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CONCEPT

As humanity tends toward global climate adversity it has irrevocably set into motion an environmental hemostasis. The repercussions of humanities domineering mite and persistent need for order with an infinitely complex biosphere is an environment that must now seek new equilibrium within its changing landscape of toxins and pollutants secreted my man. RESEARCH Though sea level rise is widely regarded as a primary outcome of global climate change, it is but an incremental change that will exacerbate a plethora of other hostile conditions. Within shifting hydrological forces; storm surges, ecological deterioration and reduction of water quality are all imminent threats. Sea levels will rise through thermal expansion of seas however this is not the most prominent threat and shall catalyze the destructive forces of storm surges. As the dual global belt of oceanic storm activity (immediately above and below the equator) moves toward the poles through the century it will bring with it a parabolic increase in both storm frequency and severity. Re-alignment of jet streams and water surface temperature increase shall increase the likelihood of storm formation while they readily gravitate toward global cities throughout American, Asian, Indian and Australian coastlines.

MR

HW

RESI [LIENCE] STANCE

These storms (tropical cyclones, typhoons and hurricanes) inflict catastrophic damage to residents and infrastructure alike throughout cities that are situated in proximity to water. In the case of imminent destruction from storms cities typically deploy a top-down approach to protection and evacuation where low-income neighborhoods – normally housed on the most vulnerable land – are not primarily considered. Socio-political factors are typically overlooked with low income housing estates receiving the most damage. This is a problem not limited to less developed nations as resulting soaring insurance costs and plummeting house prices mean citizens of more developed countries can become stuck in the situation of being unable to relocate to safety or insure their home and valuables. Hard edge conditions, impervious surfaces and loss of natural bathymetry stand as testimonials to humanity’s alienation from its environment. This is a primary cause of global climate change. In the wake of this knowledge it is prudent for global cities to pursue resilience – which may be defined in different ways – but is ultimately its ability to survive and adapt to new environmental conditions. Though such a trajectory would be advisable it is apparent in the wake of hurricane Sandy and the increased frequency of disruptive major weather events that coastal cities hesitate in facing and adapting to these hostilities. Our design team has formed the opinion that global cities may never achieve any comprehensive form of resilience. When mapping world city resilience against a forecasted parabolic increase in both frequency and severity of storms it becomes apparent that there is a critical juncture within this anticipated future. As cities strive toward adapting and becoming resilient there shall arrive a point where city resource expenditure on repair, relocation and (hard infrastructural) protection of residents will outweigh expenditure on innovative mitigation strategies. Here, the city will have lost its grasp on adapting to shifting hydrological conditions while its works tirelessly to protect critical infrastructure and residents.

What we propose is an international solution to the protection of cities against storm surges. These extreme weather events occur so infrequently that current fund allocation seems illogical. The logistical nature of these events means that high precipitation and warm ocean surface waters precede increased water volume and high winds brought with the storm and its low pressure. In other words, these storms can be forecast, predicted and tracked. Therefore, we propose the use of decommissioned military vessels to act as internationally funded storm-chasing surge protection. This fleet will track off-shore storms by probability of course and deploys temporary additional protection along vulnerable coastlines to mitigate wave energies. This has the benefit of existing outside of the traditional capitalist confines of extreme weather protections, able to provide mutually comprehensive coastline resilience as and when they are needed by any city in the world. The fleet of ships deploys a net(work) of ‘islands’, each 10m in diameter. These islands are strung out along a length of vulnerable coastline, each connected to 6 adjacent islands creating a dynamic, offshore protecting web. Each island is fitted with a turbine that affects its relative position within the net. The stronger the current, the harder the turbine pulls and the closer the islands cluster. This creates an autonomous system which dynamically positions more protections within faster moving waters and adjusts automatically to fluctuating offshore fluid dynamics to provide an efficient, even coverage. Protection during the storm is provided on two fronts within this net system. Firstly, the islands themselves contain differential turbines that separate waves in the vertical axis by enforcing drag on the wave mid-section. The resultant drag induces vortexes between velocities, continually reducing the wave energy and speed. The second level of protection is a wave breaking system strung out between the islands to force the wave’s energy to work against itself. Two layers of oscillating pads made up of a series of pentagons and hexagons are attached to a central arm fixed at a set height and unaffected by the turbulent seas. The upper layer of pads floats over incoming waves, forcing the lower layer in the opposite direction a few meters below the surface, equalizing the amplitude.

