Page 1


D

D

 

 

 

° °

error x 100 accepted value

D

° °

D

D

D 

  

D

  

D D D D

D

 gA x

mol A g B x g B g A mol A 

D D

D



1

OH

O alkane

alkene O

O

NH2 amine

ether

alkyne O

O O

aldehyde

ketone

alcohol O

ester

NH amide

O

H

carboxylic acid


H H C C C H H

O H H

Br

Br

Br

Br

C H

Br Br

Br

C C

C C

Br

O C C

H O H

H H C C H O


O NH


I’m sure you would all like to ace your first chemistry test. Here’s how: 1. Test yourself on the topics below to see what you know and don’t know. 2. Review this packet in its entirety. Be familiar with each of the topics that were covered in the powerpoint presentation. 3. Write down what you don’t know yet. If you don’t know something, ask a friend or ask me. 4. If you are missing anything it may be available on the class website: http://www.chemistryacademy.com 9. Provide a balanced chemical equation for the combustion of 1. What is chemistry? isopropanol, C3H8O. 2.

What is matter?

3.

What is not matter? Give examples.

4.

What do chemists do?

5.

Where does chemistry fit in with the other branches of science?

6.

Name a branch of science more basic than chemistry.

7.

List the branches of science from basic to applied.

8.

What is our simple scientific method?

9.

Give an example of a positive and negative control

10. Provide two isomers of C3H8O by drawing their structural and skeletal formulas 11. Draw an ether with the formula C3H8O.

10. What is a synonym for a negative control?

12. Draw an amine, an alcohol, a carboxylic acid, an ester, and an amide. 13. Provide the molecular formula, skeletal formula, and functional groups present in leucine , shown below. 14. What organic functional groups are present in sodium chloride, NaCl? 15. Explain what is implied by the wedges and hatches used in the drawing of leucine. Does it contain straight chains, branched chains, or rings?

11. Why are negative controls important for most drug studies?

16. What happens to molecular formulas when double bonds and rings are used? 12. Provide a positive control for an experiment designed to produce bubble gum that blows big bubbles 17. Describe what you know about aristolochic acid, palytoxin, and the kahalalides. 13. How many bonds to the atoms C, N , H, and O form? 18. Draw a chart organizing chemistry into functional groups, 14. What is a useful mnemonic device for the bonding inorganic, and organic domains. pattern of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon? 19. Define density, viscosity, and solubility. What role, if any, do 1. Who wrote The Skeptical Chymist? these play when solutions are mixed? 2.

What is a natural product and why are they important?

3.

Why is chemistry awesome?

4.

Compare and explain the flammability of liquids to gases.

5.

True or false: most combustion reactions produce water

6.

What is the difference between a physical and a chemical change?

7.

Provide an example of a physical and a chemical change.

8.

How could you identify methanol?

20. Draw a molecule that has an aldehyde, an ether, and a amide in it. Provide the molecular formula as well. 21. Be prepared to answer the essential question for this unit: what is chemistry all about?


table of contents unit 2

data


4. ibid, p.29.


1

1


m

1


1


1


mL

1

1


1


measurement

SI Units unit

symbol

size

Unit Prefixes Prefix

mass volume distance amount brightness current time

kilogram liter meter mole candela ampere Second

kg L m mol cd A s

nano (n) micro (m) milli (m) centi (c) kilo (k) mega (M) giga (G)

billionth millionth thousandth hundredth thousand million billion

3. Complete the table Unit of measurement Length Mass Temperature density

6. Complete the table. Prefix Symbol

We usually use inches

Factor

Scientific notation 10-9 10-6 10-3 10-2 103 106 109

But SI units require meters

Scientific notation

example

Giga mega 1,000 centi 10-3 micro

microgram n


• • • •


pebbles Iron filings Method salt sugar sand

sand Iron filings pebbles

pebbles

Iron filings Method salt sugar

salt

Method Iron filings

Iron filings salt sugar

salt Method sugar


1


7

8


10


  


The 1989 IBM Atomic Image

Don Eigler and the 1989 IBM Atomic Image

By Your Name Here

Abstract: In 1989 Don Eigler from IBM ushered in the nanotechnology revolution by moving individual Xenon atoms to create the image shown above.

The question “What is everything made out of” is one of the most fundamental questions of mankind, right up there with “Why are we here?”, and “Will that be on the test?”. Recorded ideas date back over 6000 years,1 first popularized in the west by the work of Democritus. Arguably the most compelling evidence for the atom being the fundamental particle of nature involves the human senses- smell, touch, sight, etc. Because of the small size of the atom, none of these are directly possible, so perhaps the next best thing is to observe it with the help of an instrument. This may have first occurred as early as 1981, 2 but the image that popularized it was taken by Dr. Don Eigler in 1989.3 Don Eigler is a ponytailed, well educated physicist and surfer. In 1989, he designed his own scanning tunneling microscope. An image of him with his instrument was taken during a 2006 interview.4 While studying the surfaces of solids, he came up with the idea of limiting the movement of atoms by performing his experiments at a few degrees Kelvin- close to absolute zero. In his own words from the 2006 interview, he found that “Through a combination of hard work, some horse sense and good, old fashioned blind luck, I happened to be positioned to discover that I could manipulate individual atoms with a scanning tunneling microscope.” Having discovered the ability to move individual atoms, Eigler decided to create a work of art to document his discovery. What he created is an image of the letters I B M using the noble gas Xenon, a dense and unreactive colorless gas. Was he forced at gunpoint to do the bidding of his IBM bosses?? According to Eigler: “I made that decision on my own. Management never said anything to me beforehand, and I did it with a very clear purpose in my mind. IBM gave me a job, gave me the opportunity when I needed one, gave me the opportunity to excel at doing the things that I love in life, and it was payback time. I pull no punches on that. It was my way of giving back to the corporation some of what the corporation gave to me.” Does Eigler get bored recounting the discovery, now that two decades have passed?

35 Xenon Atoms

Source: http://www-03.ibm.com/press/us/en/pressrelease/22260.wss

“I don't mind talking to people when they're curious, for instance, about what I was thinking about or why did I do this or something like that. The thing is that I always get introduced to people as the guy who wrote I-B-M in atoms. After you have heard that enough times, you don't really need to hear it five more times.” Eiglers current interests are in the field of Spintronics, 5 a speculative field where future computers will be based not electricity (the translational movement of electrons) but on their spin…a sort of electricity where the electrons stay where they are.

