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FDAC: Lyon: Organic a good opportunity ■ Continued from page 11

Peas are loaded into a rail car at Stricks Ag in Chester. “Organic ag is proving to be a very valuable enterprise to get into. They’re making more money per product,” Lyon said. “I’m not going to say whether it’s right or wrong or good or bad, but economically, by the

Havre Daily News/File Photo

numbers, it’s proven — if you don’t have 10,000 acres, you don’t have 15,000 acres — it’s a good opportunity. … It’s a market opportunity, plain and simple, and I feel I am obligated to let people know that.”

GIPSA rollback in dispute


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GIPSA rules quashed before hatching, some say move favors packing companies Paul Dragu pdragu@havredailynews.com The U.S. Department of Agriculture was two days away from implementing regulations intended to make it easier for poultry and livestock producers to sue meatpacking corporations they contract with for unfair practices before those rules were killed Oct. 17. The final interim rules would have “affirmatively” established the USDA’s longtime position that producers don’t have to prove an unfair practice harms the entire market in order to prove a violation of the Packers and Stockyards Act, a Dec. 14, 2016, USDA statement said when the final rules were released. “Such overly broad interpretations have put family farmers at a disadvantage for decades when pursuing their rights under the Act,” Tom Vilsack, agriculture secretary at the time, said in the release. The proposed regulations, referred to as the GIPSA rules or Farmer Fair Practices Rules, would have applied to the packers and stockyards administration portion of the Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration. Vilsack had called them “common sense” rules that were intended to put the grower and the meatpacker on the same level. Some court rulings have interpreted current federal law as saying a livestock producer must prove a company’s actions harm competition in the entire industry. The GIPSA rules were supposed to have eased that high burden of proof by allowing a lawsuit to continue if the producers can show it harmed just

them. “You shouldn’t have to show if you’ve been treated unfairly or in a discriminatory way, that somehow what’s happened to you harms competition to the entire industry,” Vilsack told reporters after the updated regulations were released. “That’s just an unreasonably high burden for anyone to have to meet.” Echoing Vilsack’s statement, Bill Bullard, CEO of Rancher-Cattleman Action Legal Fund United Stockgrowers of America, or R-CALF USA, said Nov. 21 the rules were simply for clarification purposes because statutes to give independent producers recourse already existed. The problem is they lacked teeth, which had resulted to a “mismatch” of court decisions on the meaning of the Stockyards Act of 1921, Bullard added. Ever since the Packers and Stockyards Act of 1921, the USDA has taken a “very definitive” position that a producer does not need to show harm to competition in all cases in order to bring a case under the Packers and Stockyards Act. The Stockyards and Packers Act said it is unlawful for packers to engage in practices that are unfair, discriminatory, or deceptive, or to engage in practices that are rampant in preferences or advantages to some producers but no to all. But the USDA never created rules to implement those statutes, Bullard said, adding the lack of rules created a “huge amount of ambiguity,” and led to lawsuits about the statute’s meaning. So in 2008 Congress took action with the intention to clear the haze. In the 2008 Farm Bill, Congress directed the USDA to write the GIPSA rules. The agen-

Havre Daily News/File Photo Cattle are sorted for shipping at Hill County Scale Association this fall. cy wrote the rules in 2010 and used their authority to clarify or implement the other prohibitions, the ones against unfair, unjustly discriminatory or deceptive practices, as well as to clarify that a producer need not show harm or likelihood of harm to competition in order to protect themselves under the act. The rules were three-fold, Bullard said.

One of them addressed competitive injury, another prohibited unfair practices and the third dealt with the tournament price system within the poultry industry. But they were never implemented. “Suddenly, (Secretary of Agriculture) Sonny Purdue withdraws these rules and he completely reverses decades of agency posi-

Havre Daily News/Flile Photo Store employee Rick Linie, left, talks at Bear Paw Meats to Taylor Lyon of the Food and Agricultural Development Center Network of Bear Paw Development Corp. the heritage of a high quality, delicious ancient grain for the benefit of this and future generations.” After he found a market for Kamut in 1986, Quinn began raising it commercially and since then other Montana farmers began raising the grain. Now it is sold in 20 countries and is used to produce a variety of products, including being an ingredient in General Mills Ancient Grains Cheerios. Quinn turned to the FADC when he decided to start adding value locally to Kamut. He and partners, with help from a grant the FADC helped them obtain, created and started making Kracklin’ Kamut — “Like Corn Nuts without the dentist” — in Big Sandy. Quinn and Caleb Kriser, who heads up the Kracklin’ Kamut facility, said that along with helping them get a Growth through Agriculture grant, FADC also helped them develop their business plan. “It helped us get a bigger vision what this business could do,” Kriser said. The Growth through Agriculture application is the same way Bear Paw Meats in Chinook got a new state-of-the-art smoker. The facility manager, Ashley Callahan, said the smoker cost $65,000, half of which was covered by the grant. They matched the other half. The smoker is bigger, faster, better. The old smoker, complete with manual dials, could smoke about 200 pounds at a time, Callahan said. The new one can do double to triple that amount, Callahan said. It’s also more efficient when it comes to documenting process requirements. The smoker connects to a laptop, which relays the specs and measurements without having to record them manually, saving time. Callahan said they had worked with Bear Paw Development over the years, and when they thought about getting a new smoker, they approached Lyon about writing a grant. “Taylor is a beast (at grant writing),” Callahan said. “They’re really supportive people. They want to help support agriculture and I feel that with them,” Callahan added.

Lyon said all that people need to justify coming to visit him is an idea. “Usually people just have an idea. We have an initial consultation,” Lyon said. “Here’s a business plan template, here’s a cash flow template. The cash flow is when we start working with the numbers. Some people get intimidated, so I usually follow up with them.” Sometimes the ideas pan out, sometimes not. One of the most common reasons they don’t is simple: The market just doesn’t agree, Lyon said. From Cut Bank to Glasgow, Lyon said, $250 million in funding has been diverted to businesses. “Cut Bank Creek Brewing, they started from scratch with a (Growth through Agriculture) grant, we helped them put together,” he said. FADC goes beyond grant writing and loaning. The idea is to plant the seed early for buying locally, he said. Harvest of the Month is an Office of Public Instruction program which features a different ag product every month. Havre Public Schools introduced thirdgraders at Lincoln-McKinley Early Primary School to the Harvest of the Month program. The goal, said Lyon, who sometimes serves as a liaison to get products to the cafeteria, is to introduce schools to buying local foods. Shanna Flores, who is in charge of Havre Public Schools’ food service program, said November is apple month. The students were taught a lesson about apples and then, throughout the month, they had the chance to eat apples and give feedback. The students can say they tried apples, they like apples or they loved apples. As someone whose job entails paying attention and assessing markets there are some agricultural opportunities that are a no-brainer, Lyon said. He said, for example, a majority of the ingredients in organic products, the raw ingredients, are shipped from overseas. There’s no reason for that, he said.

■ See FADC Page 12

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FADC: ‘All it takes is an idea’ Paul Dragu pdragu@havredailynews.com

The Montana Food and Agriculture Development Center Network was created to help agricultural visionaries and entrepreneurs with ideas who need a little extra push making it happen. “You have a great idea. We have the tools to get your product to market and help your business grow,” a statement on the FADC pamphlet says. Taylor Lyon, a native Houstonian who came to work for Montana State UniversityNorthern’s Advanced Fuels Center after receiving his degree in biology from Carroll College, is the Food and Ag Development Center director at Bear Paw Development Corp. “I set people up with financing. If you want to come in to share your idea, we can

help you get a business plan of cash flow. A lot of what I do is simple networking,” Lyon said. Four program centers are spread throughout the state, with Havre’s FADC through Bear Paw Development being one of them. The other three are in Ronan, Joliet and Butte. All ag centers have their specialty. The FADC in Havre specializes in renewable energy, biomass and biofuel development, and like the other three, in education and training workshop, as well as loan and grant funds and cooperative business development. If someone approaches Lyon with an idea better suited to be handle by one of the other centers, he points them there. “I have a background in renewable energy, bio-diesel, bio-fuel stuff, and I have a particular interest in wind and solar, where at the Mission Mountain in Ronan, they’re

all about nutritional analysis, food safety, food safety trainings,” Lyon said. “They actually have the state’s only food processing center. So if you want to try out a new jam or barbecue sauce, they have all the equipment and facilities. You can just go in there and set up, get a contract with them, do your product and see if that’s what you really want to sell.” Lyon said he’s referred several clients to the other centers or to the right experts when people have come to him about something out of his expertise. “I’ve had, for whatever reason, a bunch of barley growers, want to start malting,” he said, adding Montana brewers usually buy their malt from Malt Europe in Great Falls. “But for whatever reason people call me and they want to know how to malt. Well, I don’t know how to malt, but I know of grant programs that may fund a feasibility study to

see if the malting operation would be feasible. I don’t know the ins and outs of how to, say, malt or grow barley, but I can access some of the funding programs or maybe know some of the people who do know this stuff.” And the local FADC has seen success. On its website, FADC touts, via video, helping Big Sandy organic farmer Bob Quinn get a local business off the ground. Quinn revived the ancient grain khorasin, which is believed to have originated in Mesopotamia and migrated into Egypt, using some kernels that found their way into Montana, listed at a fair as King Tut’s Grain. He trademarked his grain Kamut, an old Egyptian word for wheat. He created Kamut International, which has a stated goal of promoting organic agriculture and supporting organic farmers; increasing the diversity of crops and diets, “and to protect