CRITICAL JUNCTURE

Our proposal is also set up to contend with post-storm resilience and remediation. Following the storm the net becomes an inverse bathymetric map of that piece of coastline. Once the storm has passed and the islands are redundant, the poststorm turbines are submerged in their new energy cartography. The force of the islands striking the sea floor facilitates a mechanical transformation of the islands whereby the turbines rise and each island deploys and anchors. Then, electricity garnered throughout the storm event is now given off as a trickle charge through steel cables connecting webs of hexagons. This allows a biofilm to subsume the cable surface and create a living skin where natural ecologies can thrive and construct an organic reef defense. Repetitions of this cycle after each event will create a quasi-natural bathymetry that strives for equilibrium of storm energy distribution. The floating hexagons and pentagons that make up the oscillating wave-breaking pads are released once the scheme submerges and are allowed to drift to shore. These can then be assembled to offer emergency energy and shelter to distraught communities. The pads can be laid flat to act as solar panels, connected to car batteries to provide usable power. Alternatively they are logically designed for geometric dome temporary constructions that can provide power, enclosure and insulation for dislocated communities.


RELATIVE

SEA LEVEL RISE 2010

BILLION

50 MILLION

5

INTERVENTION WALL NYC

SHIPS DECOMISSIONED PER YEAR

DECOMMISION SHIP SCRAP SHIP

SPENDING | DECOMISSIONED SHIPS PREDICTED STORM DEFENCE CURRENT STORM DEFENCE

LONG TERM STORAGE DOMESTIC RECYCLING OVERSEAS RECYCLING ARTIFICIAL REEFING

TEMPRETURE

CAT 5 EVETS/YR

RESI [LIENCE]STANCE SEVERITY | FREQUENCY OF STORM SURGE GLOBAL SEA TEMPRETURE RISE

YEARS

400 10% 1M 10x INCREASE IN EXTREME WAVE HEIGHT

FREQUENCY OF EVENTS BY 2050

BILLION

10


33 21 km

|

30

kn ts

CITY C //

ts

CITY A // km

|

30

kn

2 47

1

139k

30 w m |

CITY B //

km

10

42 | 30 km

|

30

kn

ts

ts

kn 97

Decommissioned military vessels are appropriated to carry storm surge interventions. These ships track off shore storms by probability of course and deploy along vulnerable coastlines.

Logistical nature of these events mean that high precipitation would preceed increased water volume and high winds brought with the storm and its low pressure.

Storms are forecast by coupling of low air pressure and high winds, the addition of warm ocean surface water indicates likely formation of a hurricane.

This increase in water level and wind speed can create storm surges in excess of 10m above normal high tide.


POOREST 50% VS RICHEST 50% AFFECTED

POOREST 50% VS RICHEST 50% AFFECTED

POOREST 50% VS RICHEST 50% AFFECTED

PROTECTION FOR POOR VS PROTECTION FOR INFRASTRUCTURE

PROTECTION FOR POOR VS PROTECTION FOR INFRASTRUCTURE

PROTECTION FOR POOR VS PROTECTION FOR INFRASTRUCTURE

PROTECTED VS UNPROTECTED SIGNIFICANT SITE FEATURES

PROTECTED VS UNPROTECTED SIGNIFICANT SITE FEATURES

PROTECTED VS UNPROTECTED SIGNIFICANT SITE FEATURES

More economically developed economies are least financially inhibited to protect against extreme weathers conditions. Where applied, their location is well considered and generally financially difinitive hard solutions. Communicative setups and sophisticated methods of forecasting minimise the loss of human life and focuses damage to property and infrastructure from which the poor is least able to recover.

Newly industrialised countries are reaching a position where protections are becoming financially feasible. Universal approaches can be developed from precedent for more blanket coverage, but wealth inequalities often result in the poorest being hit hardest. This means that loss of human life is often the predominant concern as protections are largely focussed on maintaining industries and services which the country is globally developed.

Extreme population densities in less economically developed countries means a higher percentage of susceptible land has to be utilised by the poorest. Without the infrastructural and communicative setups of wealthier countries, the risk of the loss of human life and displaced livlihood is much higher. Most funding for rudimentary weather protection is directed to fundamental service provsions with little to protect the poor.

