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Building Services Project 2 Case Study, Analysis and Documentation of Building Services Systems

Muhammad Haziq bin Ariffin Feiven Chee Oh Keng Yee Georgius Indra Putra Ng Sueh Yi Chan Kah Leong

0311763 0312004 0312501 0312009 0310700 0310587


Table of Contents Abstract .................................................................................................................................................... 6 Introduction to Case Study................................................................................................................. 7 Air Conditioning & Mechanical Ventilation Systems ......................................................................... 8 Literature Review ............................................................................................................................................. 9 Case Study ......................................................................................................................................................... 12 List of Equipment ........................................................................................................................................................ 13 All Water System ......................................................................................................................................................... 14 A/C Make-Up Water Tank ........................................................................................................................................................16 Cooling Tower ...............................................................................................................................................................................17 Chiller Plant Room ......................................................................................................................................................................19

Centrifugal Chiller ....................................................................................................................................................... 20 Chilled Water Pump....................................................................................................................................................................23 Condenser Water Pump ............................................................................................................................................................25

Air Handling Unit (AHU) .......................................................................................................................................... 26

Cooling Coils...................................................................................................................................................................................27 Backward Inclined Centrifugal Fans ...................................................................................................................................28 Motorized Dampers and CO2 Sensors .................................................................................................................................29

Fan Coil Unit (FCU) ..................................................................................................................................................... 30 Air Cooled Split Unit................................................................................................................................................... 31 Air Ductwork and Diffusers .................................................................................................................................... 33 Mechanical Ventilation System ............................................................................................................................. 35

Fresh Air System ..........................................................................................................................................................................36 Pressurization System ...............................................................................................................................................................37 Smoke Spill System .....................................................................................................................................................................39

Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................................ 41

2. ................................................................................................................................................................ 43 Electrical Supply Systems ................................................................................................................. 43 Overview ........................................................................................................................................................... 44 Literature Review .......................................................................................................................................... 44 Main Switch Board (MSB): ...................................................................................................................................... 44 Electrical Riser: ............................................................................................................................................................ 44 Capacitor Bank: ............................................................................................................................................................ 45 Signal Distribution Frame: ...................................................................................................................................... 45 Generator Set: ............................................................................................................................................................... 45 Transformer: ................................................................................................................................................................. 45 Substation: ..................................................................................................................................................................... 46 Case Study ......................................................................................................................................................... 46 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................. 46 Main Switch Board...................................................................................................................................................... 47

Buses .................................................................................................................................................................................................48 Splice Plates ...................................................................................................................................................................................49

Analysis ........................................................................................................................................................................... 50 Capacitor bank ............................................................................................................................................................. 51

Bushing Wells ................................................................................................................................................................................53

Transformer .................................................................................................................................................................. 54 Electric Riser ................................................................................................................................................................. 55 2


Electrical riser requirements .................................................................................................................................................55

Substation ...................................................................................................................................................................... 58 Emergency electrical system .................................................................................................................................. 60 Battery room..................................................................................................................................................................................60 Generator set room .....................................................................................................................................................................62

Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................................ 63

3. ................................................................................................................................................................ 64 Cold Water Supply Systems ............................................................................................................. 64 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 65 Literature review ............................................................................................................................................... 65 Water resources .......................................................................................................................................................... 65

Hydrological cycle ..........................................................................................................................................................................65

.............................................................................................................................................................................. 66 ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 66 Extraction and Storage ..............................................................................................................................................................66

Water Treatment......................................................................................................................................................... 67 External Distribution System ................................................................................................................................. 69 External water distribution ........................................................................................................................................................69 Syarikat Bekalan Air Selangor SDN .BHD. (SYABAS) ...................................................................................................70

Internal Distribution System and Storage ........................................................................................................ 71

Direct water supply system ....................................................................................................................................................71 Indirect water supply ................................................................................................................................................................71

Case Study ......................................................................................................................................................... 72 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................. 72 Incoming water supply ............................................................................................................................................. 73

Water Meter ...................................................................................................................................................................................74 R.C Water Storage Tank ............................................................................................................................................................74 Stop Cock .........................................................................................................................................................................................75

Internal water distribution ..................................................................................................................................... 76 .............................................................................................................................................................................. 76

Cold Water Pump (CWP) ..........................................................................................................................................................78 Gate Valve........................................................................................................................................................................................78

A/C Make-up Water Tank ........................................................................................................................................ 79 Domestic Cold Water Tank 1 (Non-potable Water Tank) .......................................................................... 79 Water Pressure Booster Pump ..............................................................................................................................................80 Irrigation Taps ..............................................................................................................................................................................81

Domestic Cold Water Tank 2 (Potable Water Tank) .................................................................................... 81

UV (Ultraviolet) Water Filter ..................................................................................................................................................82

Uniform Building by Law (UBBL) ............................................................................................................. 83 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................................ 84

4. ................................................................................................................................................................ 85 Sewerage and Sanitary Systems ..................................................................................................... 85 Literature Review .......................................................................................................................................... 86 Sewerage Stack System ............................................................................................................................................ 86 Components of Sewerage Stack system............................................................................................................. 87 Case Study ......................................................................................................................................................... 88 Introduction and Function ...................................................................................................................................... 88 Operation of System................................................................................................................................................... 89 UBBL Requirement + related Regulations ............................................................................................ 96 3


UBBL By Laws - Section 123................................................................................................................................... 96 UBBL by Laws - Section 115 ................................................................................................................................... 96 Analysis and Comments Based on Observations ................................................................................ 97

5. ................................................................................................................................................................ 98 Mechanical Transportation Systems ............................................................................................ 98

Introduction..................................................................................................................................................... 99 Escalator ...................................................................................................................................................................... 100 Sustainability of Setia City Mall Escalators ................................................................................................................... 100

Layout Location of Escalator ............................................................................................................................... 101 Arrangement of Escalators Found In Setia City Mall ................................................................................. 103 Double Scissors and Side by Side....................................................................................................................................... 103 Side by Side/ Parallel .............................................................................................................................................................. 104

Safety Features of Setia City Mall Escalators ................................................................................................ 105 One Centre Monitoring System .......................................................................................................................................... 105 Anti-Climb and Anti Fall Barrier ........................................................................................................................................ 105 GuardianÂŽ Skirt Panels ......................................................................................................................................................... 106 Yellow Aluminum Comb Plate ............................................................................................................................................ 106

Elevators ...................................................................................................................................................................... 107 Type of Elevators ..................................................................................................................................................... 108 Hydraulic Elevator ................................................................................................................................................................... 108 Geared and Gearless Traction Elevators ........................................................................................................................ 109 Machine Room-Less Elevators ............................................................................................................................................ 110

Layout Location of Escalator ............................................................................................................................... 112 Elevator UBBL Requirements ............................................................................................................................. 114 Escalator and Elevator Maintenance in Setia City Mall ............................................................................ 115

6. ............................................................................................................................................................. 116 Fire Protection Systems ................................................................................................................. 116

Literature Review ........................................................................................................................................ 117 Function ....................................................................................................................................................................... 119 Case Study ....................................................................................................................................................... 120 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................... 120 Components of System .......................................................................................................................................... 120 Active Fire Protection ................................................................................................................................ 122 Fire Detection ............................................................................................................................................................ 122 Manually actuated devices ................................................................................................................................................... 122 Automatically actuated devices.......................................................................................................................................... 124 Smoke detectors ........................................................................................................................................................................ 124 Heat sensor or Thermal sensor ....................................................................................................................................... 124

......................................................................................................................................................................................... 126 Alarm ............................................................................................................................................................................. 126 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 127 Activation of other systems.................................................................................................................................................. 128

Fireman’s Switch ...................................................................................................................................................... 130 Sprinkler systems .................................................................................................................................................... 130 Wet pipe sprinklers ................................................................................................................................................................. 130 Glass bulb sprinkler heads ................................................................................................................................................... 131 Fusible link sprinkler heads................................................................................................................................................. 131 Dry pipe systems....................................................................................................................................................................... 132 Pre-action systems ................................................................................................................................................................... 132 Deluge systems .......................................................................................................................................................................... 132

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Sprinkler head distribution types ..................................................................................................................................... 134 Pendent sprinkler heads.................................................................................................................................................. 134 Concealed pendent sprinkler ........................................................................................................................................ 135 Upright sprinkler heads ................................................................................................................................................... 135 Side wall sprinkler heads ................................................................................................................................................ 136 Spacing between sprinkler heads ..................................................................................................................................... 137

Condensed aerosol fire suppression ................................................................................................................ 140 Smoke and heat exhaust ventilations .............................................................................................................. 140 Hypoxic air fire prevention .................................................................................................................................. 142 Fire extinguisher ...................................................................................................................................................... 143 Fire blankets .............................................................................................................................................................. 144 Standpipe/riser ........................................................................................................................................................ 144 Fire hose reel ............................................................................................................................................................. 148 Passive fire protection ............................................................................................................................... 151 Compartmentalization ........................................................................................................................................... 151 Fire stops ..................................................................................................................................................................... 151 Firewalls ...................................................................................................................................................................... 151 Fire doors .................................................................................................................................................................... 151 Awareness ................................................................................................................................................................... 152 UBBL Requirements.................................................................................................................................... 153 UBBL By laws – section 139 – separation of fire risk areas ................................................................... 153 UBBL By laws – section 143 – beam or column .......................................................................................... 153 UBBL By laws – section 147 – construction of separating wall ............................................................ 153 UBBL By laws – section 153 – smoke detectors for lift lobbies ............................................................ 154 UBBL By laws – section 154 – emergency mode of operation in the event of mains power failure ............................................................................................................................................................................ 154 UBBL By laws – section 157 – protected shafts consisting of staircase ............................................ 154 UBBL By laws – section 162 – fire doors in compartment walls and separating walls .............. 154 UBBL By laws – section 172 – emergency exit signs ................................................................................. 154 UBBL By laws – section 225 – detecting and extinguishing fires......................................................... 155 UBBL By laws – section 227 – portable extinguishers ............................................................................. 155 UBBL By laws – section 228 – sprinkler valves ........................................................................................... 155 UBBL By laws – section 230 – installation and testing of dry rising system ................................... 156 UBBL By laws – section 231 – installation and testing of wet rising system .................................. 156 Conclusion ...................................................................................................................................................... 156

Conclusion .......................................................................................................................................... 157 References .......................................................................................................................................... 158

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Abstract The objective of this assignment is to understand building services and the role it plays in architecture. We were tasked to select a site, using the building as a case study to examine the building services available in their architecture. The areas we were required to examine include: air conditioning system, fire safety, water supply system, drainage system, electrical system as well as mechanical transportation.

We chose Setia City Mall, partially due to their reputation as an environmentally sound building but mostly because of their generosity in imparting the knowledge of sustainability in building services to us. For this, we are extremely grateful.

The scope of research for this case study will cover all the areas listed above in detail and provide with it evidence to support our report. The report will be broken down into the six criteria stated above, starting with the air conditioning system. At the end of each chapter will be our analysis on the services studied as well as some critiques and comments. The nature of our analysis is of course based on personal opinion. It is our hope that the knowledge gained in this project will help in the coordination of future designs.

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Introduction to Case Study

Setia City Mall is a shopping center located at Setia Alam, Shah Alam and is the first retail mall in the vicinity. It is a project which costed RM450 million and was completed in 2012. It consists of over 740,000 square feet of Net Lettable Area with over 240 retailers spread across 4 levels. The mall has also received Singapore’s Building and Construction Authority (BCA) Green Mark Gold Award, Malaysian Green Building Index Silver Award, The Edge-PAM Green Excellence Award and Fiabci Malaysia Property Award 2013. Plans to be implemented in the mall include an efficient chiller plant, energy-saving light fixtures, rainwater harvesting systems for toilets and irrigations, recycled materials and 2% energy consumption from solar energy.

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1. Air Conditioning & Mechanical Ventilation Systems

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Literature Review

The hot and humid climate of Malaysia sees the air conditioning systems becoming a requirement in some buildings. According to ASHRAE, the ideal temperature to achieve thermal comfort is within the range of 23째C to 27째C (MS 1525, 2007). Due to the enclosed nature of most buildings, mechanical ventilation is needed to properly ventilate the space, be it residencial or commercial (MS 1525, 2007).

The basic idea of air conditioning is the exchange of warm air with cooled air. The cycle is repeated until the ideal temperature is reached and the cool temperature is then maintained. There are many types of air conditioners available but the five common ones are wall units, evaporative coolers, absorptive chillers, portable units and the centralized system. Typically in the larger scale commercial or office buildings, the centralized system is most effective.

The centralized air conditioning system consists of two major cycles: The refrigerant cycle and the air cycle. The former removes heat from one place to another whilst the latter distributes the treated air into the various spaces.

