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The Guilford Journal Of Chemistry Volume 2 October 1, 2008 This is our second issue dedicated to the investigation of the well-known Mentos Eruption.


The Guilford Journal of Chemistry Dr. Harry Brielmann, Editor

The premier, state of the art venue for publication and broad dissemination of first-rate, fundamental research in all of chemistry and Mentos Research. Volume 2

Table of Contents Featured Paper #1 A Four-Way Remotely Controlled Simultaneous Release Mechanism for Diet Coke and Mentos Eruptions by Ryan Johnson and Will Graziano Featured Paper #2: Diet Pepsi – Not Diet Coke - Results in the Highest Mentos Eruption When Compared to Other Diet Carbonated Drinks By Angelise Musterer and Lindsay Ruotolo Featured Paper #3: Cinnamon Mentos Eruptions are 20% Higher than Mint Mentos Eruptions By Allison Federici and Jess LaChance A Time Delayed Diet Coke and Mentos Experiment By Mike Amento and Scott Leone Volumes Effect on a Mentos Explosion By Kaitlyn Earles and Megan Graham Six Meter Coke and Mentos Eruption Achieved by Heating the Bottle By Mary Melillo and Artem Guryanov Eruptions Caused by Mentos Increase with Smaller Nozzle Sizes By Holly Aery and Adam Sierzputowski

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Comparable Reaction of Diet Coke as Opposed to JOLT Energy By Dylan Klett and Trevor How the Amount of Mentos Affects the Height of the Eruption By Matt Feldman and Alex Monte Communications Discovery of the Worlds Longest Mentos Eruption: One Hour and Forty Minutes.

By Sam Taylor and Will Schaffer

Drilling a 5 mm Hole in a Mentos Candy Results in a 20% Increase in Eruption Height.

By Nick Hill and Kyle Gaboury

Cold Soda Increases the Height of a Mentos Eruption

By Andrea Cawley, Morgan Ehrler, and Pam Salmeron

Mentos Sliced in Half will Double the Height of a Mentos Eruption Karo Syrup Quenches the Mentos Eruption Serendipitous creation of a Mentos Rocket

By Emily’s Ring and Kipness

By Kelsey Robins and Laura Turcio By Alex Jagielski and Eric Hedberg.

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Introduction to the second issue of the Guilford Journal of Chemistry Like the first volume,1 this second volume of The Guilford Journal of Chemistry includes groundbreaking discoveries and applications of the mentos eruption. Prior to the publication of the first volume of this Journal, numerous theories have been purported to explain the science behind the Mentos Eruption2. These sources have been analyzed by numerous students, and with the single exception of the well known Mythbusters investigation3, no significant experiments had been documented, a deplorable condition considering the popularity of this phenomen. The first issue of this Journal documents the first publication of peer-reviewed research in the Mentos Eruption. Several exciting discoveries were made, including the bizarre observation by Cutler and Smith4 that both cold and warm mentos will increase the height of a mentos compared to a standard room temperature eruption. Other studies created long sustained eruptions,5 and numerous special effects were demonstrated, including a remote-controlled eruption device by Mulligan and Searles.6 All of these discoveries were tested in this second volume, and numerous new discoveries were found. Numerous investigators designed experiments to confirm (or invalidate) the unique results of Cutler and Smith. It was confirmed by most but not all of the investigators that either heating or cooling a mentos will increase the height of an eruption. A careful, convincing study is badly needed to confirm or reject this observation. This also led to a accidental discovery by Taylor and Schaffer7: A melted mentos will erupt at a very slow, sustained rate, continuing for nearly two hours. Two careful studies refuted common mentos assumptions. It is widely assumed that mint mentos produce the highest eruptions. In fact Federici and LaChance8 found that cinnamon mentos will create an eruption that is 20% higher than mint mentos. Perhaps one of the most widely assumed conclusions is that diet coke creates the highest eruptions of all carbonated beverages. However, Musterer and Ruotolo9 found that Diet Pepsi is the soda of choice, creating an eruption that is, amazingly, over 100% higher relative to diet coke. This important discovery needs independent confirmation. A creative study by Earles and Graham10 suggests that the power of an eruption should not be measured by eruption height, but rather by the volume of the eruption. Interestingly, the remaining volume of soda for a variety of soda sizes was constant, suggesting that there is a fixed relationship between soda size and eruption volume. One of the most surprising results concerns the work of Kipness and Ring,11 who found that a mentos cleanly sliced in half erupts higher than a whole mentos. A similar conclusion was determined by Hill and Gaboury,12 who determined that a drilled mentos erupts higher than a normal mentos. What is this due to? It is our hope that the researchers of Volume Three of the Guilford Journal of Chemistry can sort this out.

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Among numerous others, two other studies merit mentioning here. A study by Robins and Turcio13 designed to use the power of the mentos to simulate a volcanic eruption instead accidentally discovered that the reaction can be entirely quenched by an additive. However, it was never finally determined if the effect is due to corn syrup or red food dye. Finally, in a featured paper, one of the most spectacular eruption was performed by Johnson and Graziano,14 who created a remote controlled four-way simultaneous mentos eruption. Researchers who are interested in special effects techniques and remote insertion methods should read the details concerning these methods. And in an accidental discovery certain to create numerous follow-up studies, Jagielski and Hedberg created and launched a Mentos Rocket.15

In summary, despite over twenty published articles in the first two Journals, two of the fundamental theories regarding this eruption have yet to be investigated, including: 1. Is gum Arabic the key group of substances in the Mentos Eruption, or is that simply a myth? 2. What is up with the nucleation sites? Many experiments have indicated that the surface character of a mentos is critical to the height of an eruption, but the actual surface shape (topology) has never been photographed, either alone or during the eruption, although time release photography has come close. This key theory needs to be tested. As it stands now, Guilford High School is, to our knowledge, the only place where the Mentos Eruption is being carefully studied leading to published results. That being the case, there is every reason to believe that significant discoveries will continue to be made in this wide open field of research. 1. Guilford Journal of Chemistry, Volume 1 (2007), H. Brielmann, editor. Available online at http://chemistryadventure.com/Documents/guilford%20journal%20of%20chemistry%20volume%201.pd f 2. For an informative historical account of the Mentos Eruption, Speve Spangler’s website is recommended: http://www.stevespanglerscience.com/experiment/00000109. Note that the original Letterman Show Mentos Eruption may be viewed on the internet at http://www.chem.uic.edu/marek/letterman0/video/mentos.htm. For accounts of Mentos-like eruptions dating back to the 1980’s, see: Marek at http://www.rimmkaufman.com/rkgblog/2007/12/21/stevespangler/. 3. The mythbusters investigation of the mentos eruption may be found at http://dsc.discovery.com/videos/mythbusters-diet-coke-and-mentos.html. A fairly lame christmas themed investigation called “Merry Blastmus can be viewed at http://dsc.discovery.com/videos/mythbusters-merry-blastmus.html. And an ultra-slow motion mythbusters view of the eruption is at http://dsc.discovery.com/videos/time-warp-soda-fountain.html . 4. Rachel Cutler and Emma Smith, Guilford Journal of Chemistry, Volume 1, Pages 6-12 (2007). 5. For example, see Steffi Marsh and Taylor Smith, Guilford Journal of Chemistry, Volume 1, Pages 1316 (2007). 6. Although details are unavailable, see Paul Mulligan and Jared Searles, Guilford Journal of Chemistry, Volume 1, Page 12 (2007) 7. Sam Taylor and Will Schaffer, Guilford Journal of Chemistry, Volume 2, Page 38 (2008). 8. Allison Federici and Jess LaChance, Guilford Journal of Chemistry, Volume 2, Pages 15-16 (2008). 9. Angelise Musterer and Lindsay Ruotolo, Guilford Journal of Chemistry, Volume 2, Pages 12-14 (2008). 5


