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THE HAVEN

LANDSCAPE M A N AG E M E N T PLAN AUGUST 2015


Prepared for The Haven by TOPOGRAPHICS LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE


TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

4.0 LANDSCAPE ZONES

4.1 WOODLAND GARDENS 4.1.1 ZONE DESCRIPTION 1.0 INTRODUCTION 4.1.2 EXISTING SPECIES 1.1 INTRODUCTION 4.1.3 RECOMMENDED SPECIES 1.2 PURPOSES OF THE PLAN 4.1.4 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS 4.2 ORNAMENTAL GARDENS 2.0 LANDSCAPE ASSESSMENT 4.2.1 ZONE DESCRIPTION 2.1 ABIOTIC 4.2.2 EXISTING SPECIES 2.2 BIOTIC 4.2.3 RECOMMENDED SPECIES 2.2.1 TREES AT THE HAVEN 4.2.4 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS 2.2.2 TREE MAPPING 4.3 MEADOW LAWN ZONES 2.2.3 UNDERSTOREY ASSESSMENT 4.3.1 ZONE DESCRIPTION CULTURAL 2.3 4.3.2 REJUVENATION 2.3.1 LANDSCAPE EXPERIENCE 4.4 SHORELINE ZONE MANAGEMENT 2.3.2 MEMORIALS AND ASHES 4.4.1 ZONE DESCRIPTION 4.4.2 EXISTING SPECIES 4.4.3 RECOMMENDED SPECIES 3.0 SITE-WIDE MANAGEMENT 4.4.4 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS STRATEGIES 3.1 VEGETATION PRESERVATION & 4.5 FOREST MANAGEMENT 4.5.1 ZONE DESCRIPTION PROTECTION 4.5.2 EXISTING SPECIES 3.1.1 PROTECTION DURING 4.5.3 RECOMMENDED SPECIES CONSTRUCTION 4.5.4 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS 3.1.2 TREES & CONSTRUCTION 3.2 VEGETATION ENHANCEMENT 5.0 LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT 3.2.1 TREE THINNING 5.1 SERVICE MODEL 3.2.2 UNDERSTOREY PLANTING 5.2 PERSONNEL & ROLES 3.2.3 LAWN MANAGEMENT 5.3 SEASONAL MAINTENANCE 3.3 WINDTHROW & HAZARD TREE 5.4 RECORD KEEPING MANAGEMENT 3.4 FIRE RISK MANAGEMENT 3.4.1 FIRE RISK GUIDELINES 6.0 PLANT MAINTENANCE INVASIVE PLANT AND WEED 6.1 3.5 TREE ASSESSMENT MANAGEMENT TREE PRUNING 6.2 3.6 INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT 6.3 SHRUB MAINTENANCE IRRIGATION 3.7 3.7.1 ESTABLISHMENT IRRIGATION APPENDIX A SUPPLIERS 3.7.2 MAINTENANCE IRRIGATION APPENDIX B MONTHLY REPORT 3.7.3 RECLAIMED WATER APPENDIX C ANNUAL SCHEDULE 3.8 WILDLIFE & HABITAT APPENDIX D FERTILIZER 3.8.1 TREES AS HABITAT APPENDIX E TREE PROTECTION 3.8.2 UNDERSTOREY HABITAT ZONES 3.9 WOODY DEBRIS MANAGEMENT & APPENDIX F MAINTENANCE MULCHING NEEDS OF PLANTS 3.10 COMPOSTING & FERTILIZING 3.11 SOIL COMPACTION 3.12 MEMORIALS 3.13 PAVED AREAS AND TRAILS 3.14 OTHER LANDSCAPE ELEMENTS


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Haven is situated on a spectacular site on the traditional territory of the Snuneymuxw First Nation people, and in the very special environment of BC’s Gulf Islands. The forest, gardens, and seashore landscapes offer a richly beautiful and natural setting and form an important part of guest experience. Since its beginning over thirty years ago, The Haven has always respected, valued, and cared for the site’s landscape. Buildings were built to preserve significant trees. Large areas have been left as forest. Don Mattson, The Haven’s dedicated gardener since 2000, has actively managed the gardens and forest, effectively eradicating invasive species and encouraging the landscape to flourish. This Landscape Management Plan is intended to capture Don Mattson’s institutional knowledge before his retirement. It also elucidates The Haven’s landscape management values and goals to help guide decisions in the future - continuing the efforts to reduce irrigation needs, encourage climate change resiliency, reduce maintenance requirements, and enhance native bio-diversity, while providing an attractive, healing environment and identifiable sense of place for guests. Additionally, this document provides clarity on the on-going tasks and seasonal maintenance needs of the landscape, to assist future gardeners and the management team in budgeting and scheduling. There are many recommendations throughout this report. The following list provides a prioritized summary. Background on the recommendation and additional details can found in the referenced section.

First Priority Recommendations

• All building or site improvements / major maintenance projects (from initial planning through construction) should follow the recommendations in Section 3.1 (Vegetation Protection).

• All new planting, especially establishment of new beds, should be planned, installed, irrigated and maintained according to the recommendations throughout this report.

• Clearly define vehicular and pedestrian circulation areas to avoid soil compaction. (See Section 3.1 • • • • • • • • • • •

Vegetation Protection). Create a boardwalk section through the Haven Lot’s heritage trees. Interpretive signage can make the trails an educational feature. Initiate a program of pruning and thinning smaller trees. (See Section 3.2.1 Tree Thinning). Purchase a high quality chipper. Eliminate the on-site burn pile and instead create mulch from woody waste. (See Section 3.9 Woody Debris Management and Mulching). Increase the mulch layer thickness throughout the site. Purchase commercial mulch or source free mulch from local arborists (See Section 3.9 Woody Debris Management and Mulching). Continue the current practice of regular tree hazard assessment (See Section 3.3). Reduce “ladder fuels” throughout the site, and implement more rigorous fire risk management measures in the more frequented areas. Clear branches that could fall on the high-voltage power lines. (See Section 3.4 Fire Risk Management). Relocate propane tanks a minimum of 10m from buildings. (See Section 3.4 Fire Risk Management and Facilities Masterplan Appendix J). Continue the practice of removing invasive plants before they have become established. Phase out garden species that are now considered invasive. (See Section 3.5 Invasive Plant and Weed Management) Allow for establishment irrigation for any new plantings in the facility’s annual “water budget” (See Section 3.7.1 Establishment Irrigation). Make and apply Complete Organic Fertilizers. (See Section 3.10 Composting and Fertilizing). Rejuvenate lawn areas with annual aeration, top-dressing, and overseeding. (See Section 3.2.3 Lawn Management and Section 4.3 Meadow Lawn Zone Management). Mulch tree root zones in areas of turf to avoid damage by string mowers.

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Lower Priority Recommendations

• Purchase truckloads of high quality top soil or compost to increase the organic matter and moisture retention of the soil. (See Section 3.72 Maintenance Irrigation)

• Using purchased or grown on site plants, increase the diversity and density of the native understorey in the forested areas of the site. (See Section 3.2.2 Understorey Enhancement). This will also happen naturally through tree thinning and better defining circulation.

Long Term Priority Recommendations • • • •

Establish a plant nursery on The Haven’s properties. (See Section 3.2.2 Understorey Planting). Continue phasing out garden plants that require supplemental maintenance irrigation. Create a more bio-diverse shoreline edge (See Section 4.4 Shoreline Zones). When implementing projects from the Facilities Masterplan, clearly identify the appropriate landscape management zone and plant the appropriate species. Use a simple, repetitive plant palette to establish a stronger sense of place and landscape character.

Figure 1 The Haven Properties

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1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction

The Haven is located on a spectacular waterfront site on Gabriola Island in the First Nation Territory of the Snuneymuxw People. The forest, gardens, and seashore landscapes offer a richly beautiful and natural setting, and form an important part of guest experience. Since The Haven’s inception, the Founders and subsequent management, place great value on respecting, caring for, and valuing the natural landscape of the site. Buildings were built to preserve significant trees, and large areas were left as untouched forest. In 2005, The Haven commissioned a Vegetation Management Plan (VMP), prepared by Pottinger Gaherty Environmental Consultants Ltd. (PGE), to provide high-level strategies to maintain and enhance the ecological environment of the site. Concepts in this document remain relevant today, and it should be considered a companion and resource document for this Landscape Management Plan (LMP). The LMP integrates and updates the concepts of the VMP, responds to the development concepts proposed in the 2014 Facilities Masterplan, and provides more detailed information on site management in a more directly usable form. The Haven has a dedicated gardener who has been on staff since 2000. Don Mattson’s commitment to The Haven’s landscapes has been one of deep care and stewardship. Under his efforts, invasive species have been mostly eradicated, the forests are now actively managed, and the gardens flourish, to the delight of staff and guests. In 2008, Don Mattson produced a Maintenance Summary Report, which outlined the gardeners work responsibilities and routines, described the challenges and principles of managing the landscapes, and mapped the specimen plants on the site. The Maintenance Summary Report is also a reference document for this Plan, and its resources have been integrated into this report.

