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Rocky Boy Youth Powwow schedule Thursday, Aug. 3 1 p.m. — Registration opens for all youth dancers 3 p.m. — Grand entry— Opening ceremonies 3:30 p.m. — Initiation of Youth Dancers 4 p.m. — Inter-tribal dancing

4 p.m. — Youth Dancers Feed 4:15 p.m. — Tiny Tot exhibition dancing 4:30 p.m. — Junior Girls and Boys exhibition dancing 5 p.m. —  Teen Girls and Boys exhibition dancing 6 p.m. —  Closing Ceremony, Retiring of the Flags and Color Guards

Havre Daily News/File photo Youth participants walk in a grand entry Aug. 7, 2016, at the Rocky Boy annual celebration.

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An invitation to the Rocky Boy powwow Attention Community: On behalf of the Chippewa Cree Tribe Wellness Coalition and 2017 Youth and Annual Powwow Committee, I am inviting everyone to the Chippewa Cree Tribe Youth and Annual Powwow beginning Aug. 3. I am hoping you will be able to attend this momentous occasion and experience firsthand the pride we take in our community and culture. This year’s powwow was organized by the Chippewa Cree Wellness Coalition and will benefit education, job training, health of the Chippewa Cree and other Native Americans and appreciation of arts, cultural awareness and Chippewa Cree heritage, which is outlined below. The purpose of the Wellness Coalition was to provide the infrastructure needed to coordinate healthy social and cultural prevention activities and provide communication for all programs and agencies, and to provide agencies, departments and other stakeholders the organizational structure to fulfill the Tribal Action Plan’s Strategic Plans for establishing and maintaining wellness in the community. The Wellness Coalition vision is for a Chippewa Cree community to have an identity and be self-assured, self-sustaining, peaceful and engaged in the Chippewa Cree culture, one in which has a belief that anything is possible, and to have a community that supports, embraces and encourages life in the Chippewa Cree way. The Wellness Coalition are people working together to improve our community, creating a comprehensive sustainable continuum of familycentered care through efficient and effective partnerships with children, youth and families. The Wellness Coalition adopted the mission statement to coordinate healthy traditional, social and prevention activities and provide a forum for communication for all programs and agencies “in the Chippewa Cree Way.” The Wellness Coalition recognizes and respects the holistic and unique structure of the Chippewa Cree and will remain dedicated to community health needs. The Chippewa Cree People are unique and possess those characteristics that have sustained their tribalism for many generations. The spiritual, physical and mental wellness is of supreme importance for individual members of the tribe, in their pursuit

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Rocky Boy’s annual celebration ready to shine through the weekend Havre Daily News staff The officials and drummers are lined up and ready for Rocky Boy’s 53rd Annual Celebration, with the powwow events starting Friday and thousands of dollars in prizes — estimated at more than $100,000 in total payouts at the main powwow— waiting to be awarded. The annual youth powwow is slated for Thursday, with registration starting at 1 p.m., Grand entry at 3 p.m. and the closing ceremony at 6 p.m. The powwow area will abound with dancers, drummers, vendors, spectators and

good-fellowship through Sunday. The masters of ceremony are Howle T h o m p s o n o f C a r r y T h e K e t t l e, Saskatchewan, Canada, and Merle Tendoy and Daryl Wright II, both of Rocky Boy. The arena directors are Rooster Top Sky of Rocky Boy and Randy Paskemin of Sweet Grass, Sasatchewan. Both head dancers are from Rocky Boy, with Head Woman Mary Top Sky and Head Man Andrew Windy Boy Sr. Tabulation will be by C & T Tabulation of Muskatoon, Saskatchewan. The visiting host drum is Young Bear of

Mandaree, North Dakota, while the local host drum is Montana Cree of Rocky Boy. WindDancer Tunes of Browning is running the sound. Prizes will be awarded to dancers in several main categories. For Golden Age 55 and older, the first place for men and for women will give $1,000, $800 for second, $600 for third, $400 for fourth and $200 for fifth. The adult groups are broken into two categories for men and women, senior for dancers ages 35 to 54 and junior for dancers 18 to 34. Prizes will be $1,000 for first, $800 for sec-

ond, $600 for third, $400 for fourth and $200 for fifth in traditional, grass, fancy, prairie chicken and jingle dancing. Teen boys and girls, ages 13-17, will receive $500 for first, $400 for second, $300 for third, $200 for fourth and $200 for fifth in traditional, grass, fancy, prairie chicken and jingle dancing. Junior boys and girls, ages 7 to 12, will dance for a $250 award for first, $200 for second, $200 for third, $250 for fourth and $50 for fifth in the same dances, traditional, grass, fancy, prairie chicken and jingle.

Rocky Boy annual celebration schedule of events Friday, Aug. 4

of a fulfilled life. The Wellness Coalition will strive to make available all necessary health components, in pursuit of the wellness of all tribal members, in a manner consistent with and exceeding those services provided in any other community. The philosophy of the Chippewa Cree is that we believe the Maker of All things put us on our Mother Earth to respect one another in our relationships with all things and to all people. The Great Holy Being told the old people long ago that all people and all things are but different branches on the same tree. We are told in our daily lives we must do these things: • Respect Mother Earth and all things

that live here. Respect the elders, our mothers and our sisters. • Love one another and help one another. • Pray in a good way that we might get the power to help one another and to respect one another for our differences. • Be truthful and respectful in our speech, which in itself is a miracle and given from our Creator that we might use it only to speak good of each other and to pass on the good things in life. • Remember that everything that is created on Mother is useful, has a purpose and was put here for a reason. Nothing is to be abused that has been created. • Remember that all things are related

Havre Daily News/File photo and that all things are perfect as they have been created: wind, fire, water, rocks, animals, crawlers, birds, plants, the moon, the sun and humans. • Remember that the earth was created for everyone and everything and that we are not to selfishly claim it. We are all to share of the good things in life so that we may all live in harmony. • Realize that we as human beings have been put on this earth for only a short time and that we must use this time to use our minds to gain wisdom, knowledge, respect and understanding of all human beings since we are all brothers. • Be humble and respectful before the

9 a.m. — Walk for Sobriety — start at Agency and end at Powwow Grounds 1 p.m. —  Registration opens for all dancers 7 p.m. —  Grand entry — Opening Ceremonies 7:30 p.m. —  Welcome Address, Chippewa Cree Tribe Chairman — Harlan Baker 7:35 p.m. — Inter-tribal dancing 7:45 p.m. —  Alice Day Child Yellow Wolf Memorial contest and give away 7:50 p.m. —  Healing Honor Dance for Kailoni Mae Duran, daughter of Klay Duran and Natalia Coversup 7:55 p.m. — Bill Parker Memorial song and give away 8 p.m. — Videl Stump Memorial Song 8:30 p.m. — Tiny Tot exhibition dancing 8:45 p.m. — Junior Girls and Boys Contest Dancing 9:15 p.m. —  Teen Girls and Boys Contest Dancing 9:45 p.m. —  Golden Age Women and Men Contest Dancing 10:15 p.m. — Demontiney Mother/Daughter Special in honor of all Mothers and Daughters — $1,000 winner-take-all 10:30 p.m. —  Adult Women and Men Contest Dancing 12 a.m. —  Closing Ceremony, Retiring of the Flags and Color Guards.

Saturday, Aug. 5

1 p.m. — Grand entry 1:30 p.m. — Inter-tribal dancing 2 p.m. — Tiny Tot Exhibition Dancing 2:30 p.m. — Junior Girls and Boys Contest Dancing 3 p.m. —  Teen Girls and Boys Contest

Dancing 3:30 p.m. — Golden Age Women and Men Contest Dancing 4 p.m. —  Adult Women and Men contest dancing 5 p.m. —  Andrew Windy Boy Head Man Dancer Golden Age Special 5:30 p.m. —  Mary Top Sky Head Woman Dancer Golden Age Special 6 p.m. — Supper break 7 p.m. — Grand entry 7:30 p.m. — Inter-tribal dancing 8 p.m. — Tiny Tot Exhibition Dancing 8:30 p.m. —  Junior Girls and Boy Contest Dancing 9 p.m. —  Teen Boys and Girls Contest Dancing 9:30 p.m. —  Golden Age Women and Men Contest Dancing 10 p.m. — Rooster Top Sky Old Style Grass Dance Special 10:15 p.m. —  Daryl Wright II & Powwow Fancy Feather Dance Special 10:30 p.m. —  Adult Men and Women Contest Dancing 12 a.m. —  Closing Ceremony, Retiring of the Flags and Color Guards

Sunday, Aug. 6

1 p.m. — Grand entry 1:30 p.m. — Inter-tribal dancing 2 p.m. — Tiny Tot Exhibition Dancing 2:30 p.m. — Junior Girls and Boys Contest Dancing 3 p.m. —  Teen Girls and Boys Contest Dancing 3:30 p.m. —  Golden Age Women and Men Contest Dancing 4 p.m. —  Adult Women and Men Contest Dancing Exhibitions

5 p.m. — Freddie Bacon Memorial Men’s Grass Dance Special 5:30 p.m. —  Powwow Committee Position Giveaway 6 p.m. —  Supper break — Payout and announcement of Teens and JuniorContest Winners 7 p.m. — Grand entry 7:30 p.m. — Inter-tribal dancing 8 p.m. —  Tiny Tot, Juniors and Teens Exhibition Dancing 8:30 p.m. —  Kendra Gopher Senior Princess Special 9 p.m. —  Dinay Cree Whitford Junior Princess Special 9:30 p.m. —  Golden Age Women and Men

Havre Daily News/File photo Contest Dancing 10 p.m. — Cynthia Murie Backup Singing Contest Results 10 p.m. — Ervinal Denny Junior — Buffalo Hide Drum Donation for Champion Contest Winner 10 p.m. — Adult Southern Dance Special — All categories 10:15 p.m. — Cree Bustle/Crow Belt Special 10:30 p.m. —  Adult Men and Women Contest Dancing Midnight. — Announcement and Payout of all Adult Contest Winners 12:30 a.m. — Closing Ceremony, Retiring of the Flags and Color Guards


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Rodeo action set throughout Rocky Boy’s 53rd Annual Celebration Havre Daily News staff Cowboys as well as dancers will converge on Rocky Boy’s Indian Reservation this we e k , w i t h ro d e o a c t i o n s e t to r u n Wednesday through Sunday at the Sybil Sangrey-Colliflower Memorial Arena. The ac tion kicks of f fo r e n ro l l e d Chippewa Cree Tribe members first, with the Chippewa Cree Rodeo starting at 6 p.m. Wednesday. The Kid’s Rodeo follows on Thursday, with events starting at 10 a.m. The events set for children 6 and younger are barrel racing, arena race, sheep riding upon availability and goat ribbon pull. For cowboys and cowgirls ages 7 to 10, the events scheduled are barrel racing, pole bending ribbon goat tying and steer riding. For 11- to 14-year-olds, the events set are barrel racing, pole bending, goat tying, breakaway roping and steer riding, and for the older youths, 15 to 18, the events are barrel racing, pole bending, goat tying and junior bulls. Friday at 9 a.m., with entry on-site at 8 a.m., the Third Annual Enos Johnson Sr. Memorial Team Roping is set to start. The open Rocky Boy Rodeo is also set to start Friday, with slack scheduled at 9 a.m. and performances set to start Friday at 7 p.m. and Saturday at 2 p.m. and a short go scheduled for Sunday at 1 p.m.

