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July 12 12March July2018 2018 12 May 2015 12 12 March 2015 2015 4-H and FFA Market Livestock Sale

www.glasgowcourier.com www.glasgowcourier.com www.havredailynews.com www.havredailynews.com such aswww.havredailynews.com 2,4-D, bromoxynil, and dicamba have

State from Around Around the the State State State FFA FFA Conventions Conventions Draws Draws Students Students from

also proven effective (Ed Davis, Brain Jenks, 2018). Post-emergent applications in wheat include products containing thifensulfuronmethyl, tribenuron-methyl (AfďŹ nity Broad FOR FARM AND RANCH Spectrum) and 2,4-D; orasulam, uroxypyr and pyroxsulam (Gold Sky); pyrasulfatole & 4-H and FFA will be holding their Market bromoxynil (Huskie); 2,4-D, bromoxynil and Livestock Sale on Friday, Aug. 3, at the Valley fluroxypyr (Kochiavore) tank mixed with County Fairgrounds. halauxifen & orasulam (Quelex); orasuUp for auction this year will include 27 lam & uroxypyr (Starane Flex) tank mixed beef, 18 lamb, 48 swine and seven poultry. The with 2,4-D; or bicyclopyrone & bromoxynil pre-sale viewing of the animals will begin at (Talinor) have proven effect in managing 3:30 p.m., with the livestock auction starting at 4 p.m. hawksbeard. Always read and follow label diYouth who participate in market livestock rections when using herbicides and be cautious projects learn valuable skills. Their experiregarding plant back restrictions if planning ence in the program adds to their lifetime of on planting broad leaved crops such as peas, knowledge and leadership, which makes our lentils, chickpeas, mustard, canola, or ax the community stronger. following year. In pulse crops options are limited, so it is key to control hawksbeard during the small grains rotation and to control winter rosettes with glyphosate burndown applications in the CONTINUED FROM PAGE 10 fall before seeding broadleaf crops. SaufenaFSA will use updated soil rental rates to cil (Sharpen) mixed with glyphosate and apmake annual rental payments, reecting curplied as a pre-plant burndown appears help FOR THE HI-LINE FARM to & RANCH FOR THE HI-LINE FARM & RANCH FOR THE HI-LINE FARM & RANCH FOR THE HI-LINE FARM & RANCH rent values. It will not offer incentive payments control hawksbeard when transitioning to peas Creed third place winner and greenhand second place winner Mickayla Johnson accepting an award at the Lukas Johnson, Brett Johnson, Dallas Creed third place winner and greenhand second place winner Mickayla Johnson accepting an award at the Lukas Johnson, Brett Johnson, DallasCapdeville, Capdeville,Kyle KyleAlbus, Albus,Wyatt WyattPattison Pattisonand andAdvisor Advisor Patti Patti Armbrister Armbrister at at as part of the new signup. state convention in Billings. because earlier seeding of cool season pulse the state convenstion in Billings. state convention in Billings. the state convenstion Billings. USDA will notinopen a general signup this over small grain crops WYATT PATTISON competing they went went to to various various workshops workshopspresented presentedcrops bypast past state ofďŹ cers and evenensures nationaltreatment ofďŹ cers. year, however, a one-year extension WYATT will bePATTISON competing they by state ofďŹ cers and even national ofďŹ cers. when rosettes are smaller (Ed Davis, 2018). HINSDALE CHAPTER REPORTER Three of our younger members, Elise Strommen, Chaykota Christensen and Halle Beil offered to existing CRP participants with HINSDALE CHAPTER REPORTER Three of our younger members, Elise Strommen, Chaykota Christensen and Halle Beil The use of brand names in the description of served on the courtesy corp and helped out with contests whenever needed. Our five seexpiring CRP contracts of 14 years or less. served on the courtesy corp and helped out with contests whenever needed. Our five seSHELLEY MILLS / FOR THE COURIER The State (Future Farmers of American) FFA Convention was held in Billings on March 25 28. niors, Lukas Johnson, Brett Johnson, Dallas Capdeville, Kyle Albus and Wyatt Pattithe herbicides is only for clariďŹ cation and Producers an extension will receive The Stateeligible (Future for Farmers of American) FFA Convention was held inofBillings on March 25 - 28. niors, Johnson, Brett Johnson, Dallas Capdeville, Kyle Albus and Wyatt Patti- a Showytoflower heads narrow-leaf hawksbeard displaying theLukas rayawarded flower style of the inflorescence. Over 1,500 FFA members from around the state gathered compete in State CDEs, ranging from son were their State Farmer Degrees Degrees at atbroader the State State Degree dinner dinner onExtension Fridaynight. night. understanding. MSU does a letter with more information. Over 1,500 FFA members from around the state gathered to compete in State CDEs, ranging from son were awarded their State Farmer the Degree on Friday mechanics totopublic speaking. There were over 500 members, advisors and their families attending that dinner. Mickayla Johnson along the owering stem. Plants can range in not endorse these brands over others. Additionally, established new ranking mechanics publicFSA speaking. There were over 500 members, advisors and their families attending that dinner. Mickayla Johnson Ten ofofthe Hinsdale including for star star greenhand and received second place.She She alsocompeted competedwith withother other creed speakers height from four inches to 40received inches second tall de-place. criteria for CRP Grasslands. To guarantee allSophomore Tillage controls weeds bycreed uprooting the Tenmembers members the Hinsdalechapter, chapter, including SophomoreCache CacheYounkin, Younkin,competed competed in in mechanmechan- competed competed for greenhand and also speakers ics, agronomy, farm business management, star greenhand and state creed speaking. When they weren’t from around the state and received third. CONTINUED FROMWhen PAGE they 3 weren’t from CRP grasslands aremanagement, treated equally, apics, agronomy, farmoffers business star greenhand and state creed speaking. pending onthe nutrient andreceived moisture availability. plant and subjecting it to desiccation, or by around state and third. plicants who previously applied will be asked One distinguishing characteristic from other burying the plant deep enough that it cannot to reapply using the new ranking criteria. Pro- as well as acidic soils and is adapted to a wide Crepis species is the soft hairy pubescence of re-emerge from the soil proďŹ le (Hatcher and ducers with pending applications will receive range of soil types from a sandy loam to heavy ower head bracts (Najda et al., 1982) and the Melander, 2003). Tillage has been effective on clay (Najda et al., 1982). a letter providing the options. hawksbeard and other winter annuals (SwanAs a winter annual, rosettes formed in the two rows of involucral bracts (UAA, 2011). In return for enrolling land in CRP, No-till crop production, which is typical in ton et al., 1993; Blackshaw et al., 1994), howfall are low growing and insulated by snow USDA, through FSA on behalf of the Com     cover against low temperatures and drying the MonDak area, lends itself to infestations ever most producers in northeastern Montana      modity Credit Corporation (CCC), provides      ** the following "  #$  from winter annuals that become established have moved to conservation tillage practices "  #$  participants with annual rental payments and winds (Najda et al., 1982).* In "  #$  spring, plants rapidly develop owering shoots in the fall and continue their growth through coupled with pulse crop rotations to conserve

 cost-share assistance. Landowners enter into

# # from

 # from providing an advantage over planting of most crops in the spring (Baig and moisture, improve fertility, boost yields, and contracts that last between 10 and 15 years. and bloom early, from each way each way many perennials and summer annuals (Najda Gamache, 2005). Group 2/B ALS inhibitor- break pest cycles (Brandt, 1992). CRP pays producers who remove sensitive each taxes way including includingall all taxes and and fees fees et al., 1982). As aallsummer annual the plant resistant biotypes of C. tectorum were reported 

including taxes and fees    lands from production and plant certain  ! In CRP acreage, rangeland and pasture the  !       grasses, shrubs and  ! trees that   improve water germinates and remains in the rosette stage for in Alberta, Canada in 2011 (Heap, 2016) and current recommendation is to apply one pint of only a short period of time before bolting and

# quality, prevent soil erosion and # increase

# conďŹ rmed by Yoder, et al. (2015). Once the 2,4-D (either the amine or low volatility ester producing a owering structure. Blooming can wildlife habitat.    occur anytime from late May through October plant begins to bolt it becomes much more formulation) per acre to ďŹ elds after forbs have   in Signed into law by President Reagan difďŹ cult to manage and owering plants will gone dormant for the winter and/or before the 1985, CRP is one of the largest private-lands and even into November if the conditions are continue to make viable seed even if cut or forbs break dormancy in the spring. Research good for growth. The plant is extremely cold conservation programs   in the United States.  sprayed with herbicide. is ongoing into other management strategies as tolerant and actually will germinate at soil Thanks to voluntary participation by farmers, Based on cropland research by MSU Weed well as palatability and grazing acceptance. temperatures of 41° F. ranchers and private landowners, CRP has Narrow-leaf hawksbeard has several Hawksbeard can be confused with other Scientist Ed Davis and NDSU Extension Weed improved water quality, reduced soil erosion traits that contribute to its colonization and Scientist Dr. Brian Jenks, burndown applicaweeds and native plants – especially if they are and increased habitat for endangered and not looked at closely. The most common plant tions of glyphosate at 21 oz/ac with a four lb. sustainability in the MonDak area: proliďŹ c threatened species. The new changes to CRP do not impact the to be confused with in the vegetative stage is active ingredient (a.i.), in the fall coupled with seed production, winter hardiness, cold soil Enjoy Enjoythe theride. ride. Enjoy the ride. Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program, dandelion, but during the bloom stage it can an early spring pre-plant burndown with the temperature germination, multiple generations a related program offered by CCC and state easily be confused with perennial sowthistle same product results in effective control of per year, ecosystem adaptability, and extensive seed dispersal. partners. and, from a distance, curly cup gumweed, hawksbeard. If planting wheat or durum folFor more information on how to manProducers wanting to apply for the CRP hairy goldaster and western salsify. Hawks- lowing pre-plant burndown with glyphosate, age narrow-leaf hawksbeard, please contact continuous signup or CRP grasslands should ANDREWMCKEAN MCKEAN/ /FOR FORTHE THEHI-LINE HI-LINEFARM FARM&&RANCH RANCH capeair.com 800-CAPE-AIR capeair.com 800-CAPE-AIR capeair.com 800-CAPE-AIR beard is identiďŹ ed by its annual habit (easy to tank-mixing herbicides that have some residu- ShelleyANDREW Extension Agent in Valley contact their USDA service center. To locate Lih-An Ellis McKean McKean work onclearing clearingout outaaMills, beaverMSU damalong along theLittle Little Brazil Creek, Yang, Merlin, Iris and Ellis work on beaver dam the Brazil Creek, al such as orasulam, uroxypyr, and sulfonyl pull from the ground), lobed basal leaves that County, 406-228-6241, smills@montana.edu; *Fares subject availability and other conditions. notice, and are not guaranteed until ticketed. your local FSAtototoofďŹ ce, visit www.farmers.gov. *Fares aresubject availability andother other conditions.Fares Faresmay maychange changewithout without notice, and are not guaranteed until ticketed. *Fares are availability and conditions. may change without notice, and are not guaranteed until ticketed. southwest of Glasgow. More information on CRP can be found at may not be present once the plant has begun urea products may be used for longer, more Ed Davis, MSU Crop Weed Scientist 406-994owering, and thin, narrow alternating leaves efďŹ cacious control, while phenoxy herbicides 7987 edavis@montana.edu. www.fsa.usda.gov/crp.

CRP Enrollment

New Invasive Weed

IfIf save both. both. time is money, money, save If time time is is money,

Bulls Stay Stay Steady Steady Bulls

Bullsales salesremain remainstrong strongand andthe themarket market Bull remainsatataasteady steadyhigh high//Page Page2 2 remains

PUTTING IN SOME DAM DAM WORK WORK

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YOU’REREADING READINGHI-LINE HI-LINEFARM FARM & RANCH – THE AG MONTHLY FOR NORTHEAST & NORTH YOU’RE NORTH CENTRAL CENTRALMONTANA MONTANA

Month in Weather: Dry Conditions Persist - page 11 Opinion: Wildlife Habitat Improvement Program Good for Montana - page 2 Valley County 4-H Market Sale - page 12

ELIZABETH SHIPSTEAD / FOR FARM AND RANCH


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July2018 2018 July

Glasgow Stockyards, Inc. Linda & Mark Nielsen, Owners Iva Murch, Manager 263-7529 Dean Barnes, Yard Manager 263-1175 Ed Hinton, Auctioneer 783-7285

July, August SERVING AREA âœŻ and LIVESTOCK PRODUCERS September 2018 FOR 72 YEARS! 1946 - 2018 Schedule

July 2018

August 2018 (cont.)

