

painting and sculpture based on semii

a

20-foot-square

billboards

five panels,

in bright colors interspersed

Kelly contributed

to paint

Many

officials.

and

which he executed

motifs. Indiana created

white

car

a

its tire,

i

York State Pavilion

billboard

as a

which he juxtaposed seemingl)

in

,

Kennedy and Rubcnss Baroque

F.

of other images culled from the media. Framed

a

twenty

his mural,

variety

panoramic mural

ot

(which Rauschenberg repeated

\dirrot

RoU

large-scale

"most wanted men" might lead

as

silver paint.

composed of images of John

silkscreen

offee beans,

make

20-foot-square grid. At the request

in a

was

[e

I

Most Wanted Mni. was inspired by the

Thirteen

and consisted

list

feared that labeling the faces

masterpiece Venus

York.

Warhol's mural consisted of silkscrcencd images of F.B.I,

Warhol painted over the images with

enormous

to

New

Theaterama building of the

"Ten Most Wanted Fugitives"

F.B.I.'s

New

Robert Miliary, Rauschenberg,

— who were commissioned by Johnson

The

ot alleged criminals.

building designed by architects

a

-the others were Peter AgOStini, Chamberlain,

tor the outside wall of the circular

the 1964 World's Ian

for

tor the World's Fair in Flushing,

Indiana, Ellsworth Kelly. Alexander Liherman,

Rosenqinst, and Warhol

1%4

large-scale mural in

first

the mural occupies four

I

in

Magna on

assistants)

from

in

1970,

plaster b) his

slides ol drawii

2-foot-lngh walls, two of which are

2.5 feet

the image of the brushstroke long and the other two 10 feet longer Lichtenstein enlarged

York

347

Chapter

15:

Murals. 1964-93


c

\ %,


^ \

%


to

far greater

a

changes and,

degree than he had 196 v

as in

mural painting, "no

expanded form,

Ins

school for which

it

effective large-scale

made no attempt

other than to paint

— which has was commissioned — served the

was not

it

mid-October 1970. Although he took

in

when

the location into

of a corridor

inside walls

began

until the 1980s that Lichtenstein

to be

ichtenstein signed the mural

1

ount by wrapping the brushstrokes around the four

school,

In tins

what turned out

basis for

execution,

its

white."

it

significance in relation to the

little

as

in

othei significant

to adjust Ins painting to the requirements of

brushstroke image

work. Satisfied with

made no

paintings but

i

effort to prepare the wall

he came to the university ac(

in his earlii

in the

conceive of a mural with the

to

architecture of the site in mind.

December

Early in

SoHo

gallery in

(fig,

1983, he began work ^n

was completed

studio,

The

277).

in the gallery in eight

highest point and 95 feet 8 ichtenstein designed

I

would be covered

it

over.

and, although he

scale,

the notion that the

humor

vantage point in the

many of Ins

office

brushstroke motif.

that

He undertook would have

when

a roll

of

liked

None

most memorable

1.

the earlier smaller Preparedness

which

a

additional sour<

cabinet and i

I

diary of Ins

(fig.

138),

Orporating

ini

folding chair), and

1980s

a

hronological order, noi was the size

montage

his career, in effect creating a gigantic a

and

ord

(

1960s pyramid,

a

I

oi

elected instead to juxtapose different

le

I

in

a

i

new images -

Art \)^\^ motil ind

,\n

in

from any on.

knotted red

composition not

a

a filing

and

a

it

I

ertain iron}

i

entirety

ichtenstein included several

beginning with

own

than

past, rather

In creating this large-scale

ol

some

public Statement like

a

Through Chemistry

L968,orPmff

presented montages of images

also

its

in

a

its

1984,

14.

work on

to

An

after the exhibition.

of these were arranged

subjects,

on January

wanted

n

ol the gall ry

.ill

to be preserved. appre< iated

it

mural.

images (including

Street in Ins

18 feel high

is

the exhibition ended

toilet paper, a funnel,

earlier motifs,

images from different periods of his

The mural w

eary.

that the mural was too big to be seen gallery. In this

Greene

astelli's

<

ichtenstein and Ins assistants James

1

the project because he

of any one image consistent with any othei

of

Leo

foi

inches long, occupying the entire north w

Pop images (Swiss cheese and

several 1960s

some 1970s

i

knowing

including those depicting reprised

!

work would be destroyed

in the fact

la)

days b\

Robert McKeever, and Brian O'l

di Pasquale,

mural

a

winch had taken mouths of preparation

project,

140), 1970,

(fig

montage

ol

that Rosenquist had used so disjunctive images. Lichtenstein was emulating the technique

effectively in such large-scale paintings as In 1984,

.

/

/

/.

1965

ichtenstein was o\\o\\\ the commission

I

the Equitable

Benton's

/•'-

Tower

...

midtown Manhattan

(fig.

1930

\merica Today murals, painted in

Research, were purchased by Equitable and

to design a

278).

hat

I

same

31 foi the N,

installed

on

i

mural

w

sid.

S<

wall

v.

for the

ar,

I

hool

of

nomas Hart

foi

its

lobby of

Social \merica

lobby

and locomotives and Today consists often panels that show speeding toihng under huge ranes machines, surging skwrapers, and Ameri. an workers ....planes, the gears

.

pistons of

and bridges this

tyi

278.

Roy

Lichtenstein. Mural with Blue Brushstroke, 1986

9.9m(68fcei

iinchesx >2

Collection The Equitable

lit,-

feel 5

finches)

\ssurance Society,

Equitable

New

M igna

fowei

01

New

*

is,

advances nation that had been transformed by

-bombardment of visual

stimuli

...

It

has

no

351

Chapter

15:

media— th.

Murals. 1964-93

room

" I

,

1

logy

in te.

imerica Today recreates the

single diagrammatic reading: thi

pattern or progressively around the

York.

.

mass experience, especially the effects of tabloid

York

in a

hrough

modern urban

inema billboard

01 illustrated

panels could be read

htenstein began to

I

work on

...

..

crisscross

the maquette


,

tor his

in autumn 1984, and after the design was approved there were numerous meeting with engineers and conservators to determine how best to prepare sun,,

mural

the

The mural was

Magna on

painted in

canvas

mounted on

plaster will. whi(

a

was then attached to the limestone wall of the building's atrium, lake Benton's murals. Lichtenstein's presents a

cacophony of .mages.

another enormous montage of

by Leger

Entitled Mural with Blue Brushstroke,

his earlier subjects,

master of the mural genre) holding

column, and an entablature,

lassical

i

(a

I.

including

beachbaU,

a

sunburst,

a

hand holding

a

a

sponge,

including the Art Deco, office interior, and Mirrot paintings, along with references other twentieth-century artists including rank Stella.

Although the

I

selected the motifs, he

made

mural.

were

The maquette was

filled in

proje< ted

Pasquale, and

monumental

consequence

(who

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

created

a

especially artists

mural form

down

breaking

succeeds

( l

Agency

(fig.

lobby

215).

ot

a

meant

at that,

mined

a

Whereas

it

is

kft

279.

Roy

Magna on (

auTornia

canvas, 8.2

(

x 5.5

m

ollection Mi< hael

(27 x 18 feet)

(

Creative Artists

Agenq

Utopian belief in

m

his early

intact,

However,

it

353

Chapter

15:

and

1936), and Mexii

'4<)s.

tea. h

way

a

u

I

.u\

J

painters

htenstem images from

ol

that recalls a

Renaissance

Pop paintings

politi< al

demanded

the mural

and

reatOl

I

Benton and Gorl

as

grand

although

fresco,

ichtenstein succeeded

I

fine arl Style, Inn- he

a

art

Murals. 1964-93

he designed

thai

ike Lichtenstein's

I

( l

is

prominend)

a

and

art

Pei

as

hlemmer

S<

I

i<

htenstein again

ol

in

Museum

\

i

pi

figures'

Henday-dot matrix

mural for the Tel Aviv

to provide

in

1989, he

any different from paintings, though sometimes

spa<

would

Here,

this

and consumer

"just as

the subject

i

and even manag< life.

his

n alive

<

painting

situated in a public space, in

M

I

the

fol

>-ss easel

adding bolder outlines to emphasize the

in this public

suitable,

merging

the connection between high

>\it/

cm- a

one

is

1989.

S

to

soon avoid the

of a stairway

evoke something

Utopian ideal

democratizing aesthetic of replication, thus making

Beverly Hills,

m

the in in

W.P.A. mural

react to the architecture." and declared that he

people seems emmentlv

htensteins

i(

with the

based on the Bauhaus Stairway painted b\

admitted that he "didn't think of murals

Lichtcnstein, Bauhaus Stairway: Hie Large Version, 1989 Oil and

I

1986

produce an amalgam

altering the colors somewhat. And using

architecture, really."

outlines

its

ono

such

to inspire, lead,

his past to

(fig. 21')),

pattern and shading. After completing

you

and

Undei

January

ol greal social, c<

two-story building designed by

Schlemmers composition silhouettes,

in

Newark Airport

for

216). kike his Equitable mural,

this case the

make

to

union seem inevitable mk\ appropriate.

Beverly Hills (fig.

stor}

plan for the actual

frec|iientlv identified

In the W.P.A.,

most recently completed mural

in

same subject

J32

their

five

he had

>n< e

<

plaster wall

to execute.

the barriers between media-derived subjects and

making

in

Lichtenstein's

the

most

personal repertoire of themes, and presented

there are even echoes of those.

Artists

weeks

six

)iego Rivera. In the 1930s m^\

old Times Square billboard more than

in

is

commissioned

rejected this approach; instead he

own

onto the surface of the

mural entitled Aviation I

work.

which became the working

public murals dealing with issues

public themes, and heroic ones

his

in< hes.

Fernando Pomalaza completed the work

Clemente Oro/^o mk\

Jose

his easel

to

lchtenstem. Mclxecur. Arch (VI earhy. O'l cm>\

1

In the twentieth century, the

ot

he did

as

with black tape. The mural took

supervision, his assistants David di

much

it

scale ofth.

of drawings and then collaged them together

a series

maquette, measuring 34 Va by 17

a

a

well as motifs from almost ever) other series,

as

high mural was huge, he approached

is

it

figure inspired

a

is

joined with

art accessible tc

all

culture that underlies

filled

with

of the Bauhaus's I

ic

htensteins

and maintaining all

his

work.


— Lichtenstein

1993

currently working on .mother mural, Large Interior with Three Reflections,

is

(sec the collage study for the mural, fig. 280), consisting o\\\

than 9 feet high, designed to panels of the triptych

)pened Fire

new mural

recalls

and

sculpture,

among

his

plant

a

painting

nude

o\~ a

ailing Art [fig.

a

three

The

As

I

canvas,

a

all

But he

still life.

from

1930s

a

1991

his

Large

In

Interiors,

and

a

some new

also introduces

comic-strip painting of a I940s-style detective melodrama, a

woman and

futuristic skvscrapcrs. (re<

and Peace Through Chemistry.

sponged onto

bowl of lemons and bananas from au early

— among them,

The

Art Deco-style works, the multi-panel Modern

Lichtenstein reintroduces the images of a living-room ensemble,

"Moderne" images

and three smaller panels, each more

ichtenstein's comic-strip painting

1

19(>7. Preparedness,

Painting with Clef (fig. 137), Interior.

fit

91), 1964, and.

(fig.

wall,

into pre-existing niches on the opposite wall.

of unequal widths, with the middle panel being the widest.

.ire

multi-panel format of the <

one

13 feet high, to be placed on

more than

30-foot-long triptych,

lounging on a

66] and

a

bed.

a

sculpture that resembles

a

group of

small Art Deco-Style sign featuring the single

word FORM

on

(fig.

///

70],

both 1962)

of his paintings (including Swiss Cheese, 1961, and

as

well

.is

sculptures based

several

1980s Imperfect painting). As

a

Lichtenstein continued the series in 1991-92, his relatively straightforward depictions of

rooms

in

the

first

few

Interiors

turned into fantasy rooms composed of multiple

perspec lives and decorated with unusual objects.

while

it

But

this

mural

appears to be primarily about his 1990s renditions of

paintings' and sculptural versions of various painting motifs,

movie mystery collide with

dues

Modern

art in this

them

woman and

it,

a

comic-strip stage set or a

it

reveals,

One

searches for

in the still-glowing cigar, the partly

another of

a

ot the three smaller panels, rather than clarifying the

obscures more than

9(S< )s-style

reads like

Pop-inflected Hollywood-style interior.

to the undisclosed mystery, finding

opposite

1

positivelv zany, for

with clues. Images that look like scenes from 1940s and 1950s films

filled

door, and the image of the nude

Each

it

is

hand pulling back mystery

it

there

open

a curtain. is

one

mcrel\ showing a mirror image oi^ portion of the panel

complete with Benday-dot and diagonal-stripe "reflection" motifs. Most

mysterious ot

all,

the actors in this script are missing; or are we, the spectators, the

protagonists? Like the Mirror paintings that preceded them. Large Interior with 'Three Reflections, the

most complex of the

Lichtenstein \ murals have

come

to expect

of the wit and

all

of him. Early

images and comic

in his career,

strips to create a

celebrate the absurd aspects

Interiors to date,

is

an enigma

humor of his

earlier

work.

It is

what we have

he adapted the look and attitude of advertising

composite portrait of our consumer culture and to

of our cultural condition.

In his blatant exploitation

of such

imagery and the commercial techniques used to produce them. Lichtenstein created visual syntax that

Amencan

a

new

was uniquely appropriate for portraying and critiquing postwar

society and

its

post-industrial artifices. His dual ambition

nation's middle-class culture

through

its

was to depict our

modes of mechanized reproduction

and, by

converting "unartistic" images into "unartistic" paintings, to confront the cliches of art

and the conventions

that

making paintings and maintain

govern

how we

recognize

art as art. In his lifelong

sculptures that resemble cliches, he has pursued

a style

project of

designed to

a distance from his subject matter, portraying nature as artificial, conveying an


1

ironic, anti-aesthetic attitude,

Throughout

making the point

an abstraction of our experience

is

mass media. Lichtenstein and portraying our nation and

common

a

object

him

object, allowing

what he has been presenting

to transcend

and subvert

literalness

its

mechanical presentation of familiar images helps "real'" ,in (

involved

what

\

is

"abstract." In his use

in Ins present.it

ofsuch

mi of these images. 1

was created and. paradoxically, derives

its

and

to question the role

incorporate

all

encompass the

of art

isolate art

today

reality

I

and

artifice,

a

.is

m)

what

our awareness of the

in

Ins ,ut subverts the

is

fiction

foundation mm which

wa) to

tesi

the late twentieth century, and

(

oinu

his

h(

\

deadpan

lis

own

pi'"

<

it

and

strips

aesthetii

eded

to

the

ot

Cezanne, Matisse. Mondnan. and Picasso

as

Futurism,

work of other

German artists,

Expressionism, and Surrealism. In

Lichtenstein has used the same

established with his cartoon comic -strip paintings: identify the SUDJei

first

features,

its

features

basi<

strength from this subversion.

of such Modern masters

ideas

own work on

his

method he

its

11

his ability to

is

these queries into his work. Within this framework, he has been able to

and the most fundamental aspects

modeling

111

artists

to blur traditional notions of

consumer-product advertising images offered Lichtenstein ideas

Pop

its

societ) in their ait,

But one of the prim.

artifacts.

an abstract form wlnlr maintaining

as

art

by popular culture and the

characteristics that distinguishes Lichtenstein from his fellow

depict

wori

ofpopulai culture within

new urban

.1

terms of their

in

that

oi reality. Inspired

colleagues featured

his

people

its

in Ins

of common, low-art subjects with high

to define the real-world subject matter

the context of Modernist abstraction, to us

look of "insincerity"

a

Lichtenstein's career, Ins marriage

been an attempt

style has

and capturing

and

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;including

restate

his

both

m

ownâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; must

terms of his be regarded

own as

style. In so

oik

mon

1

doing,

ommodity

he-

in

shows

t,

us that

an endless

stream of products and reproductions.

submitted

In 1949, Lichtenstein

requirement out

for his

what must forever remain unknown,

course of

work,

his

I

(

In-

as

it

And

is

ti>

is

forever a surprise.

then projected through youi

None

uiili- 'in

touching would uncovei

of the world's sinu ture

things

would remain only

Incomprehensible col

u

But yon could fathom out 2HU.

Roy

Three Reflections, 1993

87

large pane]

it

21 inches); refle

53

cm

(28

x

Lichtenstein, Collage study for rapt

ind painted and printed paper

233

91

panel 2

21 inches)

71

x

inches

57cm

Urge

22

i

1

71 x 53

inches); refleci

cm

panel3

71

the existence

with touch done

on board fourpanels

reflection panel

[28 k

And understand

Interior with

x

Ybu must

first teel.

then

You must

feel until

you

Ybu

Private colle< tion

355

Chapter

15:

will

s<

e

In these texts,

he mappi d

it

is

to be art

If

one were

to chart the

has unfolded ovei the course of four decades, one could

you through work

So looking

And

it

truth of nature's structure

.Hues

to fulfill part ol the

to art, to perception, to understanding the myster) ol art,

to mastering

exemplifies the idea that art

'

of poems he wrote

M.F.A. degree from Ohio State University.

commitment

his future, his

a series

what you

fi

Murals, 1964-93

see.

1

<>l

things

foi

you

sa)

that

it


Wink- we

are

now

well versed in the

way

which Lichtenstein approaches

in

the through the eves of the consumer and the eyes of ever inventive painter and sculptor.

this

genre subject

poke fun

m

him

at

is

an

artist

the most heroic ones, pay

as well as

himself.

He

He

is

still

be surprised by

can paint the most

who

homage

can

to the masters

common

of the past and

us to join challenged by painting and sculpture and challenges

who

For those of us

his discoveries.

we

artist,

art,

have followed him, the voyage has been

supremely rewarding.

I

1

u htenstein,

l

Don't Knov^

2

|

\\ illiams

I

nomas

ollege and

3. Lichtenstein,

reference to

I

quoted

Man

(

he

<

5.

From >hio

Anything," Flash Art 22, no

1

Do

148 (October 1989),

iberalism:

I

quitable

hagall's

i

ife

An

a

Lot of Work.

-Roy

Lichtenstein: Naivete

University,

,"

C I

P 90. .

;K5). p

I

he

Now

p. 90.

Interpretation of the

Assurance Society of the U.S..

New

Sehool

(New

York:

19.

lei

Aviv mural contains

a

well-known "Fiddler" image

artist,

Southampton,

NY.

August 1993

Lichtenstein, "Paintings, Drawing, Pastels" (M.F.A. thesis.

St. itt

Allowed You to

Lichtenstein: Naivete

Benton and Progressive

Taylor.

in

onversation with the

4

lart

I

"Roy

America Today Murah Emily Braun and Thomas Branchick, Thomas Hart Benton: The

in

<

Paul Taylor,

in

How Anyone Does

mil) Braun,

Murals,"

<

quoted

Columbus,

1949), p 5

Department of Fine and Applied

Arts.


in the artist's life are in the

in world are

si

bold;

in

i

in

••>.<

ii

tli<

1923

Lichtenstein is born in Manhattan at on 64th Street and Eastern Boulevard Hospital Flower and [now York Avenue], to Milton (1893-1946) father, who was His 1896-1991). Werner; (nee Beatrice for the Garage born in Brooklyn, is a real-estate broker

Oct

radio spends time designing model airplanes. Listens to shows including "Flash Gordon" and "Mandrake the Magician."

Roy Fox

27.

born in New Realty Company. His mother, who was the Upper Orleans, is a homemaker. They reside on (at 96th Broadway 1457 at Manhattan West Side of West 86th Street, where Street) until they move to 305

1930

May

Jasper Johns

15

is

bom

Augusta, Georgia

in

1931

Tom Wesselmann is born in Cincinnati, mio 5 The Wadsworth Atheneum (Hartford) <

feb 23

\s-Dei

Vi „,

Newer

presents

important Super-Realism, organized by A I vereti Austin The first works itfeatures U.S., in the mounted work exhibition of Surrealist Masson, Dall, < Giorgio de Chirico, Max Ernst, Andre"

R.L. spends his childhood years.

by Salvadoi

924

*

pu biicati

. ,

,

n

q)

\ndri Breton'i

.

I

e

marking the

of Surrealism) in Paris,

MirS, Picasso, and others the Whitney 2, 1932 Under Director Juliana Force,

Manifest* du surreahsme (Manifesto official

beginning

Nov

oj the

[merican

,,,

movement.

Surrealist

Xo,: 26

Segal

korgt

(

show,

Manhattan

born in

is

The Bauhaus, an experimental school undei the direction aftet sevi

Paul Klee, and

22

)a

begins

to

name Bob

use the

Dessau

to

Vasily

Ubers,

9-29.

Jan.

Its

Kandinsky,

Julien

name

Robert,

MoMA

is

bom

Arthur,

in Port

starting in

(He

Texas

eventually adopts

1957 and

July 29.

moves

10

published

first

in Paris

features artists qj the

magazine

the

I

ounded by

(

1

West 53rd

1

European avant-garde and has

I

aftet sets

moves

up

and

a studio

German-bom Hans Hofmann

in

New

<

York

in

1927

opens

Street,

Dec. Dei [une 1940 Senior photo i

Qgh

S<

hool

m

in

1

Kaprow

in

Renee

Living Art

New

in

born

is

m

visits artists in

artist,

opens Gallery

is

bom

in Cincinnati,

theii

works

foi

qj

[ndrew Warhola

6

Pennsylvania

in Pittsburgh,

born

is

Robert

13

lark

(

surname with

bom

is

the

in

New

(

(He

many

artists,

Nov.