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Tradition: Long list of traditions and etiquette followed at powwows ■ Continued from page 9 a large number of tin lids — originally from the tops of snuff cans but now made from tin lids off chewing tobacco cans — rolled into cones and attached to the dress. Some traditions call for 365 cones, one for each day of the year. As the jingle dancer moves, her dress makes a very distinctive sound. The Chippewa Cree Events Committee adds other dance style categories as a sign of respect and hospitality to visiting tribes, styles like men's prairie chicken, men's crow belt, men's southern straight and women's elk tooth crow style.

Powwow Etiquette Etiquette for spectators and newcomers: Listen to the master of ceremonies. If you do nothing else on this list, at least do this. The benches in the arena are normally reserved for dancers. Be prepared to pro-

vide your own chairs. Ask permission to take photos or videos of individual dancers — shots of groups or the arena as a whole are usually fine. Listen to the MC for times that you should not take pictures. Always stand, if able, during social honoring songs. These will be announced by the MC. Gentlemen should also remove their hats. All pets and food should be kept outside the dance arena at all times, even between dance sessions. Only dance during intertribal songs or when you are invited to dance. Do not dance during competition. If you have a question, ask. If you are honestly interested and curious, most people will be happy to answer your questions.

Etiquette For Dancers Listen to the master of ceremonies and, most importantly, listen to the arena direc-

tor. Respect the positions of the head dancers. Don't dance before the head dancers start dancing. Seats on the benches may be reserved with a blanket. Never move or sit on someone else's blanket without permission. Be on time and ready to dance in full regalia. Dress properly in appropriate dance clothes — if you don't know what's appropriate, ask. Respect the protocol of the group sponsoring the powwow. This often includes dancing around the arena in a particular direction. Stand for all specials and other honoring songs. Certain items should only be used by those who are qualified according to the traditions of their tribe.

These include war bonnets, rattles, whistles and religious items. Firearms — even nonoperational ones — lances with points and unsheathed knives should not be carried while dancing for safety reasons. If you feel you must carry one of these items, speak with the arena director ahead of time. All specials must be coordinated with the MC. You may be required to have it at a certain time or dance session. This is to benefit the entire powwow, so please be understanding. Never come to a powwow with alcohol, under the influence of drugs or intoxicated.

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Creator every day and give thanks for putting us here on the earth. • Always be respect of life. We are not to kill our fellow man. An Elder said, “We believe in the uniqueness of the individual and want our children to have a deep respect for others and for those things and people who may be different from them. We believe that racism and prejudice in any form is a useless exercise for the human mind because it only breeds hatred, misunderstanding and unhappiness; it ignores the realities of the world because there are different people and beliefs which have the right to exist as long as theirs does not attempt to do away with our way of life.” The Wellness Coalition will provide educational materials and presentations to the community during the powwow on various topics such as: What is a powwow? The history of a Rocky Boy’s Powwow. The types of powwow dances. The types of powwow songs. The meaning behind powwow dances. The meaning behind powwow songs. The health benefits for participating in a powwow. The Chippewa Cree powwow is a large powwow, in the past upwards of 1,000 dancers have attended and about 800 dancers have registered for competition this year. Add to that 29 drum groups, 12 of which were contest drum groups with eight to 12 singers at each drum. The wishes for the CCT powwows are to end each year in a good way and to start the next in a good way with culture, prayer, song, dance and traditions. Powwow participants get physical, spiritual, and physiological benefits. The Wellness Coalition believes powwows keep dancers and singers healthy and use it as a drug and alcohol prevention activity. The Chippewa Cree Tribe has maintained the traditional spiritual beliefs and cultural ceremonies and activities that have been part of the tribe since time immemorial. Powwows have been Chippewa Cree people’s way of meeting together, to join in dancing, singing, visiting, renewing old friendships and making new ones. This is a time to renew Native American culture and preserve the rich heritage of American Indians. Our powwow is one of the few in the U.S. that still uses an older style of arbor, one covered with tree branches . We also celebrated 100 years of our reservation last year and would like to thank you very much for your generous contribution. Please keep in mind the intent from the first youth powwow in 1998 has been to increase the number of youth in our community initiated into the powwow circles after learning of the benefits. Every youth dancer and singer will be paid to encourage participation in a drug- and alcohol-free activity during the youth powwow, which has ranged from 150-200 youth. The youth powwow began

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in 1998 as a drug and alcohol prevention activity, a way to encourage youth to join the circle to learn about the Native American’s rich heritage of dance and singing. The Rocky Boy Schools Project EAGLES conducted five years of research (1995-2000) with results showing that if a youth participated in a ceremony or cultural event in the past 30 days the student was less likely to use drugs, alcohol or tobacco. The youth powwow organizers chose not to sponsor competitive dancing so youth from the Rocky Boy’s Indian Reservation would not be discouraged to dance and sing. Every year there are more than 100 youth dancers and a minimum of 20 youth initiated into the dance circle each year. American Indian powwow dances, from fancy dance to grass dance and even traditional, can offer a way for people to get and stay fit in the new year and beyond. With many dances requiring intense physical exertion — and with all dances being tied to community all year round — the post-holiday season may be the perfect time to shake off holiday blues. Strenuous dances like fancy dance, fancy shawl and grass dance, like any aerobic exercise, strengthen cardiovascular fitness. However, dancers do not need to be gearing toward competition to reap the benefits. Even light physical exertion done for 30 minutes three times a week brings health benefits. Just listening to any traditional music with a strong drum beat and following the rhythm can raise your heartbeat — and with a few variations, targeted muscle groups can get their own workout. Dancers can incorporate specific fitnessenhancing techniques into their practice following basic strength-training moves. Duckand-dive already has one such move incorporated. A change in drum beat signals dancers duck and dive, which requires flexing the quadriceps, hamstrings, gluteals, hip flexors and calf muscles. Inserting moves might not work during competition, but during practice sessions and workouts, strength training can be a matter of choosing one move and dropping it into the dance at regular intervals. Squats, leg raises, lunges and sideways bends can all be performed to the beat, either as bursts of large actions or as smaller pulses. Even the more sedate dances — traditional women’s require a concentrated motion instead of big expenditures of energy — can provide health benefits, even if the cardiovascular system isn’t particularly challenged. Sitting down most of the time increases a person’s risk of developing heart disease by 50 percent, even when following a regimen of physical activity. Just one day of doing nothing but sitting can trigger symptoms of pre-diabetes, making something as simple as a standing dance a weapon against health dangers.

Perhaps the true power of powwow as fitness lies not in its specific physical movements but more in its holistic nature. As an activity that requires little but a desire to learn, dancing for fitness already clears a major hurdle. It is easy and affordable, and can be adjusted to any fitness level, starting with people in physical rehabilitation. More important, the social aspect of dance take its benefits beyond the arena. Health research shows people with developed community networks increase protection against non-cancer mortality, cardiovascular disease and depression. However, when we dance traditional dances, we are not just connecting with the people who are standing beside us. We are connecting with those who have gone. We dance for those who went before us. It’s a sentiment echoed by dancers of all strains. The dance gives a feeling of unity for your family, your family’s family, for the entire family. Powwows also have spiritual and communal aspects that may prove to be the most important aspect of dance as fitness in Indian communities. According to a joint report from the Management Sciences for Health and the Office of Minority Health and Bureau of Primary Health Care, relying upon community strengths to overcome challenges is key to developing health care practices that stick. As identified by the report, strengths in Native communities include creativity, connection with the past, honoring of elders, and holistic thinking. Given these assets, it is hard to think of a fitness program more fitting for Indians than dance. Some of the powwow songs have words while others are pure chanting. For example, an honor song might be composed for someone who has recently returned from war or the military, or for someone who recently passed away. Other songs provide ladies the chance to ask that special man to dance. There are some old favorites passed down from generations past but today more and more drum groups are being formed that are using their own languages to create new powwow songs. Singers and youth are encouraged to write and sing in their own language. Today songs include lyrics that talk about the dancers and how good they are dancing, how strong they look all decked out. Songs encourage the dancers to dance hard and fast. They even take a stab at love songs when the announcer calls for a twostep or a Round Dance. Songs appeal to the Creator to keep our nation strong and safe and to help all people live a better life. Songs ask the Creator to give them the talent and

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Transfer to the next powwow committee One of the later events at Rocky Boy’s 53rd Annual Celebration is the transfer of planning to the members of the next committee, which will organize Rocky Boy’s Christmas and 2018 powwows. A key part of the annual powwow is the powwow committee following cultural and and traditional protocol and each member handing off their powwow committee positions to another committee member in the community to plan for the next celebrations. The transfer ceremony will happen Sunday.

blessing to compose songs and to share them with others, as prayers for all people. The songs are for us to live a better life. One of the important roles of the announcer is to let the crowd know what type of dance or competition is coming up next. They also call out to the drum group the category of the next song, though the groups must pick the specific song to perform, and occasionally take public requests for songs. Many of drum groups have young people sitting around the drum, which is exciting. It shows the culture is being passed down and the songs are being preserved. We work to make positive economic, health and social impacts within our community, as well as surrounding communities each year. In order to meet our payout goal, we rely heavily on the generosity of donors support. Below is a list of the many donors: • Plain Green • Chippewa Cree Tribal Programs: TANF, Social Services, White Sky Hope Center, Water Resources, Roads, Maintenance and Stone Child College • ICON • Community Contractors • AE2S • Rocky Boy School Thank you very much and I look forward to an enjoyable powwow. Elinor Nault Wright, M. Ed. Wellness Coalition/Annual Powwow chairperson


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Powwow celebrations have changed — and stayed the same — throughout the decades Alex Ross aeross@havredailynews.com

Pearl Whitford has been dancing at powwows since she was a young girl. Now 77, Whitford, a member of the Chippewa Cree Tribe and lifelong resident of Rocky Boy’s Indian Reservation, said that as a young girl she did multiple dances ranging from women’s traditional to jingle and women’s shawl dances, now known as the women’s fancy dance. “We started that up in the early ’50s,” Whitford said. She said the dance was different from others because in the fancy dance, dancers would lift their legs into the air. “We never used to pick up our legs and put them in the air,” Whitford said. Decades later, Whitford is still dancing, and this week she will have plenty of company when members of tribes across the U.S. and Canada join the Chippewa Cree at Rocky Boy, the smallest of Montana’s seven Indian reservations, for Rocky Boy’s 53rd Annual Celebration. The event, which includes the powwow, rodeos, events for children and more, will consist of three days of intertribal traditional dance, song, drumming, prayer and togetherness including competition for cash prizes.