1.2 Purposes of the Landscape Management Plan

As a first-class learning centre welcoming guests from all over world, The Haven requires a well maintained and managed landscape setting. The landscapes should be attractive, safe, and comfortable, and reflect an atmosphere of care. Immersion in the beautiful and rare natural environment of BC’s Gulf Islands is an integral part of guest experience at The Haven, and indeed is undeniably an element of The Haven’s “brand.” This document provides historical and current information on how the landscapes and gardens should be managed to enhance the sense of place and natural experience at The Haven. Responsible stewardship of the natural environment is an important value for The Haven and forms part of its mission statement. The Site is situated in the Coastal Douglas-fir biogeoclimatic zone (CDF), considered rare and endangered by the Conservation Data Centre (PGE, 2005). The Facilities Masterplan Guiding Principles state the importance of management acting as stewards of the site and island ecosystems, balancing the operational needs of a functioning centre with preserving the natural environment. This document provides direction on monitoring, protecting, and enhancing the ecology of the site. Concepts addressed include a balanced approach to reducing fire risks with minimal environmental impact, as well as pro-actively managing for ongoing climate change and water restrictions. Water is crucial to day to day activities at the Haven. The fractured bedrock aquifer under the Haven site has a limited ability to store water and water availability can vary widely based on seasonal rainfall. During the dry summer months, water sources from groundwater and rainwater harvesting can go dry. Cistern storage is key to providing water during the summer months, but currently is insufficient to consistently meet needs. Occasionally, supplemental water must be trucked in from Nanaimo to the property. All water is treated

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prior to use. Summer water is therefore a precious and expensive resource on site. This document addresses various strategies for encouraging healthy, attractive landscapes that require minimal supplemental irrigation. Additionally, Don Mattson is expected to retire in the next few years. This document is also intended to: capture his knowledge of the site and plant cycles and maintenance; provide information to The Haven’s staff for current and future use; and specific guidance for current and future gardeners. The facility is also expected to undergo significant changes over the next few decades, as outlined in the Facility Masterplan. This document further provides principles and guidelines for environmental protection during construction, as well as recommended species and maintenance standards for new landscapes, building on the concepts and principles of the Facility Masterplan.

2.0 LANDSCAPE ASSESSMENT 2.1 Abiotic Assessment: Climate, Bedrock, Soils

The foundations of the type of native landscape found at The Haven site are the abiotic elements of the sitesolar aspect, wind patterns, rainfall amounts, maritime influences, and the sandstone bedrock that is the parent material of the native soil. The site slopes gently towards the sea, with an overall western solar aspect. The sea edge, along with the areas of lawn and low plantings, allows for light to access deeper into the site. The predominant wind direction on the site is from the southeast and northwest, but the northwest storms are the most severe, coming directly off of the sea, during the winter months (November to January). Windthrow of branches, particularly from the predominant Douglas-fir, is common and can be hazardous, as is the risk of tree fall due to wind. Rainfall on the islands follows the Mediterranean climate pattern of warm, dry summers and cool, wet winters. The native vegetation has evolved to tolerate periods of wet soil and extended periods of drought. Winter precipitation amounts are 900-1100 mm each year average with 80% of the rain arriving between October and April. Minimum temperatures are between -2°C to -12°C and maximum temperatures are in the 30 °C range. According to Agriculture Canada the climate zones for this area will range from minimum zone 7 to maximum zone 9, depending on microclimate. An average of 200 frost-free days makes for a 3 season growing period, with dormant periods during drought and during the coldest months of December & January (growing spurts on trees and shrubs February - April, May – early July, September – October). The cool wet air and wind also carries salt spray from the ocean, and local vegetation has a certain degree of salt tolerance. The predominant bedrock material on Gabriola is sandstone overlaid with soil that is a mixture of weathered sandstone, glacial till, and organics. The Soils of Gabriola map produced by Agricultural Canada identifies the local soil classification as Saturna, a gravelly sandy loam (Agricultural Canada, 1989). The depth of soil on The Haven site varies, but there pockets of unusually deep material, at least in the south end of the site, as evidenced by the cistern foundation dug for the Phoenix Building, and recent soil percolation tests for the new drip disposal septic system in the southeast corner of the site. Generally soils are acidic and well draining with the occasional pocket of clay. The Haven falls within the Coastal Douglas-fir (CDF) bio-geoclimatic zone, as defined by the BC Ministry of Forests. A bio-geoclimatic zone relates to a geographic area having similar patterns of energy flows, vegetation and soils as a result of a macroclimate (Ecosystems of British Columbia, Meidinger & Pojar 1991). The Coastal Douglas-fir zone is one of the smallest in BC, consisting of the Gulf Islands, and some small pockets along the south east coast of Vancouver Island and south west coast of the Mainland. The Mediterranean-like climate

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has longer, drier summers and is warmer than surrounding zones, a result of the rainshadow of the Olympic Peninsula and Vancouver Island mountains, combined with the tempering air of the Pacific Ocean. Many species here are very rare, and some, such as arbutus and Garry oak, occur nowhere else in Canada. The dominant vegetation is its namesake, the Coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii ssp. menziesii). The climate also makes this a very attractive region for people, and the resulting development pressures have further reduced the native ecosystems. All of the native plant communities that are found on site are classified as “Red-Listed“, which means rare and endangered, by the Conservation Data Centre (CDC). Climate change is predicted to shift the species found in the current CDF zone – including western red cedar and western hemlock –farther north, transitioning the Gulf Islands to a drier type of vegetation system, including more grassland and oak savannah, more like our Garry Oak meadow ecosystems (Hebda, Dr. R. , Royal BC Museum,Victoria).

2.2 Biotic Assessment: Flora & Fauna 2.2.1 Trees at The Haven

The native trees at The Haven are typical for the region. The dominant tree species is Douglas-fir, (Pseudotsuga menziesii ssp. menziesii) intermixed with grand fir (Abies grandis), western red cedar (Thuja plicata), arbutus (Arbutus menziesii), red alder (Alnus rubra), and western yew (Taxus brevifolia). The forest is predominantly second growth and probably less than 80 years old, as reportedly most of the island burned and then was logged in the 1930’s. The non-native trees on site have been planted over the years, some as memorials by The Haven community. They include: Japanese maple (Acer palmatum), Atlas cedar (Cedrus deodara), gingko (Gingko biloba), apple (Malus sp.), ornamental cherry (Prunus sp.), red oak (Quercus rubra), mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia), monkey puzzle (Araucaria araucana), and windmill palm (Trachycarpus fortunei). There are some older species of Douglas-fir in the south west corner of the site and on the residentially zoned property known as “Haven Lot”. These majestic trees are likely more than 250 years old (Pottinger Gaherty, 2005), are in relatively good health and likely to last for many more decades. They do appear to be suffering some stress (with signs of bird and insect activity), likely as a result of soil compaction over their roots from foot traffic of admiring visitors. Don Mattson has begun work to direct circulation, block random trails, and create adjacent seating/viewing areas. The Facility Masterplan further recommends construction of a formal boardwalk trail and seating areas through this area, perhaps as part of a longer interpretive trail along The Haven’s waterfront and with directions to connect to the Malaspina Galleries. Interpretive signage could describe the native flora and features to enhance the experience of the sense of place for international visitors.

2.2.2 Tree Mapping

The 2005 Pottinger Gaherty effort identified, tagged, and assessed the trees greater than 20cm in diameter at breast height (dbh). Trees noted as a significant, wildlife or danger trees were also generally located on site. Trees noted as significant included larger specimens, or more unusual species (grand fir, arbutus, and western yew). Wildlife trees were classified as such according to the Wildlife Tree Committee of BC’s definition: “a wildlife tree is any standing dead or live tree with special characteristics that provide valuable habitat for the conservation or enhancement of wildlife.” Most of the wildlife trees at The Haven are living trees with visible signs of woodpecker activity. Danger trees (Hazard Trees) were noted as those that may be hazardous to people or facilities, due to their location and showing indicators of the potential to fail structurally. During the 2013/2014 Facilities Masterplan effort, trees over 20cm dbh were more accurately mapped using a total station theodolite, which located the trees in relation to the site survey. Tree sizes and species were also

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Figure 2

Existing Tree Map


noted. This will allow future project planning efforts to design around existing trees where possible, and make choices about which trees to retain. See Figure 2 for the Existing Tree Map.

2.2.3 Understorey Assessment

Woodlands & Forests Coastal Douglas fir plant communities are an endangered ecosystem and should be protected and enhanced. In the forest, trees provide the canopy layer, while the shrubs, herbaceous & evergreen perennials, and mosses provide the understorey and ground cover layer. All these layers are integral parts of a healthy forest, woodland and garden. A healthy and diverse understorey consists of a significant (75% or more) percentage of the soil being covered by the foliage of shrubs, herbaceous perennials and mosses. This coverage will help to protect the soil from erosion, conserve water in the soil, protect tree roots, help to prevent and control pedestrian traffic. Summary of Forest Understorey Health Areas of the understorey are healthy and vibrant where there is good coverage of salal and mahonia. Other areas are lacking an understorey and should be restored. The most important areas to restore are: areas on the paths edges, areas on the roadway edges, areas around parking and areas around the trunks of trees (to protect the roots). Clear indications of parking edges and roadways would help protect trees next to the roads, especially if there is a healthy shrub understorey to distinguish the edge. Salal, vanilla leaf, dull Oregon grape and area all great understorey plants that create excellent ground cover and are existing in the understorey at the moment. Garden Understory Ground cover in all ornamental planting areas act as a living mulch and understorey layer to the trees and shrubs. Current garden selections of plants are suitable to this task and current uses of ground cover are working well. Shoreline Understory The shoreline at the Haven has different areas of vegetation. Currently there is a wide access to the ocean and rock outcrops from the main lawn, with some areas of trees and understorey shrub layers on the north and south shoreline area.

