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welcome to chemistry


3

22.99

sodium

Na

6.94

Rb

Cs

Fr

132.91

cesium

francium 223.02

87

55

85.47

rubidium

37

39.10

K potassium

19

11

lithium

Li

4

Mg

9.01

beryllium

Be

Group 2

Sr

40.08

Lu

103

Lr

174.97

Lutetium

71

88.91

Ac

Hf

Rf

Th

cerium 140.12

Ce

Ta

92.91

Db

Pr Pa

26

Fe

Mo

W

Sg

Nd

Chlorate ClO3-

Chloride Cl-

Bicarbonate HCO3-

Bisulfate HSO4-

uranium 238.03

U

Carbonate CO32-

92

neodymium 144.24

60

263.12

seaborgium

106

183.85

tungsten

74

95.94

Re

Bh

Pm

Np 237.05

neptunium

93

promethium 144.91

61

264.12

bohrium

107

186.21

rhenium

75

technetium 96.91

43

Os

Hs

Sm

Pu

Co

Ir

102.91

Mt

Eu

Am americium 243.06

95

europium 151.96

63

(268)

Meitnerium

109

192.22

iridium

77

Rh

rhodium

45

cobalt 58.93

27

Group 9

Pd

Pt

Ds

111

79

47

Cm curium (247)

96

gadolinium 157.25

Gd

64

(281)

Dichromate Cr2O72-

Fluoride F-

Cu

Rg

gold 196.97

Au

107.87

Ag

silver

copper 63.55

29

Group 11

Tb

Bk

Cd

Hg

Uub

Dy

Cf californium (251)

98

dysprosium 162.50

66

Ununbium (285)

112

mercury 200.59

80

112.40

cadmium

48

metal

Nitride N3-

Nitrate NO3-

Al

Ga

26.98

Tl

114.82

In

indium

Uut

Ho

Es

Si

P

114

82

Uuq

207.19

Pb lead

118.69

Uup

208.98

Bi

bismuth

115

83

121.75

Antimony)

Sb tin

Sn 50

74.92

As 72.59 51

33

30.97

phosphorus

15

14.01

arsenic

Ge

N

Group 15

nitrogen

7

6

Se

Te

Po

116

Uuh

polonium (210)

84

tellurium 127.60

52

selenium 78.96

34

32.07

sulfur

S

16.00

O

Group 16

oxygen

16

8

-3 -2

5

germanium

32

28.09

silicon

257.10

fermium

100

Fm

Er erbium 167.26

68

(256)

mendelevium

Md

Yb

Phosphate PO43-

No (254)

nobelium

102

ytterbium 173.04

70

Permanganate MnO4-

Perchlorate ClO4-

Oxide O2-

Tm thulium 168.93 101

69

Nitrite NO2-

einsteinium (254)

99

C

carbon 12.01 14

6

+4, -4 Group 14

4

Valence electrons:

-1

F

Group 17

At

I

iodine 126.90

Uus

117

(210)

astatine

85

53

79.91

bromine

Br

35.45

Cl

chlorine

35

17

19.00

fluorine

9

halogens

7

He

Group 18

0

Noble gases

Sc

Thiosulfate S2O32-

Sulfate SO42-

Sulfide S2-

nonmetal

Atomic mass

Manmade

Solid Liquid Gas

Symbol:

metalloid

metal

44.96

scandium

21

Phosphide P3-

to 103

to 71

Atomic number

name

Uuo

(220)

Rn

radon

131.30

Xe xenon

118

86

54

Kr

39.95

Ar argon

krypton 83.80

36

18

neon

20.18

Ne

helium 4.00 10

2

8

ununtrium ununquadium ununpentium ununhexium ununseptium ununoctium (289) (295) (284) (289) (288) (293)

113

204.37

thallium

81

49

69.72

gallium

31

164.93

Hypochlorite ClOIodide I-

B

boron 10.81

aluminum

13

5

Group 13

3

+3

Holmium

67

7p

6p

5p

4p

3p

2p

Hydroxide OH-

berkelium (249)

97

terbium 158.92

65

(272)

Zn

zinc 65.37

30

Group 12

Thallium Tl 204.38 Thorium Th 232.04 Thulium Tm 168.93 Tin Sn 118.71 Titanium Ti 47.87 Tungsten W 183.84 Uranium U 238.03 Vanadium V 50.94 Xenon Xe 131.29 Ytterbium Yb 173.04 Yttrium Y 88.91 Zinc Zn 65.41 Zirconium Zr 91.22

Darmstadtium roentgenium

110

195.09

platinum

78

106.40

palladium

46

Chromate CrO42Cyanide CN-

Ni

nickel 58.71

28

Group 10

Radium Ra 226.03 Radon Rn 222.02 Rhenium Re 186.21 Rhodium Rh 102.91 Rubidium Rb 85.47 Ruthenium Ru 101.07 Rutherfordium Rf 261.11 Samarium Sm 150.36 Scandium Sc 44.96 Seaborgium Sg 266.12 Selenium Se 78.96 Silicon Si 28.09 Silver Ag 107.87 Sodium Na 22.99 Strontium Sr 87.62 Sulfur S 32.07 Tantalum Ta 180.95 Technetium Tc 97.91 Tellurium T6 127.60 Terbium Tb 158.93

Chlorite ClO2-

plutonium 244.06

94

samarium 150.41

62

265.13

hassium

108

190.20

osmium

76

101.07

ruthenium

44

Ru

Mn

Tc

42 molybdenum

Bromide Br-

231.04

protactinium

91

140.91

praseodymium

59

262.11

dubnium

105

180.95

tantalum

73

Nb

niobium

41

25

Group 8

iron 55.85

Cr

Group 7

chromium manganese 52.00 54.94

24

Bromide Br-

thorium 232.04

90

58

261.11

rutherfordium

104

178.49

hafnium

72

91.22

V

vanadium 50.94

23

Ammonium NH4+

actinium 227.03

89

lanthanum 138.91

La

Zr

zirconium

40

titanium 47.90

Ti

Group 6

Bisulfite HSO3-

5f

4f

57

262.11

6d lawrencium

5d

4d

Y

yttrium

39

scandium 44.96

22

Group 5

Mercury Hg 200.59 Molybdenum Mo 95.94 Neodymium Nd 144.24 Neon Ne 20.18 Neptunium Np 237.05 Nickel Ni 58.69 Niobium Nb 92.91 Nitrogen N 14.01 Nobelium No 259.10 Osmium Os 190.23 Oxygen O 16.00 Palladium Pd 106.42 Phosphorus P 30.97 Platinum Pt 195.08 Plutonium Pu 244.06 Polonium Po 208.98 Potassium K 39.10 Praseodymium Pr 140.91 Promethium Pm 144.91 Protactinium Pa 231.04

Transition metals: 2 valence electrons

Meitnerium Mt 268.14 Mendelevium Md 258.10

Hafnium Hf 178.49 Hassium Hs 265.13 Helium He 4.00 Holmium Ho 164.93 Hydrogen H 1.01 Indium In 114.82 Iodine I 126.90 Iridium Ir 192.22 Iron Fe 55.85 Krypton Kr 83.80 Lanthanum La 138.91 Lawrencium Lr 262.11 Lead Pb 207.19 Lithium Li 6.94 Lutetium Lu 175.00 Magnesium Mg 24.31 Manganese Mn 54.94