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People has not. You will see no religious dancers at powwows today.

Men’s Traditional Dance The traditional male dancer keeps in older dance style and expresses his own individuality by combining both contemporary and traditional styles in costumes. Although dance style varies depending on the individual, tribal and/or regional ties, there are certain items of apparel, which are common among most traditional male dancers. The traditional dancers execute a very graceful and dignified dance closely resembling styles of early days. The traditional dance style — also called contemporary traditional — emerged from the Northern Plains. It is based on the same traditions as old style, but became identifiably different sometime around the mid-1900s. Traditional outfits tend to use more modern materials, more feathers and ribbons, and larger bustles than old style outfits. The dancing itself tends to involve more movement and action. The dancing often resembles two things: the movements of animals, particularly birds, found in the Northern Plains, and the movements of a warrior showing off his ability and accomplishments in battle.

Men’s Traditional Southern Straight

History

Though Rocky Boy’s celebration has been happening for 53 years, the history of powwows extends back much further. The word powwow is the white man’s spelling of the Algonquin word pau-wau, an a term that means “gathering.” How the powwow started is not known, but the American Indian Heritage Foundation website says it was thought to have begun by the Pawnee Indians as a religious ceremonial meeting with dance and other rituals. Other tribes eventually adopted the powwow, each adding their own cultural elements to it. The ceremonies were often held to celebrate a good hunt, give thanks for a bountiful harvest or prepare warriors for battle, the site says. Paul McKenzie Jones, professor of Indian Studies at Montana State

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Rocky Boy Powwow, Aug 6, 2016. University-Northern, said the word was eventually co-opted by European Americans and media to mean any gathering of American Indians. “You would see a lot in the 18th and 19th century whenever sort of a council would get together or there would be a meeting

between the Americans and the Indians, it would always be classified as a powwow,” Jones said. He added that the name powwow was not used by Natives to describe these gatherings until the 1930s and 1940s. In the late 1800s, the federal govern-

ment sought to eradicate American Indian culture through education focused on integration, force and laws such as a ban on Native American cultural practices like dancing. Jones said these often intertribal gatherings would frequently pop up on the

The straight dance comes originally from the Southern Plains, and has its origins in the dances of the warrior societies of several tribes. Often called the Indian tuxedo, the straight outfit looks much more tailored than those of other dance styles. There are few feathers and no bustles, which are instead replaced with cloth and ribbon work, giving the outfit a very sleek, clean appearance. Today, many bright colors and silver go into the outfit, providing the flash that is found in other outfits. Straight dancing tends to be smoother and involves less motion than other dance styles. It reflects the older, experienced warrior moving with the grace and ease of long practice as he surveys everything around him and sees that it is good.

Men’s Fancy Dance Men’s fancy dance is a modern-style dance that has its roots in old grass dance. This exuberant style of dance is fast paced

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and features elaborate footwork and high jumps. Fancy dancers wear sheep or sleigh bells to help maintain the rhythm of the dance and two feather bustles worn on the neck and back. These were at one time made of eagle feathers. Today, many are made of white and dark eagle feathers decorated with small colorful feathers called hackles. Men's fancy dance has its origins in the old Wild West shows of Buffalo Bill Cody and others. The managers of these shows felt that the dancing being done by the Indians in their shows was not interesting enough to hold the attention of the spectators, so they had the dancers create more colorful outfits and dance faster and with more motions. Since then, fancy dance has grown considerably, in large part with the help of contest powwows. The dance has become more and more colorful and faster over the years, with larger bustles, the additional of ribbons and, of course, all manner of dance steps intended to outdo all other dancers. The fancy outfit is distinguished by its two large, colorful feather bustles on the dancer's back, and the dance has larger motions and spins not seen in other dance styles.

Men’s Grass Dance Men’s grass dance features fluid, graceful, sweeping movements. Their colorful outfits are hinged with yarn, ribbon or cloth. This dance style originated from the plains. The dancers move as if they are smoothing down the tall grass; hence, the name. There are several stories about the origin of grass dancing. Many people say that the dance started among the young men who where sent out to flatten the prairie grass to form a dance arena. Rather than just stomp down the grass, they turned the chore into a dance. It is also said that they tied bundles of sweet grass to their belts, and tried to imitate the movement of the tall prairie grass swaying in the wind. Thus, in the dance today, you can see the dancers swaying and moving in the "wind," as well as seeing motions that look like they are moving through or stomping down the grass. The grass dance outfit today is far more colorful than it has been in the past. The original bundles of grass have been replaced with ribbons, yarn or cloth strips. When dancing, the dancers try to get the entire fringe in their outfit moving constantly in the swaying motion of the prairie.

Women’s Traditional Dance In women’s traditional dance, the feet never completely leave the ground, which symbolizes women's close ties with mother earth. When Indians acquired cloth from white traders, they began to make much of their clothing from it. Many eastern woodland, plains and southwestern people make cloth shins and blouses, leggings, etc. that are elaborately decorated with ribbons and silver buttons. Ribbons are cut, folded and appliquéd to create geometric or abstract floral designs. Our people still make beautiful dresses out of buckskin. The most treasured buckskins are Indian tanned. Using traditional methods, the Indian tanning process makes the hides very white and soft as velvet. A tan color is achieved by smoking the hide. When the dress is finished, many hours of beading begins. Beading ranges from fully beaded tops — common among the Sioux — to beaded strips across the front shoulders and around the button of the dress — Southern Plains. The ladies' traditional style is actually a combination of four styles: northern buckskin, northern cloth, southern buckskin and couthern cloth. While similar in many ways, each of these styles has its own distinct style of dress and dancing. Like all dance styles, these have strong roots in customs and traditions that have been passed down for years. The outfits are based on traditional clothing from specific tribes, and thus there is a great deal of variation from one dancer to the next. The dancing itself also varies widely based on the tribe represented, but always focuses on the grace and dignity of the dancer. The outfit often includes fringe on a shawl or the dress itself, along with other accessories, which must move in perfect time to the song.

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Women’s Fancy Dance Women's fancy dance features very elaborate footwork and lots of beadwork. In the fancy dance categories, it is very important to know all the songs to stop exactly on the last beat. The women wear hinged shawls and try to match all accessories. Ladies' fancy shawl is the newest style of ladies' dancing, and is similar in several ways to men's fancy dance. Women's fancy dance emerged in the 1950s and 1960s — and became vastly more popular over the next 20 years — among young women who were looking for a more stylistic, and energetic, dance style. The dance is light, graceful and very athletic. The dancers move much like a butterfly, and their outfits are bright and colorful to match. Particular emphasis is given to the shawl, which is worn over the shoulders and spread out along the arms like wings.

Women’s Jingle Dress Women's jingle dress dancers wear very simple but beautiful cut-cloth dresses decorated with tin cones that jingle as they move. There are several stories about the origin of the jingle dress, but they mostly agree that it was first seen in a dream and was intended as a way to heal those who were ill. As one tradition tells it, this style of dance had its beginnings in a young Chippewa woman's dream, then grew into society. Another says after a medicine man's granddaughter became very ill, he had a dream that showed him how to make the dress and which instructed him to have her dance in it. When the dress was made, she wore it and danced, very weakly at first, but becoming stronger as she went until she was healed. Today, jingle dance specials are sometimes requested by those with friends or relatives who are sick. The dress is made with

■ See Tradition Page 10


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A history of culture, tradition and etiquette (Presented with information courtesy of the Chippewa Cree Tribe.) The Rocky Boy Celebration powwow again will bring crowds from around the continent to Hill County this year in a massive celebration of Native American heritage. The origin of the word powwow comes from a mispronunciation of the Algonquian word that referred to a gathering of medicine men and spiritual leaders. The term became used for any sort of large gathering of Native Americans, including celebrations that many tribes held for successful hunts or harvest, weddings, or any other purpose. For many years, even into the 1920s, many such gatherings were frowned upon or even banned by the government. At the same time, there was a concerted effort to remove all traces of Native American culture and heritage. As a result, many tribal customs for specific ceremonies or gatherings were lost, and many tribes decreased dramatically in size. Thus, in the 1930s and 1940s, when gatherings were once again tolerated, many tribes began to share their customs with each other and to open up their gatherings to members of other tribes in order to preserve the culture. The end of World War II is seen by many as a turning point, when many Indians returned as veterans and heroes. The civil rights movements of the 1960s also served to help rebuild a sense of identity and pride. It was around this time that the powwow took on its modern form, and most of the dance styles were established as distinct categories. Powwows have grown considerably in number and popularity since that time, and can be found in all parts of the United States and Canada — and often in other countries as well — every weekend of the year.

The powwow today The modern-day powwow can be traced to the grass dance societies that formed around the turn of the last century. The grass dance is known by many different names among the various tribes and has an interesting history. It can be traced back to the war dances and victory celebrations of an earlier era. Originally only experienced warriors could belong to the grass dance societies. Throughout the years, the pow-

wow has evolved into a tradition exemplifying generosity and giving, as we come into the circle with honor and respect for each other and the drum. Powwow time gives us a chance to reflect on who we are as Indian people and to celebrate our rich heritage. Powwow singers are held in high regard by our people as the keepers of our songs. We are grateful that our young people continue to learn the old songs. As different tribes gathered together, the use of vocables — words that are a combination of certain sounds without regard to meaning — evolved so singers could share songs. Today, some songs are sung completely in vocables. Yet these songs, like songs with words, still hold significant meaning to those who know them. Songs are still being composed today. Songs still exist from pre-colonial times as well as recent wars. War, bravery, love and friendship are a few favorite themes.