Thursday

5

Thursday

NO AUCTION

16

NO AUCTION

12

All Class Cattle Auction

23

Early Yearling & All Class Cattle Auction

19

NO AUCTION

30

NO AUCTION

Saturday

21 26

Sheridan County Road Dept. III & Guest Consignors Surplus Auction 10 a.m. - Sheridan County Road Dept. Shop, Plentywood, Mt. See Auction Flyer at www.glasgowstockyards.com All Class Cattle Auction

August 2018 Thursday

2

NO AUCTION

9

All Class Cattle Auction

September 2018 Thursday

6

All Class Cattle Auction

13

The 26th Big Fall Yearling Classic & All Class Cattle Auction

20

The One and Only Sheep Auction of & All Class Cattle Auction

27

All Class Cattle Auction

228-9306

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Opinion: Wildlife Habitat Improvement Program is Good for Montana NICK GEVOCK AND COLE MANNIX FOR FARM AND RANCH

Montana’s farmers, ranchers and hunters have been partners for decades in conserving and managing our treasured wildlife. For years we’ve shared this working relationship because we’re neighbors and we understand that together, hunters and landowners can achieve positive results for both wildlife and the land that they reside on. That cooperative relationship was on display last year when ranchers, farmers, county weed districts and even county commissioners worked alongside hunters, anglers and the broader conservation community to establish the Montana Wildlife Habitat Improvement program. The bill, sponsored by Rep. Kelly Flynn, R-Townsend, allows a portion of the federal funds that Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks receives to be used for habitat improvement projects that would ďŹ ght noxious weeds on private and public lands. We all know that weeds take a heavy toll on wildlife habitat. Noxious weeds crowd out native grasses and shrubs, which means less forage for deer, elk and other wildlife. They can make areas that once supported abundant wildlife far less productive, putting greater pressure on landowners with irrigated ďŹ elds and good wildlife habitat as those animals seek the best feed. Noxious weeds, like wildlife, know no boundaries either. Often times weed infestations that start on one piece of land get transported to other pieces of land, meaning that ďŹ ghting weeds isn’t just a private or public land problem, but a Montana problem. Weeds might not be as high proďŹ le an issue

as some, but conservationists and landowners alike know that they are a threat to the productivity of the lands where we live, work and play, whether they’re public or private. The Wildlife Habitat Improvement program is a prime example of a solid public/ private partnership with broad beneďŹ ts for everyone. Under the program, applicants receive a three-to-one match for either their dollars, or in-kind labor to enact a weed management program. It includes measures that ensure the projects are effective, and a good use of public dollars. Every project is reviewed by a committee with diverse interests, including sportsmen, agricultural producers and weed districts. Every project must go through public scrutiny and be approved by the state Fish and Wildlife Commission. That gives Montanans assurance that the projects will have tangible beneďŹ ts for habitat and wildlife. All Montanans have an interest in preventing the spread of noxious weeds, while working to restore existing infestations to a more diverse and resilient plant community. It’s a daunting proposition, but with teamwork we can make progress. The Montana Wildlife Habitat Improvement program represents the best of what makes Montana, Montana. We come together to solve problems and we work to help our neighbors. This kind of common sense collaboration is what it takes to respect all views while advancing positive programs that beneďŹ t all Montanans and our shared wildlife heritage. Nick Gevock is the conservation director for the Montana Wildlife Federation. Cole Mannix is the advancement director for the Western Landowners Alliance.

Grazing or Feed Loss Assistance Available for Livestock Producers FOR FARM AND RANCH Producers who have livestock feed or grazing losses that occur, could be eligible for assistance through the Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees and Farm-Raised Fish Program (ELAP). Adverse natural disaster conditions, including wildďŹ re, winter storms, blizzards, and ood conditions, have recently affected many producers. ELAP may provide recovery assistance for losses due to grazing shortages, loss of harvested feed, water shortages, or disease, due to adverse weather or other conditions, which are not adequately addressed by other disaster programs. ELAP covers up to 150 lost grazing days in instances when a producer has been forced to remove livestock from a grazing pasture during the normal grazing period due to a

natural disaster condition other than fire. Grazing losses due to ďŹ re covers up to 180 lost grazing days. . ELAP also covers physically damaged livestock feed that was purchased or mechanically harvested forage or feedstuffs intended for use as feed for the producer’s eligible livestock. In order to be considered eligible, harvested forage must have been baled. Forage that is only cut, raked or windrowed in the ďŹ eld is not eligible. Producers with a qualifying loss must contact the FSA OfďŹ ce to ďŹ le an ELAP Notice of Loss within 30 calendar days of when the loss is apparent. Producers should also maintain records and receipts documenting livestock removed from the grazing pasture due to adverse conditions, See FEED LOSS ASSISTANCE Page 10

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Nominations Open for FSA 2018 County Committee Elections FOR FARM AND RANCH USDA Farm Service Agency encourages all farmers, ranchers, and FSA program participants to take part in the county committee election nomination process. Committees are comprised of locallyelected agricultural producers responsible for the fair and equitable administration of FSA farm programs in their counties. Committee members are accountable to the Secretary of Agriculture. If elected, members become part of a local decision-making and farm program delivery process. A county committee is comprised of three to 11 elected members from local administrative areas (LAA). Each member serves a three-year term. One-third of the seats on these committees are open for election each year. County committees may have an appointed advisor to further represent the local interests of underserved farmers and ranchers. Underserved producers are beginning, women and other minority farmers and ranchers and land owners and/or operators who have limited resources. Other minority groups including Native American and Alaska Natives; persons under the poverty level, and persons that have disabilities are also considered underserved. All nomination forms for the 2018 election must be postmarked or received in the local USDA service center by Wednesday, Aug. 1. County committee election ballots will be mailed to eligible voters on Monday, Nov. 5. The last day to return completed ballots to FSA is Monday, Dec. 3. For more information on FSA county committee elections and appointments, refer to the FSA fact sheet: Eligibility to Vote and Hold OfďŹ ce as a COC Member available online at: www.fsa.usda.gov/elections.

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11 July2018 2018 11 July

FARM & FARM & RANCH RANCH

The Month In Weather:

Dry Conditions Still Exist Despite Rainfall

A.J. ETHERINGTON / FOR FARM AND RANCH

Sean R. Heavey watches as rain falls over a country road in North Dakota. Dry conditions still exist despite storms and rain. Rain and thunderstorms have been extreme this past month but dry conditions still exist for parts of northcentral and northeastern Montana. The National Weather Service reported June's average temps was four degrees Farenheit above normal June averages. Confidence for July forecasts are low as fire season approaches. It is unknown whether conditions will get hotter and drier or colder and wetter. MICHELLE BIGELBACH FOR FARM AND RANCH The latest U.S. Drought Monitor was released on June 21, showing continued below-normal precipitation for some locations. The area of abnormally dry conditions has expanded some, and a new area of moderate drought has been introduced that impinges on parts of northeast Montana. Currently, approximately 16 percent of the state is classiďŹ ed as at least abnormally dry and four percent of the state is in at least a moderate drought. For the region, the moderate drought has shifted from the northeast corner to Phillips County, while much of the rest of the region along and north of the Missouri River is under abnormally dry conditions, along with the far eastern sections of Richland and northern Wibaux counties. The state drought advisory committee is looking for feedback from folks involved with the agriculture industry. SpeciďŹ cally, the committee is looking to hear from those directly

involved in operations on how drought affects them, and to know what conditions are like currently across the region. The state drought advisory committee is conducting a survey and welcome all those involved in the agriculture industry to participate. The survey goes to the Montana Drought Monitor Reporter at the following link: survey123.arcgis.com/share/6c9 679697b104ccdbde2d52f64f8adb2. June continued the trend of much-increased precipitation across a wide swath of the region when compared to last year, and also even compared to last month. There were many locations across the region that had at least one event where severe thunderstorms dropped enough rain to cause ooding issues. However, many other locations that got at least some rain this past month are still quite far behind normal for both the month, and even now behind normal for the year. Looking forward towards July, conďŹ dence in the trends for both temperatures and precipitation across northeast Montana is low. The Climate Prediction Center forecast for July lays out equal chances for both above or

below temperatures and precipitation, which explains the low conďŹ dence. Now looking back at June, as of press date, 11 days in the month saw at least a trace of reported precipitation, and four days saw at least a tenth of an inch of accumulated precipitation. As for winds, eight days saw sustained winds greater than 25 mph, and 16 days with winds greater than 20 mph. The highest sustained wind was reported at 37 mph and occurred on June 10, and the highest wind gust was also recorded on June 10 at 47 mph. As of press date, per the National Weather Service in Glasgow, the highest observed temperature for the month was 93 degrees on June 9, and the lowest was 47 on both June 13 and June 15. The total liquid precipitation reported at Glasgow was 1.35â€?, which was approximately 0.7â€? below normal. Over a 24hour period, the greatest precipitation total was 0.51â€?, which occurred on June 24. The overall mean temperature for the month was approximately 67 degrees, which was approximately 4 degrees above normal.


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Feed Loss Assistance CONTINUED FROM PAGE 2

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USDA Resumes Continuous CRP Enrollment

After The Initial Saleâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; WHAT Is Your 'LVFRXQW6XSSOLHU2ÍżHULQJ<RX"

FOR FARM AND RANCH

ELIZABETH SHIPSTEAD / FOR FARM AND RANCH

A prairie storm threatens the Shipstead homestead on a spring day. Rain has been relatively abundant this year compared to last years drought conditions. ELIZABETH SHIPSTEAD FOR ARM AND RANCH Today Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m packing. Packing clothes, swimsuits, activities for the girls, and all our baby â&#x20AC;&#x153;stuffâ&#x20AC;? for my expectant sister in law. One thing Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m not packing is items for my hubby. I havenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t been sure how to feel about this. On one hand, there is great anticipation for the girls and I to spend time over the Fourth with aunts, uncles, cousins, grandma and grandpa, but with that excitement comes a sense of sadness. Someone has to stay home and keep farming. Hay season is upon us. Someone has to stay home and put the bull out on time. Someone has to, â&#x20AC;&#x153;make hay while the sun shines,â&#x20AC;? even though the rest of his family is leaving to reconnect with extended family. So the chance

to get away and see family over the Fourth, is bittersweet. I know our family is not alone in this conundrum. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s part of a life in Ag. You either put things aside and make memories or you choose to make memories within your life in Ag. Sometimes, part of the family goes one way, while another stays and continues on and keeps things going. The person staying behind is owed great gratitude. The other day I was talking with a friend and telling her about this trip. She shared that her family was debating over the potential of a similar trip. I encouraged her to go, pack up the kiddos and make the trip. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s hard to leave our hubbies behind, but kids donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t get any younger and when opportunities arise we need to take them. It takes lots of mental strength and physical endurance to drive children

across states on your own. Not only because of the typical kiddo issues while traveling, but itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s hard to leave your partner behind. It is. And thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ok. This scenario is one of a million, where we get to choose as a couple and family in Ag what is important. Sometimes two things, at the same time, are important. Couples in Ag are great at â&#x20AC;&#x153;divide and conquer.â&#x20AC;? So women in Ag, feel empowered. Make the choice as a couple, but then strike out on your own with your kiddos and go make some memories. To those left at home. We havenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t forgotten you. We miss you. We are so so grateful that not only are you hardworking and will keep things going, but that you also are secure enough to allow the rest of your family go and have some fun when they can.

YOUâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;RE READING HI-LINE FARM & RANCH â&#x20AC;&#x201C; THE AG MONTHLY FOR NORTHEAST & NORTH CENTRAL MONTANA

See CRP ENROLLMENT Page 12

What do â&#x20AC;&#x153;low costâ&#x20AC;? ag suppliers

A New Invasive Weed - Narrow-leaf Hawksbeard

costs of transporting livestock feed to eligible livestock, receipts for equipment rental fees for hay lifts, feed purchase receipts, and the number of gallons of water transported to livestock due to water shortages, if applicable. Producers must also ďŹ le an ELAP Application for Payment no later than November 1, 2018. For more information regarding ELAP, please contact the local FSA ofďŹ ce at 54062 Hwy 2 W, Suite 1, Glasgow MT, 406-2284321.

As part of a 33-year effort to protect sensitive lands and improve water quality and wildlife habitat on private lands, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) will resume accepting applications for the voluntary Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Eligible farmers, ranchers, and private landowners can sign up at their local Farm Service Agency (FSA) ofďŹ ce through Aug. 17. â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Conservation Reserve Program is an important component of the suite of voluntary conservation programs USDA makes available to agricultural producers, beneďŹ ting both the land and wildlife. On the road, I often hear ďŹ rsthand how popular CRP is for our recreational sector; hunters, ďŹ shermen, conservationists and bird watchers,â&#x20AC;? U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Sonny Perdue said. â&#x20AC;&#x153;CRP also is a powerful tool to encourage agricultural producers to set aside unproductive, marginal lands that should not be farmed to reduce soil erosion, improve water quality, provide habitat for wildlife and boost soil health.â&#x20AC;? FSA stopped accepting applications last fall for the CRP continuous signup. excluding applications for the Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) and CRP grasslands. This pause allowed USDA to review available acres and avoid exceeding the 24 million-acre CRP cap set by the 2014 Farm Bill. New limited practice availability and short sign up period helps ensure that landowners with the most sensitive acreage will enroll in the program and avoid unintended competition with new and beginning farmers seeking leases. CRP enrollment currently is about 22.7 million acres. For this yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s signup, limited priority practices are available for continuous enrollment. They include grassed waterways, ďŹ lter strips, riparian buffers, wetland restoration and others.