<

Chicago in

7-Dec.

7

mm Museum

is

Indiana

(He

q)

I

in

New

9-Jan at

begins to

17,

1937

MoMA,

Zeitschrift

I

Stockholm, Sweden. (His family

is

changed

to

F.A.P.)

is

reliefprojects, providing

irshile

<

hrky, and

Works Progn

New

York.

It

is

theftrst

Fantastic Art,

organized by Ban.

commercial

Dada, Surrealism exhibition

One

held

is

section features comparative

art, folk art,

tcientifl

objects,

and

in the

Age

art

by childn n and the insane

replaces his

state early in In- careei

Deal

fiir

Sozialforschung publishes "The Work of Art

ot

settles

cay

(written

m

German

critu

oj

Waltei Benjamins

1935) concerning th

role oj art in

an age

mass communication

1934.)

Alfred II <

bom

his

1936 private R.L. begins 8th grade at Franklin School for Boys, a school located at 18 West 89th Street in Manhattan.

influential

in

New

Ohio

Federal Art Project (W.P.A

James Thrall Soby's Alter Picasso is published in hook on Surrealism published in the U.S.

1929 28 Claes Oldenburg

in

Street in

A

Mechanical Reproduction,"

Jan.

irts

North Dakota.

Forks,

including de Kooning,

(The name

materials, including

astle,

name of his home

Fine

Short Survey ofSurrealism, the first English-language monograph on ///< movement, is published in London.

use the surname Warhol in 1949.)

Sepl

qj

52 West 9th

[dministration in 1939.)

/>,,

1928

fo\

David Gascoyne's

his gallery

1928-36 R.L. attends kindergarten near 104th Street and West End Avenue and grades 1 through 7 at RS. 9 (84th Street and West End Avenue).

1,,.:

Administration

Jackson Pollock

Gallatin frequently

Village.

Pablo Paris (including Joan Miro, Piet Mondrian, and

and buys

Projects

income

irl

Picasso)

Grand

established as one qj Roosevelt's

born.

Greenwich

York's

Ug

Works

Ulantic City, Newjersey. is

Albert Eugene Gallatin, acollectoi and

27

ranklin

bom

is

to

closes

1935

[

17. R.L.'s sister

School

his

moves

it

earlier,

impossible.

)

1927 Ulan

nine mouth,

College

Nov. 29. James Rosenquist

luur 16. James Dine

Ug 23

to Berlin

Nazis make operation

conditions imposed by the

'

[

art

Hoboken, Newjersey (He

residence in

West 42nd Street

to

York of Surrealist

Street

The Bauhaus, which had moved

Black Mountain

Willem de Kooning (bom in 1904 in Rotterdam) arrives in Shelly, and soon irginja from Holland, a stowaway on the S S

15

New

\936, then to 52 West 8th Street in 1938) Amu, to begin 2S. Albers arrives in SSorth Carolina with his wife, Nov. new teaching position ut tin recently opened experimental school,

:hnsttan Zervos,

wide international distribution.

Aug

[venue) presents

1

1926 Thiers d'art u

of the Permanent Collection:

majo\ exhibition in

first

York (137 East 57th (

first

1933

Oct

Jan

I

Levy Gallery (602 Madison

Sunc.ihs.iK-, the

,„,,,

the

Pari

ichibition

I

its

Schlcmmei

)skai

<

Milton Rauschenberg

rnesi

I

Opening

York; 8 West 8th Street) mounts

1932

1919

in

right-wing regional government

new

n harassment by the

faculty includes such majoi artists as Jose)

(

founded

the arts

foi

Waltei Gropius, moves from Weima\

qj

(New

\rt

.

Painting and Sculpture.

1925 [pril

Museum

18-Jan.

luguin

Modern

Ban, Jr., organizes Seurat, Van \rt

(

(MoMA)

First

logh in

foi

New

1

oan Exhibition:

the opening oj the

1937 /.(i/

8-9. Picasso

two

satirical etchings, entitled

Dream and

Franco, each divided into nine panels like some of the

York (730 Fifth ivenue)

I

1920s R.L. develops a strong interest in drawing and science and

creates

I

eh

iomu

Lie

>>t

strips in

nihil newspapers ot the period.

in Paris John Graham's hook System and Dialectics of Art is published edition* (mid hue, in the yem in New York, in .in English-language


exploit- the role of accident

It

and

the unconscious in the creative

i <

automatu

process,

writing, improvisation,

and ancient

becomes an important influence on the Abstract

July 12

Picasso presents his 26-foot-long mural

Republican Pavilion

qj the Paris

art,

andlater

xpressionists.

I

Guernica

at (he

" Wes\ Uth

Kiesh Ove\ Baziotes,

Spanish

The W.P.A Feb. R.L.

/

the "Surrealist Street," which consists

is

ofJem. ile mannequins outfitted byjean A, r Dall, Marcel Duchamp, Ernst, Marcelfean, Mir6, Man Ray Masson, and others ,

1939

May

The Museum of Non-Objectivi

Street) open-

Uger, and

Autumn. (

ritrde

Painting

(New

24

York;

solo exhibitions

by

others

i-

disbanded

officially

drafted into U.S.

is

Army;

inducted

is

at

New Jersey.

«°

w

"'" ll • /'""

'•

unconvi ntional obn

.

agn

(

Fort Dix

performs at his dibut .omen, at

that involves musicians producing sounds using

i-

March. R.L. begins basic training at Camp Hulen in Texas, an anti-aircraft training base. Winter. Enters engineering A.S.T.P. (Army Special Training Program) at De Paul University in Chicago, where he

East 14th

Rudolf Bauer, Juan

Review

Gris, Kandinsky,

Fernand

Clement Greenberg's

publishes

article

math and science for two semesters cancels program.

Fortj Years

of His Art,

curated by Ban.

1940

Dc Kooning

begins his

Woman

first

<

anatomical drawing and Renaissance techniques, such as glazing and underpainting, applied to subjects of

Sherman. m New

1945 is shipped to England on the ship Lejeune. Overseas tour of duty includes stops in France

and Belgium and combat engagements in Germany. During his time in the service, R.L. draws landscapes and portraits of soldiers and other people in his

New

York;

its

editot

is

Charles Henry

March

Man

Ray,

Ray's paintings, objects,

Oct.— Nov. R.L. enrolls at the

heen living

in Paris

mice 1921, return-

\rt

mounts a

retrospectivt

to

oj

Man

and photographs.

in history

and French language

classes

Cite Universitaire in Paris. His studies are

month and

a half,

when

furloughed to visit his father, who is extremely Returns to U.S. and reports to Fort Dix.

York

who had

settles in

Los Angeles County VluseumoJ

interrupted after just a

Mondrian amirU.S. and

enormous

sketchbooks. in

Duchamp and Joseph Cornell later contribute covei designs Autumn. R.L. begins studies in fine arts at Ohio State University and takes first drawing classes with Prof.

Early Nov.

to the

in the Battle

Feb. R.L.'s division

Ford.

L.

in Biloxi, Mississippi,

Due

of the Bulge and the consequent need for soldiers to replace them, the program is terminated. Reports for active duty in engineer battalion of 69th Infantry Division of the 9th Army.

life.

View magazine premieres

Hoyt

pilot-training program.

its

rit

June. R.L. graduates from Franklin. July 1-Aug. 9. Attends painting class taught by Reginald Marsh at the Art Students League (215 West 57th Street), painting directly from the model and studying

modern

for

number of casualties

MoMA presents Picasso

1940

1944 R.L. arrives at Keesler Air Force Base

"Avant-

and Kitsch 7,

army

before

under the directorship ofHilla Rebay von Ehrenwicsen,

Picasso.

Partisan

Nov. 15-Jan.

Oct.

and

Still,

mounts

Pollock, Richard Pousette-Dart

takes classes in 31.

featuring works by

Sept

Clyfford

Musician and composerjohn

eb.

-Feb. Breton and poet Paul Eluard organize Exposition Internationale du surrealisme at the Galerit des Beaux- In inParh lining the exhibition

gallery

1943

1938

to the

tin

Hojmann, Motherwell,

Mark Rothko,

in

entranceway

withgallery spaces designed by Frederick

World's Fair

R.L. enrolls in Saturday morning watercolor classes at Parsons School of Design in Manhattan (66 Fifth Avenue).

/,///

Street),

five yea,-,

he

is

ill.

Hollywood

1946 Jan. R.L.'s father dies; later that month, he is discharged from the army as Private First Class, with a medal for

1941 Jan 2 2- May 2~

\loM

I

presents Indian Art

organized by Frederic

July 14

Ernst arrives in

December, they

H

New

of the United

States,

Douglas and Reni d'Harnoncourt

York via Lisbon with Peggy Guggenheim

In

many

1942 R.L. resides at 1968 Iuka Avenue in Columbus. Makes paintings that are copies of works by Picasso (such as Portrait of Gertrude Stein, 1906) and Georges Braque. Feb.

9-28. Mondrian has

his first solo exhibition in

Gallery (55 Ea.-t 57th

June 25. Duchamp amirErnst

and ~

I

York from Paris and stays briefly with a studio

and

residence at

I

irst

William Baziotes,

fills

Alexander Colder, Ernst, Klee, Miro, Robert other-,

and an

installation by

Duchamp

that

the exhibition -pace with String, like an cnoiniou- -pnlenirb.

2d Peggy Guggenheim

open- Art

I

May

New

Yorkei

miu Robert

oates coins the term Abstract

<

-pi, ssionism

Peggy Guggenheim I

Sept

2 in West Nth

in

Motherwell, Picasso, and

Oct.

up

W

This Century

\rtoj

closes

qj

This

<

)entury in

Sew

York

365

W

and

leaves

SewYorkfoi

urope

June. R.L. receives B.F.A. degree from

1959 he more- to 28 West 10th Street Papers of Surrealism exhibition is held in New York 14-Nov. \venue), with works by \rp, at the Keid Man-ion (451 Madison Street,

Oct.

sets

March

York, at Valentine

Street).

New

in

1943, he

(In

New

Meritorious Service. Returns to Ohio State University to complete his degree under the G.I. Bill. Attends painting classes taught bySherman and begins to incorporate into his own work the theories developed by Sherman in his "flash lab."

<><i

Street) with

Northwesi

organized by Barnett

Autumn. R.L.

Ohio

State University

New

York (15 East 57th

Betty Parsons opens gallery in

l''

(

oasi Indian Painting, <" exhibition

Newman.

enters graduate

program

at

Ohio

State

University and joins Fine Arts department as an instructor. Occasionally returns to New York and begins to visit galleries, especially Charles Egan Gallery and Betty Parsons Gallery on 57th Street. His work at the time is based on American genre paintings, with

Chronology


recognizable subject matter, but the form with Expressionist overtones.

Hugo

>,.

/

New

Gallery in

<

collaged box

is

1950 R.L. moves with Isabel to 1496 Perry Street in Columbus.

Cubist

Dv Kooning

York (26 East 55th Street) show* Cornell's

some

constructions,

which contain photographs

q)

mom

qj

/)«•,

day

,1 th<

De Kooning

Woman

begins his second

(which

series

I

>,i

Non

qj

serii

to

encourage

Museum of Art (New York; Fifih AmeiK.m Art Tod.n l'»S(i, juried 300 artists, including Will Barnet,

The Metropolitan direct) presents

,;

1950-51 hromhly

l

studies painting at the

Art Students League, where he meets fellow

student Rauschenberg

Avenue (at 88th Street) In Seeing, q) Drawing

ifth

qj

Painting more, to a townhouse at 10

)bjective

'

Woman

show with uvihs by mote than Isabel Bishop, Marsh, and Math Tobey

others describing the impetus behind then works

and

the first painting in his third

Newman,

Possibilities, a periodical that includes statements by

Pollock,

82nd

[venue at

1949

Museum

I,

officially closes.

The Institute of Contemporary Art is established in Loudon interaction between artists, poets, and the public

continues until

In

Motherwell and Harold Rosenberg publish the first ami only issue

<

35

Dec 8-Feb 25, 1951

1947

lln

Woman

begins

April, studio

Philip Pearlstein begins his early comic-strip paintings; eventually he destroys

handbook by Sherman

a 62-page

Publication

all

but one of them.

1948 March Partisan Review publishes Clement Greenberg's of Cubism," with

Autumn At

which

in

School

tin

he declares that

qj Paris

Rothko form

tin

it

Rauschenberg begins attending

Mountain

lila<h

<

a school in a

irtist,

35

loft at

East

artists.

taught by Albers ami others

classes

at

Electrical Instrument tcole do- Beaux-.

at tin

\rts

where he

in Paris,

meets Jack Youngerman, French sculptoi Cesar [Baldaccini],

.'»</

duardo Paolo

I

1948-49 R.L. produces pastels, oils, and drawings. Subjects include musicians and landscapes. Begins using fairy tales as

and includes references

subjects,

1951-57 R.L. works at various jobs, most lasting about six months each, including: teaching drawing at the Cooper School, a commercial-art school; working as an engineering draftsman at Republic Steel; decorating display windows part-time at Halle's Department Store; drawing black-and-white dials for Hickok

lollegC

Ellsworth Kelly begins studies

British artist

broken

David Hare, Motherwell, and

tin

Subjects qj

Kih Street, with public lectures by <

"Thi Decline finally

ami attained supremacy

suggestion, Baziotes,

Still's

articU

American mi has

to

"Beauty and the

Alice's Adventures in

Beast" and Lewis Carroll's

models

Company; making

project

an architecture firm. Travels frequently to New York during his six years in Cleveland. While R.L. is in Ohio, Stanley Landesman introduces him to Herman Cherry and Warren Brandt, through whom he learns about the Cedar Bar on University Place in Manhattan. He occasionally drops into the bar, which is frequented by de Kooning, Franz Kline, and Pollock, among others, but is too shy to make contact with any of them. at

Wonderland.

1951

1949 [ftet

studying at

New

to

tin

i

diversity qj South Carolina in

I

>4~-4X, Johns moves

l

R.L. brings paintings around to galleries in New York, such as M. Knoedler and Sidney Janis, carting them on top

of his station wagon.

York and briefly attends a commercial-art school before being

March 21-May

drafted

Spring Julien Levy ,\/,i)'

s;</'/<

/'//.

.

rs

tin

New

prqfessoi at

<

lost

[rtist

York

f

?.

studio space

lot

New

Tony Smith, a sculptoi and

school closes University,

riday evening lectures by artists

I

June

-allay

(

.>/

York

reopens

and

it

the Design

R.L. marries Isabel Wilson (whom he had met earlier at the Ten-Thirty Gallery in Cleveland [1315 Euclid Avenue], where she is co-director).

.v

ife

l

./.

>

.

and with

April

12.

Summer. Warhol

mi'

Studio 15, with

diversity students during the week

I

begins doing commercial

work

Aug. 1-31. R.L. in first group exhibition, in New York (38 East 57th Street). i

as

invited intellectuals,

magazine

atest

Living Paintei

[utumn A group

qj

New

Tworkov, form at

Through

an

tin'

features 'in article

artist's

tin

m

tin

I

York School

Club

studio

and then

(

artists,

"Is

Ho

May

the

including de

Kooning and Jack

socializing.

39

begins classes at

tin

It

meets

first

last 8th Stret

14-June 2

School

qj tin

May 24-June

\n

Dec. 12-30. Ten-Thirty Gallery exhibits R.L.'s paintings with work by two ceramists. Few of his works sell. 1949-50 \n Students

at

Leagw

W

Rauschenberg's

New

Yale University.

first

\olo exhibition, at

Betty Parsons

York.

Leo Castelh and other members

today's Self-Styled School of

Metropolitan in the

at tin-

Department

New

qj

the

Club mount

York, an exhibition

Abstract Expressionists to protest their exclusion from

I

Chicago

Rauschenberg studies painting

exhibited

12. R.L.'s first solo exhibition in

Gallery in

and

is

Manhattan, at Carlebach Gallery (937 Third Avenue). The show includes paintings rendered in muted pinks, blues, and mauves, and assemblages made from found wood, metal pieces, and found objects such as screws and

30-May

'"

in a rented loft at

G.l Ml, Robert Indiana

Institute qj

S

woodcut,

drill buffers.

on Pollock entitled

di^u-.>n<ir.

lot

Chinese Gallery

at

20. R.L.'s To Battle, a

along with works by more than 200 other artists in the Brooklyn Museum's juried show The Fifth National Print Annual Exhibition. R.L.'s work is one of 20 selected to receive a Brooklyn Museum Purchase Award and enter the collection. Members of the jury include Albers, who the preceding year was appointed Chairman of

March. R.L. receives M.F.A. degree from Ohio State University. Resides at 394 15th Avenue in Columbus.

Club's

Museum show

qj

irt's

qj

moths by

tht

American Art Ebda) 1950

Included

are works by Cornell, de Kooning, Kline, Pollock,

Rauschenberg, photographei Aaron Siskind, and others.

Autumn. R.L., along with several other instructors, is denied tenure at Ohio State University. Isabel finds work as a decorator in Cleveland and the family moves there, to 11483 Hessler Road, N.E.


12, 1952. John Heller Gallery in New York (108 East 57th Street) presents a solo exhibition of R.L.'s work, consisting of 16 paintings based on American

Dec. 31-Jan.

and

frontier themes,

Dec. In San

>m

/

8-Jan.

several self-portraits as a knight.

a brief preface to the show's painting in the show, Death of the reproduced in ARTnews and Art Digest.

One

General,

is

1

"Dick Tracy"

1954

'>.

Street)

Sherman contributes

Prof.

brochure.

rancisco, Jess [Collins] begins to use

I

comit -nip

Nagy

Tibot de

xhibits Jjxrry Rivers's painting

i

Hdenburg begins

New

in

School

classes at the

oj

Non-t

)bjective Painting

is

renamed

Solomon R.

the

id

(

I

ast

\rd

5

Washington Crossing the York

H

and meets

at

Chicago,

(

Westermann

(.'

Segal and Kaproir meet at Douglass College, Rutgers, the State

Museum

/ /;,

\ould\ new-paper

York (206

\n Institute

oj (hi

exhibit- with Indiana in Chicago;

1952

New

<

trick)

series

Vl.IW.IK

Wintet John- and Rauschenberg meet <

Gallery in

(

Ihestet

(

"paste-up"

in his

Xeir

nirer-ity of

I

Jerse\

Guggenheim Museum First

Jan

purchase by

MoMA

made

hint-punt:-

oj

1954

works by Rauschenberg (two photographs

Black Mountain College with Susan Weil,

at

Rauschenberg begins making "combines," incorporating found

his

blurring the distinction between painting

former wife).

March

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

2-22. Solo exhibition of 17 of R.L.'s works paintings, drawings, and prints at Art Colony Galleries in Cleveland (11504 Euclid Avenue). One pencil drawing priced at S30, entitled Knight Storming Castle, includes a collage element of a photo of a castle taped onto it; it is described by an art critic for The Cleveland News as "truly like the doodling of a five-year-old." The show receives an enormous number of responses from viewers, both negative and positive.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

Croup (IG)

Spring. First meeting of the Independent

London's Institute

at

Summer Rauschenberg

m

participates

Autumn.

R.L.'s

Cage

meets

Hansa

Gallery, an

York and takes a job

artist's

New

Street in

I

h

.

'entral

at a

York

(In

1954,

and Segal) opens it

more-

an

in

article in

Tiffany's, to

exhibition

I irsl

Oct. '

)ct

ARTnews,

it

m New

\eir York

In'in

laim

to loft

I

on Pearl Street

at

Hofmann

at

1959

closes in

museum's

>

introduces the term

Jan

1953

April

Rauschenberg return-

by

MoM

to

Street

Pearl Street building where Johns (a

painting

m

to

living.

is

which he incorporates

Hymnal nrlmh

contains a page from the to

paintings.

(e

Washington Crossing the Delaware

Rivers's

i-

purchased by

I

New

Sept. Rosenquist moves to

League,

s/n,/< nts

\4e<

ts

Yorkjrom Minnesota

to

attend

I"

tfa

Indiana

a audio on

/

ulton

1956 R.L. creates a lithograph called Ten Dollar Pop work, in an edition of 25.

3.

age begins

(

in

Duchamp R.L. is one of 50 artists represented in the opening exhibition of Art Colony Galleries' third show, Rauschenberg meet-

Sept. 20-Oct.

born.

1

Rauschenberg and Twombly exhibit togethei at Eleanoi Ward'sStabl Gallery in New York (924 Seventh \venue) U the

\5-Oct.

is

"Klee-like and surprising."

Stieet

Sept

John- ami Rauschenberg

Jan. 9. Art Colony Galleries' three-person show with R.L., Christine Miller, and Louis Penfield opens. Among the 13 paintings by R.L. are Indians, A Flying Device, and Perpetual Motion Machine. One critic describes them as

April

March-April. Sidney Jam- Gallery (15 East 57th Street) presents Willem de Kooning: Paintings on the rheme of Woman, featuring his is

painting

I

\lo\l

1

tg

Manhattan Yellow Pages and a named poster) lolm- continues make lag paintings ami begins to make rargei ami numbei

ARTnews.

purchased Woman to New ^ork- and rents

1

collection.

Rauschenberg moves

Rauschenberg paint- Rebus

series.