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The Refrigerant Cycle has four major components and will be broken as follows:

Compressor – Circulates the refrigerant vapor from the evaporator in the system under pressure. The compressor pumps the refrigerant by compression, forming a pressure build up that causes the gas to circulate (Hoffman). This compression raises the vapor temperature to as high as 200°F and pumps it to the condensers. Condenser – Receives high-pressure gas from the compressor and converts it to liquid form by the means of heat transfer. The gas is then passed over condenser coils, leading to heat loss. This heat loss then results in condensation. Expansion Valve – Removes pressure from the liquid refrigerant and allows expansion of state from liquid to vapor later on in the evaporator. The orifice within the valve does not serve to reduce head, rather, the pressure. The liquid refrigerant is at its coldest leaving the expansion valve. Evaporator – Converts the refrigerant liquid to vapor form, thereby removing heat. The coil of pipes storing refrigerant absorbs the heat from the air passing over the coils to become vapor, the cooled air is then released outside.

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The Air Cycle has five major components that aid in the distribution of treated air that are listed as follows:-

Air Handling Unit (AHU) - A whole host of functions such as cooling, dehumidifying, filtering and distribution of air Air Filter - Cleans the air and reduces the quantity of impurities released into the rooms Blower Fan - Propels the air for distribution Ductwork and Diffusers - Distributes the air from the AHU to their destination rooms Clean Air Intake - Introduces fresh air for distribution

In larger scale buildings, the chilled water used for air conditioning is provided by a central chiller plant in addition to the core five components listed under the air cycle. Several additional devices such as chilled water pumps, condenser water pumps and cooling towers are also needed to transport the chilled water to the air handling unit, and the rejected heat to the outside atmosphere.

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Case Study Setia City Mall’s air conditioning system is considered by consultants to be at a higher efficiency level than that of typical malls (IEN Consultants). It is the first Malaysian mall accorded the Malaysian Green Building Index Silver Award (Star) due to its sustainable design. Their holistic approach toward design of the overall building system is seen in their high efficiency air conditioning system with the chiller plant of the building achieving a minimum SCOP (System Coefficient of Performance) of at least 4.0 throughout the year (IEN Consultants).

The mall employs an all-water system that is commonly used in modern buildings in Malaysia due to its energy efficient solutions to air conditioning and ventilation. While most all-water systems have the same basic idea, Setia City Mall’s all water system is unique in its design layout and choice of equipment. There is a clear segregation between the AHU for anchor tenants and the AHU for the general tenants as well as other spaces. The AHU for the latter and chiller plant rooms are located on the roof level alongside the cooling towers and water tanks.

All the AHUs in the mall are equipped with high efficiency motors and performance fans with a total combined efficiency averaging at 65%. In addition to that, there are carbon dioxide sensors installed at all AHUs that control fresh air intake via motorized dampers, another special feature of the mall. This case study will present and analyze the air conditioning and ventilation of Setia City Mall as well as provide critiques and comments on the efficiency of the building service.

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List of Equipment

CHILLER SYSTEM Centrifugal Chiller (Total Capacity 5000 RT) Cooling Tower (Total Capacity 7000 RT)

AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 63 nos. Air Handling Unit 158 nos.

Fan Coil Unit

19 nos.

Air Cooled Split Unit

MECHANICAL VENTILATION 13 nos. Kitchen Exhaust Fan 13 nos.

Kitchen Make Up Fresh Air Fan

23 nos. Smoke Make-Up Fan 45 nos.

Smoke Extraction Fan

36 nos.

Pressurization Fan

30 nos. Toilet Exhaust Fan 9 nos. Fresh Air Fan

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All Water System

In this system, the conditioned air is distributed from a central plant to the spaces via air ducts. Water being an effective heat transfer medium require only pipes with relatively small diameters whereas the treated air require bigger ducts to transport. However, while the distribution of air is fairly straightforward, the transportation of water requires a more sophisticated device.

Figure 1.1: Schematic Diagram of All-Water System

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Figure 1.2: Part of the roof plan showing the location of various components

The Make Up Water Tanks are located on the Level 2 (Roof Level) alongside the Domestic Water Tanks. Situated on the same floor are the cooling towers, AHU for general tenants as well as the chiller plant room.

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A/C Make-Up Water Tank The difference between this water tank and the domestic tank lies in its purpose. While the domestic tank supplies waters to the various tenants and F&B outlets, the A/C Make-Up Tank supplies water only to the chiller plant.

Figure 1.3: A/C Make-Up Water Tanks location on Roof Level

These A/C Make-Up Tanks are located beside the Domestic Water Tanks and can store up to 240 m3 of water. The water sit on plinths to avoid ground contact as it may lead to corrosion. Another reason for the undercroft space is to allow for maintenance works as well as create sufficient pressure from its outlets to distribution pipes.

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Cooling Tower

Figure 1.4: The components of a typical cooling tower

The way the cooling tower works is that water is sprayed evenly by the tower’s inner mechanism. When the water descends through the cooling tower, it is exposed to the cool ambient air. The heat from the warm water is then transferred to the exiting air, thus cooling the water. This cooled product is also called cooling water supply (CWS) and will be channeled back to the chiller.

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Figure 1.5: Panorama of cooling Towers on roof level

Setia City Mall has 6 units of cooling towers with a capacity of 7000RT, all of which function at the same time. They are located close by the water tanks and are activated when water is pumped in from the A/C Make-Up Water tank to the cold water basin shown in Figure 5. The process of cooling down the water is similar to a typical cooling tower. The pipes transport cooling water return (CWR) from the Chillers to the Cooling Towers and the cooling water supply (CWS) from the Cooling Towers to the Chillers.

Figure 1.6: Grey piping with orange couplings transports both CWR and CWS

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Chiller Plant Room The chiller plant room houses all the components necessary for an air conditioning system. The chiller plant room in Setia City Mall is located on the roof level alongside the A/C Make Up Water tank, cooling towers as well as AHU.

Figure 1.7: Centrifugal Chillers (black) located in the chiller plant room with insulated pipework to transport treated air

Figure 1.8: Dashboard in Chiller Plant Room Figure 1.9: Shows pump pressure gauge and pump status

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Centrifugal Chiller

Chillers are basically a refrigeration unit that is designed to produce chilled water to treat air meant for distribution. The main components of a chiller are the compressor, evaporator, condenser and monitoring meters. The compressor pumps the refrigerant by compression, forming a pressure build up that causes the gas to circulate (Hoffman). This gas is then received by the condenser which passes it over coils and thereby converting it to liquid form by the means of heat transfer. The expansion valve then removes pressure from the liquid refrigerant and allows expansion of state from liquid to vapor later on in the evaporator. Then the liquid is converted to vapor form in the evaporator. The coil of pipes storing refrigerant absorbs the heat from the air passing over the coils to become vapor, the cooled air is then released outside.

Figure 1.10: Centrifugal Chillers (black) located in the chiller plant room

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The chiller plant room of Setia City Mall is located on the roof level adjacent to the water tanks and cooling towers. The mall has 6 units of centrifugal chillers that have a total capacity of 5000RT. Not all units run simultaneously and they are used alternately for maintenance purposes. Although only two of these chillers are sufficient to serve the all the AHUs in the building, the additional numbers spread the load and ensure maximum efficiency.

Figure 1.11: Components of a

Figure 1.12: Typical piping connections

Centrifugal Chiller

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The chiller used here is a water-cooled centrifugal chiller since the mall employs an all-water system. The basic components of a centrifugal chiller are similar to that of basic chillers but the difference lies in the efficiency of the device. The centrifugal chiller featured in the mall has three distinct features that separate it from the rest: high efficiency compressors, refrigerating cycles and a high performance heat exchanger. The compressor works in two stages, going through a threedimensional blade impeller then the vaned diffuser which converts the velocity of the refrigerant gas into static pressure. Due to the employed two stage compression system, the speed of the compressor can be lowered, resulting in a reduction of bearing loss (Hitachi).

Figure 1.13: Meter gauge

Figure 1.14: Chilled Water Supply

When passed through the chiller, water temperature is lowered down to 6 to 8째C and pumped to the various AHU in the building via Chilled Water Supply (CHWS) pipes. The water pressure is maintained at about 22 Psi and is monitored by the gauges and meters (figure 6) installed in the system.

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Chilled Water Pump The nature of water is such that it will not flow without the aid of a driving force. Gravity as well as friction losses through the piping and valves lower the pressure that is required to drive water through a distribution system. A pump is needed as an additional accessory to provide the energy to overcome the factors highlighted above in order to successfully circulate water through a system. The typical central air conditioning system requires the aid of several pumps that are manufactured in a variety of designs and capacities. Perhaps the most commonly used centrifugal pumps are electric motor driven.

Figure 1.15: Secondary Chiled Water Pump (CHWP)

Figure 1.16: Typical piping connection for CWP

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The Chilled Water Pumps (HWP) in Setia City Mall are split into primary and secondary units. The primary CHWP receives Chilled Water Return (CHWR) and distributes it to the centrifugal chiller where it will be passed on for cooling at the cooling towers. The secondary units receive Chilled Water Supply (CHWS) from the chillers and discharge them to the AHU for distribution.

There are a total of 8 nos. of primary CHWP in the mall they serve each of the six centrifugal chillers with the remaining two acting on standby. They are located in the same plant room as the chillers and secondary CHWP. There are a total of 5 nos. secondary CHWP and 1 no. on standby. As with the centrifugal chillers, these pumps are used alternately for maintenance and efficiency purposes.

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Condenser Water Pump

Figure 1.17: UV filtration system to remove impurities

Figure 1.18: Piping connection for CWP same as CHWP

The Condenser Water Pump (CWP) works similar to the CHWP in that it receives Cooled Water Supply (CWS) from the cooling tower and pumps it to the chiller. There are a total of 8 nos. of CWP with 2 nos. on standby as a single unit of CWP serves one centrifugal chiller. These pumps are also used alternately for maintenance and efficiency purposes. The distinction between this pump and the rest is that there is a filtration system for the water to pass through before distribution to the cooling towers.

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Air Handling Unit (AHU)

Figure 1.19: Components of a typical AHU

Air Handling units are essentially equipment’s packages that come assembled from the manufacturer. In some instances, the equipment may be built on site.

Figure 1.20: Section of SCM showing location of various ACMV components

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The AHU of the mall is separated into those servicing the anchor tenants and those servicing the remaining spaces in the mall. The AHU for the anchor tenants are located close to their premises whereas the general AHU are located on the roof level near the cooling towers and chiller plant room.

There are a total of 63 nos. of AHU in Setia City Mall that distributes treated air to the various indoor spaces. Each room is small in area and does not take up much space.

Cooling Coils The cooling process works by passing the chilled water supply (CHWS) through a cooling coil while a blower (figure ___) absorbs the return air from the indoor spaces and passes it over the cooled coils. This produces newly cooled air which is then distributed to the indoor spaces via air ducts. The used water is then returned to the chillers via the Condenser Water Return (CWR) pipes.

Figure 1.21: Characteristics of cooling coil.

Figure 1.22: Blower in AHU

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Backward Inclined Centrifugal Fans

Figure 1.23: Components of Centrifugal Fans

Figure 1.24: Backward Inclined Centrifugal Fan

The centrifugal fan has a moving component – an impeller – that consists of a central shaft about which a set of blades, or ribs, are positioned. Centrifugal fans blow air at right angles to the intake of the fan, and spin the air outwards to the outlet by deflection and centrifugal force. As the impeller rotates, it causes air to enter the fan near the shaft and move perpendicularly from the shaft to the opening in the scroll-shaped fan casing. A centrifugal fan produces more pressure for a given air volume and are typically noisier than comparable axial fans.

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Figure 1.25: Placement of vents on roof top

The air pulled in is then released outside via the exhaust vents on the roof tops. The nature of all exhaust vents are such that dirt and grease can build up over time, so it is imperative that checks be made to ensure that there isn’t such build up that might obstruct the impeller fan as it would lead to overheating of the device.

Motorized Dampers and CO2 Sensors However, the distinction between Setia City Mall’s air conditioning systems is the incorporation of CO2 Sensors and motorized dampers to aid in fresh air intake.

Figure 1.26: Motorized Fire Damper with CO2 Sensors

Figure 1.27: Mounting detail of damper

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Fan Coil Unit (FCU)

Fan coil units are used to achieve thermal comfort in a designated area by maintaining room temperatures at a suitable level. The difference between an AHU and FCU is the areas they cover. AHU are designated to deliver treated air to multiple locations whereas FCU serve a single zone that prefers more economic installations.

Figure 1.28: Typical Fan Coil Unit

Setia City Mall has a total of 158 nos. of FCU, most of which service the various tenants in the mall especially in the kitchens and stores.