July 2018 3 July 2018 3

Seed heads of hawksbeard plants. SHELLEY MILLS MSU EXTENSION AG AGENT VALLEY COUNTY FOR FARM AND RANCH Many folks are noticing a strange yellow ďŹ&#x201A;ower showing up in their ďŹ elds, and requests for identiďŹ cation of the plant has become an almost hourly event at the Valley County and nearby MSU Extension ofďŹ ces. Everything looks ďŹ ne and you think your crop is doing great, until one day you are driving past and you see millions of little yellow ďŹ&#x201A;owers standing above and within your crop. Narrow-leaf hawksbeard (Crepis tectorum L.), is a highly adaptive and increasingly difďŹ cult to control weed for northeastern Montana and northwestern North Dakota. Though it is primarily a winter annual, it can also be a summer annual, germinating and growing whenever the conditions are conducive. It has become an increasing problem in reduced and no-till ďŹ elds as well as rangelands, Conserva-

SHELLEY MILLS / FOR THE COURIER

tion Reserve Program (CRP) acreages, roadsides and other disturbed areas. Narrow-leaf hawksbeard can reduce crop yields when not managed and can reduce forage quality due to its low palatability and invasive habit. The seed heads resemble dandelions in that they have a small seed attached to a pappus, or feathery structure that acts as a parachute for easy dispersal in the wind. Each plant can produce anywhere from 3,000 to 49,000 seeds. Seeds of hawksbeard exhibit very little dormancy with over 90 percent germinating within the ďŹ rst year (Andersson, 1990) and are only viable for about 2 ½ years in the soil matrix. It is adapted to a wide range of environmental and climatic conditions (Najda et al., 1982) residing in forests, prairies, mountains, parklands, seashores, and lakeshores throughout temperate North America (USDA, NRCS). Narrow-leaf hawksbeard can grow in alkaline See NEW INVASIVE WEED Page 12

FOR SALE: 40-foot Dry Van Trailer. Good rubber, for storage. Could be delivered. $3,500. Northstar Portable Livestock Scale. Rolling doors on each end of scale, Gallagher smart scale reader, easy to operate. Can be set up and ready to go in 10 minutes. Weighed only 200 head. $3,000. 1995 Chevy 1-ton Dually. 454, auto transmission overdrive, 5th wheel ball. Runs great. $2,000. Call Roger at 406-263-2400

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Moisture hitting crops at good time Tim Leeds tleeds@havredailynews.com After a harsh 12 months of drought, severe winter and flooding, the weather seems to be cooperating for the moment and providing some needed moisture for crops in this part of north-central Montana. Heavy storms have been causing flooding in recent weeks and doing severe damage in some parts of Montana, but after flooding caused by snowmelt in the plains, beneficial rains are falling on Blaine, northern Chouteau, Hill and Liberty counties. By June 26, the last data available when this article was written, National Weather Service had recorded .89 inches of precipitation for June at the recording station at the Havre City-County Airport west of Havre. That was short of the norm for June on that date — 1.84 inches — but with the snow that accumulated over the winter, it put Havre at a hundredth-of-an-inch over the norm for the year on that date, 5.57 inches of precipitation, and when the snow including the massive October snowstorm is included, Havre was at more than 2 inch-

n Weather Continued on page 6 Havre Daily News/Ryan Welch Hay is cut and baled on the Miller farm near Gildford.

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All Breeds Ranch Horse Challenge set for July An All Breeds Ranch Horse Challenge competition is scheduled in Billings July 7-8 at the MetraPark Super Barn. Organized and managed by the Eastern Montana Appaloosa Horse Club, the event is believed to be the first of its kind. Approved by the Appaloosa Horse Club

and the American Quarter Horse Association, with approval by the American Paint Horse Association pending, the competition will also feature classes for Arabians, Morgans and an All Other Breeds division. The judge, Marilyn Randall of Bridger, is a well-known horsewoman and judge.

Divisions for each breed are: Senior Horse, Junior Horse, Non-Pro/Amateur, Youth 13 & Under and Youth 14-18. Classes offered in each division are: Ranch Riding, Ranch Trail, Ranch Reining, Ranch Rail Pleasure and Ranch Conformation.

High point horse and rider combination for each division and each breed will be awarded and a working saddle will be awarded to the overall champion ranch horse. For information and entry forms, people can call Lesli Glen at 406-690-4451, or find All Breed Ranch Horse Challenge on Facebook.

FSA lists July 16 reporting deadline and key program dates Press release USDA Farm Service Agency has reminded Montana farmers and ranchers  of the current signups and upcoming program dates and deadlines. For assistance, people should contact their local FSA office. • N ow t h r o u g h Au g u s t 1 : 2 01 8 Agriculture Risk Coverage and Price Loss Coverage annual signup period • Now through August 1: 2018 FSA County Committee Election Nomination Period • N ow t h r o u g h   a n d Au g . 1 7 : C o n t i n u o u s C o n s e r va t i o n Re s e r ve Program Signup Period and 1-year Extensions on contracts expiring Sept. 30 • Now through Oct. 1: 2019 Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance

Program Application Closing Date for Annual Fall-Seeded Crops, Perennial Forage and Grazing, Mixed Forage Crops (including spring seeded annual types of missed forage), Rye, Speltz, Triticale, Wheat and Garlic Key Program Dates and Deadlines • M ay 1 5 t o J u l y 1 5 : M o n t a n a Primary Nesting Season • July 16: 2018 Acreage Reporting Deadline for Spring Seeded Alfalfa S e e d, Fo ra ge S e e d i n g , C R P, Fr u i t ( e x c e p t c h e r r i e s ) , Ve g e t a b l e s , Christmas Trees, all Spring-Seeded Crops and all other crops not required to be reported by previously announced deadlines. Please note that this is the final date that FSA can accept late-filed 2017 reports for these crops.

• July 16: 2018 CRP Summer/Fall Grazing Period Begins (with prior written approval) • J u l y 1 6 : 2 01 8 C R P M a n a g e d Harvesting Period Begins (with prior written approval) • Aug. 1: Deadline for 2018 ARC and PLC Enrollment • Aug. 1: 2018 FSA County Committee Election Nomination Period Deadline • Aug. 1: Last day to request FY 2018 farm reconstitutions on ARC and PLC farms • Aug. 1: Last day to request farm transfers for FY 2018 • Aug. 17: Last day of Continuous CRP Signup Period and one-year extensions on expiring contracts • S e p t . 4 : 2 01 9 N A P A p p l i c a t i o n

Closing Date Value-Loss Crops such as nursery, Christmas trees, grass sod, ginseng, aquaculture, floriculture, root stock sets and mushrooms. • Sept. 13: 2018 CRP Summer/Fall Grazing Period Ends • S e p t . 3 0 : 2 01 8 C R P M a n a g e d Harvesting Period Ends • O c t . 1 : 2 01 9 N A P A p p l i c a t i o n Closing Date for Annual Fall-Seeded Crops, Perennial Forage and Grazing, Mixed Forage Crops (including spring seeded annual types of mixed forage), Rye, Speltz, Triticale, Wheat and Garlic For more information, please call your local FSA office and visit Montana FSA online at www.fsa.usda.gov/mt.


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■ Continued from page 5 25-pound packs. ... We didn’t want to do farmers’ markets. We didn’t want to have to manage inventory of cuts that people did or didn’t want. These packs would have 50 percent burger, with the remainder divided between roasts and steaks. Paine believes that for sustainable meat to be sustainable financially for farmers, folks will have to scale up. “When we started selling our beef, we’ve always been grass-fed,” Paine said. “There wasn’t a beef co-op and there was very little knowledge about it. As grass-fed becomes more of a mainstay and bigger part of the market, what our industry needs to do is transition from ... 15-, 20-cow herds to a more sustainable level, which might be 50 cows. ... Just for my 20-cow herd I still need a tractor and manure spreader. I could have the same equipment for a herd twice the size.” Paine referenced another barrier: the paucity of USDA-certified processors, of which she said “maybe one or two can handle a dozen or two dozen (steers) a week.” Federal inspection is necessary in order to sell meat across state lines. For a hobby farmer with backyard chickens or a neighbor’s pig destined to feed a few families, a small processor works fine. For a Wisconsin farmer who wants to make a living, the inability to sell their beef in larger markets in other states can make the road to profitability so long, they might give up. “Although we have close to 300 family butchers ... they’re all state-inspected,” said

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Wisconsin farmers work on grass-fed, locally grazed meat

Local: Carr: 'It's not cheap, what we do' into ground meat. Sometimes the delicate packaging on frozen ground pork gets dropped and dinged. He’s had to discount his packages. He tries to be forgiving when this happens. “It goes back to these places I’m working with,” Semrow said. “They’re family-owned businesses. Sometimes I’m talking to little old ladies or little old guys. You roll with it. I love working with small processors.” More small processors, and processors with the ability to scale up, are another choke point for growth in the small scale meat business. “One of the biggest issues that we have is processing capacity,” said Laura Paine, who brings her beef to Johnson’s Sausage Shop in Rio. “We have a decent processor in our neighborhood but that’s not the case for everyone.” For processors willing to do custom work, the timing can be tough, too. “Just at the time when a lot of our calves are ready to process, our processor closes down for beef and pork and any other meat animals for six weeks to process deer,” Paine said. “And that’s common. That’s where their main source of income is.” Paine is a grazing educator and researcher who runs the Dairy Grazing Apprenticeship, a farmer-to-farmer program based in Medford. She and her husband started their farm in 2002, raising a breed of cows called British White. “We built our marketing plan around direct sales to individuals,” Paine said. “We sold quarters, and we bundled meat in 50- and

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Dick Cates. “That means I cannot ship my beef to a restaurant in Chicago, a huge market in my backyard. Chicago is out of my reach. How absurd and silly is that?” Getting into certain markets can be difficult, he said. “For a new producer who’s trying to break into Madison or Milwaukee or Stevens Point or Platteville, some of the low-hanging fruit has already been selected,” Cates added, referring to the number of “farm to table” restaurant options. “You’re stymied. It’s a very slow go.” The Meat Market in Baraboo plans to be one of those USDA-certified processors in about two months. Drew Brinker and his wife, Michelle, manage the shop that Michelle’s father, Mike Vold, has owned since 1989. “I’ve been pushing for it,” Drew Brinker said. “I had customers approach me with business opportunities that looked good. We’re also organic certified. It helps the organic community here in Wisconsin to be able to sell their stuff across state lines.” The Meat Market boasts a 40-foot meat case, and Brinker said the company prides itself on custom orders, adjusting roast size, number of steaks and packaging. Close individual attention from a processor is essential for farmers like Matt Walter, a former partner in Jordandal Farms who recently started his own farm under the name Curiousfarmer. He and business partner Braden Zywicki, who’s in charge of poultry, started their new stand on April 14 at the Dane County Farmers’ Market. “I want to make sure the carcasses come out right,” said Walter, who raises 50 cattle and 200 hogs on a farm outside Darlington. “I want to raise more animals and sell more meat, but I don’t want to have a bunch of one thing left over. That is a challenge for me.” To eat meat this way, Walter said, takes effort for the consumer. People have to seek him out, or farmers like him, but he knows “people have busy lives.” “We grow nutritious food for people who want to know their farmer and know where their food comes from,” Walter said. “We’re open to having visitors to the farm. We sold turkeys last year and a lot of people drove to the farm.” He tries to keep his prices reasonable to avoid pricing people out, but as Pecatonica Valley Farms’ Carr said, “the world is used to cheap food, and it’s not cheap, what we do.” That’s part of why Kay Jensen, a market

staple for the past 15 years with JenEhr Family Farm, keeps such a close eye on the business’s finances, cutting anything that doesn’t work. “I dream in spreadsheets,” Jensen said after a recent market morning on the Capitol Square. “When we were early on, we drew a line in the sand that said, no messing with the numbers ... if we don’t make ‘this’ amount of money, we’re done. ... We have moved that line, but it’s never backward. And we drop things. We used to do cut flowers. We dropped our CSA two years ago, the numbers weren’t there.” JenEhr raises 4,000 to 6,000 chickens a year, raised in shifts and processed in three batches at a plant in southern Minnesota. They’re frozen, which allows JenEhr to sell them for longer stretches, and delivered by the pallet. For economic scale, Jensen doesn’t want to deal with one bird at a time. “80 percent of our chickens we sell whole,” Jensen said. “Less than five percent are bonein, skin-on breasts, because that allows me to have leg and thigh and a ‘soup pack’ of just bones.” People still ask for boneless, skinless chicken breasts, even at the market. JenEhr dropped them seven years ago and hasn’t looked back. Jensen also moved its focus away from restaurants, finding other outlets have a better return. “That’s not profitable,” she said. “When we talk about sustainable, there’s how we raise things sustainably. But if I’m not financially successful, if I’m not profitable, I’m not being sustainable. Because I’m not there.” Recently on Willy Street, the cow finally came home. The Underground Butcher storefront receives an Angus steer from CDK Angus in Lena, Illinois, once a week Red Wattle pigs from Stoneface Pastures come in two at a time every other week. On that day, Wesley Aniel climbed up into the back of the CDK truck while Steve Dawson balanced a utility cart along the bumper. They muscled two massive sections of beef into the shop. Butcher manager Allie Christian and Aniel both set to work on the hindquarter with flexible, wicked sharp boning knives, while Dawson took a hand saw to the forequarter. “People can see what we’re doing, the art of what we’re doing,” Christian said, noting how close the breakdown area is to the meat case and shop floor. “Customers are surprised by the sheer size of it. ... It’s like, ‘Yeah. It’s a cow. That’s what it looks like.’”