The Grand Entry Although powwows may differ, depending on the location of type, the following is a system used by many powwows throughout the plains area. Many powwows use the following format: First the eagle staff is carried into the circle, followed by the American, Canadian, Montana and tribal flags. The titleholders from tribal pageants and — if present — Miss Indian America candidates. Other invited dignitaries are next, followed by the men traditional dancers first, then grass dancers and fancy dancers. Women come next, followed by traditional dancers, fancy shawl and jingle dress dancers. Next are the teen boys, then girls and then junior boys and girls in the same order as the adults. The last to enter are the tiny tot boys and girls. The dancers dance sun wise, or clockwise, around the arbor, showing the audience that they are ready to begin showing their outfits — the term costumes is seen by some as derogatory — and their dance steps letting them who watch know whom they are and what they can do. This may vary from tribe to tribe or powwow to powwow. When the grand entry song ends, there is a flag song, an equivalent of the national anthem. Then there is an invocation blessing the gathering. After the eagle staff — always positioned

above the American Flag to signify the first nation — is tied to the pole in the center of the arbor or brought to the announcers’ stand. A welcome is extended. and then there may be a few words by various dignitaries. When this portion of the ceremony is completed the dancing can begin.

Songs The flag song is the Indian equivalent of the national anthem. In recent years, nearly every tribe has composed a flag song, dedicated to the men and women who have served in the armed forces in various wars. There is no dancing to this song, but all stand in respect. Certain women may traditional dance in place for their father, brother, or son who is or was a combat veteran. The flag song is sung at the beginning of most Indian activities. The honor songs are special songs dedi cated to honor a particular person or persons. It is customary to stand in silence to show respect when an honor song is sung. The give-away song is one way of honoring certain individuals or groups among Indian people. Here the gesture is more important than the value of the gift. It is an honor to give and it usually takes great preparation.

The Eagle Feather If the eagle feather is dropped during a powwow everything comes to a halt until the feather is honored. Eagle feathers are treasured and precious to Indian people. Historically and traditionally, it is the right of any wounded warrior to retrieve a fallen eagle feather. The eagle feather is the spirit of a fallen warrior and can only be matched in power by the same. Recording and photographing such a ceremony is strictly forbidden. Those tribes that adhere to strict traditions and customs will allow only wounded veterans to carry and retrieve the spirit of the father. The pow-wow of today uses four veterans, representing the four cardinal directions to dance around the feather. The first two verses are straight verses with no down beat, paying respect to the Creator and the spirit of the fallen warrior. The next four verses will have the dancers charge the feather on the downbeat. The downbeat represents the cannon and gunfire in any song, so in the case of this ceremony, the veterans are charging the gunfire of the enemy. Each will charge with his

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right hand extended to touch or take coup. Those who have not taken coup will use an eagle feather fan, because they are not strong enough to touch the spirit. Again, this is very important to follow, because of the grave consequences to be paid if one insults the spirit. After the sixth verse, the honored veteran will pick the feather up with his left hand and give a war whoop to acknowledge the capture of the spirit of the feather. The veteran then returns the Eagle feather to its owner and the owner give him a gift in appreciation of the services that the veteran has performed for him.

Head Staff To be selected as one of the head people is a high honor. The head people are selected not only for ability, but also for personal qualities and actions.

The Head Man And Woman Dancer The head man and head woman guide and direct all the dancers throughout the powwow weekend. The other dancers wait in respect until the head man and woman dancer start each song.

The Head Singer The head singer of each drum must know all the songs to be sung. The head singer either starts the drumming/singing or selects another "lead" singer to begin the song. All other singers/drummers must wait for the signal for them to join in.

The Head Veteran The head veteran has the honor of carrying in the Indian flag at the very front of the precession of the dancers during Grand Entry. He also has the responsibility of "Retreating the Colors" at the end of each dance session.

Dancers Most dances seen at powwow today may have had different meaning in earlier days, but have evolved into the social dances of today. Although, dance style and content have changed, their importance to Indian

Havre Daily News/File photo

Rocky Boy Powwow, Aug 6, 2016. fourth of July, where natives would often use the holiday as cover to evade the dance ban. “And they would argue, ‘Well we are actually celebrating being an American,’ and they would use it as a subversive way of continuing their own culture without sort of being punished for it,” he said. The ban on dances ended in 1934 and

soon thereafter American Indians began openly referring to the gatherings as powwows.

Why hold powwows?

People take part in powwows for a multitude of reasons. Merle Tendoy, a lifelong resident of Rocky Boy and former dancer who has

worked different jobs at powwows, said the powwow serves as a way to memorialize people, praise individuals, honor veterans and hold a welcome-back ceremonies for people who have returned to the community. He said that oftentimes dignitaries speak to the crowds, including representatives from other tribes and state officials.

Last year, Montana Gov. Steve Bullock and Denise Juneau, a member of the Blackfeet tribe, who made history as the first Native American woman to be elected to statewide office in U.S. history, spoke. Te n d o y s a i d t h a t o n e y e a r J a y Silverheels, a Native actor best known for his role as Tonto on the 1950s TV series the

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Powwow: Powwows similar but from different cultures, different traditions ■ Continued from page 5 “ Lo n e Ra n ge r, ” m a d e a n appearance at Rocky Boy for its celebration. Powwows also allows people to pass on native traditions to the young, especially those who do not live in American Indian communities. “We get a chance to communicate with our younger generations when they are off getting education off the reservation,” Tendoy said. “Some of them come back for this annual celebration, so this gives us the opportunity to pass on knowledge to them, the younger generations.” The powwow can serve as a way to get people interested in the dances, as well. Jones said many dances are performed at other venues aside from the powwow. These events can include ceremonies that are more spiritual in character that are open only to certain tribes, other groups within a larger tribe or people who are invited to them. For some Natives, the powwow is of deep spiritual importance. “We pray to the spirits: north, south, west and east,” Whitford said. “We pray for everything, that things will work and that as the (new) year comes we might see it again.” She said prayer extends to the sick, an abundant crop, water, grass, insects and other animals and a safe journey back home for visitors. “Everything you see out there, we pray for all of that,” she said. Pow wows c a n a l s o b e healing for some people. Whitford said that one year she was at the powwow she was confined to a wheelchair, which her daughter pushed into the arena. A lady approached her with some tobacco. The woman, who was from Fort Peck, then told Whitford to pray for herself. She said that she wanted to see Whitford better and dancing. At the powwow the next year, Whitford and the lady were reunited. “She was happy to see me dance again and able to step on mother earth,” Whitford said.

Havre Daily News/File photo Rocky Boy Powwow, Aug 6, 2016.

Not all tribes hold powwows and not all are the same

Jones said the Osage, an American Indian tribe of the northwest is an example of a tribe that has their own private ceremonial dances but do not have powwows. The Pueblo and tribes in the southwest do not have powwows either, though they do have buffalo dances and corn planting dances. Jones said dances at powwows are often rooted in Plains cultures, but nonPlains tribes also dance at powwow. “You’ll often find, say, a Cherokee Indian who is not a Plains Indian, and they have their own ceremonies and are very distinctly different from the type of dancing and songs that happen in powwows, but they may also powwow b e c a u s e i t c o n n e c t s them to a broader sense of Indianness,” he said. T h a t g i ve s i n d i v i d u a l s from different tribes the chance to display their own distinct dances and culture. “ We a r e a l l d i v e r s e tribes,” Tendoy said. “Our language, our customs, our religions they are all diverse but we come together as one at a powwow.”

How tribes differ with powwows

The overall structure of a powwow is largely the same. Each powwow has some of the same elements such as opening with a grand entry and the intertribal dances between contests are standard. Slight regional differences do exist, Jones said. One example is the response to a feather being dropped by a dancer. In some places the music will cease right away, while in other places an elder will come out into the arena, stand over it and alert the dancer to it. When a tribe holds pow-

Rocky Boy Powwow, Aug 6, 2016.

wows often also depends on a tribe’s religious beliefs and culture. Some tribes have ceremonies related to corn, others that are connected to water, cycles of harvest or weather. Though most tribal dances and regalia may look the same to the untrained eye, Jones said there are clear differences. Beadwork, designs on the regalia or how headdresses are worn often differs between cultures. “There is a lot of symbolism embedded in the regalia that we just don’t see,” he said.

How powwows have changed

When she was growing up, Whitford said, her mother and grandmother used to make jingle dresses from old metal milk cans, which would be placed on an open fire, and then after the fire went out and the scraps of metal cooled. The metal would then be soft enough to cut up into shapes and roll into the fabric of the jingle dresses. Since then, making regalia for powwows has changed. Instead of making their dresses, people now often buy them and other items for their regalia such as feathers, Whitford said. She added that she thinks many of the

Havre Daily News/File photo

people who make the regalia and sell it are non-Natives taking advantage of Natives. “They cost too much, and they make money off of the Indians,” she said. And while dancers did compete for money, it was less than it was today. However, Whitford, who grew up in poverty, said a little money went a long way. “To us, $50, that was a lot, you could buy a lot of things with that,” she said. Jones said that throughout the years there have been changes in powwows. Modern powwows have sound systems, and individual dancers wear numbers in competitions, Whitford said that didn’t happen back then. “There is a lot more competition, a lot more money, a lot bigger than they used to be,” he said. “The regalia is a lot more elaborate than it used to be.” That is a view that is not shared by all. Tendoy said he thinks little has changed through the years aside from advances in s o u n d sys t e m s, w h i c h h e s a i d h ave improved communications at the events. As for merchants selling jingle dresses, he said the buying and trading of buckskins and dresses at powwows happened even in the past. “Essentially, it has not changed,” he said.

Hand game tournament set at Rocky Boy Havre Daily News staff The hand game tournament at Rocky Boy’s 53rd Annual Celebration starts Friday and runs through the celebration, ending Sunday. Games will be ongoing throughout the powwow, with some teams often competing late into the night. The ancient game, common through many Native American cultures throughout history, uses marked and unmarked sticks,

or bones, and counting sticks, with two teams competing to obtain all of the counting sticks. Members of the hiding team hide the bones while the remainder of the team tries to distract the guessing team. If the guessing team is able to guess a hand that holds the correct bone or stick it wins a counter — if it guesses wrong, it loses a counter. The team that wins all of the counters wins the game.