2011 www.chemistryadventure.com

Acetate CH3CO2-

(and NH4

+)

common anions

226.02

Ra radium

Ba

barium 137.33

88

56

87.62

strontium

38

3d

Sc

21

Ca

calcium

20

Group 3

Group 4

ActiniumAc 227.08 Cesium Cs 132.91 Aluminum Al 26.98 Chlorine Cl 35.45 Americium Am 243.06 Chromium Cr 52.00 Antimony Sb 121.75 Cobalt Co 58.93 Argon Ar 39.96 Copper Cu 63.55 Arsenic As 74.92 Curium Cm Astatine At (210) Darmstadtium Ds (281) Barium Ba 137.33 Dubnium Db 262.11 Berkelium Bk (249) Dysprosium Dy 162.50 Beryllium Be 9.01 Einsteinium Es 252.08 Bismuth Bi 208.98 Erbium Er 167.26 Bohrium Bh 264.12 Europium Eu 151.96 Boron B Fermium Fm 257.10 Bromine Br 79.91 Fluorine F Cadmium Cd 112.40 Francium Fr Calcium Ca 40.08 Gadolinium Gd Californium Cf (261) Gallium Ga Carbon C 12.01 Germanium Ge19.00 Cerium Ce 140.12 Gold Au 196.97

24.31

magnesium

12

(H is a nonmetal)

hydrogen 1.01

H

Alkaline earth metals

+2

2 valence electrons

Monovalent cations: Group 1, Ag: +1 Group 2, Zn: +2 Group 3, Al: +3

7s

6s

5s

4s

3s

2s

1s

1

Group 1

Alkali metals

+1

1 valence electron

Periodic Table of the Elements

nonmetal


D

D

 

 

 

 

° °

error x 100 accepted value

D

° °

D

D 

  

  

D

D

D D D D

D

  

D D

D


seating chart period 2 Sydney S

Mariana T

Shaun S

Ambur-Lynn D

Matt B Annalese D

Ashleigh W

Jake H Joe F

Gabriella L Anne K

Anna K Chris M

Elizabeth B

Courtney O

Ben B

normal Craig A

Colton S

Shaun S

Mariana T

Ashleigh W

Elizabeth B

Matt B

Anna K

Anne K

Annalese D

Ambur-Lynn D

Sydney S

Joe F

Courtney O

Ben B

Jake H Gabriella L

labs Craig A

Colton S

Chris M Sydney S

Mariana T

Shaun S

Elizabeth B

Matt B Ben B

Anna K

Anne K

Ambur-Lynn D

Annalese D

Courtney O

Ashleigh W

Jpe F

tests Craig A

Gabriella L

Colton S Chris M


seating chart period 3 Lacey T

Mckenzie S

Brianna M

Jessica M

Peyton J

Kule H

William B

Deanna V

Elizabet D

Alyssa D

Catherine D

Margerite D

Alexandra P

Varun N Joshua O

Brittany B

normal Halle A

Lacey T

Mckenzie S

Deanna V

William B

Catherine D

Jessica M

Peyton J

Alyssa D

Margerite D

Alexandra P

Jenna P

Elizabet D

Joshua O Brianna M

Brittany B

labs Halle A

Jenna P

Varun N Alexandra P

Mckenzie S

Deanna V

William B

Catherine D Jenna P

Margerite D

Peyton J

tests

Jessica M

Elizabet D

Joshua O

Halle A

Alyssa D Brittany B

Lacey T

Brianna M

Varun N


seating chart period 4 Garrett M

Steven S

Jessica R

Ben S

Andrew T

Amanda W

Joe G

Quinn G

Aaron G

Emma G

Sara D

Diana D

Kevin C

Ryan C

Megan T Mark L

Alexa B

Roland L

Luciano A

Mikayla V

normal

Joe W

Ted A

Garrett M

Chris M

Steven S

Jessica R

Andrew T

Amanda W

Joe G

Quinn G

Aaron G

Emma G

Sara D

Diana D

Kevin C

Ryan C

Ben S

Megan T

Alexa B

Mark L

Mikayla V Luciano A

Roland L

labs

Joe W

Ted A

Garrett M

Chris M

Steven S

Jessica R

Andrew T Quinn G

Alexa B

Emma G

Diana D

Ryan C

Luciano A

Ben S

Amanda W Roland L Kevin C Megan T

Mark L

Sara D Mikayla V

tests Chris M

Aaron G

Ted A

Joe W

Joe G


seating chart period 5 Bronwyn R

Gabrielle S

Olivia S

David S

Trevor V Amanda M

Chris M

Grace I

Michael I

Evan H

Seth G

Dan F

Ben E

Sam W Julia M

Lucas D

Kathryn M

Aaron C

normal

Mary W

Kayleigh C

Alissa R

Trevor V

Lucas D

Amanda M

Chris M

David S Grace I

Seth G

Dan F

Ben E

Gabrielle S

Michael I

Olivia S

Evan H

Bronwyn R

Ashley Z

Sam W

Ashley Z Aaron C

labs

Kathryn M

Kayleigh C

Mary W

Alissa R

Julia M

Bronwyn R

Trevor V Chris M

Dan F

David S

Michael I Amanda M Evan H

Kathryn M

Grace I

Seth G

Ben E

Aaron C

Gabrielle S

Olivia S

Sam W

Ashley Z

tests Kayleigh C

Mary W Alissa R

Julia M


seating chart period 7 Lindsey U

Claire W

James W

Paul W

Ian W Stephanie M

Mike G

Dan G

Shane G

Jack F

Rebecca E

Brian D

Kathleen C

Xiao X Lauren M

Klaire C

Megan O

Zoe B

Anny Y

normal

Alexandra Z

Nicole B

Ian W

Klaire C

Stephanie M

Mike G

Paul W

Dan G

Rebecca E

Brian D

Kathleen C

Claire W

Shane G

James W

Jack F

Lindsey U

Clara P

Xiao X

Anny Y Zoe B

Megan O

labs

Nicole B

Alexandra Z

Clara P

Lauren M

Lindsey U

Ian W Mike G

Brian D

Paul W Shane G

Dan G Stephanie M Jack F Xiao X Megan O

Rebecca E

Kathleen C

Zoe B

Claire W

James W

Anny Y

tests Nicole B

Alexandra Z Clara P

Lauren M



1


C

O Controls: Standards For comparison all experiments need these:

E

What is a positive control?

Example:

H

Oh heck I know that The 4-letter mnemonic for this simplified scientific method

What is a positive control?

Example: 4


5

OH

O alkane

alkene O

O

NH2 amine

ether

alkyne O

O O

aldehyde

ketone

alcohol O

ester

NH amide

O

H

carboxylic acid


H H C C C H H

O H H

Br

Br

Br

Br

C H

Br Br

Br

C C

C C

Br

O C C

H O H

H H C C H O


O NH


I’m sure you would all like to ace your first chemistry test. Here’s how: 1. Test yourself on the topics below to see what you know and don’t know. 2. Review this packet in its entirety. Be familiar with each of the topics that were covered in the powerpoint presentation. 3. Write down what you don’t know yet. If you don’t know something, ask a friend or ask me. 4. If you are missing anything it may be available on the class website: http://www.chemistryadventure.com 1.

What is chemistry?

2.

What is matter?

3.

What is not matter? Give examples.

24. Provide two isomers of C3H8O by drawing their structural and skeletal formulas

4.

What do chemists do?