Eiglers Lab Notebook

Eigler with his STM Source: http://www.tainano.com/chin/Eigler.htm

Don Eigler (2006)

Source: http://www.theregister.co.uk/2006/06/13/don_eigler_valley/

Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jurvetson/456735511/in/set-30000/

Sources: 1. Gangopadhyaya, Mrinalkanti (1981). Indian Atomism: History and Sources. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press. ISBN 0-391-02177. 2. G. Binnig, H. Rohrer “Scanning tunneling microscopy” IBM Journal of Research and Development 30,4 (1986) reprinted 44,½ Jan/Mar (2000). Available on the web at http://researchweb.watson.ibm.com/journal/rd/441/binnig.pdf 3. Imaging Xe with a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope. DM Eigler, PS Weiss, EK Schweizer, ND Lang - Physical Review Letters, 1991 1189-1192. 4. A man and his microscope: IBM's quest to make atom-sized chips. The silver surfer speaks. Ashlee Vance, The Register, June 13, 2006. Available on the web at http://www.theregister.co.uk/2006/06/13/don_eigler_valley/ 5 Spintronics: A Spin-Based Electronics Vision for the Future. S. A. Wolf et al., Science 2001, Vol. 294. no. 5546, pp. 1488 - 1495


The 1989 IBM Atomic Image

By Your Name Here

Abstract: In 1989 Don Eigler from IBM ushered in the nanotechnology revolution by moving individual Xenon atoms to create the image shown above.

35 Xenon Atoms

Source: http://www-03.ibm.com/press/us/en/pressrelease/22260.wss

Eiglers Lab Notebook

Eigler with his STM Source: http://www.tainano.com/chin/Eigler.htm

Don Eigler (2006)

Source: http://www.theregister.co.uk/2006/06/13/don_eigler_valley/

Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jurvetson/456735511/in/set-30000/

Don Eigler and the 1989 IBM Atomic Image The question “What is everything made out of” is one of the most fundamental questions of mankind, right up there with “Why are we here?”, and “Will that be on the test?”. Recorded ideas date back over 6000 years,1 first popularized in the west by the work of Democritus. Arguably the most compelling evidence for the atom being the fundamental particle of nature involves the human senses- smell, touch, sight, etc. Because of the small size of the atom, none of these are directly possible, so perhaps the next best thing is to observe it with the help of an instrument. This may have first occurred as early as 1981, 2 but the image that popularized it was taken by Dr. Don Eigler in 1989.3 Don Eigler is a ponytailed, well educated physicist and surfer. In 1989, he designed his own scanning tunneling microscope. An image of him with his instrument was taken during a 2006 interview.4 While studying the surfaces of solids, he came up with the idea of limiting the movement of atoms by performing his experiments at a few degrees Kelvin- close to absolute zero. In his own words from the 2006 interview, he found that “Through a combination of hard work, some horse sense and good, old fashioned blind luck, I happened to be positioned to discover that I could manipulate individual atoms with a scanning tunneling microscope.” Having discovered the ability to move individual atoms, Eigler decided to create a work of art to document his discovery. What he created is an image of the letters I B M using the noble gas Xenon, a dense and unreactive colorless gas. Was he forced at gunpoint to do the bidding of his IBM bosses?? According to Eigler: “I made that decision on my own. Management never said anything to me beforehand, and I did it with a very clear purpose in my mind. IBM gave me a job, gave me the opportunity when I needed one, gave me the opportunity to excel at doing the things that I love in life, and it was payback time. I pull no punches on that. It was my way of giving back to the corporation some of what the corporation gave to me.” Does Eigler get bored recounting the discovery, now that two decades have passed? “I don't mind talking to people when they're curious, for instance, about what I was thinking about or why did I do this or something like that. The thing is that I always get introduced to people as the guy who wrote I-B-M in atoms. After you have heard that enough times, you don't really need to hear it five more times.” Eiglers current interests are in the field of Spintronics, 5 a speculative field where future computers will be based not electricity (the translational movement of electrons) but on their spin…a sort of electricity where the electrons stay where they are. Sources: 1. Gangopadhyaya, Mrinalkanti (1981). Indian Atomism: History and Sources. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press. ISBN 0-391-02177. 2. G. Binnig, H. Rohrer “Scanning tunneling microscopy” IBM Journal of Research and Development 30,4 (1986) reprinted 44,½ Jan/Mar (2000). Available on the web at http://researchweb.watson.ibm.com/journal/rd/441/binnig.pdf 3. Imaging Xe with a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope. DM Eigler, PS Weiss, EK Schweizer, ND Lang - Physical Review Letters, 1991 1189-1192. 4. A man and his microscope: IBM's quest to make atom-sized chips. The silver surfer speaks. Ashlee Vance, The Register, June 13, 2006. Available on the web at http://www.theregister.co.uk/2006/06/13/don_eigler_valley/ 5 Spintronics: A Spin-Based Electronics Vision for the Future. S. A. Wolf et al., Science 2001, Vol. 294. no. 5546, pp. 1488 - 1495


7


19 9

F-

9 protons 10 neutrons 10 electrons

41

2+

Ca

20

20 protons 21 neutrons 18 electrons

235

U

92

92 protons 143 neutrons 92 electrons


1 valence electron

+1

2 valence electrons

+2

Group 1

hydrogen 1.01 (H is a nonmetal)

2s

Li

3

Group 2

Na

3s

sodium

Mg 24.31

4s

K potassium

Ca

20

calcium 40.08

39.10

5s

ď Š

37

Rb

rubidium

38

55

132.91 87

7s

Cs

cesium

6s

Fr

francium 223.02

Sr

strontium 87.62

85.47 56

Ba

barium 137.33 88

Ra

radium

226.02

3p

Transition metals: 2 valence electrons

magnesium

22.99 19

B

2p

9.01 12

Group 3

Sc

21

3d

scandium 44.96 39

4d

Y

yttrium 88.91

Lu

71

5d

Group 4

22

titanium 47.90 40

Hf

72

hafnium 178.49

Lr

104

262.11

57

La

Ac

actinium 227.03

41

Ce cerium 140.12

90

Th

thorium 232.04

Nb

niobium 92.91 73

Ta

tantalum

Group 6

Cr

24

105

Db

dubnium 262.11

59

Pr

praseodymium

140.91 91

Pa

protactinium

231.04

Group 7

Mn

25

chromium manganese 52.00 54.94 42

Mo

43

W

75

molybdenum 95.94 74

Re

76

rhenium 186.21

Sg

seaborgium

107

263.12

60

Nd

neodymium 144.24 92

U uranium 238.03

Bh

bohrium 264.12

61

Pm

promethium 144.91 93

Np

neptunium 237.05

Fe

iron 55.85 44

183.85 106

Group 8

26

Tc

technetium 96.91

tungsten

180.95

261.11

58

lanthanum 138.91 89

Rf

rutherfordium

V

vanadium 50.94

91.22

174.97

6d lawrencium

5f

Zr

Group 5

23

zirconium

Lutetium

103

4f

Ti

Ru

Group 9

27

cobalt 58.93 45

ruthenium 101.07

Os

osmium 190.20

Hs

108

hassium

77

Sm

samarium 150.41 94

Pu

plutonium 244.06

Group 10

46

Ir

78

Pd

195.09

Mt

110

Ds

Eu

europium 151.96 95

Am

americium 243.06

silver 107.87 79

Au

gold 196.97 111

Rg

Darmstadtium roentgenium

(268)

