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2020: Mostly good year for north-central Montana’s wheat harvest despite grasshoppers Patrick Johnston pjohnston@havredailynews.com 2020 has been a dramatic year for the agriculture sector of the U.S. economy, but it was also a very good year for wheat producers in north-central Montana by almost all metrics. Hill County Extension Agent Tom Allen said the quality of the wheat being produced in this year’s harvest has been very good and it has been an uncommonly smooth few months for most producers in the area. This year, he said, was particularly noteworthy because spring wheat appears to be out-performing winter wheat in terms of yields, which he said is very unusual. What makes this particularly good news is that winter wheat itself is still doing very well this year, so spring wheat’s performance has been very impressive simply by virtue of it doing better than its generally more prosperous cousin. Allen said this has not been true of all producers in the area, but it has been common enough to make the trend noticeable and encouraging. He also said the protein content of the spring wheat being produced is at or above the 14 percent average for most producers in the area, with winter wheat following suit. “We were making that pretty regularly and not falling below, which is a bonus,” Allen said. “They start deducting when you start getting low protein, and it’s been the same with the winter wheat.” He said this is a welcome change from the last few years, Havre Daily News/file photo Gary Gregoire harvests his winter wheat Aug. 4, 2011, south of Havre.

www.havredailynews.com areas that weren’t going to hurt the harvest. “The fires that I am aware of burnt stubble, it had already been cut,” he said. He said the fires that did happen were contained fairly quickly with producers getting them under control mostly on their own, resulting in minimal damage and little complication. Allen said these fires can occur naturally or be the result of things like bad parts on a combine, but this year has been fairly tame when it comes to crop damage. However, while the dry conditions may be having a positive impact on the harvest over all, there are crops it may be affecting adversely. In August, Ede Breitmeier of the Farm Service Agency’s Blaine County Office said she’s heard that re-crop yields in Blaine County had been down significantly in certain areas due to the lack of precipitation. “Those crops are really suffering because they didn’t save any of the moisture from last year, and this year has just not been enough,” she said. On the other side of the temperature spectrum, Allen said hail damage has also been fairly minor in the Hill County area due in part to a lack of thunderstorms that are more prevalent in the area in a typical year. Herring said the producers he’s spoken to have also seen below-average hail damage, but this hasn’t been the case for some of the surrounding areas. He said there were some areas south of Turner that got hit very hard by hail, and some Chester-area producers got hit extremely hard as well. “There was one producer who lost most of his winter wheat, he lost seven, 800, maybe even a thousand acres,” Herring said. “ … That one storm that went through Chester knocked out I think 20,000 acres if I

FARM & RANCH remember right.” Mattson also didn’t have many personal problems with hail damage, but he also knew some other wheat producers in his area who were far less fortunate. “Our farm just missed it, but west of us, western Liberty County, eastern Toole County… it was completely devastating, just 100 percent wipeout,” he said. Despite some of the more serious damage cause by this year’s precipitation, many producers in Hill County and the surrounding areas have seen recent precipitation become a boon. “3/4 of an inch the other weekend is just perfect,” Allen said. He said the rains the area has recently seen, as most have happened after most of the harvest had already been completed, have made soil conditions ideal for the next round of winter wheat. “Even if they (the producers) were still cutting, I don’t think they were complaining too much about these last couple weeks,” he said. Allen said even those producers still harvesting were looking forward to some rain to make way for the next round of crops they were hoping to plant. Herring said recent rains have allowed many producers he does business with to get a head start on seeding this year, which is a pleasant break from the last few years which haven’t allowed for such a thing. “The last two to three years, the weather conditions have not been conducive to seeding winter wheat,” he said. Herring said the weather has been all over the place as far as affecting winter wheat seeding in the last two years and he’s happy to see this year break that trend. “Two year ago, it was too dry,” he said. “Last year it was too wet, this year it was ideal.”