GIPSA rules: Bullard: R-CALF USA plans to talk to Trump ■ Continued from page 3 “The packers have never had to justify these claims. They have so much power in Congress, power in the organizations they have infiltrated.” The groups saying the GIPSA rules would increase litigation, eliminate branding programs, make it so packers would be offered a

single price regardless of the quality of their cattle are those that are influenced or dominated by the meatpacking industry, Bullard said. All one has to do is look at who is part of the groups making those claims and the reason becomes clear why, he added. National Cattlemen’s Beef Association, a counterpart to R-CALF in the industry, has on

its governing board the multinational meatpackers, Bullard said. “And so since 1996, with the merger between the National Cattleman’s Association and the Beef Industry Council … from that point forward the NCBA has been a mouthpiece for the meatpackers,” he said The National Pork Producers also has the multi-national meatpackers seated on their

governing board, as does the Chicken Council, Bullard added. However, the grassroots — the produceronly groups — are onboard with the GIPSA rules, Bullard said. Organizations such as the Western Organization for Resource Council, the National Family Farm Coalition, Independent Cattlemen of Nebraska, and many others, Bullard said, strongly supported the rules. And the reason so many local producers are in the dark comes down to who has the resources to control information, Bullard said. “If you look at the ag trade publications, the ones producers are most likely to read, you find they receive advertising money from the swamp, the institutionalized agricultural sector. If they came out with a clear description of what these rules mean to producers, then they would receive retaliation by the meatpackers that are already engaged against producers,” Bullard said. “There’s good reason the producers don’t get good information — it’s because the information channel is controlled by the same entities that control the marketplace.” For R-CALF and similar groups, the battle is far from over, he added. The goal is to reach President Donald Trump directly. “We don’t think this was part of his campaign promise, to give the industrialized sector of our industry tremendous leverage over independent producers,” Bullard said. “Instead, we think Sonny Purdue is listening to the same people who have scuttled these GIPSA rules for many years before he was appointed. It’s extremely frustrating, but the fight is not over.” And if the GIPSA rules are never going to be implemented, Bullard said, R-CALF has a backup plan. “So if we’re not going to regulate (the meatpackers), then we better bust them up. That’s on the table as well,” he said. “So restoring competition is one of the principle missions of my organization and we will not stop until we accomplish that objective.”

www.havredailynews.com tions and said these are anti-trust rules — all they do is protect against monopoly behavior and the producers has to show harm to competition,” Bullard said, dubbing it a complete reversal of long-standing USDA position. Big Sandy organic farmer and U.S. Sen. Jon Tester, D-Mont., teamed up with Sen. Chuck Grassley, R-Iowa, and wrote a letter to Purdue Oct. 18, the day after the announced rollback, saying they “vehemently disagree” with the decision. “Many of our constituents believe the current practices of multi-national livestock corporations, one of which is being investigated for unprecedented corruption, allow them to exploit farmers and ranchers,” Tester and Grassley wrote, adding the point of the GIPSA rules was to even that playing field. The corporation being investigated for corruption the two senators are referring to is JBS USA Holdings Inc., an American meat processing company that was created — with the purchase of Colorado-based Swift & Co. in 2007 — as a subsidiary of JBS S.A., a Brazilian company considered to be the world's largest processor of fresh beef and pork. There are, however, also those who agree with Purdue’s decision, those who think the regulations would have harmed the industry. Rep. Greg Gianforte, R-Mont., said in a statement, “The administration’s decision to withdraw the livestock portion of the proposed rule by GIPSA is good news for Montana’s ranchers. It ensures they remain competitive and can market their products without the threat of frivolous lawsuits. I look forward to working with the administration as it continues to identify and reform unnecessary, burdensome regulations put in place by the Obama administration.” Sen. Steve Daines, R-Mont., was not as definitive as Tester or Gianforte. “This decision underscores how important it is we get our own Montana processing plant and develop more options and control for Montana cattle producers,” Daines said in a statement to the Havre Daily News. Kansas Republican Pat Roberts, chairman of the Senate Agriculture Committee, applauded the USDA’s action, saying it demonstrates the Trump administration’s commitment to promoting economic prosperity and reducing regulatory burdens in rural America. Livestock and poultry producers had long opposed the rules, he said. Roberts said the GIPSA rules would have levied a billion-dollar blow against the American agricultural industry. The final rules would have harmed competition and resulted in undue preference.

FARM & RANCH Roberts had been unwaveringly against the GIPSA rules since their creation began. In an April 10, 2106, letter to Vilsack — before the final interim rules were established — Roberts said the industry estimated the proposed rules would have cost “meat, livestock and poultry” industry $1 billion. The GIPSA rules, he wrote, would have stifled economic opportunity, increased regulatory burdens, and resulted in “significant negative consequences.” The Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration within the USDA, also agreed with Purdue’s action, saying the new rules would have been inconsistent with several court decisions and would have lead to further lawsuits. “Protracted litigation to both interpret this regulation and defend it serves neither the interests of the livestock and poultry industries nor GIPSA,” the agency said. National Chicken Council President Mike Brown said the rules would have opened the floodgates to frivolous and costly litigation, and National Pork Producers Council President Ken Maschhoff said the regulation “would have reduced competition, stifled innovation and provided no benefits to anyone other than trial lawyers and activist groups that no doubt would have used the rule to attack the livestock industry.” Roberts, who did not respond to multiple calls or respond to messages from Havre Daily, held a hearing Feb. 23 in Manhattan, Kansas, on the GIPSA rules, during which multiple producers spoke. David Clawson, a farmer, a partner in a commercial cow-calf operation and the president of the Kansas Livestock Association, KLA, was one of them. The majority of cattle producers, Clawson said, oppose the federal government’s involvement in how cattle are marketed. On issuing the interim rule, GIPSA ignored the comments submitted by thousands of cattle producers in opposition to the rule, the decisions of eight separate federal appellate courts and the intent of language included by Congress in the 2008 Farm Bill, Clawson testified. Clawson said the GIPSA rules would have eliminated value-based marketing programs. “Our analysis of the interim final rule leads us to believe packers will offer one price for all cattle, regardless of quality, if the rule is implemented,” Clawson said. Jim Baker of the Cattleman’s Association in Montana said he “was not up to speed” on GIPSA and could not comment on what the rules would have meant to the beef industry. Despite the proposed rules’ significant implications, many in Montana — one way or

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Havre Daily News/Floyd Brandt another in the industry — seem not to know anything about the GIPSA rules. Communication Manager Kori Anderson of Montana Stockgrowers Association deferred comment to someone else in the association because she said she didn’t know enough about it. That person did not return multiple requests for information by deadline. About a dozen cattle and sheep producers in Hill, Blaine and Choteau counties were called. Of the ones who responded, about half,

no one knew anything about the GIPSA rules and the others did not return calls to comment. Bullard said he believes producer unawareness and the believed harm touted by GIPSA rules opponents is a testament to further packer power. “These are just absolutely outrageous, unsubstantiated, unfounded claims,” Bullard said about the rules eliminating competition.

■ See GIPSA rules Page 10


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Hinsdale photographer Mona Doebler had to climb a bench to get this shot of a 2008 Cornwell Ranch cattle drive in Valley County.

The Month in Weather BRANDON BIGELBACH FOR FARM & RANCH

November, much like October, was like riding a roller coaster. A cold front would move through and provide cool, windy conditions with light precipitation, and then quickly be followed by high pressure, warm temperatures and mostly clear skies. This trend occurred over much of the month, not terribly uncommon as the region continues its transition into winter. As of press date, for the month of November, only around 10 days saw maximum wind speeds above 25 mph. The highest sustained winds for the month occurred on Nov. 29, with a speed of 39 mph. The highest wind gust for the month was on Nov. 23, reporting 50 mph. Also as of press date, per the National Weather Service in Glasgow, the highest observed temperature for the month was 73 degrees on Nov. 23, and the lowest was 0 degrees on Nov. 9. The total liquid precipitation reported at Glasgow was 0.17�, which was approximately 0.2� below normal. For the month, 0.9� of snowfall

was also reported. Over a 24-hour period, the greatest precipitation total was 0.07â€?, which occurred on Nov. 3. The overall mean temperature was approximately 29 degrees, which was approximately 1 degree below normal. The latest U.S. Drought Monitor was released on Nov. 30. Montana is still feeling the effects of the drought, but continued improvements have been noted since last month. Over 73 percent of the state was classiďŹ ed as being at least Abnormally Dry, a 10 percent improvement from last month. Moderate drought or worse conditions cover approximately 53 percent of the state, nearly a 20 percent improvement over last month. Conditions in the Northeast have improved as well, however much less than other portions of the state. Much of the region is still in Severe Drought, though the area of Extreme Drought has shrunk slightly, still covering around half of the region. Areas of Prairie, Dawson, Wibaux and Richland counties along and south of the Yellowstone River Valley continue to have the best conditions, only showing Moderate Drought conditions.