By LINDSAY CHRISTIANS The Capital Times MADISON, Wis. (AP) — Todd Carr’s family has been trucking eggs, beef, pork and chicken from their Hollandale farm to market in Madison for the past 22 years. Not long ago, at a winter farmers’ market downtown, a young customer approached Carr’s Pecatonica Valley Farm stand, eyeing the ground beef. “It was snowing colder than you-know-what that day,” Carr said. “She wanted to know whether the burger I had was grass-fed. Me and my brother ... we looked outside and said ‘Yeah, but on a day like today, it’s hard to find grass.’... She just looked at me. And we’re like — ‘We’re kidding. It’s snowing. This time of year they get fed alfalfa.’ She’s like, ‘Oh, thanks,’ and moved on.” No sale. That’s the challenge, Carr said, for farmers like him. Customers hear words or phrases like “grass-fed,” “pasture-raised” and “farm to table” and use them without quite understanding what they mean. The reality is more complicated. The desire for sustainable beef, pork and poultry can quickly run up against a lack of understanding about how that meat gets to the table, from cost of production to factors that make scaling up difficult. “I can tell what was on the latest cooking show when 10 people come up and ask for the same thing, like flank steak,” Carr told The Capital Times . There are two flank steaks, weighing a few pounds each, on an 800-pound animal. Customers can be unrealistic in their expectations, he said. “Today’s customers, they don’t want (education),” Carr said. “They hear it, they want it. If I went into the gory details of farming, they’d pass out.” Americans have had 12 years to grapple with what author Michael Pollan called “The Omnivore’s Dilemma.” Eating too much meat, particularly commodity beef, harms our bodies and damages the environment. In restaurants and at the farmers’ market, conscientious carnivores silently note whether the chicken was raised on pasture or if the pig had a heritage. Yet we’re still eating a lot of meat. The federal Department of Agriculture made headlines earlier this year when it predicted that in 2018, Americans would eat more meat than any year since 1970. The forecast, 222.2 pounds of meat

per person on average, favors chicken over beef. In Wisconsin, ethically minded burger lovers have begun to turn to more sustainable forms of meat, like cows grazed on hills near Dodgeville, chicken raised on Sun Prairie pasture and pigs kept warm in the winter on Amish homesteads. With herds of a few dozen animals to several hundred, family farmers have stepped up to meet the demand. The Wisconsin Grass-fed Beef Cooperative, celebrating its 10th year, includes some 185 farmers who collectively sell their beef under the Wisconsin Meadows label. “We have seen an increase in the number of our members who raise meat,” Sarah Elliott, manager of the Dane County Farmers’ Market, wrote in an email. “Meat producers make up approximately 25 percent of our waitlist. These numbers mirror the trends of increasing small to mid-scale local meat production.” Take fresh chicken. Wisconsin has a bottleneck when it comes to poultry processing. There are some 300 small-scale butchers in the state, most of who slaughter, clean and cut meat, but only four state-inspected processors work with chickens. There’s also an education gap. The University of Wisconsin-Extension introduced a Master Meat Crafter Training program in 2008, a series of six short courses held over two years and aimed, in part, at those already in the field. Madison College is adding a new sustainable meat diploma starting this fall. Meat markets that offer custom processing may book out months in advance, a challenge for young farmers trying to prepare their herds for market. Farmers who want to maximize the value of their animals find that processors may not know what a tri tip roast is, or grind up a valuable roast with the rest of the trim. “You’ve got to find a butcher who feels the way you do and wants to treat the animal right,” said Andy Fischer of Fischer Family Farm, now based in Fall River. “There’s a lot of animals being produced in Wisconsin, but not enough butchers.” Fischer called butchery “a lost profession.” “It’s like farming, the profession is getting older,” Fischer said. “Nobody is coming up to replace them. Every town had a bar, a church and a butcher, it was part of the town. We’re losing that.” On an early spring day, John Priske looked out over his Fountain Prairie Farm, 280 mostly brown acres in Fall River. A few of Fischer’s cattle, a shorthorn/Red Angus cross, blinked in the sun in a nearby pad-

dock, while Priske’s shaggy Scottish Highland cows grazed just beyond. Chickens rambled everywhere, foraging in the brush near an airy, open barn. “We like to consider ourselves warriors, and we’ve been in the trenches for over 30 years,” said Priske, who with his wife, Dorothy, supplied L’Etoile with lean, well-marbled beef before the Priskes retired in 2014. “We (had) been direct marketing since 1986, and we’ve been working with chefs in Madison,” John Priske said. “Chefs are a lot like farmers. It’s kind of a thankless job some days. You put in a lot of hours, you work a lot of weekends and holidays and the only thing you get out of it is if the person who eats your food likes your food.” This year, the Priskes will strengthen connections between farmers and chefs with a new collaboration with Madison College. The college signed a lease on 165 of the farm’s acres, then turned around and leased 155 of them to Andy and Sadie Fischer of Fischer Family Farm. The farm will become a new outdoor classroom for Madison College students looking to study the water, soil, plants, compost, feed and, of course, the animals themselves. Sustainable Farm to Table: Modern Meat Production, a oneyear technical diploma, inaugurates its first class this September. “There’s something special about this place that really should be showcased,” said Randy Zogbaum, an agricultural instructor at Madison College. “How to manage, how to live on the land, and how to be a family farm again. A legacy for Fountain Prairie Farm could be to teach others.” The coursework for Sustainable Farm to Table was a collaboration on many levels. In addition to the agricultural training Zogbaum has developed, culinary program director Paul Short brought in chefs and butchers to help put together an inventory of real-world skills. “It’s our goal not only to train people to open up butcher shops, but also have chefs have a place where they can learn how to do this themselves,” Short said. Andy Fischer, 33, is among the young farmers looking to continue and grow the sustainable farming practices developed by the Priskes. “We’re big into pastured pork and chickens,” Fischer said. “We’re looking to expand our beef herd. Our plan at Fountain Prairie is to be able to do everything there,” beef, pork, chicken and turkeys, all on pasture. “The pasture’s there,” he said. “Let’s use it as much as we can for whatever we can.” A similar generational change is happening at Cates Family Farm. On some 250 acres of pasture outside Spring Green, Eric and Kiley Cates have taken over the grass-fed beef and dairy grazing business led for years by Eric’s dad, Dick Cates. When Dick Cates, a veteran farmer, took over his own father’s beef farm, he spent years trying to make a living in commodity farming by adding to his herd. At one time, the Cateses farmed 1,000 acres and had 800 head of cattle. Dick Cates still struggled to pay off what he had to borrow year to year. The margins weren’t there. “The commodity market is the death knell,” Dick Cates said. “Any young farmer who thinks they’re going to produce for the commodity market is just doing it as a hobby. There’s no

business model that will allow you to produce for a commodity market and make a living as a new farmer.” What has proven more successful for both the Cateses and Priskes is grass-fed beef, which requires more intensive farm practices but fetches a higher price. When Cates started marketing his beef to downtown chefs, some were skeptical that grass-fed beef could taste good, so he supplemented with grain. Now, he said, “grass-fed has become like the religion.” “If you have a drop of grain in the life cycle of your steer, people won’t touch it,” Cates said. “You gotta stay on top of these things ... you have to go with the trend.” Cates Family Farm sells both Angus and Jersey beef to Madison restaurants. Few chefs can accommodate whole beef but some, like Francesco Mangano at Osteria Papavero, are willing to use cuts like shank and cheeks, as well as the “nasty bits” (offal, like heart and tongue). John Priske described this as farmers needing to learn “the language of the chef.” “As a farmer, we need to know a lot about how to cook meat,” Priske said. “Most of the time you’re talking about how to prepare food, the cuts, where the cuts come from and whether they loosen or tighten up when you cook them. ... Some restaurants would bring their whole entire restaurant up for a trip, front of the house (too) ... when they’re talking to the customers, they can tell a little story about where that food came from.” Wisconsin has a few hundred small processors scattered across the state in towns like Waupaca, Darlington, Plain and Cuba City. These are the butchers Issac Semrow has worked with for his part-time, direct-to-consumer meat business, Semrau Heritage Meats, for the past four years. (For the name, Semrow went back to the original Germanic spelling of his family name.) “I came up with being the middleman, to make it easy for people who would normally buy at the grocery store,” said Semrow, who grew up on a farm in Coloma and now lives on Madison’s east side. He specializes in what Black Earth Meats used to market as “grandpa’s way” — beef and pork raised outside in small herds on Wisconsin farms. Through Facebook and email, Semrow takes orders for club steaks and round steaks of beef, Tamworth pork jowl and whole shoulder roasts of lamb, among other things. He also sells Red Wattle and Tamworth pork by the quarter for $190-$200. It’s one way to challenge people to use more of the whole animal, bones and trim and all. And it encourages customers to look beyond how the meat, well, looks. “I run into ... questionable quality on packaging,” Semrow said. “It happens all the time. ... They’re going to probably cut beef steaks with a saw. When they do that, some of the bone and fat builds up on the blade. That gets on the meat. They’re not going to take time to wipe each steak off to make it look pretty like you would see in a grocery store.” Semrow has had his cutting instructions get lost in translation, “which is real upsetting,” he said. One butcher incorrectly ground the roasts

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es more than the norm for the water year that starts Oct. 1, at 9.10 inches.

Hit from all sides The weather was difficult for many of

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Havre Daily News/Ryan Welch A sprinkler irrigates a crop near Havre.

■ Continued from page 4

Cattle graze southwest of Havre.

July 2018

pared to a normal amount of 3 inches — by the end of the month Havre had received .55 inches of moisture compared to the norm of .84 inches. Some rainfall hits area While the storms in this region have not been at the flood-causing levels as they have elsewhere in the state, not even reaching the norm for May and June, the timely precipitation could be good for crops. Along with the near-inch of rain received by the last week of June, Havre received 1.31 inches in May, a decent level of precipitation if still below the norm of 1.74 inches. While the long-range forecast doesn’t call for perfect precipitation, it does still call for about normal levels for north-central Montana with a decent chance of above-normal temperatures. The three-month forecast for July through September on Weather Service’s Climate Prediction Center webpage shows most of north-central Montana at a likelihood of about normal precipitation, with a patch from the western part of the state edging into north-central Montana at a 33 percent chance of below-normal precipitation. The temperatures for this part of Montana are shown at a 33 percent to 40 percent chance of being above normal for July through September.

Havre Daily News/Ryan Welch the previous 12 months. After a relatively good start in 2017, this part of north-central Montana — along with most of the state — started to dry up. to help with repairs and mitigation to reduce damage in future flooding. It would be the fourth federal flood disaster declared for this part of the state in less than 10 years, with disasters — mostly due to mountain snowmelt and rainfall on snow — declared in 2010, 2011 and 2013.

Then the region rapidly dried up in late April and early May, with low levels of precipitation and hot, windy weather, leading some to be concerned that a drought could be on the way again. Despite receiving nearly triple the normal level of snowfall in April with early storms — Havre received 8.9 inches com-

Havre Daily News/Ryan Welch An irrigation ditch is filled with water near Old Post Road near Havre. The norm for Havre from Jan. 1 by the end of July is 7.5 inches of precipitation. In 2017, Havre had received about 3.5 inches. By the end of August, the moisture deficit increased to Havre having about 5 inches less than the norm of 8.5 inches, and it increased to about a 5.5-inch shortfall by the beginning of October. Along with the impact on crops, the dry summer led to a number of fires in the region that were part of what is listed as the worst fire season in the state since 1910. The fires in this region included the July Fire near Zortman and Landusky in the Little Rocky Mountains, a vehiclecaused fire in northwestern Hill County that took the life of an Ohio woman, a lightning-caused fire that burned on both sides of the border between Hill County and Alberta, and the East Fork Fire in the Bear Paw Mountains that ended up burning more than 21,000 acres. T h e n t h e re g i o n go t m o i s t u re i n

October, but it was a signal of the harsh winter to come. More than a foot of snow fell the first week of October in a recordsetting storm that broke trees and power poles, closed roads and knocked out electricity from Chester to Malta. Some people were without power for more than a week. The weather turned comparatively mild for a couple of months, then, around Christmas, winter returned with a vengeance. From mid-December to March, the snow continued to pile up in the area, with several record-setting days of snowfall in the area and stretches of extreme cold. And when it started to melt, it had nowhere to go. Fields and roads flooded, as did Chester, leading Gov. Steve Bullock to declare a state emergency for the region. That is included in his request to President Donald Trump to declare a federal disaster for the state, which, if declared, would free up some federal funds

Farmers cut hay near Gildford on the Miller farm.