10. Kaitlyn Earles and Megan Graham, Guilford Journal of Chemistry, Volume 2, Pages 21-22 (2008). 11. Emilies Kipness and Ring, Guilford Journal of Chemistry, Volume 2, Page 38 (2008). 12. Nick Hill and Kyle Gaboury, Guilford Journal of Chemistry, Volume 2, Page 38 (2008). 13. Kelsey Robins and Laura Turcio, Guilford Journal of Chemistry, Volume 2, Page 38 (2008). 14. Ryan Johnson and Will Graziano, Guilford Journal of Chemistry, Volume 2, Pages 9-11 (2008). 15. Alex Jagielski and Eric Hedberg, Guilford Journal of Chemistry, Volume 2, Page 38 (2008).

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Introduction to the first Issue This first issue of the Guilford Journal of Chemistry includes groundbreaking discoveries in the field of Mentos Eruptions. In its simplest form, the Mentos eruption involves dropping Mentos candy into a soda (usually diet coke), resulting in a foamy eruption, which can often be several meters in height. The first widely viewed Mentos eruption occurred on September 14, 1999 on the David Letterman show,1 though earlier eruptions using other candies (with less spectacular results) had been used primarily by teachers dating back to the 1980’s.2 In terms of scientiic research this field is still in its infancy, sinc e this area of research has almost no peer-reviewed published research results,3 although numerous videos documenting riveting eruptions are available on the internet,4 and on commercial television.5 Several unverified explanations have been offered to explain the eruption6, usually focusing on the physical shape of the mint (so-called nucleation sites), or on the various ingredients in the mint, particularly gum arabic. It is important to note that none of these hypotheses have been scientifically verified. This journal represents the first attempts to scientifically investigate the mentos eruption. Several previously unrepoted discoveries are documented in this journal. Perhaps the most fascinating discovery was made by Cutler and Smith.7 This featured papers reveals that that the height of a mentos eruption can be dramatically increased by freezing a mentos candy prior to dropping it in the soda. Coupled with the predictable observation that heating a mentos candy will increase the height of an eruption, this creates a bizarre result: the the height of a mentos eruption is relatively high when the candy is cold, low when the candy is at room temperature, and then high again when the candy is warm or hot. This discovery could in principle create world-record eruption heights (the current record is 29.2 feet). Another serendiptous discovery was made by Marsh and Moalli.8 While attempting to create a timedelayed Mentos eruption, they chanced upon a method for sustaining an eruption for over 40 seconds. More importantly, their graph suggests that this method could be applied to create eruptions that occur for several minutes in theory, though there were some occasional reproducibility issues that will have to be addressed. Several of these papers are design-based, in which an eruption of a certain type is desired and executed. Methods for creating several spectacular effects are published in this issue. Those interested in creating a unique misting effect should read the work of Necklas and Wall.9 Those looking for both an extremely high as well as a sustained eruption should turn to the work of Davis and Dillon.10 Space does not permit the higlighting of all articles. However, all of these investigations created spectacular eruptions and we hope you enjoy reading about them Dr. H. Brielmann Editor in Chief 7


The Guilford Journal of Chemistry

References: 1. For an informative historical account of the Mentos Eruption, Speve Spanglers website is recommended: (http://www.stevespanglerscience.com/experiment/00000109. Note that the original Letterman Show Mentos Eruption may be viewed on the internet at http://www.chem.uic.edu/marek/letterman0/video/mentos.htm. 2. For accounts of Mentos-like eruptions dating back to the 1980’s, see: Marek http://www.rimmkaufman.com/rkgblog/2007/12/21/steve-spangler/

3. For example, the search term Mentos gives no results currently from popular scientific search engines currently (2008), including PubMed or Google Scholar. Online material is available from the Royal Society of Chemistry (http://www.rsc.org/education/teachers/learnnet/pdf/learnnet/classicdemos/mentosexplosion.pdf), but no experiments were performed in either case to test their ideas. For interesting reading on the explosion of popular online science sources, see http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/Issues/2007/December/SurfingWeb20.asp . 4. In addition to YouTube, other websites have arrived that are dedicated to the mentos eruption. Of particular mention is geysertube (http://www.geysertube.com/blog/ UPDATE 2009: dead site), where one can view the Mentos Eruption in ultra-slow motion. 5. For example, on the popular television series Mythbusters (http://dsc.discovery.com/fansites/mythbusters/mythbusters.html). 6. Most literature on the Mentos Eruption cites the website of Fred Senese (http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/consumer/faq/mentos.shtml), however there are no experiments performed or cited in support of these hypotheses.

7. Rachel Cutler and Emma Smith, Guilford Journal of Chemistry, Volume 1, Pages 6-12 (2007). 8. Steffi Marsh and Taylor Smith, Guilford Journal of Chemistry, Volume 1, Pages 13-16 (2007). 9. Gabriella Necklas and Kiersten Wall, Guilford Journal of Chemistry, Volume 1, Pages 33-35 (2007). 10. Aaron Davis and Travis Dillon, Guilford Journal of Chemistry, Volume 1, Pages 17-18 (2007).

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The First Four-Way Remote-Control Release Mechanism for Diet Coke and Mentos Eruptions by Ryan Johnson and Will Graziano

Ever since the discovery of the Diet Coke and Mentos phenomenon, numerous experiments have been done for the betterment of science, for "cool factor," or simply for fun. However, we have for a long time been barred from reaching our true potential in the extremity of these experiments for fear of being covered in sticky, fizzy Diet Coke. Many have wondered, "How can we release the Mentos into the Coke without getting soaked? And how can we do multiple releases simultaneously without the need for multiple people to do it manually?" My colleague, Will, and I wondered the very same thing; we wanted to perform a spectacular four-way simultaneous eruption from a safe distance using a remote control device - and after much brainstorming and several different plans, we found a way to do just that. The Experiment Using a table which was approximately .75 meters by 1 meter as our surface, we fixed the engine of a remote control car on its side to the middle, and built a special four-way hook device to hold (and release) fishing lines which would be connected to the Mentos. Four posts of approximately 30 centimeters were fixed to the corners of the table, one in each corner, to which one bottle of Diet Coke each was also secured. With four lengths of fishing line, three Mentos each, and one paper clip each, we devised a line which would hold the Mentos up inside the bottle until the device was activated. When activated, the remote control car engine at the center and the hook device attached to it would spin, unhooking all four lines at the same time and thereby releasing the Mentos into the bottles. Summary of Findings The device, crude though it was, worked just about perfectly - however, we found that the remote control car we used for the experiment was faulty and did not run immediately, so in future experiments a more reliable engine should be used. The result was a spectacular quadruple geyser of Diet Coke spraying into the air, and much applause from our classmates. Conclusions 9