In October, the delegation of Nicaraguan cattlemen returned the favor. The Nicaraguan herd is primarily Brahma, which Vargas said has the traits to ourish in Nicaragua’s hot, humid environment. “So we had this group come up and just learn about Montana and learn about our Red Angus and our Charolais cattle to incorporate into their herd and get better quality, better genetics for the country itself down there for meat quality,â€? Vermandel said. Vargas said improving his nation’s herd means ďŹ nding the best genetics available. And he’s been looking. “We’ve been traveling all around the states ‌ looking what is available on the market and deďŹ nitely the best thing we’ve seen is, it’s been here in Montana,â€? Vargas said. A single “unitâ€? of semen can range from $10 to $50 and contains 30 million to 50 million sperm, good for one artiďŹ cial insemination. The genetics — more speciďŹ cally, bull semen — is produced, processed, assessed, frozen, stored and shipped from ORIgen Beef, located in wide-open country near Huntley, Mont., about 20 miles from Billings. The facility itself grew from the labor and vision of Montana ranchers. In 2001, the semen industry was controlled directly or indirectly by large daily cooperatives ot multinational agricultural companies. Dick Beck and a group of other producers from Montana and elsewhere decided to enter the market and created ORIgen. Dick Beck, vice president of sales and marketing at ORIgen Beef Inc. near Huntley “We felt there was a need for the beef semen industry to be controlled and operated by beef cattlemen who had skin in the game, who invested their time and their money and their talent in these cattle,â€? Beck, the company’s vice president of sales and marketing, told Prairie Populist. “We want people who own these genetics who’ve created the genetics, whose life and blood, sweat and tears are involved in creating genetics, to get the largest possible return for their genetics and also to control those genetics so we can improve the beef industry.â€? Most genetics facilities are designed for

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FARM & FARM & RANCH RANCH dairy bulls and keep the animals very conďŹ ned, Beck said. At ORIgen, the goal is a more natural environment, where the beef bulls get more exercise and are treated more like they would be on a farm or ranch. ORIgen now ships semen to about a dozen nations in a given year, and semen for export requires unique health standards for each speciďŹ c destination. The operation combines some of the hands-on cowboy skills you’d see on ranches all over Montana, along with some high-tech equipment and methods. There’s science and timing in producing semen so it carries the optimal number of viable sperm to give the highest probability of conception. A single collection of semen from a bull can yield several hundred frozen units of semen two or three times each week, with one unit good for the artiďŹ cial insemination of one cow. Cattle at the Redland Red Angus Ranch near Hysham There are four levels of biosecurity at ORIgen to make sure that no reproductive or contagious disease is transmitted from human visitors or from new arriving bulls to resident bulls, or to the semen products produced from them. The company has also ventured into the relatively new ďŹ eld of in vitro fertilization of cows, recently completing a state-of-the-art lab that it says meets the standards required for human in vitro fertilization. ORIgen has produced some of the most productive genetics in the country. And while it brings in cattle from all over the nation and sells semen all over the world, it is especially helpful for Montana ranchers who don’t have to travel very far to take part in the market, whether buying or selling. For all those involved, agriculture is not just a job. It’s a way of life, Beck said. “And our people care, the people who own these bulls care about the impact that their genetics are going to have on the world,â€? he said. “For many of them, it won’t be in their obituary, but their legacy will be the cattle they’ve produced and the people they’ve been able to share those cattle with and what it’s done for those people. So we see it ‌ as more than just a business. We certainly run it aggressively as a business, but we see this as a ‘improve the industry, which ultimately eventually improves the world’ kind of thing.â€? Sanjay Talwani writes for Prairie Populist. You can read this and other stories at prairiepopulist.org.

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MSU Extension Workshops MICHELLE BIGELBACH FOR FARM & RANCH MSU Extension Economists George Haynes, Kate Fuller, and Joel Schumacher will offer Farm Management Workshops in ďŹ ve communities in January to March 2018. Other faculty members contributing to these workshops include Agricultural Economists Anton Bekkerman, Joseph Janzen, Gary Brester, and Eric Belasco; Family Economist Marsha Goetting, Plant Pathologist Mary Burrows, Cropping Systems Specialist Kent McVay, and Beef Cattle Specialist Rachel Endecott. In Glasgow, the workshop will be held March 8 and 9, at the Cottonwood Inn and Suites, 54250 U.S. 2, Glasgow. The topics covered during this two day event are: ďŹ nan-

cial analysis and enterprise budgeting; risk management; marketing of grain and cattle; disaster assistance and tax considerations; agricultural policy issues; estate planning; and crop and livestock production. A pre-workshop optional course, Introduction to Quicken, will be offered on March 7 in Glasgow. This optional course will be held from noon to 5 p.m. The number of participants is limited to 12 individuals. Participation in these workshops will satisfy the requirements for Farm Service Agency Production and Financial Management Training. There is no cost for this workshop. Please register by contacting Keri Hayes 406-994-3511, khayes@montana.edu or George Haynes 406-994-5012, haynes@ montana.edu.

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Slow Cookers Are the Solution ROUBIE YOUNKIN, MSU EXTENSION FOR FARM & RANCH In pondering the stresses of life, many times the lack of time comes to the forefront with the lack of funds following close behind. MSU Extension Agent Roubie Younkin provided simple solutions for those trying to provide healthful family meals on a budget with a slow cooker workshop. Planning ahead by using a slow cooker can help balance the time issues and careful shopping makes it possible to squeeze the most from every dollar. With the cold temperatures and shorter days of winter, it’s nice to come home to the smell of dinner being prepared. And, it’s even better, when the meal requires little effort to complete. Many appliances used in today’s kitchen save time or effort, but only one allows you to return home with dinner waiting. A modern slow cooker provides the perfect solution for time crunching families. The slow cooker not only improves the variety and avor of the foods prepared, but it can cut the time spent in the kitchen in half. Low-temperature cooking retains more vitamins in foods and healthier, more economical cuts of meat become tender. If you have enough discipline to think about dinner at breakfast, you can utilize a slow

cooker as they provide the convenience of safely prepared meals while away from home and provide many health beneďŹ ts. Knowing that there is a healthy meal waiting to greet you at home helps reduce the fast food temptation. Participants in the workshop began by preparing the ingredients for four freezerready meals. This involved polishing their knife skills while dicing onions, mincing garlic, roll cutting a carrot and creating julienne celery. Food safety was also a topic as they mixed hamburger for meatloaf and cut chicken into chunks. Cross contamination, cleaning and sanitizing, personal hygiene and using correct times and temperatures were each addressed. From there the fun began as each participant ďŹ lled freezer bags with chicken teriyaki, country meatloaf, potato/corn chowder and bean stew. The highlight of the educational experience came when economics entered the arena. The concept of shopping sales and planning meals around what is affordable each week or month created much discussion. The adaptation of recipes to include those foods that are more moderately prices was illustrated using the recipes provided and the ingredients utilized. The four meals each participant took home cost $15 or $3.75 per four-serving meal!

COURTESY MSU EXTENSION / FARM & RANCH

L-R: Linden Holt, Codi Doniaquo, Zora Holt and Kodi McColly take part in some holiday-themed fun at a recent MSU Extension event in Valley County.

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Hinsdale Science Sleuths Keep the Investigation Open ROUBIE YOUNKIN, MSU EXTENSION FOR FARM & RANCH It all began with two 4-H teens seeking a project to share their hunger for STEM activities and to meet the goals of their Teen Leadership 4-H project. A year later, their inuence continues as the Hinsdale Science Sleuths are still seeking knowledge through STEM exploration. Elise Strommen and Cordell Younkin have led the Science Sleuths through these experiences and their leadership project with a goal of igniting a passion for STEM in their peers at the Hinsdale school. A partnership with Hinsdale science teacher Josh McCrossin and MSU Extension Agent Roubie Younkin, created an effective means of designing projects, applying STEM techniques and creating interest amongst the students. The Valley County Community Foundation has also played a signiďŹ cant role in the continuation of this program with a grant to cover supplies and curriculum for the students. The program began last winter as students in grades seven to 12 spent after-school hours moving through stations covering topics such as acidity/alkalinity tests, solubility experiments, engineering roller coasters and building structures from spaghetti and marshmallows. Add a catapult, a rocket stomper, a series of batteries to make a light bulb and

play dough circuits, they created a perfect environment for not just learning, but experiential learning experiences. By experiential learning, the students were able to learn through their experiences, specifically learn through the reection of doing. As the year progressed, the new school year quickly approached, with these students becoming more busy with football practice and traveling to volleyball games. The program proceeded to move into the 4-H after-school program, where students k-six developed the same passion for learning by conducting similar ageappropriate activities and experiments. Weather was explored through wind activities including making an anemometer, which is a device used for measuring the speed of wind. Chemical reactions were observed by making dissolving pumpkins then pouring vinegar over them. Engineering was explored by making ecobots from toothbrushes, batteries and electric toothbrush motors. Electricity entered the arena in the form of ghosts free oating through the air (with the help of static electricity and a balloon). Electric circuits became fascinating as the students made creatures using conductive and non-conductive play dough and connected a battery to light up LED lights.

www.glasgowcourier.com 5 December 2017

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What do “low cost� ag suppliers

Rural Sisterhood: 'Tis the Season ELIZABETH SHIPSTEAD FOR FARM & RANCH ‘Tis the season for frosty mornings, frozen water tanks, snow on the ground, chopping ice in the dams for cows and watching steam roll off of the cows as they gather around to eat. Taking care of animals gets more challenging this time of year. But, I welcome the challenge, because it also means snowmen with the girls when the snow is just right, rosy cheeked girls asking for hot chocolate after gathering eggs, wearing my favorite wild rags and a cup of som thing hot to warm up my hands! I love the frost around my gelding’s nose, noticing the footprints of different animals in the snow, and letting the scents of the season bring back memories of holidays in the past. Late fall and winter mornings might

start with caring for animals, but continue with the enjoyment that comes with sharing the work and fun as a family, continuing old traditions and making new traditions.Here is a recipe for one of my favorite seasonal scents: Put your favorite small pot on the stove! In it put: 2 whole cloves 2 cinnamon sticks 1 thinly sliced orange About 1/2 to 1 cup of whole cranberries Add water to cover Turn the stove to low. Side note: If you have evergreen bows, you can add a small sprig of evergreen to the pot too! Enjoy! To read more of Shipstead's work, visit theruralsisterhood.com.