2.3 Cultural Landscape Assessment

A cultural landscape assessment refers to an analysis of a landscape’s aesthetic, experiential, spiritual and other human cultural values.

2.3.1 Landscape Experience The landscape is an integral aspect of guest, faculty and staff experience at The Haven. In particular, guests from other places and climates particularly value the native environment of a Gulf Island landscape, and an important part of what The Haven offers to visitors. The overall landscape is composed of constructed spaces (buildings, gardens, open lawns, paths, parking, decks etc.), combined with the spectacular natural setting of forest and shoreline, with long range views over the water to the islands and mainland beyond. The landscape offers a physical and spiritual experience of connection to nature and the elements. Within the forest, one experiences a sense of enclosure; a heightened awareness of the foreground and columns of tree trunks; and deep shade and wind protection from the canopy. In the central areas of the site, consisting of lawns, hardscape, and groundcover planting areas, one experiences a sense of openness, with long range views and exposure to sun, wind and rain. The flowers and textures of the garden landscapes offer colour, focal points, and accents, and a tended character. Sculptures, special gardens, offerings, and other elements placed by The

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Haven community can be found throughout the site, providing moments of whimsy, a way to “leave a mark” and connect to the site, and artistic expressions of the environment and The Haven’s teachings.

2.3.2 Memorials and Ashes The deep connection of The Haven community to the site has led to many memorials (such as tree plantings, sculptures, and benches) being placed and cremated remains being scattered here over the years. Only some memorials are identified by markers or signage.

3.0 SITE-WIDE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES 3.1 Vegetation Preservation and Protection

The Haven is a very busy centre, with facilities located throughout the site, and some of the desire lines for foot traffic are not marked or the paths are narrow or in poor condition. Uncontrolled foot & vehicular traffic causes soil compaction, which impacts tree and vegetation growth, and can trample naturally regenerating seedlings. The following recommendations will help to limit compaction and clarify route finding:

• Establish clear routes for footpath circulation, particularly through the forested natural areas, and where

the understorey is currently sparse and foot traffic is random. Trail routes should consider existing desire lines, future development plans, and special features to highlight or avoid disturbing. A simple stake-post and cable barrier system or log wheel stops and barriers can mark trails, parking areas and road edges. Construct a boardwalk trail segment and seating areas around or through the old-growth trees to protect them from compaction while highlighting them as site features. Alternatively, construct wood chip pathways that are raised rather than dug down below grade. Tree root damage from mowing Mulch areas that are sensitive to compaction with chippings from tree maintenance or leaves collected from the lawn areas. Create dense areas of groundcover by replanting, and reseeding existing and exposed areas of soil that are not used as circulation paths or parking. Define roadways and edges of roadways with mulch or ground cover and by using logs, stake-post and cable barrier system or low split rail fences to define edges to parking areas, and logs as wheel stops. Mulch tree root zones in areas of turf to avoid damage by string mowers. Tree root zones in areas of turf should have mulch

• • • • •

added to protect from mowing damage

3.1.1 Vegetation Preservation and Protection during Construction

Conservation of the natural forest environment is an important guiding principle for The Haven, as outlined in the Facility Masterplan. At the same time, facility renewal and development plans are likely to require the removal of some vegetation, or otherwise change localized conditions such as amounts of sun, shade, wind or run-off. Identifying significant specimens or groupings to be preserved must be considered during the planning 7

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Figure 3

Existing Trees and the Facilities Master Plan T R E E S Symbol

Botanical Name

Common Name

Abies grandis

Grand Fir

Acer palmatum

Japanese Maple

Alnus rubra

Red Alder

Arbutus menziesii

Arbutus

Cd

Cedrus deodara

Atlas Cedar

Gb

Gingko biloba

Gingko

Ms

Malus sp

Apple

Ps

Prunus sp

Cherry

Ap Ms Ps

Ps

Ps

Tf

Ap

Sa

Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas Fir

Qr

Cd

Qr

Quercus rubra

Red Oak

Sa

Sorbus aucuparia

Mountainash

Taxus brevifolia

Western Yew

Thuja plicata

Western Red Cedar

Tf Kelley Poole Garden FairHaven

Haven Lot

HavenHaus

Havenside

Trachycarpus fortunei Windmill Palm


and design of implementation phases. Figure 3 illustrates where the significant trees may be impacted during the buildout of the Facilities Master Plan. It will be useful to flag significant trees, based on this drawing, to be removed or protected as the Master Plan Buildout proceeds. Trees within building envelopes will need to be removed. Trees within excavation zones or construction zones that cannot be protected (roughly within 4 metres of construction area - with exceptions) will need to be removed. Trees that the Haven deems significant and not to be removed will require protection from soil compaction, root, canopy and trunk damage. Other trees will need to be assessed on an individual basis to determine the impact construction will have on their health and ability to thrive post construction. Tree protection should be considered and implemented prior to construction. See Appendix E.

3.1.2 Trees & Construction

The tree root zone consists of a subsurface network of roots, both structural and feeding roots which are alive and susceptible to compaction, disturbance, grade changes. Tree roots will need to be part of the discussion at each construction step, in order to retain the valuable service of the woodland and forest at the Haven. Including the trees and other vegetation in construction planning will be the key to tree health. Recommendations for protecting vegetation during development include:

• Develop designs that avoid grade change (cut or fill), compaction, or disturbance within a minimum of • •

• • • • •

the drip line or 2.5 meter radius or more for trees that are greater than 20cm diameter breast height (dbh) or more. If more than 30% of a tree’s root zone may be impacted, it should be put under a postconstruction monitoring program to note any signs of stress or hazard potential. An arborist assessment should be performed during final design phases, to: confirm if a tree identified for preservation is in good health; ascertain specific data on root and branching pattern in deciding whether a tree may withstand disturbance; and assess how the development may change the localized sun, wind or hydrology conditions and impact adjacent trees or groupings. Develop Tree Protection Plans. Identify locations for protective temporary barrier fencing around the canopy drip line for trees in construction zones. Identify areas to be used for construction circulation and materials storage in advance, to avoid disturbance in the buffer zones. Site activities that unavoidably require access within the buffer zone should be done only during periods where the soil is dry. Sheets of plywood over woodchip mulch or other methods to distribute load of over a broader area should be used, to avoid compacting the soil. The stem/trunk should also be wrapped in burlap or other material to protect from direct damage. Work around tree roots should be done in dry weather as wet soils will compact more easily. Mulch tree roots to prevent moisture loss and reduce compaction. Smaller trees and shrubs may be dug and relocated but should be assessed on an individual basis. Root pruning preparation for transplant may be required for larger trees and shrubs and this may be done up 6 months to a year in advance of the move. Transplants must be done in the dormant seasons, either fall or early spring before bud break. The Windmill Palm may be an exception as it is best to transplant in warmer weather and perhaps early June would be best. Vehicular and pedestrian circulation and materials storage should not impact tree roots during construction. Clearly defined circulation and materials storage areas should be well defined in advance. Trenching in treed areas should be done by hand, or by air spade (air pressure used to dislodge soil without damaging roots) in areas of large tree roots to determine the location of the larger structural roots. These roots should be protected and trenching should be done underneath or on top of the structural roots. An arborist should be on hand to locate roots prior to trenching. See Appendix E for more on Tree Protection Zones.

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3.2 Vegetation Enhancement 3.2.1 Tree Thinning

In many forest areas of the site, the understorey is sparse. Causes include foot traffic, the burgeoning deer population, and the density of the existing tree canopy. Enhancing the native understorey will increase the ecological and aesthetic value of the site. Allowing more sunlight into the understorey layer will assist in the increase of density in the lower layer. The density of the existing forest canopy is typical of a second growth forest, with many similar aged trees competing for light, water, and nutrients, and preventing healthy understorey growth. The individual trees form narrow crowns and slender stems, and are less resistant to wind. The natural succession process involves some trees surviving to full growth, while others die out. This process can be accelerated by removing some of the competing trees, which gives those selected for retention a better chance to thrive. It also allows more light to filter to the forest floor, fostering the understorey growth, including the next generation of tree seedlings. Recommendations:

• Undertake a program of pruning and thinning smaller trees, in a coordinated effort considering fire risk management, wind resilience and mitigation, climate change, bio-diversity, and canopy spacing.

• In selecting trees to retain, priority should be given to those in good health and form. Remove small trees in close proximity to larger specimens intended for preservation.