25. Draw an ether with the formula C3H8O.

5.

7.

Where does chemistry fit in with the other branches of science? 26. Draw an amine, an alcohol, a carboxylic acid, an ester, and an amide. Name a branch of science more basic than chemistry. 27. Provide the molecular formula, skeletal formula, and functional List the branches of science from basic to applies. groups present in leucine shown at right.

8.

What is our simple scientific method?

9.

Give an example of a positive and negative control

6.

10. What is a synonym for a negative control

23. Provide a balanced chemical equation for the combustion of isopropanol, C3H8O.

28. What organic functional groups are present in sodium chloride, NaCl? 29. Explain what is implied by the wedges and hatches used in the drawing of leucine. Does contain straight chains, branched chains, or rings?

11. Why are negative controls important for most drug studies? 30. 12. Provide a positive control for an experiment designed to produce bubble gum that blows big bubbles 31. 13. How many bonds to the atoms C, N , H, and O form?

What happens to molecular formulas when double bonds and rings are used? Describe what you know about aristolochic acid, palytoxin, and the kahalalides.

14. What is a useful mnemonic device for the bonding pattern of32. In the rock candy lab, sugar crystallizes, meaning it change from hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon? being dissolved in a liquid to becoming a solid. Is crystallization a physical or a chemical process? 15. Who wrote The Skeptical Chymist? 33. Define density, viscosity, and solubility. What role, if any, do 16. What constitutes a reliable reference when writing a scientific these play when solutions are mixed? paper, and why? 34. Draw a molecule that has an aldehyde, an ether, and a amide in 17. Why is chemistry awesome? it. Provide the molecular formula as well. 18. Compare and explain the flammability of liquids to gases. 19. True or false: most combustion reactions produce water 20. What is the difference between a physical and a chemical change? 21. Provide an example of a physical and a chemical change. 22. How could you identify methanol?

35. Be prepared to answer the essential question for this unit: what is chemistry all about?


data


table of contents unit 2

data


1

m 1


1

1


1

1


1

1


1

1


1


measurement

SI Units unit

symbol

size

Unit Prefixes Prefix

mass volume distance amount brightness current time

kilogram liter meter mole candela ampere Second

kg L m mol cd A s

nano (n) micro (m) milli (m) centi (c) kilo (k) mega (M) giga (G)

billionth millionth thousandth hundredth thousand million billion

3. Complete the table Unit of measurement Length Mass Temperature density

6. Complete the table. Prefix Symbol

We usually use

Factor

Scientific notation 10-9 10-6 10-3 10-2 103 106 109

But SI units require

Scientific notation

example

Giga mega 1,000 centi 10-3 micro

microgram n


• •

• •

• • •



• • • •


pebbles Iron filings Method salt sugar sand

sand Iron filings pebbles

pebbles

Iron filings Method salt sugar

salt

Method Iron filings

Iron filings salt sugar

salt Method sugar


1

2


3

4


5

6


7

8


9

10


  


The 1989 IBM Atomic Image

Don Eigler and the 1989 IBM Atomic Image

By Your Name Here

Abstract: In 1989 Don Eigler from IBM ushered in the nanotechnology revolution by moving individual Xenon atoms to create the image shown above.

The question “What is everything made out of” is one of the most fundamental questions of mankind, right up there with “Why are we here?”, and “Will that be on the test?”. Recorded ideas date back over 6000 years,1 first popularized in the west by the work of Democritus. Arguably the most compelling evidence for the atom being the fundamental particle of nature involves the human senses- smell, touch, sight, etc. Because of the small size of the atom, none of these are directly possible, so perhaps the next best thing is to observe it with the help of an instrument. This may have first occurred as early as 1981, 2 but the image that popularized it was taken by Dr. Don Eigler in 1989.3 Don Eigler is a ponytailed, well educated physicist and surfer. In 1989, he designed his own scanning tunneling microscope. An image of him with his instrument was taken during a 2006 interview.4 While studying the surfaces of solids, he came up with the idea of limiting the movement of atoms by performing his experiments at a few degrees Kelvin- close to absolute zero. In his own words from the 2006 interview, he found that “Through a combination of hard work, some horse sense and good, old fashioned blind luck, I happened to be positioned to discover that I could manipulate individual atoms with a scanning tunneling microscope.” Having discovered the ability to move individual atoms, Eigler decided to create a work of art to document his discovery. What he created is an image of the letters I B M using the noble gas Xenon, a dense and unreactive colorless gas. Was he forced at gunpoint to do the bidding of his IBM bosses?? According to Eigler: “I made that decision on my own. Management never said anything to me beforehand, and I did it with a very clear purpose in my mind. IBM gave me a job, gave me the opportunity when I needed one, gave me the opportunity to excel at doing the things that I love in life, and it was payback time. I pull no punches on that. It was my way of giving back to the corporation some of what the corporation gave to me.” Does Eigler get bored recounting the discovery, now that two decades have passed?

35 Xenon Atoms

Source: http://www-03.ibm.com/press/us/en/pressrelease/22260.wss

“I don't mind talking to people when they're curious, for instance, about what I was thinking about or why did I do this or something like that. The thing is that I always get introduced to people as the guy who wrote I-B-M in atoms. After you have heard that enough times, you don't really need to hear it five more times.” Eiglers current interests are in the field of Spintronics, 5 a speculative field where future computers will be based not electricity (the translational movement of electrons) but on their spin…a sort of electricity where the electrons stay where they are.

Eiglers Lab Notebook

Eigler with his STM Source: http://www.tainano.com/chin/Eigler.htm

Don Eigler (2006)

Source: http://www.theregister.co.uk/2006/06/13/don_eigler_valley/

Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jurvetson/456735511/in/set-30000/

Sources: 1. Gangopadhyaya, Mrinalkanti (1981). Indian Atomism: History and Sources. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press. ISBN 0-391-02177. 2. G. Binnig, H. Rohrer “Scanning tunneling microscopy” IBM Journal of Research and Development 30,4 (1986) reprinted 44,½ Jan/Mar (2000). Available on the web at http://researchweb.watson.ibm.com/journal/rd/441/binnig.pdf 3. Imaging Xe with a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope. DM Eigler, PS Weiss, EK Schweizer, ND Lang - Physical Review Letters, 1991 1189-1192. 4. A man and his microscope: IBM's quest to make atom-sized chips. The silver surfer speaks. Ashlee Vance, The Register, June 13, 2006. Available on the web at http://www.theregister.co.uk/2006/06/13/don_eigler_valley/ 5 Spintronics: A Spin-Based Electronics Vision for the Future. S. A. Wolf et al., Science 2001, Vol. 294. no. 5546, pp. 1488 - 1495


The 1989 IBM Atomic Image

By Your Name Here

Abstract: In 1989 Don Eigler from IBM ushered in the nanotechnology revolution by moving individual Xenon atoms to create the image shown above.