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es more than the norm for the water year that starts Oct. 1, at 9.10 inches.

Hit from all sides The weather was difficult for many of

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Havre Daily News/Ryan Welch A sprinkler irrigates a crop near Havre.

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Cattle graze southwest of Havre.

July 2018

pared to a normal amount of 3 inches — by the end of the month Havre had received .55 inches of moisture compared to the norm of .84 inches. Some rainfall hits area While the storms in this region have not been at the flood-causing levels as they have elsewhere in the state, not even reaching the norm for May and June, the timely precipitation could be good for crops. Along with the near-inch of rain received by the last week of June, Havre received 1.31 inches in May, a decent level of precipitation if still below the norm of 1.74 inches. While the long-range forecast doesn’t call for perfect precipitation, it does still call for about normal levels for north-central Montana with a decent chance of above-normal temperatures. The three-month forecast for July through September on Weather Service’s Climate Prediction Center webpage shows most of north-central Montana at a likelihood of about normal precipitation, with a patch from the western part of the state edging into north-central Montana at a 33 percent chance of below-normal precipitation. The temperatures for this part of Montana are shown at a 33 percent to 40 percent chance of being above normal for July through September.

Havre Daily News/Ryan Welch the previous 12 months. After a relatively good start in 2017, this part of north-central Montana — along with most of the state — started to dry up. to help with repairs and mitigation to reduce damage in future flooding. It would be the fourth federal flood disaster declared for this part of the state in less than 10 years, with disasters — mostly due to mountain snowmelt and rainfall on snow — declared in 2010, 2011 and 2013.

Then the region rapidly dried up in late April and early May, with low levels of precipitation and hot, windy weather, leading some to be concerned that a drought could be on the way again. Despite receiving nearly triple the normal level of snowfall in April with early storms — Havre received 8.9 inches com-

Havre Daily News/Ryan Welch An irrigation ditch is filled with water near Old Post Road near Havre. The norm for Havre from Jan. 1 by the end of July is 7.5 inches of precipitation. In 2017, Havre had received about 3.5 inches. By the end of August, the moisture deficit increased to Havre having about 5 inches less than the norm of 8.5 inches, and it increased to about a 5.5-inch shortfall by the beginning of October. Along with the impact on crops, the dry summer led to a number of fires in the region that were part of what is listed as the worst fire season in the state since 1910. The fires in this region included the July Fire near Zortman and Landusky in the Little Rocky Mountains, a vehiclecaused fire in northwestern Hill County that took the life of an Ohio woman, a lightning-caused fire that burned on both sides of the border between Hill County and Alberta, and the East Fork Fire in the Bear Paw Mountains that ended up burning more than 21,000 acres. T h e n t h e re g i o n go t m o i s t u re i n

October, but it was a signal of the harsh winter to come. More than a foot of snow fell the first week of October in a recordsetting storm that broke trees and power poles, closed roads and knocked out electricity from Chester to Malta. Some people were without power for more than a week. The weather turned comparatively mild for a couple of months, then, around Christmas, winter returned with a vengeance. From mid-December to March, the snow continued to pile up in the area, with several record-setting days of snowfall in the area and stretches of extreme cold. And when it started to melt, it had nowhere to go. Fields and roads flooded, as did Chester, leading Gov. Steve Bullock to declare a state emergency for the region. That is included in his request to President Donald Trump to declare a federal disaster for the state, which, if declared, would free up some federal funds

Farmers cut hay near Gildford on the Miller farm.

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■ Continued from page 5 25-pound packs. ... We didn’t want to do farmers’ markets. We didn’t want to have to manage inventory of cuts that people did or didn’t want. These packs would have 50 percent burger, with the remainder divided between roasts and steaks. Paine believes that for sustainable meat to be sustainable financially for farmers, folks will have to scale up. “When we started selling our beef, we’ve always been grass-fed,” Paine said. “There wasn’t a beef co-op and there was very little knowledge about it. As grass-fed becomes more of a mainstay and bigger part of the market, what our industry needs to do is transition from ... 15-, 20-cow herds to a more sustainable level, which might be 50 cows. ... Just for my 20-cow herd I still need a tractor and manure spreader. I could have the same equipment for a herd twice the size.” Paine referenced another barrier: the paucity of USDA-certified processors, of which she said “maybe one or two can handle a dozen or two dozen (steers) a week.” Federal inspection is necessary in order to sell meat across state lines. For a hobby farmer with backyard chickens or a neighbor’s pig destined to feed a few families, a small processor works fine. For a Wisconsin farmer who wants to make a living, the inability to sell their beef in larger markets in other states can make the road to profitability so long, they might give up. “Although we have close to 300 family butchers ... they’re all state-inspected,” said

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Wisconsin farmers work on grass-fed, locally grazed meat

Local: Carr: 'It's not cheap, what we do' into ground meat. Sometimes the delicate packaging on frozen ground pork gets dropped and dinged. He’s had to discount his packages. He tries to be forgiving when this happens. “It goes back to these places I’m working with,” Semrow said. “They’re family-owned businesses. Sometimes I’m talking to little old ladies or little old guys. You roll with it. I love working with small processors.” More small processors, and processors with the ability to scale up, are another choke point for growth in the small scale meat business. “One of the biggest issues that we have is processing capacity,” said Laura Paine, who brings her beef to Johnson’s Sausage Shop in Rio. “We have a decent processor in our neighborhood but that’s not the case for everyone.” For processors willing to do custom work, the timing can be tough, too. “Just at the time when a lot of our calves are ready to process, our processor closes down for beef and pork and any other meat animals for six weeks to process deer,” Paine said. “And that’s common. That’s where their main source of income is.” Paine is a grazing educator and researcher who runs the Dairy Grazing Apprenticeship, a farmer-to-farmer program based in Medford. She and her husband started their farm in 2002, raising a breed of cows called British White. “We built our marketing plan around direct sales to individuals,” Paine said. “We sold quarters, and we bundled meat in 50- and

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Dick Cates. “That means I cannot ship my beef to a restaurant in Chicago, a huge market in my backyard. Chicago is out of my reach. How absurd and silly is that?” Getting into certain markets can be difficult, he said. “For a new producer who’s trying to break into Madison or Milwaukee or Stevens Point or Platteville, some of the low-hanging fruit has already been selected,” Cates added, referring to the number of “farm to table” restaurant options. “You’re stymied. It’s a very slow go.” The Meat Market in Baraboo plans to be one of those USDA-certified processors in about two months. Drew Brinker and his wife, Michelle, manage the shop that Michelle’s father, Mike Vold, has owned since 1989. “I’ve been pushing for it,” Drew Brinker said. “I had customers approach me with business opportunities that looked good. We’re also organic certified. It helps the organic community here in Wisconsin to be able to sell their stuff across state lines.” The Meat Market boasts a 40-foot meat case, and Brinker said the company prides itself on custom orders, adjusting roast size, number of steaks and packaging. Close individual attention from a processor is essential for farmers like Matt Walter, a former partner in Jordandal Farms who recently started his own farm under the name Curiousfarmer. He and business partner Braden Zywicki, who’s in charge of poultry, started their new stand on April 14 at the Dane County Farmers’ Market. “I want to make sure the carcasses come out right,” said Walter, who raises 50 cattle and 200 hogs on a farm outside Darlington. “I want to raise more animals and sell more meat, but I don’t want to have a bunch of one thing left over. That is a challenge for me.” To eat meat this way, Walter said, takes effort for the consumer. People have to seek him out, or farmers like him, but he knows “people have busy lives.” “We grow nutritious food for people who want to know their farmer and know where their food comes from,” Walter said. “We’re open to having visitors to the farm. We sold turkeys last year and a lot of people drove to the farm.” He tries to keep his prices reasonable to avoid pricing people out, but as Pecatonica Valley Farms’ Carr said, “the world is used to cheap food, and it’s not cheap, what we do.” That’s part of why Kay Jensen, a market

staple for the past 15 years with JenEhr Family Farm, keeps such a close eye on the business’s finances, cutting anything that doesn’t work. “I dream in spreadsheets,” Jensen said after a recent market morning on the Capitol Square. “When we were early on, we drew a line in the sand that said, no messing with the numbers ... if we don’t make ‘this’ amount of money, we’re done. ... We have moved that line, but it’s never backward. And we drop things. We used to do cut flowers. We dropped our CSA two years ago, the numbers weren’t there.” JenEhr raises 4,000 to 6,000 chickens a year, raised in shifts and processed in three batches at a plant in southern Minnesota. They’re frozen, which allows JenEhr to sell them for longer stretches, and delivered by the pallet. For economic scale, Jensen doesn’t want to deal with one bird at a time. “80 percent of our chickens we sell whole,” Jensen said. “Less than five percent are bonein, skin-on breasts, because that allows me to have leg and thigh and a ‘soup pack’ of just bones.” People still ask for boneless, skinless chicken breasts, even at the market. JenEhr dropped them seven years ago and hasn’t looked back. Jensen also moved its focus away from restaurants, finding other outlets have a better return. “That’s not profitable,” she said. “When we talk about sustainable, there’s how we raise things sustainably. But if I’m not financially successful, if I’m not profitable, I’m not being sustainable. Because I’m not there.” Recently on Willy Street, the cow finally came home. The Underground Butcher storefront receives an Angus steer from CDK Angus in Lena, Illinois, once a week Red Wattle pigs from Stoneface Pastures come in two at a time every other week. On that day, Wesley Aniel climbed up into the back of the CDK truck while Steve Dawson balanced a utility cart along the bumper. They muscled two massive sections of beef into the shop. Butcher manager Allie Christian and Aniel both set to work on the hindquarter with flexible, wicked sharp boning knives, while Dawson took a hand saw to the forequarter. “People can see what we’re doing, the art of what we’re doing,” Christian said, noting how close the breakdown area is to the meat case and shop floor. “Customers are surprised by the sheer size of it. ... It’s like, ‘Yeah. It’s a cow. That’s what it looks like.’”

By LINDSAY CHRISTIANS The Capital Times MADISON, Wis. (AP) — Todd Carr’s family has been trucking eggs, beef, pork and chicken from their Hollandale farm to market in Madison for the past 22 years. Not long ago, at a winter farmers’ market downtown, a young customer approached Carr’s Pecatonica Valley Farm stand, eyeing the ground beef. “It was snowing colder than you-know-what that day,” Carr said. “She wanted to know whether the burger I had was grass-fed. Me and my brother ... we looked outside and said ‘Yeah, but on a day like today, it’s hard to find grass.’... She just looked at me. And we’re like — ‘We’re kidding. It’s snowing. This time of year they get fed alfalfa.’ She’s like, ‘Oh, thanks,’ and moved on.” No sale. That’s the challenge, Carr said, for farmers like him. Customers hear words or phrases like “grass-fed,” “pasture-raised” and “farm to table” and use them without quite understanding what they mean. The reality is more complicated. The desire for sustainable beef, pork and poultry can quickly run up against a lack of understanding about how that meat gets to the table, from cost of production to factors that make scaling up difficult. “I can tell what was on the latest cooking show when 10 people come up and ask for the same thing, like flank steak,” Carr told The Capital Times . There are two flank steaks, weighing a few pounds each, on an 800-pound animal. Customers can be unrealistic in their expectations, he said. “Today’s customers, they don’t want (education),” Carr said. “They hear it, they want it. If I went into the gory details of farming, they’d pass out.” Americans have had 12 years to grapple with what author Michael Pollan called “The Omnivore’s Dilemma.” Eating too much meat, particularly commodity beef, harms our bodies and damages the environment. In restaurants and at the farmers’ market, conscientious carnivores silently note whether the chicken was raised on pasture or if the pig had a heritage. Yet we’re still eating a lot of meat. The federal Department of Agriculture made headlines earlier this year when it predicted that in 2018, Americans would eat more meat than any year since 1970. The forecast, 222.2 pounds of meat