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Powwow: Powwows similar but from different cultures, different traditions ■ Continued from page 5 “ Lo n e Ra n ge r, ” m a d e a n appearance at Rocky Boy for its celebration. Powwows also allows people to pass on native traditions to the young, especially those who do not live in American Indian communities. “We get a chance to communicate with our younger generations when they are off getting education off the reservation,” Tendoy said. “Some of them come back for this annual celebration, so this gives us the opportunity to pass on knowledge to them, the younger generations.” The powwow can serve as a way to get people interested in the dances, as well. Jones said many dances are performed at other venues aside from the powwow. These events can include ceremonies that are more spiritual in character that are open only to certain tribes, other groups within a larger tribe or people who are invited to them. For some Natives, the powwow is of deep spiritual importance. “We pray to the spirits: north, south, west and east,” Whitford said. “We pray for everything, that things will work and that as the (new) year comes we might see it again.” She said prayer extends to the sick, an abundant crop, water, grass, insects and other animals and a safe journey back home for visitors. “Everything you see out there, we pray for all of that,” she said. Pow wows c a n a l s o b e healing for some people. Whitford said that one year she was at the powwow she was confined to a wheelchair, which her daughter pushed into the arena. A lady approached her with some tobacco. The woman, who was from Fort Peck, then told Whitford to pray for herself. She said that she wanted to see Whitford better and dancing. At the powwow the next year, Whitford and the lady were reunited. “She was happy to see me dance again and able to step on mother earth,” Whitford said.

Havre Daily News/File photo Rocky Boy Powwow, Aug 6, 2016.

Not all tribes hold powwows and not all are the same

Jones said the Osage, an American Indian tribe of the northwest is an example of a tribe that has their own private ceremonial dances but do not have powwows. The Pueblo and tribes in the southwest do not have powwows either, though they do have buffalo dances and corn planting dances. Jones said dances at powwows are often rooted in Plains cultures, but nonPlains tribes also dance at powwow. “You’ll often find, say, a Cherokee Indian who is not a Plains Indian, and they have their own ceremonies and are very distinctly different from the type of dancing and songs that happen in powwows, but they may also powwow b e c a u s e i t c o n n e c t s them to a broader sense of Indianness,” he said. T h a t g i ve s i n d i v i d u a l s from different tribes the chance to display their own distinct dances and culture. “ We a r e a l l d i v e r s e tribes,” Tendoy said. “Our language, our customs, our religions they are all diverse but we come together as one at a powwow.”

How tribes differ with powwows

The overall structure of a powwow is largely the same. Each powwow has some of the same elements such as opening with a grand entry and the intertribal dances between contests are standard. Slight regional differences do exist, Jones said. One example is the response to a feather being dropped by a dancer. In some places the music will cease right away, while in other places an elder will come out into the arena, stand over it and alert the dancer to it. When a tribe holds pow-

Rocky Boy Powwow, Aug 6, 2016.

wows often also depends on a tribe’s religious beliefs and culture. Some tribes have ceremonies related to corn, others that are connected to water, cycles of harvest or weather. Though most tribal dances and regalia may look the same to the untrained eye, Jones said there are clear differences. Beadwork, designs on the regalia or how headdresses are worn often differs between cultures. “There is a lot of symbolism embedded in the regalia that we just don’t see,” he said.

How powwows have changed

When she was growing up, Whitford said, her mother and grandmother used to make jingle dresses from old metal milk cans, which would be placed on an open fire, and then after the fire went out and the scraps of metal cooled. The metal would then be soft enough to cut up into shapes and roll into the fabric of the jingle dresses. Since then, making regalia for powwows has changed. Instead of making their dresses, people now often buy them and other items for their regalia such as feathers, Whitford said. She added that she thinks many of the

Havre Daily News/File photo

people who make the regalia and sell it are non-Natives taking advantage of Natives. “They cost too much, and they make money off of the Indians,” she said. And while dancers did compete for money, it was less than it was today. However, Whitford, who grew up in poverty, said a little money went a long way. “To us, $50, that was a lot, you could buy a lot of things with that,” she said. Jones said that throughout the years there have been changes in powwows. Modern powwows have sound systems, and individual dancers wear numbers in competitions, Whitford said that didn’t happen back then. “There is a lot more competition, a lot more money, a lot bigger than they used to be,” he said. “The regalia is a lot more elaborate than it used to be.” That is a view that is not shared by all. Tendoy said he thinks little has changed through the years aside from advances in s o u n d sys t e m s, w h i c h h e s a i d h ave improved communications at the events. As for merchants selling jingle dresses, he said the buying and trading of buckskins and dresses at powwows happened even in the past. “Essentially, it has not changed,” he said.

Hand game tournament set at Rocky Boy Havre Daily News staff The hand game tournament at Rocky Boy’s 53rd Annual Celebration starts Friday and runs through the celebration, ending Sunday. Games will be ongoing throughout the powwow, with some teams often competing late into the night. The ancient game, common through many Native American cultures throughout history, uses marked and unmarked sticks,

or bones, and counting sticks, with two teams competing to obtain all of the counting sticks. Members of the hiding team hide the bones while the remainder of the team tries to distract the guessing team. If the guessing team is able to guess a hand that holds the correct bone or stick it wins a counter — if it guesses wrong, it loses a counter. The team that wins all of the counters wins the game.

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A history of culture, tradition and etiquette (Presented with information courtesy of the Chippewa Cree Tribe.) The Rocky Boy Celebration powwow again will bring crowds from around the continent to Hill County this year in a massive celebration of Native American heritage. The origin of the word powwow comes from a mispronunciation of the Algonquian word that referred to a gathering of medicine men and spiritual leaders. The term became used for any sort of large gathering of Native Americans, including celebrations that many tribes held for successful hunts or harvest, weddings, or any other purpose. For many years, even into the 1920s, many such gatherings were frowned upon or even banned by the government. At the same time, there was a concerted effort to remove all traces of Native American culture and heritage. As a result, many tribal customs for specific ceremonies or gatherings were lost, and many tribes decreased dramatically in size. Thus, in the 1930s and 1940s, when gatherings were once again tolerated, many tribes began to share their customs with each other and to open up their gatherings to members of other tribes in order to preserve the culture. The end of World War II is seen by many as a turning point, when many Indians returned as veterans and heroes. The civil rights movements of the 1960s also served to help rebuild a sense of identity and pride. It was around this time that the powwow took on its modern form, and most of the dance styles were established as distinct categories. Powwows have grown considerably in number and popularity since that time, and can be found in all parts of the United States and Canada — and often in other countries as well — every weekend of the year.

The powwow today The modern-day powwow can be traced to the grass dance societies that formed around the turn of the last century. The grass dance is known by many different names among the various tribes and has an interesting history. It can be traced back to the war dances and victory celebrations of an earlier era. Originally only experienced warriors could belong to the grass dance societies. Throughout the years, the pow-

wow has evolved into a tradition exemplifying generosity and giving, as we come into the circle with honor and respect for each other and the drum. Powwow time gives us a chance to reflect on who we are as Indian people and to celebrate our rich heritage. Powwow singers are held in high regard by our people as the keepers of our songs. We are grateful that our young people continue to learn the old songs. As different tribes gathered together, the use of vocables — words that are a combination of certain sounds without regard to meaning — evolved so singers could share songs. Today, some songs are sung completely in vocables. Yet these songs, like songs with words, still hold significant meaning to those who know them. Songs are still being composed today. Songs still exist from pre-colonial times as well as recent wars. War, bravery, love and friendship are a few favorite themes.

The Grand Entry Although powwows may differ, depending on the location of type, the following is a system used by many powwows throughout the plains area. Many powwows use the following format: First the eagle staff is carried into the circle, followed by the American, Canadian, Montana and tribal flags. The titleholders from tribal pageants and — if present — Miss Indian America candidates. Other invited dignitaries are next, followed by the men traditional dancers first, then grass dancers and fancy dancers. Women come next, followed by traditional dancers, fancy shawl and jingle dress dancers. Next are the teen boys, then girls and then junior boys and girls in the same order as the adults. The last to enter are the tiny tot boys and girls. The dancers dance sun wise, or clockwise, around the arbor, showing the audience that they are ready to begin showing their outfits — the term costumes is seen by some as derogatory — and their dance steps letting them who watch know whom they are and what they can do. This may vary from tribe to tribe or powwow to powwow. When the grand entry song ends, there is a flag song, an equivalent of the national anthem. Then there is an invocation blessing the gathering. After the eagle staff — always positioned

above the American Flag to signify the first nation — is tied to the pole in the center of the arbor or brought to the announcers’ stand. A welcome is extended. and then there may be a few words by various dignitaries. When this portion of the ceremony is completed the dancing can begin.

Songs The flag song is the Indian equivalent of the national anthem. In recent years, nearly every tribe has composed a flag song, dedicated to the men and women who have served in the armed forces in various wars. There is no dancing to this song, but all stand in respect. Certain women may traditional dance in place for their father, brother, or son who is or was a combat veteran. The flag song is sung at the beginning of most Indian activities. The honor songs are special songs dedi cated to honor a particular person or persons. It is customary to stand in silence to show respect when an honor song is sung. The give-away song is one way of honoring certain individuals or groups among Indian people. Here the gesture is more important than the value of the gift. It is an honor to give and it usually takes great preparation.

The Eagle Feather If the eagle feather is dropped during a powwow everything comes to a halt until the feather is honored. Eagle feathers are treasured and precious to Indian people. Historically and traditionally, it is the right of any wounded warrior to retrieve a fallen eagle feather. The eagle feather is the spirit of a fallen warrior and can only be matched in power by the same. Recording and photographing such a ceremony is strictly forbidden. Those tribes that adhere to strict traditions and customs will allow only wounded veterans to carry and retrieve the spirit of the father. The pow-wow of today uses four veterans, representing the four cardinal directions to dance around the feather. The first two verses are straight verses with no down beat, paying respect to the Creator and the spirit of the fallen warrior. The next four verses will have the dancers charge the feather on the downbeat. The downbeat represents the cannon and gunfire in any song, so in the case of this ceremony, the veterans are charging the gunfire of the enemy. Each will charge with his

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right hand extended to touch or take coup. Those who have not taken coup will use an eagle feather fan, because they are not strong enough to touch the spirit. Again, this is very important to follow, because of the grave consequences to be paid if one insults the spirit. After the sixth verse, the honored veteran will pick the feather up with his left hand and give a war whoop to acknowledge the capture of the spirit of the feather. The veteran then returns the Eagle feather to its owner and the owner give him a gift in appreciation of the services that the veteran has performed for him.