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Air Cooled Split Unit

This particular air conditioning unit has two divided components: the condenser and the evaporator. The condenser unit is usually located outside the building on a concrete slab while the evaporator coil is mounted in the main duct junction. A motor, blower and ductwork is used to distribute cool air from the system.

Figure 1.29: Split Unit has two separate components

Figure 1.30: Setia Mall uses a split unit inverter

The type of split unit used in Setia City Mall also happens to be an inverter. The mall has a total of 19 nos. of these split unit inverters that mainly cater for the smaller isolated administrative and surveillance rooms.

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Figure 1.31: Comparison between inverters and conventional air conditioning units

Inverters are more economical to operate and have the added benefit of being silent. The main attraction of inverter systems are their stability as well as efficiency in achieving the desired temperature. Although their initial costs are at a premium, the running cost of inverters are said to be at least 50% lower than conventional models.

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Air Ductwork and Diffusers

Ductwork systems are categorized into two: high velocity or low velocity. The ductworks are determined by their static pressure, air speed and design parameters respectively. Standard practice is to have the ductworks operate at low velocity and pressures unless dictated otherwise by building constraints such as constricted distribution spaces or aesthetic reasons. Having unnecessarily long routes for ductwork may decrease the overall pressure in the distribution system, leading to a drop in efficiency. Contrastingly, the return ductwork does not require as high a pressure and is normally with low velocity.

Figure 1.32: Exposed ductwork with diffuser in maintenance rooms

The air ducts used by Setia City Mall are round or rectangular in shape and are connected from the various indoor spaces to the AHU. These air ducts pull the warm air from the rooms to be cooled and then redistribute the treated air back to these spaces, lowering the room temperature to achieve thermal comfort. Treated air is dispersed into rooms via the diffuser shown in figure 1.32. In most cases, the ductwork is hidden in the suspended ceiling while the diffuser is the only component exposed.

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Figure 1.33: Insulation of air duct

Figure 1.34: Mounting of flexi ducting

The air duct is encased in aluminum foil insulation to minimize the heat gain from the surrounding. The size of the air duct depends on its distance from the AHU. The further the distance, the smaller the air duct.

Figure 1.35: Connection of flexi duct to diffuser

Figure 1.36: Air supply register grille detai

In addition to diffusers, register grilles are also used to supply and absorb air from indoor spaces. These grilles are commonly located just below the ceiling and are mounted on the wall with the concept that hot air rises. The motorized damper is incorporated in all air ducts along with CO2 sensors to facilitate optimum fresh air intake.

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Mechanical Ventilation System

This is defined as the process of air exchange in an enclosed space. The basic idea is that the air from an enclosed area is withdrawn and replaced with fresh air from outside the building continuously, creating a circulation in the space. This process of exchange is aided by mechanical devices. The two main components of mechanical ventilation are the fan and make-up air supply. The former creates air movement while the latter is basically outside air delivered around the house to make up for the stale air extracted out.

Setia City Mall utilizes the combined system of supply and extraction especially in zones such as the cinema, car park, arcade zone and such. The following pages of the case study will break down the various components of mechanical ventilation in the mall.

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Fresh Air System Fresh air is introduced into the building using Fresh Air Fans. This system introduces air from the outside while mixing it with the air that circulated from the indoor spaces. It works with the aid of temperature sensors, taking in lesser outside air when the temperature rises to maintain thermal comfort.

Figure 1.37: Fresh Air System in Setia City Mall

The circulated air travels via ducting from the indoor spaces to their respective AHU and vice versa. The ductwork in this system are not insulated as the emphasis is to introduce fresh air with higher oxygen content rather than merely lowering room temperatures.

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Pressurization System All staircase enclosures shall be ventilated at each floor or landing level by either permanent opening or open able windows to the open air having a free area of not less than 1 square meter per floor. (UBBL , 1984)

Figure 1.38: Staircase Pressurization Schematic

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UBBL states that buildings exceeding 25m in height are required by the BCA to provide stairwell pressurization to prevent the ingress of smoke into the fire escape stairway. The pressurization system ensures that occupants are able to exit the building safely without fire and smoke penetrating the stair exits. This system is supplemented by fire rated doors, grilles, dampers and fans and is basically controlled by a series of pressure switches within the shafts to maintain the right amount of pressure at all times.

Figure 1.39: Detailing of axial fan

The axial-flow fans have blades that force air to move parallel to the shaft about which the blades rotate. Axial fans blow air along the axis of the fan, linearly, hence their name.

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Smoke Spill System The extraction system relies on the idea that hot air rises. When the alarm is triggered by smoke, the smoke extraction fans will start working to discharge the smoke out the exhaust vents on the roof level.

Figure 1.40: Concourse area exhaust schematic

Setia City Mall has a total of 45 nos. of smoke extraction fans and a total of 23 nos. of smoke make up fans. As shown in Figure _, the mall makes up for the volume of air extracted with incoming air from the AHU. To supplement this, the main entrance door also opens during a fire to ensure ample supply of make-up air to drive the smoke out of the building.

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Figure 1.41: Exhaust vents on roof levels

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Conclusion Throughout the case study, Setia City Mall seems to encompass the idea of sustainability in both their design and operations. The first plus of their ACMV is the layout of the facilities on the roof level that are located near each other. The close proximity of the AHU, cooling towers as well as chiller plant rooms reduces the amount of ductwork as well as eradicates the risk of pressure failure due to long lengths of air ducts.

Another aspect that stands out is the little details such as the stepping platforms and louvers where needed to protect the pipe and ductwork. The quality of the pipes are also commendable but questionable as they have used copper pipes for some of the chilled water supply. While there is no doubt copper pipes are of better quality than their counterpart the PVC pipe, one wonders if the cost difference was worth it.

Figure 1.42: Clear segregation and labeling of pipework with proper stepping platform encasing it to prevent damage during maintenance work

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Figure1. 43: Sensors and valves installed leaves insulation exposed

The inclusion of multiple sensors and gauges as well as the motorized fire dampers and dampers in some of the ductwork are also commendable. Most of the pipes in the chiller room are insulated with Rockwool, however, there are instances where the piping was modified for valve and sensor fitting and these were left patched, exposing the Rockwool insulation underneath. This is potentially damaging to the insulation and even the pipes themselves. Perhaps proper after care in this area will see better results.

Figure 1.44: Panorama of cooling Towers on roof level

Perhaps the most impressive area of the air conditioning and mechanical ventilation system is the way the facilities are concealed on the roof level. Setia City Mall steps away from the norm by integrating the louver panels that conceal these facilities into the overall faรงade of the building.

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2. Electrical Supply Systems

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Overview In order to understand the electrical power system, it is crucial to look at the overall layout of the components. In the following session, this report will explain the electrical power generation, transmission and distribution systems, together with the building design action in event of emergency and standby back up power generation system.

Literature Review Main Switch Board (MSB):

The U.S. National Electrical Code (NEC) defines a switchboard as "a large single panel, frame, or assembly of panels on which are mounted, on the face, back, or both, switches, overcurrent and other protective devices, buses, and usually instruments". The role of a switchboard is to allow the division of the current supplied to the switchboard into smaller currents for further distribution and to provide switching, current protection and (possibly) metering for those various currents. In general, switchboards may distribute power to transformers, panel boards, control equipment, and, ultimately, to individual system loads. Electrical Riser:

During the design of an electrical installation for a building, spaces that are required as electrical rooms need to be provided for very early in the planning and design process. A set of electrical wiring that is placed in one area and vertical distributed to the upper floors, it is then distributed to the surrounding floor plate for electric. There are different components alongside with the main electrical supply. It is the starting point from which the electricians get directions to how the system is put together. 44


Capacitor Bank:

A capacitor bank is essentially a group of capacitors working together in order to correct power lags and fluctuations in electricity supply to the building by temporarily increasing the stored energy (Wisegeek). Signal Distribution Frame:

Signal Distribution Frame provides an economical yet extremely versatile platform for signal distribution, processing and optical conversion tasks. The frame includes a built-in motherboard that provides module interconnections and a power distribution board for distributing power from the AC inputs to the power supplies. The most common kind of large MDF in relation to SDF is a long steel rack accessible from both sides. On one side, termination blocks are arranged horizontally at the front of rack shelves. Jumpers lie on the shelves and go through a steel hoop to run vertically to other termination blocks that are arranged vertically. (goodchap.clientexamples.com) Generator Set:

Generator sets are generally used in industries that require constant and steady source of power. Generators can either be of the portable or the stationary variety (Home). In Setia city mall the generator is stationary, and runs on diesel (Wisegeek) Transformer:

There are two types of transformer, oil-based and dry type transformer. Transformer is used to either step up or down the electrical voltage depends on requirement of space. 45


Transformers are usually found inside substation where incoming voltage from power plant is too high to be used for small electrical components. For practical and safety reasons that will be discussed later, a dry resin transformer is used in Setia City Mall. Substation:

A substation is a part of an electrical generation, transmission, and distribution system. They transform voltage, either to increase the voltage, or to decrease it. They are generally owned by the national electricity company, TNB. Electricity may pass multiple substations before reaching the consumer. (Eng)

Case Study Introduction

There are numerous codes and standards in order for services to run appropriately and efficiently. Taking case study in Setia City Mall, this report will cover an outline of electrical system commonly used in multistory building. It will discuss the system through the illustration of one-line riser diagrams in order to give a clearer understanding of the application of each electrical components used in distribution system, together with the connection of electrical loads. The application of Uniform Building By-Laws of Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) is also included to give this report more credibility. Application principles and procedures for the operation of electric power distribution systems and associated major apparatus are presented.

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In this following sessions, each of the electrical components found on Setia City Mall (Substation, Transformer, Main Switchboard, Capacitor Bank, Electric Riser, battery room, and Generator set) are to be discussed.

Main Switch Board

Figure 2.1: Photo shows aligned Main Switchboard found in Setia City Mall.

Main switchboard room is a space where it host multiple main switchboard unit that is used to transmit electrical current from power source. The main role of switchboard is to balance and correct the incoming current before it gets redistributed to the rest of the building. One of the major component found inside switchboard unit is a transformer where the incoming current from plant is step down, fit the current into more usable value by the smaller electrical appliances. Capacitor banks and power factor bank could also found inside. In addition, 47


switchboard also provides switching capabilities, current protection and metering for various currents. Most Switchboard comes with bus bars or bus duct which act as connectors between different electrical circuits.

Buses

Figure 2.2: Inside look of a switchboard

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Bus bars or bus duct is a set of conductors that act as connectors between multiple circuits. It conducts electricity for the devices within the switchboard itself. It takes the form of metal bars that are mounted inside the switchboard.

Splice Plates

Figure 2.3: Electrical splice plates found inside switchboard

Splice plate act as a horizontal connection between bas bars, adjoining switchboard in sections where it allows flexibility and expansion. Usually, bus bars are pre-drilled to accept splice plates.

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Analysis

Figure 2.4: Main Switchboard room and context located on Lower ground.

By looking into the Main switchboard premises, it is solid that Main Switchboard room of Setia City Mall have met the safety requirement needed. From figure 3.1, we could see that adequate sized rubber mat has been placed underneath the switchboards, this is to prevent technician from being electrocuted during maintenance service or inspection event. Fire-fighting procedure has also been found. Furthermore, floor underneath those switchboards are elevated, this is to prevent water, puddles from entering the units which may cause undesirable circumstances. Switchboards should ideally also be placed away from the wall so it is accessible from rear (NEC, 11) this requirement was also met.

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Capacitor bank Figure 2.5: Capacitor banks

Capacitor banks is a group of capacitors connected parallel or in series which used to store energy temporarily. It is used to counteract adverse occurrences such as power lag or jump in stored energy. In particular, during this occurrence, two or more identical electrical frequencies became out of phase which cause destructive interference. In result, there will be an inefficiency energy transfer in electricity supply. By right, each main Switchboard has to had capacitor banks and power correction banks installed.

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Figure 2.6: Capacitor banks section diagram.

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Bushing Wells

Figure 2.7: bushing well

Bushing wells provide connections from primary feeder to capacitor banks (FEDERAL PACIFIC, 3) it contains fuses that used to protect the circuit during electrical faulty occurrence such as overvoltage. When this happen individual bank will be taken off line when one capacitor fails. Taking the bank on and off line is something that occurs often, it is done by a couplers. One capacitor banks may have one or several couplers to control the switching between capacitors. Note that only one capacitor can be activated at a time. If more capacitors are activated, it will lead to charge overload and may cause an explosion. Reactors are applied in order to tame the capacitor switching duty by either reducing the in-rush surges or limiting the fault current.