per person on average, favors chicken over beef. In Wisconsin, ethically minded burger lovers have begun to turn to more sustainable forms of meat, like cows grazed on hills near Dodgeville, chicken raised on Sun Prairie pasture and pigs kept warm in the winter on Amish homesteads. With herds of a few dozen animals to several hundred, family farmers have stepped up to meet the demand. The Wisconsin Grass-fed Beef Cooperative, celebrating its 10th year, includes some 185 farmers who collectively sell their beef under the Wisconsin Meadows label. “We have seen an increase in the number of our members who raise meat,” Sarah Elliott, manager of the Dane County Farmers’ Market, wrote in an email. “Meat producers make up approximately 25 percent of our waitlist. These numbers mirror the trends of increasing small to mid-scale local meat production.” Take fresh chicken. Wisconsin has a bottleneck when it comes to poultry processing. There are some 300 small-scale butchers in the state, most of who slaughter, clean and cut meat, but only four state-inspected processors work with chickens. There’s also an education gap. The University of Wisconsin-Extension introduced a Master Meat Crafter Training program in 2008, a series of six short courses held over two years and aimed, in part, at those already in the field. Madison College is adding a new sustainable meat diploma starting this fall. Meat markets that offer custom processing may book out months in advance, a challenge for young farmers trying to prepare their herds for market. Farmers who want to maximize the value of their animals find that processors may not know what a tri tip roast is, or grind up a valuable roast with the rest of the trim. “You’ve got to find a butcher who feels the way you do and wants to treat the animal right,” said Andy Fischer of Fischer Family Farm, now based in Fall River. “There’s a lot of animals being produced in Wisconsin, but not enough butchers.” Fischer called butchery “a lost profession.” “It’s like farming, the profession is getting older,” Fischer said. “Nobody is coming up to replace them. Every town had a bar, a church and a butcher, it was part of the town. We’re losing that.” On an early spring day, John Priske looked out over his Fountain Prairie Farm, 280 mostly brown acres in Fall River. A few of Fischer’s cattle, a shorthorn/Red Angus cross, blinked in the sun in a nearby pad-

dock, while Priske’s shaggy Scottish Highland cows grazed just beyond. Chickens rambled everywhere, foraging in the brush near an airy, open barn. “We like to consider ourselves warriors, and we’ve been in the trenches for over 30 years,” said Priske, who with his wife, Dorothy, supplied L’Etoile with lean, well-marbled beef before the Priskes retired in 2014. “We (had) been direct marketing since 1986, and we’ve been working with chefs in Madison,” John Priske said. “Chefs are a lot like farmers. It’s kind of a thankless job some days. You put in a lot of hours, you work a lot of weekends and holidays and the only thing you get out of it is if the person who eats your food likes your food.” This year, the Priskes will strengthen connections between farmers and chefs with a new collaboration with Madison College. The college signed a lease on 165 of the farm’s acres, then turned around and leased 155 of them to Andy and Sadie Fischer of Fischer Family Farm. The farm will become a new outdoor classroom for Madison College students looking to study the water, soil, plants, compost, feed and, of course, the animals themselves. Sustainable Farm to Table: Modern Meat Production, a oneyear technical diploma, inaugurates its first class this September. “There’s something special about this place that really should be showcased,” said Randy Zogbaum, an agricultural instructor at Madison College. “How to manage, how to live on the land, and how to be a family farm again. A legacy for Fountain Prairie Farm could be to teach others.” The coursework for Sustainable Farm to Table was a collaboration on many levels. In addition to the agricultural training Zogbaum has developed, culinary program director Paul Short brought in chefs and butchers to help put together an inventory of real-world skills. “It’s our goal not only to train people to open up butcher shops, but also have chefs have a place where they can learn how to do this themselves,” Short said. Andy Fischer, 33, is among the young farmers looking to continue and grow the sustainable farming practices developed by the Priskes. “We’re big into pastured pork and chickens,” Fischer said. “We’re looking to expand our beef herd. Our plan at Fountain Prairie is to be able to do everything there,” beef, pork, chicken and turkeys, all on pasture. “The pasture’s there,” he said. “Let’s use it as much as we can for whatever we can.” A similar generational change is happening at Cates Family Farm. On some 250 acres of pasture outside Spring Green, Eric and Kiley Cates have taken over the grass-fed beef and dairy grazing business led for years by Eric’s dad, Dick Cates. When Dick Cates, a veteran farmer, took over his own father’s beef farm, he spent years trying to make a living in commodity farming by adding to his herd. At one time, the Cateses farmed 1,000 acres and had 800 head of cattle. Dick Cates still struggled to pay off what he had to borrow year to year. The margins weren’t there. “The commodity market is the death knell,” Dick Cates said. “Any young farmer who thinks they’re going to produce for the commodity market is just doing it as a hobby. There’s no

business model that will allow you to produce for a commodity market and make a living as a new farmer.” What has proven more successful for both the Cateses and Priskes is grass-fed beef, which requires more intensive farm practices but fetches a higher price. When Cates started marketing his beef to downtown chefs, some were skeptical that grass-fed beef could taste good, so he supplemented with grain. Now, he said, “grass-fed has become like the religion.” “If you have a drop of grain in the life cycle of your steer, people won’t touch it,” Cates said. “You gotta stay on top of these things ... you have to go with the trend.” Cates Family Farm sells both Angus and Jersey beef to Madison restaurants. Few chefs can accommodate whole beef but some, like Francesco Mangano at Osteria Papavero, are willing to use cuts like shank and cheeks, as well as the “nasty bits” (offal, like heart and tongue). John Priske described this as farmers needing to learn “the language of the chef.” “As a farmer, we need to know a lot about how to cook meat,” Priske said. “Most of the time you’re talking about how to prepare food, the cuts, where the cuts come from and whether they loosen or tighten up when you cook them. ... Some restaurants would bring their whole entire restaurant up for a trip, front of the house (too) ... when they’re talking to the customers, they can tell a little story about where that food came from.” Wisconsin has a few hundred small processors scattered across the state in towns like Waupaca, Darlington, Plain and Cuba City. These are the butchers Issac Semrow has worked with for his part-time, direct-to-consumer meat business, Semrau Heritage Meats, for the past four years. (For the name, Semrow went back to the original Germanic spelling of his family name.) “I came up with being the middleman, to make it easy for people who would normally buy at the grocery store,” said Semrow, who grew up on a farm in Coloma and now lives on Madison’s east side. He specializes in what Black Earth Meats used to market as “grandpa’s way” — beef and pork raised outside in small herds on Wisconsin farms. Through Facebook and email, Semrow takes orders for club steaks and round steaks of beef, Tamworth pork jowl and whole shoulder roasts of lamb, among other things. He also sells Red Wattle and Tamworth pork by the quarter for $190-$200. It’s one way to challenge people to use more of the whole animal, bones and trim and all. And it encourages customers to look beyond how the meat, well, looks. “I run into ... questionable quality on packaging,” Semrow said. “It happens all the time. ... They’re going to probably cut beef steaks with a saw. When they do that, some of the bone and fat builds up on the blade. That gets on the meat. They’re not going to take time to wipe each steak off to make it look pretty like you would see in a grocery store.” Semrow has had his cutting instructions get lost in translation, “which is real upsetting,” he said. One butcher incorrectly ground the roasts

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Moisture hitting crops at good time Tim Leeds tleeds@havredailynews.com After a harsh 12 months of drought, severe winter and flooding, the weather seems to be cooperating for the moment and providing some needed moisture for crops in this part of north-central Montana. Heavy storms have been causing flooding in recent weeks and doing severe damage in some parts of Montana, but after flooding caused by snowmelt in the plains, beneficial rains are falling on Blaine, northern Chouteau, Hill and Liberty counties. By June 26, the last data available when this article was written, National Weather Service had recorded .89 inches of precipitation for June at the recording station at the Havre City-County Airport west of Havre. That was short of the norm for June on that date — 1.84 inches — but with the snow that accumulated over the winter, it put Havre at a hundredth-of-an-inch over the norm for the year on that date, 5.57 inches of precipitation, and when the snow including the massive October snowstorm is included, Havre was at more than 2 inch-

n Weather Continued on page 6 Havre Daily News/Ryan Welch Hay is cut and baled on the Miller farm near Gildford.

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All Breeds Ranch Horse Challenge set for July An All Breeds Ranch Horse Challenge competition is scheduled in Billings July 7-8 at the MetraPark Super Barn. Organized and managed by the Eastern Montana Appaloosa Horse Club, the event is believed to be the first of its kind. Approved by the Appaloosa Horse Club

and the American Quarter Horse Association, with approval by the American Paint Horse Association pending, the competition will also feature classes for Arabians, Morgans and an All Other Breeds division. The judge, Marilyn Randall of Bridger, is a well-known horsewoman and judge.

Divisions for each breed are: Senior Horse, Junior Horse, Non-Pro/Amateur, Youth 13 & Under and Youth 14-18. Classes offered in each division are: Ranch Riding, Ranch Trail, Ranch Reining, Ranch Rail Pleasure and Ranch Conformation.

High point horse and rider combination for each division and each breed will be awarded and a working saddle will be awarded to the overall champion ranch horse. For information and entry forms, people can call Lesli Glen at 406-690-4451, or find All Breed Ranch Horse Challenge on Facebook.

FSA lists July 16 reporting deadline and key program dates Press release USDA Farm Service Agency has reminded Montana farmers and ranchers  of the current signups and upcoming program dates and deadlines. For assistance, people should contact their local FSA office. • N ow t h r o u g h Au g u s t 1 : 2 01 8 Agriculture Risk Coverage and Price Loss Coverage annual signup period • Now through August 1: 2018 FSA County Committee Election Nomination Period • N ow t h r o u g h   a n d Au g . 1 7 : C o n t i n u o u s C o n s e r va t i o n Re s e r ve Program Signup Period and 1-year Extensions on contracts expiring Sept. 30 • Now through Oct. 1: 2019 Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance

Program Application Closing Date for Annual Fall-Seeded Crops, Perennial Forage and Grazing, Mixed Forage Crops (including spring seeded annual types of missed forage), Rye, Speltz, Triticale, Wheat and Garlic Key Program Dates and Deadlines • M ay 1 5 t o J u l y 1 5 : M o n t a n a Primary Nesting Season • July 16: 2018 Acreage Reporting Deadline for Spring Seeded Alfalfa S e e d, Fo ra ge S e e d i n g , C R P, Fr u i t ( e x c e p t c h e r r i e s ) , Ve g e t a b l e s , Christmas Trees, all Spring-Seeded Crops and all other crops not required to be reported by previously announced deadlines. Please note that this is the final date that FSA can accept late-filed 2017 reports for these crops.

• July 16: 2018 CRP Summer/Fall Grazing Period Begins (with prior written approval) • J u l y 1 6 : 2 01 8 C R P M a n a g e d Harvesting Period Begins (with prior written approval) • Aug. 1: Deadline for 2018 ARC and PLC Enrollment • Aug. 1: 2018 FSA County Committee Election Nomination Period Deadline • Aug. 1: Last day to request FY 2018 farm reconstitutions on ARC and PLC farms • Aug. 1: Last day to request farm transfers for FY 2018 • Aug. 17: Last day of Continuous CRP Signup Period and one-year extensions on expiring contracts • S e p t . 4 : 2 01 9 N A P A p p l i c a t i o n

Closing Date Value-Loss Crops such as nursery, Christmas trees, grass sod, ginseng, aquaculture, floriculture, root stock sets and mushrooms. • Sept. 13: 2018 CRP Summer/Fall Grazing Period Ends • S e p t . 3 0 : 2 01 8 C R P M a n a g e d Harvesting Period Ends • O c t . 1 : 2 01 9 N A P A p p l i c a t i o n Closing Date for Annual Fall-Seeded Crops, Perennial Forage and Grazing, Mixed Forage Crops (including spring seeded annual types of mixed forage), Rye, Speltz, Triticale, Wheat and Garlic For more information, please call your local FSA office and visit Montana FSA online at www.fsa.usda.gov/mt.


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ELIZABETH SHIPSTEAD / FOR FARM AND RANCH

A prairie storm threatens the Shipstead homestead on a spring day. Rain has been relatively abundant this year compared to last years drought conditions. ELIZABETH SHIPSTEAD FOR ARM AND RANCH Today Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m packing. Packing clothes, swimsuits, activities for the girls, and all our baby â&#x20AC;&#x153;stuffâ&#x20AC;? for my expectant sister in law. One thing Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m not packing is items for my hubby. I havenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t been sure how to feel about this. On one hand, there is great anticipation for the girls and I to spend time over the Fourth with aunts, uncles, cousins, grandma and grandpa, but with that excitement comes a sense of sadness. Someone has to stay home and keep farming. Hay season is upon us. Someone has to stay home and put the bull out on time. Someone has to, â&#x20AC;&#x153;make hay while the sun shines,â&#x20AC;? even though the rest of his family is leaving to reconnect with extended family. So the chance

to get away and see family over the Fourth, is bittersweet. I know our family is not alone in this conundrum. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s part of a life in Ag. You either put things aside and make memories or you choose to make memories within your life in Ag. Sometimes, part of the family goes one way, while another stays and continues on and keeps things going. The person staying behind is owed great gratitude. The other day I was talking with a friend and telling her about this trip. She shared that her family was debating over the potential of a similar trip. I encouraged her to go, pack up the kiddos and make the trip. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s hard to leave our hubbies behind, but kids donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t get any younger and when opportunities arise we need to take them. It takes lots of mental strength and physical endurance to drive children

across states on your own. Not only because of the typical kiddo issues while traveling, but itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s hard to leave your partner behind. It is. And thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ok. This scenario is one of a million, where we get to choose as a couple and family in Ag what is important. Sometimes two things, at the same time, are important. Couples in Ag are great at â&#x20AC;&#x153;divide and conquer.â&#x20AC;? So women in Ag, feel empowered. Make the choice as a couple, but then strike out on your own with your kiddos and go make some memories. To those left at home. We havenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t forgotten you. We miss you. We are so so grateful that not only are you hardworking and will keep things going, but that you also are secure enough to allow the rest of your family go and have some fun when they can.