• Trees need not be thinned to uniform density, as a variety in distance will promote development of

structural diversity. The recommended average spacing is 12-13 metres between trunks (Vancouver Park Board, 2009); leaving some occasional clumps, or larger gaps. Select to allow for diversity in age. • In the short-term, thinning can temporarily increase susceptibility to wind damage. Trees selected for retention should be spiral pruned ( a method of thinning canopy and maintaining structural integrity ) for improved wind resistance at the same time as neighboring trees are thinned. Over-time the effect of thinning will trigger the trees to increase girth and volume of coarse structural roots, and eventually they will expand their crowns and provide mutual support, resulting in overall stronger stands (Vancouver Park Board, 2009). • Undertake the thinning program over several years, in a uniform manner throughout the site, allowing the remaining trees time to adapt. • See Section 6.2 on specific considerations for tree pruning.

3.2.2 Understorey Planting

As noted, some areas of the understorey in the forest and woodland areas of the Haven are lacking in shrubby groundcover and understorey planting. Recommendations:

• Establish a plant nursery to propagate plants in order to enhance the understorey. An area outside the

Kelley Poole garden fence has been identified as a possible location. This will require some contained raised beds filled with a soil media to place seed, root, and stem cuttings for reestablishment in the gardens. It will need to be protected from deer and extreme heat and cold. Irrigation will be required. • Alternatively, plants may be purchased from native plant producers on Vancouver Island such as Streamside Native Plants in Deep Bay, Green Thumb Wholesale Nurseries in Nanaimo (see Appendix A for Supplier Information) • A combination of nursery and purchased plants may be most economical. • When possible, purchase bare root plants, tubers and bulbs from plant nurseries at the appropriate time of year (dormant season).

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3.2.3 Lawn management • Topdress with sand and compost and reseed with drought tolerant native grass seed (Garry Oak uplands mix) in spring and/or fall. New areas of lawn should be seeded with Garry Oak Upland mix (Pick Seed) unless they are high traffic areas. A suitable grass species mix for those areas is mentioned in Section 4.3.

3.3 Windthrow and Hazard Tree Management

Wind storms are common in the winter months on Gabriola, and can be intense at The Haven, coming off the open water. Minimizing the risk to people and property from falling branches or trees is an important forest management priority. Tree risk factors include small diameter (younger trees), root disturbance or restriction, poor structure such as double leaders, and rot or insect damage. Trees newly exposed to storm winds, due to other trees falling or if trees/buildings are removed for development, are also particularly at risk. Trees that have been suppressed by competition also tend to have a top-heavy structure and a tall narrow stem, making them more susceptible. Since 2005, Limber Tree Service has been working with The Haven to remove hazard trees as needed. Don Mattson has been monitoring the trees designated as hazards in the 2005 PGE report. Some have been removed as necessary and others have been monitored for changes in their condition. Don Mattson is the primary eye on the trees for broken limbs, further deterioration of suspect trees and other key indicators, such as vegetation changes, compaction of soil, and human activities (construction) near trees. Recommendations:

• Continue the twice yearly visual assessment pattern established by Don Mattson and Limber Tree Service. • After a major wind-storm event that has caused trees to fall, or when a building is removed, or when trees • • • • •

are removed for new development, an arborist should be brought in to assess the wind risk to newly exposed trees. A rule of thumb is focus on trees within one tree length of the new edge. Maintain a staggered forest edge to clearings, as this diffuses wind more than straight edges. Trees with risk factors, or where the risk to people and property is high, should be assessed for removal or pruned for wind firming by a qualified arborist. This involves removing 30-50% of the branches in a spiral pattern, especially near the top portion of the crown. The trees will recover their foliage over time. Arborists should not use climbing spurs unless the bark on the tree is very thick as in older Douglas fir trees. Manage the forest for wind resilience over time by thinning the stand, per Section 3.2.1. Monitor trees in areas of construction for changes in their overall health.

3.4 Fire Risk Management

Wildfire is a definite concern on Gabriola Island. Indeed, the Gulf Islands’ forests historically burned every 100-300 years (Ministry of Environment, 2013). The longer, drier summers predicted due to climate change are also increasing the risks (Ministry of Environment, 2013). The risks to be mitigated include the impacts of a wide-spread wildfire to the property and structures, and the risk of a fire starting on the property and spreading through the forest and to nearby properties. Risk mitigation consists of landscape, infrastructure, building design and management strategies. This report focuses on landscape strategies. Other recommendations can be found in Appendix J of the Facilities Masterplan. Research indicates that some vegetation is more combustible than others. In addition to seasonal factors, characteristics that contribute to combustibility include fine leaves and branches, accumulated dry dead material, oil or resin content, dense branching structure, or flaking thin bark. In general, coniferous and evergreen vegetation is more combustible, and deciduous vegetation is less. In the drought of summer, however, even less combustible vegetation can allow a fire to progress. Highly combustible tree species found on site include cedar, cypress, Douglas fir, yew, arbutus, spruce, and balsam fir. Some of the higher combustibility understory/groundcover includes juniper, bamboo, boxwood, rosemary, heathers, dry T H E H AV E N L A N D S C A P E M A N AG E M E N T P L A N

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grasses, broom (Scotch and Spanish), and blackberry. See Table 1 for a Highly Flammable Species list. It is recommended to avoid planting these species. The risk with some of these species can be minimized by good maintenance (removing dead material, keeping well watered). Ground fires are usually less intense and dangerous than a crown fire. Once a fire has spread to the tree crowns it is very difficult to control. Therefore, a key aspect of risk management involves removal or reduction of “ladder fuels” that will spread a fire to tree crowns. Ladder fuels include shrubs, downed branches, and lower branches.

3.4.1 BC Firesmart Guidelines and Alternative Guidelines for The Haven

The Gabriola Island Fire Department, as well as the 2005 The Haven Landscape Management Plan, recommend adherence to the BC Forest Service’s FireSmart Guidelines. These guidelines focus on creating a “defensible space” around a structure, as well as recommending materials and construction details for the structure itself. Defensible space is recommended as a series of zones, radiating from a structure, each with vegetation management strategies: Priority 3 Zone (130-100 meters from a structure) Thin the shrubs and smaller trees, and evergreen trees. Thin crowns to 3-6 metres. Priority 2 Zone (10-30 meters from a structure) remove smaller trees, shrubs and debris. Space trees so crowns are 3-6 metres apart. Remove or reduce coniferous trees. Priority 1 Zone (10 meters from a structure) removal of all shrubs, trees, and combustible materials. Recommended groundcover is irrigated lawn. If the current BC Firesmart Guidelines are directly implemented, the property will look very different than it does today. Given the potential safety, economic, and aesthetic consequences of fire on the property, fire risk management indeed must be carefully considered. However, a blanket adoption of the BC Firesmart Guidelines will conflict with other values, such as tree preservation, water conservation, landscape experience, and environmental stewardship. The Haven Priority Zone guidelines outlined below offer an alternative balanced approach: The Haven Priority Zone 3 (30 -100 m from structures)

• Reduce fuel load, especially “ladder fuels” which spread fire to tree crowns: • Remove non-native highly combustible understorey vegetation (ie: scotch broom). The Haven Priority Zone 2 (10 -30 m from structures)

• As Zone 3, and; • Particularly before high fire risk season, remove deadfall and dead material, especially finer needles and

twigs. Chip and return this material as a moisture conserving and organic amendment mulch on the forest floor. Leave larger snags and coarse woody debris (greater than 7cm diameter) as important wildlife habitat. • Thin high combustibility trees less than 20 cm (8”) diameter at breast height (DBH). Where possible, space trees to 3-6 metres between crowns. Treat adjacent significant trees as groupings, focusing on thinning surrounding trees. • Prioritize retention of deciduous trees, and choose deciduous species for new plantings. • Remove all high-combustible understorey vegetation. The Haven Priority Zone 1 (0-10m from structures)

• As Zone 2, and remove fuel load, especially “ladder fuels” which spread fire to tree crowns: 13

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Figure 4

BC Firesmart Guidelines Versus The Haven Fire Risk Management Priority Zones


Figure 5 The Haven Fire Risk Management Priority Zones


Table 1

Highly Flammable Species

(Grants Pass, 2015)

Trees and Shrubs Common Name Fir Trees Acacia (trees, shrubs, groundcovers) Monkey Puzzle, Norfolk Island Pine Bamboo Cedar False Cypress Japanese Cryptomeria Leylandii Cypress Tecate Cypress Arizona Cypress Italian Cypress Common Buckwheat Eucalyptus Junipers Larch Japanese Honeysuckle Miscanthus Palms Spruce Trees Fern Pine Douglas Fir Rosemary Yew Arborvitae Hemlock Burning Nettle

Botanical Name Abies Acacia species Araucaria species Bambusa species Cedrus species Chamaecyparis species Cryptomeria japonica Cupressocyparis leylandii Cupressus forbesii** Cupressus glabra Cupressus sempervirens Eriogonum fasciculatum Eucalyptus species Juniperus species Larix species Lonicera japonica Miscanthus species Palmae species Picea species Pinus species Pseudotsuga menziesii Rosmarinus species Taxus species Thuja species Tsuga species Urtica urens