Nicaraguan Delegation Seeks Genes SANJAY TALWANI FOR FARM & RANCH For generations, Montana cattlemen have improved their herds, breeding cattle that are bigger, better marbled, easier to manage and more disease-resistant. And their handiwork — the genetic makeup of Montana herds — is getting attention from around the world. This fall, a group of cattlemen from Nicaragua took a close look at Montana livestock A member of the Nicaraguan trade delegation shoots video of the semen production process. “Here in Montana, you are really advanced on genetics,� said Alvaro Vargas, president of the Nicaragua Livestock Federation, on the trade mission in October. “We saw Charolais, and Red Angus and Black Angus and Montana has done a great job on producing quality genetics,� he said. “It’s unbelievable.� Vargas and the Nicaraguan trade delegation — including ranchers and feedlot and slaughterhouse owners — are working to improve their herd, the largest in Central America with about 5.4 million head, using Montana genetics. They visited several ranches as well as ORIgen Beef, a genetics producer in the Huntley area, and they hope to incorporate some of those Montana genetics in their herd in the near future. Alvaro Vargas, president of the Nicaragua Livestock Federation

International trade agreements are under increased criticism in Washington and in politics, but cattlemen in Montana and around the world are continuing to build relationships across boundaries. The Nicaraguan delegation’s visit to Eastern Montana is just one example. The Montana Department of Agriculture Market Development Division has fostered such ties — not just with Nicaragua but also Chile, Russia. Costa Rica, and elsewhere. “So we’re here to help the Montana producers of all kinds get to these markets, and create more markets for them to market their cattle and export their cattle to countries that aren’t aware of what we have to offer,� said Treston Vermandel, business development specialist with the Market Development Division. And that means more dollars for Montana producers, helping ranchers stay on their land and strengthening communities that have faced tough economic realities for decades. Treston Vermandel, market development specialist with Montana Department of Agriculture\ Vermandel, along with Montana ranchers and others, visited Nicaragua in March, checking out that nation’s cattle infrastructure. “We were very surprised about the opportunities that Nicaragua can create for Montana producers,� he said. See GENES Page 9

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Glasgow's Wheatgrass Gallery Hosts Reitler for December

Teske Photos at Cameron Heritage

Photos with Santa Claus!

December 16th â&#x20AC;˘ 9 a.m. .m. - 2 p.m.

SANTAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S FAVORITE STOP MARY KATE TESKE / FOR FARM & RANCH

    Deere 

 clothing,    toys,  New John     memorabilia   have 

collectibles, and  for  Christmas!   arrived

COURTESY PHOTO / FARM & RANCH

MARY KATE TESKE / FOR FARM & RANCH

This unfinished painting by Cathryn Reitler will be on display at Wheatgrass Arts and Gallery in completed form, beginning Dec. 1.

Pictured: Mary Kate Teske's signature subjects, her 1961 Dodge lancer and the backroads of Terry, Mont. JAMES WALLING FOR FARM & RANCH Mary Kate Teske is a Terry Badlandsbased photographer who has contributed many photos to the pages of The Glasgow Courier and Hi-Line Farm & Ranch. Beginning Jan. 7, samples of her recent explorations into 35mm ďŹ lm photography will be on display at the Evelyn Cameron Heritage building on Laundre Ave. in Terry, Mont., along with favorites from her digital archive taken in Terry and the surrouding area. The Cameron Heritage group will be hosting Teske's photography with an exhibit titled, "Along The Dusty Trail." There will be a public reception for the show's opening at 212 Laundre Ave. on Jan. 7, at 7 p.m. While roaming across the state in her

1961 Dodge Lancer, Teske has captured images featuring beautiful glimpses of life all across Montana. Asked about her recent focus on the Terry area, which she calls home, Teske said, "My surroundings have shaped my perspective, and, being that I've been lucky enough to be based out of Terry, I've been granted sights such as cowboys, badlands, open skies and the prairie, which inspires me and continues to spark the ďŹ re within." For more information about events at the Evelyn Cameron Heritage building, visit evelyncameron.org or call 406-6354966. To contribute to Teske's fundraising efforts, visit patreon.com/marykateteske. To see more or her work, visit marykateteske.com.

Clint Grue and Bill Greenfield talking before rounding up the herd in Terry, Mont., on Oct. 11. This image will be on display at the Evelyn Cameron Heritage building beginning Jan. 7. See story on opposing page.

A.J. ETHERINGTON FOR FARM & RANCH

www.fesmt.com

   2 East  â&#x20AC;˘ Glasgow,     MT  â&#x20AC;˘ 228-2496  54272 Hwy

YOUâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;RE READING HI-LINE FARM & RANCH THE AG MONTHLY FOR NORTHEAST & NORTH CENTRAL MONTANA

Cathryn Reitler is the featured Artist of the Month at Wheatgrass Arts and Gallery in downtown Glasgow. A well known local working artist, Reitler has been a staple of Northeast Montanaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s art scene for some years with displays at local events, the regional fairs and the recent Wild Bunch Art Show. Her show at the Glasgow gallery begins Dec. 1 and continues through the end of the month. Her work features realistic scenes of Northeast Montana landscapes and wildlife in mixed media with relics of the region, ranging from vintage maps, old glass bottles and rusted oil cans, to grandmaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s old doilies and handmade wares. Her style

embraces a fusion of natural painted scenery and up-cycled antique treasures that captures the spirit of the region in its utility, beauty and diversity. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m eagerly anticipating the exhibition of my work at the Wheatgrass Gallery this month. In typical fashion Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m burning the candle at both ends trying to ďŹ nish a few pieces for the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;big reveal,'â&#x20AC;? said Reitler, adding, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m really looking forward to seeing friends and members of the community. I'm grateful to have the opportunity to share my love of this place, 'our' place with them.â&#x20AC;? Wheatgrass Arts is located at 531 2nd Ave S. in Glasgow. For more information about the show, call 406-230-0148. To see more of Reitler's work, visit cathrynreitler. com.


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www.glasgowcourier.com 7 December 2017

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December 2017 7 www.glasgowcourier.com

Glasgow's Wheatgrass Gallery Hosts Reitler for December

Teske Photos at Cameron Heritage

Photos with Santa Claus!

December 16th â&#x20AC;˘ 9 a.m. .m. - 2 p.m.

SANTAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S FAVORITE STOP MARY KATE TESKE / FOR FARM & RANCH

    Deere 

 clothing,    toys,  New John     memorabilia   have 

collectibles, and  for  Christmas!   arrived

COURTESY PHOTO / FARM & RANCH

MARY KATE TESKE / FOR FARM & RANCH

This unfinished painting by Cathryn Reitler will be on display at Wheatgrass Arts and Gallery in completed form, beginning Dec. 1.

Pictured: Mary Kate Teske's signature subjects, her 1961 Dodge lancer and the backroads of Terry, Mont. JAMES WALLING FOR FARM & RANCH Mary Kate Teske is a Terry Badlandsbased photographer who has contributed many photos to the pages of The Glasgow Courier and Hi-Line Farm & Ranch. Beginning Jan. 7, samples of her recent explorations into 35mm ďŹ lm photography will be on display at the Evelyn Cameron Heritage building on Laundre Ave. in Terry, Mont., along with favorites from her digital archive taken in Terry and the surrouding area. The Cameron Heritage group will be hosting Teske's photography with an exhibit titled, "Along The Dusty Trail." There will be a public reception for the show's opening at 212 Laundre Ave. on Jan. 7, at 7 p.m. While roaming across the state in her

1961 Dodge Lancer, Teske has captured images featuring beautiful glimpses of life all across Montana. Asked about her recent focus on the Terry area, which she calls home, Teske said, "My surroundings have shaped my perspective, and, being that I've been lucky enough to be based out of Terry, I've been granted sights such as cowboys, badlands, open skies and the prairie, which inspires me and continues to spark the ďŹ re within." For more information about events at the Evelyn Cameron Heritage building, visit evelyncameron.org or call 406-6354966. To contribute to Teske's fundraising efforts, visit patreon.com/marykateteske. To see more or her work, visit marykateteske.com.

Clint Grue and Bill Greenfield talking before rounding up the herd in Terry, Mont., on Oct. 11. This image will be on display at the Evelyn Cameron Heritage building beginning Jan. 7. See story on opposing page.