With the success of the device, it is our firm belief that we have revolutionized the Diet Coke and Mentos phenomenon - with added improvements from our successors, it will now be possible to pull off much messier and more impressive displays using the Diet Coke and Mentos combination. Such suggested experiments could be a simultaneous eruption of more than four bottles, or perhaps a wheel device that uses the force of the erupting Coke to spin. The possibilities have suddenly expanded tenfold with this amazing discovery. Experimental Procedure Materials: Supplies to build a table approximately 3 square feet, or such a table pre-built, with a 12-inch post secured to each corner. 4x 2-liter bottles of diet Coke 1x box of Mentos (approx. 24 Mentos) - 12 are needed for the experiment 1x spool of fishing line - any pull strength 1x remote control car -shell removed 1x roll of duct tape - use more as needed 1x board that will fit underneath the remote control car and raise it slightly off the table. 8x paper clips - use more as needed 2x drill bits - one 1/8" and one 2mm wide 4x additional bottle caps for 2-liter Coke bottles - for drilling the holes Safety goggles Procedure: Remote Control Device: 1. Secure the engine to the table such that the wheel is facing up and is as close to the dead center of the table as possible, and that the smaller board is keeping the bottom wheel off the table. Secure tightly with duct tape. 2. Unbend the largest bend of each of four paper clips so that it forms an L-shaped hook with the rest of the paper clip untouched. 3. Secure the paper clips together using duct tape so that it makes a pinwheel-shaped device. 4. Tape this hook device onto the wheel so that the tip of the hooks are all facing in the opposite direction that the wheel is turning. Mentos Strings: 1. Drill one hole in each of the 12 Mentos you will use, using the 2mm drill bit 2. Cut four pieces of fishing line (string), each long enough to cover the distance between the bottle cap and the hook plus about five inches. 3. tie a paper clip onto one end end of each piece of string, conserving as much length as possible. 4. String three Mentos onto each line - the paper clip tied onto the end should prevent the Mentos from slipping off. 5. Tie a small knot on the other end of each string - should be slightly wider than the hooks. 6. Cut extra slack off. 7. Drill one hole in the center of each of the four extra bottle caps using the 1/8" drill bit. 8. String one bottle cap onto each of the lines so that when screwed onto the bottle the Mentos will be inside the bottle. Assembling the whole contraption: 1. Tape one Coke bottle to each post, facing towards the center of the table. 2. Unscrew the bottle cap and screw on the bottle caps with the lines through them. (Note: Recommended this part of the assembly be done after transporting the whole device to the appropriate site for the eruption to reduce the risk of accidental release of the Mentos)

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3. Loop the knots on the other end of the lines onto each of the hooks - there should be no slack between the hook and the bottle, and the mentos should be hanging as high inside the bottle as possible. The lines should be without slack, but not tight. The eruption: Be sure that the whole device is relocated to an appropriate spot for the eruption - it will be very messy, so a flat surface outdoors would be ideal. Hit "forward" on the remote (having already made sure everything is turned on) and the wheel will spin, unhooking the lines and dropping the Mentos into the Coke bottles simultaneously. Suggestions for later repeats - Improve the reliability of the device: Use a higher quality remote control car engine; use safer hooks which will not release until the wheel spins; use more reliable materials to secure the engine and bottles to the table rather than duct tape and nails. - Improve versatility of the device: With a little ingenuity, this concept can be reconfigured for many different types of experiments. Also, contrive a means of making the engine waterproof for reusability. - Devise ever more fantastic and impressive displays of the powers of Diet Coke and Mentos.

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Diet Pepsi –Not Diet Coke – Produces Highest Results in Mentos Eruption When Compared to Other Diet Carbonated Drinks By Angelise Musterer & Lindsay Ruotolo Summary: For our experiment, we took four different types of soda to see the effects of mentos on some carbonated drinks. The drinks we used were Diet Coke (as the control), Diet Pepsi, Fresca, and Sprite Zero. By doing this, we were able to see if this was just a reaction that would occur with Diet Coke and mentos or mentos and the other carbonated drinks too. In the end, Diet Pepsi reached the highest measurement of 94 cm, Sprite Zero came next with a close second of 79 cm, Diet Coke came in third with a height of 43 cm, and Fresca came in last with 15.24 cm. Introduction: When the mentos eruption was tested by the Mythbusters, they concluded that the reason the reaction took place was due to the potassium benzoate, aspartame, caffeine, and CO2 gas in the Diet Coke and the gum Arabic and gelatin in the mentos (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mentos_eruption the results concluded by the Mythbusters’ experiment). We tested this theory by using different types of soda, and we noticed that in our trials, the Diet Coke did not have one of the biggest eruptions. The world record has been set for the highest eruption using Diet Coke, but we believe that if someone tried other kinds of soda, there might be a new world record. Experimental: 1. Get 2 Litters bottles of 4 different types of soda (Diet Coke, Diet Pepsi, Fresca, Sprite Zero) 2. Get a couple packs of mint mentos 3. Place a measuring tape against a wall, preferably outside!! 4. Set a bottle on a flat ground in front of the tape 5. Get a small plastic tube about the same diameter as the opening of the bottle and insert 3 mentos; place a piece of paper under tube so that mentos don’t fall out 6. Unscrew the cap and put on safety goggles 7. On a count of three pour in the mentos or slide the paper out and step back 8. Watch for the height of the eruption and record how high it goes (its helpful if at the peak of the eruption you take a picture to more accurately know/see the height) 9. Repeat steps 4-8 twice (once for each trial) with each type of soda 10. record all data in a table

Conclusion: In our experiment, we found that the soda that actually worked the best was the Diet Pepsi. This may have something to do with the ingredients in the soda or just may have been experimental error. Since we did only one test for each type of soda due to lack of supplies, we can’t be certain that our results were accurate. In another experiment, in which people used different types of soda and Diet 12


Coke as a control, they did two trials. It was found that there was a drastic difference between the first and second trial (The Guilford Journal of Chemistry, results by Ethan Shore and Zack Brown). Maybe if we did two trails, we would have also seen an increase or even a decrease as they did; finding that our first trial was flawed. Another experimental error could have been that for our first trial using the Diet Coke and Sprite Zero, we used a piece of string to drop in the mentos and in the last two sodas, we dropped them in by hand. This was shown through the fist two sodas, which were the ones that went the shortest height. Other than these errors and the unusual mistakes in measurement and uncontrollable variables, such as the wind or the amount of carbonation that was left in the bottle before we could do the eruption, our experiment went very well. We believe our results are still accurate because the difference between the two sodas’ data (diet Coke and Diet Sprite), it would be hard to justify it as just an experimental error. According to out results, if you were trying a mentos eruption to see how high it could go, it would be best to use Diet Pepsi instead of Diet Coke. References: 1. For background on the mentos eruption, Wikipedia website was very useful and also provided other links that were helpful as well: (http://www.wikipedia.com/). 2. The very popular t.v. show Mythbusters added to our research and ideas: (http://www.dsc.discovery.com/fantacies/mythbusters/mythbusters.html). 3. Dr. H. Brielmann. The Guilford Journal of Chemistry, Volume 1, pages 4-5 (2008). 4. Ethan Shore and Zack Brown. The Guilford Journal of Chemistry. Volume 1, pages 15-16 (2008).

