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Vol 13 | Issue 2 | November 2015



Concrete 2015, Gala Dinner

As we approach the end of 2015 this edition of Connections reflects on another year of beneficial applications and uses of iron and steel slag (ISS) products across Australia. Although steel industry forecasters continue to portray an uncertain outlook for the oversupply of steel across the globe, the wide-reaching influences that ISS products have are ever increasing. In the last month one of our National Technical and Education Committee working groups finalised the Quick Reference Guide 4: Electric Arc Furnace Slag. This QRG includes informative updates on physical properties, applications, environmental considerations and multiple case studies. We have included a copy in this edition of Connections and is available in the Technical Guides section of the Association website. Our industry member profile this edition is of Wayne James. Wayne chaired the National Technical and Education Committee for many years and offers us his perspective of his 50+ years in the iron and steel slag industry. Other members contributing to this edition include Gavin Tory from ASMS with an update of the Berry/Fox Ground Bypass project and Professor Arnaud Castel with an update of the CRC: Low Carbon Living project . Each edition of Connections and Connections Selections would not be possible without the continued support of members and other contributors


Lauren Hatton provides us with a wrap up of the Association’s involvement in the highly successful Concrete 2015. The “Research into Practice” themed conference proved yet again to be a great

1. 2. 3. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Editorial Member Employee Profile: Wayne James Jamie North: New Exhibition Quick Reference Guide: 4 – EAFS The Green Giant Foxground & Berry Bypass – by Gavin Tory Conference Report: Concrete 2015 Results from the Membership Survey Student Education Initiative CRC: Low Carbon Living Write for Connections

opportunity to promote the Association’s fundamental role in research and development; further educating the construction materials industry about the benefits of iron and steel slags. The Association’s exhibition was popular amongst attendees with many delegates visiting the stand across the three days of the event. International concrete artist, Jamie North has provided us with an update of his work. Jamie is currently travelling across the globe photographing iron and steel slags on the micro and macro scale. His Rock Melt exhibition has now been selected to be a permanent exhibition at the National Gallery of Victoria (NGV). Also featured is the new “world’s tallest building”, the Kingdom Tower, Saudi Arabia which will extend more than one kilometre into the clouds once complete, dwarfing the Burj Khalifa by more than one hundred and eighty metres. The building’s foundations have been set approximately one hundred and ten metres into the earth, utilising iron and steel slag products, enhancing the strength, durability and quality of the concrete. Results from the membership survey have also been published showing that the longer-term trend of ISS materials continues to move towards high value added products and applications. Finally, the Australasian (iron & steel) Slag Association would like to wish its members a safe and happy Christmas holiday period and we look forward to working with you to further iron and steel slag utilisation in 2016.



CONNECTIONS EDITORIAL TEAM | November 2015 Edition Connections is published by the ASA The Australasian (Iron & Steel) Slag Association Wollongong NSW 2500 Ph: 02 4258 0160 • Fax: 02 4258 0169 Email: Web: Executive Director: Craig Heidrich Editor: Aiden Chilcott Editorial Coordinator: Jake Latham Design: Troy Hawkins Contributors: Wayne James, Craig Heidrich, Gavin Tory, Arnaud Castel, Lauren Hatton Connections is a quarterly publication with an online circulation of 1,500 copies