1

works, at the

Museum of American Art (Youngstown, Ohio) purchases R.L.'s painting The Surrender of U'eatherford Jackson, the first of several of his works to enter the

210

Heller Jan. 26-Feb. 7. R.L.'s second solo exhibition at John Gallery, consisting of oils and watercolors based on Americana themes. One of them, The Diplomat, is

Woman

lellei

Butler

newspapei comics pages) ami

third

first

Dada

22 West 54th

to

Bonwil

1955 R.L. creates several wall-mounted assemblages of painted

70 East 12th

1952-53 R.L. incorporates titles and advertising copy in some woodcut compositions and paintings, such as Emigrant Train - After William Ranney and The Explorer.

reproduced

-een hy

I".

oj

displays at

York

Begins

\rensberg collection oj

oj

The Whitney Mn-eiim more-

iction Painting

in

window

[venue

son David Hoyt Lichtenstein

9. R.L.'s

26

do

to

on Fifth

wood.

brownstone

to a

Park south, when n remains until

Harold Rosenberg,

and Rauschenberg begin

Johns

and

bookston

cooperative founded by formei students q)

(including Jean Follet, Kaprow,

(

Spring

Philadelphia Mn-eimi

and regional the Denver Art

in several national

Fine Arts.

New

on American themes and others that feature depictions of machine parts based on engineer's blueprints. Robert Rosenblum and Fairfield Porter review the show for Art Digest and ARTnews, respectively. folklore

Oct

juried exhibitions, including shows at Museum, the University of Nebraska, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and the Pennsylvania Academy of the Johns return* to

8-27. R.L.'s third solo exhibition at the John Heller

Cage's Theater Piece #1.

works shown

ami

Gallery, consisting of paintings based

Summei Johns moves

Black Mountain College and

at

March

July Kelly return-

Richard Hamilton, and Paolozzi

objects

sculpture,

R.L. moves to 1863 Crawford Street in Cleveland. Begins to etnploy a rotating easel to paint.

of

Contemporary Art, including Lawrence Alloway, Reyner Banham,

and

to

teach

New

Black Mountain

3.

mush composition

York, (

Kaprow

is

one

at

the

oj In-

New

Bill, his first

School

fo\

season.

\

Ug s

12

Sept

orrow artists

University.

367

Chronology

Social Research

students

ollegt ch

March 10. R.L.'s son Mitchell Wilson Lichtenstein May 31. Oldenburg arrives in New Yorkjrom Chicago

Nov. Receives an award for his woodcut Cherokee Brave in the Contemporary Printmaking Exhibition at Ohio State

proto-

Whitechapel

irt

Gallery (London) presents

is

I

born. Ins

is

hy British exhibition, including a pavilion designed

Hamilton, lolm Mllale, and

loin,

Pop

Voelckei lined 'nth lannha,


incorporating

Monroe and a real jukebox) Hamilton's collagi Just what is it that makes today's homes so different, so appealing? is used fo\ the show's poster and catalogue images from the media (such as Marilyn

1960s

soft

sculptures

I

New

77th Street in

at 4 East

York, with

works by de Kooning, Giacometti, Kandinsky, Pollock, and

oj

15

[ngt

Hopps and

(736

lei

avant-garde

I

dward Kienholz open Ferus

.V Li Cienega Boulevard)

I

to

cilery

(

show work by

m

Los

30—March

Church

to 52

House mid

Street in

York at Oswego. Oswego.

Wfcsselmann begins

Coopei

classes at

m New

nion

'

and comu

March

(

in

[pril

16.

moves

panel twin

m

Ion

io

Kaprow

\7

20 Feb 8

fof

Artkraft Strauss

incent Hamlin's

I

m

element

New

work

his

l'>

same

the

oj

m Mew

comic

Johns's

solo exhibition, at

first

and

forget

(

(

fop"

<

)ldenburg present

Hie

Hdenburg's

reproduced on covei qfjanuary edition

(

i.v

<

astelli

(

I

"in

I

aces

first

show

t:\lnbiici1

>it

Kaprow

April 15. \ug

;

"

/

irts

and

Nov.Judson Studio opens

Manhattan

his

Collegt

School

's

<

m ighborhood

frei

oj

i

(dumb

basement qfjudson Memorial

in the

lallery space

harge

^ made available (

Name

is

i

to artists in

hanged

to

Judson

in

the <

lallery in

February 1959) Nov, 2

De

s

13

Kaprow

by

I

Khibition at

with sound,

Hansa Gallery of a junk-filled environment and odors

light,

1959 Kaprow

Spring

uses the term

announcing a

Hansa

I

his

Happening

performance

at

fo\

the

Rutgers

oj

first

time

m

"Something

punt, to

lake Place,

lappi ning

his first

West

l

'oast,

talleria

Edward Ruscha

creates a

irman, Yves Klein,

works by

Unguely,

Apollinaire in Milan

Bloomingdale's, and Tiffany's in

window

New

New

displays at

York

Mcdi.i

Bonwit

— New Forms

and Sculpture, featuring works by Arp, Alberto Burri,

Douglass College.

creates his trompe-l'oeil sculpture

mixed-media piece, Dublin,

to

Painted Bronze, consisting

oj

two

resemble Ballantine Ale cans.

Richard Bellamy opens the (aeon Gallery in

New

York (15 West

57th Street) Sept

2~-t

hi

15. lb

Sept.

wrapped packages, covering used materials

with canvas and binding them with ropt hi the

(

his wife at the time, Ileana Sonnabend. Leaves John Heller Gallery.

meets Kaprow,

Christo (Javaeheff] makes

I

others at the

bronze cylinders panned

R.L.'s untitled abstractions are shown for the first time, in a solo exhibition at Condon Riley Gallery (24 East 67th Street). Most of the paintings feature scant traces of bright color on a white background; some contain heavy impasto.

Dim

Realistes" (The

center in Princeton. Attends some of Kaprow's informal Happenings at Rutgers. Brings several of his abstract canvases to Leo Castelli Gallery (44 East 77th Street) and shows them to Castelli and

Johns

June 2-27.

[utumn

Nouveaux

to 66 South Adelaide Avenue, Highland Park, New Jersey. Autumn. Through Kaprow, a fellow teacher at Rutgers, R.L. meets Oldenburg, Lucas Samaras (a student of Kaprow's the previous year), Segal (then completing his M.EA. degree), and Robert Whitman; and through Robert Watts, another professor in the department, he meets George Brecht, Geoffrey Hendricks, Dick and Allison Higgins, and George Maciunas, all artists who will be involved with the Fluxus group. Sept. Begins to teach adult classes in painting and drawing on Saturday mornings at the photography and art

"iallery closes,

(

New

to

Moves residence and studio

Hymnal,

Happeningat Dougla oj I mo Irts Jews

stages a

lofmann

Homage

MoMA

the

at

"The

Leo Castelli Gallery, featuring

at

out oj

is

Hansa Gallery shows Segal's first life-size plaster sculptures Hansa Gallery presents an environment by Kaprow,

combines, including Bed, Rebus, and

made

newspapers

Kaprow, Klein, Louise Nevelson, Oldenburg, and others R.L. resigns from the State University of New York after accepting another position as assistant professor of art

lallery,

Feb 2 21

March 4—29 Rauschenberg's

oj

at

he

Calder, Chamberlain, Cornell. Dine, Jean Dubuffet, Follet, Indiana,

\4edia" in Architectural Design (London)

W.

and fragments

I

strips

In Painting

\RTnews article

Spex,

installation

Johns,

largei with

oj

Ray-Gun and

Realists), a manifesto stressing the importance oj appropriation,

Teller,

>ln<<

)ldenburg

Alloway's phrase "popular art" appears in his

March

bom mangled car-body

Street, junk environments

June 6—24. Martha Jackson Gallery presents

rule

loo

lag paintings

I

\lley

for thejirst time),

York (32 East 69th Street)

June, Rosenquist begins painting backdrops fot

York

"

strip

Rhodes School on Long Island

begins teaching at

speaks at tbe Club', influences

featuring his

Feb,

U

Yorkqftei completing graduate studies at

ami

'niversity,

l

I,

New

in

Publication of Pierre Restany's "Les

Ncu'

York

and

as a collage

Dim

shown publicly

Manhattan, featuring Dine's

in catalogue foi exhibition oj

nquisl begins painting billboards

Americans, organized by

17. Jean Tinguely's self-destructing kinetic sculpture

York

1958 loin is includes a

building,

works byjohns, Rauschenberg, Frank

torn cardboard, paint, discarded objects,

Begins to use Abstract Expressionist style in his paintings, which include renderings of cartoon characters such as Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck, and Bugs Bunny. i

Dine and

17

Judson Gallery

New

Fifth

parts

Jan

local

its new Avenue

opens in

1071

presents Sixteen

Miller, featuring

5-30. Marthajackson Gallery

artists,

State University of

foi

1960 /,m

Sept. R.L. takes position as assistant professor of art at the

Moves

MoMA

at

shows lolm Chamberlain's sculptures made

Walte\

York

and Youngerman

others

\4arch

C

Stella (his series oj black paintings,

Leo Castelli opens a gallery

how

I960.

14,

Dorothy

Youngerman.

).

R Guggenheim Museum

bo Solomon

16— Feb

h,

Jan. 8-26. R.L.'s final solo exhibition at John Heller Gallery, consisting of paintings based on Americana theines.

/

I

designed by lunik Lloyd Wright,

I

New

paint different sides of a piece offabru used during the performance) 21.

)ci

Rosenquist meets Johns, Kelly, Agnes \4artin, Rauschenberg, and

Feb.

in

of the Reuben Gallery "'I Fourth [venue), directed by Anita Reuben, with contributions by Johns and Rauschenberg (they

1957 )ldenburg creates Sausage, a precursor to his

6 Parts"

"

hum-

)rphan

(

the opening

(

'

the comic strip "Little

oj

6-10 Kaprow stages "IS Happenings m

4,

>,i

Pollock dies in an automobile accident

II

\ug

<

portion

•>

(

Frank

.allot

Stella's first solo

exhibition in

New

)ci

Leo

28-Oct. 22 Marthajackson Gallery presents New Media New Forms: In Painting and Sculpture II, featuring works by Dine, Dan Flavin, Kaprow, Oldenburg, Rauschenberg, Samaras,

«

York, at

y.

27. Les

Nouveaux

Klein',

home

RSalistes group

in Paris

Members

is

officially

will include

and

others.

formed by Restany

Arman, Char,

at

Christo,


Raymond

Hains, Klein, Martial Raysse,

Mimmo

Nov. Castelli sells Girl with Ball the first of R.L.'s Pop works to be sold from the gallery to architect Philip Johnson. Other sales quickly follow to collectors Richard Brown Baker, Walter Netsch, Burton Tremaine, and others. Through Leo Castelli Gallery, R.L. meets Rauschenberg and

Rotctla, Niki de

Saint Phalle, Daniel Spoerri, and Tinguely.

1961

shows Kaprow his semi-abstract paintings with cartoon figures embedded in paint. Jan. 11-27. At Douglass College, R.L. exhibits 12 abstract pictures made by applying ribbons of paint with a torn-up bedsheet. One work is painted on several pieces of refrigerator-crate plywood nailed together. Jan. R.L.

Warhol takes

Spring.

paintings

his

Iran Karp, the gallery (,irl

April

with

Karp shows Warhol

from Isabel. Moves residence and studio Broad Street in New York. Meets Youngerman and Indiana. briefly to

to

/

><

ing a Pond's cold-cream

'

i

R.L.'s painting lh,

\—fan

live of Warhol's advertising-image and comic-strip paintings an

windows

the

an exhibition

c

"

oj

catalogue

('.allay, in association

featuring items from Oldenburg's

Ik-

I

Dim's Spring Cabinet, ami works

with

Brecht,

/')'

Waltei

Dan,

The

Store, Kaprow's

Benday

Yard,

Gaudnek, ami

'hitman

paints Look Mickey, the first painting in which he directly appropriates a cartoon or a panel from a comic strip. It contains his first use of Benday dots (applied with a plastic-bristle dog-grooming brush dipped in oil paint) and his first use of a dialogue balloon, as well as obvious pencil marks. Begins to stencil Benday dots onto canvas using a roller to distribute paint over a handmade metal screen and then a small scrub brush to push paint through. Creates his first paintings depicting advertising images of

Summer. R.L.

first

tondo painting

Artforum

W-l

Jan

Refrigerator,

and Step-on-

with Leg to the gallery. Karp arranges for Castelli them (except for Look Mickey). Castelli finds Girl with Ball interesting and, several weeks later, agrees to represent R.L. While in the gallery, R.L. sees works by

Rosenquist and Warhol for the first time. With Karp, visits Warhol's studio (at 1342 Lexington Avenue), where he sees Warhol's comic-strip and consumergoods paintings. Begins a series of black-and-white drawings (which he continues until 1968), using ink and Speedball pen. Kienholz

creates his

first

Rutgers

qj

l

diversity, graduating in

tableau piece, Roxy's, a re-creation

bordello out of discarded parts

Publication

of an obi

Clement Greenberg's collection

qj

12

MoMA

begins publishing on the West

11

eh

I

23-May 26 Mfg

tolo exhibition

irst

(

oast,

of Rosenquist's work, at the

)reen

<

The

Kiss,

Blam, and

Refrigerator,

presents

March. Art International publishes

hnk Dine, R I

Us Nouveaux

(

Ray Gun

)ldenburg and his wife

" 'Pop' Kozlqff's article

.

>ldenburg,

'

l

ulgarians," the

ami Rosenquist

as

./

ulture,

(

first article to

cohesive group

Sauland Robert Watts) April. Donald Judd's review of R.L.'s show at Leo Castelli Gallery is published in Arts magazine. April 3-May 13. The Kiss is included in 1961, a group (togethet with Petei

exhibition at the Dallas Museum for Arts, curated by Douglas MacAgy. April

25-May

12

exhibition

Picasso: qj

An

Contemporary

runerican tribute, a multi-gallery

more than 300 works,

is

held simultaneously

at

mm

\,ir York galleries, with a catalogue written by fohn Richardson Ll]

.

s

'

Jutu

First

oh

exhibition

and

qj

Segal's work, at the

<

treen

<

lattery,

his plastei figures in facsimiles qj real-life

environments

30. R.L.'s pen-and-ink drawings shown Gallery's group show for the first time, in Leo Castelli Roy l.iehtenstcin. He Johns, Jasper Drawings: Lee Bontecou, in his begins to use frottage (a rubbing technique)

drawings. /,„„

Superman, 1952 (th only one oj his pet on view for the first comic-strip paintings he did not destroy), huh Street), along with works by East Gallery (90 fanagei tim at

Pearlstein's comic-strip painting

Wessi

RSalistes

369

publicly

May 26-June

Hie Art of Assemblage, the first maps

dissolve

Max

Metaphysical Disgust, and the \,n-

and Culture.

'

museums Hams, Klem, ami Raysse

performances at

include, in addition to

Rachel Drexler, Jackh Ferrara, Henry Geldzahler, Billy

featuring paintings

\n

teries oj

)ldenburg presents a

Khun, Samaras, Carolee Schneemann, and othen Feb. 26. Newsweek magazine reviews R.L.'s show at Leo Castelli Gallery and reproduces Girl with Ball.

theatei

qj essays

(

o Performers

'

Patty,

\

I

by William SeitZ, exhibition on the history of assemblage, organize,! S travels to two othet I the show by 1 42 artists, works featuring

Oct. X.

idea.

Engagement Ring, The

gallery.

1-Nov.

107 East 2nd

[)

3. First show of R.L.'s paintings at Leo Castelli Gallery, featuring Turkey, Hashing Machine. The

1963

a Las

Mel Ramos creates canvases base,! on comic-strip characters Gallery. He Oct. R.L.'s first works consigned to Leo Castelli the begins to receive a stipend of S400 a month from Oct.

fiimitm

10-March

Feb.

Can

to see

at

(al

(, allay

Feb

(Cat).

Look Mickey, The

Segal begins M.F.A. program

[venue

"

dots.

abandons the

first

Girl with Ball,

Co

Creates his first paintings based on war comics, such as Blam, Takka Takka, and Live Ammo.

his first

Creates his

[venue and

First

in a formei

Wjfg

The Grip.

diptych paintings. works utilizing only black and white (or blue and white) to emulate printed reproductions. Autumn. Kaprow makes appointment for R.L. to see Karp at Leo Castelli Gallery. He brings The Engagement Ring,

Makes

he Store

I

"Ray Gun

Creates his first close-up paintings of women's heads. Creates paintings based on works by Cezanne and Mondrian. Paints isolated words on canvas, in Art and In, but soon

consumer products. Creates his

rsion qj

Zone

Green Gallery, Oldenburg

1962 R.L. returns to live and work in Highland Park. Begins to use an acrylic paint soluble in turpentine, called Magna, but continues to use oil paint for his simulated

Spai

Situations

repainting, becomes

fo\

on Happenings.

article

between

Street,

much

In association with the

expanded w

Rosenquist paints

his principal source,

aftei

warehouse, which he name-,

then troika

Imlerson (.allay, mounts Environments

1

tin-

1962

31,

presents an

Tellei

the second

I

ARTnews publishes Kaprow's first May 25-June 23 Martha Jackson

1

Bonwil

qj

40 au-dessus de Dada," ofLes Nouveaux Rialistes, as a preface to

Publication q) Restany's

manifesto

m

ados

Pop work, whuh,

his first

Hall

displayed behind the mannequins A/,j)'.

Johns. Trial separation

Leo CastelH Gallery and shows them

to

director,

Imann and

Chronology

otht


in

one of several featured artists in an article art. Life magazine on the new School and Roy Aug 6-31. Art of Two Ages: The Hudson River Gallery in New York Uchtenstein exhibition at Mi Chou works by Albert (801 Madison Avenue) features Cropsey, Bierstadt, Frederic Edwin Church, Jasper R.L. and Asher B. Durand,

June

Sepl

R.L.

15.

Swenson'i "Tht newAmerican

ARTnews publishes critu Gene R

'Sign Painters,' "an article aboul the

R

Indiana, Sept

2

i

I-

iesbaden,

(

at

Hoersaal des Stddtischen

Museums

Objects,

Douglas MacAgy.

works from 1962 and

curated by Walter

Vocabulary exhibition at the in Philadelphia (401 S.

YM/YWHA

Broad Street) features paintings, collages, assemblages, combines, and machines by Brecht, Dine, Johns, Kaprow, R.L., Marisol, Oldenburg, Rauschenberg, Rosenquist, Segal, Tinguely, and Watts. Exhibition brochure includes a dictionary of terms written by some of the artists to describe the new art. International Oct. 31-Dec. 1. Sidney Janis Gallery presents

New

H

Housekeeping magazines th

time in his work, and begins

foi

imagery

ampbell's soup cans,

(

first

'

and Marilyn Monrot

bottles,

S&Hgreen

to us(

Gallery of Modem Art's multiple

1964

With son

I

>avid

Photo

b)

I

'

v

I

in

Budnik

Ileana

Sonnabend opens

Valerie

(

Sonnabend

brands-. Utgustins) with a solo exhibition

(

Rauschenberg also

m

Paris (37, quai des

of works byfohns.

15. R.L.'s

exhibition

R.L.'s

is

acquired by the Albright-Knox

Art Gallery (Buffalo) for

its

permanent

.

.

that R.L.'s J

and There's Nobody

Can

See the Wlxole

in It! is

taken from the

last

1

I/.'"

Solomon, featuring works by

Kenneth Noland, and others as a counterpoint

to

Pop

Kelly.

art

June 5-30. R.L.'s first solo exhibition in Europe, at Sonnabend's gallery in Paris. He travels to Paris for the opening, his first trip back to the city since the war. Sepl

Karp,

\nti-Sensibility Painting," an article in

"common-image

term

collection.

"

in

,

artist" to refei to

Artforum,

Lee Bontecou,

uses the

Huuc Conner,

Richard Lindner, Rauschenberg, Rosenquist, Samaras,

Warhol, and Wesselmann. is

commissioned by Philip Johnson

his first

large-scale work, for the

New

Castelli Sept. 28-Oct. 24. R.L.'s second solo exhibition at Leo Gallery, including Drowning Girl, Baseball Manager,

to create a mural,

New

York State

Pavilion at the 1964 World's Fair in Flushing

and Whaaml. opaque projector to render from his compositions. disappear marks Pencil images.

Meadows,

Torpedo

York.

who moves

with the children to

\r\

Manhattan. Begins series of canvases depicting women from D.C. Comics' Girls' Romances and Secret Hearts. Replaces handmade metal screen with a manufactured metal screen to apply Benday dots to canvas. Employs

Benday

assistants to paint in

dots.

begins his bathrobe works, based on an illustration of an a,

I

iii

f/«

.

.

Los!,

New

York

I

imes

empty

robe

to use

Hopps organizes the first majot Ann-man retrospective Duchamp's work on th West Coast, at the Pasadena Museum

Oct. 8-Nov,

Takes leave of absence from Douglass College and moves residence and studio to 36 West 26th Street in

an

.

Autumn. R.L. begins

Separates from Isabel, Princeton.

Dine

.

Abstraction, organized by

R L 1963 R.L.

The Popular Image Exhibition. letter by William

panel of his August 6, 1961 comic strip "Steve Roper." R.L.'s painting and Overgard's panel are reproduced alongside each other in the magazine. 5 The Jewish Museum presents Toward a New May \9-Sepl

My

and Wesselmann. Head Red and Yellow

performance piece, Pelican, in a

Time magazine publishes a

17.

Room

Takka Tikka is included in group Country 'Tis of Thee at the Dwan Gallery in Los Angeles (10846 Lindbrook Drive), along with works by Indiana, Johns, Kienholz, Marisol, Oldenburg, Rauschenberg, Rivers, Rosenquist, Warhol,

Nov. 18-Dec.

May

Overgard stating

creates his first tilkscreen paintings.