Diet Pepsi Highest Results in Mentos Eruption When Compared to Other Carbonated Drinks

40

35

30

25

Height(inches) 20 37 31

15

10 17 5 6 0 Fresca

Diet Coke

Sprite Zero

Diet Pepsi

Type of Soda

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different flavors resulted in different eruptions. We found that the flavor which had the biggest reaction was cinnamon, with an average height of 10 cm; followed by mint and fruit which had the same reaction, with an eruption height of 8.5; sugar free was second to last with a height of 4.5 and then sour had the smallest eruption with a height of 3.5. We also noted that the sugar free mentos had more foam flow out of the bottle whereas the fruit reacted quickly but left a large amount of foam inside of the soda bottle. The sour mentos was much different as its eruption lasted a long time, with foam and larger bubbles. This leaves cinnamon, which was the quickest reaction and foamiest. 1. Guilford Journal of Chemistry, Vol. One, Page 5. (2008) www.rimmkaufman/rkgblog/2007/12/21/steve-spangler) 2. Guilford Journal of Chemistry, Vol. One, Page 17-18. (2008) 3. Guilford Journal of Chemistry, Vol. One, Page 6-12. (2008) 4. “Fruity vs. Minty� Guilford Journal of Chemistry, Vol. One, Page 2. (2008)

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Cinnamon Mentos Erupt 20% Higher than Mint Mentos By Allison Federici and Jess LaChance

The Mentos and Diet Coke is a very well known experiment that can be dated way back to the 1980’s.1 This experiment deals with dropping any number of mentos into a carbonated soda (usually Diet Coke). When the chemical reaction occurs, a huge eruption of foam shoots out of the top of the bottle. Starting this experiment we knew that mint mentos were the classic or most well known flavor to make the biggest explosion. When people tested different variables they always used either Mint mentos or Diet Coke as their control. 2,3 Previously, some one had tested fruit and minty mentos, but details are not available.4 Since it wasn’t in their title, we assumed that they had not tested more than just fruit and mint mentos. As far as we knew, we would be the first to test five different flavors and their effect on eruption height in Diet Coke. For our experiment we tested the eruption height of Diet Coke depending on the different flavors of mentos. We experimented with regular mint, sugar-free mint, sour, fruit and cinnamon in 8 oz. bottles of Diet Coke. We found the sour and the sugar-free mentos had little to no eruption and the cinnamon mentos erupted only a few centimeters higher than the regular mint mentos. The fruit mentos erupted just as high as the regular mint ones. We were trying to find out if the mint mentos were the best to use, to get the highest eruption. 1. Gather materials, such as 10 8 oz. bottles of diet coke; sugar free, cinnamon, fruit, mint, and sour mentos; plastic tube; toothpick; meter stick and safety goggles 2. Place one bottle of diet coke into sink 3. Fill the plastic tube with 4 sugar free mentos 4. Secure the mentos with toothpick 5. Put on safety goggles 6. Place the tube into top of bottle 15


7. Have meter stick ready next to bottle to record height 8. Pull toothpick out of tube, releasing mentos into soda; quickly pull tube away 9. Record height 10. Repeat steps 2-8 using cinnamon, fruit, mint and sour mentos 11. Repeat steps 2-8 using all 5 mentos flavors for second trials

The Effects of Different Flavored Mentos 12

10

Height (cm)

8

1 2 avg.

6

4

2

0 Mint

Sugar Free

Fruit

Sour

Cinna.

Flavors

The results of our mentos lab were very conclusive. It was shown that, indeed, the different flavors resulted in different eruptions. We found that the flavor which had the biggest reaction was cinnamon, with an average height of 10 cm; followed by mint and fruit which had the same reaction, with an eruption height of 8.5; sugar free was second to last with a height of 4.5 and then sour had the smallest eruption with a height of 3.5. We also noted that the sugar free mentos had more foam flow out of the bottle whereas the fruit reacted quickly but left a large amount of foam inside of the soda bottle. The sour mentos was much different as its eruption lasted a long time, with foam and larger bubbles. This leaves cinnamon, which was the quickest reaction and foamiest. 5. Guilford Journal of Chemistry, Vol. One, Page 5. (2008) www.rimmkaufman/rkgblog/2007/12/21/steve-spangler) 6. Guilford Journal of Chemistry, Vol. One, Page 17-18. (2008) 7. Guilford Journal of Chemistry, Vol. One, Page 6-12. (2008) 8. “Fruity vs. Minty� Guilford Journal of Chemistry, Vol. One, Page 2. (2008) 16


Six Meter Coke and Mentos Eruption Achieved By Heating The Bottle By Mary Melillo and Artem Guryanov

Summary This experiment tested whether the temperature of a bottle of the Diet Coke would affect the height of a Mentos eruption. The first bottle was unheated and acted as our control for the experiment, while the second and third bottles were heated up to different temperatures. Our results made it clear that the higher the temperature rose inside the bottle, the height of the eruption rose in height as well. Introduction Mentos eruptions have been well-known since September 14, 1999, where one was performed on the Dave Letterman show, 1 but tests on effects of temperatures on the bottles before adding the Mentos are not very common. One experiment on the topic claimed that the reaction rate appears to double every ten degree in Celsius that you heat the Diet Coke, and that for every ten degrees the bottle is cooled, the reaction power is cut in half.2 The results of a recent experiment support the idea that warmer temperatures will result in greater eruption height.3 Our experiment tests that theory by heating up the soda to various temperatures and shooting it off, measuring the height of the fizz. Procedure 1. Gather materials: 3 2-liter bottles of soda, 15 mint Mentos (more preferred because some might break apart), string (skinnier is better), a drill, a sink that can produce hot water, thermometer (we used Celsius, but a Kelvin thermometer would eliminate the need for conversions later on), a fourth bottle cap, clamps/pliers, and some sort of measuring device (in meters) 2. Take the drill, pliers/clamps, Mentos, and the fourth bottle cap.

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3. Take the pliers and secure the Mentos to them one by one and drill a hole through them, the pliers are there for your hand’s safety in case you slip and accidentally try and drill your own hand. 4. Drill a hole through the fourth bottle cap as well. 5. Tie a piece of string around the first Mentos and then slide four more on the same string (the length of the string can vary, for best results try a 2-5 inch string length). 6. Take the Mentos on the string, the bottle of soda, the measuring device, the bottle cap, and the thermometer outside. 7. Open the bottle, making sure none of the fizz spills out and slide in the thermometer and record the temperature. That is your control. (In order to best match our results, the control should be about 294.15 K, or 21°C) 8. Slide out the thermometer and slip the string through the hole in the bottle, making sure the five Mentos are on the inside of the cap and screw it on the bottle. 9. Make a countdown and release the string, causing the Mentos to fall into the soda and back away. 10. Watch the explosion and record the height in meters. 11. Repeat steps 3-10 for a second bottle, except this time fill a tub with hot water and rest the bottle in the tub until it reaches 298.15 K (25°C). 12. Repeat steps 3-11, this time for a second bottle and this time heating up the soda to 301.65 K (28.5°C) Note: Be careful when opening the bottles, especially the warm ones, as they will be pressurized when you open them. If you recorded your temperature in Celsius, you may want to convert it to Kelvin (as we did), which is the SI unit of temperature.