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WAYNE JAMES One of the interesting aspects about the iron and steel slag industry is the long association individuals can have within the sector. I recently had the opportunity to sit down with Wayne to review his 53year long career in the construction materials industry and his perspectives on the transition of iron and steel slags (ISS) from industrial waste problem to highly sought after resources used widely across the globe in the construction sectors. Wayne commenced his working career in 1962 as a trainee Cement Chemist at the Portland Cement Works. He worked in the laboratory for 5 years, which included training in Works Management. In 1968, as technology began to dramatically change the nature of the industry, the Portland Works (being an ageing plant at that time) was upgraded to a more efficient plant design reducing workforce needs, which resulted in numerous redundancies. Wayne continued at the Portand Works until moving onto his next big challenge with the NSW Department of Main Roads in the Technical Services Branch (later to become RMS). For the next 23 years, Wayne worked in the testing laboratory system and technical area, starting as a Testing Officer, working his way up to Laboratory Manager, running up to five (5) Laboratories throughout the Blue Mountains and Central West of NSW. Responsible for development of several testing methods and a range of R&D work within the Department of Main Roads (DMR) and Roads and Traffic Authority (RTA), Wayne worked also on the computer systems within laboratories, developing procedures, databases, worksheets and test reports for what was the first of the laboratory database systems. He worked closely with a group that commenced development of what is today, a range of Construction and Supply documents such as Roadbase Supply Document 305. Wayne also became an assessor for the National Association of Testing Authorities (NATA) during this time. Some thirty (30) years later, Wayne is still being called upon by NATA to assess laboratories. With the impending restructure and closure of the Illawarra RTA Office, Wayne seized an opportunity to move from Public Service to the Private Sector in the role as Laboratory and Technical Management within a newly formed joint venture - Australian Steel Mill Services (ASMS). Over his twelve (12) years at ASMS, Wayne took on many Management roles including OH&S, HR, Quality Management, Industrial Relations, and later managed crushing, distribution and transport plants. One major achievement he spoke of being proud about was the laboratory brought up to NATA Accreditation Standard and ASMS achieving Quality Assurance status. During his time with ASMS, Wayne Chaired the Association’s National Technical and Education Committee for a number of years and along with the Executive Officer Doug Prosser, were instrumental in development of the original series of Technical Manuals. Wayne was quick to note, that there were many contributors and a range of expertise sort whilst compiling these guidelines, which continue to serve the industry well today, supplemented by various technical notes and Quick Reference Guides. Wayne was also passionate about was being a contributing member to Australian Standards Committees with particular emphasis on the materials that were supplied by the iron and steel slag industry into construction. Australian Standards are very important enablers of the efficient and effective use of iron and steel slags. Wayne continues to be an active member of committee CE012 which works on Standards for Rocks in Engineering and the relevant test methods. These are known as the Specification set AS2758 and Test Methods AS1141 series. Committees for Supplementary Cementitious Materials and Concrete supply BD031 and BD049 operate under the National Technical and Education Committee. Wayne continues to serve the Industry through continual membership of a range of technical committees and Associations, including the Cement Concrete & Aggregates Australia (CCAA) Technical committees, Institute of Quarrying Australia (IQA), NATA, Australian Standards and life membership of the Australasian (iron & steel) Slag Association. Since stepping down from full time positions, Wayne holds a passion to pass on his wide range of experience and knowledge to those in the industry. This has included the development and running of a range of training courses about construction materials and their use as well as a range of courses about quarrying. Whilst you will now find Wayne travelling the country side with his wife enjoying what our beautiful country has to offer, he maintains an involvement in the National Technical and Education Committee - ready to provide wise council from his fifty years of experiences and lessons learned. Wayne can be contact via email

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Jamie North: Rock Melt 2015 ‘Rock Melt’, commissioned by the National Gallery of Victoria (NGV) consists of six monumental columns that appear fragmented as they progress in height. The columns are composed of cement, recycled expanded glass, and steel and slag of different grades supplied by Australian Steel Mill Services. These columns act as a habitat for a variety of native Australian plants, including several vine species that explore the verticality of each sculptural form. A few words from Jamie… “Building Rock Melt required core drilling steel slag of all sizes, which were either threaded onto the interior steel armature that reinforces each structure, or onto the rebar that extends beyond the base form. In doing this, I was able to achieve height without the corresponding weight that would occur had the forms been solid. The fragmented form also brings to mind the quote by Karl Marx (from which the title of the work is partly derived) “All that is solid melts into air” referring to the loss of certainty brought about by modernity. Of course, the title could also be seen to be a direct reference to the process from which slag is derived.” Rock Melt was de-installed from the NGV’s interior Federation Court in July after a three (3) month exhibition period, though has since been acquired for the gallery’s permanent collection. It will be re-installed in the gallery’s sculpture garden in the not too distant future, where the plants can interact with the sculpture to their full potential. Jamie is currently touring the United States and European Steel Mill sites to capture and collect a series of slag stockpile images for a project he is currently working on. Our friends at the National Slag Association and Euroslag are assisting Jamie.