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Transformer They are constructed in a way that allows for cooling via the free movement of air. This is possible because the core and coil are exposed. Fans were installed to increase the cooling effect. (Mullin, 259) Transformers are an electrical component that is designed to step up or down the incoming current voltage. Created to control the voltage of current, current transformer allows the current to be measured without diverting the current into the measuring instrument. In Setia City Mall, only step down conversion occur. These divided into 2 phase of conversion.

Figure 2.8: Transformer room located on lower ground plan

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First, incoming voltage from TNB station is reduced from 33kV to manageable 11kV, this occurs in substation unit located at lower ground of the mall. Next, the voltage is further reduce to 415V inside consumer switch room before distributed to designated spaces. During voltage conversion, heat is produced as the result, which is why every transformers unit need a design where it could provide cooling. Most transformer box mostly came with air holes on its façade, this allow air to regulate in and out from the interior box In general, transformers come with 2 different types, oil-based and dry-type. Dry-type transformer doesn’t require much maintenance as oil-based does. Nevertheless, oil-based and dry-type core and winding still need to be removed regularly for inspection. Since transformers are located inside switching board so, both equipment share firefighting equipment.

Electric Riser

An Electrical riser diagram is the schematic which electrician use as directions on how the system is working in a building. Electrical riser distribute electricity to every floor from main switchboard room, they are usually placed in a small room where it floors are connected vertically.

Electrical riser requirements There is no necessity for electrical riser rooms to be stacked exactly on top of each other. However, it is efficient to do so as it would reduce the length of cables needed. Longer cables came with disadvantage of having a higher resistance, this would be unwise as it would reduce the efficiency of energy transfer between spaces and a substitute of wider cable is 55


needed to counteract this issue. In addition, it would minimize the number of sharp bends that would damage the cable. Thus, it is encourage to design a stack-straight up the electrical riser

room from the lowest floor to the top. Figure 2.9: Electrical riser cable via service pipe.

Sometimes vertical service duct could also be used to serve as electrical service room. Bear in mind that a larger/wider service duct may be needed in order to fulfill the integration requirement such as maintenance and operation. Each individual floor of significance usually need one electrical riser room (indicate with symbol ELEC). Placement of electrical rooms should consider the load area where it serve as close as possible as it house the electrical distribution equipment.

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Figure 2.10: Electrical riser room located on Lower Ground floor.

Electrical riser rooms are kept hidden and out of sight as it carries an enormous amount of electricity that would be dangerous for users. It should be kept private to technician and other concerned party only.

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Substation

Figure 2.11: TNB substation, located in floor plan

TNB substation located on lower ground of Setia City Mall, since Setia City Mall can be categorized as multi-story building. It is given a bulk supply of 33kV.

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Figure 2.12: Internal TNB substation and context.

Transformer could also been found inside substation, this is the first phase where incoming voltage is converted into manageable 11kV before later being converted again into suitable current for users. Substation also consists of switchgear and meter. As can be seen from the figure above, we learned that positioning of substation has to be ideal. In Setia City Mall, substation is placed at lower ground floor, not for from the main

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road where it is ease to access by technician. Floor underneath the substation is also lifted at certain height to prevent water rain or puddle from entering. Emergency electrical system

The last two chapters below will discuss about electrical system that Setia City Mall use as counteract option in event of emergency.

Battery room

Figure 2.13: Battery room and context.

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During emergency where outsource power supply seems to fail. One of the power backup system utilized by Setia City Mall is temporary power backup system. Battery room functions as devote storage space for batteries and other related emergency power supplier, which provide power back up throughout the building. A large rack of batteries could be found inside battery room, each of them is designed to automatically charge itself when not in use. The size of battery room varies, it is determined by the need of the facility. A large battery room could supply energy for days. Most commercial buildings nowadays have battery room installed inside their premises. When charged, the batteries stored power in direct current voltage. During this period, batteries release hydrogen gas as the result of conversion of current. Hydrogen gas has the explosives property therefore, it has to be properly vented. Most of the building installed hydrogen monitors to control the amount of hydrogen inside the room to ensure the gas level is maintained at the safe level. Battery room can be found near main power supplier as they are designed to support vital equipment during emergencies. Additionally it doesn’t just act to support vital equipment. When it comes to event of emergency, UPS (interruptible power system) convert direct current stored to alternative current, then it distributes power to vital equipment and provides lightning so users can safely leave the building unharmed. Batteries should be kept within controlled environment, proper and regular maintenance is needed, not just it will prolong the battery life it will also reduce the risk percentage in addition to Effective ventilation installed.

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Generator set room

Figure 2.14: Diesel Generator set break down.

Another back up system utilized in Setia City mall. The use of generator set has been used by many commercial buildings. Not just the versatility and the mobility it brings as power back up supplier, generator set provide an efficient power supply at times of need. Generator set doesn’t only activate during power loss, just like batteries, it also provides protection for vital equipment during power lag occurrence (usually when capacitor banks failed to handle the situation). Generator set in Setia city mall have 2 presets, they either operate at 70% capacity or 30%. At 70% most of the operation in the building will remain functional. However, at 30% only crucial services will remain (emergency lights, boom gates, etc.) in event of emergency.

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Conclusion

Figure 2.15: Generator set room on Lower Ground Floor.

As Generator set in Setia City Mall run on diesel, a ventilation system is required in order to pass out the resultant product. The location of the generator set room in Setia City Mall can be consider ideal as it’s located on the out skirt of the mall. This allows a short travel for smoke to get out from the premises without disturbing users. Enough space is provided for diesel drums near the generator, this would ease the refuel time needed.

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3. Cold Water Supply Systems

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Introduction Water is a vital necessity of life. People rely on water for drinking, cooking, washing, cooling, disposing waste, and other domestic needs as well as public, commercial, agricultural and industrial usage. Therefore, provision of water is perhaps the most important of all municipal services. Over half of the water supplied in Malaysia is used in buildings of various kinds.

Literature review Water supply system includes the collection, transmission, treatment, storage, and distribution of water for homes, commercial establishments and industries, as well as public needs such as firefighting irrigation and street flushing. In all cases, water must fulfill quality and quantity requirements in order to meet requirements for public, commercial, and industrial activities. Water supplies can be divided into three components: source, treatment plant and distribution system.

Water resources

Hydrological cycle The process whereby the water in the earth and its atmosphere constantly circulates is called the hydrological cycle, also known as the water cycle. This continuous process begins with evaporation of water from the sea, rivers and lakes. The water vapor is lifted up and condenses to form clouds. The condensation droplets coalesce and fall as rain to replenish the water levels.

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Figure 3.1. The Hydrological Cycle showing the cycle of water moves around the earth.

Extraction and Storage Malaysia receives rainfall averaging 3,000 mm throughout the year thus contributes sufficient water resources of 900 billion cubic meters annually. 97% of the raw water supply in Malaysia is derived from surface water sources, i.e. rivers and lakes. Malaysia has 189 river basins: 89 in Peninsular Malaysia, 78 in Sabah and 22 in Sarawak, which predominantly originate and flow from the highlands. The collected water is stored in natural or man-made reservoirs for use later. Dams are usually placed at the lower end of a valley or outlet end of a lake or rivers which far away from towns or cities to prevent the water being polluted. Due to population growth and economic development especially in Selangor and Federal Territory, water consumption is increasing significantly. In order to meet the growth demand of water, dam is a necessity to serve as a big catchment of water and viable source of water supply.

Figure 3.2. An aerial view of the Sungai Selangor Water Supply Scheme Phase 3 that taps the biggest catchment and last major water resource available in the state of Selangor. It provides 1,050 million liters of potable water supply daily.

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Water Treatment

As precipitation, water contains few to almost no impurities with only small amounts of mineral and gases. To collect and store this nearly pure water, surfaces are needed. However, most pollutants and foreign substances which can easily contaminate the water are found from these surfaces. Furthermore, raw surface water is subject to pollution due to the excessively untreated discharge of wastewater directly from households or factories into rivers. In order to make sure the water fulfill the quality requirements for end-use, the following procedures of water treatment are carried out: 

Sedimentation – This is a very simple process where the heavy suspended particles are settled out as sediments before the water enters a filter. By retaining the water for at least 24 hours in a large container or basin which equipped with baffles to slow down the water flow, sedimentation occurs naturally due to the gravity.

Coagulation and Flocculation – Chemicals such as Alum (hydrated aluminum sulphate) or iron salts is added to water to promote coagulation in which the suspended particles will combine with the chemical to form floc. These heavy particles then settle out in a process similar to sedimentation with some pH adjustments.

Filtration – This very common method is used in many water treatment facilities. By passing water through a porous bed of materials or a permeable fabric, fine particles such metals, clays and silts, natural organic matters, bacteria, precipitate from other treatment processes as well as color and taste can be removed. In this stage, the effectiveness of disinfection can also be enhanced.

Ion Exchange – This process is important to eliminate inorganic contaminants that cannot be removed adequately in the preceding processes. Ion exchange can also be

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used to treat hard water, water that has high mineral content which generally not harmful to human health, but can cause serious effects in industrial settings. 

Disinfection (chlorination/ozonation) – Disinfection is required in water supply system that depends on surface water or groundwater sourced before it enters the distribution system. Chlorination is considered the standard approach to destroy harmful microorganism from the water. Chlorine, chloramines, or chlorine dioxide are most often used not only disinfecting water at the treatment plant, but also remains a residual to protect the water throughout the supply network. Other than that, other alternatives such as ozone and ultraviolet radiation are also powerful disinfectant. However, they are ineffective in confining contaminants in the distribution pipes.

Figure 3.3 showing the several procedures of water treatment before the water is pumped to a high-level storage reservoir or water tower for gravity distribution through iron or uPVC pipes.

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External Distribution System Distribution system is generally described as the facility used to supply water from its source to the point of usage. Besides its primary function of deliver water to consumer, it is also important to provide storage as well as adequate flow and pressure for fire protection.

External water distribution Pressure is needed to act as the energy to transport water. The treated water that is already safe for consumption will be pumped to the balancing reservoir or a more pressurized reserve such as a water tower before being distributed to service reservoirs. Depending upon the topography, location and extent of the distribution, and elevation and site conditions, the water may be distributed by following ways: i.

Gravity system This is the most reliable and economical distribution system as it is only by the action of gravity.

ii.

Direct pumped system

Figure 3.4: Gravity system

In cases where the service reservoirs are at unsettling heights or located across wide distances, a pumping system is used to boost the water pressure.

Figure 3.5: Direct pumped system

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iii.

Combined gravity and pumping system This is the commonly used where treated water is first pumped and stored in an elevated distribution reservoir, then supply to consumers by gravity distribution.

Figure 3.6: Combined gravity and pumped system

Syarikat Bekalan Air Selangor SDN .BHD. (SYABAS)

In Malaysia, Syarikat Bekalan Air Selangor Sdn Bhd or SYABAS is the state-government water supply corporation for Selangor state and the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya. Its main water resources are the surface water collected from Sungai Selangor Dam which is then treated at nearby water treatment plants. Among the 7 million consumers covered, 15% are commercial while the remainders are domestic.

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Internal Distribution System and Storage

Direct water supply system In direct water supply system, all fittings are provided with cold water direct from the main. However, direct systems are not favored in most cases, as they require a consistent supply of pressurized water, which may be difficult during periods of peak demand.

Indirect water supply In indirect water supply system, the water comes in via a rising main not only directly feeds at least one cold tap, but also feed a storage tank at a higher point in the building from where the water is distributed to all the other taps by gravity.

Figure 3.7: Differences between direct and indirect internal water distribution

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Case Study

Introduction

Setia City Mall is known for its great design features and green service systems, therefore it is important for us as architecture students to study how the services system work in a large scale building. Serves as a multi-story modern shopping complex, sufficient supply of water is significant to fulfill the immense water demand for occupants. In this case, indirect water supply system is used. Water from the main pipe is directed to the water tanks located at basement level which then pumped to the roof tanks for further water storage and distribution to ensure the maximum efficiency.

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Incoming water supply The water supplied by SYABAS is transported to the building through the 150mm diameter (標) main pipe. The water supply is then channeled into the building and to the fire hydrant which placed outside of the building. The domestic water supply branches out to the fire tank and the R.C domestic storage tank which are both located at the lower ground. Fire tank provides water supply for the fire protection system, i.e. sprinklers and dry pipe risers. (See Chapter 6) While the compartmented R.C Domestic Water Storage Tank with net capacity of 1220 m3 consists a 164 m3 capacity of drinking water tank, which offers storage for the further water distribution for food and beverages (F&B). While the remaining of the tank is made up of Domestic Tank, where water collected will be further pumped up to the roof level to serve for the other functions.

Figure 3.8 showing the water supply from the main pipe to the domestic tank located at the lower ground floor.

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Water Meter Water meters are used to measure and determine the volume of water flow through a particular portion of the system. The water meter used in Setia City Mall measures flow in cubic meters (m3).