35 Xenon Atoms

Source: http://www-03.ibm.com/press/us/en/pressrelease/22260.wss

Eiglers Lab Notebook

Eigler with his STM Source: http://www.tainano.com/chin/Eigler.htm

Don Eigler (2006)

Source: http://www.theregister.co.uk/2006/06/13/don_eigler_valley/

Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jurvetson/456735511/in/set-30000/

Don Eigler and the 1989 IBM Atomic Image The question “What is everything made out of” is one of the most fundamental questions of mankind, right up there with “Why are we here?”, and “Will that be on the test?”. Recorded ideas date back over 6000 years,1 first popularized in the west by the work of Democritus. Arguably the most compelling evidence for the atom being the fundamental particle of nature involves the human senses- smell, touch, sight, etc. Because of the small size of the atom, none of these are directly possible, so perhaps the next best thing is to observe it with the help of an instrument. This may have first occurred as early as 1981, 2 but the image that popularized it was taken by Dr. Don Eigler in 1989.3 Don Eigler is a ponytailed, well educated physicist and surfer. In 1989, he designed his own scanning tunneling microscope. An image of him with his instrument was taken during a 2006 interview.4 While studying the surfaces of solids, he came up with the idea of limiting the movement of atoms by performing his experiments at a few degrees Kelvin- close to absolute zero. In his own words from the 2006 interview, he found that “Through a combination of hard work, some horse sense and good, old fashioned blind luck, I happened to be positioned to discover that I could manipulate individual atoms with a scanning tunneling microscope.” Having discovered the ability to move individual atoms, Eigler decided to create a work of art to document his discovery. What he created is an image of the letters I B M using the noble gas Xenon, a dense and unreactive colorless gas. Was he forced at gunpoint to do the bidding of his IBM bosses?? According to Eigler: “I made that decision on my own. Management never said anything to me beforehand, and I did it with a very clear purpose in my mind. IBM gave me a job, gave me the opportunity when I needed one, gave me the opportunity to excel at doing the things that I love in life, and it was payback time. I pull no punches on that. It was my way of giving back to the corporation some of what the corporation gave to me.” Does Eigler get bored recounting the discovery, now that two decades have passed? “I don't mind talking to people when they're curious, for instance, about what I was thinking about or why did I do this or something like that. The thing is that I always get introduced to people as the guy who wrote I-B-M in atoms. After you have heard that enough times, you don't really need to hear it five more times.” Eiglers current interests are in the field of Spintronics, 5 a speculative field where future computers will be based not electricity (the translational movement of electrons) but on their spin…a sort of electricity where the electrons stay where they are. Sources: 1. Gangopadhyaya, Mrinalkanti (1981). Indian Atomism: History and Sources. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press. ISBN 0-391-02177. 2. G. Binnig, H. Rohrer “Scanning tunneling microscopy” IBM Journal of Research and Development 30,4 (1986) reprinted 44,½ Jan/Mar (2000). Available on the web at http://researchweb.watson.ibm.com/journal/rd/441/binnig.pdf 3. Imaging Xe with a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope. DM Eigler, PS Weiss, EK Schweizer, ND Lang - Physical Review Letters, 1991 1189-1192. 4. A man and his microscope: IBM's quest to make atom-sized chips. The silver surfer speaks. Ashlee Vance, The Register, June 13, 2006. Available on the web at http://www.theregister.co.uk/2006/06/13/don_eigler_valley/ 5 Spintronics: A Spin-Based Electronics Vision for the Future. S. A. Wolf et al., Science 2001, Vol. 294. no. 5546, pp. 1488 - 1495


19 9

F-

9 protons 10 neutrons 10 electrons

41

2+

Ca

20

20 protons 21 neutrons 18 electrons

235

U

92

92 protons 143 neutrons 92 electrons



 

  

  

w

1 1   1 0.01097 2  2  2 n 


1 valence electron

+1

2 valence electrons

+2

Alkali metals

H

1

1s

hydrogen 1.01

Alkaline earth metals Group 2

(H is a nonmetal)

2s

Li

3

Be

4

3s

11

Na

sodium

Mg

12

4s 5s

19

37

Rb

rubidium 85.47 55

Cs

cesium 132.91

6s 87

7s

K

potassium 39.10

24.31

Fr

francium 223.02

Ca

20

calcium 40.08 38

Sr

strontium 87.62 56

Ba

barium 137.33 88

Ra

radium 226.02

Monovalent cations: Group 1, Ag: +1 Group 2, Zn: +2 Group 3, Al: +3

common anions (and NH4+)

3p

Transition metals: 2 valence electrons

magnesium

22.99

Group 13

B

2p

9.01

6.94

Group 3

21

3d

Sc

scandium 44.96 39

4d

Y

yttrium 88.91

Lu

71

5d

Lutetium 174.97 103

Lr

6d lawrencium

Group 4

22

Ti

titanium 47.90

Zr

40

57

5f

La

lanthanum 138.91 89

Ac

actinium 227.03

23

41

Hf

hafnium 178.49 104

Rf

rutherfordium

73

Ce cerium 140.12

90

Th

thorium 232.04

Ta

tantalum 180.95 105

Db

dubnium

261.11

58

Nb

niobium 92.91

91.22 72

V

vanadium 50.94

zirconium

262.11

4f

Group 5

262.11

59

Pr

Group 6

Cr

24

42

Mo

43

74

W

75

tungsten 183.85 106

Sg

seaborgium 263.12

protactinium

231.04

76

60

Nd

144.24

92

U

uranium 238.03

Bh 264.12

61

Pm

promethium 144.91 93

Np

neptunium 237.05

cobalt 58.9 3 45

Ru

ruthenium 101.07

Os

77

109

Sm

63

Ni

28

Group 11

29

nickel 58.71 46

Ir

78

iridium 192.22

Hs

Group 10

Rh

rhodium 102.91

osmium 190.20 108

Co

27

iron 55.85

Re

bohrium

Group 9

Fe

26

44

rhenium 186.21 107

Group 8

Tc

molybdenum technetium 96.91 95.94

140.91

Pa

Mn

25

chromium manganese 52.00 54.94

praseodymium neodymium

91

Group 7

Pd

Ag

47

palladium 106.40

Pt

silver 107.87 79

platinum 195.09

Mt

110

Eu

64

Ds

Cu

copper 63.55

Au

gold 196.97 111

Rg

hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium roentgenium (272) 265.13 (268) (281)

62

samarium 150.41 94

Pu

plutonium 244.06

europium 151.96 95

Am

americium 243.06

Gd

gadolinium 157.25 96

Cm

curium (247)

65

Tb

terbium 158.92 97

Bk

berkelium (249)

Group 12

Zn

30

zinc 65.37

Cd

48

cadmium 112.40 80

Hg

mercury 200.59 112

Uub

Ununbium (285)

66

Dy

dysprosium 162.50 98

Cf

boron 10.81

Ga

67

Tl

82

Uut

Sn

51

Pb

83

lead 207.19 114

Uuq

Sb

Bi

bismuth 208.98

Uup

115

F

argon

39.95

Te

53

Po

85

Uuh

117

polonium (210) 116

Ar

18

35.45

Br

Kr

36

krypton 83.80

bromine 79.91

I

tellurium 127.60 84

neon

Cl

35

selenium 78.9 6 52

Ne 20.18

chlorine

Se

34

arsenic 74.9 2

Antimony) 121.75

tin 118.69

thallium 204.37

As

33

72.59

helium 4.00 10

19.00 17

sulfur 32.07

30.97

Ge

S

16

He

fluorine

16.00

phosphorus

28.09

50

O

2

Group 17

9

oxygen

P

15

germanium

In

Xe

54

iodine 126.90

xenon 131.30

Rn

At

86

Uus

118

astatine (210)

radon (220)

Uuo

ununtrium ununquadium ununpentium ununhexium ununseptium ununoctium (289) (295) (284) (289) (288) (293)