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Table 2

Fire Resistant Species

Deciduous Trees Vine Maple Acer circinatum Paperbark maple Acer griseum Big Leaf Maple Acer macrophyllum Flowering dogwoods Cornus florida, C. nuttallii Witchhazel Hamamelis virginiana Saucer magnolia, Star magnolia Magnolia soulangeana, M. stellata Pacific crabapple Malus fusca Parrotia (Persian Ironwood) Parrotia persica Swedish aspen Populus tremula Erecta Flowering Plum Tree Prunus pissardi nigra Garry Oak Quercus garryana Oak Quercus rubra Cascara Rhamnus purshiana Black Locust Robinia pseucoacacia 'Frisia" Rowan tree/Mountain Ash Sorbus aucuparia Deciduous Shrubs Saskatoonberry, Serviceberry Amelanchier sp. Blue mist spirea Caryopteris x clandonensis Japanese quince Chaenomeles japonica Mexican mock orange Choisya ternata Red osier dogwood Cornus sericea Corkscrew Hazel - Harry Lauder's Walking Stick Coryllus avellana 'Contorta' Hazelnut tree Corylus avellana Smoke Bush Cotinus coggygria Forsythia Forsythia x intermedia Witchhazel Hamamelis virginiana Oceanspray Holodiscus discolor Indian Plum Oemlaria ceraciformis Mockorange Philadelphus lewisii Ninebark Physocarpus Flowering currant Ribes sanquineum Rose Rosa sp Evergreen shrubs Kinnickinnick Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Mexican mock orange Choisya ternata Escallonia Escallonia sp Fatsia Fatsia japonica Lavender Lavendula angustifolia Box honeysuckle Lonicera nitida Holly Mahonia Oregon Grape vine Mahonia aquifolium Sweet Olive Osmanthus burkwoodii Mugo pine Pinus mugo Portugese Laurel Prunus lusitanica Rhododendron Rhododendron sp. Rosemary Rosmarius prostrata Sunshine 17 T H E H A V E N L A N D S C A P E M A NSenecio A G E Mgreyii ENT PLAN Skimmia Skimmia japonica Yucca Yucca filamentosa


Lavender Box honeysuckle Holly Mahonia Oregon Grape vine Sweet Olive Mugo pine Portugese Laurel Rhododendron Rosemary Sunshine Skimmia Yucca Rostrata Yucca Herbaceous Perennials Yarrow Ornamental onion Columbine Sea thrift Heartleaf bergenia Camas Montbretia Coneflower Fireweed Wall flower California poppy Spurge Donkey spurge King Hardy geranium Sun rose (Stinking or Bearsfoot) Hellebore Daylily Coralbells, alumroot Iris Daisy Lily Lupine Herbaceous perennials bulbs Assorted perennials spring bulbs Poppies Penstemon Coltsfoot Sword ferns Sage Lavendar cotton Sedum Sedum Hens & Chicks Thyme Creeping Thyme Ornamental Grass Carex

Lavendula angustifolia Lonicera nitida Mahonia aquifolium Osmanthus burkwoodii Pinus mugo Prunus lusitanica Rhododendron sp. Rosmarius prostrata Senecio greyii Skimmia japonica Yucca filamentosa Yucca rostrata Achillia sp Allium sp Aquilegia Armeria maritima Bergenia sp. Camassia sp Crocosmia sp. Echinacea Epilobium angustifolium Erysimum 'Bowles Mauve' Eschscholzia californica Euphorbia characias ssp. wulfenii Euphorbia myrsinites Frittilaria imperialis Geranium sp Helianthemum nummularium Helleborus foetidus Hemerocallis sp Heuchera sp Iris germanica Leucanthemum sp. Lillium sp Lupinus sp Narcissus Narcissus sp Papaver oriental Penstemon sp. Petasites palmatus Polystichum munitum Salvia officinalis Santolina chamaecyparissus Sedum album Sedum spathulifolium Sempervivum tectorum Thymus repens Thymus sp Carex sp

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• Existing trees: Remove high combustibility trees less than 20 cm (8”) diameter at breast height (DBH). Aim to space trees to 3-6 metres between crowns.

• Existing trees: Prune all branches overhanging buildings and decks • Raise the canopy of all trees to three times the height of the understorey (minimum 2-3 metres), OR remove the understorey vegetation. Do not prune the crowns.

• Remove any leaves in the fall that are close to the building. • Newly planted trees: As the tree grows, prune lower limbs to a height of 3 metres or 10’ to prevent

laddering. Do not prune the crowns. Relocate firewood, propane tanks, and other stored combustible materials. Keep all grass adjacent to buildings mown to a maximum height of 20 cm or 8”. Cut the foliage of Ornamental Grasses to a height of 30 cm or 12” in late fall to remove potential fuel. Perennials: Deadhead as soon as they have finished flowering. Cut down in the fall ( or when the stems become overly dry) to a height of 20 cm or 8”. • Shrubs: Prune dead stems from shrubs annually. Remove the lower branches and suckers to raise the canopy away from possible surface fires. • Trees: Remove any leaves in the fall that are close to the building. As the tree grows, prune lower limbs to a height of 3 metres or 10’ to prevent laddering. Do not prune the crowns.

• • • •

Additionally, clear all branches that could fall on the high-voltage power lines within The Haven property. Monitor vegetation encroaching on high-voltage power lines along Davis Road, and request tree trimming by BC Hydro if necessary.

Monitor the Gabriola Fire Department current Hazard Rating, and ensure any use of power equipment or burning is in compliance. This would include power equipment used for mowing, wood chipping, or tree/limb cutting.

3.5 Invasive Plant and Weed Management

Invasive plants are non-native species that are undesired, spread rapidly, and/or negatively impact the native ecosystem, managed landscapes, or animal health. The Haven site contains fewer invasive plant species than many other properties on Gabriola, due to active management to remove and control them. Invasive plants that have been observed at The Haven include Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius), Himalayan blackberry (Rubus discolor), dead nettle (Lamium galeobdolon), daphne (Daphne laureola), English ivy (Hedera helix), Periwinkle (Vinca minor, V. major). Other invasive plants that are reported on nearby Gabriola sites include broad-leaved plantain, bull thistle, curled dock, Canada thistle, Japanese knotweed, pineapple weed, sow thistle, and yellow flag iris. The Landscape Manager should be aware of what all of these species look like and monitor for any that may attempt to establish. Best practices for invasive species removal vary by species, size, and time of year. Regionally, the Coastal Invasive Plant Committee has the latest news on invasive plants and management strategies, www.coastalisc.com. Locally, the Gabriola Land and Trails Trust (GaLTT) has an excellent website on local invasives and the latest in guidelines for removal, at http://galtt.ca/invasives.html. Refer to these resources for detailed guidelines. General recommendations:

• Remove any invasives before they have the opportunity to mature and set seed. This normally means

during or before the plant sets flower. If they are small enough, simply pulling them with their roots intact is appropriate. If the plants are much larger, using extractigators or pruning the main stem below the soil surface may be necessary. Blackberry and broom have buds below the surface that require light to be activated. Blackberry are known to have a ‘node’ below the soil surface (an enlarged portion of the stem

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Local Invasive Plant Species

Scotch broom

Himalayan blackberry

Lamium galeobdolon

Daphne laureola

Cirsium vulgare

Cirsium arvense

Rumex crispus

Matricaria discoidea

Fallopia japonica

Sonchus spp

Tanacetum vulgare

Senecio jacobeae

Cytisus scoparius

Daphne

Curled dock

Sow thistle

Rubus discolor

Bull thistle

Pineapple weed

Common tansy

Dead nettle

Canada thistle

Japanese knotweed

Tansy ragwort

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• • • • • • •

which stores food and has dormant buds). The removal of these nodes is effective in eradicating the plant without disturbing the soil and exposing more weed seeds to the surface. The non-native blackberry (Himalayan, Rubus discolor; evergreen, R. laciniatus) patches along the waterfront do offer some habitat value and contribute to shoreline protection as soil stablizers. Removing them would require a larger shoreline development, protection, or restoration effort. However, the patch should be controlled from spreading. Many of these species are toxic. Protective clothing should be worn when handling them, and they should not be burned. Areas of English Ivy (invasive plant) that exist on the property should be pruned regularly to control size, flowering and seeding. Eventually they should be removed altogether. Their lifecycle is to climb trees and structures in a vegetative form prior to entering a reproductive cycle of flowering and fruiting. Birds then ingest and disperse fruit to all areas of the island. Disposal methods also vary by species. In general composting is not recommended. Minimize soil disturbance when removing plants. Mulch or replant with native species. Ensure soil or mulch brought into the site is hot composted and weed free. An Integrated Pest Management philosophy should be applied to weed management. Identify, monitor and decide on a course of action such as: mulching, pulling, soil cultivating, and heat controls. Herbicides should be used only as a last resort, spot applied, and with permission from The Haven management. Some nontoxic weed controls are fatty acid herbicide (Safer’s Topgun, or Superfast Patio Killer) which can be applied in spring or summer to actively growing weeds (less than 15 cm tall), an acetic acid herbicide (vinegar acid, such as Ecoclear or Presidents Choice Weed Controller). (Gilkeson, 2011)

3.6 Integrated Pest Management and Plant Health Care

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a comprehensive and ecologically based approach to managing plant pests and diseases. Methods can be biological, cultural, physical, or chemical. Synthetic pesticides are used only as a last resort and when all preferred methods fail. IPM includes a multi-tiered approach to pest management that includes recognizing the life cycle of the pest and its interaction with the environment. Efforts to prevent pest and disease are economical and strategic. If there is an outbreak of a serious pest, management methods should be chosen based on which is the least disruptive, least hazardous to humans, least harmful to non-target organisms, and most effective for the target pest. Controls may be cultural, such as horticultural practices or altering the environment to benefit the plant or harm the target organism. Biological controls incorporate the use of living organisms to suppress pest populations, and can include predators, pathogens, or beneficial fungi. Physical controls include manual techniques such as removing effected branches, barriers, heat, repellents, or traps. Chemical control should only be used as a last resort, and only with permission from The Haven’s management staff. Follow-up on any treatment is necessary to monitor the progress of the pest and treatment. Recommendations:

• Plant the right plant for the site condition offering the best chance to thrive. • Appropriate horticultural care will also maintain a healthy plant. Healthy plants resist or recover from pests and diseases better, whereas plants that are stressed are susceptible to problems.