Nov,

and of Happenings, dance performances, Watts, is held at Segal'sfarm

skating rink, in conjunction with the Washington

Washington, D.(

stamps, Coca-i ola

face in paintings,

a series

stages Ins first

Rauschenberg

9

uses th teehniqm ofphoto-

silkscreening qj

May

McCalTs and Good

illustrations are reproduced in

Wamol's

Gallery of Modern Art (Washington, D.C), organized by Alice Denney. Piano April 28-May 26. Leo Castelli Gallery lends Girl with Projections of Artistic Art: Popular for Glass Magnifying and Common American Symbols at the William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Atkins Museum of Fine Arts

mush concerts organized by Brecht and in \<ic Brunswick, Newfersey.

paintings and sculpture" by American and European Oldenburg, artists, including Dine, Klein, R.L., and Warhol. Tinguely, Segal, Rotella, Rosenquist, Nov,

2.

(Kansas City). May 1-31. Yam Festival,

Realists, featuring "factual

'63.

George Washington, Aloha, The Refrigerator, are included Electric Cord, Handshake, and Femme d' Alger Washington in The Popular Image Exhibition at the

April 18-June

New

presents a majot

organized by Alan Solomon of Rauschenberg's work, including Girl with Ball, are R.L., by paintings

in Los April 1-27. R.L.'s first exhibition at Ferus Gallery Angeles, featuring Sock, Masterpiece, Sponge, Sponge II, other Portrait of Madame Cezanne, Drowning Girl, and

Hopps. Oct. 25-Nov. 7. Art 1963— A Art Council of the

Exhibition of the

Three

in

consumer-goods

Common

Thejewish Museum (New York)

12

included in Pop Goes! Tlte Easel exhibition at the Contemporary Arts Museum (Houston), organized by

"iermany

Painting of

presents Six

the U.S.

April.

Sept. 25-Oct. 19. R.L.'s comic-strip and for the first paintings are shown on the West Coast exhibition group Museum's Art Pasadena time, in the

New

qj time.

The Guggenheim Museum

and the Object, organized by Alloway, featuring works by Dine, Johns, R.L., Rauschenberg, Rosenquist, and Warhol; the show travels throughout

31-May

March

Dine, Stephen Durkee,

qj

14 -June 2. Painters

q)

Musik

Fescspiele neuester II

work

March

based primarily on banal activities filmedfor an

his first films,

exaggerated length

retrospective

Rosenquist, Richard Smith, and Warhol concerts called Fluxus Internationale series

.

Maciunas stages a

I

Warhol makes

is

m

1

.

Hamilton, invited

S. loi the first

l

Oct

5

(

attend the opening in California,

qj

visits

time

ierhard Richtei

"Demonstration

to

qj

and Konrad [Luegj Fischer perform Realism" at Mobelhaus ( 'apitalist

fo\

theii

Berges, a

furniture stoic in Dusseldorf.

Oct. 24-Nov. 23. R.L.'s Pop works are shown for the first time in Britain in The Popular Image, at the Institute of Contemporary Art in London (17-18 Dover Street),

organized by Alan Solomon.


Nov. 19-Dec. 15. The Albright-Knox Art Gallery presents Mixed Media and Pop Art, organized by Gordon M. Smith, featuring works by Dine, Johns, R.L., Oldenburg, Rauschenberg, Rosenquist, and Warhol, as well as lesser-known artists in the museum's collection.

Da

v*ok—Early

Warhol moves

refers to as the Factory.

231 East 47th

to

Street,

Sepl

American Pop Art, including several paintings by R.L. Douglass

30. R.L. resigns his teaching position at

College. 16- Oct. la Samaras moves (

I

J.

art

MoMA.

held at

is

Speakers include

I

Buys

"

term "Popart

names

the

foi

new movement

Artists in the audience include

\4aciunas, Rosenquist,

Duchamp, R

I

F.ittis.ui

.

and Warhol

British

During Sidney

Gallery presents Four Environments by Four

Janis

Bedroom Ensemble

Realists, featuring Oldenburg's oj

motel) and works by

Dun,

New Malibu

Rosenquist, and Segal.

magazine publishes an article on R.L. asking "Is he the worst artist in America?" R.L. replaces store-bought metal screens (to apply Benday which he has made dots) with paper screens and uses them exclusively from especially for him

Jan. 31. Life

then on. Begins to make Benday dots

larger, in

I

koicw

Pop

publishes Susan Sontag'i

artist

proportion to size of

of his landscapes. Inspired by New York's enameled metal subway signs, creates his first enameled steel sculptures. Finds commercial

New Jersey called Architectural Porcelain to fabricate the pieces. March 2 Robert Morris and Schneemann perform Site at Stagi 73 in New firm in

121

I

73rd Street)

ast

Schneemann, who, playing nude

m

Morris, dressed in white with a skin-

plywood boards on and the role

oj

The work

a transfixed state

off

Manet's Olympia, is

in

lives in

21-May almost

9

the Stable Gallery in

facsimiles oj Brillo,

boxes— wooden

each brand's

York,

Warhol

Jan

5-23

Feb

is

sent to the University of

built in 1917.

Adolph Gottlieb

building, and others in the

featuring the

work

An, oj

R

the

first

I

'

hook devoted

to the

Hdenburg, Rosenquist,

Museum

I

Opened

lire for its

Gallery presents Shape and Structure, om of the art, organized by ' ktdzahler,

Nagy

Tibordi

purchases As

collection.

exhibitions devoted to Minimalist (

.'.»/

I"'/". Larry Bell,

Donald Judd, and

23- \pril25

MoM

I

(in collaboration

rhe Responsive

I

ye,

with four othei U.S

museums)

organized by William Seitz, featuring

Richard \nuszkiewu examples of Op art by Yaacov [gam, Ubers, id Reinhardt, Bridget Riley, Poons, Larry Louis, Morris Kelly, I

rank

Stella,

and

20-1 )ct 32nd

19

Rauschenberg wins the grand prize

fot

others

I'h'

Nov. 20-Dec. 11. pieces. series along with recent ceramic

painting at the

Chamberlain, Venice Biennale, which includes works by Oldenburg, Johns, Giacometti, Chillida, Dine, Dubuffet,

Eduardo .ind

Richard Stankiewu

June 22-July

26. Stedelijk

s

Museum (Amsterdam)

presents

371

.

Green Gallery do Creates his Autumn. R.L. stops working with ceramic pieces. painting. Brushstroke first Leo Castelli Gallery presents Brushstroke Inn,

Minnesota. June

1964 I

John Rublowsky's Pop

presents

stacked on top of each othet and

New York State Pavilion features R.L.'s mural, along closes with murals by nine other artists. After the fair Following in October 1965, the murals are deinstalled.

receives custody of the Bowery, where he sets up a nine-room warehouse, a

Mori

April 22.

mural

oj

permanent

Kellogg's

Opening of New York World's Fair in Flushing Meadow, New York. The Theaterama building of the

in

Warhol, and Wesselmann

placed ui rows throughout the gallery.

repairs, R.L.'s

which

who

to 190

same

featuring works by

boxes silkscreened with thegraphu designs

packaging— which he

2.

Experiments with Modern motifs in his poster of the Worlds Fair grounds for the Cartoonists Association.

exhibits

Heinz ketchup, and

Souvenir .md Souvenii

as teapot sets.

Jan. Stedelijk

New

year,

i

depicted in comic books. Begins collaboration with the potter Hui Ka Kwong, a colleague from Rutgers, creating a series of ceramic heads and another of stacked cups and saucers as well

firsi

400 painted

cornflakes oj

At

Ird Stn

neighborhood include Malcolm Morley, Nevelson, and Rothko. Makes group of sculptures based on explosion images

for this issue. April

the

movement,

Cover of Art in America features R.L.'s "pop panorama" drawing of the New York World's Fair, commissioned

Moves

former German bank

New

York and once in Philadelphia.

April.

Camp." i<'i om

Vetf York

to

coined by sculptoi George Rickey

residence and studio in

reclines

performed twice more

is

1965 R.L. divorced from Isabel,

Publication

around

the stage

New

Los Angeles.

children.

Creates a series of frightened and crying women in close-up views. Dialogue balloons begin to disappear from his paintings. Begins series of landscapes, signaling a move toward inventing his own subject matter. Begins to incorporate plastic, Plexiglas, and metal into some

1

"Notes on

ssay

(222 West 2

fa Isea Hotel

(

Tokyo, Johns completes

a trip to

i

Allen Jones moves from London

he term "( >p art"

his canvases.

colored mask, moves

West 26th

his

Oct. 24-Nov. 19. Temple qj Apollo, R.L.'s first painting featuring a reference to classical art, is shown at Leo Castelli Gallery along with several landscapes and enamel works. Nov. 24. Solo exhibition of his landscapes at Ferus Gallery

mannequin heads near

incorporate portions pj frames, then stretchei side showing

(an installation

larger-than-life furniture pieces, based on the interioi oj a

York

during the

York and creates Painted Mannequin Head.

in favo) oj the

1964 3,

Street)

Street studio in the hat-manufacturing district of

ing ." the

/,///

Paul Bianchini

at

York (16 East 78th

October.

in

several plaster

Neo-Dadaand New

Steinberg, with Petei Selz as moderatoi rejected as

opens

ton

Ashton, Geldzahler, Hilton Kramer, Stanley Kunitz, and Leo

Realism are

intact to the

doom

preparations for the show American Supermarket, which

symposium on Pop

1

New

room

contents oj his

tht

)allery foi his installation

(

Gallery in

foi

the avant-gardi

Oei

)reen

Autumn. R.L. meets Dorothy Herzka

which he

soon becomes an infamous meeting place

It

June

1966 canvases. R.L. stops including words in his

drips and blots of paint Creates several paintings featuring against a graph-paper grid background.

Chronology

).hi

\\ ith

Budnifc

-i. Mitchell

Photo

U


Publication

oj

Uo

Ipril

Kaprow's book Assemblages

'astelli

(

with ilri

April

\

i

walls with his

Cow

in

Wallpapex and

devotes entin

issui

Museum presents

The Jewish

to

Jan. 6-Feb.

the interioi

fills

"The Story of Pop."

May

organized by Richard Morphet. The cover of Time features R.L.'s painting of Robert

McShine,

]udd, Robert Smithson,

to,

and

Anthony

others

designs poster, based on 1930s Hollywood motifs, for 4th New York Film Festival, which takes place September 12-22. Venice June 18-Oct. 16. The U.S. is represented at the 33rd Helen works by of exhibition Biennale by an Frankenthaler, Kelly, R.L., and Jules Olitski, organized

by Geldzahler. 20-Oct 8 Fischbach

with an exhibition u

Proa

New

T

York

Street)

th

<l in

which Lippard coins the term

\rt

Museum moves to 945 Madison ivenui making collage paintings experiments Autumn. RL's with vinyl and Rowlux. He begins to use concealed motors and light fixtures in his Rowlux collages. Sept

The Whitney

27

first

Oct.

Leo

1.

Castelli Gallery otters for sale 800 signed black-

and-white china pieces designed by R.L. and produced by Durable Dish Co., at S40-50 per six-piece place setting.

Nov. 4-Dec. first

1.

solo

magazine commissioned

for this

Warhol

I

CI

'

is

M

-hoi i

Factory hy Valerie Solanis,

///.

,ir

Sonny

(

fo\

utting

'p

I

tin

foundei

oj

Wen)

Museum June. Maurice Tuchman, curator of the L.A. County of Art, invites R.L. to participate in his Art and Technology exhibition, to be held in 1971. R.L. proposes creating a film based on a series of shots of a woman's face exposed to alternating light sources. The proposal Angeles the next is altered during his residence in Los year.

Gallery in

Lippard, presents Eccentric Abstraction, organized by Lucy Keith Sonniei and Nauman, Bruce / Hesse, va works by featuring ,//;,/

that the

issue. June

S

Summer. R.L.

Sept.

Kennedy

F.

Youngei American and British Sculptors, organized by Kynaston \rtschwager,

Gallery presents Roy Lichtenstein (a

24.

Primary Structui

featuring works by Andre, Richard

The Tate

4.

version of the Stedelijk Museum's show), the museum's American artist, first show dedicated to a living

which he

tylat balloons

25 Newsweek magazim

[pril27-June 12

an exhibition by Warhol,

Gallery presents

(

ers the gallery's

nvironments and Happenings.

I

The Cleveland Museum of Art

museum

presents R.L.'s

Roy

exhibition, Works by

Cover of Time features R.L.'s rendering of a gun felt banner Pistol) for its cover story "The Gun in America." Summer. Visits the Pasadena Art Museum with curator John Coplans and sees Constructivist paintings of heads by German Expressionist artist Alexei Jawlensky. Coplans also discusses his ideas with R.L. for an exhibition on

June

21.

(based on his 1964

serial paintings.

Shares house on Wooley Street in Southampton with friends. Sept. 17-Oct. 27. R.L. sees Coplans's exhibition Serial Imagery at the Pasadena Art Museum, and, inspired by the works by Claude Monet included in the show, begins making his Haystack and Rouen Cathedral lithographs.

Nov.

1.

Marries Dorothy Herzka.

Lichtensicin,

1969

organized by Ed Henning.

Completes his first serial prints (six Haystack and seven Rouen Cathedral lithographs) at Gemini G.E.L. in collaboration with master printer Kenneth Tyler. Feb. 3. Starts two-week stay at Universal City Studios, at which time he begins works on films for the Art and

Jan.-July.

1967 Italian art critu

work

Germano

<

oj ^

v.''<'if/>

<'/

elant coins the term

<

/"/(

motional

materials fawi everyday

life,

Kounellis, Richard Long,

With Dorothj Photo

In

(

!i

inni th,

Bi

rengo

*

lardin

turn

r-

used primarily

artists

\rte

Povera

common

using

to refet to the o\

H

including Joseph Beuys

"pooi

e,Jannis

Mario Merz, and Gilberto Zorio to refei

only

Technology exhibition.

Later,

May

Italians,

to tin

19-July 16

an Elvis Presley Becomes

"How

a

Roy

Summer. R.L.

rents Rivers's house in

Southampton with

friends. Sol Li

II

hi publishes

"Paragraphs on

(

'onceptual

which he proclaims the preeminence Sept.

Artforum

relocates to

Sit

w

\rt"

m

Artforum,

in

oj the idea ove\ the object

York

In collaboration with Guild Hall in Paramus, New Jersey, R.L. creates a series of sculptures made of brass,

Autumn.

mirror, tinted glass, marble, aluminum, and other materials. 17. Stedelijk Museum presents R.L.'s first retrospective in Europe, organized by director E.L.L. de Wilde and chief curator W.A.L. Beeren; the show

Nov. 4-Dec.

travels to three other museums.

1968 R.L. makes

Makes

first Stretcher

his first

imagery.

Frame paintings.

modular paintings featuring repeated design

Whitney

Museum presents

Anti-Illusion

Richard Serra, Sonnier, and oth

Lichtenstein."

April 18-May 28. The Pasadena Art Museum, in collaboration with the Walker Art Center (Minneapolis), presents first traveling retrospective of R.L.'s work, organized by John Coplans. First soloexhibition catalogue devoted to his work is published.

Hii

Procedures Materials, organized hy Marcia Tuckei andjamt Monte, featuring works hy indre, Morris, Nauman, Robert Ryman,

Jan. The Tate Gallery (London) purchases Whaam! April. Arts magazine publishes an article by Dali entitled

Way 24-]uue 29 /'//< Guggenheim Museum presents Nine Young Theodoron Awards, organized hy Dunn Waldman with the '

assistance tapes hy Inn,

(

of Edward

Nauman,

)ldenburg's

first

I

Fry, featuring sculptures, paintings,

Richter,

Serra, Zjorio,

monumental outdoor

caterpillai tracks)

is

installed

./r

Yale

and

Artists.

and audio

others

sculpture (a %igantu lipstick on I

diversity

Summer. R.L. shares house on Wooley Street Southampton again with friends. Films

in

clouds, the

ocean, and tropical fish in a tank in both color and black and white. Returns to Universal with his film footage and adds several shots from their archive.

Returns to Southampton to complete the three seascape films for the Art and Technology exhibition. Sept. 19-Nov. 16. First New York retrospective of R.L.'s paintings and sculptures, at the Guggenheim Museum, organized by Waldman; the show travels to three other

museums. The Guggenheim Museum purchases work by R.L. to enter the museum's collection. Autumn. Creates his first Mirror paintings and begins series of U.S.

Preparedness, the first

Pyramid works. Publication of first monograph on R.L.'s drawings and prints,

by Waldman.


1970

March 15-Sept. Two seascape

films by R.L. are

shown, using

35mm

rear-screen projectors, in an exhibition organized by Maurice Tuchman at the American Pavilion of Expo '70 in Osaka, Japan. R.L. finds house in Southampton, where he sets up his studio

and [pril.

a

permanent residence

Smithson

creates Spiral Jetty, a

basalt, limestone rocks,

May.

New

and

York museums close for one day as a response

Strike Against War, Racism, Fascism, Sexism,

organized by

to

New

qj

m

I

q)

[rt

and

Varian

work of any

ike

America and

wood, and polyurethane made at Lippincott, a foundry in Connecticut, is assembled on a site in the Santa October

in

(It is

1988).

1975 R.L. begins series of paintings based on works by Purist artists Charles-Edouard Jeanneret [Le CorbusierJ and Amedee Ozenfant (which he continues through 1976). in artists Jean-Michel Basquiat, Keith Haring, Kenny Scharf, ami others gain instant art-world recognition aftei then works are

an exhibition

1976 R.L. paints

Warhol lends

furniture

price yet paid for the

I

York Art

and Repression,

final

H

I

Ltd.

removed

12

Deco works, organized by Elayne

Modem

Sept. R.L.'s

Rene Block

(409 West Broadway). Head, a 30-foot-high sculpture in metal, at

Anita Fashion Park in Arcadia, California.

from his personal collection. Nov. 18. R.L.'s Big Painting No. 6 sells at auction to German art dealer Rudolf Zwirner for $75,000, the highest objects

York, where he performs

Me

Hah.

work on his drawing for a very by 245 feet on four continuous walls for the University of Diisseldorf 's School of Medicine. His assistant Carlene Meeker executes the mural assisted by several students from the university. College Museum of Art in New Yorkpresents thefirst majoi exhibition large inural

New

visiti

America Likes

black

\n Workers Coalition,

thi

Oct. R.L. completes

Finch

made

on the Great Salt Lake

earth,

May, Beuys

the following year. 500-foot-long spiral

I,

Begins new series of Entablatures, using metallic colors and mixing sand with paint to highlight surface texture.

at

Span- in

\itists

New

thown

in

York.

based on newspaper and business furniture. series of Entablature Paintings.

Office Still Lifts

illustrations

of

office items

Completes

final

Creates several self-portraits in Futurist

living artist.

Warhol

creates a tilkscreen portrait qj

style.

Uchtenstein

1971

1977 R.L. begins series of paintings based on works by Surrealist including Dali, Ernst, and Magritte and artists

R.L. begins Entablature series in black and white. Starts to size

and prime

March 13-April

his

own

canvases.

3. R.L.'s Mirrors

May

works by Picasso. Begins to make painted and patinated sculptures in bronze, with the assistance of Carlos Ramos and in collaboration with two foundries, Lippincott and Tallix, in Beacon, New York. Creates large outdoor sculpture. Lamp, for Gilman Paper Surrealist

Museum

May Sept

of Art. inducted as a fellow into the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (Boston). Leo Castelli more> his gallery to 420 West Broadway m SoHo 12.

R.L.

is

Nor. Robert Pincus-Witten coins the term Post-Minimalism

Arttorum

1972 Publication of

to relet to

works hy H(

monograph on by Waldman.

first

sculptures,

in a

Company Jenny Holzei begins

review in

R.L.'s paintings

and

1977

May

Photo

13. Is

for their 3201 race car, driven later in the year at Le

Mans.

1973 R.L. begins series of trompe-l'oeil and Cubist Still Lifes, which include his first use of faux-woodgrain pattern. Autumn. Begins Artist's Studio series (which he continues through 1974) and incorporates quotations of some of some of the his early 1960s paintings and drawings into

compositions. Creates several paintings showing the influence of and Russian Constructivism. (

hi

from then collection

to a

thel Scull auction

packed house

Johns's work Painted Bronze,

paid

loi

the

work

qj

any

1974 R.L. begins to paint his Futurism.

living

first

New

BMW

dots.

I

Georgia.

riruisms, unsigned posters, throughout

April 26. R.L. receives

Oct

Sotheby's, Robert and

het

Skowhegan Medal for Painting. awarded Doctorate of Fine Arts from California Institute of the Arts, Valencia. commissions R.L. to create an exterior design June.

Begins to incorporate quotations of his own work in his Still references to Life paintings; also begins to incorporate works by Henri Matisse.

1/

hang

i

(which he continues through R.L. begins SHU 1975). Increasingly uses diagonal stripes in place of

is

in St. Mary's, to

York

Life series

Benday

exhibited publicly for the

time, at Leo Castelli Gallery. 10-Aug. 29. R.L.'s two seascape films are shown at the Art and Technology exhibition at the L.A. County first

I960,

SO Pop

De

Stijl

art

works

sets

II"

Whitney

Museum presents Johns

retrospective

1978 R.L. contributes cover design for catalogue to the Whitney Museum's exhibition Art about Art, organized by Jean Lipman and Richard Marshall. After its run at the

Whitney Museum

(July 19-Sept. 24),

show

travels to

three other venues. Visits

Los Angeles, where he sees Robert Gore Rifkind Collection of German Expressionist graphic art.