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The control (unheated) bottle of diet coke, which was 294 K resulted in an approximately 4-meter-high explosion. The second bottle, heated to 298 K, resulted in a notably higher explosion, reaching 5.5 meters. Finally, the warmest bottle – at 301 K – created an explosion about 6 meters high. It should be noted that we were not able to run multiple trials and so our data may not prove consisted over multiple tests.

Conclusions Our results clearly support the theory that using warmer Diet Coke will result in a higher Mentos eruption. Each time we raised the temperature of the soda, the result was a taller eruption, with our warmest bottle’s eruption reaching six meters! This can certainly be taken as proof that raising the temperature of Diet Coke affects the eruption size. However, a follow-up experiment where multiple trials are used would be a good idea to test the consistency of this fact. Other follow-up experiments may include heating the soda up to even warmer temperatures, or testing both heating and cooling the soda to compare the effects. References 1. A video of this eruption can be found at: http://www.chem.uic.edu/marek/letterman0/video/mentos.htm 2. Information found from Justin Husted, Guilford Journal of Chemistry, Volume one, Pages 19-20 (2008), where the information is cited from “Username: ‘Labmonkey’ Yahooanswers.com January 10th, 2008.” 3. Justin Husted,

Guilford Journal of Chemistry, Volume one, Pages 19-20

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Names: Mike Amento, Scott Leone Period: 2 Time Delayed Diet Coke and Mentos Eruption By Mike Amento and Scott Leone Introduction: We report here the first time delayed Mentos eruption. This practical device allows the scientist performing this experiment to get clear out of the way of the eruption, offering practical and safety advantage . Experiment: This technique is based on lighting a fuse to run up to the top of the Coke bottle. It was brilliant. The fuse was a long piece of string tightly holding the mentos at the top of the bottle. When we lit the fuse, it took about 10 seconds to burn through the string and break it apart. As the fuse broke, its tight grip on the mentos gave way and they were released into the Coke, thus causing the delayed reaction of the experiment. We were delighted to discover as well that the time delay had no effect on the size of the fountain we were able to form. Each fountain was consistently 6-8 feet tall, and displaced the same amount of Coke. Conclusion: In this experiment we used a flame as a remote device for a mentos eruption. The idea was very successful, and we were able to create a delayed mentos eruption. Our idea was that we use a piece of string as a fuse. We tied the string to the top of the coke bottle and the other end was taped down to the table. We had the mentos hanging off the end of the string, which meant that when the string dropped the mentos would fall into the coke. Then it was as simple as just lighting a candle and placing it close enough to the string so that it would burn it. We came out with times of 15 seconds, 8 seconds, and 10 seconds. This gives us an average time of 11 seconds. It may seem short but it is actually a very good amount of time to get far enough away from the eruption so that you won’t get soda on you. This experiment was a success. Really the only things that we could have changed were the kind of string used, for more variability. References: 1. We got this great idea from Paul Mulligan and Jared Searles’ experiment. They also tried to create a remote for a mentos eruption. “Creation of a remote controlled Mentos Eruption” 2. www.Stevespangler.com

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Title: Volume Analysis of a Mentos Eruption 3. A one paragraph summary of your experiment and results. By Kaitlyn Earles and Megan Graham

Summary: A quantitative volume-based (rather than height-based) measurement technique was developed to assay Mentos eruptions. To accomplish this we measured each explosion by soda displacement and how much was left in the coke bottle and we found the percentage of how much exploded. We were excited to do this experiment because no one has ever tested soda displacement. This technique can be used to measure the intensity of a Mentos eruption independent of eruption height or nozzle size. Introduction Although there have been many experiments that measure how high a mentos explosion is, there is none that is measured by soda displacement. Our observations show how big the explosion actually is by measuring the soda displacement. We tested different volumes and the volumes effect on the explosion. The bigger soda displacement the bigger the explosion, which volume do you think will have the biggest?

Experimental 1. Put on safety goggles 2. Drill one hole in 3 mentos 3. String the mentos and tie a knot at the end of the string 4. Unscrew Coke bottle and very quickly drop mentos inside 5. Measure the volume that’s left inside the coke bottle 6. Find the percentage that is still inside and that has left the bottle. 7. Record all data in a table. 8. Clean up all materials

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Results

Volume

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Average

12 fl oz 20 fl oz 67.6 fl oz

157 ml 243 ml 800 ml

180ml 267ml 900ml

164 ml 242ml 850ml

167 ml 250ml 850ml

% in bottle 47.3% 42.4% 42.5%

% out of bottle 52.7% 57.6% 57.5%

Most bottles ended up with half the amount it started with. Each explosion needed half the amount of the bottle.

Conclusions In wrapping up the experiment we concluded that the volume does not have an effect on the mentos explosion because as our results showed each bottle had around 50% of soda displacement which means each explosion was about half the size the volume. We were a little disappointed that the volume didn’t have a big impact on the explosion but we are excited to know that no matter how big the volume the explosion will be the same with the same amount of mentos.

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Names: Holly Aery and Adam Sierzputowski

Period: 2

Eruptions Caused by Mentos Increase in Height with 3. A one paragraph summary of your experiment and results. Smaller Nozzle Sizes By Holly Aery and Adam Sierzputowski

Summary: We wanted to see how different nozzle sizes of diet coke bottles affect the size of Mentos eruptions. We drilled different sized holes in the caps of bottles creating nozzle sizes ranging from .5 cm up to 4 cm. After dropping in 4 mentos, we were able to see just what kind of eruption the nozzle sizes could create, which was a rather large one of 153 cm, considering we used 20 oz soda bottles.

Introduction: People have previously tried putting mentos in soda just to see it erupt, however it is also very fascinating to learn about why this reaction occurs. According to several untested web sources,1 in the soda, the water is tightly linked around the carbon dioxide which creates a strong surface tension that resists the bubbles from forming and expanding. Then, when the mentos are dropped in the soda, the surface tension is broken from the gelatin and gum arabic in the mentos. These ingredients disrupt the way the water was linked to the carbon dioxide, making it easier for the carbon dioxide to expand, and create a large eruption. There have also been previous attempts by scientists at Guilford High School concerning the same nozzle-size experiments, and similar results were found. Aaron Davis and Travis Dillon found out that the smaller nozzlesizes create higher explosions, which is the same conclusion we had.2 We had also hypothesized that the smallest nozzle would create the highest explosion because it creates more pressure. After all, an explosion is a violent bursting as a result of internal pressure. 3 Therefore, the more pressure there is, the higher the explosion will be able to go.