Figure 3.9: Water Meter Calibrated in cubic meters (m 3).

R.C Water Storage Tank Storage tank with a ball cock float valve to control the water stored. This tank will typically hold from 230 to 360 liters (50 to 80 gallons) of water at the highest part of the building - the higher it is, the better the gravity feed pressure at the taps. Any overflow of water from the storage tank is deposit out of the building from the overflow pipe. It is positioned in a way that if water flow can be immediately noticed as it would indicate a problem. The entry to the overflow pipe of a storage tank is covered by a filter to prevent small insects from entering the tank.

Figure 3.10: Components of a R.C Domestic Water Storage Tank.

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Stop Cock Stop cock acts as a valve to isolate and restrict flow of water supply through the pipe in order to allow maintenance without having to cut off all the water from the property. By using appropriate valve, drained down of storage tanks is avoidable if any maintenance to be carried out on the taps, fixtures or appliances, which subsequently minimize the amount of water wasted. Figure 3.11: Stop cock is placed before the Cold Water Pump

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Internal water distribution Water collected and stored in the R.C Domestic Water Storage Tank branches out into 2 distribution line. Through the Cold Water Pumps (CWP), water is pumped all the way up along the 150mm 標 distribution pipes to the roof level to be stored in separate tanks. The first distribution line goes to the A/C Make-up Water Tank. Besides the on duty CWP that help in the water pumping, there is another standby CWP for emergency usage. Similar to the first branch out, however water filters is added in the second distribution line as intermediate connector for water filtration purpose before water is being distributed to Domestic Cold Water Tank 1 and Domestic Cold Water Tank 2.

Figure 3.12: Schematic layout diagram showing the water distribution from R.C. Domestic Water Storage Tank to different tanks that are places at the roof level, via the on duty cold water pump, and standby duty cold water pump in emergency cases.

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Figure 3.13: Schematic diagram showing the water is pumped by the CWPs in the pump room and distributed to the A/C Make-up Water Tank, Domestic Cold Water Tank 1 and Domestic Cold Water Tank 2.

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Cold Water Pump (CWP) The water taken from the R.C Water Storage Tank is directed towards a pump. This pump is then force water up to the roof level of the building where the other large water tanks located. Besides the on-duty pumps which mainly contribute in pushing the water up, there are also standby pumps that only function during the peak hours or in emergency cases. At times of low traffic, the standby pumps are usually shut down to save energy. Figure 3.14: Cold Water Pump located in the pump room pumps the water from R.C Water Storage Tank to roof level.

Gate Valve Similar to the function of stopcock, gate valves are used to permit and prevent the flow of liquid. However, they are normally used with minimum restriction of straight-line flow of water. Yet, this is a typical gate valves which are designed to be fully opened or closed and not to regulate flow. Figure 3.15: Gate valve placed before the Domestic Tank on the roof to control the flow of water toward the tank.

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A/C Make-up Water Tank A/C Make-up Water Tank supplies water for the Air Conditioning & Mechanical Ventilation Systems (ACMV). (See Chapter 1)

Domestic Cold Water Tank 1 (Non-potable Water Tank) Domestic Cold Water Tank 1 provides non-potable water supplies mainly for the washing and flushing purposes in the building. Due to its location on roof level, distribution of water from this tank is mainly depend on the gravity. Water is transported to the service areas such as irrigation taps, car park taps, AHU and lower ground floor’s toilets and selected tenants, without any aids of the pumping devices. However, Pressure Booster Pumps are used to boost the flow of water in another distribution line which supplies water to the roof level, toilets as well as selected tenants located at different levels. It is important to provide huge water flow to each of these areas due to their large water demand.

Figure 3.16: Diagram showing the non-potable water distribution from Domestic Cold Water Storage Tank 1to the respective service area, with and without the aid of pressure booster pumps.

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Water Pressure Booster Pump Water pressure booster pumps are used to provide more pressure in the water pipes for better cleaning, flushing and irrigation. It is driven by electric motor. Water pressure booster pump are useful in this case where Setia City Mall needs regular supply of water for irrigation. It pushes the water with great pressure toward the hoses, at the same time provide adequate water supply to all taps and outlets.

Figure 3.17: Component of a typical Booster Pump

Figure 3.18: Water Pressure Booster Pump used in Setia City Mall

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Irrigation Taps Irrigation taps control the flow of water and regulate the pressure in the irrigation system, as well as to isolate sections of the system for maintenance and repair. Figure 3.19: Irrigation tap, also known as irrigation valve, helps to regulate the flow of water in irrigation system.

Domestic Cold Water Tank 2 (Potable Water Tank) Similar to the Domestic Water Storage Tank 2, Pressure Booster Pumps are utilized to provide sufficient pressure in order to ease the water distribution for the F&B (Food and Beverages), i.e. kitchen and selected tenants. UV filters are used for water treatment before the water is being distributed to make sure the water is potable and safe to use.

] Figure 3.20: Diagram showing the potable water distribution from Domestic Cold Water Storage Tank 2 to the kitchen and selected tenants for F&B.

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UV (Ultraviolet) Water Filter The water from the domestic tank is pumped to the UV Water Filters before being delivered to the consumer through the drinking taps. Particulate matters that are harmful to our health such as bacteria and virus are removed in order to meet the drinking water standard. The water passes through a clear tube and is irradiated by the ultraviolet light. The UV light affects the strands of DNA in the virus or bacteria and makes it unable to reproduce. No chemicals are added into the water that could be harmful or affect the taste, therefore the water is sterilised and safe to use.

Figure 3.21: Diagram showing the component of the UV Water Filter.

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Uniform Building by Law (UBBL) Section 123 – Pipes and service ducts (1)Where ducts or enclosures are provided in any building to accommodate pipes, cables or conduits the dimensions of such ducts or enclosures shall be – (a) Adequate for the accommodation of the pipes, cables or conduits and for crossings of branches and mains together with supports and fixing; and (b) Sufficiently large to permit access to cleaning eyes, stop cocks and other controls there to enable repairs, extensions and modifications to be made to each or all of the services accommodated. (2) The access openings to ducts or enclosures shall be long enough and suitably placed to enable lengths of pipe to be installed and removed.

Section 247 – Water Storage (1) Water storage capacity and water flow rate for firefighting systems and installations shall be provided in accordance with the scale as set out in the Tenth Schedule to these By-laws. (2) Main water storage tanks within the building, other than for hose reel systems, shall be located at ground, first or second basement levels, with fire brigade pumping inlet connections accessible to fire appliances. (3) Storage tanks for automatic sprinkler installations where full capacity is provided without need for replenishment shall be exempted from the restrictions in their location.

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Conclusion Water supply system in Setia City Mall is surprisingly simple yet efficient. It applies only straightforward layout of the water supply system thus is easy to understand. Based on the observation, the system seems well maintained with no signs of leakage or rust. Overall, the system implemented is highly effective due to its high storage capacity which is large enough to store and cater to the needs of its occupants. The piping used in the distribution line is designed with minimal angular turns which may reduce the pressure of water. There is also a wide number of water pumps which provides sufficient water pressure to distribute the water to all levels. Overall, the water supply system was well designed and this can be seen on site.

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4. Sewerage and Sanitary Systems

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Literature Review Sewerage Stack System

The stack system can be divided into two types, a single stack system, and a two-pipe system. A single stack system carries all soil and waste water from the washroom appliances through a single vertical soil stack pipe that leads to a single underground sewer pipe, and into the nearest manhole inspection chamber before entering the main sewer lines outside the building boundaries. This single stack system, however, has to be well planned and designed to prevent back siphonage of any traps in the system and the spreading of foul odor. The two-pipe system, the system consists of two separate pipes, one that stack pipe that carries soil discharged from water closets to the manhole inspection chamber. Whereas waste water from basins are discharged into smaller and vertical pipe, enters the manhole inspection chamber, adjacent to the soil pipe branch, before both heads off to join the main sewer lines. Both pipes also extend up to the roof to discharge odor and prevent back siphonage.

Figure 4.1: Single Stack System and Two-pipe System

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Components of Sewerage Stack system

Non-Return Damper (NRD) - A device that that ensure and allow air to flow only towards one direction. It is to be used in systems with variable or constant air volume or in ventilation systems and rooms of buildings in case of over pressure risks by isolating individual sections in ventilation systems.

Toilet Exhaust Fan (TEF) - Part of the washroom ventilation system, a toilet exhaust fan absorbs and removes unwanted odor and vapor from the room and directs them to the stack pipe.

Toilet Exhaust Duct (TED) - Part of the washroom ventilation system, a toilet exhaust duct directs vapors and odors absorbed by the toilet exhaust fan up to the stack pipe that leads the odor up to the roof and escape out of the building.

Manhole - An access chamber, which consists of an opening that leads to an underground sewage inspection chamber for periodic sewage maintenance such as blockage removal.

Grease trap - Also known as grease interceptor, the grease traps are plumbing devices to capture most grease and solids before they enter the wastewater disposal system.

Water Closet - A bathroom appliance that functions as human liquid and solid waste disposal, by using water to flush it through a down pipe to another location for treatment and disposal.

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Case Study Introduction and Function

As a multi-story modern shopping complex, Setia City Mall uses the application of Stack System where foul odors from washrooms are carried by a vertical stack pipe that connects to all the sanitary appliances where the up to the roof, escape and discharged out of the building in prevention of spreading of sickness and disease. In order to have maximum efficiency in this system, the washroom appliances such as the water basin and water closet are arranged in the same layout on each floor so that the stack pipe could remain straight and vertical, at the same time, minimizing the number of stack pipes used.

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Operation of System

Although there are several scattered washroom units in one single floor, the layout of the washrooms are arranged in same layout with each floor as Setia City Mall uses the sewerage Stack System which eased the installation of tsewerhe required components, keeps the pipes vertical and straight to optimize soil and odor disposal efficiency, at the same time, minimizing the number of stack pipes used to save space, where the ducts provide adequate spacing for the piping system according to the UBBL By Laws - Section 123 which will be mentioned in Chapter 5.3.

Figure 4.2: The positions of the public washrooms in the shopping complex on each floor.

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Though the shopping complex uses the stack system in terms of odor removal, to ensure the odor is removed entirely where none remains in the washroom, motion triggered toilet exhaust fans have been installed to absorb odor and vapor and direct them to the masonry shaft through an air duct. A toilet exhaust fan is also installed at the end of every stack pipe on the roof top to absorb and discharge the odor out of the building. At the same time several additional mechanisms has been installed in these air ducts such as the Non-return dampers, which inhibits the spread of fire through the air duct in case of a fire emergency; and volume control dampers to regulate air flow.

Figure 4.3: A Toilet Exhaust Diagrammatic Layout of Setia City Mall

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In terms of soil and waste managment, a fairly high number of sewerage system has been installed on the lower ground floor surrounding the entire shopping complex where one system connects to another, where all waste products or sewage water pass through a series of sewerage system before finally entering the main sewer line outside of the building. Solids and human waste discharged from washrooms are directed to the nearest soil stack pipe, then down to the nearest manhole inspection chamber to be removed. Whereas kitchen waste from restaurants such as grease or other chemical material will flow to the nearest grease interceptor Figure 4.4 - A top cover of a manhole leading to an inspection chamber.

before entering the manhole inspection chamber. Each grease interceptor carries waste materials from multiple

food establishment, hence with a high number of food outlets in the shopping complex, large number of these sewerage facilities are installed to accomodate the large amount of waste material being produced, thus decrease the burden of each facility. The waste material in the grease interceptor solidifies, and tehn periodically removed.

As

waste

materials carried by wastewater from kitchen sinks and dishwasher enters the grease chamber, The grease interceptors reduces the 91 Figure 5.5 - Structure of a grease interceptor


velocity of flow of waste water, slowing it down, allowing sufficient time for fats, oils, greases, and solids separate from wastewater. As fats, oils and greasy products are less dense that water, the components would float and accumulate on the surface. While on the other hand, solids are denser than water, hence they would sink and accumulate at the bottom. The wastewater would then exits the interceptor with lower levels of fats, oil, grease and solids, and move forward to the inspection chamber. The grease interceptor holds the waste products until they are removed and disposed through the shopping complex's periodically maintenance.

Figure 4.5 - The Arrangement and Connection of Sewerage Systems in Setia City Mall.

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Figure 4.6 - A Diagram showing the connection of sewerage system.

The water used in flushing water closets are rainwater harvested by the shopping complex using a Siphonic Piping system. Where the Siphonic Roof drain collects rainwater and stores them in the rainwater storage tank on the roof top, whereas excess rainwater would flow down the drain pipe to the nearest sump before entering the main sewer line. Siphonic drainage is very simple in principle where baffle plates inserted in the outlets restrict air entering the top of the system which when water enters and flows down, the action of water dropping down the downpipe will cause a negative pressure at the top, causing water to be absorbed along a collector pipe, hence speeding up the process. The advantage of using this system would be that the number of downpipe for rainwater drainage would be greatly reduced.