63

Ag

47

Pt

platinum

Cu

copper 63.55

palladium 106.40

192.22

Meitnerium

29

nickel 58.71

iridium

109

Group 11

Ni

28

Rh

rhodium 102.91

265.13

62

Co

(272)

(281)

64

Gd

gadolinium 157.25 96

Cm

curium (247)

65

Tb

terbium 158.92 97

Bk

berkelium (249)

Al

13

Zn

zinc 65.37

Cd

48

cadmium 112.40 80

Hg

mercury 200.59 112

Uub

Ununbium (285)

66

Dy

dysprosium 162.50 98

Cf

californium (251)

4p

gallium

indium 114.82

7p 67

Pb

83

Uut

52

Bi

84

bismuth

Uuq

115

F

Te Po

Uup

116

Uuh

Ne neon

19.00

20.18

Cl

17

Ar

18

chlorine

argon

35.45

39.95

Br bromine

35

I

53

krypton 83.80

Xe

54

iodine 126.90

xenon 131.30 86

At

85

Kr

36

79.91

tellurium 127.60

polonium (210)

208.98

207.19 114

Sb

Antimony) 121.75

He helium 4.00

10

astatine

Rn

radon

(210)

(220)

Uus

117

118

Uuo

ununtrium ununquadium ununpentium ununhexium ununseptium ununoctium (289) (295) (284) (289) (288) (293)

Ho

Holmium 164.93 99

51

lead

204.37 113

Sn

82

thallium

selenium 78.96

74.92

tin 118.69

Tl

81

6p

50

In

49

5p

arsenic

72.59

Se

34

2

fluorine

32.07

As

33

germanium

69.72

sulfur

30.97

Ge

32

S

16

phosphorus

28.09

Ga

O

16.00

P

15

-1

Group 17

9

oxygen

14.01

silicon

26.98 31

N

8

Noble gases

Group 18

halogens

Group 16

nitrogen

Si

14

aluminum

Group 12

30

C

6

Group 15

7

carbon 12.01

7

-3 -2

Group 14

6

boron 10.81

5

+4, -4

+3

5

beryllium

6.94

4

Group 13

Be

4

lithium 11

metal

1s

3

0

8

Valence electrons:

Alkaline earth metals

H

1

nonmetal

Alkali metals

Es

einsteinium (254)

68

Er

erbium 167.26 100

Fm

fermium 257.10

Tm

69

thulium 168.93 101

Md

mendelevium (256)

Yb

70

ytterbium 173.04 102

No

nobelium (254)

Atomic number to 71

21

Symbol:

Sc

scandium to 103

44.96 metal metalloid

Solid Liquid Gas

Manmade

name Atomic mass nonmetal


1 valence electron

+1

2 valence electrons

+2

Group 1

hydrogen 1.01 (H is a nonmetal)

2s

Li

3

Group 2

11

Na

sodium

9.01

Mg

12

4s 5s

19

K

potassium 39.10

24.31

37

Rb

rubidium

Ca

20

calcium 40.08 38

87.62

85.47 55

132.91 87

7s

Cs

cesium

6s

Fr

francium 223.02

Sr

strontium

56

Ba

barium 137.33

Ra radium

Group 3

Sc

21

3d

scandium 44.96 39

4d

Y

yttrium 88.91

Lu

71

5d

Group 4

22

40

Hf

72

hafnium 178.49

Lr

57

La

104

Ac

actinium 227.03

Rf

rutherfordium

58

Ce cerium 140.12

90

Th

thorium 232.04

V

vanadium 50.94 41

Nb

niobium 92.91 73

Ta

tantalum

Group 6

Cr

24

105

Db

dubnium 262.11

59

Pr

praseodymium

140.91 91

Pa

protactinium

231.04

Group 7

Mn

25

chromium manganese 52.00 54.94 42

Mo

43

W

75

molybdenum 95.94 74

76

186.21

Sg

seaborgium

107

60

Nd

neodymium 144.24 92

U uranium 238.03

Bh

bohrium

263.12

264.12

61

Pm

promethium 144.91 93

iron 55.85

Re

rhenium

Np

neptunium 237.05

Fe

26

44

183.85 106

Group 8

Tc

technetium 96.91

tungsten

180.95

261.11

lanthanum 138.91 89

23

91.22

262.11

5f

Zr

Group 5

zirconium

174.97

6d lawrencium

4f

Ti

titanium 47.90

Lutetium

103

88

226.02

3p

Transition metals: 2 valence electrons

magnesium

22.99

B

Ru

Group 9

27

45

ruthenium 101.07

Os

osmium 190.20

Hs

108

hassium

77

Sm

samarium 150.41 94

Pu

plutonium 244.06

46

Ir

78

Pd

195.09

Meitnerium

110

Ds

Eu

europium 151.96 95

Am

americium 243.06

silver 107.87 79

Au

gold 196.97 111

Rg

Darmstadtium roentgenium

(268)

63

Ag

47

Pt

platinum

Cu

copper 63.55

palladium 106.40

192.22

Mt

29

nickel 58.71

iridium

109

Group 11

Ni

28

Rh

rhodium 102.91

265.13

62

Co

cobalt 58.93

Group 10

(272)

(281)

64

Gd

gadolinium 157.25 96

Cm

curium (247)

65

Tb

terbium 158.92 97

Bk

berkelium (249)

Zn

30

zinc 65.37

Cd

48

cadmium 112.40 80

Hg

mercury 200.59 112

Uub

Ununbium (285)

66

Dy

dysprosium 162.50 98

Cf

californium (251)

7p 67

Pb

83

Uut

Sb

52

Bi

84

Antimony) 121.75

Uuq

115

Te Po

Uup

116

Uuh

Ne

10

F

neon

19.00

20.18

Cl

17

Ar

18

chlorine

argon

35.45

39.95

Br

35

krypton 83.80

79.91

I

53

Xe

54

iodine 126.90

xenon 131.30 86

At

85

Kr

36

bromine

tellurium 127.60

polonium (210)