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A New Invasive Weed - Narrow-leaf Hawksbeard

costs of transporting livestock feed to eligible livestock, receipts for equipment rental fees for hay lifts, feed purchase receipts, and the number of gallons of water transported to livestock due to water shortages, if applicable. Producers must also ďŹ le an ELAP Application for Payment no later than November 1, 2018. For more information regarding ELAP, please contact the local FSA ofďŹ ce at 54062 Hwy 2 W, Suite 1, Glasgow MT, 406-2284321.

As part of a 33-year effort to protect sensitive lands and improve water quality and wildlife habitat on private lands, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) will resume accepting applications for the voluntary Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Eligible farmers, ranchers, and private landowners can sign up at their local Farm Service Agency (FSA) ofďŹ ce through Aug. 17. â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Conservation Reserve Program is an important component of the suite of voluntary conservation programs USDA makes available to agricultural producers, beneďŹ ting both the land and wildlife. On the road, I often hear ďŹ rsthand how popular CRP is for our recreational sector; hunters, ďŹ shermen, conservationists and bird watchers,â&#x20AC;? U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Sonny Perdue said. â&#x20AC;&#x153;CRP also is a powerful tool to encourage agricultural producers to set aside unproductive, marginal lands that should not be farmed to reduce soil erosion, improve water quality, provide habitat for wildlife and boost soil health.â&#x20AC;? FSA stopped accepting applications last fall for the CRP continuous signup. excluding applications for the Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) and CRP grasslands. This pause allowed USDA to review available acres and avoid exceeding the 24 million-acre CRP cap set by the 2014 Farm Bill. New limited practice availability and short sign up period helps ensure that landowners with the most sensitive acreage will enroll in the program and avoid unintended competition with new and beginning farmers seeking leases. CRP enrollment currently is about 22.7 million acres. For this yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s signup, limited priority practices are available for continuous enrollment. They include grassed waterways, ďŹ lter strips, riparian buffers, wetland restoration and others.

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Seed heads of hawksbeard plants. SHELLEY MILLS MSU EXTENSION AG AGENT VALLEY COUNTY FOR FARM AND RANCH Many folks are noticing a strange yellow ďŹ&#x201A;ower showing up in their ďŹ elds, and requests for identiďŹ cation of the plant has become an almost hourly event at the Valley County and nearby MSU Extension ofďŹ ces. Everything looks ďŹ ne and you think your crop is doing great, until one day you are driving past and you see millions of little yellow ďŹ&#x201A;owers standing above and within your crop. Narrow-leaf hawksbeard (Crepis tectorum L.), is a highly adaptive and increasingly difďŹ cult to control weed for northeastern Montana and northwestern North Dakota. Though it is primarily a winter annual, it can also be a summer annual, germinating and growing whenever the conditions are conducive. It has become an increasing problem in reduced and no-till ďŹ elds as well as rangelands, Conserva-

SHELLEY MILLS / FOR THE COURIER

tion Reserve Program (CRP) acreages, roadsides and other disturbed areas. Narrow-leaf hawksbeard can reduce crop yields when not managed and can reduce forage quality due to its low palatability and invasive habit. The seed heads resemble dandelions in that they have a small seed attached to a pappus, or feathery structure that acts as a parachute for easy dispersal in the wind. Each plant can produce anywhere from 3,000 to 49,000 seeds. Seeds of hawksbeard exhibit very little dormancy with over 90 percent germinating within the ďŹ rst year (Andersson, 1990) and are only viable for about 2 ½ years in the soil matrix. It is adapted to a wide range of environmental and climatic conditions (Najda et al., 1982) residing in forests, prairies, mountains, parklands, seashores, and lakeshores throughout temperate North America (USDA, NRCS). Narrow-leaf hawksbeard can grow in alkaline See NEW INVASIVE WEED Page 12

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July2018 2018 July

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August 2018 (cont.)

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16

NO AUCTION

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All Class Cattle Auction

23

Early Yearling & All Class Cattle Auction

19

NO AUCTION

30

NO AUCTION

Saturday

21 26

Sheridan County Road Dept. III & Guest Consignors Surplus Auction 10 a.m. - Sheridan County Road Dept. Shop, Plentywood, Mt. See Auction Flyer at www.glasgowstockyards.com All Class Cattle Auction

August 2018 Thursday

2

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September 2018 Thursday

6

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Opinion: Wildlife Habitat Improvement Program is Good for Montana NICK GEVOCK AND COLE MANNIX FOR FARM AND RANCH

Montanaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s farmers, ranchers and hunters have been partners for decades in conserving and managing our treasured wildlife. For years weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve shared this working relationship because weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re neighbors and we understand that together, hunters and landowners can achieve positive results for both wildlife and the land that they reside on. That cooperative relationship was on display last year when ranchers, farmers, county weed districts and even county commissioners worked alongside hunters, anglers and the broader conservation community to establish the Montana Wildlife Habitat Improvement program. The bill, sponsored by Rep. Kelly Flynn, R-Townsend, allows a portion of the federal funds that Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks receives to be used for habitat improvement projects that would ďŹ ght noxious weeds on private and public lands. We all know that weeds take a heavy toll on wildlife habitat. Noxious weeds crowd out native grasses and shrubs, which means less forage for deer, elk and other wildlife. They can make areas that once supported abundant wildlife far less productive, putting greater pressure on landowners with irrigated ďŹ elds and good wildlife habitat as those animals seek the best feed. Noxious weeds, like wildlife, know no boundaries either. Often times weed infestations that start on one piece of land get transported to other pieces of land, meaning that ďŹ ghting weeds isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t just a private or public land problem, but a Montana problem. Weeds might not be as high proďŹ le an issue

as some, but conservationists and landowners alike know that they are a threat to the productivity of the lands where we live, work and play, whether theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re public or private. The Wildlife Habitat Improvement program is a prime example of a solid public/ private partnership with broad beneďŹ ts for everyone. Under the program, applicants receive a three-to-one match for either their dollars, or in-kind labor to enact a weed management program. It includes measures that ensure the projects are effective, and a good use of public dollars. Every project is reviewed by a committee with diverse interests, including sportsmen, agricultural producers and weed districts. Every project must go through public scrutiny and be approved by the state Fish and Wildlife Commission. That gives Montanans assurance that the projects will have tangible beneďŹ ts for habitat and wildlife. All Montanans have an interest in preventing the spread of noxious weeds, while working to restore existing infestations to a more diverse and resilient plant community. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a daunting proposition, but with teamwork we can make progress. The Montana Wildlife Habitat Improvement program represents the best of what makes Montana, Montana. We come together to solve problems and we work to help our neighbors. This kind of common sense collaboration is what it takes to respect all views while advancing positive programs that beneďŹ t all Montanans and our shared wildlife heritage. Nick Gevock is the conservation director for the Montana Wildlife Federation. Cole Mannix is the advancement director for the Western Landowners Alliance.

Grazing or Feed Loss Assistance Available for Livestock Producers FOR FARM AND RANCH Producers who have livestock feed or grazing losses that occur, could be eligible for assistance through the Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees and Farm-Raised Fish Program (ELAP). Adverse natural disaster conditions, including wildďŹ re, winter storms, blizzards, and ďŹ&#x201A;ood conditions, have recently affected many producers. ELAP may provide recovery assistance for losses due to grazing shortages, loss of harvested feed, water shortages, or disease, due to adverse weather or other conditions, which are not adequately addressed by other disaster programs. ELAP covers up to 150 lost grazing days in instances when a producer has been forced to remove livestock from a grazing pasture during the normal grazing period due to a

natural disaster condition other than fire. Grazing losses due to ďŹ re covers up to 180 lost grazing days. . ELAP also covers physically damaged livestock feed that was purchased or mechanically harvested forage or feedstuffs intended for use as feed for the producerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s eligible livestock. In order to be considered eligible, harvested forage must have been baled. Forage that is only cut, raked or windrowed in the ďŹ eld is not eligible. Producers with a qualifying loss must contact the FSA OfďŹ ce to ďŹ le an ELAP Notice of Loss within 30 calendar days of when the loss is apparent. Producers should also maintain records and receipts documenting livestock removed from the grazing pasture due to adverse conditions, See FEED LOSS ASSISTANCE Page 10

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Nominations Open for FSA 2018 County Committee Elections FOR FARM AND RANCH USDA Farm Service Agency encourages all farmers, ranchers, and FSA program participants to take part in the county committee election nomination process. Committees are comprised of locallyelected agricultural producers responsible for the fair and equitable administration of FSA farm programs in their counties. Committee members are accountable to the Secretary of Agriculture. If elected, members become part of a local decision-making and farm program delivery process. A county committee is comprised of three to 11 elected members from local administrative areas (LAA). Each member serves a three-year term. One-third of the seats on these committees are open for election each year. County committees may have an appointed advisor to further represent the local interests of underserved farmers and ranchers. Underserved producers are beginning, women and other minority farmers and ranchers and land owners and/or operators who have limited resources. Other minority groups including Native American and Alaska Natives; persons under the poverty level, and persons that have disabilities are also considered underserved. All nomination forms for the 2018 election must be postmarked or received in the local USDA service center by Wednesday, Aug. 1. County committee election ballots will be mailed to eligible voters on Monday, Nov. 5. The last day to return completed ballots to FSA is Monday, Dec. 3. For more information on FSA county committee elections and appointments, refer to the FSA fact sheet: Eligibility to Vote and Hold OfďŹ ce as a COC Member available online at: www.fsa.usda.gov/elections.

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11 July2018 2018 11 July

FARM & FARM & RANCH RANCH

The Month In Weather:

Dry Conditions Still Exist Despite Rainfall

A.J. ETHERINGTON / FOR FARM AND RANCH

Sean R. Heavey watches as rain falls over a country road in North Dakota. Dry conditions still exist despite storms and rain. Rain and thunderstorms have been extreme this past month but dry conditions still exist for parts of northcentral and northeastern Montana. The National Weather Service reported June's average temps was four degrees Farenheit above normal June averages. Confidence for July forecasts are low as fire season approaches. It is unknown whether conditions will get hotter and drier or colder and wetter. MICHELLE BIGELBACH FOR FARM AND RANCH The latest U.S. Drought Monitor was released on June 21, showing continued below-normal precipitation for some locations. The area of abnormally dry conditions has expanded some, and a new area of moderate drought has been introduced that impinges on parts of northeast Montana. Currently, approximately 16 percent of the state is classiďŹ ed as at least abnormally dry and four percent of the state is in at least a moderate drought. For the region, the moderate drought has shifted from the northeast corner to Phillips County, while much of the rest of the region along and north of the Missouri River is under abnormally dry conditions, along with the far eastern sections of Richland and northern Wibaux counties. The state drought advisory committee is looking for feedback from folks involved with the agriculture industry. SpeciďŹ cally, the committee is looking to hear from those directly

involved in operations on how drought affects them, and to know what conditions are like currently across the region. The state drought advisory committee is conducting a survey and welcome all those involved in the agriculture industry to participate. The survey goes to the Montana Drought Monitor Reporter at the following link: survey123.arcgis.com/share/6c9 679697b104ccdbde2d52f64f8adb2. June continued the trend of much-increased precipitation across a wide swath of the region when compared to last year, and also even compared to last month. There were many locations across the region that had at least one event where severe thunderstorms dropped enough rain to cause ďŹ&#x201A;ooding issues. However, many other locations that got at least some rain this past month are still quite far behind normal for both the month, and even now behind normal for the year. Looking forward towards July, conďŹ dence in the trends for both temperatures and precipitation across northeast Montana is low. The Climate Prediction Center forecast for July lays out equal chances for both above or

below temperatures and precipitation, which explains the low conďŹ dence. Now looking back at June, as of press date, 11 days in the month saw at least a trace of reported precipitation, and four days saw at least a tenth of an inch of accumulated precipitation. As for winds, eight days saw sustained winds greater than 25 mph, and 16 days with winds greater than 20 mph. The highest sustained wind was reported at 37 mph and occurred on June 10, and the highest wind gust was also recorded on June 10 at 47 mph. As of press date, per the National Weather Service in Glasgow, the highest observed temperature for the month was 93 degrees on June 9, and the lowest was 47 on both June 13 and June 15. The total liquid precipitation reported at Glasgow was 1.35â&#x20AC;?, which was approximately 0.7â&#x20AC;? below normal. Over a 24hour period, the greatest precipitation total was 0.51â&#x20AC;?, which occurred on June 24. The overall mean temperature for the month was approximately 67 degrees, which was approximately 4 degrees above normal.