He said there are many areas where winter wheat doesn’t do well in general, so the seeding will be somewhat limited, but it is a nice leg up for many people in the business. Allen said he recently went out to take some measurements of soil moisture and while the top layer of soil is still fairly dry, the earth is damp underneath which makes for absolutely ideal condition for the coming season. However, Herring said, one thing may stand in the way of this seeding: grasshoppers. “The amount of grasshoppers still around might prevent our guys from seeding winter wheat,” he said. Herring said some producers are deliberately holding out for the grasshopper population to die down before seeding, hoping the soil will retain its moisture while they wait. Allen and Herring said grasshoppers have caused some serious damage to wheat fields this year, and yields may have been even higher were it not for their influence. “This is one of the worst grasshopper years we’ve seen in quite a while,” Allen said. Grasshoppers weren’t the only creepy crawly to have a negative impact on this year’s harvest, but the other most prominent insect affecting the wheat fields didn’t have nearly as dramatic a year as was initially feared. “Sawflies were about average,” Allen said, “I mean there were some hot spots, and spots where they weren’t hitting, but the grasshoppers were everywhere.” Back in July, the sawfly population appeared to be abnormally high in the Havre area, causing many to fear that this year might see some serious damage, but

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the impact of the sawflies doesn’t appear to have been as dramatic as first feared. Allen said sawflies are extremely tenacious creatures whose larvae develop within he stem of wheat stalks and climb their way up, eating them from the inside out. He said this weakens the stem often to the point that they break off in the wind and become impossible to harvest efficiently. Allen said the severity of sawfly damage tends to run in cycles. Planting solid stem wheat is used to combat sawflies but is used sparingly because of its lower than average yields and the desire not to create a resistant population. Fortunately for producers, this cycle seems to have been less severe than was initially anticipated. Herring said he saw minimal damage from sawflies this year, but not everywhere was so lucky. “There were some sawflies this year, but not a lot, certainly not compared to Havre West,” he said. David Weaver, a professor of integrated pest management and insect physiology as well as a sawfly researcher at Montana State University said the institution and other organizations continue to research making more solid-stem varieties to more effectively control the population of these insects without lowering yields for producers. Despite complications with the grasshoppers and the typical challenges of harvest that happen every year, Herring said, this year has been a significant and long-awaited change. “Overall, it was one of the better ones we’ve seen here east of Chinook in a long while,” he said.

Montana Wheat and Barley Committee releases second grain lab video Press release GREAT FALLS — As part of its efforts to promote Montana’s world class wheat and barley, the Montana Wheat and Barley Committee released a second educational video aimed at helping buyers understand the grain sampling and grading process from start to finish. The footage was produced as one of four videos in a series focused on demonstrating the steps taken by Montana’s certified federal grain inspectors to guarantee grain grades that are exactly proportionate to purchase prices. Since the onset of COVID19, marketing efforts are primarily taking place through virtual channels. The MWBC staff and board members are utilizing the video series during international conferences and virtual trade shows as a means for helping buyers understand how the State Grain Lab guarantees consistent, reliable grain grades “In a typical growing season our schedules are packed with visits from prospective buyers from all over the world,” said Cassidy Marn, executive vice president for MWBC. “Coronavirus has forced us to cancel in-person trade team visits for the foreseeable future, so these videos are an effective and timeless way for us to showcase Montana’s quality wheat and barley crops,

and to help people understand the grain grading process. They share an inside look at some of the lesser known parts of the process, like rail car probing, falling numbers, and what inspectors look for while issuing grade certificates.” The first two videos in the series highlight how samples are collected from rail cars and processed at the State Grain Lab. They are now available for viewing on the MWBC website https://wbc.agr.mt.gov/ Home/News . The third video in the series will feature one of the most important grading factors for millers and bakers, the falling number test, and was set to be released Monday, Oct. 5. The final video in the series will be released the following Monday, Oct. 12, and will follow along as a federal grain inspector examines a sample and issues a grade certificate. MWBC expects these videos will be used as education and marketing tools for many years to come. T h e M o n t a n a W h e a t a n d B a r l ey Committee is a producer-funded and directed check-off organization for wheat and barley growers in the state. Its mission is to protect and foster the health and prosperity of the Montana wheat and barley industry. Visit http://montanawbc.com for more information.