Head Staff To be selected as one of the head people is a high honor. The head people are selected not only for ability, but also for personal qualities and actions.

The Head Man And Woman Dancer The head man and head woman guide and direct all the dancers throughout the powwow weekend. The other dancers wait in respect until the head man and woman dancer start each song.

The Head Singer The head singer of each drum must know all the songs to be sung. The head singer either starts the drumming/singing or selects another "lead" singer to begin the song. All other singers/drummers must wait for the signal for them to join in.

The Head Veteran The head veteran has the honor of carrying in the Indian flag at the very front of the precession of the dancers during Grand Entry. He also has the responsibility of "Retreating the Colors" at the end of each dance session.

Dancers Most dances seen at powwow today may have had different meaning in earlier days, but have evolved into the social dances of today. Although, dance style and content have changed, their importance to Indian

Havre Daily News/File photo

Rocky Boy Powwow, Aug 6, 2016. fourth of July, where natives would often use the holiday as cover to evade the dance ban. “And they would argue, ‘Well we are actually celebrating being an American,’ and they would use it as a subversive way of continuing their own culture without sort of being punished for it,” he said. The ban on dances ended in 1934 and

soon thereafter American Indians began openly referring to the gatherings as powwows.

Why hold powwows?

People take part in powwows for a multitude of reasons. Merle Tendoy, a lifelong resident of Rocky Boy and former dancer who has

worked different jobs at powwows, said the powwow serves as a way to memorialize people, praise individuals, honor veterans and hold a welcome-back ceremonies for people who have returned to the community. He said that oftentimes dignitaries speak to the crowds, including representatives from other tribes and state officials.

Last year, Montana Gov. Steve Bullock and Denise Juneau, a member of the Blackfeet tribe, who made history as the first Native American woman to be elected to statewide office in U.S. history, spoke. Te n d o y s a i d t h a t o n e y e a r J a y Silverheels, a Native actor best known for his role as Tonto on the 1950s TV series the

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Powwow celebrations have changed — and stayed the same — throughout the decades Alex Ross aeross@havredailynews.com

Pearl Whitford has been dancing at powwows since she was a young girl. Now 77, Whitford, a member of the Chippewa Cree Tribe and lifelong resident of Rocky Boy’s Indian Reservation, said that as a young girl she did multiple dances ranging from women’s traditional to jingle and women’s shawl dances, now known as the women’s fancy dance. “We started that up in the early ’50s,” Whitford said. She said the dance was different from others because in the fancy dance, dancers would lift their legs into the air. “We never used to pick up our legs and put them in the air,” Whitford said. Decades later, Whitford is still dancing, and this week she will have plenty of company when members of tribes across the U.S. and Canada join the Chippewa Cree at Rocky Boy, the smallest of Montana’s seven Indian reservations, for Rocky Boy’s 53rd Annual Celebration. The event, which includes the powwow, rodeos, events for children and more, will consist of three days of intertribal traditional dance, song, drumming, prayer and togetherness including competition for cash prizes.

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People has not. You will see no religious dancers at powwows today.

Men’s Traditional Dance The traditional male dancer keeps in older dance style and expresses his own individuality by combining both contemporary and traditional styles in costumes. Although dance style varies depending on the individual, tribal and/or regional ties, there are certain items of apparel, which are common among most traditional male dancers. The traditional dancers execute a very graceful and dignified dance closely resembling styles of early days. The traditional dance style — also called contemporary traditional — emerged from the Northern Plains. It is based on the same traditions as old style, but became identifiably different sometime around the mid-1900s. Traditional outfits tend to use more modern materials, more feathers and ribbons, and larger bustles than old style outfits. The dancing itself tends to involve more movement and action. The dancing often resembles two things: the movements of animals, particularly birds, found in the Northern Plains, and the movements of a warrior showing off his ability and accomplishments in battle.

Men’s Traditional Southern Straight

History

Though Rocky Boy’s celebration has been happening for 53 years, the history of powwows extends back much further. The word powwow is the white man’s spelling of the Algonquin word pau-wau, an a term that means “gathering.” How the powwow started is not known, but the American Indian Heritage Foundation website says it was thought to have begun by the Pawnee Indians as a religious ceremonial meeting with dance and other rituals. Other tribes eventually adopted the powwow, each adding their own cultural elements to it. The ceremonies were often held to celebrate a good hunt, give thanks for a bountiful harvest or prepare warriors for battle, the site says. Paul McKenzie Jones, professor of Indian Studies at Montana State

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Rocky Boy Powwow, Aug 6, 2016. University-Northern, said the word was eventually co-opted by European Americans and media to mean any gathering of American Indians. “You would see a lot in the 18th and 19th century whenever sort of a council would get together or there would be a meeting

between the Americans and the Indians, it would always be classified as a powwow,” Jones said. He added that the name powwow was not used by Natives to describe these gatherings until the 1930s and 1940s. In the late 1800s, the federal govern-

ment sought to eradicate American Indian culture through education focused on integration, force and laws such as a ban on Native American cultural practices like dancing. Jones said these often intertribal gatherings would frequently pop up on the

The straight dance comes originally from the Southern Plains, and has its origins in the dances of the warrior societies of several tribes. Often called the Indian tuxedo, the straight outfit looks much more tailored than those of other dance styles. There are few feathers and no bustles, which are instead replaced with cloth and ribbon work, giving the outfit a very sleek, clean appearance. Today, many bright colors and silver go into the outfit, providing the flash that is found in other outfits. Straight dancing tends to be smoother and involves less motion than other dance styles. It reflects the older, experienced warrior moving with the grace and ease of long practice as he surveys everything around him and sees that it is good.

Men’s Fancy Dance Men’s fancy dance is a modern-style dance that has its roots in old grass dance. This exuberant style of dance is fast paced

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and features elaborate footwork and high jumps. Fancy dancers wear sheep or sleigh bells to help maintain the rhythm of the dance and two feather bustles worn on the neck and back. These were at one time made of eagle feathers. Today, many are made of white and dark eagle feathers decorated with small colorful feathers called hackles. Men's fancy dance has its origins in the old Wild West shows of Buffalo Bill Cody and others. The managers of these shows felt that the dancing being done by the Indians in their shows was not interesting enough to hold the attention of the spectators, so they had the dancers create more colorful outfits and dance faster and with more motions. Since then, fancy dance has grown considerably, in large part with the help of contest powwows. The dance has become more and more colorful and faster over the years, with larger bustles, the additional of ribbons and, of course, all manner of dance steps intended to outdo all other dancers. The fancy outfit is distinguished by its two large, colorful feather bustles on the dancer's back, and the dance has larger motions and spins not seen in other dance styles.

Men’s Grass Dance Men’s grass dance features fluid, graceful, sweeping movements. Their colorful outfits are hinged with yarn, ribbon or cloth. This dance style originated from the plains. The dancers move as if they are smoothing down the tall grass; hence, the name. There are several stories about the origin of grass dancing. Many people say that the dance started among the young men who where sent out to flatten the prairie grass to form a dance arena. Rather than just stomp down the grass, they turned the chore into a dance. It is also said that they tied bundles of sweet grass to their belts, and tried to imitate the movement of the tall prairie grass swaying in the wind. Thus, in the dance today, you can see the dancers swaying and moving in the "wind," as well as seeing motions that look like they are moving through or stomping down the grass. The grass dance outfit today is far more colorful than it has been in the past. The original bundles of grass have been replaced with ribbons, yarn or cloth strips. When dancing, the dancers try to get the entire fringe in their outfit moving constantly in the swaying motion of the prairie.

Women’s Traditional Dance In women’s traditional dance, the feet never completely leave the ground, which symbolizes women's close ties with mother earth. When Indians acquired cloth from white traders, they began to make much of their clothing from it. Many eastern woodland, plains and southwestern people make cloth shins and blouses, leggings, etc. that are elaborately decorated with ribbons and silver buttons. Ribbons are cut, folded and appliquéd to create geometric or abstract floral designs. Our people still make beautiful dresses out of buckskin. The most treasured buckskins are Indian tanned. Using traditional methods, the Indian tanning process makes the hides very white and soft as velvet. A tan color is achieved by smoking the hide. When the dress is finished, many hours of beading begins. Beading ranges from fully beaded tops — common among the Sioux — to beaded strips across the front shoulders and around the button of the dress — Southern Plains. The ladies' traditional style is actually a combination of four styles: northern buckskin, northern cloth, southern buckskin and couthern cloth. While similar in many ways, each of these styles has its own distinct style of dress and dancing. Like all dance styles, these have strong roots in customs and traditions that have been passed down for years. The outfits are based on traditional clothing from specific tribes, and thus there is a great deal of variation from one dancer to the next. The dancing itself also varies widely based on the tribe represented, but always focuses on the grace and dignity of the dancer. The outfit often includes fringe on a shawl or the dress itself, along with other accessories, which must move in perfect time to the song.

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Women’s Fancy Dance Women's fancy dance features very elaborate footwork and lots of beadwork. In the fancy dance categories, it is very important to know all the songs to stop exactly on the last beat. The women wear hinged shawls and try to match all accessories. Ladies' fancy shawl is the newest style of ladies' dancing, and is similar in several ways to men's fancy dance. Women's fancy dance emerged in the 1950s and 1960s — and became vastly more popular over the next 20 years — among young women who were looking for a more stylistic, and energetic, dance style. The dance is light, graceful and very athletic. The dancers move much like a butterfly, and their outfits are bright and colorful to match. Particular emphasis is given to the shawl, which is worn over the shoulders and spread out along the arms like wings.