Figure 4.7 - A Siphonic Roof Drain.

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Figure 4.8 - A shallow trough on the roof top directing rainwater to the roof drain.

Figure 4.9 - The position of rainwater storage tank on the roof top.

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Figure 4.10 - Position of Sump around the shopping complex.

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UBBL Requirement + related Regulations

UBBL By Laws - Section 123 (1) Where ducts or enclosures are provided in any building to accommodate pipes, cables or conduits the dimensions of such ducts or enclosure shall be (a) adequate for the accommodation of the pipes, cables or conduits and the crossings of branches and mains together with supports and fixing;

and

(b) sufficiently large to permit access to cleaning eyes, stop cocks and there to enable repairs, extensions and modifications to

other controls

be made to each or all of the

services accommodated. (2) The access openings to ducts or enclosures shall be long enough and suitable places to enable lengths of pipe to be installed and removed.

UBBL by Laws - Section 115 All roofs of buildings shall be constructed as to drain effectively to suitable and sufficient channels, gutters, chutes or troughs which shall be provided in accordance with the requirements of these By-Laws for receiving and conveying all water which may fall on and from the roof.

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Analysis and Comments Based on Observations Although Setia City Mall has great design features and systems of a green building, the subject of further sewerage treatment may not put into consideration. The shopping complex only applies simple sewerage system by waste removal through grease interceptors and periodic maintenance. The solids removal process would be deemed troublesome as there are a large numbers of these units. Other than that, due to extensive piping work and connection from one sewerage system to another, the shopping complex would risk a high chance of breakage and pipe leakage during a long run.

On the other hand, the large number of sewerage systems does have its qualities, as there are large number of kitchen from fool outlets scattered around the complex, the grease interceptor could be easily installed closer to the kitchen, thus whatever waste products are discharged from the kitchen, they could flow down directly into interceptor to be processed. As the grease interceptor are in large numbers, the issue with extensive pipe work would be compensated by large number of manholes to ensure everything is running efficiently.

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5. Mechanical Transportation Systems

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Introduction Mechanical transportation in a public space like Setia City Mall is very important especially during the early stages of building layout as the architect has to pay special attention to how the flow of people and goods about the building affect the building plan. Besides the standard prerequisites in designing a good layout for mechanical transportation, special provisions must be made to enable access for disabled people through means only available by utilizing mechanical transportation system. It is also of utmost importance to consider its integration with other services, fire escape, fire protection and meticulous maintenance of the system. Of the mechanical transportation systems that Setia City Mall employs are the escalator and the elevator.

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Escalator

The escalator functions as a conveyor staircase that primarily transports people only and is generally available to the public. It is capable of moving large crowds between floors of the mall and either move up or down. The device consists of individual step treads that remain horizontal for occupants to stand on which are linked to a motor driven chain. All the escalators throughout the floors in Setia City Mall are installed by the OTIS Elevator company. Several escalators at opposite ends of the mall are required to anticipate the large crowd of people that will use them. They are also specifically located in the center of the mall to allow easy access and location as the main vertical transportation system. Setia City Mall also employs a custom ordered model; OTIS X0-508 standby speed escalator as one of its initiatives towards a more sustainable and eco-friendly mall. The escalators start operation from 9:30am to 10:30 am daily by manual on-off operation.

Sustainability of Setia City Mall Escalators The escalator operation mode runs at reduced speed with no passengers on the step band (changing from a nominal speed of 0.5 m/s to stand-by seed of 0.2 m/s); suitable for addressing peak and non-peak hours of traffic throughout the mall by operating at full potential at appropriate traffic. The escalators are energy saving up to 40% compared to standard escalators; based on theoretical calculations, it saves 2400 kWh/year depending on motor drive, load and passenger traffic.

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Layout Location of Escalator

Figure 5.1: Lower Ground – 4 sets of escalators

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Figure 5.2: Upper Ground – 6 sets of escalator

Figure 5.3: First Floor – 6 sets of escalators

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Figure 5.4: Second Floor – 1 set of escalator

Arrangement of Escalators Found In Setia City Mall

There are only two types of escalator arrangements found in Setia City Mall.

Double Scissors and Side by Side The multi-level double scissor arrangement allows continuous traffic flow. This allows the fastest transport of passengers over multiple floors and is particularly suitable to specific one direction flow of traffic in the mall. They are also cost efficient and cost effective.

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Figure 5.5: Double Scissors and Side by Side

Side by Side/ Parallel In a retail environment like Setia City Mall, these escalators are strategically positioned to force the passenger to make a brief detour to the following escalator; bypassing specific displays or stores alongside this route will entice buyers and encourage impulse buying. The passenger flow throughout the building is however hindered; increasing travel time.

Figure 5.6: Side by Side / Parallel

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Safety Features of Setia City Mall Escalators

One Centre Monitoring System The escalators are connected to the Fire Protection System Control Panel in the main control room. The control room is also immediately notified of any problems that may arise in which specific escalator of any level.

Anti-Climb and Anti Fall Barrier Barrier of 1.5 meters high made of tempered glass is installed alongside the escalator as a means of avoiding potential accidents due to inertia of escalator of children climbing over.

Figure 5.77: Anti –Climb/ Anti Fall Barrier

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Guardian速 Skirt Panels Also known as a Deflector Brush, these stiff bristles that run up the sides of the escalator just above step level are designed to deflect things like shoes, laves, clothes, etc. away from the gap between the steps and the side wall and prevent them from being caught and stuck.

Figure 5.88: Deflector Brush

Yellow Aluminum Comb Plate The comb plate protection switches are located on two sides of each comb plate. If debris is lodged between the comb and steps, the comb plate will automatically lift upwards and stop the escalator. Aluminum is used instead of iron to reduce static electricity that may easily trap mangle foam type of shoes.

Figure 5.9: Yellow Aluminum Comb Plate

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Elevators

The elevator, also known as a lift in commonwealth countries like Malaysia, are indispensable when it came to transporting both people and goods vertically up or down between floors, levels or decks of a building, vessel or other structures. Inside the lifts are cabins/cages that move at high speeds within an elevator shaft by using counterweights or traction cables. It is necessary to ensure the convenience of its occupants as although steps and escalators can move people between levels, a lift is much faster and not physically tiring.

According to UBBL 1984 clause 124, a lift shall be used for non-residential buildings that exceed 4 stories above or below main entrance. It is also essential in buildings less than 4 stories if access for older or disabled people is considered. Just like the escalators throughout the floors in Setia City Mall, the elevators are all also installed by the OTIS Elevator company.

There are 3 main types of elevators commonly used in a high rise building 1. Geared and Gearless Traction Elevators with Machine Room 2. Hydraulic Elevators 3. Machine-Room-less Elevators All the elevators situated in Setia City Mall are machine-room-less elevators without exception.

Three groups of lifts were found in Setia City Mall of varying public and private use. Practically all the lifts are however easily accessible to the public except for the goods lift. Setia

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City Mall uses units of the model OTIS 4000 elevators for its machine room-less gearless installations.

Type of Elevators

Hydraulic Elevator Hydraulic elevators are supported by a piston at the bottom of the elevator that pushes the elevator up. They are used for low-rise applications of 2-8 stories and travel at a maximum speed of 200 feet per minute. The machine room for hydraulic elevators is located at the lowest level adjacent to the elevator shaft. Hydraulic elevators have a low initial cost and their ongoing maintenance costs are lower compared to the other elevator types. However, hydraulic elevators use more energy than other types of elevators.

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Figure 5.10 and 5.11: Hydraulic Elevator

Geared and Gearless Traction Elevators

Traction elevators are lifted by ropes, which pass over a wheel attached to an electric motor above the elevator shaft. They are used for mid and high-rise applications and have much higher travel speeds than hydraulic elevators. A counter weight makes the elevators more efficient. Geared Traction Elevators have a gearbox that is attached to the motor, which drives the wheel that moves the ropes. Geared traction elevators are capable of travel speeds up to 500 feet per minute. The maximum travel distance for a geared traction elevator is around 250 feet. Gear-less Traction Elevators have the wheel attached directly to the motor. Gear-less traction elevators are capable of speeds up to 2,000 feet per minute and they have a maximum travel distance of around 2,000 feet so they are the only choice for high-rise applications. Geared traction elevators are middle of the road in terms of initial cost, ongoing maintenance costs, and energy consumption. Gear-less traction elevators have a high initial cost, medium ongoing maintenance costs, and use energy a bit more efficiently than geared traction elevators.

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Figure 5.12 and 5.13: Geared Traction Elevator

Machine Room-Less Elevators Machine-Room-Less Elevators are traction elevators that do not have a dedicated machine room above the elevator shaft. The machine sits in the override space and is accessed from the top of the elevator cab when maintenance or repairs are required. The control boxes are located in a control room that is adjacent to the elevator shaft on the highest landing and within around 150 feet of the machine. Machine-room-less elevators have a maximum travel distance of up to 250 feet and can travel at speeds up to 500 feet-per-minute. MRL elevators are comparable to geared traction elevators in terms of initial and maintenance costs, but they have relatively low energy consumption compared to geared elevators. Machine-room-less elevators are becoming the most popular choice for mid-rise buildings where the travel distance is up to 250 feet. They are energy efficient, require less space, and their operation and reliability are on par with gear-less traction elevators.

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Figure 5.14 (Left): Machine Room less Elevator; Figure 5.15 (Right): Schematic of Setia City Mall Elevator

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Layout Location of Escalator

Figure 5.16: Lower Ground

Figure 5.17: Upper Ground

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Figure 5.18: First Floor

Figure 5.19: Second Floor

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Elevator UBBL Requirements

Under UBBL 1984 section 123-128 lifts. 124. For all non-residential buildings exceeding 4 stores above or below the main access level at least one lift shall be provided. Setia City Mall has 7 fire lifts, 4 public lifts and 1 as a private goods transportation lift.

Under UBBL 1984 section 153-155, ventilation to lift shafts. 152(1) Every opening in a lift shaft or lift entrance shall open into a protected lobby unless other suitable means of protection to the opening to the satisfaction of the local authority is provided. These requirements shall not apply to open type industrial and other special buildings as may be approved by the D.G.F.S.

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Escalator and Elevator Maintenance in Setia City Mall Maintenance is done by OTIS maintenance Team on a monthly basis. Otis performs maintenance according to their Otis Maintenance Management System (OMMS), where there are the industry’s only usage based preventive maintenance delivery system that repairs and replaces any defect parts. OMMS procedures replaces components before their normal life cycle ends and their performance deteriorates, greatly minimizing shutdowns and pre-empts disaster. The advantages of using OMMS is that because they update a service history after every service call, task prioritization schedules work according to necessity. Downtime is also reduced by combined service visits and nonproductive service time is thus minimized. Professional mechanics who have good knowledge and the right tools are deployed.

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6. Fire Protection Systems

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Literature Review

A fire protection system is essential for every building to have in place. It focuses on the characteristics and abilities of a building’s component to control and extinguish a fire. These components range from something as simple as providing information regarding emergency exits to occupants to more complex components such as hypoxic air reduction systems. Essentially, fire protection system is divided into two main aspects: passive and active. When designing a building and deciding what fire protection system would be appropriate to implement, it is necessary to assess the types of fire hazards that may be faced.

There are three common classes of fires and two special classes:

CLASS A – Common combustibles Fires involve common combustibles such as wood, paper, cloth, rubber, trash and plastics. They are common in typical commercial and home settings, but can occur anywhere these types of materials are found.

CLASS B – Flammable liquids and gases Fires involve flammable liquids' gases, solvents, oil, gasoline, paint, lacquers, tars and other synthetic or oil-based products. Class B fires often spread rapidly and, unless properly secured, can relight after the flames are extinguished.

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CLASS C – Live electrical equipment Fires involve energized electrical equipment, such as wiring, controls, motors, data processing panels or appliances. They can be caused by a spark, power surge or short circuit and typically occur in locations that are difficult to reach and see.

CLASS D – Combustible metals Fires involve combustible metals such as magnesium and sodium. Combustible metal fires are unique industrial hazards which require special dry powder agents.

CLASS K – Cooking media Fires involve combustible cooking media such as oils and grease commonly found in commercial kitchens. The cooking media formulations used for commercial food preparation require a special wet chemical extinguishing agent that is especially suited for extinguishing and suppressing these extremely hot fires that have the ability to relight.