Ho

Holmium 164.93 99

N

Group 16

8

Noble gases

Group 18

-1 halogens

-2

Group 15

14.01

Si

indium 114.82

113

-3 7

7

6

nitrogen

silicon

69.72

81

7p

C

32

gallium 49

6p

Group 14

6

14

aluminum 26.98

5p

5

carbon 12.01

Al

13

31

4p

4

+4, -4

+3

5

beryllium

lithium

3

0

8

Valence electrons: metal nonmetal

Group 1

Es

californium einsteinium (251) (254)

68

Er

erbium 167.26 100

Fm

fermium 257.10

Tm

69

thulium 168.93 101

Md

70

Yb

ytterbium 173.04 102

No

mendelevium nobelium (256) (254)

to 71

Atomic number

21

Sc

scandium

to 103

Symbol: Solid Liquid Gas

Manmade

name

44.96 Atomic mass metal metalloi d

nonmeta l


solution :


  

  

  

  


16S:

1s2 2s2 2p2 3s2 3p4


Principles and rules of electron configuration Principle or rule Heisenberg

Bad

Good

1s22p1

1s22s1

(e-position uncertain)

1s

1

Aufbau (build up) Hund’s Rule (spread out) Pauli (opp. spins)

1s22s22p2 1s2

Unit 5 electrons Dr. B.’s ChemAdventure

1s22s22p2 1s2


our essential question:

I

O O O

O

OH H

NH O O OH

OH

O O

O O

1. taxol (paclitaxel)

O


I


W

 


W

stock value 

new price x investment original price

560 dollars x 1000 dollars  1150 dollars 485 dollars


O

stock value 

new price x investment original price

$21 x $500,000  $525,000 $20


I H OH

O O

O

OH

O

O

H

NH O

O

H O

O

OH

OH

HO H O

O O

O OH O

H

O O

O

O

O

H

O

O OO O

1. taxol (paclitaxel)

N

azadirachtin

O

N

O

O

N

N

OH

O N

N

Co N N

3+

R

N

HO

N

O

O

O

P

O O

O

O O

3. Vitamin B12

N

O

OH O

H O O H O

H

H O

H

OH OH 4. ginsenoside rb2

N O

OH H

OH HO

O N

HO

OH OH

OH OH

O O

OH


HO

I

HO Na O S O O O

OH

HO HO HO

H O

H

OH

HO

H

OH

O H

H O H

O H

H O

O H HO H

H O H

O H O

O

H

H

HO

H O H H

OH OH O O O S O OH Na H O H

H O H H O H H

O H HO H H

HO HO

O H

O

HO

H

O H

H

O H

O

H OH

O

HO

O

H

H OH O H

O

OH H HO

HO

H OH

H OH

HO OH H HO O H HO

H O

O H

O H O H

OH




F

F F

F

H H

C

H

H H

C H

O

H C

H

C H H H H

H

H C C H H O C H H H

O

OH

H

H H C

H

OH

OH

C

OH

C

H

OH


M

Lithium

Sodium

Beryllium

Magnesium

Potassium

Calcium

Rubidium

Strontium

Boron

Aluminum

fluoride

bromide

permanganate

bicarbonate

Chloride

hypochlorite

iodide

chlorite

Cesium

Barium

Francium

Radium

nitrite

perchlorate

Zinc

nitrate

bromate

Ammonium

silver

oxide

sulfide

chromate

dichromate

chlorate

bisulfate

hydroxide

cyanide

iodate

carbonate

sulfite

sulfate

nitride

phosphide

acetate

phosphate


C


O

Br N

H O

O

Si F

Li

Na


W


N

0

+1 +2

+3

polyvalent

-3

-2 -1


F


O


G


D H H N C H H C H H H

and

H H C H N H C H H H


U

O O

+

O

-


I


W


C

r r r r 


Our Essential Question:


Our Essential Question:

W



  


 S


C


 

 


Mix 24 g Mg with 32 g S. Makes 56 g MgS.

I 12

Mg

magnesium 24.31

  

16

S

sulfur 32.07


I

1. Ice melts. What are the COOL signs of a chemical reaction you observed? Is it a chemical reaction? _____ How could you prove it? 2. Wood burns. What are the COOL signs of a chemical reaction you observed? Is it a chemical reaction? _____ How could you prove it?

3. Iron rusts. What are the COOL signs of a chemical reaction? Is it a chemical reaction? _____ How could you prove it?


        

    

 

 


         

    


    

       

   


I




I

ďƒ 

H O

H O NaHCO3

+

H C C

O H

H baking soda _____ g _____ mol

acetic acid _____ g _____ mol

H C C

O

Na

+

H O H

H ethyl acetate

water

+

CO2 carbon dioxide

_____ g

_____ g

_____ g

_____ mol

_____ mol

_____ mol


E





C

NO2 H

H O2N

NO2 H

H

H

N


T 

      


A 


E

10 grams H 2 x

mole H 2 2 moles H 2 O x  5 moles H 2 O 2 grams H 2 2 moles H 2


I


A


I


º


M2 M1

2


Gas Formulas

and

conversions

M2 M1

3



P1V1  P2V2 ;


T1 T2  V1 V2

T1 T2 340 K T2  ;  V1 V2 140 mL 50 mL


T1 T2  P1 P2

x

;

;


200


 



(




1 mole NaOH 40 g NaOH x x 0.1 liter solution  4 g NaOH liter solution mole NaOH


D

D


HO Greasy: will dissolve in greasy solvents

watery: will dissolve in watery solvents (like water)

watery region

A “brick�: hard to dissolve in anything.


S1 S2  P1 P2

S1 S2 3.3 g /L 9.9 g/L (1 atm)(9.9 g/L)  ;  ; x=  3 atm P1 P2 1 atm x (3.3 g/L)


Percent solution by mass 

Percent solution by volume 

mass solute x 100 mass solution

volume solute x 100 volume solution

moles of solute Liters of solution


40 g NaCl 0.5 moles NaCl x x 0.08 Liters solution = 1.6 grams NaCl Liter of solution mole NaCl


Percent solution by mass 

Percent solution by volume 

mass solute x 100 mass solution

volume solute x 100 volume solution

moles of solute Liters of solution




Chemistry 1. Intro 2. data 3. matter 4. the atom 5. electrons 6. periodic table 7. bonding 8. reactions 9. the mole 10. gases 11. solutions 12. Energy 13. Reaction rates 14. equilibrium 15. Acids and bases


D

D

D

D D

D

D

D

D


Percent error = measured chip calories/actual chip calories x 100


Title Name, Date

Data Q = mcDT Q= M= C= DT = =( )( )( ) = ___ J = ___Nutritional Calories

(For example: Potato Chip Calorimetry Or Energy Analysis of a common Snack Food) Schematic drawing With labels Of your calorimeter

caption

Conclusions Include the Nutritional Calories calculated for your chip, the estimated real nutritional calories for your chip, and an explanation for the difference.

Pick a topic: 1. What is calorimetry? 2. Sources of Error in our calorimeter design 3. A better design for the next experiment 10 points: 1. Effort: 5 points -does this represent 45 minutes of effort? 2. Calculations: 3 Points -are they accurate? 3. Analysis: 2 points: Why are the results so bad (or so good).