Notable Case Study: Hurricane Sandy (USA)

Notable Case Study: Cyclone Nargis (India)

Notable Case Study: Cyclone Sidr (Bangladesh)


CHANNEL CURRENT

EVEN CURRENT

Each island is fitted with a turbine which affects its relative position within the net. The stronger the current, the harder the turbine pulls and the closer the islands cluster. This creates an autonomous system which dynamically positions more protections within faster moving waters and which adjusts automatically to fluctuating off-shore fluid dynamics to provide an efficient, even coverage.

14.00m

8.00m

10.00m 10m

1m

14.00m

NET COMPONENT (ISLAND) PLAN

8.00m


11.00m

0.00m

B

A

B*

- 19.00m

B**

TURBINES // A

Differential turbines separate waves in the vertical axis by enforcing drag on the wave mid-section. The resultant drag would induce vortexes between velocities, continually reducing the wave energy and speed.

BALLASTS // B

C

MOTOR | SPINE

// C

Ballasts are deployed at the upper and lower components of the island’s periphery to provide stability.

A motor stores charge consumed throughout the event to be expended at the sea floor as a trickle charge.

Lower ballasts are flooded when deployed from ships to move islands from their horizontal storage position to a steady vertical alignment.

Such charge encourages a biofilm substrate to form upon the structure skin to encourage ecological growth


1 2 A

3

B

COCOON

// A A

Fully charged Islands and Hexigon bases are detached from ships post-storm to build up an un-natural bathymetry that seeks to distribute energy evenly accross the coastline.

Once becoming redundant atop the surface post-storm turbines are submerged in their new energy cartography. Force of Islands striking the sea floor facilitates a mechanical transformation whereby islands fully deploy, anchor and turbines raise.

1

Wave Energy 1

A

Wave Energy 2

2

Velocity 1

B

Velocity 2

3

Shore Topology

Electricity garnered throughout the storm event is now given off as a trickle charge through steel cables connecting webs of Hexagons. This allows a biofilm to subsume the cables surface and create a living skin where natural ecologies can thrive and construct an organic reef defence. Repetitions of this cycle after each event will create a qausi - natural bathymetry that strives for equilibrium of storm energy distribution.

B

EMERGENCE

// B

Stabilisers are deployed to anchor the island in place and resist future storm forces. C

Semi-enclosed and permeable surfaces permit ecological build up and marine life habitation.

C CHRYSALIS

// C*

Fully functional turbines are propelled upward by a retractable island base. This energy gathering implement provides a continued electrical charge throughout the entire system.


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A

XYZ

acdirection, lorem. Proin cursus er tortor in the magna opposite dolor porttitor pharetra using thefermentum wave’s energy vestibulum quis, malesuada vitae against itself and equalising Nam et aliquet nunc, vel thetortor. amplitude. tempor lectus.

AS

ST. Arm

AS

OSCILLATING MECHANISM DETAIL // A


RESISTANCE AND RESTORATION DEVICE + 0.00 m

// A // B

// C

// D // E

// F

- 2.50m

- 5.00m

Mechanised pistons force wave energy against itself whilst at sea through a simple cog detail. Energy garnered through this time is registered within each device and dictates its height once at the sea floor, creating a future ecologically subsumed bathymetry that works to evenly distribute energy patterns of storm events while reducing its energy.

PHOTO VOLTAIC PANELS // A

ILLUMINATED PANEL // B

INSULATION // C

Solar panels store charge while at sea and on land to offer continued power in the event of rolling blackouts across the disrupted city.

Light panels allow the topological energy pattern at sea to be recorded real-time by arcraft where lights indicate energy being consumed.

An insulated panel provides both electrical housing, thermal insulation and buoyancy at sea.

Lighting also allows emergency shelters to be identified easily postevent.

Surface hexagons are released once the scheme submerges and are allowed to drift inland, offering emergency energy and shelter to distraught communities. Hexagon pads can be laid flat to act as solar panels and connected to car batteries to provide usable power. Alternatively hexagons and pentagons are logistically calculated for geodesic dome construction. In turn providing an emergency weather-proof temporary construction while providing power and insulation to those residing within the structure.

Insulation is necessary in providing a habitable temperate space within the dome in each climate.

STEEL SHELL (1/2) // D

MAGNETIZED PERIMETER // E

RUBBER FIXINGS // F

This provides full electrical circuit to the design and protects against mild destruction throughout the event and post-storm use.

Magnets allow the hexagons or pentagons at sea to sit side by side and congregate after being detached and floating to shore.

Perimeter fixings allow each hexagon or pentagon to be fixed into place within the geodesic dome using the upward force from surrounding panels to support it’s form-active structure.



RESI[LIENCE]STANCE