208.98

207.19 114

selenium 78.96

bismuth

lead

204.37

astatine

Rn

radon

(210)

(220)

Uus

117

118

Uuo

ununtrium ununquadium ununpentium ununhexium ununseptium ununoctium (289) (295) (284) (289) (288) (293)

Ho

Holmium 164.93 99

51

82

thallium

113

Sn

Se

34

74.92

tin 118.69

Tl

81

6p

50

indium 114.82

As

He helium 4.00

fluorine

32.07

arsenic

72.59

In

49

5p

sulfur

2

Group 17

9

S

16

30.97 33

-1

16.00

phosphorus

germanium

69.72

O

oxygen

P

15

Ge

32

gallium

8

Noble gases

Group 18

halogens

Group 16

N

28.09

Ga

31

4p

Group 15

14.01

silicon

26.98

6

nitrogen

Si

14

aluminum

Group 12

7

-3 -2 7

carbon 12.01

Al

13

C

6

boron 10.81

5

+4, -4 Group 14

+3

5

2p

beryllium

6.94

4

Group 13

Be

4

lithium

3s

metal

H

1

1s

3

0

8

Valence electrons:

Alkaline earth metals

nonmetal

Alkali metals

Es

einsteinium (254)

68

Er

erbium 167.26 100

Fm

fermium 257.10

Tm

69

thulium 168.93 101

Md

mendelevium (256)

Yb

70

ytterbium 173.04 102

No

nobelium (254)

Atomic number to 71

21

Symbol:

Sc

scandium to 103

44.96 metal metalloid

Solid Liquid Gas

Manmade

name Atomic mass nonmetal



 

  

  

w

1 1   1 0.01097 2  2  2 n 


+1

2 valence electrons

Alkali metals

+2

Group 1

1

1s

H

hydrogen 1.01

Alkaline earth metals Group 2

3

Li

4

11

3s 19

4s

24.31

K

Rb Cs

20

87

Fr

francium 223.02

Group 3

21

40.08 38

87.62

Ba

barium 137.33 88

Ra

radium 226.02

Monovalent cations: Group 1, Ag: +1 Group 2, Zn: +2 Group 3, Al: +3

Sc

scandium 44.96 39

Sr

strontium

56

3d

4d

Lu

Lutetium 174.97

6d

lawrencium

103

Lr

(and NH4+)

Zr

57

La

actinium 227.03

23

72

Hf

hafnium 178.49 104

Rf

rutherfordium

41

Ce cerium 140.12

90

Th

thorium 232.04

Nb

niobium 92.91 73

Ta

tantalum 180.95 105

Db

dubnium

261.11

58

V

vanadium 50.94

91.22

lanthanum 138.91

Ac

Group 5

zirconium

262.11

89

common anions

Ti

titanium 47.90 40

Y

71

5f

22

yttrium 88.91

5d

4f

Group 4

262.11

59

Pr

Group 6

24

Cr

Group 7

25

Mn

chromium manganese 52.00 54.94 42

Mo

molybdenum 95.94 74

W

tungsten 183.85 106

Sg

seaborgium 263.12

60

Nd

43

Tc

technetium 96.91 75

Re

rhenium 186.21 107

Bh

bohrium 264.12

61

Pm

praseodymium neodymium 140.91 144.24

promethium 144.91

91

93

Pa

protactinium

231.04

92

U uranium 238.03

Np

neptunium 237.05

Group 8

26

Fe

iron 55.85 44

Ru

Group 9

27

45

ruthenium 101.07 76

Os

osmium 190.20 108

Hs

hassium 265.13

62

Sm

samarium 150.41 94

Pu

plutonium 244.06

Co

cobalt 58.93

Rh

rhodium 102.91 77

Ir

iridium 192.22 109

Mt

Meitnerium

Group 10

28

Eu

europium 151.96 95

Am

americium 243.06

29

Ni

nickel 58.71 46

Pd

Cu

copper 63.55 47

Ag

palladium 106.40 78

Pt

silver 107.87 79

Au

platinum 195.09 110

Ds

gold 196.97 111

Rg

Darmstadtium roentgenium

(268)

63

Group 11

(272)

(281)

64

Gd

gadolinium 157.25 96

Cm curium (247)

65

30

48

80

berkelium (249)

81

Dy

dysprosium 162.50 98

Cf

californium (251)

50

Tl

82

Ho

Holmium 164.93 99

83

Pb

Sb

52

Bi

84

bismuth

lead 207.19

208.98

Uuq

Se

selenium 78.96

Antimony) 121.75

tin 118.69

114

Uut

51

Sn

34

As arsenic 74.92

neon 20.18

115

Uup

Ar argon

35.45

39.95

35

36

Br

53

Po

85

Uuh

117

I

Kr

krypton 83.80

bromine 79.91

Te

116

18

Cl chlorine

tellurium 127.60

polonium (210)

Ne

19.00

Xe

54

iodine 126.90

xenon 131.30 86

At

Rn

astatine (210)

Uus

radon (220) 118

Uuo

ununtrium ununquadium ununpentium ununhexium ununseptium ununoctium (289) (295) (284) (289) (288) (293)

7p 67

33

10

F

17

S sulfur 32.07

30.97

72.59

In

16

He helium 4.00

fluorine

16.00

P

2

Group 17

9

O

phosphorus

Ge

7

oxygen

Noble gases Group 18

-1 halogens

Group 16

8

N

germanium

thallium 204.37 113

Uub

Ununbium (285)

Group 15

28.09

indium 114.82

6p

-2

15

Si

69.72 49

-3

14.01

silicon

32

Ga

gallium

5p

Hg

mercury 200.59

66

Bk

4p

Cd

cadmium 112.40

112

31

Zn

zinc 65.37

Tb

terbium 158.92 97

Group 12

14

Al

6

nitrogen

carbon 12.01

aluminum 26.98

5

7

C

boron 10.81 13

3p

Transition metals: 2 valence electrons

Ca

calcium

cesium 132.91

6s 7s

Mg

22.99

rubidium 85.47 55

12

magnesium

potassium 39.10 37

5s

Na

sodium

Group 14

6

B

2p

9.01

6.94

+3

5

Be beryllium

lithium

4

+4, -4

Group 13

(H is a nonmetal)

2s

3

0

8

Valence electrons: metal nonmetal

1 valence electron

Es

einsteinium (254)

68

Er

erbium 167.26 100

Fm

fermium 257.10

Tm

69

thulium 168.93 101

Md

mendelevium (256)

70

Yb

ytterbium 173.04 102

No

nobelium (254)

to 71

Atomic number

21

Symbol: Solid Liquid Gas Manmade

Sc

scandium

to 103

44.96

name Atomic mass

metal metalloid

nonmetal


solution :