D

D

D


D

D

D D

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

D


D

D

D

D

D

D

D


D

  

D D D D

D

D

D

D


D

D


D


D

D

°

°

D

°

°

°

°

°


°

°

°

°

°

°

°


D D

D

D


D

D

D D

° °

°

°

°


D


D

DG = DH –TDS Where

D

DG = Gibbs Free Energy DH = Enthalpy in Joules T = Temperature (K) And DS = Entropy in Joules/K

D

D

D

D

D

D

D D

D

D

D

D

D

D

 D

D

.

D

D D


D D

D D

D

D

D

D

D

D

D D

D

D

D

D


Chemistry 1. Intro 2. data 3. matter 4. the atom 5. electrons 6. periodic table 7. bonding 8. reactions 9. the mole 10. gases 11. solutions 12. Energy 13. Reaction rates 14. equilibrium 15. Acids and bases


reaction rate 

Δconcentra tion Δtime


 reaction rate 

Δconcentration Δtime

0.100mol / L  0.22mol / L 4s  0s

 0.03

mol liter  sec 


collision theory



• • • •


Unit 14

How do I recognize and deal with a reversible chemical reaction?

The problem with chemical reactions is that the reverse reaction can, and usually does occur. To put it another way, for the reaction AB, while A ⇌ is being converted to B, B is often being converted back to A. And what good is that?! This is equilibrium, a balance between forward and reverse reactions. In a sense, this means that a chemical reaction is never “done”; it never stops; it simply gets to a point where the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse

reaction. Fortunately it is usually an easy matter to destroy this reversibility, this equilibrium. For example a reaction can be irreversibly driven to completion by removing the products as they are formed. Note that this doesn’t necessarily mean the reaction will now happen quickly: equilibrium and rate are two separate aspects of a chemical reaction…and just what is the relationship between equilibrium and rate? What does it mean to have something that can go forwards and backwards at the same time, at different speeds? Will the product ever form? Will the product ever stay formed? In practice, reversible reactions can give lousy yields of product, and chemists are always trying to come up with a way to drive the reaction to completion. The graph below shows the typical result of a reversible chemical reaction. Dinitrogen tetroxide is decomposing into nitrogen dioxide, but since the reaction is reversible, the reaction never goes to completion.

In this unit we will learn how to calculate the concentrations of reactants and products at equilibrium, and we will use several methods to adjust the equilibrium in the direction we prefer. ∏


Name: __________________________ Period: _____

equilibrium lab 1

Paper Clip Equilibrium Activity To demonstrate the characteristics of a reversible chemical reaction, imagine the reaction A + B ďƒ  C below:

A

C

B

This is an example of a _______________ reaction. The reverse reaction is an example of a _________ reaction. At your instructors prompts, make as many C molecules as you can in 15 seconds. Then see how many you can take apart in 15 seconds. Record your answers in the box. Summary: C molecules made in 15 seconds (forward reaction): __________ C molecules decomposed in 15 seconds (reverse reaction): ________ At this rate, it would take ____ minutes for this reversible reaction to go to completion. 6. Before returning the materials to the front of the classroom, be certain the composition of the paper clips in the pile are the same as when your received them.

Summary Question: You have just simulated a reversible chemical reaction. In actual practice, the rate of a chemical reaction at constant temperature and pressure slows down over time until there is no change in the ratio of product to reactants. Explain this using collision theory.



D

  

D

D

         


Name: _______________________

Period: _____

equilibrium lab 2

Perfume Lab Introduction: Esters may be prepared through the reaction of a carboxylic acid RCO2H with an Alcohol (R’OH), using a small amount of sulfuric acid as a catalyst.

RCO2H carboxylic acid

+

R’OH + alcohol

H2SO4

sulfuric acid

RCO2R’ ester

+

H2O water

+

H2SO4

sulfuric acid

Esters often have strong pleasant aromas. Carefully guarded mixtures of esters create expensive perfumes including Chanel #5, Aramis (for men) and others, some of which sell for hundreds of dollars per bottle. In this lab each student will create his own ester, and we will then share them to make perfumes.

For this chemical reaction, all of these reactants and products remain in solution. Therefore this reaction is reversible, and yields for this reaction can be low. In this experiment we will investigate the equilibrium mixture for this mixture after 24 hours.

Materials: Carboxylic acids listed on board Alcohols listed on board Sulfuric Acid (to be distributed by instructor) as a catalyst . Chemical Reaction Procedure: Mix 0.1 moles of your carboxylic acid, 0.1 moles of ethanol, and 5 drops of sulfuric acid. The calculations below will help make sure you are using the right amounts. Heat but do not boil on a hot plate for 20 minutes then store covered overnight.


Calculations: My carboxylic acid has a formula of _____, therefore one mole has a mass of ______g, and 0.1 mole has a mass of ______g. My alcohol has a formula of ______, therefore one mole has a mass of ______g, and 0.1 mole has a mass of ______g. Workup The following day, carefully neutralize the mixture with a measured amount of baking soda (NaHCO3). This reaction required ____g of baking soda for neutralization. Calculation: Sodium bicarbonate has a molecular formula of NaHCO3. Therefore one mole of NaHCO3 has a mass of ____g and 0.1 mole has a mass of ____g. Since ____ g of sodium bicarbonate reacted, this is ____moles of sodium bicarbonate. Therefore it reacted with ____moles of my carboxylic acid. Based on this we estimate that the reaction is ____% complete. All of the substances in the mixture are water soluble, except the fragrant ester you have produced. Bottle and artistically label the ester you have created. If time permits, combine small amounts of your perfume with those made by others to create your own perfume.

Results: 1. Based on our workup, our reaction created ___ g of ester after ____ hours for a ____ % yield. I would describe the odor of our ester produced as __________ I would describe the odor of our perfume as _______..

Questions

1. Show a balanced chemical equation for the reaction of acetic acid with baking soda.

3. Based on chemical equilibrium, indicate three ways the yield of this reaction could be improved.


Name: _____________________________________

Date: ______

Period: _____

Science and Technology Posters 100 Points Introduction: Choose a poster on a topic of your choice. Topic: Each group of two will present a poster on any approved topic that is titled: The Chemistry of ____________________ Choose something that you are personally interested in. Possible topics include The Chemistry of : 1. A rose

19. Scopolamine

2. Explosives

20. Mouthwash

3. DNA

21. flavonoids

4. skin cream

22. Cellular phones

5. chocolate

23. Reverse osmosis

6. dirt

24. artificial blood

7. car tires

25. hydrofluoric acid

8. the space shuttle

26. chemical warfare

rocket engine

agents

9. A battery

27. organ transplants

10. Hybrid vehicles

28. the bliss molecule

11. nuclear power

29. pain

12. Nuclear warheads

30. anabolic steroids

13. The Connecticut

31. mucous

river

32. energy drinks

14. The ozone layer

33. really smelly gases

15. Liquid crystals

34. combinatorial

16. A baseball

chemistry

17. carbon

35. dynamite

18. Coca-cola

1


Scoring Rubric 1. These posters are purely informational, not research-based. The goal is to instruct the reader in a logical, succinct, and interesting way. No experiments are necessary. 2. These posters should reflect the fact that we are near to completion of a full year high school level chemistry course. Try to get as deep as you can into your subject. 3. There should be several chemical structures included in your poster (2 minimum). 4. There should be a properly cited reference section for your poster. Include trusted scientific sources wherever possible. Include enough details in your citation that anyone could easily retrieve that source. 5. Include numerous images in your poster (2 minimum). Cite the source below the image if it is not original. All posters must be typed. Your instructor will provide details.