Begins to feature North American Indian motifs works.

and

his last Surrealist-inspired

Makes

artists

record fin the highest price artist

works influenced by

1,1978

in his

1979

qj dealers, collectors,

American

18-Jan

works.

Expressionist-inspired works based on Heckel, paintings and woodcuts by artists such as Erich Schmidt-Rottlutl. Karl Franz Marc, and

Begins

German

commission, is The Mermaid, R.L.'s first public sculpture Beach Theatre for Miami the at dedicated and installed the Performing Arts. Modem \rt exhibits March 16-June 17. Thi San Francisco Museum of

Italian

373

Chronology

in his I".

N

Southan Hi'

j

(

'

impton


rhe Dinner Party, begun

]udy Chicago'* through th

May

R.L.

23.

effort*

is

New

,„,„,,

in

i

The Explosion ol The Whitney Museum presents Blam! Barbara H^kdl by organized Performance, Pop, Minimalism, and

W-D*

Sepi

2.

American Academy of Arts 1985

York. presents Beuyss first solo

1980

2,

1974, aworkcreated

WO women

more than

elected to the

and Sciences, Nou 2-Jan

q)

in

The Guggenheim Museum v. curatedby Carolim Tisdall

MoMA's

/„ response to

M

inclusion of only

,

ol exhibition International Survey

1984

.

.

women

out

qj

.

165

artists \n its

Receni Paintings and

who refer to themselves as the Guerrilla s, protesting the posters in and around Manhattan ;irh begin to put up groups. ethnic and women underrepresentation qj art world's mural; it takes almost six Nov. R.L. begins to paint Equitable ulpture, a group

qj artists

<

1980

Doctorate of Fine Arts from May. R.L. awarded honorary Southampton College in New York. Picasso: A devotes mm, museum to Pablo U;r 12-Sept

\/loM

16

weeks to complete.

1

and Dominique Retrospective, organized by William Rubin

I

1 986

large R.L.'s Salute to Painting, a

1980—81 Irtistssuchas JeffKoom, Sherrh

Haim

Steinbach,

copy othei people's artworks and

directly

own

Levine,

and

others begin

objects as the basis

fo\

then

work*

1960s: < ologne's The Kunstverein in Cologne presents rhe from the Happening to the Art as an Art Metropolis Gabriele Lueg. Market, organized by Wulf Herzogenrath and ,- /,/, /,,, 1987 ih, Brooklyn Museum presents rhe Machine

iutumn

using modified Abstract L. creates four Woman paintings on de Kooning's third based Expressionist brushstroke

May

series,

from the

0ct

Saint Louis Art Museum presents an paintings and sculptures from R.L.'s exhibition of travels to 1970-80, organized by Jack Cowart; the show

museums

Europe, and Japan.

in U.S.,

.

show

Paintings series, in

which two

^go-Expressionism

is

coined

to refei

to

a group

urope whose work brushwork, including Georg Baselil features figural

I

1983.

With Lco<

ion ol thi

I

astclli

during

thi

Jiiliiin Jl«

H

q)

painters in the

'

and

S

.

I

m

Fischl,

David

Salle,

into fashion as a

mm

describing geometrii abstraction in

Bleckner, Petei Halley, Philip the works q) such artists as Ross

and M<

Taaffe,

r

ye\

I

aisman.

Aug. 8-Sept. 19. R.L.'s 1961 paintings Look Mickey, Pop eye, and Wimpy (Tweet) exhibited for the first time, at the Parrish Art Museum (Southampton, New York). 1983

Columbus, Ohio, purchases R.L.'s Brushstrokes in Flight for ground-floor entrance to its International Airport. Publication of Alloway's monograph devoted to R.L.'s work. Dec. 3-11. Creates 90-foot-long mural on wall of Castelli's Greene Street gallery space, a compilation of many motifs from his earlier works, including the composition notebooks, Art Deco patterns, pyramids, mirrors,

view

and Picassoesque figures. It January 14 (and is then destroyed).

still lifes,

until

is

on

of Contemporary Art (New Representation and York, 183 Broadway) presents Difference On Weinstock and K,u< Linkei Jane Sexuality, organized by

Dec. 8-Feb

Wilson, with the assistance

travels 10 three other

I

IS.

qj

Christophei Wilk; the

museums.

,. l

he

Halley,

I

Alfredo Jaai are displayed on

22

Warhol

tin

Spectacoloi Board

m

Times Square.

dies.

March 15-June

2.

MoMA

mounts

first

major retrospective

exhibition of R.L.'s drawings, organized by Bernice ever Rose, the first show of drawings by a living artist presented by the museum. The show travels to museums in the U.S. and Europe.

Schnabel

"Neo-Geo" comes

mur.il

and

Guy

Koons, Annette Lemieux, and Alan McCollum. a I" und in New York begins "Messages 10 the Public," Il„ Publit Dwyer, Holzer, and program in which texts by artists such as Nancy

/,/,

images and Expressionist-style

and America 1918-1941, organized by Dianne Pilgrim

ARTnews publishes Eleanoi Heartney's article "Simulatiomsm: Bickerton, Hoi NewCool 1"." featuring the work qj Ashley

paintings.

and Two

1

1987

motit, ana Begins series of paintings incorporating trame single or contrasting images are ambiguously linked by motif. hybrid frame

in

Richard

Jan

1982 . , brushstrokes with R.L. begins to combine loosely painted his constructed Abstract Expressionist brushstrokes in

mergen.

Age

late 1950s.

The

8-June 28.

Paintings

.11^ installed

compositions of pure geometric abstraction.

1981

Woman

is

at the Walker Art Center. paintings, featuring Spring. Creates Perfect and Imperfect

1

R

, outdoor sculpture,

/".

I''*-*

1984 R.L. returns to

New

loft at 105

rhe

New Museum

York part-time

to live

and work,

in a

for Mural with Blue Brushstroke for

the lobby of the Equitable

the 1960s.

His Coup De Pinceau (Brushstroke), a 31-foot-high aluminum sculpture, is installed at the Caisse de Depots et

Consignations in Paris. his Publication in Munich of the first monograph devoted to pre-Pop works, by Ernst A. Busche. on R.L. creates Plus and Minus paintings, a new series based

works by Mondrian. May. Sets up a studio and residence in a 1912 building on Washington Street in Manhattan, a former iron foundry, which he renovates. Divides his time between Southampton and Manhattan. from June. Receives an honorary Doctorate of Humanities his

alma mater, Ohio State University.

a 30-foot-high painted in 1987, is installed at the created aluminum sculpture Doris C. Freedman Plaza in Manhattan as part of the Public Art Fund's project to install temporary installations on public sites in New York.

Nov. 16-May 1989. R.L.'s Brushstroke,

Nov 19-De<

East 29th Street.

Autumn. Begins maquette

1988 incorporating R.L. begins Reflections series in Southampton, well quotations of previously depicted comic strips (as since used not has he that motif as some new ones), a

Tower

in

Manhattan.

19

Sonnabend Gallery

in

New

York (42t> West Broadway)

presents works by Koons, including expensively produced porcelain copies

mi enlarged

versions) of kitsch statuettes


pre-1960s works such as Washington Crossing the Delaware I and several of the semi-abstract drawings of cartoon characters that he made in 1958. The show travels to two other U.S. museums.

1989 Afte\ a photographei sees Koons's

reproduced in the

1988

sculpture String ol Puppies

os Angeles Times, he sues Koonsfoi copying

I

his

greeting-card photograph without permission.

March 15-May

Rome

15.

R.L. stays

at the

American Academy

in

1993

as artist-in-residence.

Spring. Travels to Tel Aviv to begin designing a 23-by-54foot mural for the entrance hall of the Tel Aviv

Museum

of Art.

Summer. Begins work on Bauhaus I. M. Pei's new building for in

Nov.

Stairway

mural

for

the Creative Artists

Agency

Beverly Hills.

7. R.L.'s

Torpedo

.

.

.

Los! sells at Christie's auction house

for a record $5.5 million; he joins the ranks of Johns and de Kooning as the only living artists whose works

commanded

have

qj

R

L.'s

9.

to a female nude. Oct. R.L. completes Twisted Nude, a 12-foot-high painted aluminum sculpture fabricated at Tallix.

Oct. 8-Jan.

16, 1994.

The Guggenheim Museum

Lichtcnstein, a retrospective survey

such a price.

comic-strip paintings

and

presents Roy of R.L.'s paintings

and sculpture, organized by Waldman. The exhibition will travel in North America and Europe.

1990 R.L. begins Interior series; for some of these, he uses the technique of painting with sponges. Levine appropriates several

R.L. receives an honorary doctorate from the Royal College of Art, Kensington Gore, London. July-Aug. Creates Large Interior with Three Reflections, a mural consisting of a 30-foot-long triptych and three additional panels. The mural contains his first reference

July

prints in he\

1990 mixed-media work Collage Cartoon presents High and Low: Modern Oct. 7-Jan. 15, 1991. Art and Popular Culture, an exhibition of 20th-century art along with source materials and related ephemera,

MoMA

organized by Kirk Varnedoe and Adam Gopnick. Some of R.L.'s comic-book sources are shown for the time.

first

1991 April 2-June 16.

Two

of R.L.'s

Interior paintings

Whitney Museum's 1991 Biennial

shown

in the

exhibition.

April 25. Receives Brandeis University's Creative Arts Award. May 15-Oct. 31. R.L.'s Modern Head, a 32-foot-high sculpture based on his 1974 metal, wood, and polyurethane sculpture at the Santa Anita Fashion Park in Arcadia, California,

is

installed in Battery

Park City

in

Lower

Manhattan. in In collaboration with Saff Tech Arts, located (on prints enamel making begins Maryland,

Autumn.

Oxford,

frames) based on Monet's Nympheas. waterlily paintings

with

stainless steel late

wooden

In his

Photo

1992

by the work of Catalan artist Antoni Gaudi, sculpture R.L. creates Barcelona Head, a 64-foot-high for the commissioned tiles, ceramic made of colored Summer Olympics in Barcelona, Spain. It is installed where there on the site of the former naval yard

July. Inspired

Sept

Christopher Columbus docked his ships. 19,1993 MoMA presents Henri Matisse: A

14-Jan

the assistance Retrospective, organized by John Elderfield with

Beatrice

qj

Kernan.

image of an Oct. R.L. creates a sculpture based on the African Mask. African mask in his painting Interior with of versions in foundry, Tallix at It is fabricated bronze, galvanized steel, tin-plated bronze, zinc-plated

and pewter,

in editions

of

six.

1992-93

Dec 6-March

7.

The Museum of Contemporary Art

(Los

American Art in Angeles) presents Hand-Painted Pop: Schimmel and Paul by organized 1955-62, Transition,

Donna De of the Pop

early years Salvo, devoted exclusively to the includes R.L.s art movement in the U.S. It

375

Chronology

i'\

South impton itudio

R.obi

rtMcl


r@MPOSITIONS|


lists the original soun entry in the following bibliography be difficult and the text has ma) source original to th< access where .

ompiled

(

b\ Julia Blaut

ah

I

been reprinted, the reprinl

Interviews and Statements Tim

section

qb

by

lists

interviews with and

K>n

1

ire

monogi

published iphs ii>"

Some

ichtenstein

ind in

si

i

m

"i. ni-

1

ited

italogues and

ilso

m

,

lude interviews with and statements

In .mist-, other than

the Site." In Calvin Adelman, Bob. "In the Studio" and "On Uchtenstem Mural with Blue romkins in dBob \delman, Roy Abrams, 1988, pp. 40-97, Brushstroke Nev. York: Harry N. statements U respectively. Photo essays, with 98-127, pp. methods „ htenstein on his working Roy Uchtenstem. "Artist's Statements." In Alloway,

I

ichtenstein

York Abbeville

interview conducti d

in

Feb

Himself." The Andreae, Christopher "Trying to Shock is. 1969. second section p Sept (Boston), Science Monitor de New York. Quadmm Antoine.Jean "Metamorphoses L'Ecole 161-64. rranscript iron. L cole (Brussels), no. 18 (1965), pp. ,/,. York the last o\ a scr.es

Mew

entitled

,rt

of three

on contemporary

films

r\ntoine and produced and

Mitamorphoses, made by

interviews with Jim broadcast by [envision Beige. Includes Segal George and ichtenstein, Marisol, >ine Nov Brown "Ro) Lichtenstein Interviews, 1963

Baker, Richard

tape-recorded |964 Jan. 15." Unpublished transcript oi

is

for

New

Institution,

Bernard

(New

no

York),

onducted

,

Mimi rhompson

and

\pril,

pr

New

in

"Kon

.is

An

Interview

Vew

'

York

"An

n

withRoj

An

htenstein

,,

|

Pasadena,

irts

in

m

Ro) ichtenstein" In Whitney Museum oi Roy Lichtenstein Graphic Work: 19 0-1980 New York Whitney Museum of American Art, 1

''SI. n.p.

I

leveland,

(March 1981),

collaboration

22. 1952.

2

htenstein." Connaissance des

I

March

"A question of Appearances:

"Roy

Published

61

p.

arts

as part

Comic

Lichtenstein and the

1969-1970 (exhib

Sculpture,

University ol )ebailleux,

I

1

1

(

alifornia

Roj

l

1

solo exhibition

ichtenstein." In Art Gallery, University ol

Roy Uchtenstem

Irvine,

.mi.,.

,lii,

(.

cat.)

Graphics, Reliefs

Irvine I

I

.

ichtenstein

Kit/. Paul

and

.,

1

Roy

of an

article b\ Jodidio,

Process." pp.

58-62,

"Kon

1

at

the Saint Louis Art

ichtenstein

Modem

1970, pp. 7-11.

Now \nr

York

I.

no.

sculpture to the 1930s Art

est loin.'"

Ubhation (Paris), Ma^ 25, 1988, p 36 Lichtenstein, Diamonstein, Barbaralee "( aro, de Kooning, Indiana, Motherwell and Nevelson on Picasso's Influence." [RTnews (New York) 73, no 4 (April 1974), pp. 44-46.

"Pop Art. Money, and the Present Scene: An Interview astelli." Partisan Review eo ichtenstein and with k"\ (1978), pp. 80 93 Reprinted in (New York) 45, no

Museum.

Sculpture with Velvet Rope."

brief (Jan. 1969), n.p. In his of relationship the discusses interview, Lichtenstein I,,

and Los Angeles:

and Gemini a Revolution (

with

65-67. Interview conducted at Lichtenstein's studio in Southampton. New York, shortly before the opening of his

I

I

lalk

(U.S. edition), no. 34''

I

Ro>

31.

March Dizzv? Town's in a Tizzy" The Cleveland News, IS. Includes a statement by 13, 1952, "1 Ionic Magazine," p. a critic and several loci ichtenstein, along with comments b\ Galleries, Colony Art the at exhibition his on artists (

with Walker Art Center. Minneapolis, 1967, pp. 12 16 Reprinted as " ralkingwith Ro) ichtenstein." \rtforum ''(,7). pp 34-39, (1 os Angeles) 3. no. 9 (Ma) Interview

Dec

I

Lichtenstein (exhib

Roy

)bserver,

Art— (V

Jodidio, Philip-

Museum

<

Art.

>owntOwn Branch.

1

Is It

31

Interview." In

Pasadena Art

('..lit.:

Town." London

London.

Interview with

»

\rtforum

Lichtenstein."

rancisco) 2. no. 4 (Oct. 1963), p

I

"K, A

.

Interview

to

ommentar) based on an interview conducted ( 1967, p at the Tate New' York prioi to ichtenstein's solo exhibition

Interview journal,™ 9 (Ma) June 1978), pp. 11-12. .onducted m Southampton. New York, Aug 31, I"

plans,John

1991.

[an. 7.

"Mr Pop Comes

(exhib. cat.).

ichtenstein."

ichtenstein:

I

York.

Holland. Mary.

I

nglish

.

I

2o (spring 1991), Special issue of Artstudio (Pans), no. " IS French). Interview conducted (in English), 21-32 (in

American

I

l

Ro>

Gallery,

Das Kunstwerk Interview mit Ro) rnsi Busche (Feb 1978), pp 14-25 Publishedin H.no (Stuttgan

,

,,|,

avec

York, earl) Nov. 1985, I

A Conversation- In Long Beach, (exhib. eat.). Long Beach:

conducted on [une 6-7, 1976. Lichtenstein Conversation Hindry Ann "Conversation with Roy Spicial Roy Lichtenstein. lindry, ed Lichtenstein." In

pp 22-27. Interview

14 (winter 1986),

New

in

Ro)

ichtenstein:

1

Lichtenstein Ceramu Sculpture 17-23. Interview forni a s.atc University, 1977, pp.

Roy (

-An

Bomb

Lichtenstein

"Ro>

I

York '

W

University, he Art Galleries, California State

I

and

produced interview conducted in Lichtenstein's studio, Smithsonian on deposit at the Archives of American Art.

a

onstance

I

1

I

4.

Gene R. Swenson

m

I

I

states that

I'"-'.), n p., Glaser broadcast, but his participant in the original the published transcript. contributions were dropped in.

was

Christian

I

Ed.ted

no s (April

Glenn,

1983

Discussion.

New

105-07. relephone

Press, 1983, pp.

A

WBAL

iwrence

I

New

ichtenstein Warhol:

1

6 (Feb. 1966), pp. 20-24. [rtforum (Los Angeles) 4, no. on radio station broadcast transcript of a discussion editor in Artforum York, [line 1964 In a letter to the

1

Allow*

"Oldenburg

Glaser Bruce

i

li«ed "' ,cPai ,M

'"

also listed.

is

Kuspit.

..

1

Deo.

style

Donald B., Carter Ratcliff, Joan Simon, and Vito Acconci. "New York [bday: Some Artists Comment" Art in America Includes (New York) 65, no. 5 (Sept -Oct. 1977), pp. 78-85. 82-83. on Kuspit b\ ichtenstein pp. with an interview 1

arson. Philip

1

"Ro) lichtenstein"

Injohns, Kelly. Uchtenstein,

.

Motherwell,

(

I

I

1

'

''>.

i

Diehl,

In World

NewYork's

Insidt

New

York

Rizzoli,

211-25

pp.

I

Contemporary Artists Mine (New York) 6, no 2 (Feb 1989), Antiques and irt theMastei laes olescott, Lichtenstein, pp. 37- ^s Mike Bidlo, Robert

Matthew "Picasso Was Here

Five

Picasso's i

lietrich,

imagery

Nicolas

(De<

"1

i<

1990), pp.

their appropriations oi

ichtenstein's responses appeal

I

htenstein

" Lei

^ventures Jc

Van

on

p,

37

(Paris), no. 2

ouldYou Be Much Ko\ Lichtenstein ow, Milton Am?' ARTnews (New York) 90 no 5 (Ma) Luckiei rhan l

How

(

|

T

85

88,

90

''I

rank

1

I

(

lolumbus, 1949

University

1

I

1991),

I

Warhol, and Ibm Wesselmann comment on the art continuing influence of Henri Matisse on contemporary ichtenstein appears on pp. 67-69. Interview with thesis, ichtenstein, Roy. "Paintings, Drawings. Pastels" M.F.A. -\nd\

Department ofl

76

Printsfiom

Sharits. Jonald |udd. Lichtenstein, Price Marden. Paul

I

Stella,

(

(

Oldenburg, and George Segal describe

Stella

Art Center. Gemini G.l I- (exhib. cat.). Minneapolis Walker 1974, pp 16-18. America (New ebensztejn, |ean-Claude "Eight Statements" Art in Carl Andre. 67-75. York) 63, no. 4 (July-Aug 1975), pp.

I

Diamonstein,

Nauman,

Rauschenberg, Serra,

by the

artist.

and Applied Arts, Ohio State University, Unpublished, on deposit at Ohio State

ine

ibraries,

Columbus. Includes nine poems written


Siegel, Jeanne. "

- Letter to the Editor Artforum (New York) 10, no. 1" (June 1972), p. 6 Letter written by Lichtenstein in response to

Lawrence Alloway's "On Style An Examination of Roy New Monograph on ichtenstein's Development, Despite the Artist" (Artforum 10, no. 7 [March 1972], pp. 53 59). Issue letter from Allow ,iy m which he responds to also includes -.

Statement. In Ellen H.Johnson, ed., American

New

York: Harper and

102-04. Talk presented by Lichtenstein

pp.

"An Observed and Rise

Conversation."

Pop (exhib.

qj

Modem

New

cat.).

irtists

on Art

1964

York: Institute for

tour-part exhibition series held

Project, a

at

M

qj the

60s and 70s.

Ann

UMI

Arbor, Mich.:

1985, pp. 191â&#x20AC;&#x201D;96. Interview with Lichtenstein

Press,

I

"Roy

ichtenstein: Interview."

I

I"-

Magazine

(New York) 32. no 3 (Nov 1977), p. 26. Solomon, Alan t onversation with ichtenstein." In Alberto Boatto and Giordano Falzoni, eds., Lichtenstein. Special issue ol Fantazaria (Rome) I. no 2 (July-Aug 1966) pp 6 (in Italian), 36-42 (in English), 66 73 (in French) Edited I

Dreams. The Rise and Fall

I

I

Contemporary Art, Cambridge. Mass. Mil Press, 1*M8, pp. 87-109. Conversation conducted at the Clocktower Gallery, New York, Oct. 7, 1989, during a symposium on The Pop

I

95 Reprinted in Jeanne Siegel

I

Smith, Philip.

1982,

the College Art

at

Association's annual meeting, Philadelphia, Jan In

.

Row,

Period.'" In John Coplans,

York and Washington,

1968, in his studio on the Bowery, New York, Oct and broadcast on radio station WBAI, New York. Dec 13. Ik published transcript was edited by ichtenstein. 1968

s letter.