Quick Reference Guide: 4 – EAFS

The National Technical and Education Committee working groups have now finalised the Quick Reference Guide 4: Electric Arc Furnace Slag (QRG 4: EAFS). This QRG seeks to update material from the Guide to the use of iron and steel slag in roads. It focuses on the specific aspects related to the use of EAFS in terms of its physical and chemical characteristics, environmental impact, applications and case studies. View on the following four pages.

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Electric Arc Furnace Slag



Electric Arc Furnace Slag (EAFS) is a co-product of the steel making process. The production of EAFS involves steel scrap and fluxes which are added to a refractory lined cupshaped vessel. This vessel has a lid through which carbon electrodes are passed. An arc is induced between the scrap and electrodes and the resultant heat generated melts scrap and fluxes producing molten steel and slag1.

Table 1 - Typical Physical Properties of EAFS2. Typical Physical Properties - Aggregate

Electric Arc Furnace Slag

Bulk Density (t/m3)(loose)

1.60 - 2.10

Particle Density (t/m3)

3.30 - 3.45

Dry Strength (kN)

220 - 270

Wet Strength (kN)

200 - 250

Wet/Dry Variation (%)

5 - 15

Water Absorption (%)

1 - 2 (coarse aggregate) 2 - 4 (fine aggregate)

LA Abrasion (%)

15 - 20

Polished Aggregate Friction Value (PAFV)

58 - 62

Sodium Sulfate Soundness (%)


Flakiness Index (%)


Free Lime (%)


Physical Property- 20 mm Road base Maximum Dry Density (kg/m3)1

2,300 - 2,600

Optimum Moisture Content (%)2

8 - 12

Notes: 1 MDD based on 100% standard compaction. 2 OMC OMC depends on the particle size distribution of the mix.

Figure 1 - Electric Arc Furnace Typical physical properties of EAFS aggregates, after processing to remove metallicâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s are shown in Table 1. Through its research activities between relevant stakeholders, the Australasian (iron & steel) Slag Association continues to increase the recognition and understanding of the beneficial use of iron and steel slags amongst industry members, government and the community though projects such as the Quick Reference Guide (QRG) Update. This QRG updates the Guide to the use of Iron and Steel slag in roads, focusing on the specific aspects related to the use of Electric Arc Furnace Slag (EAFS) in terms of its physical and chemical characteristics, applications and case studies.

Quick Reference Guide 4 2015 | Electric Arc Furnace Slag

EAFS is dark grey in colour and characteristically harder than natural aggregates. It has a density about 20 - 25% greater than basalt. It crushes to a cubical shape. EAFS may contain small amounts of potentially expansive products such as burnt lime and dolomite. Sufficient moisture and time must be provided to enable hydration of these materials, commonly known as weathering. Weathering is typically achieved by periodic watering, monitoring and internal stockpile management procedures before releasing for use.

TYPICAL APPLICATIONS EAFS is similar to Steel Furnace Slag (SFS) with self-cementing properties for heavy duty pavement applications. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) > 5 MPa has been achieved at 28 days bench cured at 23oC. As a tough, durable material, EAFS has excellent skid resistance comparable to rhyolite. Resistance to rutting also makes EAFS particularly applicable for heavily trafficked corners and stopping zones.

Slag asphalt was laid in the northbound direction with granite asphalt in the southbound direction.