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Experimental Procedure: The goal of this experiment was to alter eruption height by changing the nozzle sizes of the 20 oz diet coke bottles. At first, we only used 3 mentos but it did not create a large enough explosion so we increased the amount to 4 mentos and tied them on a string to drop them properly. However, we made sure not to include that test trial in our final results. Our positive control was the un-tampered regular sized bottle cap (3.2 cm). It created an explosion that we could compare our other results to because that is the cap size used in regular diet coke and mentos explosions. We did manage to find out, though, that the smallest nozzle size created the largest explosion just as we expected. 1. Gather Materials. - 3 20oz. bottles of diet coke with cap sizes of 3.2 cm - 1 20 oz bottle of vitamin water (empty) with a cap size of 4 cm - 12 mint flavored mentos - String (which you will tie the mentos to) - Drill (to put holes in the mentos/bottle caps - Meter stick 2. Drill a .5 cm hole into each of the mentos. 3. Fill the vitamin water bottle (with a cap size of 4 cm) with diet coke. 4. Drill a .5 cm hole into the cap of one diet coke bottles. 5. Drill a 1 cm hole into the cap of another diet coke bottle 6. String 4 mentos onto a piece of string and tie a knot at the bottom to ensure them not to fall off. 7. Go outside (so as to not make a mess) while taking the diet coke bottle with a 3.2 cm opening (the control) and quickly drop the string of mentos into the bottle. 8. Get about 3 feet away from the explosion and observe and record the height of the explosion. 9. Repeat steps 5-8 using the diet coke with the .5cm hole in the cap. Drop the mentos by holding the mentos string above the liquid through the hole and then dropping the string to create the explosion. 10. Repeat step 9 using the diet coke with the 1 cm hole. 11. Repeat steps 5-8 using the vitamin water bottle (with 4 cm cap) filled with coke 12. Now that all the experiments have been completed, clean up and recycle all soda bottles.

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Results The results we found during the experiment were that the smaller the hole, the higher the soda sprayed. The highest spray came from the bottle with the smallest hole. The hole was .5 cm. around and the soda sprayed 153 cm. high. The largest hole got the least height. It was 4 cm. around and barley got 1 cm. high. Our control went the third highest with an open cap 3.2 cm. around. The control went about 30 cm. high. A 1 cm. hole went 60 cm. high.

160 140 120

Control Open Top .5 cm

100 80 60

1 cm

40 4 cm

20 0 open .5 cm 1 cm top

4 cm

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Conclusions Due to the data we received we can infer that the smaller the opening the higher the soda will spray and the larger the opening the lower the soda will spray. We found that a hole that was .5 cm. around sprayed about 153 cm. high. We also found that the larger the hole was the least height it got. A hole of 4 cm. (the largest hole) barely got 1 cm. high. From our data we can conclude that the smaller the spray hole the higher the soda will spray. But several issues could have interfered with these results. Number one, we had to pour soda into one of the bottles. This could have made the soda go flat. Two, the bottles could have been shaken causing the soda to become flat. Three, the mentos could have fallen off of the string before the experiment was ready to begin causing an early spray. Some of these miscalculations could have messed up the data we received. To make this experiment more valid we could have done more trials. In a follow-up experiment you should add more trials. Also you have smaller hole sizes to see if the results are valid enough to conclude.

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Title: Comparing Mentos Eruptions of Diet Coke as opposed to JOLT energy supplement By Dylan and Trevor Summary: We decided to compare the Mentos eruption using diet coke with that of JOLT energy supplement. Unfortunately, The reaction using JOLT energy supplement failed to produce a reaction. However, we discovered that the key ingredients in Diet Soda that causes the violent reaction with mentos are Potassium Benzoate and Aspartame. Introduction There is no information prior to our experimentation that could possibly confirm or deny the possible allegations that “liquid energy supplements” do or do not cause a “reaction” with.mentos. The reason that We decided to do our test using liquid energy supplements was by reasoning that synthetic ingredients in the soda cause the reaction. This was found to bot be the case and JOLT energy supplement failed to produce a reaction. However, it led to us to take a closer look at our ingredients, and to discover that Potassium Benzoate and Aspartame are the causes of the reaction with mentos. Experimental 1. Gather Materials (JOLT Energy supplement, copious amounts of Mentos.) 2. Set up controlled environment 3. Don Goggles (no other protective gear required) 4. Create mentos dropping apparatus: mold paper tube to slightly larger diameter to that of the mentos roll, use tape (any kind) to keep in place. Run a toothpick through the extreme on one end, across the diameter. Drop mentos in other side of tube, until full. 5. Suspend full mentos dropping apparatus above can of JOLT, then open can of JOLT and release mentos (remove toothpick from the bottom end of apparatus) 6. STEP BACK. 7. Record data, clean up materials. Results 1 inch eruption Conclusions Our conclusion is that Energy drinks are not the best reactive substance, nowhere near diet coke’s potency. To achieve maximum effect, use as much diet coke as possible, with as many mentos as possible, as unfortunately energy drinks simply cannot produce the desired reaction. There may have been some room for error in the preparation state, perhaps they were shaken up at one point or another, unbeknownst to us, causing them to loose carbonation. If we could do it again, we would definitely use diet coke instead of energy drinks, to achieve maximum explosion. References 1. www.youtube.com/watch?v=IZDFn4VFe9s&feature=related

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HOW THE AMOUNT OF MENTOS AFFECTS THE HEIGHT OF THE ERUPTION Matt Feldman and Alex Monte Introduction: Over the years several scientists have used diet coke and mentos to make a large reaction with only a liter of coke. Many experiments have been conducted to see what factors really do go into making the eruption actually go. Many people have also attempted to break the world record of 29.2 feet in many different forms. Others tried experimenting with different cap sizes, amount of mentos, pressure added to the reaction, and even temperature. We wanted to experiment using a large amount of mentos to get a very high reaction to see if it really had an affect on the height. It requires a large amount of mint mentos, and a lot of confidence in what you are doing. Based on a slip-up by Mr. Monte, future testers are advised to remember to get out of the way after the mentos have been put into the liter of diet coke! Summary: While coming up with this experiment, we had one goal to accomplish when making this test; to break the 29.2 foot record set by previous scientists. We made a careful plan to try and produce the best results and even considered several factors to get the highest reaction. This task was easier said than done, and ended up requiring a lot more mentos to get the record. In the end, we used 5, 10, and 40 mentos as our test, and they each produced a different height. Materials: Regular Mint Mentos (Approximately 9 packages of 14) 3 Liters of Diet Coke Several sheets of 9” X 8” Sheets of Paper Science beakers (Able to accommodate large amounts of mentos) Safety Goggles Tape Measure A Bin to Catch the Eruption if you are Experimenting Inside Safety Rules *Always wear your safety goggles *Be careful with the glass beakers *Do not mess around while conducting the experiment * No horseplay Procedure: 1 Gather materials required to conduct the experiment 2. Take a piece of 9” X 8” piece of paper and roll it into a funnel. Make sure the mentos can get through the smaller end of the funnel, and can accommodate the large amounts of mentos that are going to slide down the funnel. 3. Test the funnel numerous times by putting about fifteen mentos in and out of the funnel so you know the funnel works. 4. Put on Your Safety Goggles

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5. Make sure you are in a safe environment and are in an area where you can measure the height easily. You might want to have someone record a video so you get the exact height. Then take the liter of diet coke, put it in a secure position so it doesn’t fall down and quickly take off the cap. 6. Then quickly place the funnel over the liter of diet coke so the small hole is going into the opening of the bottle. Then pour the beaker of 5 mentos into the wide end of the funnel. 7. Remove the funnel to get your reaction and back up as much as you can so you don’t get sprayed. 8. Repeat steps 4-6 only this time use 10 and 40 mentos for your trials. Don’t forget to write your results in your data table. 9. Make sure to pour the mentos in very quickly or else the reaction will occur too fast and you won’t have an accurate eruption height.