Women’s Jingle Dress Women's jingle dress dancers wear very simple but beautiful cut-cloth dresses decorated with tin cones that jingle as they move. There are several stories about the origin of the jingle dress, but they mostly agree that it was first seen in a dream and was intended as a way to heal those who were ill. As one tradition tells it, this style of dance had its beginnings in a young Chippewa woman's dream, then grew into society. Another says after a medicine man's granddaughter became very ill, he had a dream that showed him how to make the dress and which instructed him to have her dance in it. When the dress was made, she wore it and danced, very weakly at first, but becoming stronger as she went until she was healed. Today, jingle dance specials are sometimes requested by those with friends or relatives who are sick. The dress is made with

■ See Tradition Page 10


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Rodeo action set throughout Rocky Boy’s 53rd Annual Celebration Havre Daily News staff Cowboys as well as dancers will converge on Rocky Boy’s Indian Reservation this we e k , w i t h ro d e o a c t i o n s e t to r u n Wednesday through Sunday at the Sybil Sangrey-Colliflower Memorial Arena. The ac tion kicks of f fo r e n ro l l e d Chippewa Cree Tribe members first, with the Chippewa Cree Rodeo starting at 6 p.m. Wednesday. The Kid’s Rodeo follows on Thursday, with events starting at 10 a.m. The events set for children 6 and younger are barrel racing, arena race, sheep riding upon availability and goat ribbon pull. For cowboys and cowgirls ages 7 to 10, the events scheduled are barrel racing, pole bending ribbon goat tying and steer riding. For 11- to 14-year-olds, the events set are barrel racing, pole bending, goat tying, breakaway roping and steer riding, and for the older youths, 15 to 18, the events are barrel racing, pole bending, goat tying and junior bulls. Friday at 9 a.m., with entry on-site at 8 a.m., the Third Annual Enos Johnson Sr. Memorial Team Roping is set to start. The open Rocky Boy Rodeo is also set to start Friday, with slack scheduled at 9 a.m. and performances set to start Friday at 7 p.m. and Saturday at 2 p.m. and a short go scheduled for Sunday at 1 p.m.

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Tradition: Long list of traditions and etiquette followed at powwows ■ Continued from page 9 a large number of tin lids — originally from the tops of snuff cans but now made from tin lids off chewing tobacco cans — rolled into cones and attached to the dress. Some traditions call for 365 cones, one for each day of the year. As the jingle dancer moves, her dress makes a very distinctive sound. The Chippewa Cree Events Committee adds other dance style categories as a sign of respect and hospitality to visiting tribes, styles like men's prairie chicken, men's crow belt, men's southern straight and women's elk tooth crow style.

Powwow Etiquette Etiquette for spectators and newcomers: Listen to the master of ceremonies. If you do nothing else on this list, at least do this. The benches in the arena are normally reserved for dancers. Be prepared to pro-

vide your own chairs. Ask permission to take photos or videos of individual dancers — shots of groups or the arena as a whole are usually fine. Listen to the MC for times that you should not take pictures. Always stand, if able, during social honoring songs. These will be announced by the MC. Gentlemen should also remove their hats. All pets and food should be kept outside the dance arena at all times, even between dance sessions. Only dance during intertribal songs or when you are invited to dance. Do not dance during competition. If you have a question, ask. If you are honestly interested and curious, most people will be happy to answer your questions.

Etiquette For Dancers Listen to the master of ceremonies and, most importantly, listen to the arena direc-

tor. Respect the positions of the head dancers. Don't dance before the head dancers start dancing. Seats on the benches may be reserved with a blanket. Never move or sit on someone else's blanket without permission. Be on time and ready to dance in full regalia. Dress properly in appropriate dance clothes — if you don't know what's appropriate, ask. Respect the protocol of the group sponsoring the powwow. This often includes dancing around the arena in a particular direction. Stand for all specials and other honoring songs. Certain items should only be used by those who are qualified according to the traditions of their tribe.

These include war bonnets, rattles, whistles and religious items. Firearms — even nonoperational ones — lances with points and unsheathed knives should not be carried while dancing for safety reasons. If you feel you must carry one of these items, speak with the arena director ahead of time. All specials must be coordinated with the MC. You may be required to have it at a certain time or dance session. This is to benefit the entire powwow, so please be understanding. Never come to a powwow with alcohol, under the influence of drugs or intoxicated.

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Creator every day and give thanks for putting us here on the earth. • Always be respect of life. We are not to kill our fellow man. An Elder said, “We believe in the uniqueness of the individual and want our children to have a deep respect for others and for those things and people who may be different from them. We believe that racism and prejudice in any form is a useless exercise for the human mind because it only breeds hatred, misunderstanding and unhappiness; it ignores the realities of the world because there are different people and beliefs which have the right to exist as long as theirs does not attempt to do away with our way of life.” The Wellness Coalition will provide educational materials and presentations to the community during the powwow on various topics such as: What is a powwow? The history of a Rocky Boy’s Powwow. The types of powwow dances. The types of powwow songs. The meaning behind powwow dances. The meaning behind powwow songs. The health benefits for participating in a powwow. The Chippewa Cree powwow is a large powwow, in the past upwards of 1,000 dancers have attended and about 800 dancers have registered for competition this year. Add to that 29 drum groups, 12 of which were contest drum groups with eight to 12 singers at each drum. The wishes for the CCT powwows are to end each year in a good way and to start the next in a good way with culture, prayer, song, dance and traditions. Powwow participants get physical, spiritual, and physiological benefits. The Wellness Coalition believes powwows keep dancers and singers healthy and use it as a drug and alcohol prevention activity. The Chippewa Cree Tribe has maintained the traditional spiritual beliefs and cultural ceremonies and activities that have been part of the tribe since time immemorial. Powwows have been Chippewa Cree people’s way of meeting together, to join in dancing, singing, visiting, renewing old friendships and making new ones. This is a time to renew Native American culture and preserve the rich heritage of American Indians. Our powwow is one of the few in the U.S. that still uses an older style of arbor, one covered with tree branches . We also celebrated 100 years of our reservation last year and would like to thank you very much for your generous contribution. Please keep in mind the intent from the first youth powwow in 1998 has been to increase the number of youth in our community initiated into the powwow circles after learning of the benefits. Every youth dancer and singer will be paid to encourage participation in a drug- and alcohol-free activity during the youth powwow, which has ranged from 150-200 youth. The youth powwow began

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in 1998 as a drug and alcohol prevention activity, a way to encourage youth to join the circle to learn about the Native American’s rich heritage of dance and singing. The Rocky Boy Schools Project EAGLES conducted five years of research (1995-2000) with results showing that if a youth participated in a ceremony or cultural event in the past 30 days the student was less likely to use drugs, alcohol or tobacco. The youth powwow organizers chose not to sponsor competitive dancing so youth from the Rocky Boy’s Indian Reservation would not be discouraged to dance and sing. Every year there are more than 100 youth dancers and a minimum of 20 youth initiated into the dance circle each year. American Indian powwow dances, from fancy dance to grass dance and even traditional, can offer a way for people to get and stay fit in the new year and beyond. With many dances requiring intense physical exertion — and with all dances being tied to community all year round — the post-holiday season may be the perfect time to shake off holiday blues. Strenuous dances like fancy dance, fancy shawl and grass dance, like any aerobic exercise, strengthen cardiovascular fitness. However, dancers do not need to be gearing toward competition to reap the benefits. Even light physical exertion done for 30 minutes three times a week brings health benefits. Just listening to any traditional music with a strong drum beat and following the rhythm can raise your heartbeat — and with a few variations, targeted muscle groups can get their own workout. Dancers can incorporate specific fitnessenhancing techniques into their practice following basic strength-training moves. Duckand-dive already has one such move incorporated. A change in drum beat signals dancers duck and dive, which requires flexing the quadriceps, hamstrings, gluteals, hip flexors and calf muscles. Inserting moves might not work during competition, but during practice sessions and workouts, strength training can be a matter of choosing one move and dropping it into the dance at regular intervals. Squats, leg raises, lunges and sideways bends can all be performed to the beat, either as bursts of large actions or as smaller pulses. Even the more sedate dances — traditional women’s require a concentrated motion instead of big expenditures of energy — can provide health benefits, even if the cardiovascular system isn’t particularly challenged. Sitting down most of the time increases a person’s risk of developing heart disease by 50 percent, even when following a regimen of physical activity. Just one day of doing nothing but sitting can trigger symptoms of pre-diabetes, making something as simple as a standing dance a weapon against health dangers.

Perhaps the true power of powwow as fitness lies not in its specific physical movements but more in its holistic nature. As an activity that requires little but a desire to learn, dancing for fitness already clears a major hurdle. It is easy and affordable, and can be adjusted to any fitness level, starting with people in physical rehabilitation. More important, the social aspect of dance take its benefits beyond the arena. Health research shows people with developed community networks increase protection against non-cancer mortality, cardiovascular disease and depression. However, when we dance traditional dances, we are not just connecting with the people who are standing beside us. We are connecting with those who have gone. We dance for those who went before us. It’s a sentiment echoed by dancers of all strains. The dance gives a feeling of unity for your family, your family’s family, for the entire family. Powwows also have spiritual and communal aspects that may prove to be the most important aspect of dance as fitness in Indian communities. According to a joint report from the Management Sciences for Health and the Office of Minority Health and Bureau of Primary Health Care, relying upon community strengths to overcome challenges is key to developing health care practices that stick. As identified by the report, strengths in Native communities include creativity, connection with the past, honoring of elders, and holistic thinking. Given these assets, it is hard to think of a fitness program more fitting for Indians than dance. Some of the powwow songs have words while others are pure chanting. For example, an honor song might be composed for someone who has recently returned from war or the military, or for someone who recently passed away. Other songs provide ladies the chance to ask that special man to dance. There are some old favorites passed down from generations past but today more and more drum groups are being formed that are using their own languages to create new powwow songs. Singers and youth are encouraged to write and sing in their own language. Today songs include lyrics that talk about the dancers and how good they are dancing, how strong they look all decked out. Songs encourage the dancers to dance hard and fast. They even take a stab at love songs when the announcer calls for a twostep or a Round Dance. Songs appeal to the Creator to keep our nation strong and safe and to help all people live a better life. Songs ask the Creator to give them the talent and

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Transfer to the next powwow committee One of the later events at Rocky Boy’s 53rd Annual Celebration is the transfer of planning to the members of the next committee, which will organize Rocky Boy’s Christmas and 2018 powwows. A key part of the annual powwow is the powwow committee following cultural and and traditional protocol and each member handing off their powwow committee positions to another committee member in the community to plan for the next celebrations. The transfer ceremony will happen Sunday.

blessing to compose songs and to share them with others, as prayers for all people. The songs are for us to live a better life. One of the important roles of the announcer is to let the crowd know what type of dance or competition is coming up next. They also call out to the drum group the category of the next song, though the groups must pick the specific song to perform, and occasionally take public requests for songs. Many of drum groups have young people sitting around the drum, which is exciting. It shows the culture is being passed down and the songs are being preserved. We work to make positive economic, health and social impacts within our community, as well as surrounding communities each year. In order to meet our payout goal, we rely heavily on the generosity of donors support. Below is a list of the many donors: • Plain Green • Chippewa Cree Tribal Programs: TANF, Social Services, White Sky Hope Center, Water Resources, Roads, Maintenance and Stone Child College • ICON • Community Contractors • AE2S • Rocky Boy School Thank you very much and I look forward to an enjoyable powwow. Elinor Nault Wright, M. Ed. Wellness Coalition/Annual Powwow chairperson