Typical applications for EAFS include: • Sealing aggregate (skid resistant) • Asphalt aggregate • Road Base, Sub-base (bound and unbound) • Construction fill Typical applications for the use of EAFS are referenced in various State Road Authority specifications as shown in Table 2. Table 2 - Specifications for the use of EAFS. EAFS Type









Select Fill





404 - 407


The types of asphalt commonly used that could incorporate EAF slag aggregates5 are: • Dense Graded Asphalt (DGA) (or Asphaltic Concrete • Open Graded Asphalt (OGA) • Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) • Fine Gap Graded Asphalt (FGGA) • Ultra-Thin Asphalt (UTA) Surfacings including Thin Open Graded Asphalt EAF slag aggregates can be incorporated into any of the above mix types as an alternative to natural aggregates or to take advantage of the unique properties. The pH value of the aggregate product leads to a natural affinity to bitumen and binders, leading to reduced stripping and lowers the requirement for lime additions during the production process. One of the main benefits of EAF slag it’s skid resistance performance combined with its ability to maintain properties for significantly longer than most natural aggregates. In place SMA mix designs have shown the SFC of slags has maintained a 15% increase over natural aggregates over time. This leads to the consideration for the use of EAF slag sealing aggregates in applications where increased and maintained skid resistance can help lead to improved safety and reduced accidents.

Case Study 1: Emerald-Monbulk Road, Victoria

Using a VicRoads SCRIM machine, assessment of skid resistance properties between EAFS and natural materials was conducted. Results of the testing showed that the average skid resistance was 6.5% higher for the EAFS asphalt compared to granite. A 2013 independent University report then used these results as part of a study into the beneficial impact of skid resistance on pedestrian injuries over the life of the road. This report recognised that EAFS asphalt exhibits superior skid resistance properties which last for long periods as the new frictional surfaces are regenerated on the surface of the material6. EAFS asphalt aggregates have subsequently been specified and used at numerous sites throughout Melbourne.

SUB-BASE & BASE COURSE EAFS has been successfully used as a sub-base by: (a) Using a minus 40mm crusher run material; (b) Blending minus 20 mm or minus 40 mm material; or (c) Blending with granulated blast furnace slag. EAFS has been used in two main applications as a base course. The material has been blended at a rate of about 40% with existing base materials to rehabilitate existing pavements where the EAFS increased the wet/dry strength value, decreased the Plasticity Index and modified the pavement materials such that it now conforms to a DGB20 specification in accordance with RMS Specification 3051. EAFS has also been blended with granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) to form a bound base material. These blended materials offer slower setting due to the lower free lime content, but UCS values over 4 MPa can be achieved, ensuring the material meets the heavily bound criteria.

CONSTRUCTION CONSIDERATIONS Construction joints occur where bound material is placed against previously placed bound material which is outside the bound material’s working time. Where this occurs, a clean, compacted, vertical perpendicular surface should be cut to the full depth of the pavement layer thickness for both transverse and longitudinal construction joints. This will reduce the risk of plating effects on the pavement. All spoil material should be discarded and not incorporated back into the works. As with all rigid pavements, the correct management and placement techniques should be considered such as: • • •

Figure 2 - Emerald-Monbulk Road, Victoria using EAFS Quick Reference Guide 4 2015 | Electric Arc Furnace Slag

Correct location of joints limiting the overall pavement widths; Ensuring the joints are not in wheel paths; and Ensuring joints in sub-base layers are offset to joints in the base layer.

Suppliers product data and handling recommendation should be consulted for guidance where appropriate.

Case Study 2: Wyong Rd Tuggerah 2014 Heavily bound pavement material produced using a blend of EAFS with other resource recovered materials was chosen by the New South Wales Roads and Maritime Services (RMS) for the purpose of pavement rehabilitation in sections of Wyong Road at Tuggerah.