  

  

  

  


16S:

1s2 2s2 2p2 3s2 3p4


Principles and rules of electron configuration Principle or rule Heisenberg

Bad

Good

1s22p1

1s22s1

(e-position uncertain)

1s

1

Aufbau (build up) Hund’s Rule (spread out) Pauli (opp. spins)

1s22s22p2 1s2

Unit 5 electrons Dr. B.’s ChemAdventure

1s22s22p2 1s2


our essential question:

I

O O O

O

OH H

NH O O OH

OH

O O

O O

1. taxol (paclitaxel)

O


I


W

 


W

stock value 

new price x investment original price

560 dollars x 1000 dollars  1150 dollars 485 dollars


O

stock value 

new price x investment original price

$21 x $500,000  $525,000 $20


I H OH

O O

O

OH

O

O

H

NH O

O

H O

O

OH

OH

HO H O

O O

O OH O

H

O O

O

O

O

H

O

O OO O

1. taxol (paclitaxel)

N

azadirachtin

O

N

O

O

N

N

OH

O N

N

Co N N

3+

R

N

HO

N

O

O

O P O O O

O O

3. Vitamin B12

N

O

OH O

H O O H O

H

H O

H

OH OH 4. ginsenoside rb2

N O

OH H

OH HO

O N

HO

OH OH

OH OH

O O

OH


HO

I

HO Na O S O O O

OH

HO HO HO

H O

H

OH

HO

H

OH

O H

H O H

O H

H O

O H HO H

H O H

O H O

O

H

H

HO

H O H H

OH OH O O O S O OH Na H O H

H O H H O H H

O H HO H H

HO HO

O H

O

HO

H

O H

H

O H

O

H OH

O

HO

O

H

H OH O H

O

OH H HO

HO

H OH

H OH

HO OH H HO O H HO

H O

O H

O H O H

OH


3


click on images to manipulate


F

F F

F

H H

C

H

H H

C H

O

H C

H

C H H H H

H

H C C H H O C H H H

O

OH

H

H H C

H

OH C

OH

OH

C

H

OH


• • • • •

13


14


M

Lithium

Sodium

Beryllium

Magnesium

Potassium

Calcium

Rubidium

Strontium

Boron

Aluminum

fluoride

bromide

permanganate

bicarbonate

Chloride

hypochlorite

iodide

chlorite

Cesium

Barium

Francium

Radium

nitrite

perchlorate

Zinc

nitrate

bromate

Ammonium

silver

oxide

sulfide

chromate

dichromate

chlorate

bisulfate

hydroxide

cyanide

iodate

carbonate

sulfite

sulfate

nitride

phosphide

acetate

phosphate


C


O

Br N

H O

O

Si F

Li

Na


W


N

0

+1 +2

+3

polyvalent

-3

-2 -1


F


O


G


D H H N C H H C H H H

and

H H C H N H C H H H


U

O O

+

O

-


I


W


C

r r r r 


Our Essential Question:


Our Essential Question:

W



  


S


C


 

 


I 12

Mg

magnesium 24.31

  

16

S

sulfur 32.07


I

1. Ice melts. What are the COOL signs of a chemical reaction you observed? Is it a chemical reaction? _____ How could you prove it? 2. Wood burns. What are the COOL signs of a chemical reaction you observed? Is it a chemical reaction? _____ How could you prove it?

3. Iron rusts. What are the COOL signs of a chemical reaction? Is it a chemical reaction? _____ How could you prove it?


        

    

 

 


         

    


    

       

   


I




I

ďƒ

H O

H O NaHCO3

+

H C C

O H

H baking soda _____ g _____ mol

acetic acid _____ g _____ mol

H C C

O

Na

+

H O H

H ethyl acetate

water

+

CO2 carbon dioxide

_____ g

_____ g

_____ g

_____ mol

_____ mol

_____ mol


E






C

NO2 H

H O2N

NO2 H

H

H

N


T 

      


A 


E

10 grams H 2 x

mole H 2 2 moles H 2 O x  5 moles H 2 O 2 grams H 2 2 moles H 2


I


A


I


’ º


M2 M1

vice president sir robert boyle

1


M2 M1

1

1


1

M2 M1

44 4

1

 3.3


P1V1  P2V2 ;


T1 T2  V1 V2

T1 T2 340 K T2  ;  V1 V2 140 mL 50 mL


T1 T2  P1 P2

x

;

;


200


 



(





procedure

molecular view + vocabulary


5.1 g 180.16 g/mol

.1005 L

1 mole NaOH 40 g NaOH x x 0.1 liter solution  4 g NaOH liter solution mole NaOH


D

D

D

D


HO Greasy: will dissolve in greasy solvents

watery: will dissolve in watery solvents (like water)

watery region

A “brick�: hard to dissolve in anything.


S1 S2  P1 P2

S1 S2 3.3 g /L 9.9 g/L (1 atm)(9.9 g/L)  ;  ; x=  3 atm P1 P2 1 atm x (3.3 g/L)


Percent solution by mass 

Percent solution by volume 

mass solute x 100 mass solution

volume solute x 100 volume solution

moles of solute Liters of solution


40 g NaCl 0.5 moles NaCl x x 0.08 Liters solution = 1.6 grams NaCl Liter of solution mole NaCl


Percent solution by mass 

Percent solution by volume 

mass solute x 100 mass solution

volume solute x 100 volume solution

moles of solute Liters of solution




s


D

D

D

D D

D

D

D

D


Percent error = measured chip calories/actual chip calories x 100


Title Name, Date

Data Q = mcDT Q= M= C= DT = =( )( )( ) = ___ J = ___Nutritional Calories

(For example: Potato Chip Calorimetry Or Energy Analysis of a common Snack Food) Schematic drawing With labels Of your calorimeter

caption

Conclusions Include the Nutritional Calories calculated for your chip, the estimated real nutritional calories for your chip, and an explanation for the difference.

Pick a topic: 1. What is calorimetry? 2. Sources of Error in our calorimeter design 3. A better design for the next experiment 10 points: 1. Effort: 5 points -does this represent 45 minutes of effort? 2. Calculations: 3 Points -are they accurate? 3. Analysis: 2 points: Why are the results so bad (or so good).



D

D

D

8


D

D

D D

D

D

D

D

10

D

D

D

D

D


D

D

D

D  •

 •

 •


D D D D

D

D

D

D

D

D



D


D

D

°

°

D

°

°

°

°

°


°

°

°

°

°

°

°


D D

D

D


D

D

D D

° °

°

°

°


D


D

DG = DH –TDS Where

D

DG = Gibbs Free Energy DH = Enthalpy in Joules T = Temperature (K) And DS = Entropy in Joules/K

D

D

D

D

D

D

D D

D

D

D

D

D

D

 D

D

.