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An invitation to the Rocky Boy powwow Attention Community: On behalf of the Chippewa Cree Tribe Wellness Coalition and 2017 Youth and Annual Powwow Committee, I am inviting everyone to the Chippewa Cree Tribe Youth and Annual Powwow beginning Aug. 3. I am hoping you will be able to attend this momentous occasion and experience firsthand the pride we take in our community and culture. This year’s powwow was organized by the Chippewa Cree Wellness Coalition and will benefit education, job training, health of the Chippewa Cree and other Native Americans and appreciation of arts, cultural awareness and Chippewa Cree heritage, which is outlined below. The purpose of the Wellness Coalition was to provide the infrastructure needed to coordinate healthy social and cultural prevention activities and provide communication for all programs and agencies, and to provide agencies, departments and other stakeholders the organizational structure to fulfill the Tribal Action Plan’s Strategic Plans for establishing and maintaining wellness in the community. The Wellness Coalition vision is for a Chippewa Cree community to have an identity and be self-assured, self-sustaining, peaceful and engaged in the Chippewa Cree culture, one in which has a belief that anything is possible, and to have a community that supports, embraces and encourages life in the Chippewa Cree way. The Wellness Coalition are people working together to improve our community, creating a comprehensive sustainable continuum of familycentered care through efficient and effective partnerships with children, youth and families. The Wellness Coalition adopted the mission statement to coordinate healthy traditional, social and prevention activities and provide a forum for communication for all programs and agencies “in the Chippewa Cree Way.” The Wellness Coalition recognizes and respects the holistic and unique structure of the Chippewa Cree and will remain dedicated to community health needs. The Chippewa Cree People are unique and possess those characteristics that have sustained their tribalism for many generations. The spiritual, physical and mental wellness is of supreme importance for individual members of the tribe, in their pursuit

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Rocky Boy’s annual celebration ready to shine through the weekend Havre Daily News staff The officials and drummers are lined up and ready for Rocky Boy’s 53rd Annual Celebration, with the powwow events starting Friday and thousands of dollars in prizes — estimated at more than $100,000 in total payouts at the main powwow— waiting to be awarded. The annual youth powwow is slated for Thursday, with registration starting at 1 p.m., Grand entry at 3 p.m. and the closing ceremony at 6 p.m. The powwow area will abound with dancers, drummers, vendors, spectators and

good-fellowship through Sunday. The masters of ceremony are Howle T h o m p s o n o f C a r r y T h e K e t t l e, Saskatchewan, Canada, and Merle Tendoy and Daryl Wright II, both of Rocky Boy. The arena directors are Rooster Top Sky of Rocky Boy and Randy Paskemin of Sweet Grass, Sasatchewan. Both head dancers are from Rocky Boy, with Head Woman Mary Top Sky and Head Man Andrew Windy Boy Sr. Tabulation will be by C & T Tabulation of Muskatoon, Saskatchewan. The visiting host drum is Young Bear of

Mandaree, North Dakota, while the local host drum is Montana Cree of Rocky Boy. WindDancer Tunes of Browning is running the sound. Prizes will be awarded to dancers in several main categories. For Golden Age 55 and older, the first place for men and for women will give $1,000, $800 for second, $600 for third, $400 for fourth and $200 for fifth. The adult groups are broken into two categories for men and women, senior for dancers ages 35 to 54 and junior for dancers 18 to 34. Prizes will be $1,000 for first, $800 for sec-

ond, $600 for third, $400 for fourth and $200 for fifth in traditional, grass, fancy, prairie chicken and jingle dancing. Teen boys and girls, ages 13-17, will receive $500 for first, $400 for second, $300 for third, $200 for fourth and $200 for fifth in traditional, grass, fancy, prairie chicken and jingle dancing. Junior boys and girls, ages 7 to 12, will dance for a $250 award for first, $200 for second, $200 for third, $250 for fourth and $50 for fifth in the same dances, traditional, grass, fancy, prairie chicken and jingle.

Rocky Boy annual celebration schedule of events Friday, Aug. 4

of a fulfilled life. The Wellness Coalition will strive to make available all necessary health components, in pursuit of the wellness of all tribal members, in a manner consistent with and exceeding those services provided in any other community. The philosophy of the Chippewa Cree is that we believe the Maker of All things put us on our Mother Earth to respect one another in our relationships with all things and to all people. The Great Holy Being told the old people long ago that all people and all things are but different branches on the same tree. We are told in our daily lives we must do these things: • Respect Mother Earth and all things

that live here. Respect the elders, our mothers and our sisters. • Love one another and help one another. • Pray in a good way that we might get the power to help one another and to respect one another for our differences. • Be truthful and respectful in our speech, which in itself is a miracle and given from our Creator that we might use it only to speak good of each other and to pass on the good things in life. • Remember that everything that is created on Mother is useful, has a purpose and was put here for a reason. Nothing is to be abused that has been created. • Remember that all things are related

Havre Daily News/File photo and that all things are perfect as they have been created: wind, fire, water, rocks, animals, crawlers, birds, plants, the moon, the sun and humans. • Remember that the earth was created for everyone and everything and that we are not to selfishly claim it. We are all to share of the good things in life so that we may all live in harmony. • Realize that we as human beings have been put on this earth for only a short time and that we must use this time to use our minds to gain wisdom, knowledge, respect and understanding of all human beings since we are all brothers. • Be humble and respectful before the

9 a.m. — Walk for Sobriety — start at Agency and end at Powwow Grounds 1 p.m. —  Registration opens for all dancers 7 p.m. —  Grand entry — Opening Ceremonies 7:30 p.m. —  Welcome Address, Chippewa Cree Tribe Chairman — Harlan Baker 7:35 p.m. — Inter-tribal dancing 7:45 p.m. —  Alice Day Child Yellow Wolf Memorial contest and give away 7:50 p.m. —  Healing Honor Dance for Kailoni Mae Duran, daughter of Klay Duran and Natalia Coversup 7:55 p.m. — Bill Parker Memorial song and give away 8 p.m. — Videl Stump Memorial Song 8:30 p.m. — Tiny Tot exhibition dancing 8:45 p.m. — Junior Girls and Boys Contest Dancing 9:15 p.m. —  Teen Girls and Boys Contest Dancing 9:45 p.m. —  Golden Age Women and Men Contest Dancing 10:15 p.m. — Demontiney Mother/Daughter Special in honor of all Mothers and Daughters — $1,000 winner-take-all 10:30 p.m. —  Adult Women and Men Contest Dancing 12 a.m. —  Closing Ceremony, Retiring of the Flags and Color Guards.

Saturday, Aug. 5

1 p.m. — Grand entry 1:30 p.m. — Inter-tribal dancing 2 p.m. — Tiny Tot Exhibition Dancing 2:30 p.m. — Junior Girls and Boys Contest Dancing 3 p.m. —  Teen Girls and Boys Contest

Dancing 3:30 p.m. — Golden Age Women and Men Contest Dancing 4 p.m. —  Adult Women and Men contest dancing 5 p.m. —  Andrew Windy Boy Head Man Dancer Golden Age Special 5:30 p.m. —  Mary Top Sky Head Woman Dancer Golden Age Special 6 p.m. — Supper break 7 p.m. — Grand entry 7:30 p.m. — Inter-tribal dancing 8 p.m. — Tiny Tot Exhibition Dancing 8:30 p.m. —  Junior Girls and Boy Contest Dancing 9 p.m. —  Teen Boys and Girls Contest Dancing 9:30 p.m. —  Golden Age Women and Men Contest Dancing 10 p.m. — Rooster Top Sky Old Style Grass Dance Special 10:15 p.m. —  Daryl Wright II & Powwow Fancy Feather Dance Special 10:30 p.m. —  Adult Men and Women Contest Dancing 12 a.m. —  Closing Ceremony, Retiring of the Flags and Color Guards

Sunday, Aug. 6

1 p.m. — Grand entry 1:30 p.m. — Inter-tribal dancing 2 p.m. — Tiny Tot Exhibition Dancing 2:30 p.m. — Junior Girls and Boys Contest Dancing 3 p.m. —  Teen Girls and Boys Contest Dancing 3:30 p.m. —  Golden Age Women and Men Contest Dancing 4 p.m. —  Adult Women and Men Contest Dancing Exhibitions

5 p.m. — Freddie Bacon Memorial Men’s Grass Dance Special 5:30 p.m. —  Powwow Committee Position Giveaway 6 p.m. —  Supper break — Payout and announcement of Teens and JuniorContest Winners 7 p.m. — Grand entry 7:30 p.m. — Inter-tribal dancing 8 p.m. —  Tiny Tot, Juniors and Teens Exhibition Dancing 8:30 p.m. —  Kendra Gopher Senior Princess Special 9 p.m. —  Dinay Cree Whitford Junior Princess Special 9:30 p.m. —  Golden Age Women and Men

Havre Daily News/File photo Contest Dancing 10 p.m. — Cynthia Murie Backup Singing Contest Results 10 p.m. — Ervinal Denny Junior — Buffalo Hide Drum Donation for Champion Contest Winner 10 p.m. — Adult Southern Dance Special — All categories 10:15 p.m. — Cree Bustle/Crow Belt Special 10:30 p.m. —  Adult Men and Women Contest Dancing Midnight. — Announcement and Payout of all Adult Contest Winners 12:30 a.m. — Closing Ceremony, Retiring of the Flags and Color Guards


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Rocky Boy Youth Powwow schedule Thursday, Aug. 3 1 p.m. — Registration opens for all youth dancers 3 p.m. — Grand entry— Opening ceremonies 3:30 p.m. — Initiation of Youth Dancers 4 p.m. — Inter-tribal dancing

4 p.m. — Youth Dancers Feed 4:15 p.m. — Tiny Tot exhibition dancing 4:30 p.m. — Junior Girls and Boys exhibition dancing 5 p.m. —  Teen Girls and Boys exhibition dancing 6 p.m. —  Closing Ceremony, Retiring of the Flags and Color Guards

Havre Daily News/File photo Youth participants walk in a grand entry Aug. 7, 2016, at the Rocky Boy annual celebration.

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