Figure 4 shows another section ready for placement of the EAFS based heavily bound pavement material. The material was also placed during light rain with no effect to the final product quality or compaction process. Due to the high density results, RMS were able to reduce the time required for compaction (compared to their standard practices) whilst achieving the relative density on a single thick layer. This enabled RMS to expedite placement of the material and progress construction faster than expected. A 70mm asphalt wearing course was placed over the pavement layer, opening within hours of completion.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Several comprehensive studies of EAFS have shown this material and laboratory generated leachates contains trace amounts of metal well below trigger levels for environmental investigation

Figure 3 - Wyong Rd Tuggerah The above figure 3 shows a section of existing road boxed out and ready for placement of EAFS based heavily bound pavement material. The works required a pavement material to be placed, compacted (reaching required specified relative densities), then sealed and opened to traffic all within a 10 hour construction window.

NSW Environment Protection Authority (EPA), have issued resource recovery orders and resource recovery exemptions for generators, processors and consumers of EAFS within a range of applications7. The primary environmental risk when utilising EAFS in road making applications is the potential for alkaline leachate to enter local waterways. This risk is minimal when EAFS is incorporated into well-designed and constructed roads with adequate drainage. Alkalinity decreases over time as the material gains strength.

The EAFS based heavily bound pavement material was placed in 1 layer (up to 400mm deep) and sealed once compaction targets were achieved. The road was opened for traffic within hours of the final seal being placed. Performance of the material was critical for RMS.

Water sheeting off a road or hardstand area is not in contact with EAFS for a long enough period to produce high pH run-off. Hours to days of direct stagnant contact with EAFS are required for the pH of the water to reach environmentally significant levels.

Using standard placement methodologies the material was placed over a number of different subgrade types from weathered sandstone to poor quality clay based materials.

CONCLUSION EAFS being a co-product of the steel making process is produced using controlled inputs. These controlled inputs ensure a homogeneous output where the physical and elemental properties can be relied on for consistency. This can provide benefits over naturally occurring aggregates and pavement materials where variability within natural deposits related to geological weathering and alterations can occur. Along with the above, environmental benefits are significant for a reduced carbon footprint along with conservation of natural resources.

Figure 4 - Wyong Rd Tuggerah Quick Reference Guide 4 2015 | Electric Arc Furnace Slag

REFERENCES [accessed 2015]


ASA (2002). A Guide to the Use of Slag in Roads. Revision 2. Wollongong, Australasian (iron & steel) Slag Association Inc. with amendments

2 [accessed 2015]

3 [accessed 2015]


ASA (2001). A Guide to the Use of Steel Furnace Slag in Asphalt and Thin Bituminous Surfacings. Wollongong, Australasian (iron & steel) Slag Association Inc.


Jones, N 2010, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Paper 22 The regenerative frictional properties of slag aggregateâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, Harsco Metals Group Limited

6 htm [accessed 2015]


AUSTRALASIAN (IRON & STEEL) SLAG ASSOCIATION Suite 2, Level 1, 336 Keira Street, Wollongong NSW 2500 Australia PO Box 1194 Wollongong NSW 2500 Australia Telephone: +61 2 4258 0160 Fax: +61 2 4258 0169 Email: Quick Reference Guide 4 2015 | Electric Arc Furnace Slag