D

D D


D D

D D

D

D

D

D

D

D

D D

D

D

D

D


Chemistry 1. Intro 2. data 3. matter 4. the atom 5. electrons 6. periodic table 7. bonding 8. reactions 9. the mole 10. gases 11. solutions 12. Energy 13. Reaction rates 14. equilibrium 15. Acids and bases


reaction rate 

Δconcentra tion Δtime


 reaction rate 

Δconcentration Δtime

0.100 mol / L  0.22 mol / L 4s

 0.03

mol liter  sec


collision theory



4



• • • •



14.4


D

 

D

D

         


Name: _______________________

Period: _____

equilibrium lab 2

Perfume Lab Introduction: Esters may be prepared through the reaction of a carboxylic acid RCO2H with an Alcohol (R’OH), using a small amount of sulfuric acid as a catalyst.

RCO2H carboxylic acid

+

R’OH + alcohol

H2SO4

sulfuric acid

RCO2R’ ester

+

H2O water

+

H2SO4

sulfuric acid

Esters often have strong pleasant aromas. Carefully guarded mixtures of esters create expensive perfumes including Chanel #5, Aramis (for men) and others, some of which sell for hundreds of dollars per bottle. In this lab each student will create his own ester, and we will then share them to make perfumes.

For this chemical reaction, all of these reactants and products remain in solution. Therefore this reaction is reversible, and yields for this reaction can be low. In this experiment we will investigate the equilibrium mixture for this mixture after 24 hours.

Materials: Carboxylic acids listed on board Alcohols listed on board Sulfuric Acid (to be distributed by instructor) as a catalyst . Chemical Reaction Procedure: Mix 0.1 moles of your carboxylic acid, 0.1 moles of ethanol, and 5 drops of sulfuric acid. The calculations below will help make sure you are using the right amounts. Heat but do not boil on a hot plate for 20 minutes then store covered overnight.


Calculations: My carboxylic acid has a formula of _____, therefore one mole has a mass of ______g, and 0.1 mole has a mass of ______g. My alcohol has a formula of ______, therefore one mole has a mass of ______g, and 0.1 mole has a mass of ______g. Workup The following day, carefully neutralize the mixture with a measured amount of baking soda (NaHCO3). This reaction required ____g of baking soda for neutralization. Calculation: Sodium bicarbonate has a molecular formula of NaHCO3. Therefore one mole of NaHCO3 has a mass of ____g and 0.1 mole has a mass of ____g. Since ____ g of sodium bicarbonate reacted, this is ____moles of sodium bicarbonate. Therefore it reacted with ____moles of my carboxylic acid. Based on this we estimate that the reaction is ____% complete. All of the substances in the mixture are water soluble, except the fragrant ester you have produced. Bottle and artistically label the ester you have created. If time permits, combine small amounts of your perfume with those made by others to create your own perfume.

Results: 1. Based on our workup, our reaction created ___ g of ester after ____ hours for a ____ % yield. I would describe the odor of our ester produced as __________ I would describe the odor of our perfume as _______..

Questions

1. Show a balanced chemical equation for the reaction of acetic acid with baking soda.

3. Based on chemical equilibrium, indicate three ways the yield of this reaction could be improved.


Name: _____________________________________

Date: ______

Period: _____

Science and Technology Posters 100 Points Introduction: Choose a poster on a topic of your choice. Topic: Each group of two will present a poster on any approved topic that is titled: The Chemistry of ____________________ Choose something that you are personally interested in. Possible topics include The Chemistry of : 1. A rose

19. Scopolamine

2. Explosives

20. Mouthwash

3. DNA

21. flavonoids

4. skin cream

22. Cellular phones

5. chocolate

23. Reverse osmosis

6. dirt

24. artificial blood

7. car tires

25. hydrofluoric acid

8. the space shuttle

26. chemical warfare

rocket engine

agents

9. A battery

27. organ transplants

10. Hybrid vehicles

28. the bliss molecule

11. nuclear power

29. pain

12. Nuclear warheads

30. anabolic steroids

13. The Connecticut

31. mucous

river

32. energy drinks

14. The ozone layer

33. really smelly gases

15. Liquid crystals

34. combinatorial

16. A baseball

chemistry

17. carbon

35. dynamite

18. Coca-cola

1


Scoring Rubric 1. These posters are purely informational, not research-based. The goal is to instruct the reader in a logical, succinct, and interesting way. No experiments are necessary. 2. These posters should reflect the fact that we are near to completion of a full year high school level chemistry course. Try to get as deep as you can into your subject. 3. There should be several chemical structures included in your poster (2 minimum). 4. There should be a properly cited reference section for your poster. Include trusted scientific sources wherever possible. Include enough details in your citation that anyone could easily retrieve that source. 5. Include numerous images in your poster (2 minimum). Cite the source below the image if it is not original. All posters must be typed. Your instructor will provide details.


Name: ____________________________________ Period: _____

equilibrium worksheet 1

Writing Equilibrium Concentration Expressions Directions: Write the equilibrium constant expression for each of the equations illustrated below. These all follow the format:

for aA + bB  cC +dD

Keq 

[C]c [D]d [A]a [B]b

Example: write the equilibrium constant expression for the gas-phase synthesis of ethane (C2H6) from the elements. Solution: First, we write the balanced chemical equation: 2C(g) + 3H2 ↔ C2H6 (g) Then we use the format above to write the equilibrium constant expression:

Keq 

[C2H6 ]

[C]2 [H2 ]3

1. At 1405 K, hydrogen sulfide, also called rotten egg gas because of its bad odor, decomposes to form hydrogen and a diatomic sulfur molecule, S2. 2H2S(g) ↔ 2H2(g) + S2(g) Write the equilibrium constant expression for this reversible reaction.

2. Methanol, a formula-1 race car fuel, can be made from carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas: CO(g) + 2H2 (g) ↔ CH3OH(g) Write the equilibrium constant for this reversible reaction.

3. Write the balanced reaction for the combustion of hydrogen at 200 OC, and show that this is a reversible reaction.


Write the equilibrium constant for this reversible reaction.

4. Write a balanced reaction for the combustion of methane at room temperature. Be sure to include the physical states of the reactants and products.

Write the equilibrium constant for this reversible reaction.


Name: _______________________

Date: ______Period: _____ eauilibrium worksheet 2

Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations

Directions: Write the equilibrium constant expression for each of the equations illustrated below and solve for the missing value. These all may be solved using the equilibrium constant expression: for aA + bB ↔ cC +dD

Keq 

[C]c [D]d [A]a [B]b

And then plugging in the given data and solving for the unknown.