A.J. ETHERINGTON FOR FARM & RANCH

www.fesmt.com

   2 East  â&#x20AC;˘ Glasgow,     MT  â&#x20AC;˘ 228-2496  54272 Hwy

YOUâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;RE READING HI-LINE FARM & RANCH THE AG MONTHLY FOR NORTHEAST & NORTH CENTRAL MONTANA

Cathryn Reitler is the featured Artist of the Month at Wheatgrass Arts and Gallery in downtown Glasgow. A well known local working artist, Reitler has been a staple of Northeast Montanaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s art scene for some years with displays at local events, the regional fairs and the recent Wild Bunch Art Show. Her show at the Glasgow gallery begins Dec. 1 and continues through the end of the month. Her work features realistic scenes of Northeast Montana landscapes and wildlife in mixed media with relics of the region, ranging from vintage maps, old glass bottles and rusted oil cans, to grandmaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s old doilies and handmade wares. Her style

embraces a fusion of natural painted scenery and up-cycled antique treasures that captures the spirit of the region in its utility, beauty and diversity. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m eagerly anticipating the exhibition of my work at the Wheatgrass Gallery this month. In typical fashion Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m burning the candle at both ends trying to ďŹ nish a few pieces for the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;big reveal,'â&#x20AC;? said Reitler, adding, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m really looking forward to seeing friends and members of the community. I'm grateful to have the opportunity to share my love of this place, 'our' place with them.â&#x20AC;? Wheatgrass Arts is located at 531 2nd Ave S. in Glasgow. For more information about the show, call 406-230-0148. To see more of Reitler's work, visit cathrynreitler. com.


88

December 2017 2017 December

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Slow Cookers Are the Solution ROUBIE YOUNKIN, MSU EXTENSION FOR FARM & RANCH In pondering the stresses of life, many times the lack of time comes to the forefront with the lack of funds following close behind. MSU Extension Agent Roubie Younkin provided simple solutions for those trying to provide healthful family meals on a budget with a slow cooker workshop. Planning ahead by using a slow cooker can help balance the time issues and careful shopping makes it possible to squeeze the most from every dollar. With the cold temperatures and shorter days of winter, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nice to come home to the smell of dinner being prepared. And, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s even better, when the meal requires little effort to complete. Many appliances used in todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s kitchen save time or effort, but only one allows you to return home with dinner waiting. A modern slow cooker provides the perfect solution for time crunching families. The slow cooker not only improves the variety and ďŹ&#x201A;avor of the foods prepared, but it can cut the time spent in the kitchen in half. Low-temperature cooking retains more vitamins in foods and healthier, more economical cuts of meat become tender. If you have enough discipline to think about dinner at breakfast, you can utilize a slow

cooker as they provide the convenience of safely prepared meals while away from home and provide many health beneďŹ ts. Knowing that there is a healthy meal waiting to greet you at home helps reduce the fast food temptation. Participants in the workshop began by preparing the ingredients for four freezerready meals. This involved polishing their knife skills while dicing onions, mincing garlic, roll cutting a carrot and creating julienne celery. Food safety was also a topic as they mixed hamburger for meatloaf and cut chicken into chunks. Cross contamination, cleaning and sanitizing, personal hygiene and using correct times and temperatures were each addressed. From there the fun began as each participant ďŹ lled freezer bags with chicken teriyaki, country meatloaf, potato/corn chowder and bean stew. The highlight of the educational experience came when economics entered the arena. The concept of shopping sales and planning meals around what is affordable each week or month created much discussion. The adaptation of recipes to include those foods that are more moderately prices was illustrated using the recipes provided and the ingredients utilized. The four meals each participant took home cost $15 or $3.75 per four-serving meal!

COURTESY MSU EXTENSION / FARM & RANCH

L-R: Linden Holt, Codi Doniaquo, Zora Holt and Kodi McColly take part in some holiday-themed fun at a recent MSU Extension event in Valley County.

www.glasgowcourier.com www.glasgowcourier.com

Hinsdale Science Sleuths Keep the Investigation Open ROUBIE YOUNKIN, MSU EXTENSION FOR FARM & RANCH It all began with two 4-H teens seeking a project to share their hunger for STEM activities and to meet the goals of their Teen Leadership 4-H project. A year later, their inďŹ&#x201A;uence continues as the Hinsdale Science Sleuths are still seeking knowledge through STEM exploration. Elise Strommen and Cordell Younkin have led the Science Sleuths through these experiences and their leadership project with a goal of igniting a passion for STEM in their peers at the Hinsdale school. A partnership with Hinsdale science teacher Josh McCrossin and MSU Extension Agent Roubie Younkin, created an effective means of designing projects, applying STEM techniques and creating interest amongst the students. The Valley County Community Foundation has also played a signiďŹ cant role in the continuation of this program with a grant to cover supplies and curriculum for the students. The program began last winter as students in grades seven to 12 spent after-school hours moving through stations covering topics such as acidity/alkalinity tests, solubility experiments, engineering roller coasters and building structures from spaghetti and marshmallows. Add a catapult, a rocket stomper, a series of batteries to make a light bulb and

play dough circuits, they created a perfect environment for not just learning, but experiential learning experiences. By experiential learning, the students were able to learn through their experiences, specifically learn through the reďŹ&#x201A;ection of doing. As the year progressed, the new school year quickly approached, with these students becoming more busy with football practice and traveling to volleyball games. The program proceeded to move into the 4-H after-school program, where students k-six developed the same passion for learning by conducting similar ageappropriate activities and experiments. Weather was explored through wind activities including making an anemometer, which is a device used for measuring the speed of wind. Chemical reactions were observed by making dissolving pumpkins then pouring vinegar over them. Engineering was explored by making ecobots from toothbrushes, batteries and electric toothbrush motors. Electricity entered the arena in the form of ghosts free ďŹ&#x201A;oating through the air (with the help of static electricity and a balloon). Electric circuits became fascinating as the students made creatures using conductive and non-conductive play dough and connected a battery to light up LED lights.

www.glasgowcourier.com 5 December 2017

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December 2017 5 www.glasgowcourier.com

FARM & FARM & RANCH RANCH

What do â&#x20AC;&#x153;low costâ&#x20AC;? ag suppliers

Rural Sisterhood: 'Tis the Season ELIZABETH SHIPSTEAD FOR FARM & RANCH â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Tis the season for frosty mornings, frozen water tanks, snow on the ground, chopping ice in the dams for cows and watching steam roll off of the cows as they gather around to eat. Taking care of animals gets more challenging this time of year. But, I welcome the challenge, because it also means snowmen with the girls when the snow is just right, rosy cheeked girls asking for hot chocolate after gathering eggs, wearing my favorite wild rags and a cup of som thing hot to warm up my hands! I love the frost around my geldingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nose, noticing the footprints of different animals in the snow, and letting the scents of the season bring back memories of holidays in the past. Late fall and winter mornings might

start with caring for animals, but continue with the enjoyment that comes with sharing the work and fun as a family, continuing old traditions and making new traditions.Here is a recipe for one of my favorite seasonal scents: Put your favorite small pot on the stove! In it put: 2 whole cloves 2 cinnamon sticks 1 thinly sliced orange About 1/2 to 1 cup of whole cranberries Add water to cover Turn the stove to low. Side note: If you have evergreen bows, you can add a small sprig of evergreen to the pot too! Enjoy! To read more of Shipstead's work, visit theruralsisterhood.com.

Nicaraguan Delegation Seeks Genes SANJAY TALWANI FOR FARM & RANCH For generations, Montana cattlemen have improved their herds, breeding cattle that are bigger, better marbled, easier to manage and more disease-resistant. And their handiwork â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the genetic makeup of Montana herds â&#x20AC;&#x201D; is getting attention from around the world. This fall, a group of cattlemen from Nicaragua took a close look at Montana livestock A member of the Nicaraguan trade delegation shoots video of the semen production process. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Here in Montana, you are really advanced on genetics,â&#x20AC;? said Alvaro Vargas, president of the Nicaragua Livestock Federation, on the trade mission in October. â&#x20AC;&#x153;We saw Charolais, and Red Angus and Black Angus and Montana has done a great job on producing quality genetics,â&#x20AC;? he said. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s unbelievable.â&#x20AC;? Vargas and the Nicaraguan trade delegation â&#x20AC;&#x201D; including ranchers and feedlot and slaughterhouse owners â&#x20AC;&#x201D; are working to improve their herd, the largest in Central America with about 5.4 million head, using Montana genetics. They visited several ranches as well as ORIgen Beef, a genetics producer in the Huntley area, and they hope to incorporate some of those Montana genetics in their herd in the near future. Alvaro Vargas, president of the Nicaragua Livestock Federation

International trade agreements are under increased criticism in Washington and in politics, but cattlemen in Montana and around the world are continuing to build relationships across boundaries. The Nicaraguan delegationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s visit to Eastern Montana is just one example. The Montana Department of Agriculture Market Development Division has fostered such ties â&#x20AC;&#x201D; not just with Nicaragua but also Chile, Russia. Costa Rica, and elsewhere. â&#x20AC;&#x153;So weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re here to help the Montana producers of all kinds get to these markets, and create more markets for them to market their cattle and export their cattle to countries that arenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t aware of what we have to offer,â&#x20AC;? said Treston Vermandel, business development specialist with the Market Development Division. And that means more dollars for Montana producers, helping ranchers stay on their land and strengthening communities that have faced tough economic realities for decades. Treston Vermandel, market development specialist with Montana Department of Agriculture\ Vermandel, along with Montana ranchers and others, visited Nicaragua in March, checking out that nationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cattle infrastructure. â&#x20AC;&#x153;We were very surprised about the opportunities that Nicaragua can create for Montana producers,â&#x20AC;? he said. See GENES Page 9

REALLY do for you?