THE GREEN GIANT Opening in 2019, The Kingdom Tower in Saudi Arabia will surpass Dubaiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Burj Khalifa in height and be erected sustainably with an expected lifespan of over 100 years. Whilst the final height of the structure has not yet been released, it is rumoured to be the first structure in history to reach the 1km milestone. The building was initially designed to be one mile (1.6km) high, however after consideration of the geography this plan was adjusted. The mega structure will still be at least 180 metres taller than the existing record holder. The construction of this structure will be heavily reliant on concrete as a foundation element, which will be utilised at various stages throughout the build. Construction in the Middle East is currently trending towards the use substitutes for Portland cement which has both economical and environmental benefits. One development is the replacement of cement with various cement alternatives such as ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), from the regional steel industry and coal combustion products such as fly ash (FA), from coal fired power plants. The replacement levels are expected to be up to 70% in the case of GGBFS and 30% in the case of FA; this minimises the use of Portland cement. The use of GGBFS and FA enhances the strength and durability parameters and improves the quality of concrete. It also reduces the heat of hydration, during the reaction between cement and water. The use of these products will considerably reduce the carbon footprint of the construction as well as further promoting the use of these materials in future high profile construction projects. The mega structure contains a concrete core spanning several metres in diameter throughout the majority of the building and concrete foundations stretching down to one hundred and ten (110) metres into the ground. The substantial foundations are required to protect the tower from erosion from the nearby ocean as well as to ensure the stability of the soaring structure, which has proven to be necessary after other structures in Dubai have been subject to sinking or movement within their sandy surroundings. Advanced Construction Technology Services (ACTS) have been employed by Kingdom Holdings to carry out quality control checks on the construction materials to be used, which will be an ongoing process throughout the construction to ensure that the half a million (500,000) cubic meters of concrete and around 80,000 tonnes of steel are appropriately used and can withstand the enormity of the project.

Photo left: Burj Khalifa, currently the worlds tallest building.

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FOXGROUND & BERRY BYPASS Gavin Tory, Manager, Sales and Business Development, Australian Steel Mill Services

With the Gerringong upgrade complete, the $580 million construction of the Foxground and Berry bypass has broken ground, with work on the project starting in January this year. If you are lucky enough to reside on the South Coast of NSW, then you have most likely visited the beautiful, quaint town of Berry. Known for its picturesque scenery and historic culture, access to the region is limited to a winding single-lane road. One aim of this project is to minimise travel times, whilst improving safety for the motorists who travel in the region. The construction of the bypass has created five hundred (500) jobs as well as having great economic and safety benefits for the area. The farming region is very agriculturally and environmentally aware, so it is fitting that the 11.6km bypass will of course include iron and steel slags in the construction of the road surface to reduce demand on natural quarried resources, where the use of the material is cost and performance competitive. The project will deliver a four-lane highway, with two lanes in each direction and median separation between Toolijooa Road and Schofields Lane. Selected Association Members are currently involved in the project and the Association’s Aiden Chilcott spoke with Gavin Tory, the Manager of Sales and Business Development at ASMS to provide an update.

“ASMS is proud to be a part of this major state infrastructure project which will not only greatly improve safety and travel times for motorists on the Princes Highway, but ensure the community benefits from a number of unique sustainable and cost effective measures through the use of slag-based materials. In addition to being compounded from sustainable slag materials, ASMS RBM800 Road Base has allowed for a pavement design for the project that utilises an asphalt layer thinner than that attainable using comparable natural quarry materials with no compromise to the pavement lifecycle. This further adds to the green credentials of the project by conserving valuable bitumen and aggregates in the asphalt layer as well as minimising the project costs for the benefit not just of the road users, but also the general public. We are very confident the wellproven ASMS Road Base technologies being employed will provide an economic, durable and comfortable solution to be enjoyed by motorists for many years to come.” As the project advances, the Association will continue to update readers on the Foxground and Berry Bypass in the coming editions of Connections and Connections Selections.

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Concrete 2015 “Research Into Practice”

Concrete 2015 - “Research Into Practice” held at the Pullman Hotel, Albert Park, Melbourne from 30th August to 2nd September 2015, hosted more than six hundred (600) delegates, exceeding the Concrete Institutes of Australia’s expectations.