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July 12 12March July2018 2018 12 May 2015 12 12 March 2015 2015 4-H and FFA Market Livestock Sale

www.glasgowcourier.com www.glasgowcourier.com www.havredailynews.com www.havredailynews.com such aswww.havredailynews.com 2,4-D, bromoxynil, and dicamba have

State from Around Around the the State State State FFA FFA Conventions Conventions Draws Draws Students Students from

also proven effective (Ed Davis, Brain Jenks, 2018). Post-emergent applications in wheat include products containing thifensulfuronmethyl, tribenuron-methyl (AfďŹ nity Broad FOR FARM AND RANCH Spectrum) and 2,4-D; ďŹ&#x201A;orasulam, ďŹ&#x201A;uroxypyr and pyroxsulam (Gold Sky); pyrasulfatole & 4-H and FFA will be holding their Market bromoxynil (Huskie); 2,4-D, bromoxynil and Livestock Sale on Friday, Aug. 3, at the Valley fluroxypyr (Kochiavore) tank mixed with County Fairgrounds. halauxifen & ďŹ&#x201A;orasulam (Quelex); ďŹ&#x201A;orasuUp for auction this year will include 27 lam & ďŹ&#x201A;uroxypyr (Starane Flex) tank mixed beef, 18 lamb, 48 swine and seven poultry. The with 2,4-D; or bicyclopyrone & bromoxynil pre-sale viewing of the animals will begin at (Talinor) have proven effect in managing 3:30 p.m., with the livestock auction starting at 4 p.m. hawksbeard. Always read and follow label diYouth who participate in market livestock rections when using herbicides and be cautious projects learn valuable skills. Their experiregarding plant back restrictions if planning ence in the program adds to their lifetime of on planting broad leaved crops such as peas, knowledge and leadership, which makes our lentils, chickpeas, mustard, canola, or ďŹ&#x201A;ax the community stronger. following year. In pulse crops options are limited, so it is key to control hawksbeard during the small grains rotation and to control winter rosettes with glyphosate burndown applications in the CONTINUED FROM PAGE 10 fall before seeding broadleaf crops. SaďŹ&#x201A;ufenaFSA will use updated soil rental rates to cil (Sharpen) mixed with glyphosate and apmake annual rental payments, reďŹ&#x201A;ecting curplied as a pre-plant burndown appears help FOR THE HI-LINE FARM to & RANCH FOR THE HI-LINE FARM & RANCH FOR THE HI-LINE FARM & RANCH FOR THE HI-LINE FARM & RANCH rent values. It will not offer incentive payments control hawksbeard when transitioning to peas Creed third place winner and greenhand second place winner Mickayla Johnson accepting an award at the Lukas Johnson, Brett Johnson, Dallas Creed third place winner and greenhand second place winner Mickayla Johnson accepting an award at the Lukas Johnson, Brett Johnson, DallasCapdeville, Capdeville,Kyle KyleAlbus, Albus,Wyatt WyattPattison Pattisonand andAdvisor Advisor Patti Patti Armbrister Armbrister at at as part of the new signup. state convention in Billings. because earlier seeding of cool season pulse the state convenstion in Billings. state convention in Billings. the state convenstion Billings. USDA will notinopen a general signup this over small grain crops WYATT PATTISON competing they went went to to various various workshops workshopspresented presentedcrops bypast past state ofďŹ cers and evenensures nationaltreatment ofďŹ cers. year, however, a one-year extension WYATT will bePATTISON competing they by state ofďŹ cers and even national ofďŹ cers. when rosettes are smaller (Ed Davis, 2018). HINSDALE CHAPTER REPORTER Three of our younger members, Elise Strommen, Chaykota Christensen and Halle Beil offered to existing CRP participants with HINSDALE CHAPTER REPORTER Three of our younger members, Elise Strommen, Chaykota Christensen and Halle Beil The use of brand names in the description of served on the courtesy corp and helped out with contests whenever needed. Our five seexpiring CRP contracts of 14 years or less. served on the courtesy corp and helped out with contests whenever needed. Our five seSHELLEY MILLS / FOR THE COURIER The State (Future Farmers of American) FFA Convention was held in Billings on March 25 28. niors, Lukas Johnson, Brett Johnson, Dallas Capdeville, Kyle Albus and Wyatt Pattithe herbicides is only for clariďŹ cation and Producers an extension will receive The Stateeligible (Future for Farmers of American) FFA Convention was held inofBillings on March 25 - 28. niors, Johnson, Brett Johnson, Dallas Capdeville, Kyle Albus and Wyatt Patti- a Showytoflower heads narrow-leaf hawksbeard displaying theLukas rayawarded flower style of the inflorescence. Over 1,500 FFA members from around the state gathered compete in State CDEs, ranging from son were their State Farmer Degrees Degrees at atbroader the State State Degree dinner dinner onExtension Fridaynight. night. understanding. MSU does a letter with more information. Over 1,500 FFA members from around the state gathered to compete in State CDEs, ranging from son were awarded their State Farmer the Degree on Friday mechanics totopublic speaking. There were over 500 members, advisors and their families attending that dinner. Mickayla Johnson along the ďŹ&#x201A;owering stem. Plants can range in not endorse these brands over others. Additionally, established new ranking mechanics publicFSA speaking. There were over 500 members, advisors and their families attending that dinner. Mickayla Johnson Ten ofofthe Hinsdale including for star star greenhand and received second place.She She alsocompeted competedwith withother other creed speakers height from four inches to 40received inches second tall de-place. criteria for CRP Grasslands. To guarantee allSophomore Tillage controls weeds bycreed uprooting the Tenmembers members the Hinsdalechapter, chapter, including SophomoreCache CacheYounkin, Younkin,competed competed in in mechanmechan- competed competed for greenhand and also speakers ics, agronomy, farm business management, star greenhand and state creed speaking. When they werenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t from around the state and received third. CONTINUED FROMWhen PAGE they 3 werenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t from CRP grasslands aremanagement, treated equally, apics, agronomy, farmoffers business star greenhand and state creed speaking. pending onthe nutrient andreceived moisture availability. plant and subjecting it to desiccation, or by around state and third. plicants who previously applied will be asked One distinguishing characteristic from other burying the plant deep enough that it cannot to reapply using the new ranking criteria. Pro- as well as acidic soils and is adapted to a wide Crepis species is the soft hairy pubescence of re-emerge from the soil proďŹ le (Hatcher and ducers with pending applications will receive range of soil types from a sandy loam to heavy ďŹ&#x201A;ower head bracts (Najda et al., 1982) and the Melander, 2003). Tillage has been effective on clay (Najda et al., 1982). a letter providing the options. hawksbeard and other winter annuals (SwanAs a winter annual, rosettes formed in the two rows of involucral bracts (UAA, 2011). In return for enrolling land in CRP, No-till crop production, which is typical in ton et al., 1993; Blackshaw et al., 1994), howfall are low growing and insulated by snow USDA, through FSA on behalf of the Com     cover against low temperatures and drying the MonDak area, lends itself to infestations ever most producers in northeastern Montana      modity Credit Corporation (CCC), provides      ** the following "  #$  from winter annuals that become established have moved to conservation tillage practices "  #$  participants with annual rental payments and winds (Najda et al., 1982).* In "  #$  spring, plants rapidly develop ďŹ&#x201A;owering shoots in the fall and continue their growth through coupled with pulse crop rotations to conserve

 cost-share assistance. Landowners enter into

# # from

 # from providing an advantage over planting of most crops in the spring (Baig and moisture, improve fertility, boost yields, and contracts that last between 10 and 15 years. and bloom early, from each way each way many perennials and summer annuals (Najda Gamache, 2005). Group 2/B ALS inhibitor- break pest cycles (Brandt, 1992). CRP pays producers who remove sensitive each taxes way including includingall all taxes and and fees fees et al., 1982). As aallsummer annual the plant resistant biotypes of C. tectorum were reported 

including taxes and fees    lands from production and plant certain  ! In CRP acreage, rangeland and pasture the  !       grasses, shrubs and  ! trees that   improve water germinates and remains in the rosette stage for in Alberta, Canada in 2011 (Heap, 2016) and current recommendation is to apply one pint of only a short period of time before bolting and

# quality, prevent soil erosion and # increase

# conďŹ rmed by Yoder, et al. (2015). Once the 2,4-D (either the amine or low volatility ester producing a ďŹ&#x201A;owering structure. Blooming can wildlife habitat.    occur anytime from late May through October plant begins to bolt it becomes much more formulation) per acre to ďŹ elds after forbs have   in Signed into law by President Reagan difďŹ cult to manage and ďŹ&#x201A;owering plants will gone dormant for the winter and/or before the 1985, CRP is one of the largest private-lands and even into November if the conditions are continue to make viable seed even if cut or forbs break dormancy in the spring. Research good for growth. The plant is extremely cold conservation programs   in the United States.  sprayed with herbicide. is ongoing into other management strategies as tolerant and actually will germinate at soil Thanks to voluntary participation by farmers, Based on cropland research by MSU Weed well as palatability and grazing acceptance. temperatures of 41° F. ranchers and private landowners, CRP has Narrow-leaf hawksbeard has several Hawksbeard can be confused with other Scientist Ed Davis and NDSU Extension Weed improved water quality, reduced soil erosion traits that contribute to its colonization and Scientist Dr. Brian Jenks, burndown applicaweeds and native plants â&#x20AC;&#x201C; especially if they are and increased habitat for endangered and not looked at closely. The most common plant tions of glyphosate at 21 oz/ac with a four lb. sustainability in the MonDak area: proliďŹ c threatened species. The new changes to CRP do not impact the to be confused with in the vegetative stage is active ingredient (a.i.), in the fall coupled with seed production, winter hardiness, cold soil Enjoy Enjoythe theride. ride. Enjoy the ride. Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program, dandelion, but during the bloom stage it can an early spring pre-plant burndown with the temperature germination, multiple generations a related program offered by CCC and state easily be confused with perennial sowthistle same product results in effective control of per year, ecosystem adaptability, and extensive seed dispersal. partners. and, from a distance, curly cup gumweed, hawksbeard. If planting wheat or durum folFor more information on how to manProducers wanting to apply for the CRP hairy goldaster and western salsify. Hawks- lowing pre-plant burndown with glyphosate, age narrow-leaf hawksbeard, please contact continuous signup or CRP grasslands should ANDREWMCKEAN MCKEAN/ /FOR FORTHE THEHI-LINE HI-LINEFARM FARM&&RANCH RANCH capeair.com 800-CAPE-AIR capeair.com 800-CAPE-AIR capeair.com 800-CAPE-AIR beard is identiďŹ ed by its annual habit (easy to tank-mixing herbicides that have some residu- ShelleyANDREW Extension Agent in Valley contact their USDA service center. To locate Lih-An Ellis McKean McKean work onclearing clearingout outaaMills, beaverMSU damalong along theLittle Little Brazil Creek, Yang, Merlin, Iris and Ellis work on beaver dam the Brazil Creek, al such as ďŹ&#x201A;orasulam, ďŹ&#x201A;uroxypyr, and sulfonyl pull from the ground), lobed basal leaves that County, 406-228-6241, smills@montana.edu; *Fares subject availability and other conditions. notice, and are not guaranteed until ticketed. your local FSAtototoofďŹ ce, visit www.farmers.gov. *Fares aresubject availability andother other conditions.Fares Faresmay maychange changewithout without notice, and are not guaranteed until ticketed. *Fares are availability and conditions. may change without notice, and are not guaranteed until ticketed. southwest of Glasgow. More information on CRP can be found at may not be present once the plant has begun urea products may be used for longer, more Ed Davis, MSU Crop Weed Scientist 406-994ďŹ&#x201A;owering, and thin, narrow alternating leaves efďŹ cacious control, while phenoxy herbicides 7987 edavis@montana.edu. www.fsa.usda.gov/crp.

CRP Enrollment

New Invasive Weed

IfIf save both. both. time is money, money, save If time time is is money,

Bulls Stay Stay Steady Steady Bulls

Bullsales salesremain remainstrong strongand andthe themarket market Bull remainsatataasteady steadyhigh high//Page Page2 2 remains

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YOUâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;REREADING READINGHI-LINE HI-LINEFARM FARM & RANCH â&#x20AC;&#x201C; THE AG MONTHLY FOR NORTHEAST & NORTH YOUâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;RE NORTH CENTRAL CENTRALMONTANA MONTANA

Month in Weather: Dry Conditions Persist - page 11 Opinion: Wildlife Habitat Improvement Program Good for Montana - page 2 Valley County 4-H Market Sale - page 12

ELIZABETH SHIPSTEAD / FOR FARM AND RANCH

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