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Wheat: Lack of rain helped speed harvest, lower grain moisture content ■ Continued from page 3 just to see fire conditions in the area stabilize, even if it broke the streak. Allen said the lack of rain in the area, until fairly recently that is, hadn’t just helped producers cut wheat without interruption, but the low moisture content itself made the actually cutting and collecting easier as well. Herring said the moisture in the wheat was about nine to 10 percent when normally it would be 11.5 to 12.5. The low moisture made cutting easier. “Most guys were pretty happy,” he said. “I mean there are always guys who have breakdowns and stuff, but by and large it all it came off in record time around here.” Herring said the breakdowns people had were normal and didn’t significantly affect harvest’s speed overall. He also said the pandemic hasn’t had much of an immediate impact on the elevator’s day-to-day operation. Herring said everyone operates within the guidelines set for running a business during COVID-19 and the harvest didn’t see much, if any, slowdown as a result. This dry weather has contributed to a very dangerous fire season, but Allen and Herring said the producers in the are have been vigilant and prepared. They said almost all producers have a water truck at the ready to deal with fires, and Allen said he hadn’t heard of any significant damage caused to wheat fields by fires, at least in the immediate area. Herring said a few producers he communicates with did have fires crop up, but they only seemed to affect Havre Daily News/Lindsay Brown Friends and neighbors help Joe Becker harvest his spring wheat in August 2013 near Rudyard. Becker broke the tibia in his left leg and the bones on the top of his right foot, leaving him temporarily unable to harvest his wheat, that year.

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www.havredailynews.com Havre Daily News/Colin Thompson Spring wheat belonging to CHS Big Sky sits piled Sept. 4 along U.S. Highway 2 east of Havre. This pile was about 250 bushels of grain, and approximately 550 bushels more had to be piled on the ground in the elevator’s yard after a better than expected spring wheat harvest. Tom Chard, an agricultural statistician with USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service Montana Field Office, said the final numbers aren’t in for this year’s harvest to give a precise picture of harvest in north-central Montana, but the state forecast is for 96.9 million bushels of spring wheat to be harvested this year, almost double the 2017 harvest. which haven’t been nearly as consistent. Allen said protein content depends on rainfall and the kind of fertilizer producers use — or can afford — and the last few years have seen some producers having trouble making that 14 percent threshold, making protein content area-wide less consistent than this year. Protein content, though, Allen said, can still vary significantly between producers with some just having more luck than others in any given year. This year, however, he added, things have been consistently good. H a r l e m C o l u m b i a G ra i n E l eva to r Manager Chris Herring said in late September the harvest was almost complete for the producers he works with and even though protein content has been below the average it only missed the mark by less than half a percent. Yields, Allen said, have been even more consistent, with nearly everyone in Hill County and the larger north-central Montana area reporting above-average yields this season. Herring said yields at his elevator were better than average by at least 10 bushels, but the number may be closer to 20 when all the data comes in. However, even with the good news on yields and protein content, perhaps the most dramatic difference this year has been the ease with which the harvest has been conducted in north-central Montana. Allen said producers around the area have consistently reported that this harvest went very smoothly, which was certainly the case for Herring. “A lot of the guys were done by around Labor Day weekend which, in some years, that’s when they’re just starting around here,” he said. Herring said some producers still had a few acres left to cut, but many managed to finish their entire harvest in only 15 days when it often it take 25 to 30 in total, depending on what the weather is like. He said harvest only had to be shut down twice due to weather, making it a pretty good year in terms of delays as well. Last month, when the harvest was still in full swing, Paragon Grains Inc. owner and General Manager Vince Mattson said, he’d nearly set a record for uninterrupted days of harvest. “Harvest conditions are perfect, we’re on our 22nd harvest day strait which is very unusual,” he said at the time. Mattson said conditions were so good that he was almost hoping for a rainstorm