• Monitoring and identification is the next tier of defense, and will bring issues to the landscape manager’s

attention before they are a true problem. Defensive action need only occur if there is an infestation, and one that is likely to cause damage or safety concern.

There is only one serious plant health issue known on site at this time. An area in the south-western portion of the property has had issues with laminated root rot (Phellinus weirri), It was originally diagnosed by Brian Fisher, retired arborist, and diagnosed and documented in the PGE report. This is a very serious wood decay fungus that gradually kills the plant’s root system, often resulting in tree blow down. Douglas-fir and grand fir are the primary hosts. The fungus spreads primarily by root-to-root contact, hence an infection often occurs 21

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in radial patches. It can live for decades in larger stumps and dead material left in the soil. Symptoms of an infected tree include crown yellowing, and thinning, a distress crop of cones, reduced growth, and eventually, blow-down. While the snags, hollow trunks, and decaying organic material can have wildlife value, the danger to humans and buildings from blow-down means it is best to continue to actively manage this area. Disease management involves removal of the infected trees, roots, and stumps, as well as a buffer of apparently healthy trees. Many of the infected trees were removed soon after the 2005 assessment. Recently samples were incubated to determine fungal activity and presented negative results. Recommendations:

• Continual reassessment to monitor the situation will keep the issue under control. • Susceptible species should not be allowed to re-grow in this area. Instead, favour cedar (Thuja sp.), pines (Pinus. sp.) or deciduous trees.

This area is also the proposed site of the future “Hotel Haven” accommodation building. While the mycellium of this fungus does not grow in the soil (Callan, 2008), it may be present in large roots and stumps left behind after tree removal. Recommendation:

• Fill from excavation should be carefully handled, avoiding contact with site soils. Ideally, the fill could be

placed in areas that will not host susceptible species (potentially the waterfront terraces, depending on phasing). Alternatively, the soil can be raked or screened to ensure roots have been removed. Otherwise responsible off-site disposal may be necessary.

The other, less serious, disease found on site is on the evergreen huckleberry (Vaccinium spp.). Witches’ Broom Rust- Pucciniastrum goeppertianum- is a rust fungus that alternates between Vaccinium spp. (huckleberry, blueberry, and cranberry) and true firs (Abies). Found on the tips of branches on Vaccinnium ovatum and appear as a raised rust coloured swelling of the branches themselves. The cultural control is to cut off affected areas. It is not a serious disease but should be managed to prevent spread.

3.7 Irrigation 3.7.1 Establishment Irrigation

Witches’ Broom Rust on the evergreen huckleberry

Protect the investment of plants installed in new landscapes or as natural area enhancement by providing establishment maintenance for the first year. Newly installed landscapes should have a more regular irrigation regimen for the first one or two summer dry seasons, to allow plants to develop deep and broad root systems that can support them through drought. Neglecting establishment irrigation can result in plant loss, and corresponding loss of investment, as well as unattractive landscapes. Recommendations:

• Plant in the fall, preferably September. This will allow the winter rains to help establish healthy root systems through the fall and spring with natural rainfall.

• Use hand-watering for new infill plantings of shrubs and groundcovers that are showing signs of stress, and temporary reservoir/bag irrigation systems around newly planted individual trees.

• For establishing larger new planting beds and gardens during build-out of the Facilities Masterplan,

consider installing a reusable temporary drip-line irrigation system as the most water and time efficient approach. They can be connected to a temporary free-standing cistern to minimize the amount of water T H E H AV E N L A N D S C A P E M A N AG E M E N T P L A N

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loss due to leaks. Timers and/or moisture sensors will increase efficiency of water use. The system can be removed after a one-two year establishment period, and reused elsewhere. • Establishment irrigation schedules for drought periods should be as follows: Trees, shrubs and groundcovers – 24 litres/square meter (5 gal/10 sq ft) every 10 days if no rain event occurs during times of low rainfall, or drought for up to one-two year(s) of establishment period (trees particularly). • Incorporate beneficial biological supplements when planting in newly installed soils. Mycorrhizal fungi occur naturally in native soils, and form an important relationship with plant roots, aiding in root development, water and nutrient uptake, and therefore vigor and growth. Newly installed soils often have very minimal beneficial biologicals. Commercial products are available and are applied to plant roots at time of planting (products available locally at ‘The Bug Factory’ in Nanoose and Terralink Horticulture in Abbottsford (see Appendix A for Supplier Information). • Cover newly planted soil areas with a minimum 75 mm ( 3” ) thick organic mulch, shredded composted leaf mulch, wood chips (preferably Douglas-fir or hemlock) and be careful not to smother small plants (herbaceous perennials) with mulch by keeping mulch 50 mm (2”) away from the plant. For shrubs and trees, keep mulch 100 mm (4”) away from the trunks, and main stems of the plant to prevent moisture against the branches stems and trunks.

3.7.2 Maintenance Irrigation

As The Haven is a centre welcoming guests from all over the world, it is important the landscapes look healthy and vibrant, and create a professional, comfortable, attractive setting. Summer droughts can be stressful for plants; many look better and are more healthy with judicious supplemental water. At the same time, water supply is a critical infrastructure issue at The Haven. All guests are educated about the need to conserve water, so any use is high-profile. Irrigation use must balance these concerns. Longer, drier, and hotter summers are a predicted trend due to climate change. Some native species found on site, such as cedars, that are marginally drought tolerant, may even eventually die out from the region. (Swift and Ran, 2014). For the most part, the native and non-native species found on site are relatively drought tolerant. However, some ornamental plants do currently receive some summer irrigation such as container plants, newly planted annuals and perennials, shrubs and trees. Irrigation water comes from winter season water that is collected, stored in cisterns, and treated before use, and is therefore a very valuable resource. The site is getting drier at the same time as water resources are becoming more scarce and expensive. Therefore, The Haven is increasingly moving towards a landscape that is extremely drought tolerant and minimizes the use of supplemental irrigation. Recommendations:

• Provide irrigation during dry periods for the first two years of establishment. Given The Haven’s water • • • •

supply concerns, temporary low-tech systems could be installed for trees and shrubs, such as individual slow release bag reservoirs that can be used in drought. Grass and herbaceous perennials may require temporary lines that may be fed by small garden reservoirs. Potted plants may be hooked up to a drip irrigation line for summer drought. Spot watering with a water can is a good strategy for water conservation though time consuming. Existing plants that regularly require irrigation should be replaced over time, unless there is a significant reason why they should be supported (for example, a memorial tree, or the food garden). Don Mattson has and continues to monitor and replace plants with those that are water wise. Only plant new species that are very drought tolerant. See Section 4 for recommended palettes. Implement a regimen of minimal irrigation strategies (such as spot watering for established areas) only in periods of extended drought, and only in the Ornamental Garden zone and for establishment periods throughout the site. Measure and log water application depth (mm) and evenness at least once per growing season. Ensure that water does not pond or run-off intended areas. For extended drought

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• • •

• •

watering, apply 24 litres/square meter (5 gal/10 sq ft) every 10 days during times of low rainfall or drought, for up to 2 years of establishment period (trees particularly). Schedule spot watering and irrigation applications during the early morning. Maintain the current practice of not irrigating the lawns, allowing them to go dormant in the summer. Maintain and enhance the organic matter in the soil, which helps retain moisture. Work towards a depth of 150mm (groundcovers) - 450mm (shrubs) depth of high quality top soil (see BC Landscape Standard) for new plantings (natives require less). Supplement existing beds with an application of compost or mulch. It is most economical to bring in truckloads of mulch and soil and store it on site for use during the season. If possible, recycle compost on site but ensure it is weed free (hot compost) and screened for large debris, especially if used in the Ornamental zone. Apply organic mulch to garden areas to help retain soil moisture. An initial application of 75mm, and yearly application of 5mm. Develop a relationship with the BC Hydro pruning crews to procure wood chips from recent pruning on the island. They regularly look for areas to offload full trucks close to their work area. Fresh wood chips are fine to add to areas in the forest or woodland zone but should be composted for at least one year in the Ornamental zone. Use low-tech irrigation bags (such as TreeGators, see Appendix for Supplier Information) for individual trees and shrubs that may be under water stress and outside the Ornamental Garden Zone irrigation system. Bags are essentially reservoirs of water that slowly drip water onto specific tree and shrub root zones and are very effective for early establishment plants (plants new to their location) or to revive plants that are Spot irrigation bags experiencing water stress.