The Association’s exhibition included display samples of iron and steel slags (ISS) and an iPad which was used to feature the Association’s website and proved to be a useful tool in demonstrating to the delegates how simple it was to find technical, product and statistical information on our website. The Conference began strongly with more than 600 delegates in the plenary session commencing at 9.30am. The Association exhibition was manned during all of the breakout sessions. Representatives and staff from HBM Group (Carol Wilson, Aiden Chilcott & Lauren Hatton) and members of the Association; Gavin Tory, Robert Cignarella and Marc Smith from Australian Steel Mill Services (ASMS) and Craig Mellick and Joanne Portella from BG&E Materials Technology (BG&E MT) were kept busy answering numerous technical questions in regards to the end uses of the products displayed. The Association’s presence again generated much interest amongst the delegates and provided an excellent opportunity to communicate and engage with users of iron and steel slags. During the three days numerous promotional material was distributed, which contained the Association’s published Technical Information such as multiple Reference Data sheets and contact information. The Concrete Institute of Australia Conference has proven, yet again, to be a great opportunity to promote the Association; further educate industry personnel and increase our current profile and network with the industry. We look forward to Concrete Institute of Australia’s announcement of Concrete 2017.

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Results from the Membership Survey

Student Education Initiative

Every year the Australasian (iron & steel) Slag Association conducts an industry wide survey incorporating members and non-members regarding iron & steel slag (ISS) production and value-added sold quantities. The 2015 survey reports on the production, importation and sales results for the 2014 calendar period.

Since 2000, the Australasian (iron & steel) Slag Association has conducted an education awards program, open to any student undertaking an Honours or Masters research project over the calendar year. The award seeks to commend those students who have produced exceptional research projects addressing ‘an innovative use of slag materials in construction applications’ for their valuable contributions to the industry.

Information provided by members and non-members is reviewed, compared, collated into a national set of results and nominated uses for all slag products. For the calendar period January to December 2014, 2.88 million tonnes of ISS was generated by major steel makers nationally or imported from overseas sources and used within various industry sectors. Compared with 2013, there was second year decrease of approximately 150,000 metric tonnes of ISS due to softening domestic demand for steel. This decrease in volume of ISS correlates well with current depressed domestic demand for steel, in particular in the steams of steel production within the basic oxygen furnace slag (BOS) and electric arc furnace (EAF) processes. Conversely the high demand for granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) continues within the cement and concrete sectors again increasing some 300,000 tonnes over the last period. For the reported period 38% of GBFS was from domestic sources, that is, 62% of GBFS from imported sources. From the 2.88 Mt available, 2.5 Mt or 86% of ISS produced was effectively utilised within various value added civil and construction material applications throughout Australasia. The survey results include all generators, (iron & steel plants) marketers, (processing and marketing companies) and users for the total production and resulting sales by each end use. The key results for the calendar period 2014 survey were: • Approximately 2.88 Mt of ISS products were produced within Australasia • 87% has been effectively utilised (sold or reused for some beneficial use) • Per capita, this equates to 113kg per person recycled or reused for 2013 • 59% was used in cementitious applications - “high value add” • 29% was used in non-cementitious or road construction applications • 12% was used in general civil or fill applications – low value add. In summary the longer-term trend of ISS materials continues moving towards high value added products and away from low value added applications. To this end, the active recovery and use of ISS continues to provide significant positive environmental impacts, including resource conservation and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from the processing of virgin resources.

Typically, the Association issues two (2) awards per year. However, depending on the quality of papers presented, the ASA is always eager to increase this number for any particular year. Application Process • All applicants are required to submit a synopsis of their research project before before 31st August of each year (preferred format: MS Word, Rich Text, or Adobe PDF). • All submissions should be forwarded to and should include the name, educational institution, course and course coordinator of the applicant. • The final published paper ought to be submitted by applicants before 30th November (preferred format: MS Word, Rich Text, or Adobe PDF). • Eligibility for the award is contingent upon the condition that the submitted paper represents an original work, not previously submitted or published. • Applications will be assessed by the Association’s Technical Committee in collaboration with various faculty staff. Successful candidates will be notified of their award by the following January. Below are some examples of the research focuses of previous awards recipients: David Flower Monash University • David’s paper was titled ‘Environmental Impacts of Concrete Production and Placement’. • Judges believed the paper provided a timely address to the issue of carbon footprints for ready mixed concrete. The paper was well written and provided a sound understanding and insights into carbon savings where slag cements are used when compared to 100% portland cements. Matthew Biasutti and Trung Minh Luu University of Wollongong • Both Matthew and Trung’s submission were of a high level. Both graduates were from the University of Wollongong, their paper’s titled ‘The effect of limestone microfillers on the compressive strength of slag cement concrete’ and ‘early strength development in concrete containing blast furnace slag products’ respectively. • Judges believed both papers were topical, well written and provided a sound understanding and insights into slag cements. Christopher Wing and Steve Dalley University of Wollongong • Steve’s paper, titled ‘The effect of slags at varying ratios in the binder on the plastic and hardened properties of the concrete’ illustrated that the type of slag – as well as the percentage in the binder – does affect both the plastic and hardened properties of the hardened concrete and that the ability to alter these properties increased the potential of blended cements as construction materials. • Both papers were of an impressively high standard and were celebrated by the Association for their contribution to the industry’s knowledge of slag properties and performance ultimately enabling a more confident use of these products.