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Wheat: Lack of rain helped speed harvest, lower grain moisture content ■ Continued from page 3 just to see fire conditions in the area stabilize, even if it broke the streak. Allen said the lack of rain in the area, until fairly recently that is, hadn’t just helped producers cut wheat without interruption, but the low moisture content itself made the actually cutting and collecting easier as well. Herring said the moisture in the wheat was about nine to 10 percent when normally it would be 11.5 to 12.5. The low moisture made cutting easier. “Most guys were pretty happy,” he said. “I mean there are always guys who have breakdowns and stuff, but by and large it all it came off in record time around here.” Herring said the breakdowns people had were normal and didn’t significantly affect harvest’s speed overall. He also said the pandemic hasn’t had much of an immediate impact on the elevator’s day-to-day operation. Herring said everyone operates within the guidelines set for running a business during COVID-19 and the harvest didn’t see much, if any, slowdown as a result. This dry weather has contributed to a very dangerous fire season, but Allen and Herring said the producers in the are have been vigilant and prepared. They said almost all producers have a water truck at the ready to deal with fires, and Allen said he hadn’t heard of any significant damage caused to wheat fields by fires, at least in the immediate area. Herring said a few producers he communicates with did have fires crop up, but they only seemed to affect Havre Daily News/Lindsay Brown Friends and neighbors help Joe Becker harvest his spring wheat in August 2013 near Rudyard. Becker broke the tibia in his left leg and the bones on the top of his right foot, leaving him temporarily unable to harvest his wheat, that year.

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www.havredailynews.com Havre Daily News/Colin Thompson Spring wheat belonging to CHS Big Sky sits piled Sept. 4 along U.S. Highway 2 east of Havre. This pile was about 250 bushels of grain, and approximately 550 bushels more had to be piled on the ground in the elevator’s yard after a better than expected spring wheat harvest. Tom Chard, an agricultural statistician with USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service Montana Field Office, said the final numbers aren’t in for this year’s harvest to give a precise picture of harvest in north-central Montana, but the state forecast is for 96.9 million bushels of spring wheat to be harvested this year, almost double the 2017 harvest. which haven’t been nearly as consistent. Allen said protein content depends on rainfall and the kind of fertilizer producers use — or can afford — and the last few years have seen some producers having trouble making that 14 percent threshold, making protein content area-wide less consistent than this year. Protein content, though, Allen said, can still vary significantly between producers with some just having more luck than others in any given year. This year, however, he added, things have been consistently good. H a r l e m C o l u m b i a G ra i n E l eva to r Manager Chris Herring said in late September the harvest was almost complete for the producers he works with and even though protein content has been below the average it only missed the mark by less than half a percent. Yields, Allen said, have been even more consistent, with nearly everyone in Hill County and the larger north-central Montana area reporting above-average yields this season. Herring said yields at his elevator were better than average by at least 10 bushels, but the number may be closer to 20 when all the data comes in. However, even with the good news on yields and protein content, perhaps the most dramatic difference this year has been the ease with which the harvest has been conducted in north-central Montana. Allen said producers around the area have consistently reported that this harvest went very smoothly, which was certainly the case for Herring. “A lot of the guys were done by around Labor Day weekend which, in some years, that’s when they’re just starting around here,” he said. Herring said some producers still had a few acres left to cut, but many managed to finish their entire harvest in only 15 days when it often it take 25 to 30 in total, depending on what the weather is like. He said harvest only had to be shut down twice due to weather, making it a pretty good year in terms of delays as well. Last month, when the harvest was still in full swing, Paragon Grains Inc. owner and General Manager Vince Mattson said, he’d nearly set a record for uninterrupted days of harvest. “Harvest conditions are perfect, we’re on our 22nd harvest day strait which is very unusual,” he said at the time. Mattson said conditions were so good that he was almost hoping for a rainstorm