3.7.3 Reclaimed Water

There is a possibility that due to the increasing guest capacity outlined by the Facilities Masterplan, at some point the septic system flow will surpass 5000 imperial gallons / day, and regulatory oversite of The Haven’s septic system will shift to the Ministry of Environment and their Municipal Wastewater Regulations. One advantage to this regulatory system is it allows for treated wastewater reuse (termed “reclaimed water”). Reclaimed water use is not allowed under the current regulatory authority guidelines (the Ministry of Health’s Sewage System Regulation, administered locally by Island Health). Reclaimed water is usually used for non-potable uses, typically toilet flushing or irrigation. The water would need to be treated to a high level of disinfection and filtration, and special piping and other infrastructure would be required., which can be costly Further study of need, and the current regulatory environment, would be required to determine if irrigation or interior non-potable use (toilets) would be the more useful reuse if it becomes allowable under the applicable regulations. Given the more year-round need of toilet flushing, and the current mandate of converting to a very drought tolerant landscape, using reclaimed water for irrigation may not be preferred, even if it does become possible. Nonetheless, the possibility of reclaimed water becoming a resource for irrigation should be considered during any build-out project of the Facilities Masterplan (such as integrating stub-outs or sleeving for potential future piping). Recommendations:

• Investigate the possibility of using reclaimed water if the septic system flow surpasses 5000 imperial gallons/day and the Ministry of Environment’s regulations come into play.

• Monitor the current Ministry of Health / Island Health’s stance on the reuse of reclaimed water.

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3.8 Wildlife and Habitat

As an organization with a commitment to responsible stewardship of the environment, The Haven recognizes the site is also a home to Gabriola’s wildlife, as well as a place for people. At times, the needs of each can conflict. For example, a tree may be in decline and a source of food for insects and therefore birds, but also at risk of blow down. Dense shrub cover offers habitat, but can contribute to fire ladders into the tree canopy or can block valuable views to the water. Otters may find areas under decks as a dry place to den, but can cause odor issues. Safety for people and guest comfort must be priorities in populated areas of the site, but the balance could shift towards habitat values in other areas. Species that utilize The Haven site include mammals (deer, raccoon, otter, rodents, minks, bats), birds (songbirds, woodpeckers, owls, eagles, kingfishers and other shore birds, etc.), amphibians and reptiles (snakes, lizards, frogs, salamanders, etc), invertebrates (insects, snails, spiders, worms, etc), as well as an abundance of bacteria and fungi. While technically not part of The Haven’s property, the marine and shoreline environment hosts species such as fish, crabs, shrimp, anemones, sea stars and their habitat of seaweeds and seagrasses. Management of The Haven’s shoreline edge can have an impact on that important habitat ecotone.

• Allowing decaying trees to remain in the forest and woody debris, as well as enhancing the shrubby • • • •

understorey areas, limiting pedestrian access to forests, beaches and meadows will allow species to utilize vegetation for habitat. Canada Geese may become a problem in lawn areas. Best practices around control of geese are; to let grass grow longer than 10 cm or 4 inches.; limit manicured lawn areas to areas of activity and do not irrigate lawns in times of dormancy (summer) Some frogs and salamanders on Gabriola are Blue Listed (http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/atrisk/toolintro.html) and so areas of refuge for them is helpful in retaining a healthy population. Encourage The Haven’s visitors to leave their pets at home. All dogs should be on leash at all times. This will avoid conflicts with wildlife, staff and guests. All plants will be of interest to deer on the property. Knowing their habits and routes will assist the gardener in applying protection in strategic areas until plants are established. Most deer proof plant list recommendations are unreliable. Products such as ‘Plantskydd’ and ‘Bobbex’ are useful for spot applications to deter deer especially in new plantings.

3.8.1 Trees as Habitat All trees provide some habitat value at all stages in their lifecycle.Veteran trees and trees in decline offer the greatest wildlife value. Wildlife trees are defined as those having noticeable characteristics that provide valuable habitat, such as signs of woodpecker use, cavities, hollow trunks or “chimneys”, nest sites, or snags. Observed wildlife trees were mapped and management recommendations made as part of the PGE effort. Recommendations:

• Maintain current monitoring schedule by the current gardener (Don Mattson) and Limber Tree Service of twice yearly walkabout and visual assessment. Note significant wildlife trees and locations in a journal and update plans and drawings as needed. • Leaving stumps and snags during tree thinning or danger tree management/removal is important in retaining wildlife habitat. Allowing standing dead trees that are not a hazard to property or people provides habitat for birds, insects and other organisms. • Perform tree management activities outside of breeding seasons (primarily February-July for birds).

3.8.2 Understorey Habitat

The shrub and groundcover layers offer the richest habitat for birds, particularly along the forest edges. Understorey diversity and density has been greatly impacted on Gabriola due to the burgeoning deer population. The dense second growth tree canopy, and soil compaction and plant damage from foot and 25

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vehicle traffic, has further created some areas of sparse understorey on The Haven site. Recommendations for improving the understorey habitat can be found in Section 3.2 Vegetation Enhancement. Further recommendation:

• Perform invasive species management, such as blackberry removal, outside of breeding seasons (primarily February-July for birds).

3.9 Woody Debris Management and Mulching

All trees lose branches, especially Douglas-fir which is prevalent on the site. Particularly after a wind storm event, branches can be found all over the gardens, paths, and roadways. Currently, the gardener or maintenance staff, in order to maintain a neat appearance and to reduce fire risk, collects and stores them in the burn pile area until burned. Scrap lumber and other burnable material gets added to this pile, which is unattractive and in public view. In an unmanaged forest environment, fallen branches would decompose where they fall, contributing to the duff layer, hosting fungi, mosses and lichen, providing habitat, retaining moisture and eventually returning nutrients to the soil. An alternative approach to the current debris management practice is to chip smaller material, and return it to the forest floor as a moisture conserving and soil building mulch. Composted mulch should also be added to garden beds. Recommendations:

• Purchase a high quality, sturdy chipper. Chip smaller debris and blow chips back into woods as mulch, or • • • •

• • • • •

stockpile and at least partially compost before applying to gardens. First priority may be the forest edges and higher traffic areas. Leave larger diameter (greater than 7cm diameter) branches and coarse woody debris in place as it is an important wildlife value and is less of a fire risk. Depending on the desired appearance and function of the area where they fall, they can move to other areas of the site. Remove debris from The Haven Fire Priority Zone 1 (see Section 3.4.1). Dispersing and laying branches to ground level maintains moisture, minimizing fire risk and speeding decomposition. Placement of chipped forest mulch should be less than 100mm thick, and avoid smothering understorey plants and seedlings. Larger, cut logs can be removed as firewood, or more interesting pieces can be made available to local wood craft people. Apply 50mm of mulch annually or as needed to maintain a 50mm thick layer at all times in the in all zones with bare soil, for a neat appearance, weed suppression, soil moisture conservation, and soil amendment. Mulch is not required where plant foliage completely covers the soil surface. Mulch for the ornamental garden areas should be uniform in color and appearance, and free of sticks. Non-composted (ie: freshly chipped) or bark mulch is less preferable for ornamental garden areas, as it may inhibit some plant’s growth, seal the soil surface preventing water entry and rob the soil of nutrients. Source material from BC Hydro tree chippings, local sources of waste, and local arborists looking for ease of disposal. BC Hydro sub-contracts with different contractors each year, and requests for the chippings will need to be regularly repeated. Identify an area that is out of public view for storing mulch for at least one year prior to application on Ornamental Gardens (potentially the Kelley Poole Garden property). Chipping could be done in-situ or in a defined area. Consider alterative locations, out of view of guests, for a burn pile for other debris, or even better, remove it from the site. Avoid applying mulch directly against the stems or trunks of a plant, as this will encourage rot. Do not create mulch from diseased or invasive plant material.

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3.10 Composting and Fertilizing

The gardener is currently responsible for composting vegetable waste from the kitchen, as well as fallen leaves and other non-woody garden debris. The compost is used to amend soil in the gardens. Proper compost management guidelines must be followed, including avoiding meat and cooked food, layering with carbon matter, maintaining optimal moisture content, and regular turning. Compost turning has traditionally been one of the tasks for Phase 1 program work days, however, this must also be done regularly by staff to make it successful. Do not compost invasive species materials, unless done carefully according to best practices, and in its own pile, to avoid contaminating the main pile. Materials that can be added to the compost piles to produce greater amounts include leaves, weeds, straw, grass clippings, seaweed, wood chips, manures, sawdust, wood ash, and bark chips. The three-bin system works well to continually have a ready supply of compost.