When You Buy From Us, We Give You Added Value! Let's Work Together

We Can Only Continue To Provide Service In Our Communities If YOU Support Those Services! After The Initial Saleâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; WHAT Is Your 'LVFRXQW6XSSOLHU2ÍżHULQJ<RX"

When you buy your chemical & fertilizer from us we can help you with . . . â&#x20AC;˘ Crop Scouting â&#x20AC;˘ Weed IdentiďŹ cation Services â&#x20AC;˘ Soil Analysis â&#x20AC;˘ Crop Spraying â&#x20AC;˘ Application Recommendations â&#x20AC;˘ Fertilizer Application â&#x20AC;˘ And Much More

We Have . . . A Full Agronomy StaďŹ&#x20AC; Available

To All Of Our Patrons Across Our Trade Area

The People, The Know How And The Products To Cover All Your Needs . . .

:H2ÍžHU0DQ\6HUYLFHVWR2XU&XVWRPHUV â&#x20AC;˘ On Farm Tire Service â&#x20AC;˘ Shop Services & Minor Repairs â&#x20AC;˘ Oil & Filters â&#x20AC;˘ Feed (Crystalyx) â&#x20AC;˘ Lawn Care Items â&#x20AC;˘ Fencing Equipment

â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

Bulk Fuel Delivery Tires - Batteries - Brakes 24 Hour Gas & Fuel Oxygen/Acetylene Tanks Full-Line Hardware Store

:H$OVR2ÍżHU)XOO&RPPRGLW\0DUNHWLQJ

Value Added Services . . . Use them to your advantage and maximize your yields!

Are You Getting This Kind Of Value Where You Buy?

!

Plus, if you pay in advance, earn a 6% premium Or 6% discount for cash at time of purchase!

$% #"%%ch%% ur Butte 487-2741

474-2231

893-4398

724-3353

762-3231

783-5519


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December2017 2017 December

GENES

December 2017 January & February 2018 Schedule

CONTINUED FROM PAGE 5

December 2017 Thursday

SERVING AREA â&#x153;Ż LIVESTOCK PRODUCERS FOR 71 YEARS! 1946 - 2017

January 2018 cont. Thursday

#JH%FDFNCFS'FFEFS4QFDJBM & All Class Cattle Auction

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'FFEFS4QFDJBM& All Class Cattle Auction

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Last All Class Cattle Auction of 2017

February 2018 Thursday

28

.FSSZ$ISJTUNBTo/P"VDUJPO

January 2018 Thursday

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11

www.glasgowcourier.com 9 December 2017

Glasgow Stockyards, Inc. Linda & Mark Nielsen, Owners Iva Murch, Manager 263-7529 Dean Barnes, Yard Manager 263-1175 Ed Hinton, Auctioneer 783-7285

7

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"OOVBM/FX:FBS'FFEFS$MBTTJD & All Class Cattle Auction

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10#PYt(MBTHPX .5 HTJ!OFNPOUOFUtXXXHMBTHPXTUPDLZBSETDPN Please call in consignments so buyers can be notiďŹ ed

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NEWTON MOTORS, INC. NEW & USED TRUCKS AND CARS All In One Convenient Location

440 Highway 2 West â&#x20AC;˘ Glasgow â&#x20AC;˘ Across from the Fairgrounds 406-228-9325 â&#x20AC;˘ 406-228-4381 â&#x20AC;˘ 1-800-255-1472 Family owned by the Newton Boys! Rent A Car Come in and see Doug, Terry, or Ted!

MONA DOEBLER / FOR FARM & RANCH

Hinsdale photographer Mona Doebler had to climb a bench to get this shot of a 2008 Cornwell Ranch cattle drive in Valley County.

The Month in Weather BRANDON BIGELBACH FOR FARM & RANCH

November, much like October, was like riding a roller coaster. A cold front would move through and provide cool, windy conditions with light precipitation, and then quickly be followed by high pressure, warm temperatures and mostly clear skies. This trend occurred over much of the month, not terribly uncommon as the region continues its transition into winter. As of press date, for the month of November, only around 10 days saw maximum wind speeds above 25 mph. The highest sustained winds for the month occurred on Nov. 29, with a speed of 39 mph. The highest wind gust for the month was on Nov. 23, reporting 50 mph. Also as of press date, per the National Weather Service in Glasgow, the highest observed temperature for the month was 73 degrees on Nov. 23, and the lowest was 0 degrees on Nov. 9. The total liquid precipitation reported at Glasgow was 0.17â&#x20AC;?, which was approximately 0.2â&#x20AC;? below normal. For the month, 0.9â&#x20AC;? of snowfall

was also reported. Over a 24-hour period, the greatest precipitation total was 0.07â&#x20AC;?, which occurred on Nov. 3. The overall mean temperature was approximately 29 degrees, which was approximately 1 degree below normal. The latest U.S. Drought Monitor was released on Nov. 30. Montana is still feeling the effects of the drought, but continued improvements have been noted since last month. Over 73 percent of the state was classiďŹ ed as being at least Abnormally Dry, a 10 percent improvement from last month. Moderate drought or worse conditions cover approximately 53 percent of the state, nearly a 20 percent improvement over last month. Conditions in the Northeast have improved as well, however much less than other portions of the state. Much of the region is still in Severe Drought, though the area of Extreme Drought has shrunk slightly, still covering around half of the region. Areas of Prairie, Dawson, Wibaux and Richland counties along and south of the Yellowstone River Valley continue to have the best conditions, only showing Moderate Drought conditions.

In October, the delegation of Nicaraguan cattlemen returned the favor. The Nicaraguan herd is primarily Brahma, which Vargas said has the traits to ďŹ&#x201A;ourish in Nicaraguaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s hot, humid environment. â&#x20AC;&#x153;So we had this group come up and just learn about Montana and learn about our Red Angus and our Charolais cattle to incorporate into their herd and get better quality, better genetics for the country itself down there for meat quality,â&#x20AC;? Vermandel said. Vargas said improving his nationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s herd means ďŹ nding the best genetics available. And heâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s been looking. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve been traveling all around the states â&#x20AC;Ś looking what is available on the market and deďŹ nitely the best thing weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve seen is, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s been here in Montana,â&#x20AC;? Vargas said. A single â&#x20AC;&#x153;unitâ&#x20AC;? of semen can range from $10 to $50 and contains 30 million to 50 million sperm, good for one artiďŹ cial insemination. The genetics â&#x20AC;&#x201D; more speciďŹ cally, bull semen â&#x20AC;&#x201D; is produced, processed, assessed, frozen, stored and shipped from ORIgen Beef, located in wide-open country near Huntley, Mont., about 20 miles from Billings. The facility itself grew from the labor and vision of Montana ranchers. In 2001, the semen industry was controlled directly or indirectly by large daily cooperatives ot multinational agricultural companies. Dick Beck and a group of other producers from Montana and elsewhere decided to enter the market and created ORIgen. Dick Beck, vice president of sales and marketing at ORIgen Beef Inc. near Huntley â&#x20AC;&#x153;We felt there was a need for the beef semen industry to be controlled and operated by beef cattlemen who had skin in the game, who invested their time and their money and their talent in these cattle,â&#x20AC;? Beck, the companyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s vice president of sales and marketing, told Prairie Populist. â&#x20AC;&#x153;We want people who own these genetics whoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve created the genetics, whose life and blood, sweat and tears are involved in creating genetics, to get the largest possible return for their genetics and also to control those genetics so we can improve the beef industry.â&#x20AC;? Most genetics facilities are designed for

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FARM & FARM & RANCH RANCH dairy bulls and keep the animals very conďŹ ned, Beck said. At ORIgen, the goal is a more natural environment, where the beef bulls get more exercise and are treated more like they would be on a farm or ranch. ORIgen now ships semen to about a dozen nations in a given year, and semen for export requires unique health standards for each speciďŹ c destination. The operation combines some of the hands-on cowboy skills youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;d see on ranches all over Montana, along with some high-tech equipment and methods. Thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s science and timing in producing semen so it carries the optimal number of viable sperm to give the highest probability of conception. A single collection of semen from a bull can yield several hundred frozen units of semen two or three times each week, with one unit good for the artiďŹ cial insemination of one cow. Cattle at the Redland Red Angus Ranch near Hysham There are four levels of biosecurity at ORIgen to make sure that no reproductive or contagious disease is transmitted from human visitors or from new arriving bulls to resident bulls, or to the semen products produced from them. The company has also ventured into the relatively new ďŹ eld of in vitro fertilization of cows, recently completing a state-of-the-art lab that it says meets the standards required for human in vitro fertilization. ORIgen has produced some of the most productive genetics in the country. And while it brings in cattle from all over the nation and sells semen all over the world, it is especially helpful for Montana ranchers who donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have to travel very far to take part in the market, whether buying or selling. For all those involved, agriculture is not just a job. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a way of life, Beck said. â&#x20AC;&#x153;And our people care, the people who own these bulls care about the impact that their genetics are going to have on the world,â&#x20AC;? he said. â&#x20AC;&#x153;For many of them, it wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be in their obituary, but their legacy will be the cattle theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve produced and the people theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve been able to share those cattle with and what itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s done for those people. So we see it â&#x20AC;Ś as more than just a business. We certainly run it aggressively as a business, but we see this as a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;improve the industry, which ultimately eventually improves the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; kind of thing.â&#x20AC;? Sanjay Talwani writes for Prairie Populist. You can read this and other stories at prairiepopulist.org.

YOUâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;RE READING HI-LINE FARM & RANCH THE AG MONTHLY FOR NORTHEAST & NORTH CENTRAL MONTANA

MSU Extension Workshops MICHELLE BIGELBACH FOR FARM & RANCH MSU Extension Economists George Haynes, Kate Fuller, and Joel Schumacher will offer Farm Management Workshops in ďŹ ve communities in January to March 2018. Other faculty members contributing to these workshops include Agricultural Economists Anton Bekkerman, Joseph Janzen, Gary Brester, and Eric Belasco; Family Economist Marsha Goetting, Plant Pathologist Mary Burrows, Cropping Systems Specialist Kent McVay, and Beef Cattle Specialist Rachel Endecott. In Glasgow, the workshop will be held March 8 and 9, at the Cottonwood Inn and Suites, 54250 U.S. 2, Glasgow. The topics covered during this two day event are: ďŹ nan-

cial analysis and enterprise budgeting; risk management; marketing of grain and cattle; disaster assistance and tax considerations; agricultural policy issues; estate planning; and crop and livestock production. A pre-workshop optional course, Introduction to Quicken, will be offered on March 7 in Glasgow. This optional course will be held from noon to 5 p.m. The number of participants is limited to 12 individuals. Participation in these workshops will satisfy the requirements for Farm Service Agency Production and Financial Management Training. There is no cost for this workshop. Please register by contacting Keri Hayes 406-994-3511, khayes@montana.edu or George Haynes 406-994-5012, haynes@ montana.edu.

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FADC: ‘All it takes is an idea’ Paul Dragu pdragu@havredailynews.com

The Montana Food and Agriculture Development Center Network was created to help agricultural visionaries and entrepreneurs with ideas who need a little extra push making it happen. “You have a great idea. We have the tools to get your product to market and help your business grow,” a statement on the FADC pamphlet says. Taylor Lyon, a native Houstonian who came to work for Montana State UniversityNorthern’s Advanced Fuels Center after receiving his degree in biology from Carroll College, is the Food and Ag Development Center director at Bear Paw Development Corp. “I set people up with financing. If you want to come in to share your idea, we can

help you get a business plan of cash flow. A lot of what I do is simple networking,” Lyon said. Four program centers are spread throughout the state, with Havre’s FADC through Bear Paw Development being one of them. The other three are in Ronan, Joliet and Butte. All ag centers have their specialty. The FADC in Havre specializes in renewable energy, biomass and biofuel development, and like the other three, in education and training workshop, as well as loan and grant funds and cooperative business development. If someone approaches Lyon with an idea better suited to be handle by one of the other centers, he points them there. “I have a background in renewable energy, bio-diesel, bio-fuel stuff, and I have a particular interest in wind and solar, where at the Mission Mountain in Ronan, they’re

all about nutritional analysis, food safety, food safety trainings,” Lyon said. “They actually have the state’s only food processing center. So if you want to try out a new jam or barbecue sauce, they have all the equipment and facilities. You can just go in there and set up, get a contract with them, do your product and see if that’s what you really want to sell.” Lyon said he’s referred several clients to the other centers or to the right experts when people have come to him about something out of his expertise. “I’ve had, for whatever reason, a bunch of barley growers, want to start malting,” he said, adding Montana brewers usually buy their malt from Malt Europe in Great Falls. “But for whatever reason people call me and they want to know how to malt. Well, I don’t know how to malt, but I know of grant programs that may fund a feasibility study to

see if the malting operation would be feasible. I don’t know the ins and outs of how to, say, malt or grow barley, but I can access some of the funding programs or maybe know some of the people who do know this stuff.” And the local FADC has seen success. On its website, FADC touts, via video, helping Big Sandy organic farmer Bob Quinn get a local business off the ground. Quinn revived the ancient grain khorasin, which is believed to have originated in Mesopotamia and migrated into Egypt, using some kernels that found their way into Montana, listed at a fair as King Tut’s Grain. He trademarked his grain Kamut, an old Egyptian word for wheat. He created Kamut International, which has a stated goal of promoting organic agriculture and supporting organic farmers; increasing the diversity of crops and diets, “and to protect

GIPSA rules: Bullard: R-CALF USA plans to talk to Trump ■ Continued from page 3 “The packers have never had to justify these claims. They have so much power in Congress, power in the organizations they have infiltrated.” The groups saying the GIPSA rules would increase litigation, eliminate branding programs, make it so packers would be offered a

single price regardless of the quality of their cattle are those that are influenced or dominated by the meatpacking industry, Bullard said. All one has to do is look at who is part of the groups making those claims and the reason becomes clear why, he added. National Cattlemen’s Beef Association, a counterpart to R-CALF in the industry, has on

its governing board the multinational meatpackers, Bullard said. “And so since 1996, with the merger between the National Cattleman’s Association and the Beef Industry Council … from that point forward the NCBA has been a mouthpiece for the meatpackers,” he said The National Pork Producers also has the multi-national meatpackers seated on their

governing board, as does the Chicken Council, Bullard added. However, the grassroots — the produceronly groups — are onboard with the GIPSA rules, Bullard said. Organizations such as the Western Organization for Resource Council, the National Family Farm Coalition, Independent Cattlemen of Nebraska, and many others, Bullard said, strongly supported the rules. And the reason so many local producers are in the dark comes down to who has the resources to control information, Bullard said. “If you look at the ag trade publications, the ones producers are most likely to read, you find they receive advertising money from the swamp, the institutionalized agricultural sector. If they came out with a clear description of what these rules mean to producers, then they would receive retaliation by the meatpackers that are already engaged against producers,” Bullard said. “There’s good reason the producers don’t get good information — it’s because the information channel is controlled by the same entities that control the marketplace.” For R-CALF and similar groups, the battle is far from over, he added. The goal is to reach President Donald Trump directly. “We don’t think this was part of his campaign promise, to give the industrialized sector of our industry tremendous leverage over independent producers,” Bullard said. “Instead, we think Sonny Purdue is listening to the same people who have scuttled these GIPSA rules for many years before he was appointed. It’s extremely frustrating, but the fight is not over.” And if the GIPSA rules are never going to be implemented, Bullard said, R-CALF has a backup plan. “So if we’re not going to regulate (the meatpackers), then we better bust them up. That’s on the table as well,” he said. “So restoring competition is one of the principle missions of my organization and we will not stop until we accomplish that objective.”

www.havredailynews.com tions and said these are anti-trust rules — all they do is protect against monopoly behavior and the producers has to show harm to competition,” Bullard said, dubbing it a complete reversal of long-standing USDA position. Big Sandy organic farmer and U.S. Sen. Jon Tester, D-Mont., teamed up with Sen. Chuck Grassley, R-Iowa, and wrote a letter to Purdue Oct. 18, the day after the announced rollback, saying they “vehemently disagree” with the decision. “Many of our constituents believe the current practices of multi-national livestock corporations, one of which is being investigated for unprecedented corruption, allow them to exploit farmers and ranchers,” Tester and Grassley wrote, adding the point of the GIPSA rules was to even that playing field. The corporation being investigated for corruption the two senators are referring to is JBS USA Holdings Inc., an American meat processing company that was created — with the purchase of Colorado-based Swift & Co. in 2007 — as a subsidiary of JBS S.A., a Brazilian company considered to be the world's largest processor of fresh beef and pork. There are, however, also those who agree with Purdue’s decision, those who think the regulations would have harmed the industry. Rep. Greg Gianforte, R-Mont., said in a statement, “The administration’s decision to withdraw the livestock portion of the proposed rule by GIPSA is good news for Montana’s ranchers. It ensures they remain competitive and can market their products without the threat of frivolous lawsuits. I look forward to working with the administration as it continues to identify and reform unnecessary, burdensome regulations put in place by the Obama administration.” Sen. Steve Daines, R-Mont., was not as definitive as Tester or Gianforte. “This decision underscores how important it is we get our own Montana processing plant and develop more options and control for Montana cattle producers,” Daines said in a statement to the Havre Daily News. Kansas Republican Pat Roberts, chairman of the Senate Agriculture Committee, applauded the USDA’s action, saying it demonstrates the Trump administration’s commitment to promoting economic prosperity and reducing regulatory burdens in rural America. Livestock and poultry producers had long opposed the rules, he said. Roberts said the GIPSA rules would have levied a billion-dollar blow against the American agricultural industry. The final rules would have harmed competition and resulted in undue preference.