From 194()io 1980.

New

conducted

,i

Lichtenstein

Discourse

[rtwords

Research

Modem

noughts on the

I

Lichtenstein.

Praeger, 1972, pp. 91

.i

I

Roy

ed.,

ofa television interview broadcast

transcript

New

in

York.

Jan. 1966

Sorin, Raphael

the

Clocktower Gallery, Oct. 22. 1987-June 12. 1988. Participants included Leo ( astelh. John Coplans. Alanna Fleiss. Betsey

e

'I

lassiiisine

(

no 42

(Paris),

du hot dog." QuinzaiM hlln.mr 16

1968), pp

fan

I

R "What K

I

Answer, from ighi Painters, " [RTnews (New York) f>2. no. 7 (Nov 196 Part pp. 24-27. 60-64 Includes responses from Jim )ine, Rob khtenstcin's answers Indiana. Lichtenstein. ami Andv Warhol.

Swenson, Gene

[ohnson, Lichtenstein, and Claes Oldenburg. Pascal, David. Interview with Kov Lichtenstein. Giff-wijj (Paris), no. 2D (Max 1966), pp. 6-15. ichtenstein: Donald Duck et Picasso" [rl Ratcliff, Carter. "Kov

Lop

Art'.

I

I

I

1

I

appear

1

140 (Oct. 1989) pp 12-19. Interview with Lichtenstein with comments by Ratcliff on the artist's work. II. "Interview with Kov Lichtenstein at Ins Riley. Charles A

tylor

I

Press (Paris), no.

Work, Flash

pp 25

>on

"Roy

Paul.

Now

(<2

63

Allowed Yon

ichtenstein: Naivete

1

Don't

I

Know How

Do

to

(International edition) (Milan) 22. no. I4S

An

a Lot oi

'\n\one Does '\nvlln ((

>,

|

.

Manhattan Studio. June, 1992." cat

Lausanne:

)

FAH Musee

In

Roy

1989), pp 87

Lichtenstein (exhib.

d'Art Contemporain, 1992,

French). Interview PP 22, 24 (in English). 23. 25 (in into French by Diana de Rham.

Roberts. Colette. "Interview de Roy Lichtenstein." iujourd'hui 'SA (Boulogne), nos. 55-56 (W^. 1966-Jan. architecture 123-27. Extract from an interview conducted 1967), pp.

Roy

Warhol.

trans

"Pop!: Interviews with

Inn. m, Phyllis

[\li

(New York)

Interview with

pp. 24-2'J

(

.eorge Segal. '\nd\

Robert

ichtenstein, James Rosenquist and

I

[RTnews

Indiana." art el

91

no

(Ma} 1974), ichtenstein conducted by

I

73,

5

telephone. Feb. 17. 1973.

I

Roberts in March 1966 for her program "Meet Rose. Barbara, and Irving Sandler "Sensibility ol 'the Sixties" Art (Jan.-Feb. 1967), pp. 44-37 [merica (New York) 55, no,

Interview with

Tuten, Lrederu

by

ichtenstein. In Lichtenstein

I

at

Gemini

1969 n.p Los Angeles: Gemini G.l iew conducted in New York, eh 1969, in which Lichtenstein discusses his Cathedral and Haystack series of

(exhib brochure)

the Artist"

I

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I

Responses by artists, including Lichtenstein, to a questionnaire concerning the role of the artist and the nature of the avantgarde

Rosenthal,

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Mark "Roy

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Gemini: Celebrating

the

rwenty-Jifth Year

New

.

irtists at

York Harry

N

Abrams, with Gemini G.E.L, Los Angeles, forthcoming 1993, '" lo7 PP Lichtenstein" Art Schaff, David "A Conversation with Roy (Lugano) 23. no 9 (Jan.-Feb 1980), pp. 28-39.

paintings and lithographs based on works b\

(

l.mde

Monel

Interview reprinted in John Coplans, ed., Roy Lichtenstein Praeger, 1972 pp 95 99 D.< Interviewed by Diane Waldman." "Lichtenstein Diane Waldman, N. Abrams. In Waldman, Koy Lichtenstein New York Harry as "Une Interview .1, French Trans into 25-28. 1972, pp Lichtenstein," in Art Press (Paris) 15 (De< 1974 Jan 19

New York and Washington

,

-

pp.

6â&#x20AC;&#x201D;7.

Washington Gallery of

International

Gallery of

Interview with Lichtenstein conducted in Southampton, New York. March 29, 1979, prior to an exhibition of his work at

Leo

C astelh Gallery,

New

ordioli,

(

Italian

by Bruno

and Renzo Guidieri. Milan.

Alfieri,

Electa.

Washington, D.C "Washington

flu

phonograph record produced

in

Populai Image Exhibition at the

is June 2. 19 Washington Gallery of Modern Art. April Smithsonian and on deposit at the An hues ot American Art,

Shapiro a Ron Shapiro. David. "Grande unificazione: Intervista di David di Lichtenstein" In Attiho C^.U^uuk ed., PopArt: Evoluzione una qenerazione. Trans, into

tape and

conjunction with

York.

Art.

Art Interviews ot Artists. 1963 April

Modern

Audio

June."

Modem

Institution,

Man..

Washington,

I

>.(

1980

Alan television interview with Lichtenstein by into (broadcast in New York. Jan. 1966), trans

Abbeville Press, Alloway, Lawrence. Roy Lichtenstein New York Lichtenstein with interview telephone 1983 Includes

conducted in Leb. 1983. Special issue Boatto, Alberto, and liordano Falzoni, eds Lichtenstein. Includes of Fantazaria (Rome) 1, no. 2 (July-Aug. 1966) from (reprinted H.Johnson Ellen essays (in English onlv) bv

Italian by

Busche. Ernst

(

Max Kozloff and Artists [London] I. no. 3 [June 1966]), no. 17 |Ncn 30, York| 199, reprinted horn The Nation [New Roseubluin. essay (in French only) by Robert and 1964]), and Italian) ot Otto Halm: and transcript (in English, French,

Gebr. Mann.

(

alvesi,

Lichtenstein

and

I

iliberto

.end, and

I

Menna

Das Fruhwerk 1942

1

l

'"" Berlin

I

Pop Paintings 1961 1969. Schirmers 1989. In Visnelle Bibliothek r, Munich Schirmer Mosel,

Roy

[rt

Lichtenstein

German

,

379

Boatto,

A Roy

Books on Lichtenstein

Solomon

(

Monographs oplans.John.ed. Roy Lichtenstein Documentary ummings) New York ...id Art ted Paul

Modern

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York Rizzoli, 1993.

"Bop Primer: Roy Lichtenstein's Monumental Mural Modern Movement'" Life (New York) 9, no 6 with |une 1986), pp 75-79 Discussion of the artist's Mural Equitable Tower, the of the lobby installed in Brushstroki Blue

Brewster. Todd.

^plains the

1

(

(

paintings

Interioi

From

Lichtenstein's Period Style

Alloway, Lawrence "Roj hnties to the Sixties and Back

"

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,

I

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'

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irts

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no.

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-On

.

stsk

New

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\

mil

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which

87, 144 Ik-

Includes extensive quotes b)

discusses his

work,

I

iehtenstein in

particularly the Surrealist-style

le

Artist

Dali, Salvador. \rts

I

Abrams,

Pierre.

lance

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Cabanne,

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Ro> Lichtenstein

York) 41. no 6 (April 1967), pp. 26-31.

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mto English by Albert Field. lakes." Art Deitcher, David. "Lichtenstein's Expressionist (New York) 71. no. (Jan. 1983), pp. 84-89 Trans,

m

Fry.

Edward

Fort.

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Lichtenstein's

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Recent Landscapes

s (spring 1966), pp.

1

1

I.

'

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as Style."

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i

<

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18

omi( 69),

\<i

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he

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Jl,

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tots

I

S ?"

Mew

The

'

/

ife

83 York

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i

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8,

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.

U

the Worst Artist in the

"Lichtenstein's Sculptun

Tillnn, Sidney

ROCOCO.'" pp 22 24

asel Ko\ Lichtenstein." Women's Wea\ (New York) 155, no 86 (Ma) 5, 1987), p 28 "Cezanne and Lichtenstein Problems ol

'Transformation.'" Artforum (San Francisco)

he

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ida,

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Moderne Roy

no

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in

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'

"The Work of Roy

Ratcliff, C .uter.

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ichtenstein and the Popular Image." Burlington

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ACE

L.A.. Los Angeles. Roy Lichtenstein "

Entablature Paintings

Sandy

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Art

1974

>akland),June 14. L975, p

(<

Galleries, Cleveland

Colony

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March

(

Bruner, Louise. "Kindergarten Dipt.

New

Calls

Leo<

1952,

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It

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March

The Art

1952,

13,

Town's

in a

I

izzy "

"Home Magazine"

Galleries, California State University,

Feb.

Ceramu Sculptun

Lichtenstein (

Jrganized by

onstance

v

1

Cleveland

//"

New

I

Roy

York

New

l

Roy

York

May ARTnews

April JO

Lichtenstein

ichtenstein

*(May [951

50, ii-

1,

18

p

ong Beach Roy

22-March

fudd,

I

,,

10-March

Leo(

Arts Center. State University of

me

Brook. Long bland K<<y

New

Lichtenstein: Mirrors

./"</

York

at

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no

York) 59, no 9

87.

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I"

52 Lichtenstein

Sepl

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t

),

24.

i

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Stony

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(Vt 25-De<

I

I

appears on p 66 |udd,

Irving

(summer

Gallery,

New

1968), pp.

Roy

York

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is.

(New York)

6,

60-61 Lichtenstein

1989. Exhibition catalogue, with

awrence

1

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York chibition

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1953

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Wim

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"Roy Lichtenstein: 'The Ironic Lichtenstein Takes Soulful Subjects and Paints hem with Cool'" Vogue (New York) 154, no. 5 (Sept. IS. I'

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lale

(

Museum. Southampton, New York. Roy 19, 1982 Paintings Aug 8 Sep! ichtenstein Liehtenstein. Brenson, Michael "The< hanging World of Roy C, p 9. The New York Times, Aug. 1". 1982, section cuter. \rl Pasadena Art Museum, in collaboration with Walkei 1967 Minneapolis Roy Liehtenstein. April 18-May28, (

he Antic Muse." The New

I

International

he Parrish Art

inized by fohn

ichtenstein." UExpress (Paris),

1

1981, pp. 80- 8

Micha, R.en<

and Los Angeles: University of California 1970, trans into German); and extensive

bibliography b\ fane 1

"

lomkms. Calvin

1969-1970

Sculpture,

de

es Miroirs

"I

pp. 32. 34. 38, 72.

1975. Exhibition catalogue, with

14.

Graphics, Reliefs

Irvine

|

1

Otto

Sept 24-30, 1982, pp. 2.\ 25. from Art" Ratcliff, c .uter •liehtenstein: Creating Art (Nov 1981), 3240 York), no. (New Harper's Bazaat

97.

April

l.ihn.

I

Gallery, University oi California, Irvine,

An

Liehtenstein

p.

Wieland Schmied; interview

essay by

(from

[ans

1987),

Zeichnungen

Neue Galerie-Sammlung

Sept.

12

[uly

(summer

J5

I

Liehtenstein:

rraveled to

Aachen,

ichtenstein." Flash Art (International

I

Whitney Museum of American Art. New York. Jowntown Branch. Roy Liehtenstein Graphu Work: 1970-1980. Oct, 14-Nov. 25. I

Kenato

additional texts by

published in Japan Breerette,

Barilli

and Sergio

rokyo Seibu

si

Genevieve "Liehtenstein

Salvi; also

Museum of Art, l>.

1983)

face a face." Le

Monde

Nan isa Phillips, William Quin, 1981 Organized by Rosenthal, Karl Wilier, and the Helena Rubinstein ellows aura the Whitney Museum's Independent Study Program ottingham, Nora Halpern, Anne Harrell, Virginia Kobler, 1

I

1982, p

Paris), Sept. 23,

19

Michael "Paintings That Make Your Retinas Dance [RTnews (New York) 80, no. 9 (No\ 1981), pp. \22 2S ichtenstein show on Ro.ul" )utt\. Robert \\ "< Setting

Danofl

1

1

1

Sunday Magazine, April

Louis Post Dispatch

St

1''.

1981,

in

I

l

Mahoney, rheresa Salazar, Sarah raylor Wilharm. Exhibition catalogue.

Ellen

States

and Susan

pp 6-11.

Publications and Reviews

und Pop \ri No> 20 1965 Exhibition catalogue, with text by Werner

Akademie der Kunste, [964

Accompanying Group Exhibitions

[an

J,

Berlin

New

Realisten

[ofmann and bibliography ind glossai with New Realism a\\A Pop art. I

Albright-Knox 19-De< <

lordon

Arte olony

An

Gallery, Buffalo.

1963.

15,

M

Met/ler. Paul

Arts

(

on,

ml

9,

"

Inoat An

2^>

asso( iated

I

Nov

I

Irt

Now

word by

awrence Alloway

Lichtenstein-Penfield-Miller.frn. 1955 (

p.

).

YM YWHA._

Oct

ms

Mixed Media and Pop

texts by

leveland

1955, section

of the

Vocabulary

(

ol tei

xhibition catalogue, with ton

Smith and

Galleries,

[an

I

\

olony." Plain Dealei (Cleveland),

1962

1

(

with dictionary of terms and artists' statements. Bianchini Gallery, New York Tenfiom Rutgers University. Dec

1-/

1963

-

1

New

Exhibition brochure, edited

is.

[965 [an 12,1966 Exhibition catalogue, with essay by Allan Kaprow Berkson, William. "In the Galleries." Arts Magazine (New York) 4". no 5 (March 1966), pp. 59-60. Cleveland ( entei foi ( ontemporai \ Art The Turning Point irtand Politics in

30.

Philadelphia .

by Anice Kandell with contributing editors Billy Kluxer. Claes inguely, and others. )ldenburg, Robert Rauschenberg, Jean

Nineteen Sixty-eight. Sept

Organized by Nina College Art Gallery,

9-Ocl

Castelli Sundell. I

ehman

I

College.

26, 1988

raveled to I

Lehman

he City University

ol


New York,

Bronx, Nov.

I".

1988-Jan.

14.

1989 Exhibition

catalogue, with preface by Sundell and Marjorie essays

atalogue, with prefa< e h\

,

1968 by Sundell and Irwin Unger, and chronology of

i

toi

.,,

art a< th ities

The

Pallas

Museum

for

Contemporary

Arts.

(New York)

"1961." April 3-Ma}

J7,

Preston, Stu in

Exhibition brochure, with introduction b} Douglas

\'<><-

The

Rose, Barbai

I

'Pop

i

ino) Seldis,

irtforum [Nev, York]

My

os Angeles.

11,

Country

Nox 18-De<

Thee

Ml <

>ispty

I

>bje<

March

Vri at

5

Max

i

Gerald Nordland. [962 Exhibition catalogue, with text b\ International Langsner, [ules. "Los Angeles etter." Art is,

Gugg< nheim"

the

i\

21, 1963,

p. 8.

Guggenheim." \n

the

International

21

25, 1963). pp. 2"

I

aw rem

1

Exhibition brochure, with introductory

2.1

[an

by

ess.i\

of Pop Art, 'Six

)ut Series

diibited

I I

108 09

Henry J. "The 'Pop \rl rrend rhis, too, Will Pass. ingeles Times, \ug 4. 1963 p Guggenheim Museum, New York Wordandlmag D

Solomon R 8,1965

no 9 [Maj 1973], pp 43-54). 'Tis of

no

7,

I

Magazine

irts

1963), pp

June

Jjos

introduction

1

<

no

irtforum (San Francisco) 2,

no 9 (Ma^

times,

York

m

War," in

U

M4.

i

)n

<

Painters and the

Painting, Pes Monies Art Center. Twenty-Jive Years of. American March 6-April 22, 19 J Organized by James l 94 g_1973 Demetrion Demetrion Exhibition catalogue, with preface b> ofKozlofTs and introduction by Max Kozloff (revised version published as "American Painting During the Cold

Gallery,

text

and the Object and Six More, L.A.

Donald "Six Painters and the Object."

ludd

Mai

Dwan

homas M. Mcsser and

Museum of Art."

1963), pp

<

L962

L3

.Sept

April Arts Museum. Houston. Pop )oes! The Easel Exhibition catalogue, with text h\ Douglas MacAgy.

1963

Jon. "Six Painters

I

ouncj

I

Contemporary

1

Allow. I\

ralalay,

e

Allow

a\.

"Word and Image"

Goldin, Aim.

Maga

\rts

(New York)

itu

1

7, no. (Jan. 25, 1963), pp. 81-83 University of British Columbia, Vancouvei

(Lugano) ine Arts Galler)

I

no

2.

1969 Organi \, lrt.July9 Sepl and Suzi GabUk. Exhibition H ilogue, with oi English introduction b> Russell and GabUk and chronology and American Pop art

1

Becomes Reality. Jan 29-Feb. 8, 1964 with introduction by Alvin Balkind. Lord. |. Barry. "Pop Art in Canada." 9

4o. no, 4 (Feb. 1966), p. 54.

(Much

Hayward

In

Exhibition brochure, \rtforum (San Francisco

remporaire, Frejus. La Sculpture 4-Sept. 29, 1991. Exhibition I970.)u\) tontemp0 raim Caroline Smulders and essays catalogue, with introduction by Cabanne, >aniel >obbels, Pierre hs French) (in English and Carter Ratcliff, and Siegfried Gohr, Demetrio Paparoni, Marie-France Cooper. Neal Trans, by aroline Smulders. ( Basel.

Roy

,

derie-Verein

and Virginia

Gesellschaft

1990]]

rhe

26 ,

atsou Roberts;

i

lr*

and

essays

[Ne*

Magazine

by Anna

<

(

York] 64, no

hav

5

|an |

Marcus, and Brian Wallis }eorg« locktower Gallery, ontemporan Art, h.

r,

i

I

<

l

uci sj exhibil The Pop Project (a series of tout Dreams 1988 Exhibition catalogue, Modem

York

ofwork from

the 1950s and 1960s that Exhibition catalogu.

incorporates comic-strip elements essa\ b)

Calvesi,GermanoCelant,EdideWUde,

Au^sra Monfenn, ChristosM-Joachimides, Peter Ludwig, Pincus-Witten, Robert Panza, GregoireMuUer, Giuseppe Szeemann Harald and Ragon, Michel New York S,> Pamten and th Solomon R Guggenheim Museum, 1963. Organize Iby Object. MlhU-)»ne 2. Artjur, Angeles County Museum of Allen,,, [raveled to Los Institute of Arts. sept. Minneapolis 2" 1963; 24-AuMuseum of Art, Ann Arbor, 1963 University of Michigan

I™«

,

.

,

nstitute

as

64, the

April 5, 1964; and

1964. Exhibition

385

I-

mi,

(

itth

1967:

Philadelphia

with

Siegfried.

of Contemporary Art University rossroadi

<

*»"ffi^ \pnl

March

l

I

catalogue, w,th

Exhibition 1987 Organized b> [anetKardon R Lippard, Barbara Rose, Lucy Kardon, L S ays by Hal Foster, art activities b^ m d Irving Sandler; chronology ol 1967 [on

md

[nstitute

""^

Carroll. selected bibUograph) by Jane c ° Ua ' on Arts. 1

^

of Contemporary

D hnage Oct The Popular Galerielleana Sonnabend, Pans atalogue. with text In Alan ichibil 1963 23 2l

Nm

rS

I

Keith. "Current and For.

n

f ff^*°™

29 (De. (London) I05.no exhibition 574,577-78 Review of Uchtenstein ,,„,,, pp appears on pp ^ 7 ^- ^ 77

London

Brandeis University,

».{^£^£

CoiumbusGaUeryofFine Arts, March 8 ™nterinLaJolla,AP rU20 May 17,

»

Exhibition

,1988 Feb.

Feb. 23

it

Philadelphia.

(Milan: Electa, 1989), with 1989 Exhibition catalogue Bourel Maunzio Michel w ^chille BonitoOliva, Jean Louis Froment,

I

i

Uchtenstein ind others interviews and a conversation among ^enmylvama of University Art, Institute of Contemporary 1969 Oct. 1 No> Thi Spirit of thi Coi

U

^ 1963; Rose Art Museum, 18-Dec Waltham, Massachusetts. Nov. Jan Pittsburgh, Art Carnegie Institute,

1992;

|uh

I

1987-Junel2 (Nev, York Institut< foi The Rise and Fall and Rise of Pop Mil Press, 1988), Contemporary Art Cambridge, Mass.: and Patricia Phillips, Hebdige Dick ^thtexte on Pop art by articles, essays, and reprinted and original other WC U as

,

Oct 9-Nov

<

22

17 and Aug. texts b> Hans with catalogue, Exhibition

>e<

l

[ndianapolii xhibition catalogue (Indianapolis:

1

Institute fort

New

Bem.Juh 12-Aug.