Example: For the reaction of carbon monoxide with oxygen to form carbon dioxide, determine the equilibrium concentration of carbon dioxide when the concentration of carbon monoxide is 0.8 moles/liter, the concentration of oxygen is 2.1 moles/liter, and the equilibrium constant is 225. Solution: We begin by writing a balanced chemical, equation for the reaction: 2CO + O2 ↔ 2CO2 We then write the equilibrium constant expression and plug in the numbers given:

Keq 

[CO 2 ]2

[CO]2 [O2 ]

; 225 

[CO 2 ]2

[0.8]2[2.1]

Finally, we solve for the concentration of carbon dioxide:

[CO 2]  225(0.8)2 (2.1)  17.4

The concentration of carbon dioxide is 17.4 moles/liter

1. Lead sulfide may be prepared under high pressure by the reaction of lead with elemental sulfur: Pb(g) +S(g) ↔ (PbS(g)

What is the value of the equilibrium constant (Keq) if [Pb] = 0.30 mol/L and [S] = 0.184 mol/L, and [PbS] is 2.00 mol/L?

How far has this reaction progressed? A. Unfortunately, it is still mostly reactants B. This reaction is mostly products


2. Methanol can be prepared from carbon monoxide and hydrogen: CO(g) + 2H2 (g) ↔ CH3OH(g) Calculate these equilibrium constants: a. Keq when all substances have a concentration of 1 mol/L

b. Keq when all substances have a concentration of 2 mol/L

C. Keq when all substances have a concentration of 3 mol/L

d. For each reaction indicate if the reaction is mostly products, or mostly starting material. 3. For the combustion of methanol, determine the concentration of methanol given the following data: Keq = 0.32 [O2] = 2 mol/liter [CO2] = 4 mol/liter [H2O] = 5 mol/liter


Name: ____________________________ Period: _____

equilibrium worksheet 3

Le Chatelier’s Principle Henri Le Chatelier came up with a cryptic quote for explaining what causes chemical equilibrium, and what to do about it:

"Placing a stress on an equilibrium causes the equilibrium to shift so as to relieve the stress" What he was referring to were some common things one can do to modify a chemical reaction and the net result: Add reactant: reaction moves forward () Add product: Reaction moves backward (reverse;  Add temperature: Moves forward if endothermic (positive DH) Add pressure: moves toward the fewer number of moles. Remember, liquids and solids are considered to be outside of the reaction mixture – don’t count them when adding up moles.

Example: For the aqueous reaction of table salt with magnesium sulfide, the standard enthalpy of formation is +22.6 kJ/mol. Predict the equilibrium shift if the temperature is increased, if the pressure is increased, or if sodium sulfide is added to the reaction mixture. Solution: We begin by writing a balanced chemical equation:

2NaCl (aq) + MgS (aq) ↔ Na2S (aq) + MgCl2 (aq) DHo = +22.6 kJ/mol Note that in this case 3 moles of reactants form 2 moles of products, and that the standard enthalpy of formation indicates this reaction is endothermic. Using this information and the tips at the top of this worksheet, we can conclude Increasing temperature will shift the equilibrium forward () since this reaction needs heat Increasing pressure will shift the equilibrium forward ( ) since the product has fewer moles Adding sodium sulfide is like adding water to a fire, and shift the equilibrium backwards ( )

1. For the following reaction 5 CO(g) + I2O5(s)  I2(g) + 5 CO2(g)

DHo = -1175 kJ/mol

for each change listed, predict the equilibrium shift and the effect on the indicated quantity.


Direction of Shift

Change (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

( ; ; or no change)

decrease in volume raise temperature addition of I2O5(s) addition of CO2(g) removal of I2(g)

Effect on Quantity

Effect (increase, decrease, or no change)

amount of CO (g) amount of CO(g) amount of CO(g) amount of I2O5(s) amount of CO2(g)

2. Consider the following equilibrium system in a closed container: Ni(s) + 4 CO(g)  Ni(CO)4(g)

DHo = - 161 kJ

In which direction will the equilibrium shift in response to each change, and what will be the effect on the indicated quantity? Direction Effect on Effect (increase, decrease, Change of Shift Quantity ( ; ; or no change)

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g)

add Ni(s) raise temperature add CO(g) remove Ni(CO)4(g) decrease in volume lower temperature remove CO(g)

or no change)

Ni(CO)4(g) Keq amount of Ni(s) CO(g) Ni(CO)4(g) CO(g) Keq

3. For the conversion of oxygen (O2) to ozone (O3), predict the equilibrium shifts from the following changes:

Change (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g)

add Ni(s) raise temperature add CO(g) remove Ni(CO)4(g) Apply a vacuum lower temperature remove CO(g)

Direction of Shift

( ; ; or no change)


Name__________________________ Period________

equilibrium worksheet 4

Equilibrium Review Worksheet 1.

What is the best way to drive a reversible reaction to completion?

If you were watching a chemical reaction, list three observations that would indicate that the reaction is not subject to equilibrium and can only move forward. 2. 3. 4. Write the gas equilibrium constant (Kc) for each of the following chemical reactions. 5) CS2(g) + H2 (g)  CH4 (g) + H2 (g)

8)

6)

Ni (s)

+

7)

HgO(s) 

CO(g)

Ni(CO)4 (g)

Hg

(l)

+

O2(g)

In your own words, paraphrase Le Chatelier's Principle.

9) Balance the following reaction: ___N2 (g) + ___H2 (g)  ___NH3 (g) DH= -386 KJ/mole 10. Known as the Born-Haber Process, this is an example of a __________ reaction. Predict the direction the equilibrium will shift if: 11) N2 is added? 12) H2 is removed? 13) NH3 is added? 14) NH3 is removed? 15) the volume of the container is increased? 16) the pressure is increased by adding Argon gas? 17) the reaction is cooled? 18) equal number of moles of H2 and NH3 are added? The equilibrium constant for the following reaction is 5.0 at 400 C. CO (g) + H2O(g)  CO2 (g) + H2 (g) Determine the direction of the reaction if the following amount (in moles) of each compound is placed in a 1.0 L flask. CO (g) H2O (g) CO2 (g) H2 (g) 19. 0.50 0.40 0.80 0.90 20. 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 21. 1.22 1.22 2.78 2.78


22. At a particular temperature a 2.0 L flask contains 2.0 mol H2S, 0.40 mol H2, and 0.80 mol S2. Calculate Keq at this temperature for the reaction: H2 (g) + S2 (g)  H2S (g)

23) Balance the following conversion of methane into the monomer ethylene, used to make the polymer polyethylene: ___CH4 (g)  ___H2C2 (g) + ___H2(g) The initial concentration of CH4 is 0.0300 M and the equilibrium concentration of H2C2 is 0.01375 M: 24) calculate the equilibrium concentrations of CH4 and H2; 25) Determine the numerical value of Keq. 26) At a particular temperature, 8.0 mol NO2 is placed into a 1.0 L container and the NO2 dissociates by the reaction (which needs balancing): ___NO2(g)  + ___O2(g) ____NO (g) 27. At equilibrium, the concentration of NO is 2.0 M. Calculate Keq for this reaction.