n Wheat Continued on page 10

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2020: Mostly good year for north-central Montana’s wheat harvest despite grasshoppers Patrick Johnston pjohnston@havredailynews.com 2020 has been a dramatic year for the agriculture sector of the U.S. economy, but it was also a very good year for wheat producers in north-central Montana by almost all metrics. Hill County Extension Agent Tom Allen said the quality of the wheat being produced in this year’s harvest has been very good and it has been an uncommonly smooth few months for most producers in the area. This year, he said, was particularly noteworthy because spring wheat appears to be out-performing winter wheat in terms of yields, which he said is very unusual. What makes this particularly good news is that winter wheat itself is still doing very well this year, so spring wheat’s performance has been very impressive simply by virtue of it doing better than its generally more prosperous cousin. Allen said this has not been true of all producers in the area, but it has been common enough to make the trend noticeable and encouraging. He also said the protein content of the spring wheat being produced is at or above the 14 percent average for most producers in the area, with winter wheat following suit. “We were making that pretty regularly and not falling below, which is a bonus,” Allen said. “They start deducting when you start getting low protein, and it’s been the same with the winter wheat.” He said this is a welcome change from the last few years, Havre Daily News/file photo Gary Gregoire harvests his winter wheat Aug. 4, 2011, south of Havre.

www.havredailynews.com areas that weren’t going to hurt the harvest. “The fires that I am aware of burnt stubble, it had already been cut,” he said. He said the fires that did happen were contained fairly quickly with producers getting them under control mostly on their own, resulting in minimal damage and little complication. Allen said these fires can occur naturally or be the result of things like bad parts on a combine, but this year has been fairly tame when it comes to crop damage. However, while the dry conditions may be having a positive impact on the harvest over all, there are crops it may be affecting adversely. In August, Ede Breitmeier of the Farm Service Agency’s Blaine County Office said she’s heard that re-crop yields in Blaine County had been down significantly in certain areas due to the lack of precipitation. “Those crops are really suffering because they didn’t save any of the moisture from last year, and this year has just not been enough,” she said. On the other side of the temperature spectrum, Allen said hail damage has also been fairly minor in the Hill County area due in part to a lack of thunderstorms that are more prevalent in the area in a typical year. Herring said the producers he’s spoken to have also seen below-average hail damage, but this hasn’t been the case for some of the surrounding areas. He said there were some areas south of Turner that got hit very hard by hail, and some Chester-area producers got hit extremely hard as well. “There was one producer who lost most of his winter wheat, he lost seven, 800, maybe even a thousand acres,” Herring said. “ … That one storm that went through Chester knocked out I think 20,000 acres if I

FARM & RANCH remember right.” Mattson also didn’t have many personal problems with hail damage, but he also knew some other wheat producers in his area who were far less fortunate. “Our farm just missed it, but west of us, western Liberty County, eastern Toole County… it was completely devastating, just 100 percent wipeout,” he said. Despite some of the more serious damage cause by this year’s precipitation, many producers in Hill County and the surrounding areas have seen recent precipitation become a boon. “3/4 of an inch the other weekend is just perfect,” Allen said. He said the rains the area has recently seen, as most have happened after most of the harvest had already been completed, have made soil conditions ideal for the next round of winter wheat. “Even if they (the producers) were still cutting, I don’t think they were complaining too much about these last couple weeks,” he said. Allen said even those producers still harvesting were looking forward to some rain to make way for the next round of crops they were hoping to plant. Herring said recent rains have allowed many producers he does business with to get a head start on seeding this year, which is a pleasant break from the last few years which haven’t allowed for such a thing. “The last two to three years, the weather conditions have not been conducive to seeding winter wheat,” he said. Herring said the weather has been all over the place as far as affecting winter wheat seeding in the last two years and he’s happy to see this year break that trend. “Two year ago, it was too dry,” he said. “Last year it was too wet, this year it was ideal.”