Hamburger Bahnhof Berlin

in

imencan

in

Jrganizedb) Holhda}

<

Akron Art Museum, Jan I8-March21 ll ine \rts, Richmond Ma)

Museum oi

ceprintedfiom

Cdlezione Sonnabend Modern., Rome. GaUeria Nazionale d'Arte Traveled" 2,1989 14-Oct April Dalla Pop Art in poi. Arte Reina Sofia, Madrid. de Centre Nacional Museo Musee d'Art Contemporain 30 L987 Feb L5 1988; CAP( May 6-Aug. 21, 1988; and "Zeitgeist"

deBordeaux

1991

I

ofArt

profiles b)

ichtenstein (in

Stroher. June 14-Aug. 9, Westfliigel. Sammlung 1968 Karl Aug. 24 Oct 6, Hamburg, Kunstvcrcm 1968 Traveled to March 1-Apr.l 14, 1968- Neuen Nationalgalerie, Berlin. 17, Kunsthalle Diisseldorf, April 25-June

23 Sept 28, 1969 Mr Km and fiirgen Wissmann.

Nm

I

I,

1969| and KunsthaUe

5-

Press, in cooperation with Indiana Uni >ay; artists In preface Waller; 1991), with foreword b) Bret

Museum

Runs, Munchen, Neuc Pinakothek, Hans der

L969- Stadtische

1992

12

and John William Gabriel. Ma) Uchtenstein Frank Stella. Man I

[raveled to

1

[--tore,

essa> on 1991. Exhibition catalogue, with Tuten English and German) b\ Frederic <

1961-1991 Sept

n„

irtists

I

[ndianapolis

apm

1

i

and

Fondation Daniel Templon, Muse,

Cleric Beyeler,

ic.hn Russell

Wolfram, Eddie 'Pop \rt Undefined." In (London) \, no 6 (Sept. 1969), pp. 18 19 Myths and Mores Museum of Art. Powei

1964), pp 28-31.

de Palomera, feanne

London Pop

Gallery,

In

»

Burlington Magazine

-

/^^

,

.

,

,

London. ( of Contemporary Arts, by Sheena WagstarJ 17-Sept 13,1987 Organized

Institute

Bibliography

ir.ivuiut lcdt0


,

Sidney

Oct. 8-Nov 21, 1987 toughs [yd. Gallery, Dublin, 988, and Jan 12-Feb 2 Manchester Gallery. Chouse ;

1

I

1

Museum. Hundebaek, Aug 20-Oct 30^1988

Louisiana

«Blazwickand

atalogue. with preface b,

Exhibit!

Wagstaff,

David Deitcher, Dan Graham, „„„,,„„„,,! An Program of the National ( 1" Smithsonian Institution Washing essays by

I

le

i'orte

r^no/e^y. May County Museum of Art. *rt am* Tuchman. (Works Maurice by Organized 1971 10-Aug 29

including two seas, ape films by bv eight ofthe artists— in the shown in March-Sept. 1970 I htenstein-were Japan. halo, '70 ... ( Expo installation at

el al

American Pavilion catalogue, organized by Tuchman.) Exhibition

**"*** Kelly,

Helen Fmnkenthder Ellsworth Biennial Exhibition of Art die Venice Olitski. Premiered at

Rm

,

io e

VenezialXXX1

1967

At

l.W»>

inttoducdon In Geldzahlen

s, ,.,,.

1)

the William Rub,,,, biographies of

Venice

Lynton,Norbert. "Venice 1966/Mrt no 7 fSepi 1966), pp. 84-89 of Australia ,rnationa. Cultural Corporation

International

lm

1955-70 Premiered

Art Gallery of

at

Sydney, Feb 27-April

I

!

rraveled to

June

2

, ,,„

I

of Art, Dec. 5-16,

i

Nov. l-Dec.

Realists

I.

f the

International Exhibit

Nev, York

homas

B.

"New

New

1962 Exhibition catalogue, with Restany ex. erpt of essay by Pierre

ARTnews (New York)

Realists.'

61,

Gallery."

The

New

York

"'Pop' Goes the

Nov

4.

1962, section

Restany, Pierre. "Le

York" Art

New 2,

Oct

(1

Tim

York

p 23

Nouveau Realisme

International

New

Art" The

ugano)

7,

conquete de

a la

no

I I

Jan

|

New

-.

l

illim

"In the Art Galleries."

Sidney.

(New

"The New

York) 37.

no

New

Dec 2,

1962), pp.

43-44.

I

os Angeles.

HanWainted Pop

Lveled to the

Museum

1993; and

Whitney Museum

of

7,

Amen, an

he

3.

E. Silver,

Art,

New

and John Yau York. Art

1967. Organized by

in the

Mirror

L962,p

Nov

__.

Gene R. Swenson.

Swenson. Exhibition brochure, with text bv High and Lew: York. New Art. Modern Museum of

Modem 1* Orgamzedby

1990-jan and Popular Culture. Oct. 7. Traveled to the Art K.rk Varnedoe and Adam Gopnik.

Museum of Chicago. Feb. 20-May 12. 1991; and 15,1991. -Sept 2 Angeles. June Los ( ontemporary Art, Richard E Oldenburg, Exhibition catalogue, with foreword by bibliography by annotated and Gopmk. texts by Varnedoe and With Armstrong and bcrcshtch Dattan Published 1

York Post

Realists" Arts Magazine

3 (Dec,

Art.

Matthev companion volume. Modern

Art and Populai Culture Readings and ( .opn.k. Varnedoe edited by i„ High and Loir, Museum ot Fine Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Atkins

William

York Post,

i

April

Institute of

25, L963),

1

New

&

15,1991

p 29-36. illusion- TheNewYorh Rosenberg, Harold "Thi Game oi 165-67. 161-62, Nov 24, 1962, pp York" Art Rud.kofl. Soma "Nev Realists m New 25. 1963), pp. 38-41. (Jan. 7, no. International (Lugano)

Sandler, Irving. "In the Art Galleries." Magazine t No\ is. 1962, p. 12

(Oct. 1962),

1

Museet by Solomon only (from Moderna

L966-Feb.

41

31, 1962, p

essay

The Museum of Modern

1

Times,

i

Schimmel, Kenneth

1962) pp 12-13. Revolt, 'Nev, Realists O'Doherty, Brian -Art: Avant-Garde Mass Culture in ichibition al Sidney lams

Mock US

York) 37. no.

Exhibition catalogue Art Art; New York: Contemporary (Los Angeles: Museum of with introduction Ferguson, Russell edited by kizzoli 1992) Deitcher. De David by and essays bv De Salvo and Schimmel Linda Norden. Hebdige. Dick Foster. Salvo. Stephen C.

(Dec

I

(New

NewYork,Julyl6-Oct.3. 1993

I

I

Magazine

April 3-June 20

preface by |ohn Ashbery, ieorges Marci), and text by Jams (trans into English by Hess.

irts

—-July

I,

entries for individual

Sidney lanis Gallery

Run

Hudson

Tht

Dec. 6,1 992-March f 955-1962. American \rtin Transit Paul Schimmel. and Salvo De Donna 1993. Organized by of Contemporary Art, Chicago,

|

ivingstone

I

55—56

The MusetTof* ontemporary

Osaka, Feb. in 12, 1992; Daimaru Museum, 14 1991 Kyoto, March 12- 1". 1992 Museum, Daimaru and 1992 and English), with essays and Exhibition atalogue in Japanese works by Ernst A. Busche and Marco I

Two Agi

Museet, Stockholm.

pp u ith

kawamura

Museum

oj

Amsterdam. June 1964; and Stedelijk Museum. foreword by K.G. with catalogue, 1964 Exhibition Nils-Hugo Geber Hulten and essays by Oyvind Fahlstrom, essay Published in (Solomon's Solomon Alan Billy Kluver. and [Lugano] 8, no. 2 (March 1964), English in Art International published by the Stedelijk Museum, edition 50-55) Dutch

^

Kitakyushu Municipal

[991

i

Irt

26*

Roy Shinjuku, Ibkyo Images oj Womenby 29-Sept. Aug. Muses. 24^ Pop Lichtenstein and Andy Warhol Memorial Museum ot Art. Uct. 1991

.

^4

Museum of Art,

2_D e(

York

Rosenquist George Segal, Uchtemtein, Claes Oldenburg, James 29-April 12, 964. Feb Indy Warhol, Tom Wesselmann. April 17-Mav Humlebaek, Museum. Louisiana rraveled to

Melbourne, nd National Gallery of Victoria, text by with catalogue, Exhibition 1985

raveled to

New

llhm

Modema

South Wales,

artists reprinted statements by the artists, Baxter Paula by bibliography selected

biographies, and I

Gallerv.

pp.

*™-*f«

un e26 kug II Henry Geldzahler, i

New

imerican Tradition. Milwaukee Art Center. Pop Art and the Atkinson. Exhibition Tracy by Organized 9-May 9, 1965. catalogue, with essay by Atkinson. Amerikansk pop-konsi Jim Dine, Roy

(Lugano) 10,

Modern Art New ^national CouncU of the Museum of Queensland Art Gallery, Brisbane, May York

From

tht Sixties:

to

School."

Organized by the

1985

14,

.

New

oj

Aug. 6-31, 1962. School and Roy Lichtenstein, and ^HudsonKiver Sidney, "Roy Lichtenstein

Selection at Preview ofthe no 10 (June 19( Biennale." 4rgfbm" (Nev, York) 4, catalogue essay Geldzahlers of version J8 Revised pp

v

York. Masters

Exhibition Pop Art. Nov. 7-Dec. 31. 1984. Hunter. Sam text by catalogue, with

M. Chou

the

New

oj

.

,

Gallery,

Realism

sssasw- American ^^"r^ssf 1966 A

Re

Marisa del

texts

sele( ted

and

artists;

narratives

artists'

Ifce

Museum

Tuchman, essay by Jane by Tuchman. Livingston, and

Gail Scott

and Clement Gteenberg. Robert Rosenblum,

L^eHzahL

LvingSton, and

1

l

foreword by David

Us and Technology Program of, he 1967-1971 with introduction by

[rt

16.1966 Organized by Henry D.C ,De< Washington. Geldzahkr. Traveled to with atalogue Cm Itahan and English, chibio IS

Report on

1

Angeles County

Lichtenstein, Jules

Biennale,Junel8-Ocl

New

os Angeles

°*<?%£*%££ „ XXX1H Esposiziom

biennate intern*

York Pop and Op Dec. 1-31. 1965^ \rl York Letter: Two Groups Benedikt Michael. "New (Feb. 1966), p. 66. 2 no. 10, (Lugano) International lanis Gallery,

12,

Common 1" irtistu Projections of 1963 Exhibition 28-May 26, April Symbols American by Ralph T. Coe. catalogue, with introductory essay Arts

Kansas City Popular


The New

catalogue, with pref.u

e b\

Marjone

Talalay

and

text

i

York

State Building. Flushing

by Carol

Meadows,

New

York.

New

York

1

I

r,

I

rÂŤ man and .m international Pop art chtonolog) >'>2) contains an addition al edition (Munich: Prestel, biography of John Chamberlain b\ Flora isher; Spanish sparia, Elemond, 1992) contains an edition (Madrid: Electa

Pop

Ian 1964/ 1965. April 22-Oct. 31. 1964, and April

World's

lonstance

Pat

Nathanson.

New

W

Glenn, Thomas Kellein, ivingstone, Alfred quement, and Evelyn Weiss (trans into English U to id Bntt). artists biographies by Elizabeth Brooks. Philip ( oopi Simonetta Fraquelh. Caroline Odgcrs. and Joanna Skipwith; anthology of writings on American, British, and mop. m

Gallery of Contemporary Art. Cleveland. American Pop Art Sixties. Jan. 10-Feb. 21. 1976. Exhibition

and the Culture of the

art;

(

l

22-Oct. Johnson.

17, 1965.

"Young

Philip.

Center." Art pp.

1

]

Artists at the Fair

imerica

in

(New

and

at

Lincoln

I

York) 52, no. 4 (Aug. 1964),

I

New

building of the discussed

on

York

State Pavilion

at

the

fair

additional biography of

is

second English edition

113.

p.

Oakland Art Museum and

the California

C

Montreal

ollege of Arts and Crafts.

Pop An USA. Sept. 7-29, 1963 Organized by John Coplans Exhibition catalogue, with foreword by Paul Mills and essay by Coplans (reprinted m Ariforum [San Francisco] 2. no. 4 [Oct 1963). pp. 27-30).

Odakyu Grand

Gallery, Tokyo. Pop

of the '60s

British Artists

1"

U.S.A

n, the '80s.

July

24-Aug

is, 19

1

1

Museum

of Art. Oct.

30-Nov.

17. 1987;

of Art, Yokohama. Nov. 26-1 )ec 13. 1987. Exhibition catalogue, with essays (in Japanese and English) by Alloway and Livingstone, css.iv (in Japanese only) by Masataka Ogawa; and artists" profiles (in Japanese and

and Sogo Museum

English) by

Palais

lean

Dypreau and

for the

Museum of Fine

Spain by Valeriano Bozal

\zn

lordillo by Sagrario

md

an

u

Montreal exhibition (Montreal

Arts. 1992) contains an additional

I

(

I

~u^\ essays

by Gumpert

.\nd

Brian Wallis, trans into

[ul

1964. Exhibition catalogue, with text by Alan Solomon in University Art Museum, University of< alifornia, Berkeley \Aadt '60 [mericanixation in Modem Lit, Hii '50i and is iâ&#x20AC;&#x17E; i

\ pi

il

Iraveled to

[une 21, 1987. Organized In Sidra Sti< h Museum of Art. Kansas City,

4

25 Sepl

|uly

the Nelson-Atkins

1965. Exhibition catalogue, with preface by essay

(

lour." Artforum (New York) bildren's Crow, Thomas. "The 1991), pp *4 ss 30, no 4 (Dec Hughes, Robert. "Wallowing in the Mass Media Sea." Time \s L991), pp 102-03 (New York) 138, no \~ (< I960 1990 |uly 6 Aug [nurianArt Museum, Tokyo. Art Setagaya [raveled to the is. 1991. Organized by Lynn Gumperi National Museum ol \rt, Osaka, Aug 29 Sept 29, L991; and idiibition Fukuoka Art Museum, Nov. 15-De< 15, 1991 catalogue (in English and Japanese), with introdui mom In

.

I.

ms

[apanese by Tetsuo Kinoshita and Reiko lomn. Stedelijk Museum. Amsterdam. American Pop hf June 22

Ohtsubo, [bshio Shimizu, Junichi Shioda, Midori Shiraishi, and Atsuo Tsuruoka. des Beaux-Arts de Bruxelles. Pop An Nouveau Rialisme Etc.

5-March

l

preface by Pierre Theberge.

Gumpert

Livingstone. Trans, into Japanese by Kenji

Feb.

art in

m

\merican and

-U.K.

Organized by Lawrence Alloway and Marco Livingstone Traveled to Daimaru Museum. Osaka, Sept >-2S, *>S7; the Funabashi Seibu

Pop

additional essay on

12-27. Lichtenstein's mural tor the Theaterama

Arts, Ri< hmond 6, 1987; and Virginia Museum of Fine os 7-Dec. 7. 1987. Exhibition catalogue (Berkeley and

by Pierre Restart)

1

Palazzo Civilta del

I

avoro,

Rome.

Artoon: Uinfiuenza delfumetto

nelle

Angeles: University Art

XX secolo. Nov. 25. 1989-Jan. 15. 1990 Organized by Achille Bonito Oliva and Stefano Petri.

artl visive del

and University

Exhibition catalogue (Naples: Electa. 1989), with essays

James

(in

I

(

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Royal 24,1993 Exhibition catalogue (London L991), Nicholson, and Weidenfeld Arts and Academy of introductions In edited by Marco Livingstone, with Cameron, Sarat Maharaj; essays by Dan 23

L992-Jan

U

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:

Alice

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April 18-June 2, L963

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I

U nn<

)

in Art International ind essay by Alan Solomon (reprinted In conjunction [Lugano] 7, no 7 [Sept 25 L963], pp 37 41) partii ipating artist with interviews exhibition, with the

corded, audio tape and phonograph record ol ini )( deposit at the Archives of American An, Washing [merican Pop In Art. Nev, York American Museum of Whitney awrence Allov, April 6-June 16, 1974. Organized In olliei Bi xhibition catalogue (New York and London Museum Whitney with and Collier Macmillan in association In Ul text with Art. 1974), of American Righi \rtist, Right Baldwin Carl R. "On the Nature of Pop ,

l

I

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m imertca Pop Revi 1974 \pril (March pp 64 68. (New York) 62, no. 2 In \bout In |uly Art, New Yori American of Museum Whitney Richard Marshall. Iraveled 19 sept 24. 1978. Organized by lult,John

"'<

lassie'

1,

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387

llifornia,

Elliott; text b> Stitch; essays by

Popular Image Exhibition

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Pop

''''2. second revised version entitled Die 19, National Centra de Arte Re.na Museo traveled to Show Art 14. 1992; and a third revised Sofia, Madrid, |une 23-Sept. Montreal. Oct to the Museum of Fine Arts.

23-Apnl

ol

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New Forms in Martha Jackson Gallery, New York. New Media catalogue, Exhibition 24. I960 6 Sculpture. June Painting and New Media I. with foreword by Martha Jackson New Forms and essays by awrence Alloway .u^\ Allan Kaprow.

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pp 45, - Situations - Spaces. Martha [ackson Gallery, New York. Environments with statements brochure, Exhibition 1961 23, May 25-June Walter Gaudnek, Allan by artists George Brecht.Jim Dine, Kaprow, Claes Oldenburg, and Robert Whitman New York Kaprow. Allan issemblage, Environments and Happenings. Kaprow by and design text ,n-v N. Abrams. 1966. New York ed. Happenings: An Illustrated Anthology -

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Popolare'

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the Jewish

on radio

Museum. New

station

Anti-Sensibilit} Painting."

York.

March

WBA1. New York \rtJorum (San

1

ran<

is<

o) 2.

Edward L "Neo Dada A (New York) 23. no. 3 (spun-

Critique of Pop Art." Art Journal

"Art without 23, 1963, pp. 45-46.

Kendall, Elaine

Pop' Vulgarians." pp. I

(

ulture,

on a

(

1964), pp

Artists."

Metaphysii

in

Ma\

\nliuy of Modern

Schuster, 1968, pp.

216 22

2iH

192

The Reporter (New York) Ma) >l

Disgust and the

I" International (Zurich) 6,

34-36. Reprinted

.,/)>

(summer

Non-Pop

Art." Art and Literature

1965), pp. 80-93.

Roth. Moira. "The Aesthetic of Indifference." Artforum (New York) l.,. no 3 (Nov 1977), r\r 46-53. Russell. |ohn.

"Pop Reappraised

"

\rt

m

\merica

(New

York) 57.

78-89 Saarmen. Aline B. "Explosion of Pop Art: A New Kind of Fine Art Imposing Poetic Order on the Mass-produced World Vogue (New York) 141. no. 8 (April 15. 1963), no. 4 (July-Aug. 1969), pp.

no

2

Kozloff, Renderings

1"

New

New

(March 1962), Critical

York Simon and

"

86-87, 134. 136, 142. -Souk Traditional Aspects of Pop Art" Art Journal (New York) 2(>. no 3 (spring 1967), pp. 228-33, 24S York) 53. Sandler. Irving. "The New Cool-Art" An in America (New 96-101. no (Jan. 1965), pp. pp.

Sandberg.John

1

Dorothy Gees. "Folklore ol the Banal " 1" in imerica (New York) 50, no 4 (winter 1962), pp. 56 -61 Revised version appeared m Art in imerica 51, no 4 (Aug. 1963),

Seckler.

pp. 44 -4S.

Art." Arts Magazine (New York) 36-45. Transcript of symposium moderated b\ Selz at the Museum of Modern Art. New York. Dee \)ce. 13. 1962. Includes papers presented by panelists Kunitz, Stanley Kramer. Hilton Geldzahler. Ashton, Henry

Selz, Peter.

1963), pp 26

iSept

ausanne), no. 5

(I

(London) 25. no. 2 (Aug.

.

I

performan< e art "'Happenings'

in Perspective." Encounter

L965), pp 59-63. Rosenblum, Robert. "Pop Art and

York) 171, no 877 (Ma) 1966), pp. 187-91. " htenstein, he [mage Duplicators

(New fohnson,

"Pop

.

Irwin, David

"A Symposium on Pop

37. no. 7 (April 1963),

and Leo Steinberg

"Pop Cioes the Artist." Partisan Renew (New York) 30, no. (summer 1963), pp 313-16. " An and Artists he Spirit of the Comics Siegfried, loan .

(A

(London)

4. no.

9 (Dec. L969), pp. 18-21.

3


-The Slice-of-Cake School.- Time (New York) 79, no. 52 Lichtenstein and Wayne Thiebaud 1962

19

are

Coke

Sylvester, David. "Art in a

(Ma} 11, quoted at

Magazine

(1

ondon),

fan

i

length.

"Something

New

Is

Cooking."

Life

(New

L962), pp. 115-16, 119-20. Sorrentino, Gilbert "Kitsch into 'Art

(New "The

toward

Tillim, Sidney

York)

2.

(Nev, York)

York) 52, no 24 (June 15,

a

I

39, no.

Climate." the Sunday Vimes Colour 16

196

I

iterary Revival?"

9 (May-June

Irts

1965)

\4aga

pp

10

foi

33.

"Further Observations on thÂŤ Pop Phenomenon: 'AH \rtforum Revolutions Have Their Ugly Aspects (New York) 4. no J (Nov. 1965), pp. 17-19. .

-

The New

Realism- Kulchw

\w 8 (winter 1962), pp. 10-23. Vewsweek It Is and How It Came to Be."

Weschei

Story of Pop: Hov,

(Saini

(New York) 67, no. 17 (April 23, 1966), pp. 56 58, 61 Painters.'" [RTneun Swenson, Gene R. "The New American Sign 44-47. 60 62 (Sept. 1962), pp. (New York) 61, no. 5

Wolfram,

"Die 'Neuen Realisten' und ihre VorlSufer." GaU, Switzerland) 49, no 8 (Aug 1962), pp 291

lerta

I

I

ddit

Pop

as

Mod" An

(April 1966), pp 28-32.