There are four universal rules to prevent fire that should be applied to architectural design. 1. Control or stop sources of ignition 2. Control or abolish combustible materials 3. Minimize use of combustible materials 4. Selection and use of low fire load materials

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Function

A fire protection system has three major goals and its function is to reach these goals:

Continuity of operations - on a public scale, this is intended to prevent the interruption of critical services necessary for the public welfare (e.g., a 999 emergency call center).

Property protection - on a public scale, this is intended to prevent area wide conflagrations. At an individual building level, this is typically an insurance consideration (e.g., a requirement for financing), or a regulatory requirement.

Life safety – ultimately the most important function of a fire protection system is to ensure no lives are harmed.

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Case Study Introduction

Being a multi-story public building, the developers of Setia City Mall have a responsibility to ensure that it is safe for use by a large number of people, even if a fire was to occur. This is done through systems being employed to prevent the outbreak of fire as well as systems to extinguish and protect the users if a fire was to break out. A combination of active and passive fire protection systems is used.

Components of System

Structural fire protection is typically achieved via two main components: 

Active fire protection o

Manual and automatic detection and suppression of fires, as in using and installing a fire sprinkler system or finding the fire (fire alarm) and/or extinguishing it using hand-held extinguishers.



Passive fire protection o

This includes the design of the building which encourages compartmentalization and also the selection of materials and components such as fire-resistance rated wall and floor assembles to keep fires and especially smoke in containment and not spread. This will then enable active fire protection.

o

Educating and ensuring that the building operators have copies and understand building and fire codes. It also includes having a purpose-designed fire safety plan which is accessible easily for the building’s occupants. 120


The following chart highlights a typical flow of what would happen in a building if a fire were to occur. The fire detection and alarm could be both via automatic or manual means, but it is most effective to be automatic.

Emergency evacuation Sprinkler Inform local fire department Close (magnetic) fire doors Activate systems Fire Detection - smoke - flame - heat

Heat & smoke vents Alarm

Hypoxic air

Fire extinguisher

Prompt manual fire suppression

Standpipe system

Dry riser

Figure 6.1: A flowchart of active fire protection system

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Active Fire Protection Fire Detection

There are several ways to detect and inform people of a fire. The most common would be through a fire alarm. Typically a fire alarm may be activated automatically through smoke detectors and heat detectors (and more recently, water flow sensors), or manually through a fire alarm pull station. Once a fire is detected, it must then alert people through visual and audio appliances such as sirens or flashing emergency lights in order for them to then start evacuating. It will also activate fire control units such as sprinkler systems and close off magnetic fire doors.

Manually actuated devices or manual fire alarm pull station should be installed near the exits and should be clearly visible and easily accessible (1.5 meters above ground and distance to reach the alarm should be less than 30 meters). It is usually red in color. Typical devices may look like the ones shown in Figure 7.1. Setia City Mall uses break glass devices as shown in figure 7.2. It is directly connected to a hose reel.

Figure 6.2: Manual fire alarm pull station

122 glass Figure 6.3: Break


Figure 6.4 and Figure 6.5: Break glass device used throughout Setia City Mall. This one is located at a service corridor and is directly connected to a fire hose reel.

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Automatically actuated devices are designed to respond to various detectable physical changes which are characteristic of a fire which includes temperature and heat, smoke, flame and combustion gases. Latest innovations in technology allow for cameras and computer algorithms to analyze the visible effects of fire in places which may be unsuitable for other methods of detection.

Smoke detectors There are two types of smoke detectors: optical and ionization. The optical smoke detectors detect smoke by using infrared LED light sensors. When smoke particles pass through the chamber of the optical detector, it scatters the light and this triggers the alarm system as shown in figure 7.3. In the ionization detector, if smoke particles enter the chamber of the detector it will reduce the rate of air ionization inside the chamber which will then trigger the alarm as shown in figure 7.4.

Most smoke detectors would look similar in appearance. It is what happens inside the chamber that may differ.

Figure 6.6: Cross section diagram of

Figure 6.7: Cross section diagram of

optical smoke detector

ionization smoke detector

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Heat sensor or Thermal sensor Heat detectors are designed to respond when the thermal energy of a fire increases the temperature of a heat sensitive element found in the detector chamber. The thermal mass and conductivity of the element regulate the rate flow of heat into the element. There are two methods for detecting fire from the presence of heat:

1. Fixed temperature heat detectors operate when the ambient temperature increases sufficiently to predetermined level where the heat detector will operate. 2. A rate-of-rise heat detector operates when the ambient temperature increases over time equal to or greater than the rate of change the detector was manufactured to operate.

A bimetallic strip is a simple method where the strip will respond to an increase in temperature. The strip will bend and deform where it will then complete the circuit enabling the alarm to trigger. The smoke detection device being used at the site is shown in figure 7.5. It is an Edwards Systems Technology Signature SeriesŽ Detection & Alarm. This fire detection device has multiple sensors built in – photoelectric detectors, heat detectors, carbon monoxide sensors and a smoke chamber as shown in figure 7.6. This eliminates the need to install different types of fire detection devices. It not only detects smoke, which is a visible sign of fire, but also detects carbon monoxide – something that humans cannot easily detect. The device continuously runs data through an algorithm designed specifically to determine whether fire is present or not which reduces the risk of false alarm. The device can be programmed to suit individual buildings as each building would have different requirements. In the case of Setia City Mall, it is programmed to initiate the sprinkler and alarm system. 125


Figure 6.8: The fire detector device being used throughout Setia City Mall

Figure 6.8: Exploded view of the components of the fire detector being used

Alarm

A fire alarm should include visual as well as audio prompts to inform the occupants of a fire. Emergency lights such as the one found on site shown in figure 7.7 would activate to aid occupants in case of evacuation. Typically, an alarm would sound of a loud bell or siren. Some fire alarms use an emergency voice alarm communication system (EVACS) to provide pre-recorded and manual voice messages. This is most effective and necessary in high-rise buildings and other large scale buildings such as hospitals. It is also being used in Setia City Mall as shown in figure 7.8. This is important in order for the occupants to proceed evacuation in a smooth and orderly manner. It also allows for control of what messages to be played on specific floors. The occupants of the

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specific floor with the fire may be told to evacuate whereas those not in close proximity may be told to just stand by and not panic. Visuals should also be used such as blinking and flashing lights.

Figure 6.10: Emergency lights would

Figure 6.11: Intercom system located in

self-activate in the case of fire

the stairwells used to notify occupants of a fire

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Activation of other systems The trigger of the alarm would then automatically activate other systems to immediately control the fire. This includes but is not limited to:

Magnetic smoke/fire resistant door holders – some doors may use electromagnets which are connected to the fire alarm system. These doors are magnetically secured and are smoke tight when closed. They are designed to demagnetize and close automatically when smoke is detected or a failure in the power source.

Duct mounted smoke detection – the smoke is detected in a manner to sample the airflow through ducts which carry air into inhabited spaces. This is connected to the fan motor control circuits which then stop air movement, close dampers and generally prevent the recirculation of toxic smoke and fumes. On site, the Edwards fire detection system is used in the ducts as well due to its small size and intelligent analysis of the data collected.

Emergency elevator service – this is designed to recall the elevator cabs and return them to the ground level for ease of use by fire service response teams. It also ensures that the cabs do not return to the floor where the fire is located.

The figure below shows part of the plan of the upper ground level. It shows the location and density of smoke detectors placed in the building to ensure that if a fire occurred it would be detected. The break glass also allows for someone to manually notify the building of a fire. This would then activate the roller shutter, the smoke duct and the sounder to actively control the fire and notify the occupants of the situation. The fireman’s intercom allows the fireman to interact with the occupants and direct them what to do if needed. 128




Smoke detector

Roller shutter

Break glass

Sounder

Smoke duct

Fireman’s intercom

Figure 6.12: Zoom up part of upper ground level indicating the various components related to fire detection.

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Fireman’s Switch

The fireman switch is a switch intended to immediately turn off neon lighting or other hazardous equipment which may explode or dangerous if exposed to fire. They should only be used by firemen and is usually found outside commercial buildings as shown in figure 6.13.

Figure 6.13: Fireman’s switch as seen at Setia City Mall

Sprinkler systems

A fire sprinkler system consists of a water supply system which is of adequate pressure and flow rate and is distributed to a piping system connected to the sprinkler heads. Traditionally, it was more appropriated for use in factories and large scale buildings. However, it has now become more affordable to be used in residential buildings too. The fire sprinkler head is the component which discharges water when a fire is detected. There are several different types of sprinkler heads.

Wet pipe sprinklers are held closed either by a glass bulb head or a fusible link head. These are fully charged with water supplied by the city and is pressurized with the alarm valve secured in the open position. Wet pipe systems are the simplest, most reliable and cost 130


effective. It also requires little maintenance. However, it cannot be used in all situations such as when the temperature is too low which may freeze the constantly available water in the pipes. They may also cause problems if there was a leak, for example. Figure 7.9 shows a typical schematic diagram of this system. Glass bulb sprinkler heads have a small glass bulb which contains a heat-sensitive liquid. When the ambient temperature of the liquid reaches a predetermined level, the liquid will expand which causes the glass bulb to break and allows the release of water. Only the area which is within the fire zone will activate the sprinkler heads which reduces the possibility of water damage in areas not affected by fire. Fusible link sprinkler heads have a two-part metal element which is fused by a heatsensitive alloy. Similar to the glass bulb system, once the ambient temperature around the sprinkler head reaches a certain temperature, the alloy releases and the metal elements separate which then allows water to be released.

131 Figure 6.14: Typical schematic diagram showing the process that happens from fire detection to activating the sprinkler system


Dry pipe systems are filled with compressed air which is released through the sprinkler head when the alarm is activated. Once the air is released, the pressure in the pipe changes which then brings water to fill the system. Obviously, this system has a slower reaction time and thus requires a larger amount of extremely pressurized water. This requires larger pipes and a more complicated system. Pre-action systems are designed to be triggered twice before water is dispensed from the sprinkler head. The first trigger would bring in water from the source into the pipes. Effectively from there on, it acts as a wet pipe system. The second trigger would then release the water through the sprinkler heads. This system was designed to add protection against false sprinkler head activation. This is most appropriate to be used in sensitive properties such as museums or libraries. Deluge systems are similar to the pre-action system. The water only enters the pipes when fire is detected. There may also be a manual function where pushing a button or pulling a cord activates the system. However, the sprinkler heads in a deluge system are open and thus are usually installed in areas where spread of fire may be extremely dangerous. As shown in the schematic diagram of the sprinkler system below, Setia City mall has sprinklers on all levels separated into two segments. A designated RC tank with a volume of 185m3 is used to supply the water for the sprinkler system.

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Figure 6.15: Schematic diagram of the sprinkler system at Setia City Mall

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Sprinkler head distribution types There are various different sprinkler head types which affect how the water is distributed to the space below.

Pendent sprinkler heads hang down from the ceiling in a circular pattern. This is used at Setia City Mall in service corridors for better efficiency and due to the lower importance of aesthetics.

Figure 6.16: Diagram of pendent

Figure 6.17: Pendent sprinkler head as

sprinkler head

seen on site

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Concealed pendent sprinkler heads are hidden in the ceiling and are covered with a decorative cap. Once the sprinkler reaches its rated activation temperature, the head will drop below the ceiling. The water pattern of concealed sprinkler heads is a circle. Setia City Mall utilizes this type of sprinkler head in the public space due to aesthetic purposes as shown below.

Figure 6.18: Diagram of concealed pendent

Figure 6.19: Concealed pendent sprinkler head as

sprinkler head

seen on site

Upright sprinkler heads project up into a space. They are generally used in mechanical rooms or other inaccessible areas to provide better coverage between obstructions. They also provide a circle spray pattern.

Figure 6.20: Diagram of upright sprinkler head

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Side wall sprinkler heads stand out from a wall. A second deflector also sprays water back toward the wall so that the wall is protected. These are used when sprinklers cannot be located in the ceiling. They provide a half-circle spray pattern and are not as commonly used.

Figure 6.21: Diagram of side wall sprinkler head

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Spacing between sprinkler heads The spacing between sprinkler heads depends on the hazard type of the space it serves. Hazard

Max floor area per sprinkler

Max distance between

(m2)

sprinklers

Light

21

4.6

Ordinary

12

4.0 (standard)

4.6 (staggered) High

9

3.7

Table 6.1 to show how to determine spacing between sprinkler heads

Light hazard Non-industrial occupancies such as hospitals, hotels, institutions, college, museum, etc. Ordinary hazard Production engineering, breweries, broadcasting studios, restaurants, etc. High hazard Fireworks factories, paint & plastics manufacturer and other volatile chemical & fluid operating premises.

Setia City Mall would fall under the light hazard class.