Name: ____________________________________ Period: _____

equilibrium worksheet 1

Writing Equilibrium Concentration Expressions Directions: Write the equilibrium constant expression for each of the equations illustrated below. These all follow the format:

for aA + bB  cC +dD

Keq 

[C]c [D]d [A]a [B]b

Example: write the equilibrium constant expression for the gas-phase synthesis of ethane (C2H6) from the elements. Solution: First, we write the balanced chemical equation: 2C(g) + 3H2 ↔ C2H6 (g) Then we use the format above to write the equilibrium constant expression:

Keq 

[C2H6 ]

[C]2 [H2 ]3

1. At 1405 K, hydrogen sulfide, also called rotten egg gas because of its bad odor, decomposes to form hydrogen and a diatomic sulfur molecule, S2. 2H2S(g) ↔ 2H2(g) + S2(g) Write the equilibrium constant expression for this reversible reaction.

2. Methanol, a formula-1 race car fuel, can be made from carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas: CO(g) + 2H2 (g) ↔ CH3OH(g) Write the equilibrium constant for this reversible reaction.

3. Write the balanced reaction for the combustion of hydrogen at 200 OC, and show that this is a reversible reaction.


Write the equilibrium constant for this reversible reaction.

4. Write a balanced reaction for the combustion of methane at room temperature. Be sure to include the physical states of the reactants and products.

Write the equilibrium constant for this reversible reaction.


Name: _______________________

Date: ______Period: _____ eauilibrium worksheet 2

Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations

Directions: Write the equilibrium constant expression for each of the equations illustrated below and solve for the missing value. These all may be solved using the equilibrium constant expression: for aA + bB ↔ cC +dD

Keq 

[C]c [D]d [A]a [B]b

And then plugging in the given data and solving for the unknown.

Example: For the reaction of carbon monoxide with oxygen to form carbon dioxide, determine the equilibrium concentration of carbon dioxide when the concentration of carbon monoxide is 0.8 moles/liter, the concentration of oxygen is 2.1 moles/liter, and the equilibrium constant is 225. Solution: We begin by writing a balanced chemical, equation for the reaction: 2CO + O2 ↔ 2CO2 We then write the equilibrium constant expression and plug in the numbers given:

Keq 

[CO 2 ]2

[CO]2 [O2 ]

; 225 

[CO 2 ]2

[0.8]2[2.1]

Finally, we solve for the concentration of carbon dioxide:

[CO 2]  225(0.8)2 (2.1)  17.4

The concentration of carbon dioxide is 17.4 moles/liter

1. Lead sulfide may be prepared under high pressure by the reaction of lead with elemental sulfur: Pb(g) +S(g) ↔ (PbS(g)

What is the value of the equilibrium constant (Keq) if [Pb] = 0.30 mol/L and [S] = 0.184 mol/L, and [PbS] is 2.00 mol/L?

How far has this reaction progressed? A. Unfortunately, it is still mostly reactants B. This reaction is mostly products


2. Methanol can be prepared from carbon monoxide and hydrogen: CO(g) + 2H2 (g) ↔ CH3OH(g) Calculate these equilibrium constants: a. Keq when all substances have a concentration of 1 mol/L

b. Keq when all substances have a concentration of 2 mol/L

C. Keq when all substances have a concentration of 3 mol/L

d. For each reaction indicate if the reaction is mostly products, or mostly starting material. 3. For the combustion of methanol, determine the concentration of methanol given the following data: Keq = 0.32 [O2] = 2 mol/liter [CO2] = 4 mol/liter [H2O] = 5 mol/liter


Name: ____________________________ Period: _____

equilibrium worksheet 3

Le Chatelier’s Principle Henri Le Chatelier came up with a cryptic quote for explaining what causes chemical equilibrium, and what to do about it:

"Placing a stress on an equilibrium causes the equilibrium to shift so as to relieve the stress" What he was referring to were some common things one can do to modify a chemical reaction and the net result: Add reactant: reaction moves forward () Add product: Reaction moves backward (reverse;  Add temperature: Moves forward if endothermic (positive DH) Add pressure: moves toward the fewer number of moles. Remember, liquids and solids are considered to be outside of the reaction mixture – don’t count them when adding up moles.

Example: For the aqueous reaction of table salt with magnesium sulfide, the standard enthalpy of formation is +22.6 kJ/mol. Predict the equilibrium shift if the temperature is increased, if the pressure is increased, or if sodium sulfide is added to the reaction mixture. Solution: We begin by writing a balanced chemical equation:

2NaCl (aq) + MgS (aq) ↔ Na2S (aq) + MgCl2 (aq) DHo = +22.6 kJ/mol Note that in this case 3 moles of reactants form 2 moles of products, and that the standard enthalpy of formation indicates this reaction is endothermic. Using this information and the tips at the top of this worksheet, we can conclude Increasing temperature will shift the equilibrium forward () since this reaction needs heat Increasing pressure will shift the equilibrium forward ( ) since the product has fewer moles Adding sodium sulfide is like adding water to a fire, and shift the equilibrium backwards ( )

1. For the following reaction 5 CO(g) + I2O5(s)  I2(g) + 5 CO2(g)

DHo = -1175 kJ/mol

for each change listed, predict the equilibrium shift and the effect on the indicated quantity.


Direction of Shift

Change (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

( ; ; or no change)

decrease in volume raise temperature addition of I2O5(s) addition of CO2(g) removal of I2(g)

Effect on Quantity

Effect (increase, decrease, or no change)

amount of CO (g) amount of CO(g) amount of CO(g) amount of I2O5(s) amount of CO2(g)

2. Consider the following equilibrium system in a closed container: Ni(s) + 4 CO(g)  Ni(CO)4(g)

DHo = - 161 kJ

In which direction will the equilibrium shift in response to each change, and what will be the effect on the indicated quantity? Direction Effect on Effect (increase, decrease, Change of Shift Quantity ( ; ; or no change)

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g)

add Ni(s) raise temperature add CO(g) remove Ni(CO)4(g) decrease in volume lower temperature remove CO(g)

or no change)

Ni(CO)4(g) Keq amount of Ni(s) CO(g) Ni(CO)4(g) CO(g) Keq

3. For the conversion of oxygen (O2) to ozone (O3), predict the equilibrium shifts from the following changes:

Change (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g)

add Ni(s) raise temperature add CO(g) remove Ni(CO)4(g) Apply a vacuum lower temperature remove CO(g)

Direction of Shift

( ; ; or no change)


Name__________________________ Period________

equilibrium worksheet 4

Equilibrium Review Worksheet 1.

What is the best way to drive a reversible reaction to completion?

If you were watching a chemical reaction, list three observations that would indicate that the reaction is not subject to equilibrium and can only move forward. 2. 3. 4. Write the gas equilibrium constant (Kc) for each of the following chemical reactions. 5) CS2(g) + H2 (g)  CH4 (g) + H2 (g)

8)

6)

Ni (s)

+

7)

HgO(s) 

CO(g)

Ni(CO)4 (g)

Hg

(l)

+

O2(g)

In your own words, paraphrase Le Chatelier's Principle.