391

Bibliography

and

Irtists

d ondon)

I,

no

100 I


w

Index of Reproductions numbers appeal

in

Abnl

bold

Hr

MM

^

'^e

'

CU*. 7M

Winkle." in panel from), 52

^

C H?° andRider,

-.S

lay.

July 16. 1961

Ul, i*«

I

\/,,,r,

,,,n 4

B/cycfc I"'"'-

dp, Cod

-

6

Fountain, 1917

1919, 67

h.OlQQ

B/iW Swimmer, 1934, 179 Wheel of Light, 1925, 190 I" "'

••

1

,

IWmaHQw«K»«HerHffli <

'

,

'

,u,

'

i

i::

(

^mv,

Iris,

1

,,:

!

,

1

^t*

mm*

\pril 1962), D.<

March (

,

1

(

omposition

90

omics (panels from), 93

II.

1912, 145

ishstand,

/•/„•

""""";:, (

'i!;:;,,,,,,

,«,^

.,,,,,

.

*«*«?.

1956,8

|„,,

Lmewaii

I//

M«i

o/ W4r. no. 89

Comics (panel from), 97 anuan February 1962), D.( bat no. '4 G.l C in rank." Killei "Haunted rankvs 96 from), (panel omics une |,,K 1962), D.< f

C

I

|

lawlensky, rMexei

Head), 1937, 202

1937 (Meditation SmmJsoj Wfaiei 1927,201 Vl

II

less

-/

,

/

.,-,

(

/.

1954,9

Start,

„•„/,

1959,69

/

l/<

|

Gfaw, 1979,262 ( -"'1963, 106

0MI RdOIS,

Blue Sponge,

1955

Red 1966, 153

1925, 174

//„

dry, 1919,141

//„

<

158

1972, 157

M0,

ountry

<

ichtenstein,

1990,272 Uoha, 1962, 102 17.

d'Alger,

Femmi

ta

F/anrei

/"

Sfurfio

212

1980,203

M

/."v"'

'

1

'"'--

54

1961,46

Bfl//,

Gi>/

ir,///

Hm'i Rftfon, 1965,

Gt rf

urff ,

fi

/•

Bar. ../».,-.

115

1977, 189 1979, 167

1977,261

1962,31 Mum/, 1983, 277 ,11111111111". 1965, 65

(,,// Ball, ,„,-„,•

(

'

1963, 36

Landscape, 1985,

Girl wirii

I"SS. 267

"Dancers," 19 \.-

//'

I

1963,39

unfauteuil,

<„,/,/„,/, /<„„./.

1962,66 •.

Femme

,

Irtwt'j Studio,

263

Female Head, 1977,193

(„, f

l„ r /,iM..

//«,;./

1965, 243

34 George Wfafnngton, 1962,

1934, 169

R"\

!,,/,,„,

//.

Frightened Girl, 1964, 113

1954, 196

>i""<"

I'acrobate,

1952, 10

Explorer, ca

xplosion

Ivio

Emanuel Gotdieb

In

154

L976, 159

,„,,/./,/„„<.

Foresl Scene,

Washington Crossing the Delaware, 1851,2 1

EmerdWs, 1961,50 51 //„ / ngagement Ring, 1961,

Expressionist Head, 1980,

nand

Marie eutze,

H<>

1959,239

rfic Baluster,

1

I

/

flic

ves

ei

(

/

Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange,

l

Sim //. >73. 185 1962,72 /., /,/.« Diptyefc, #'• 1967, 120 fertri. S«B«p« ,/,,.>, ,/(//.

/

Cans), I960, 5

Kelly, Ellsworth

i

1

1970,155, 156 Entablatures (photographs of), ca.

PtainfnJ /*>.":.

^

,,,J

Drowning

Entablature

lohns, |asper

Klein,

176

Entablature #8, 1972, ,/.

Falsi

Cards, 1974, Life with Playing

-

197 Di Waldmann, 1979, 15 1958, Donald Duck,

/

ollins]

[<

177

,

«;"»'.v

1974, 175

Entablature, 1974,

1921, 200

inter,

" ""' l974,

'<•'<•"'

/.'/-••

Still

/)„„/,/,

^cesWild,"in

III,

rnpfyc/i

Cwfcisl Stffl l(

76

1965,77 Conversation, 19" <. 266 1984, 265 ( bniwftifiofti

77„.

,

1964,

II,

Composition

r,,r

|uan //„

1965, 247

(

~ cc

,

,

^:,':

,

1965, 248 /.

I

Cloud and Sea, 1964, 117 omposition I, L964, 75

1934,255

H.

Scw/prwr.

,,,,„„,

«

1973,165

1965, 249

Sfi r//'Mnc 2,

,,,„„,

,

Still Life II,

Sculpture,

.,„„ «

//„

ionzak

264

1987, 271

1961,43

.,/.

(

mst, M.»\

(

1964, 112

.269 Head IV (Barcelona Head), 198 126 Brushstrokes, 1965, 276 Brushstrokes, 1970,275,

Hermann, 1926, 198

hamp, Marcel

/

>

Bms/isfrafa

/>,

1

No

F/oims, 1961, 25

Britfhsfrofce,

Dix, Otto

>ui

Hie Lar^c In.,,//. 1989,279 1992, 238 13 ° '' l965

<4r/«,

Brushstroke, 1981,

1950, 206

11,.,,,,/u

I

H,J

.»/

Bfoiufc ILnn-zc.

Kooning, Willem

,)<

5brfm«y

i

Blam, 1962,81

Memory,

Persistence o)

//„

BdiiliAif

B/flffe

Salvador

Dali

>,„„,,/ Fire,

.

Barcelona Head,

Big ftH'nfiqg

1913. 182

Ue Red Rider,

or

1964,91 1992,270 Baseball Manager, 1963,64 Bathroom, 1961, 56 K,m/mi/v .SMinr.iy. 1988, 215 /

l

ny no. 83 (November 1962), n For Love!" in 107 105, from), D.C Comics (panels

4.

170

(Look Mickey), 1973, 171

//,,//

Sfreel

Face with Collar, 1963,

55


rfrail

Refections

L/h'oiN

1991

.

Reflections on

r/ieKfo, L962, 101

Reflections

1988,

//„

Reflections (collage stud) for), 1993,

280

Spoof,

/,;,,.,

/.///,,'///

.V///v/

(

B(g

Littfc

Self-Portrait Sfnlrifg

1966, 133

/'<>>/<».

1964, 118

Lifrora/,

Ammo Live Ammo Live Ammo Live Ammo

89

(Ha!ha!ha!), 1962,

(Take Cover), 1962,

Mirror #1, 1969, 142

#2

Mirroi

fi«

8' *

4pane/j

'•''•

1971, 149

1977.260

//.

24" Dramefei #

V/irroi

u/if/i

(J)M,// Bow/, 1973, 164

/.//.'

"////

G/«i

Still

Ufe

with Goldfish Bowl, 1972, 160

Classii

Modern Paintingwith Morfem Painting with

Pifc/ier,

/./''/<'

rwme

/

\ /,.</.///

A/,. /,n/ (

\/,. ,/,///

\/,>,/,///

Sculpture, 1967,

Mural

i/'"//

B/we Brushstroke,

254

Son-objective

II,

M, Rose

Bwl

x

3'

#/. 1971, 151

Oval Mirroi 6'*

V

#3, 1971, 150

Oiw/Minw

6'

Paintings: Mirror,

1984,

.

II, ./,,///

1964, 111

vfmMi

17.

a

1951,

1963,90

///.

1982, 205 1

1

Magritte,

222

,,,„,„, „.,,/,

l

Rene

//„

Rape, 1934, 194

SomoJ W,/". 1964, 188 Mapplethorpe, rioberi Lichtenstein, 1985, frontispiece //,<

1988,218

(Yellow),

S/oiWy

i

1

(

and Minus

/•

I

1964, 108

"'" 37 Flowered Hat, 1966, 129 Brushstrokes, Green and Yellow 128 W//,xr Brushstroke II, 1965,

221 Paintings: Picasso Head, 1984, 140 1970, 'hemistry, /-,,,,, FTirowj/i ,>,,„,„„/

Radiatot and Folded Sheets, 1983,

Brushtroke I. 1965, 132 White Cloud, 1964, 119 II, ,„,,, (Tw/eefJ, 1961, 24

1963,95

lot -Shot*.

1964, 121

1956, 12

117,,/,

1

Okay,' I

I

M//,/,,/m'.

1986, 278

roo

1968, 79

///.

1965, 244

t&room/,

1964, 42

/Lot/e Vom,

.

Bdrs

Washing Machine, 1961, 57 ll,,./,m V '/.'" Crossing the Delawan

\m,m. 1964, 110 /<//

1972, 162

1976, 180

I960, 13

„/,//,,/.

I

1964, 41

I.

163

i

/,,v Paintings

252

Nine Panels, 1968, 139 7%e, 1985, 211

Son-objective

19*72,

168 Uompel't kilwith Ugei Head and Paintbrush, 1973, 220 /iiv Paintings: Dagwood, 1983,

Vforfu/ai Painting with 1

Bi//,

/,,,„,/,<

251 Sculpture with Three Discs, 1967, 253 Sculpture with Velvet Rope, 1968,

Mountain

*rosi

/""'"'

Pymmidst 1969, 123 1963 S4 Lo

//,/,,

Head. 1967, 136

Sculpture with Glass Wave, 1967,

<

H/if/i

/,i/

1962,82

1/.. >//.-.

/),-//,//

/,//

1967, 137

Clef,

"

/-»»/••

/,„,,/,,•/

1990, 274

///.

Mofcife

/,

Sfi// /.'/- "'///

/,/Rm /,/R,/.

24" Diametei #/4, 1970, 146 Diameter), 1972, 148 Mirroi '" S« Rawefa, 1971, 152 Be/tomy, 1961, 49 V/i

•""'

Sri// Life in/// Si/i/ei

/-/.v"

A/i/kh

Plus

1976, 1S4

,S7///

s/,, /,//,/

1970, 147

-

Mirroi

O//.

1978, 187 II,

196 2. 61

//.

53

Mermaid, 1979, 273

Vfirroi

1976, 183

Smm, 1964, 116

s/,// /.//.

/'/„•

Day)

Step-on-Can with Leg, 1961, 73 Sreppmg Our, 1978, 195

1963, 44

I/aw,

(

Masterpiece, 1962,

oj the

1962.60

Spray,

LoofeMirfey, 1961, 19

Magnifying

r ,,„v

s

86

88

(Tzing!), 1962,

Times

Fine Different

Sourcebooks (pages from), ca. 1960s, 26, 33 Sourcebooks (page from), ca 1990, 234

1962,87

(Blang!),

Live

al

Sty ami M. ifer, 1985, 210 SowirfoJ Vfwsir, 1964, 114

1965, 131

ftrifirinj,

(Seen

1969, 124

Set III.

Self-Portrait,

1962,74

Life New,

af/ierfra/

(

268

1

I'' ':.

Self-Portrait,

63 1963, 62

Large Jewels, 1963,

1962, 58

Refrigerator,

Rouen

227 228

1990,

Yoo Hoo, 1989,

Rifira/ M<ufc,

1977, 192

"""

1990, 231

and Model, 1990, 229

WhaamU

tions;

207

"'"//

Large folerioi

224

Nancy, 1989, 225

Reflections on Paintei

Lamp//, 1977, 259 /.</,>„>,>//.

1990, 223

Reflections on Interioi with Girl Drawing,

241 Interior with Swimming Pool Painting, 1992, 237 1991, Sculpture, Klein Yves Interior with In the Car, 1963, 103

Landscape with Figures,

226

Reflections on Brushstrokes, 1990,

235 233

.

Nurse, 1988,

Reflections on Brushstrokes,

Mirrored Wall, 1991,

//•////

////«•//.'/

Tm

Bonsai

Interior with

Column, 1975, 178

1988, 209

II.

Reflections

1991, 236

Bathroom Painting, 1992, 242

to'erici in///

Glass, Classical

Pitcher,

/Aw., m,./m. 1974, 181

Red

Composition, 1979, 2()4

fnferioj in///

138 166

1962,70 \/,il\

35

'tzanne, 1962,

(

Paintingwith

/'/ins/

1979, 199

11.'/"."/,

Madamt

<•/

1987, 213

Imperfect Painting (Gold),

/,„/,,;/;

o/n

Preparedness, 1968,

1986, 214

Imperfect Painting,

to,

Porfrail

1963, 104

Hopeless,

1961, 22

)r.

/',<,.,

Head with Black Shadow, 1965, 245 Head with Blue Shadow, 1965, 246 Him, 1964, 144

Roy

1988, 217

393

Index

1

219


Goldfish and Sculpture, 1912, 161 Studio, 191 I. 172 Ufe with "Dance," 1909, 173

Monet,

I.

(

M

1917,32

hiu

mdc

LaCathidrah de Rouen ,l,i

lift

I

U

-

tow Saint-Romain 1892-94, 125

portail et la

him,

Harmonu

ni.uiii

In

,

No

t'aime

/,

23

1955, 68

.

Barnett I'M

nant,

Novick,

83

1964, 122

{polio,

qj

(

Popeye, I960, l\

Lichtenstein, Temple

\"><^2,

Nancy, 1961, 21

Motherwell, Robert

New in. in.

1962, 59

Refrigerator,

Lichtcnstem. Takka Takka,

ompany brochure, 143 ( hgh 1993 calendai (cover of), featuring Vincent van Gogh, /7« /{,,/„.,.,m. 1888, 240 Warhol, \ndy Dick Tracy, I960, 20

Piet

omposition in Black and

(

The

ichtenstein,

I

tyre Brothers Glass

"mcenl van

I

Mondrian,

e for

Sour<

Red

The Still

Roy Roy Roy

Source lor Source tor

Henri

Mattise,

94

1

'.

Irv

"Stai

Men

\merican

l//

in

key,

[oi

February 1962), D.<

iary

oj

89

War, no

Comics

(panels fix>m),

Photo

92, 98, 99, 100

credits:

180, 12-13, J5. 26, 31, 33, 58. 70, 79, 143, 148, 151, 154, 157-58, 165, 168, 231, 217-1H, 221-27. 229, 212-15, 209-10, 204. 207. 199, 197. 187.

1,

185, t.

)ldenburg,

)laes

t

Bedroom Ensembh

233-38. 241. 266. 268, 280, photo by Robert McKeever, courtesy Roy Lichtenstein New York; \ [993 , IIN Riven VAGA, New York The Museum of Modem Art,

1963, 28

.

,

|

Eduardo

Paolozzi

Was

/

,7

194

Rich Man's Plaything, ca

a

4,photoby Michael! ivanagh and Kevin Montagui

K,,/„,

BeocA

urfrA

Femma

Lei

9

1932, 48

Ball,

1955,

l{ger,

rf'

Mi

[928 256

,„.

Glass and Bottle oj Suze, ,/,,,

(

o/

Interioi with a

Drawing, 19 J5, 232

JiVi

(

Pollo< k,

(ai

Musu

u\

<

Nev

Hall,

Grand Foyer

Staircase,

(g/jj

'/"'

Cro55i«g

Won't

1961,29

/

Smith,

lino

1912

13,

186

257

II,

1967, 134

»,

Ghost Ships!" 1962), D.(

tobei

Roman

Laocobn Group,

208 ibby McNeill &

in

(

>w

/

ighting

'

ones, no. 71

omics (panel from), 85

<

copy of 1st century

advertisement, reproduced

in Li/e.Jul)

tnent, in

1964),

1

(

VAGA New

[aspei |ohns

omics; 94. 137, photo by

i

Art.

New

<

in

Giife'

italogue

(

4.

New

(

harlton

Comics photo

astelli

1993 Jasper

92-93, 105, I

"

mm.

(

olorphoto

<

York; 120, 133, 138,

Museum of Fine

Boston; 125,

\rts

David Heald, courtesy Matthew

by

L29,photoby Ivan Nemec; 131, 164, photo by RobertE MatesStudio, Radio ity Musi< [all Produ< don ( tirade's, New York 135,

by

Ih

(

155-56, 270, photo

photo ol

by

Bevan

Modern

\rt

1

188, .ourtes\

oilers

190, photo by Kunstmusi

um

Basel,

i

Roy

by

York I

l

courtesy

>avies,

New

I

«

i

Jon Simon

Museum

he

I

Sulsworth. 96-100.

ee

I

(

lie

I

htenstein,

eo

«

lli

i

Roy

ourtesy <

173,

iallery

181, 183, photo by Eric Pollitzer,

Metropolit.in

ourtesy

asti

(

i

Museum of Art

ntre National de

I

Ness

>ocumentadon

l94,photoby Mian Mewbourn; 196, photo by

Montrou

Germain; 205, 219-20, photo by Dorothy Zeidman, courtesy Roy Graphiqued< I. ..me, 247. orrili Ottagono; 240, Lichtenstein; 208, photo by

1949, 11

Hh New

I,,,,

I,

t

York Fimes,

Stories,

Romances, no. 81 (January

D.C. Comics (panel from), 109

ol

York; 75, photo by

York; 104, 145, courtesy

1«, courtesy Ikkan \t\ International, ln<

htenstein; 166, 193,

photo by Darrell Spectoi

1962),

Lichtenstein

italogue

<

Rais

photo by BobAdelman ,

ourtesy

Ro

i

I

249. 272, phot,, hs Laurie Lambrecht courtesy Leo

(

istclli

259-60, 262-65. 267. 269, photo In Stephen Ogilvy, courtesy Roy

Gallery

harlton

nstein

u ht<

I

127.'

photo

courtesy

«

no ~2 (October omics (panel from), 127

Painting," in Strange Suspense

"Sincerely Yours,"

1

Paolo Mussai Sartor, courtesy

York; 68, courtesy Artothek; 69, courtesy Leo

132, courtesy

,

\i> (.reck

Cooked Corned Beef"

Mount Airy Lodg< 1963, 47

by

Rheinisches Bildarchiv; 64, 102, 116, 163, 228, courtesy

I

New

Museum ofModern

Pedagogiqu Lirry's

1993 Gi

I

Per-Anders AUsten; 52, reprinted by permission

by

.,„,,.

sculpture,

"The

im,

I

In. I

"Battle oi the

l

he

\rmstrong

n artists

//;,

63,

Gallery

Hi

'

l

M.N

N.|

Harran

(

,,i.

I'

rank

Unknot

1.

1

March 1965, 258

//.

Segal,

993 James Rosenquist/

34, photo by Eri< Pollitzer, courtesy

147, 184, photo by David Heald; 123, courtesy

\.\l

,,/„

(

1

1993 New York, GDL; 77, 113, courtesy Irving Blum, New York 80, VAGA, New York ill. Museum o! Modern \ri New York; 85,

tesy

liufM/M, 1951,

l

italoguc

(

New Haven;

107. 109.

)avid

I

Lichtenstein

<

Robert Hausser

1932, 216

Shaping He\ Leg, 1963, 27

Self-Portrait,

of George

Raisonne 38, photo by Michael Iropea; 39, 41, 50,

Photo \rchives

Si,,„u\iy.

of Art,

22, 24, 62, 86, 142, 146, 261,

In<

27, reprinted with permission

York; 30, photo by RussBlaise

Blum Helman

ieorge

(

21, 23, photo by Jim Strong

Ness York; 29, photo by Lee Stalsworth,

VAGA

|ohns

Woman

Stella,

/,///

Whitney Museum

ourtesy

i

Art Tribune Media Services; 57, 81, photo by Michael \gee, courtesy Yale University

Delaware, 1953, 3

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t

Bauhaus

Severini,

New

Gallery

astelli

(

Gallery

Hifli

York

Raisonne 43. courtesy Gagosian Gallery; 44. photo

45

Rosenquist, [ames /

17, 28, courtesy Claes

.

York; 19, 115, 128, courtesy National Gallery

Sperone Westwater; 45. photo

ll,/s//n/A'f.-;/

In<

New

Iroy,

I

l6,photoby RobertR

York;

Abrams,

R M<

Robert

hs

York;

106, 161, 170. 172, 174, 179, 250,

55-56, 73-74, 82, 91, 95. 103. 110-11, courtesy Roy

Ifomgrum, 1955 59,

(

D.(

Roy

Rivers, Larr}

Segal,

Art.

ahington

VAGA, New

135

Bed, 1955, 14

Schlemmer,

\merican

u.

Segal

78 York,

Rauschenberg, Robert

//,,

of

Leo

kson

iMftimn RAyffim, 1950,

Radio

photo

VAGA, New

51,53-54,87, 114, 117, 119, 121, 273, 275-76, courtesy Roy Lichtenstein; 25, 37, 274, courtesy 130. 136. 140, 152. 159-60, 162, 167, 211, 242, 244-45, 248, 253,

and His Model, 1928, 230 HftffMM in//; FfowrmJ Haf, 1939-40, 38 Painter

//„

New

Iroj

i

I

N

courtesy Harry

York

Hd< nburg; 1H.

.

1912,71 Uwm/fie, 1914, 250

1993

I

8,

New York; 14. 46, rhe Museum of Modern \fl New

Odyssia Gallery,

m-tes)

257.

40

Webb

York; 7, photo by John

New

Pablo

Pii asso,

\AGA.

1993 Jasper Johns

5,'

1993 Richard Hamilton

i<

l

ht<

he

I

quitable

nstein

ic

271, courtesy Stephen I

I

ife

Assurani e Soi

Mazoh and

Co., In< .277,

Iman; 278, photo by Gianfranco Gorgoni, iety;

279, photo hs

Bob \delman,

i

ourtesy


Roy Lichtenstein  
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