Height of Mentos

Height (Meters)

3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 5

10

40

Number of Mentos This graph indicates that the more Mentos entered into the diet coke, the higher the eruption. When only 5 Mentos were entered the eruption was only 1.02 meters, when 10 were placed in 1.09 meters was the height, and when 40 was put in there was a drastic change and the eruption was 3.5 meters. CONCLUSION After we finished our three trials in the experiment, we determined that the amount of mentos does affect the height of the eruption. The more mentos we put into the bottle, the higher eruption we got. Although we realized that our goal of breaking the record of 29.2 feet was out of reach, we still had fun and realized that trying to get 40 mentos into one liter of coke, and get accurate results is easier said than done. While conducting this experiment, we came up with several flaws that affected the outcome of the experiment. First, while putting the mentos into the liter of coke, we found that it was hard to get every single mentoe into the liter before the reaction actually occurred. A practice test that we conducted, which ended up producing no results at all, showed us that we had to come up with a really good way to get the mentos in quickly and affectively. In the end of that practice test, our method did 30


not work because the funnel slid away, causing no mentos to go in. Therefore we had to result to using a funnel where the small end almost went into the liter. When doing the 40 mentoe trial we poured the beaker of mentos into the funnel which allowed the mentos to slide into the liter. However, the reaction occurred too quickly resulting in the infamous splash on me. This produced flawed results because that could mean that the soda was only reacting to the mentos that made it into the bottle, not all forty. On the other hand, the reaction could have gone higher if I didn’t get in the way. Another thing that we could have changed while conducting the experiment was adding in more trials. We only conducted 1 five, ten, and forty mentoe test, mainly because that was all the supplies that we had. However, if a flaw occurred, like so in the forty mentoe test, we might not get the results we were looking for compared to an average height with 3 trials for each amount of mentos. We also didn’t have a reliable measuring device to get a fully accurate height. We had a tape measure at the wall, and had a video recorder in case we missed the height. Especially for the 40 mentoe test, we had to estimate the height because we were too busy worrying about the slash of soda that we just got on our bodies. As an end result, we did discover that the amount of mentos really does have an affect on the height of the stream. Although we didn’t get completely accurate results, the height of the eruption did climb, the more mentos we put into the liter of coke. From the 5 mentoe test to the 10, the height climbed 0.07 meters and from the 10 mentoe test to the forty, 2.41 meters. That was all we needed to prove our hypothesis. (The more mentos will create a bigger eruption) We had a fun time, and found that setting a record is harder than it looks.

REFERENCES: “Mentos.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 2008. September 9, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mentos (world record) Rachel Cutler and Emma Smith. Guilford Journal of Chemistry. Volume 1. Pages 6-12. (2008) (structure of the lab report, expectations guide) Mike Moalli and Steffi Marsh. Guilford Journal of Chemistry. Volume 1. Pages 13-16. (2008) (graph/results guide) Carly Clark and Jenn Agamie. Guilford Journal of Chemistry. Volume 1. Pages 17-18. (2008) (procedure guide)

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A New Accelerant for the BatMobile By Tim Brooks and Ashley Chello

Summary: The experiment tested was to see whether or not Diet Coke and Mentos had a strong enough force to move a toy car. The reaction of Mentos and Diet Coke has always been a mystery, but the wonder if the combination makes a force that is powerful enough to move things, has been solved.

Introduction: This experiment tested something both different and interesting. It was a test to see if a car can accelerate with the help of Mentos and Diet Coke. It was proven true. During this experiment, the hypothesis was, ‘If more Mentos are added to the Diet Coke, then the toy car with go farther.’ There have been experiments with making Mentos Rockets ( 1) and the Mentos reaction height higher but there has not been an experiment along the lines of using it as an accelerant. This is a unique and new way of making toy cars work and move. In this experiment, the group conducted a lab that tested the possibility that using Mentos and Diet Coke will move a toy car. It was successful in making the car move and the group found that the Mentos and Diet Coke lengthened the distance that the car traveled. The control of the experiment was using no Mentos at all. The car along with the Diet Coke taped on top, was tested on the ramp and was found that it traveled a shorter distance then the other trials. The first trial added four Mentos to the Diet Coke. The second trial added six Mentos to the Diet Coke. Both of these trials had an increased distance from the control. Although the experiment was successful, the hypothesis was wrong. Interestingly enough, the trial with only four Mentos traveled a longer distance then the one with six Mentos. Errors might have contributed to the different distances but both were able to show that with the force from the Diet Coke and Mentos, the car was able to move.

Experimental: 1. Begin by gathering duct tape, a toy car (long enough to fit a 2 liter bottle of Diet Coke on it), 3 two liter bottles of Diet Coke, two strips of Green Apple Mentos, a 2x4 piece of wood, a chair, a 25 foot measuring tape, 2 tooth picks, a 2 inch nail, a hammer, a clear, outside area, and safety goggles. 2. Start by making holes in the center of ten Green Apple Mentos with the nail and hammer. 3. Pour out Diet Coke until the soda is at the logo of the Diet Coke. 4. Tape one of the three 2 liter bottles to the toy car. Have the bottle lying on the car, the opening of the bottle pointing to the back and the bottom of the bottle pointing towards the front. Tape it in the center of the car, as straight as possible 32


5. When there are holes in all ten of the Mentos, stick 4 Mentos on one tooth pick and 6 on another. 6. On a flat, clear surface outside tape the 2x4 to the edge of the chair seat. It will make a ramp. 7. Align the measuring tape as straight as possible next to the pathway that the car will be traveling down. 8. Put on safety goggles 9. Test the control to see how far it goes without any Mentos. 10. Put the bat mobile with the Diet Coke at the top of the ramp and let it go. 11. Record the distance the car traveled on your data sheet 12. Test the trials that have Mentos along the same lines. Be sure that when the Mentos are dropped that you have safely released the car as it starts to fizz up.

Results: We tested the effect of a mentos powered car in three different trials. In the first trial we held our controlled experiment where we let the car roll down the ramp by itself without the mentos jetpack. This resulted in the car only traveling 2.15 meters. In our second trial, we duck taped the two leader diet coke to the car so the caped end was facing backwards. Then we added four mentos to it as we released it down the ramp. With the addition of the four mentos, the car traveled a total of 8.33 meters right to the end of the tape measure. Lastly, in our third trial we used the same amount of diet coke in a two leader bottle, but we added seven mentos to it instead of four. This resulted in the car traveling only 4.4 meters. Both the 1st and 2nd trials preformed smoothly without any serious error in the car making it the length of the track. But in the 3rd trial we noticed that the front bumper of the car made contact with the sidewalk as it dismounted the ramp. This caused the car to loose much of its speed that was gained by the exploding soda.