28. At a certain temperature, 4.0 mol NH3 is introduced into a 2.0 L container, and the NH3 partially dissociates by the reaction (please balance it): ___NH3 (g)  ___N2 (g) + ___H2(g) At equilibrium, 2.0 mol NH3 remains. What is the value of Keq for this reaction?


How to Ace the Equilibrium Exam

Howtoaceitunit18

In our previous unit we investigated the rate of chemical reactions- how fast do they go? In this equilibrium unit we point out that even if a reaction is going fast, it might not be going very far overall if the reverse reaction is also occurring. This is the big idea behind chemical equilibrium, the condition where the rate of a forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction. We can write the equilibrium constant expression and from this we can determine if we are getting anywhere or whether the reaction is standing still. Generally speaking, if we mix chemicals together we would like them to go forward, and this will happen if the value of the equilibrium constant (Keq) is greater than one. Note that Keq is only true at a specific temperature, and it says nothing about the rate of a reaction- only the direction. A nice benefit of the equilibrium constant expression is that it can also tell you what the concentration of a reactant is, given enough information. Since chemical equilibrium can prevent a reaction from going to completion, it would be nice to know how we can destroy it, or at least get things moving forward. Simple. To destroy chemical equilibrium, one must remove the product as it is formed- this makes the reverse reaction impossible. This is accomplished by having the product precipitate, for example by precipitating as a solid. As a general rule, this is why we omit liquids and solids from our equilibrium constant expression. In practice, it is easy to observe a precipitate. Examples include the gaseous precipitate we observe when we mix baking soda and vinegar, or the solids that crash out of solution during many double replacement reactions. These reactions can only move forward, since collisions between products to form reactants are no longer possible. There are several other ways one can adjust chemical equilibrium. Known as Le Chatelier’s Principle, the direction of a reaction after a stress is applied may be summarized: Le Chatelier’s Principle Adding reactant:  Adding product:  Heating:  if endothermic Pressurizing:  if there are fewer moles of product Each of these may be reversed; for example cooling an endothermic reaction will favor the reverse reaction. Imagine going on a trip. It’s nice to know in what direction you are going, and how long it will take. These last two units have shown us just that for a chemical reaction. In the next unit we can apply these navigational skills to the study of acids and bases.


To ace this exam you should know: 1. What is chemical equilibrium? 2. What is a synonym for equilibrium? 3. What is the best way to destroy chemical equilibrium? 4. What does it mean if the rate of a forward chemical reaction a. Is faster than the reverse reaction b. Is the same as the reverse reaction? c. Is slower than the reverse reaction?

5. Please balance the reaction below and write the chemical equilibrium expression: ___Fe3O4(s) + ___H2(g)  ___Fe(s) + ___H2O (g) Keq =

6. Please determine the direction of the reaction given the following data: C2H4(g) + a. 1M b. 1.0520M

H2 (g)  2M 3.0400M

C2H6(g) DH = +32kJ/mol 3M Direction of reaction:______ 3.1909M Direction of reaction:______

7. For the reaction below the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction. Therefore, Keq = ____. Determine the concentration of ethane (C2H6) in the mixture: C2H4(g) + H2 (g)  C2H6(g) DH = +32kJ/mol 2M 4M ?

8. Please determine the direction of the following hypothetical reversible reaction: 4A(g) + 7B(g) + 13C +D (l)  9E (g) + 3F (g)+ 2G (g) Concentrations (M): 1.06 2.12 1.42 3 2.10 1.44 3.26


9 (L1 only). Please determine the concentration of G in the following reaction if it is at equilibrium.

Concentrations (M):

4A(g) + 7B(g) + 13C +D (l) ďƒ 9E (g) + 3F (g)+ 2G (g) 1.06 2.12 1.42 3 2.10 1.44 ?

9. List five ways to help the following reaction move forward: C2H4(g) + H2 (g) ďƒ C2H6(g) DH = +32kJ/mol

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 10. In our next unit we will be studying acids and bases. Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction of hydrochloric acid with sodium hydroxide to form table salt and water:

a. Can you move this reaction forward by pressurizing it? b. If the standard enthalpy of formation for this reaction is 0.004KJ/Mol, can you move it forward by heating it? c. What is the only product that might precipitate from this reaction at room temperature? d. Why would it be a big deal if that product did precipitate? e. Would it be a good idea to add water to this reaction? f. This is a segue into the next unit: If this reaction used 10 grams of sodium hydroxide and ten grams hydrochloric acid, would it result in a neutral, acidic, or basic solution (assuming a complete reaction)?


M


0

1

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7

8

9

10

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12

13

14

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

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9

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13

14


105 10 3 3

 

 


6



Molarity of unknown =

vinegar Molarity =

molarity of known x liters of known liters of unknown

(NaOH Molarity)(NaOH volume) vinegar volume


60 grams acetic acid 180 g acetic acid 3 moles acetic acid 1 liter solution x x = = 18% Liter solution 1 mole acetic acid 1000 grams solution 1000 g solution




common name stomach acid

name hydrochloric acid

lye milk of magnesia

HCl

hydrofluoric acid

HF

hydrobromic acid

HBr

hydrioidic acid

vinegar

formula

HI

nitric acid

HNO3

sulfuric acid

H2SO4

phosphoric acid

H3PO4

acetic acid sodium hydroxide

CH3CO2H NaOH

magnesium hydroxide

Mg(OH)2

calcium hydroxide

Ca(OH)2

ammonia triethylamine

NH3 (CH3CH2)3N


[H+][OH-] = 10-14 Enter 10^-14/1.66E-4

pH 3.78 [H+] = 10-pH

Enter 10^-3.78

[H+]

pOH

[OH-]

Acid or base? Example

1.66 x 10-4

10.22

6.0 x 10-11

Acid Orange juice

pH + pOH = 14 Enter 14-3.78

Use the change sign (-) button, not the subtract button

pH>7 = base pH<7 = acid


  



chemistryacademy 2012-2013 8.14.12  

chemistry for high school

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