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CRC: Low Carbon Living The Centre for Infrastructure Engineering and Safety (CIES) at UNSW Australia continues to promote sustainable concrete technology within the CRC for Low Carbon Living (CRC-LCL) under the research leadership of Prof’s Arnaud Castel and Jay Sanjayan with the support of the Australasian (iron & steel) Slag Association’s Craig Heidrich as leading industry partner. Craig Heidrich recently noted at one of the industry leading forums of the Cooperative Research Centre for Low Carbon Living “The involvement of the Australasian (iron & steel) Slag Association in the CRC for Low Carbon Living is critical. The CRC-LCL brings together built environment experts to provide a central focus on addressing the need to transition to a low carbon future for buildings and cities. The CRC-LCL is about doing together what we could not do alone, and we have demonstrated the success of this through our project to remove barriers to the uptake of low carbon geopolymer concrete. By developing standard specification and design guidelines and new standards for geopolymer concrete, this project can enable uptake and have a transformative effect on the industry.” Geopolymer concrete is the result of the reaction of materials containing aluminosilicate such as slag with alkalis to produce an inorganic polymer binder. Geopolymer concrete has an 80% lower carbon footprint compared to the conventional Portland cement concrete. The major barrier to geopolymer adoption is the lack of standard specifications, track records and exclusion from current standards (e.g., AS 3600). The CRC-LCL project aims to gather field data from real-life geopolymer constructions to develop greater confidence in geopolymer use. Using the field and laboratory data, a comprehensive Handbook for geopolymer specification is being developed and published through Standards Australia. The handbook has been organised and drafted. Industry and end user partners of CRC-LCL are currently reviewing the draft. Some sections are not ready for publication such as performance specification, related to the durability requiring research projects. Publication of the handbook is believed to be 2017. Partner organisations include the Australasian (iron & steel) Slag Association, CIES at the UNSW, Swinburne University of Technology, Ash Development Association of Australia, AECOM, Sydney Water and Standards Australia. Other industry collaborators include: Zeobond Pty Ltd, Wagners Concrete Pty Ltd, Milliken Infrastructure solutions as well as RMS Pavement Structures, Transport and Main Roads QLD and Vicroads.

Connections is produced twice a year for the benefit of ASA members. Before each publication is drafted, an email is sent to all members, urging them to contribute stories that they think are of interest. The types of content we are looking for include: • • •

New developments or technologies New projects New employees.

We also have a Member Profile section which is open to all member companies for contributions on behalf of the business in general or a specific employee. 
So, if you have an idea or even some content that you think might make an interesting article for our readers, get in contact with Editor, Aiden Chilcott today:

SUBSCRIBE TO Views expressed in Connections newsletter do not necessarily reflect the opinion of the Australasian Slag Association. All contributions are welcomed, though the publisher reserves the right to decline or edit for style grammar, length and legal reasons.

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Connections - November 2015  
Connections - November 2015  

Launched in 1998, Connections is an industry publication produced by the Australasian (iron & steel) Slag Association with the goal to disse...