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How the Number of Mentos Effects the Distance Traveled

Distance Traveled (Meters)

9 8 7 6

Zero Mentos

5

Four Mentos

4

Six Mentos

3 2 1 0 1 Number of Mentos

Conclusion: In conclusion, our hypothesis was correct. We predicted that the more mentos that were added to the car, the further the car would travel. We tested our hypothesis in three different trials, a control, and two other trials with the coke, but different amounts of mentos. In the 1st trial, we tested our control, which involved letting the car roll down the ramp with no other force besides gravity. This resulted in the car traveling 2 meters. In our 2nd trial, we attached a two letter diet coke bottle to the 34


car so that the capped end was facing towards the end of the car. We then added four mentos to the bottle and released the car so that the eruption could start as the car was rolling down the ramp and onto the pavement. This resulted in the car going a further distance of 8.25 meters. In our 3rd and final trial, we added another coke bottle, but kept it in the same position. Instead of adding four mentos, we added seven. This resulted in the car only going 4.18 meters. We discovered after examining the car after the trial, that as it disembarked from the ramp, the front bumper made contact with the pavement. This caused the car to loose much of its velocity and therefore the car traveled a shorter distance. This was one of the many errors that may have taken place in this experiment. Other errors that may have occurred were, human20error, and mechanical trouble with the materials. Human error was the easiest kind of error to make in an experiment that requires so much human work and measuring. It is possible that the two trials that the soda was used in may have been slightly different in a few ways. One soda may have been more carbonated than the other or the angle at which they were mounted to the car was slightly different. There were many small errors that were possible. Other than human error, mechanical problems with our material may have caused some influence on the total distance to take place. It is possible that while performing the trials with the soda, that some soda may have spilled into the car, thus resulting in a larger total weight for the 3rd trial to push. Lastly, there was also the problem with the terrain that the car was rolling on. It was a sidewalk that had many cracks and crevices. This may have influenced the total distance of the car because it didn’t follow the same specific track in each trial. To summarize, our hypothesis was correct in which the car with the soda explosion on it traveled a further distance than a car without any means of chemical acceleration. But because of error our idea of how much the mentos make a difference can not be compared accurately.

References 1. http://www.metacafe.com/watch/748953/mentos_diet_coke_rocket_missile/

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The Effect of Diet Drinks on the Height of a Mentos Eruption By Lauren Cutuli Summary: This study tested the effect of different types of diet drinks on the height of a mentos eruption. I tested a twelve ounce bottle and five mentos for each trial, and conducted two trials per drink. Diet Tonic Water produced the greatest eruption with a height of .31 meters and .27 meters. Diet Coke had an explosion of .30 meters and .25 meters. Diet Dr. Pepper had an explosion of .21 and .23. Sprite Zero created the smallest eruption with the results, .19 meters and .21 meters. Introduction: The experiment I conducted is one that is different from the norm, especially while using a tonic water drink. In many drinks, there is an invisible carbon dioxide gas that is released after a bottle is opened. Also, inside the drink, water does not let the carbon dioxide bubbles expand. When the mentos are dropped inside the drink, the gum arabic and the gelatin separate the carbon dioxide gas allowing bubbles to expand and form new ones as well.1 The weight of the mentos plays a role in this experiment as well. As the rather heavy candy falls down towards the bottom of the bottle, carbon dioxide is released. The amount of pressure given off by the carbon dioxide pushes the drink out of the bottle.2 Experimental: The design of my experiment was to test the reaction of mentos and different types of diet drinks. I tested four different types of drinks; Diet Coke, Diet Dr. Pepper, Sprite Zero and Diet Tonic Water. I conducted two trials per drink by using mentos to drop into each one. A meter stick was held by the soda so that when the drink erupted, a measurement could be recorded. I used twelve ounce bottles for the drink and five mentos per trial. Procedure: 1. Gather two twelve ounce bottles of Diet Coke, Diet Dr. Pepper, Sprite Zero and Diet Tonic Water 2. Gather three packages of mint flavored mentos and a plastic tube with a hole at the bottom 3. Get a meter stick for measurement records and have someone help hold the meter stick for you 4. Get and put on safety goggles 5. Place the bottle in the sink 6. Put five mentos in the tube with a toothpick at the bottom, keeping the mentos secured 7. Open the top of the bottle 8. Place the tube in the top of the bottle 9. Remove the toothpick 10. Record the height of the eruption 11. Repeat all steps for the same type of drink then again for additional drinks to complete two trials each

Results:

36


The Effect of Diet Drinks on the Height of a Eruption(m)

Height of

Mentos Eruption 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 Diet Coke

Diet Dr. Pepper

Sprite Zero

Trial One Trial Two

Diet Tonic Water

Type of Diet Drink

Trial One Diet Coke

Trial Two 0.3

0.25

Diet Dr. Pepper

0.21

0.23

Sprite Zero

0.19

0.21

Diet Tonic Water

0.31

0.27

Conclusions: My conclusions show that the Diet Tonic Water and Diet Coke were reactive drinks when mentos were put in the bottle. The Diet Tonic Water, after both trials, recorded the highest eruption with the heights of, .31 meters and .27 meters. Diet Coke was the second most reactive drink, from my results, with the combination of mentos. The heights for this drink were .30 meters and .25 meters. Diet Dr. Pepper was the third most eruptive drink and the measured heights for this diet drink were .21 meters and .23 meters. Lastly, the Sprite Zero had the smallest reaction towards the mixture with mentos and the heights were .19 meters and .21 meters. References: 1. For information about Mentos eruptions: (http://www.newscientist.com/channel/fundamentals/dn14114-scienceof-mentosdiet-coke-explosions-explained.html) 2. For a historic record about Mentos eruptions: (http://www.stevespanglerscience.com/experiment/00000109)

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Communications (summaries only) Discovery of the Worlds Longest Mentos Eruption: One Hour and Forty Minutes. By Sam Taylor and Will Schaffer Melted mentos and diet coke will create a sustained eruption lasting consistently over one hour in duration.

Drilling a 5 mm Hole in a Mentos Candy Results in a 20% Increase in Eruption Height. By Nick Hill and Kyle Gaboury Modified mentos were tested in 1 liter Mentos candies eruptions.Eruption heights were 95 cm for standard mint mentos candies, 20 cm for mint mentos candy powder, 65 cm for mint mentos with the coatings removed, and 120 cm for mentos candies with a 5mm hole drilled in the center.

Karo Soda Cold SyrupIncreases Quenchesthe theHeight MentosofEruption a Mentos Eruption By Andrea Cawley, By Morgan KelseyEhrler, Robinsand andPam Laura Salmeron Turcio A simulated The effect of volcano soda temperature eruption using ondiet the coke, height mentos, of a mentos corn syrup, eruption andwas redinvestigated. food coloringInproduced a side byno Mentos side study, eruption cold diet whatsoever. coke produced It is suggested, an eruption but ofhas 275not cm,been compared tested, tothat 150 Karo cm for Syrup roomistemperature the ingredient diet coke which quenches this reaction. . Mentos Sliced in Half will Double the Height of a Mentos Eruption

By Emily’s Ring and Kipness In a height-comparison study of the Mentos eruption, it was found that average eruption heights were 58 cm for a cleanly sliced half-mentos candy, 35 cm for crushed mentos, and 25 cm for unmodified mentos candy.

Serendipitous creation of a Mentos Rocket Several researchers have confirmed that cold or warm mentos erupt By higher Alex Jagielski than room andtemperature Eric Hedberg. mentos, including Andrew Austin and Rachel Spadacenta, Ray Trombetta and Brad Tucker, Kevin Kelly andtaping By Matt Husted, an inverted, Kiersten drilled Kenefick graduated and cylinder Kristen Fradiani to a 2 L bottle of diet coke, a visually stunning sixway horizontal eruption was created. During one of these trials the taping came loose, resulting in a three meter upward flight of a mentos rocket. If developed safely, this could form the basis for numerous mentos ballistics investigations.

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guilford journal of chemistry volume 2 (2008-2009)  

guilford journal of chemistry volume 2 (2008-2009)

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