FARM & RANCH Roberts had been unwaveringly against the GIPSA rules since their creation began. In an April 10, 2106, letter to Vilsack — before the final interim rules were established — Roberts said the industry estimated the proposed rules would have cost “meat, livestock and poultry” industry $1 billion. The GIPSA rules, he wrote, would have stifled economic opportunity, increased regulatory burdens, and resulted in “significant negative consequences.” The Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration within the USDA, also agreed with Purdue’s action, saying the new rules would have been inconsistent with several court decisions and would have lead to further lawsuits. “Protracted litigation to both interpret this regulation and defend it serves neither the interests of the livestock and poultry industries nor GIPSA,” the agency said. National Chicken Council President Mike Brown said the rules would have opened the floodgates to frivolous and costly litigation, and National Pork Producers Council President Ken Maschhoff said the regulation “would have reduced competition, stifled innovation and provided no benefits to anyone other than trial lawyers and activist groups that no doubt would have used the rule to attack the livestock industry.” Roberts, who did not respond to multiple calls or respond to messages from Havre Daily, held a hearing Feb. 23 in Manhattan, Kansas, on the GIPSA rules, during which multiple producers spoke. David Clawson, a farmer, a partner in a commercial cow-calf operation and the president of the Kansas Livestock Association, KLA, was one of them. The majority of cattle producers, Clawson said, oppose the federal government’s involvement in how cattle are marketed. On issuing the interim rule, GIPSA ignored the comments submitted by thousands of cattle producers in opposition to the rule, the decisions of eight separate federal appellate courts and the intent of language included by Congress in the 2008 Farm Bill, Clawson testified. Clawson said the GIPSA rules would have eliminated value-based marketing programs. “Our analysis of the interim final rule leads us to believe packers will offer one price for all cattle, regardless of quality, if the rule is implemented,” Clawson said. Jim Baker of the Cattleman’s Association in Montana said he “was not up to speed” on GIPSA and could not comment on what the rules would have meant to the beef industry. Despite the proposed rules’ significant implications, many in Montana — one way or

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Havre Daily News/Floyd Brandt another in the industry — seem not to know anything about the GIPSA rules. Communication Manager Kori Anderson of Montana Stockgrowers Association deferred comment to someone else in the association because she said she didn’t know enough about it. That person did not return multiple requests for information by deadline. About a dozen cattle and sheep producers in Hill, Blaine and Choteau counties were called. Of the ones who responded, about half,

no one knew anything about the GIPSA rules and the others did not return calls to comment. Bullard said he believes producer unawareness and the believed harm touted by GIPSA rules opponents is a testament to further packer power. “These are just absolutely outrageous, unsubstantiated, unfounded claims,” Bullard said about the rules eliminating competition.

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GIPSA rules quashed before hatching, some say move favors packing companies Paul Dragu pdragu@havredailynews.com The U.S. Department of Agriculture was two days away from implementing regulations intended to make it easier for poultry and livestock producers to sue meatpacking corporations they contract with for unfair practices before those rules were killed Oct. 17. The final interim rules would have “affirmatively” established the USDA’s longtime position that producers don’t have to prove an unfair practice harms the entire market in order to prove a violation of the Packers and Stockyards Act, a Dec. 14, 2016, USDA statement said when the final rules were released. “Such overly broad interpretations have put family farmers at a disadvantage for decades when pursuing their rights under the Act,” Tom Vilsack, agriculture secretary at the time, said in the release. The proposed regulations, referred to as the GIPSA rules or Farmer Fair Practices Rules, would have applied to the packers and stockyards administration portion of the Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration. Vilsack had called them “common sense” rules that were intended to put the grower and the meatpacker on the same level. Some court rulings have interpreted current federal law as saying a livestock producer must prove a company’s actions harm competition in the entire industry. The GIPSA rules were supposed to have eased that high burden of proof by allowing a lawsuit to continue if the producers can show it harmed just

them. “You shouldn’t have to show if you’ve been treated unfairly or in a discriminatory way, that somehow what’s happened to you harms competition to the entire industry,” Vilsack told reporters after the updated regulations were released. “That’s just an unreasonably high burden for anyone to have to meet.” Echoing Vilsack’s statement, Bill Bullard, CEO of Rancher-Cattleman Action Legal Fund United Stockgrowers of America, or R-CALF USA, said Nov. 21 the rules were simply for clarification purposes because statutes to give independent producers recourse already existed. The problem is they lacked teeth, which had resulted to a “mismatch” of court decisions on the meaning of the Stockyards Act of 1921, Bullard added. Ever since the Packers and Stockyards Act of 1921, the USDA has taken a “very definitive” position that a producer does not need to show harm to competition in all cases in order to bring a case under the Packers and Stockyards Act. The Stockyards and Packers Act said it is unlawful for packers to engage in practices that are unfair, discriminatory, or deceptive, or to engage in practices that are rampant in preferences or advantages to some producers but no to all. But the USDA never created rules to implement those statutes, Bullard said, adding the lack of rules created a “huge amount of ambiguity,” and led to lawsuits about the statute’s meaning. So in 2008 Congress took action with the intention to clear the haze. In the 2008 Farm Bill, Congress directed the USDA to write the GIPSA rules. The agen-

Havre Daily News/File Photo Cattle are sorted for shipping at Hill County Scale Association this fall. cy wrote the rules in 2010 and used their authority to clarify or implement the other prohibitions, the ones against unfair, unjustly discriminatory or deceptive practices, as well as to clarify that a producer need not show harm or likelihood of harm to competition in order to protect themselves under the act. The rules were three-fold, Bullard said.

One of them addressed competitive injury, another prohibited unfair practices and the third dealt with the tournament price system within the poultry industry. But they were never implemented. “Suddenly, (Secretary of Agriculture) Sonny Purdue withdraws these rules and he completely reverses decades of agency posi-

Havre Daily News/Flile Photo Store employee Rick Linie, left, talks at Bear Paw Meats to Taylor Lyon of the Food and Agricultural Development Center Network of Bear Paw Development Corp. the heritage of a high quality, delicious ancient grain for the benefit of this and future generations.” After he found a market for Kamut in 1986, Quinn began raising it commercially and since then other Montana farmers began raising the grain. Now it is sold in 20 countries and is used to produce a variety of products, including being an ingredient in General Mills Ancient Grains Cheerios. Quinn turned to the FADC when he decided to start adding value locally to Kamut. He and partners, with help from a grant the FADC helped them obtain, created and started making Kracklin’ Kamut — “Like Corn Nuts without the dentist” — in Big Sandy. Quinn and Caleb Kriser, who heads up the Kracklin’ Kamut facility, said that along with helping them get a Growth through Agriculture grant, FADC also helped them develop their business plan. “It helped us get a bigger vision what this business could do,” Kriser said. The Growth through Agriculture application is the same way Bear Paw Meats in Chinook got a new state-of-the-art smoker. The facility manager, Ashley Callahan, said the smoker cost $65,000, half of which was covered by the grant. They matched the other half. The smoker is bigger, faster, better. The old smoker, complete with manual dials, could smoke about 200 pounds at a time, Callahan said. The new one can do double to triple that amount, Callahan said. It’s also more efficient when it comes to documenting process requirements. The smoker connects to a laptop, which relays the specs and measurements without having to record them manually, saving time. Callahan said they had worked with Bear Paw Development over the years, and when they thought about getting a new smoker, they approached Lyon about writing a grant. “Taylor is a beast (at grant writing),” Callahan said. “They’re really supportive people. They want to help support agriculture and I feel that with them,” Callahan added.

Lyon said all that people need to justify coming to visit him is an idea. “Usually people just have an idea. We have an initial consultation,” Lyon said. “Here’s a business plan template, here’s a cash flow template. The cash flow is when we start working with the numbers. Some people get intimidated, so I usually follow up with them.” Sometimes the ideas pan out, sometimes not. One of the most common reasons they don’t is simple: The market just doesn’t agree, Lyon said. From Cut Bank to Glasgow, Lyon said, $250 million in funding has been diverted to businesses. “Cut Bank Creek Brewing, they started from scratch with a (Growth through Agriculture) grant, we helped them put together,” he said. FADC goes beyond grant writing and loaning. The idea is to plant the seed early for buying locally, he said. Harvest of the Month is an Office of Public Instruction program which features a different ag product every month. Havre Public Schools introduced thirdgraders at Lincoln-McKinley Early Primary School to the Harvest of the Month program. The goal, said Lyon, who sometimes serves as a liaison to get products to the cafeteria, is to introduce schools to buying local foods. Shanna Flores, who is in charge of Havre Public Schools’ food service program, said November is apple month. The students were taught a lesson about apples and then, throughout the month, they had the chance to eat apples and give feedback. The students can say they tried apples, they like apples or they loved apples. As someone whose job entails paying attention and assessing markets there are some agricultural opportunities that are a no-brainer, Lyon said. He said, for example, a majority of the ingredients in organic products, the raw ingredients, are shipped from overseas. There’s no reason for that, he said.

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FDAC: Lyon: Organic a good opportunity ■ Continued from page 11

Peas are loaded into a rail car at Stricks Ag in Chester. “Organic ag is proving to be a very valuable enterprise to get into. They’re making more money per product,” Lyon said. “I’m not going to say whether it’s right or wrong or good or bad, but economically, by the

Havre Daily News/File Photo

numbers, it’s proven — if you don’t have 10,000 acres, you don’t have 15,000 acres — it’s a good opportunity. … It’s a market opportunity, plain and simple, and I feel I am obligated to let people know that.”

GIPSA rollback in dispute

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