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The plan below is a zoom of the level 2 plan. It shows the variation in using a pendent sprinkler head and an upright sprinkler head. The sprinklers are distributed according to UBBL requirements at all the corridors and area of occupancy. The building also uses cut-off sprinkler heads at all the stairwells. The pipes supplying water to the sprinklers are of varying diameters – ranging from 25mm to 100mm.

Figure 6.22: Zoom up part of level 2 plan showing the distribution of sprinklers

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Figure 6.23: Floor plan of level 2 to show the overall distribution of pendent sprinkler heads and upright sprinkler heads

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Condensed aerosol fire suppression Condensed aerosol fire suppression can be used in two ways. To provide total flooding fire suppression, the appropriate and necessary amount of aerosol devices are mounted on the ceiling or wall. These devices are equipped with electric initiators and are interconnected and relayed by a fire alarm control panel. The devices itself are self-contained and has its own nozzle which propels the gas. Local application fire suppression is also possible through the use of handheld devices. Unlike typical portable fire extinguishing units, the users of these devices do not need to put themselves at risk as the device is designed to disperse aerosol in a 360 degrees spray pattern. This forms a large aerosol cloud around the fire. The aerosol then suppresses the flame due to its density. This will extinguish the flame, and if not, will at least reduce the heat and smoke to allow for evacuation. The site does not employ this system as it is not entirely necessary and would be costly to implement.

Smoke and heat exhaust ventilations

The aim of smoke and heat exhaust ventilations is to remove the smoke from a building which would then allow low level escape routes to be kept clear of smoke. This helps those who need to escape see the exit route with visibility and allows for easier access by firemen.

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The system consists of three main components: The exhaust ventilators are needed to remove the smoke. Active exhaust ventilators rely on mechanical extraction through fans. This is a prominent feature system that is found on site but we were told that it is rarely implemented though it would be super-efficient if a fire was to occur. Quite a number of these exhaust ventilators are found spanning out from the high atrium.

Figure 6.24: The smoke exhaust ventilator are found on the roof level sucking out smoke from the atrium if needed.

Smoke barriers are needed to limit the spread of smoke while it is still within the building. Barriers are often used in complex buildings such as shopping malls to control the flow of smoke into the open areas. Automatic smoke curtains or heat resistant boards can act as the smoke barrier to divide the roof space into discrete smoke reservoirs. It is important that the clear layer below the smoke is high enough to protect property and allow the users to escape easily.

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Inlet ventilators are needed to allow fresh air in to replace the smoky and toxic air removed by the ventilators. Without replacement air, the building will become depressurized and the ventilation system will be useless.

Hypoxic air fire prevention A relatively new innovation to prevent fire is through the use of hypoxic air. This system permanently reduces the oxygen concentration levels inside protected volumes so that fire cannot ignite and if it does cannot spread. Unlike traditional fire protection systems, dedicated pipes or nozzles are not required. Hypoxic air for fire prevention is most suitable for:

Data centers

Storage of high value items

Archives

Freezers and cold storage

Large warehouses

Heritage applications

Telecom

Utilities

Document storage

The reduction of artifact degradation and food deterioration is an advantage for applications such as food storage or archives. However, it must at the same time comply with strict building codes to provide sufficient energy for occupants. In order for combustion to occur, oxygen must be over 15% by volume. This system must provide oxygen suitable for human occupation but 142


low enough to ensure the prevention of combustion. This is not necessary needed or suitable for a public mall especially one like Setia City Mall.

Fire extinguisher Fire extinguishers are necessary for someone to use at the initial stages of a fire. They should be installed at an easily accessible location in a building such as against a wall. There are two main types of extinguishers. Stored pressure extinguishers contain the expellant in the same chamber as the firefighting agent itself. Different propellants are used depending on the agent. In dry chemical extinguishers, nitrogen is most commonly used. Water and foam extinguishers typically use air. Stored pressure devices are the most common. Cartridge-operated extinguishers contain the expellant gas in a separate compartment that is punctured before it is discharged. Although not as common, they allow the user to discharge the extinguisher, recharge it and return to the fire in a reasonable amount of time. They use carbon dioxide instead of nitrogen.

Fire extinguishers are categorized according to the class of fire as identified previously. Setia City Mall has equally distributed Sri Setia 2Kg fire extinguishers for use. It uses carbon dioxide which is effective on Class B and C fires. It is electrically nonconductive and does not deposit residue therefore safe for fighting fires in electrical equipment.

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Figure 6.25: Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers found on site

Fire blankets are another type of fire protection device used to extinguish small fires. It is a sheet of fire retardant material, such as fiberglass or Kevlar, and is placed over a fire to smother and extinguish it.

Standpipe/riser A standpipe is a rigid water piping system which is built into multi story buildings horizontally and allow for water hoses to be connected. Standpipes can be dry or wet. Wet standpipes are constantly filled with pressurized water. Dry standpipes can only be used in the presence of firefighters as they will usually carry the hoses needed to supply water to the pipes. Setia City Mall utilizes a dry pipe system as it is not that tall and a dry pipe system would still be sufficient. The purpose of standpipes is to save time to deliver water directly upwards without having to carry hoses up stairwells. The plumbing supplies water to stand pipe risers and hose reels as shown in figure 6.26. 144


Figure 6.26: The water supply pipes which distribute water to the riser and sprinklers

The plan drawing below shows the location of the dry pipe risers in the Upper Ground level of the mall. It would run through the same position for all the other levels. The pipes are of 100mm to 150mm diameter depending on its location. Most of the dry pipe risers are found in fire closets in the stairwells but is exposed in the car park. This allows for easy access for firemen when it is needed. The dry pipe risers are quite evenly distributed across the mall so that it won’t

be

a

hassle

to

get

to

one

if

needed.

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6.27: Floor plan of upper ground level showing the location of dry pipe risers

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Figure 6.28: Schematic diagram of the dry riser system

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Fire hose reel A fire hose is a high-pressure hose that carries water to a fire to extinguish it. It can be found throughout Setia City Mall. Outdoors, it can attach either to a fire engine or a fire hydrant. Indoors, it is attached to a building's standpipe or plumbing system. At Setia City Mall, Sri Setia is the supplier of hose reels. The hose reels are found on each level at both segments of the mall. A designated RC tank with a capacity of 10m3 is used to supply the water.

Figure 6.29: Sri Setia fire hose reels as found on site

The floor plan below shows the location of the fire hose reels on the upper ground level of the mall. They are all of 50mm diameter. They are spread out evenly throughout the plan but is found in more frequency in the service corridors and near sensitive rooms such as the electrical control room. They are located by all the dry risers at the stairwells. Fire extinguishers are also quite often placed next to the hose reels.

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Figure 6.30: Floor plan of the upper ground level showing the location of fire hose reels

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Figure 6.31: Schematic diagram to show the hose reel system

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Passive fire protection Passive fire protection is accomplished through the design of the structure and fabric of a building as well as the choice of materials, components and their installation. Compartmentalization Perhaps the most essential part of designing for passive fire protection is compartmentalization. This involves the organization of buildings into smaller fire compartments which consist of one or two rooms. This slows down the spread of fire throughout the building and limits the damage and danger to lives. Fire stops A fire stop is a system of components which are used to seal openings and joints in fireresistance rated wall and floor assemblies. Unprotected openings in fire separations cancel out the fire-resistance ratings as they allow for the spread of fire. Fire stops include intumescent, cementitious mortars, silicone, fire stop pillows, mineral fibers and rubber compounds. Firewalls A firewall is a wall which subdivides a building to prevent the spread of fire. It must have a fire resistance rating and be independently stable structurally. Fire doors It is important for the doors of a building to be fire resistant. This includes the door leaf as well as the doorframe. The doorframe must include fire or smoke seals and include a device that would automatically shut the door. Together, these components form a door set which is then given a numerical rating in terms of how long it can resist fire.

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Awareness Another important aspect of a fire protection system in a building is educating the occupants so that they know what to do in the case of emergencies. This includes locating the plans for emergency exits throughout the building in easily accessible locations.

152


UBBL Requirements UBBL By laws – section 139 – separation of fire risk areas The following areas or uses shall be separated from the other areas of the occupancy in which they are located by fire resisting construction of elements of structure of a FRP to be determined by the local authority based on the degree of fire hazard: a) boiler rooms and associated fuel storage areas b) laundries c) repair shops involving hazardous processes and materials d) storage areas of materials in quantities deemed hazardous e) liquefied petroleum gas storage areas f)

linen rooms

g) transformer rooms and substations h) flammable liquids stores.

UBBL By laws – section 143 – beam or column Any beam or column forming part of, and any structure carrying, and external wall which is required to be constructed of non-combustible materials shall comply with the provisions of paragraph (3) of by-law 142 as to non-combustibility.

UBBL By laws – section 147 – construction of separating wall 1) Any separating wall, other than a wall separating buildings not divided into compartments within the limits of size shall be constructed wholly of non-combustible materials, excluding any surface finish to a wall. 153


UBBL By laws – section 153 – smoke detectors for lift lobbies 1) All lift lobbies shall be provided with smoke detectors.

UBBL By laws – section 154 – emergency mode of operation in the event of mains power failure 1) On failure of mains power all lifts shall return in sequence directly to the designated floor, commencing with the fire lifts, without answering any car or landing calls and park with doors open.

UBBL By laws – section 157 – protected shafts consisting of staircase A protected staircase or a protected shaft containing a staircase shall not contain any pipe conveying gas or oil or any ventilating duct other than a duct serving only that staircase or shaft.

UBBL By laws – section 162 – fire doors in compartment walls and separating walls 1) Fire doors of the appropriate FRP shall be provided. 2) Openings in compartment walls and separating walls shall be protected by a fire door having a FRP in accordance with the requirements for that wall. UBBL By laws – section 172 – emergency exit signs 1) Story exits and access to such exits shall be marked by readily visible signs and shall not be obscured by any decorations, furnishings or other equipment.

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UBBL By laws – section 225 – detecting and extinguishing fires 1) Every building shall be provided with means of detecting and extinguishing fire and with fire alarms together with illuminated exit signs in accordance with the requirements as specified. 2) Every building shall be served by at least one fire hydrant located not more than 91.5 meters from the nearest point of fire brigade access. 3) Depending on the size and location of the building and the provision of access for fire appliances, additional fire hydrant shall be provided as may be required by the Fire Authority.

UBBL By laws – section 227 – portable extinguishers Portable extinguisher shall be provided in accordance with the relevant codes of practice and shall be sited in prominent positions on exit routes to be visible from all directions and similar extinguishers in a building shall be of the same method of operation.

UBBL By laws – section 228 – sprinkler valves 1) Sprinkler valves shall be located in a safe and enclosed position on the exterior wall and shall be readily accessible to the Fire Authority. 2) All sprinkler systems shall be electricity connected to the nearest fire station to provide immediate and automatic relay of the alarm when activated.

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UBBL By laws – section 230 – installation and testing of dry rising system 1) Dry rising systems shall be provided in every building in which the topmost floor is more than 18.3 meters but less than 30.5 meters above fire appliance access level.

UBBL By laws – section 231 – installation and testing of wet rising system

1) Wet rising systems shall be provided in every building in which the topmost floor is more than 30.5 meters above fire appliance access level.

Conclusion

Overall, the fire protection system being implemented at Setia City Mall is rather standard. It’s most outstanding feature is the multiple mechanical exhaust ventilation implemented on the roof and atrium designed to be turned on in the event of a fire to extract all the smoke and toxic fumes out of the building as quickly as possible. The fire detection device used is also quite advanced in that it is a combination of smoke, heat and carbon monoxide sensors which in turn means advanced fire detection which reduces the risk of a false alarm. The stairwells are designed for an easy escape route and each stairwell has its own small window for natural light and ventilation if needed. It also has a complete alarm system of visuals and auditory. Its passive fire protection is seen in important rooms such as the electrical control room but is not that visible in its open public spaces. Furthermore, from research, it was found that there are a lot of new technology being developed which can aid in the prevention and protection of fire such as hypoxic air systems. These systems are revolutionary but yet it may not be necessary for a simple public mall such as Setia City Mall. 156


Conclusion From this case study, we have learned the importance of a building’s services in architecture, a segment that is often overlooked. We understand the importance of providing proper services and facilities in maintaining the comfort and safety of the user.

Covering all the six criteria of building services, we have seen a pattern of Setia City Mall providing more than what is necessary. Equipment aside, what stands out across all six criteria of services is the layout of their facilities. There is a tremendous amount of thought that goes into the placement and maintenance of the building services, from the strategic concealment of the equipment on the roof to the proximity of the interdependent services to one another, all these decisions lead to higher efficiency.

In many ways, Setia City Mall has gone beyond what is normal or even necessary in a shopping mall, boasting equipment and systems that are far beyond what their peers are using. However, perhaps this sets the pace for future developments in the sector. This mall is an example of how services and design can come together to form a cohesive whole.

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