9) Balance the following reaction: ___N2 (g) + ___H2 (g)  ___NH3 (g) DH= -386 KJ/mole 10. Known as the Born-Haber Process, this is an example of a __________ reaction. Predict the direction the equilibrium will shift if: 11) N2 is added? 12) H2 is removed? 13) NH3 is added? 14) NH3 is removed? 15) the volume of the container is increased? 16) the pressure is increased by adding Argon gas? 17) the reaction is cooled? 18) equal number of moles of H2 and NH3 are added? The equilibrium constant for the following reaction is 5.0 at 400 C. CO (g) + H2O(g)  CO2 (g) + H2 (g) Determine the direction of the reaction if the following amount (in moles) of each compound is placed in a 1.0 L flask. CO (g) H2O (g) CO2 (g) H2 (g) 19. 0.50 0.40 0.80 0.90 20. 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 21. 1.22 1.22 2.78 2.78


22. At a particular temperature a 2.0 L flask contains 2.0 mol H2S, 0.40 mol H2, and 0.80 mol S2. Calculate Keq at this temperature for the reaction: H2 (g) + S2 (g)  H2S (g)

23) Balance the following conversion of methane into the monomer ethylene, used to make the polymer polyethylene: ___CH4 (g)  ___H2C2 (g) + ___H2(g) The initial concentration of CH4 is 0.0300 M and the equilibrium concentration of H2C2 is 0.01375 M: 24) calculate the equilibrium concentrations of CH4 and H2; 25) Determine the numerical value of Keq. 26) At a particular temperature, 8.0 mol NO2 is placed into a 1.0 L container and the NO2 dissociates by the reaction (which needs balancing): ___NO2(g)  + ___O2(g) ____NO (g) 27. At equilibrium, the concentration of NO is 2.0 M. Calculate Keq for this reaction.

28. At a certain temperature, 4.0 mol NH3 is introduced into a 2.0 L container, and the NH3 partially dissociates by the reaction (please balance it): ___NH3 (g)  ___N2 (g) + ___H2(g) At equilibrium, 2.0 mol NH3 remains. What is the value of Keq for this reaction?


How to Ace the Equilibrium Exam

Howtoaceitunit18

In our previous unit we investigated the rate of chemical reactions- how fast do they go? In this equilibrium unit we point out that even if a reaction is going fast, it might not be going very far overall if the reverse reaction is also occurring. This is the big idea behind chemical equilibrium, the condition where the rate of a forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction. We can write the equilibrium constant expression and from this we can determine if we are getting anywhere or whether the reaction is standing still. Generally speaking, if we mix chemicals together we would like them to go forward, and this will happen if the value of the equilibrium constant (Keq) is greater than one. Note that Keq is only true at a specific temperature, and it says nothing about the rate of a reaction- only the direction. A nice benefit of the equilibrium constant expression is that it can also tell you what the concentration of a reactant is, given enough information. Since chemical equilibrium can prevent a reaction from going to completion, it would be nice to know how we can destroy it, or at least get things moving forward. Simple. To destroy chemical equilibrium, one must remove the product as it is formed- this makes the reverse reaction impossible. This is accomplished by having the product precipitate, for example by precipitating as a solid. As a general rule, this is why we omit liquids and solids from our equilibrium constant expression. In practice, it is easy to observe a precipitate. Examples include the gaseous precipitate we observe when we mix baking soda and vinegar, or the solids that crash out of solution during many double replacement reactions. These reactions can only move forward, since collisions between products to form reactants are no longer possible. There are several other ways one can adjust chemical equilibrium. Known as Le Chatelier’s Principle, the direction of a reaction after a stress is applied may be summarized: Le Chatelier’s Principle Adding reactant:  Adding product:  Heating:  if endothermic Pressurizing:  if there are fewer moles of product Each of these may be reversed; for example cooling an endothermic reaction will favor the reverse reaction. Imagine going on a trip. It’s nice to know in what direction you are going, and how long it will take. These last two units have shown us just that for a chemical reaction. In the next unit we can apply these navigational skills to the study of acids and bases.


To ace this exam you should know: 1. What is chemical equilibrium? 2. What is a synonym for equilibrium? 3. What is the best way to destroy chemical equilibrium? 4. What does it mean if the rate of a forward chemical reaction a. Is faster than the reverse reaction b. Is the same as the reverse reaction? c. Is slower than the reverse reaction?

5. Please balance the reaction below and write the chemical equilibrium expression: ___Fe3O4(s) + ___H2(g)  ___Fe(s) + ___H2O (g) Keq =

6. Please determine the direction of the reaction given the following data: C2H4(g) + a. 1M b. 1.0520M

H2 (g)  2M 3.0400M

C2H6(g) DH = +32kJ/mol 3M Direction of reaction:______ 3.1909M Direction of reaction:______

7. For the reaction below the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction. Therefore, Keq = ____. Determine the concentration of ethane (C2H6) in the mixture: C2H4(g) + H2 (g)  C2H6(g) DH = +32kJ/mol 2M 4M ?

8. Please determine the direction of the following hypothetical reversible reaction: 4A(g) + 7B(g) + 13C +D (l)  9E (g) + 3F (g)+ 2G (g) Concentrations (M): 1.06 2.12 1.42 3 2.10 1.44 3.26


9 (L1 only). Please determine the concentration of G in the following reaction if it is at equilibrium.

Concentrations (M):

4A(g) + 7B(g) + 13C +D (l) ďƒ  9E (g) + 3F (g)+ 2G (g) 1.06 2.12 1.42 3 2.10 1.44 ?

9. List five ways to help the following reaction move forward: C2H4(g) + H2 (g) ďƒ  C2H6(g) DH = +32kJ/mol

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 10. In our next unit we will be studying acids and bases. Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction of hydrochloric acid with sodium hydroxide to form table salt and water:

a. Can you move this reaction forward by pressurizing it? b. If the standard enthalpy of formation for this reaction is 0.004KJ/Mol, can you move it forward by heating it? c. What is the only product that might precipitate from this reaction at room temperature? d. Why would it be a big deal if that product did precipitate? e. Would it be a good idea to add water to this reaction? f. This is a segue into the next unit: If this reaction used 10 grams of sodium hydroxide and ten grams hydrochloric acid, would it result in a neutral, acidic, or basic solution (assuming a complete reaction)?


M


0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14


105 10 3

 



Molarity of unknown =

vinegar Molarity =

molarity of known x liters of known liters of unknown

(NaOH Molarity)(NaOH volume) vinegar volume


60 grams acetic acid 180 g acetic acid 3 moles acetic acid 1 liter solution x x = = 18% Liter solution 1 mole acetic acid 1000 grams solution 1000 g solution




common name stomach acid

name hydrochloric acid

lye milk of magnesia

HCl

hydrofluoric acid

HF

hydrobromic acid

HBr

hydrioidic acid

vinegar

formula

HI

nitric acid

HNO3

sulfuric acid

H2SO4

phosphoric acid

H3PO4

acetic acid sodium hydroxide

CH3CO2H NaOH

magnesium hydroxide

Mg(OH)2

calcium hydroxide

Ca(OH)2

ammonia triethylamine

NH3 (CH3CH2)3N


[H+][OH-] = 10-14 Enter 10^-14/1.66E-4

pH 3.78 [H+] = 10-pH

Enter 10^-3.78

[H+]

pOH

[OH-]

Acid or base? Example

1.66 x 10-4

10.22

6.0 x 10-11

Acid Orange juice

pH + pOH = 14 Enter 14-3.78

Use the change sign (-) button, not the subtract button

pH>7 = base pH<7 = acid


  




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