He said there are many areas where winter wheat doesn’t do well in general, so the seeding will be somewhat limited, but it is a nice leg up for many people in the business. Allen said he recently went out to take some measurements of soil moisture and while the top layer of soil is still fairly dry, the earth is damp underneath which makes for absolutely ideal condition for the coming season. However, Herring said, one thing may stand in the way of this seeding: grasshoppers. “The amount of grasshoppers still around might prevent our guys from seeding winter wheat,” he said. Herring said some producers are deliberately holding out for the grasshopper population to die down before seeding, hoping the soil will retain its moisture while they wait. Allen and Herring said grasshoppers have caused some serious damage to wheat fields this year, and yields may have been even higher were it not for their influence. “This is one of the worst grasshopper years we’ve seen in quite a while,” Allen said. Grasshoppers weren’t the only creepy crawly to have a negative impact on this year’s harvest, but the other most prominent insect affecting the wheat fields didn’t have nearly as dramatic a year as was initially feared. “Sawflies were about average,” Allen said, “I mean there were some hot spots, and spots where they weren’t hitting, but the grasshoppers were everywhere.” Back in July, the sawfly population appeared to be abnormally high in the Havre area, causing many to fear that this year might see some serious damage, but

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the impact of the sawflies doesn’t appear to have been as dramatic as first feared. Allen said sawflies are extremely tenacious creatures whose larvae develop within he stem of wheat stalks and climb their way up, eating them from the inside out. He said this weakens the stem often to the point that they break off in the wind and become impossible to harvest efficiently. Allen said the severity of sawfly damage tends to run in cycles. Planting solid stem wheat is used to combat sawflies but is used sparingly because of its lower than average yields and the desire not to create a resistant population. Fortunately for producers, this cycle seems to have been less severe than was initially anticipated. Herring said he saw minimal damage from sawflies this year, but not everywhere was so lucky. “There were some sawflies this year, but not a lot, certainly not compared to Havre West,” he said. David Weaver, a professor of integrated pest management and insect physiology as well as a sawfly researcher at Montana State University said the institution and other organizations continue to research making more solid-stem varieties to more effectively control the population of these insects without lowering yields for producers. Despite complications with the grasshoppers and the typical challenges of harvest that happen every year, Herring said, this year has been a significant and long-awaited change. “Overall, it was one of the better ones we’ve seen here east of Chinook in a long while,” he said.

Montana Wheat and Barley Committee releases second grain lab video Press release GREAT FALLS — As part of its efforts to promote Montana’s world class wheat and barley, the Montana Wheat and Barley Committee released a second educational video aimed at helping buyers understand the grain sampling and grading process from start to finish. The footage was produced as one of four videos in a series focused on demonstrating the steps taken by Montana’s certified federal grain inspectors to guarantee grain grades that are exactly proportionate to purchase prices. Since the onset of COVID19, marketing efforts are primarily taking place through virtual channels. The MWBC staff and board members are utilizing the video series during international conferences and virtual trade shows as a means for helping buyers understand how the State Grain Lab guarantees consistent, reliable grain grades “In a typical growing season our schedules are packed with visits from prospective buyers from all over the world,” said Cassidy Marn, executive vice president for MWBC. “Coronavirus has forced us to cancel in-person trade team visits for the foreseeable future, so these videos are an effective and timeless way for us to showcase Montana’s quality wheat and barley crops,

and to help people understand the grain grading process. They share an inside look at some of the lesser known parts of the process, like rail car probing, falling numbers, and what inspectors look for while issuing grade certificates.” The first two videos in the series highlight how samples are collected from rail cars and processed at the State Grain Lab. They are now available for viewing on the MWBC website https://wbc.agr.mt.gov/ Home/News . The third video in the series will feature one of the most important grading factors for millers and bakers, the falling number test, and was set to be released Monday, Oct. 5. The final video in the series will be released the following Monday, Oct. 12, and will follow along as a federal grain inspector examines a sample and issues a grade certificate. MWBC expects these videos will be used as education and marketing tools for many years to come. T h e M o n t a n a W h e a t a n d B a r l ey Committee is a producer-funded and directed check-off organization for wheat and barley growers in the state. Its mission is to protect and foster the health and prosperity of the Montana wheat and barley industry. Visit http://montanawbc.com for more information.

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