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Book Review By: Justice Walker and Miranda Filbert.


Chapter 1

• The preamble was made to describe the purpose of the document and the government it creates. • The framers of the Preamble wanted to “establish justice” by creating a government that would carry out fair laws that was applied to the people equally. • Also, they wanted the United States to have a society and economy which the people could prosper. • By dividing the government into three branches set up a very strong central government.


Chapter 2

• In the Executive Branch, you have the President, Vice President and all the other Executive Officials, Departments and Agencies. • Everyone in this branch must “take care that the Laws be faithfully executed” as said under the constitution. • Within each executive department are agencies that address different issues that they have to deal with. • Cabinet members advise the president on policy matters relating to their departments.


Chapter 3

• The Supreme Court and the lower federal courts make up our federal judiciary, or the federal court system. • The federal courts have also been called “the guardians of the Constitution” because they judge if laws and actions comply with the constitution standards. • The Supreme Court is the highest court in the land, which consist of nine judges including a chief justice. • Also, the Supreme Court is the last stop in the judicial system and all decisions are final.


Chapter 4 • In the early years, the United States was mainly a rural nation. • The country was expanding beyond just the original 13 states. • In this time, farming was the nation’s most economic activity, most Americans farmed for them and their families. • The United States had little industry so everything had to be made my farmers. • Because of lack of transportation most states and regions were distant from each other.


Chapter 5 • The first half of the 19th century became a great time of change for American lives. • In the early 1800’s, the reform efforts found inspiration that was known as the Second Great Awakening. • Preachers would travel town to town to hold revival meetings and calling people to embrace the Christian faith. • One reform that came to overshadow all the others were the movement to end slavery. • Free African Americans in the North formed several antislavery societies in the early 1800s.


Chapter 6 Click to edit Master text styles• – Second level – Third level

By the midcentury 1800s, the North and the South had become increasingly different. Both had different economies and resources.

The North was very urban, with people leaving their farms to work in factories in large cities. Immigration made the population grow quickly and mostly stayed in the North due to being able to find work in the factories much easier than in the South. Railroads to carry goods crisscrossed the North which helped transportation.

The South was mostly rural in the 1800s and most populations lived on small farms or plantations. Agricultural products were the basis of the South’s economy, with rice, corn, and cotton being the three most important exports. Though only ¼ of Southern households had slaves, slavery was still very important to the economy and would collapse otherwise. Due to this, many people in the South saw abolished slavery as a threat to their culture.

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Chapter 7 • Click to edit Master text styles – Second level

In 1819, Missouri applied for statehood as a slave state, which threatened to tip the balance in the Senate.

Both the North and the South argued over the issue, making slavery a national issue and the Senate deadlocked.

The issue was resolved in 1820 when Maine applied as a free state. Speaker of the House Henry Clay proposed the Missouri Compormise.

The Missouri Compromise allowed Missouri to enter as a slave state and Maine to enter as a free state. After that, a line was drawn at 36’30 laititude. All states that entered above the line were free states and all states below the line were slave states.

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Chapter 8 •

In 1854, the Senate proposed Kansas-Nebraska Act that organized the Great Plains for settlement. Due to the fact that it laid north of the Missouri Compromise, the North did not include any mention of slavery. The South agreed to the bill if it was based on popular sovereignty and with their help it made it through Congress.

The act scared many Northerners because they believed that the Missouri Compromise put the Great Plains off-limits to slavery and that now slavery would spread too quickly and overwhelm the North.

With the Kansas-Nebraska Act, many people moved into Kansas, mostly famers who simply wanted a peaceful life. But several people who opposed or approved of slavery spilled into the territory and the tension quickly became violent, extending to the Senate where Preston Brooks attacked Charles Summer and beat him.

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Chapter 9 •

On April 12, 1861, the Confederate forces attacked Fort Sumter, forcing a surrender. This caused fury in the North and started the Civil War. When it first began, both sides believed that the war would be a short one. Instead, the Civil War lasted four long years.

The North used a strategy known as the Anaconda Plan; an effort that would squeeze the South like the snake named would crush its prey. The Plan was successful at first, but was unable to take Richmond until the end of the war, and many bloody wars took place before the end, the worst being the Battle of Antietam.

The war ended on April 9, 1865, the Civil War ended when General Robert E. Lee met with General Ulysses S. Grant at the village of Appomattox Court House in surrender. The terms were generous to Lee, as it allowed his officers to keep their weapons, troops to keep their claimed horses, and allowed the men to return home and not be disturbed by authorities.

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Chapter 10 •

Out of the 3 million men who fought in the Civil War, a third of these men died or was wounded. Medical care was poor during the Civil War as most doctors did not know what caused diseases and infections. Due to this, more soldiers died of disease rather than battle.

As slaves fled to Union lines, many commanders ranged from trying to send them back to their owners to paying them for noncombat work. Many freedmen helped in the war, despite prejudice, and earned respect among white officers. But even after the war, African Americans continued to face hardships that would not be settled until many years to come.

Women helped the war effort by working as nurses and providing medical care to soldiers, as well as working in factories and filling government positions that were left open due to the war. Many women assumed the role of spies due to being less likely to be caught rather than men, as well as having the possibility of not being as punished as severely, and some even dressed up as men and enlisted in the army, going to great lengths to conceal their secret. The American Red Cross was founded in 1881 by Clara Barton, who brought care to wounded soldiers even as bullets still flew.

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Book reveiw powerpoint chapters 6 10  

4th period book review by Miranda Filbert and Justice Walker.

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