• Finished compost can be used to topdress the planting beds, and the recommended fertilizer for the site. • Soil tests (if not already completed) will illustrate soil nutrient value. Fertigation can be calibrated to this information. • Traditionally Sea Soil (a commercially available soil mix) and seaweed has been applied to the beds in place of chemical fertilizer. Concerns of over harvesting beach debris (the ‘wrack line’ which is important habitat) have prompted the use of Complete Organic Fertilizers (COF), which includes sustainably harvested kelp meal (see Appendix D for recipe). As prices continue to rise for good organic soil (such as Sea Soil) alternatives such as locally sourced manures mixed with woodchips are a viable option to explore. • Prepare COF by purchasing ingredients from the livestock feed stores (such as The Raven Pet Feed) and mixing onsite (see Appendix D for recipe). • Avoid the use of chemical fertilizers as they will negatively affect live culture in the soil.

3.11 Soil Compaction

Healthy soil is a critical contributor to plant health. Soil is a mixture of mineral particles, organic matter, micro organisms, water, and air. In additional to mulching, composting, adding topsoil and biological supplements, and fertilizing strategies as already discussed, avoiding soil compaction is an important factor in maintaining air and moisture content. Recommendations:

• The Haven could consider more clearly defining trails and parking

areas on the site, particularly in the forest zones where the understorey is sparse and these elements are less defined. In particular, a more defined trail system, and even a raised boardwalk segment, should be considered for near the larger, old-growth trees in The Haven Lot. Interpretive signage could make the trails more of a site feature. • To make traffic areas more distinct, consider using a mulch or gravel, edging with shells, or even roping off using an attractive wood bollard with rope or cable system or split rail fences. Lighting could be integrated into the bollards.

Delineated trails and boardwalks protect tree roots

3.12 Memorials and Human Ashes

There are a number of memorial features throughout the site, including trees, benches, artworks, or arbours. Many members of The Haven community that have died have also had their ashes scattered on the site or the seashore. Some of these sites are marked on the site, and some are not. With the development plans called 27

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for in the Facilities Masterplan, some of these elements may be disturbed or require relocation. This should be addressed on a case-by-case basis in a sensitive manner by The Haven management staff. Recommendations:

• New memorials are recommended as anonymously planted trees as part of a replanting strategy on the

Haven Grounds. Locations should consider the development plans of the Facility Masterplan, and family members/loved ones should be aware that disturbance and potentially removal of the tree may happen. • Memorial elements, whether a plant or built feature, should also be chosen and approved in consideration of future maintenance or other needs and values. For example, memorial tree species would ideally be native and otherwise suited to the aesthetic and water supply considerations of the Facilities Masterplan. • Consider anonymous cairns as temporary memorials. • Locate areas of landscape where anonymous Memorial Tree Groves may be planted, such as decommissioned septic fields or woodland edges.

3.13 Paved Areas and Trails

Roads, paths, trails, paved patios and terraces are also elements of the landscape that require maintenance for safety and appearance reasons.

• All trash, cigarette butts, mulch and landscape debris should be removed from these areas. • Patios and other paved gathering areas should be swept regularly. Avoid leaf blowers due to noise and power use, and perform power washing only when cisterns are full.

• Remove weeds from pavement. • As discussed in section 3.11 soil compaction, consider strategies for making trails more defined. • Ensure new paved areas are constructed to professional standards, with appropriate excavation, soil

compaction, aggregate bases, setting beds, and appropriate depth and type of paving materials. Many of the existing paved areas on site have been poorly constructed, with cracks and differential settlement causing dangerous trip hazards and obstacles for wheels and wheelchairs. Maintenance staff should monitor all paved areas for hazards and ensure they are repaired in a timely manner. • If permeable hard paving, such as porous concrete or permeable pavers, is used, regular maintenance will be required, per manufacturers instructions, to avoid becoming clogged with fine debris.

3.14 Other Landscape Elements Maintenance

Other elements throughout the site landscapes will also require maintenance, including signage, lighting, arbors, furnishings, decks, and artwork. Any future maintenance contracts will need to consider and clarify how these elements are to be maintained and who is responsible.

3.14.1 Lighting

A consistent lighting design should be developed for ease of maintenance and visual consistency. Considerations include low-energy usage, dark-sky compliance, and targeting for pedestrian use.

3.14.2 Signage

Currently, signage takes many forms at the Haven. In this regard, less signage is preferable with uniform (not entirely but some similar elements) understated form. The Kelley Poole garden sign and the Welcome sign at the Haven are cheerful, neat, and relatively simple. Recommendations:

• Create a uniform signage strategy with simple construction to enable on site creation and maintenance.

• Signage should not be attached to living trees.

Avoid attaching signage to living trees

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4.0 LANDSCAPE ZONES Different areas of the site require varying levels of maintenance. Areas in prime public gathering require a higher level of maintenance. Natural areas in the corners of the site require much less. This section describes the general zones of the site and the level of maintenance expected for each. The locations of these zones will change over time during build-out of the Facilities Masterplan. A zone overlay of the existing site can be found in Figure 6.

4.1 Woodland Gardens

4.1.1 Zone Description and Maintenance Level

These are areas of the site that are in high-profile areas and need a more refined level of planting and maintenance, while being under the forest canopy, and with a natural woodland garden character. They include the entry drive and gateway gardens, and gardens surrounding buildings or frequented pathways. As they are often adjacent to buildings, and there is a strong overlap with the concept of the Priority Zone 1 for fire risk management see Section 3.4. These areas should be primarily landscaped with native understoreyspecies, in an informal but lush manner. The landscape maintenance level should correspond to the BC Landscape Standard Level 2 (Groomed). This classification has specific standards that can be used to develop maintenance contracts. The objective of this level is to present a neat, orderly, groomed appearance, although one step below Level 1’s “near-perfect” standard, which is unnecessary for The Haven’s Woodland garden character natural setting and character. The appearance standard of Level 2 includes keeping plants healthy and vigorous, with few weeds and no invasive or noxious weeks, and little accumulated debris. Seasonal plantings are kept lush and “showy” during their seasonal bloom. When neighboring forest zone areas, or in less frequently used areas of the site, the planting density and level of maintenance can transition less intensive standards beyond 5m of a building, pathway, or gathering area.

4.1.2 Existing Species Woodland Gardens

While this is likely an incomplete list, these are the dominant native species found in the forest areas of the site. Trees Coastal Douglas Fir Grand fir Western red cedar Western hemlock Western yew Arbutus or Madrona Alder

Pseudotsuga menziesii ssp menziesii Abies grandis Thuja plicata Tsuga heterophylla Taxus brevifolia Arbutus menziesii Alnus rubra

Understorey Shrubs Evergreen Huckleberry Tall Oregon grape

Vaccinium ovatum Mahonia aquifolium

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Figure 6

Landscape Zones of Existing Site


Figure 7

Ornamental Gardens Map


Dull Oregon Grape Salal Kinickinnik Red huckleberry Salmonberry Thimbleberry Baldhip rose Nutka rose Indian plum Snowberry Trailing snowberry Sword fern Understorey Groundcovers Vanilla Leaf Wayfinding plant Alum root Twinflower (shrub) Coltsfoot (moist)

Achys triphylla Adenocaulon bicolor Heuchera micrantha Linnaea borealis Petasites palmatus

Orchids & Oddballs Indian Pipe Coral root Rattlesnake plantain

Monotropha uniflora Corallorhiza maculata ssp. merteniana Goodyera oblongifolia

Mahonia nervosa Gaultheria shallon Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Vaccinium parvifolium Rubus spectabilis Rubus parviflora Rosa gymnocarpa Rosa nutkana Oemleria ceraciformis Symphoricarpos albus Symphoricarpos mollis Polystichum munitum

4.1.3 Recommended Species for Woodland and Forest Gardens

The general principle for this zone is to move towards a more uniform palette of native, drought tolerant species. Species should also have a low flammability rating due to the proximity to buildings. To minimize fuel ladders carrying fire into the crowns, when under a tree canopy, shrubs should be chosen as low growing. Alternatively, the tree canopy should be raised to three times the height of the understory. Smaller trees should be thinned, especially high flammabilty species such as cedar. This will also allow more light and air into the buildings, and support more vigorous understorey growth. If choosing to plant new trees, or allowing new volunteer trees to grow, prioritize deciduous trees, again for light and flammability reasons. Due to the proximity to populated areas, species should also be non-poisonous if ingested or handled. Recommended species, in addition to the native species already growing in these areas, as noted in 4.1.2: Trees - Understorey Forest Edge Flowering dogwood Cornus nuttallii Vine maple Acer circinatum Garry oak Big leaf maple

Quercus garryana Acer macrophyllum

Other species can be chosen from Table 2 - Fire Resistant Species.

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4.1.4 Special Management Considerations

Trees adjacent to the new septic woodland dispersal system should be visually monitored on a yearly basis for changes to the foliage and canopy due to changes in hydrology and possible root damage

4.2 Ornamental Gardens

4.2.1 Zone Description and Maintenance Level

These are areas in the center of the site that include areas of higher activity, adjacent to buildings and lawn areas, that are used for outdoor classrooms, play, and frequently travelled through. Plants in this zone have a higher level of maintenance and are designated for special view gardens and colour display (Level 2 - groomed, BC Landscape standards). These areas also include building entrances and surrounds and potted plants. Fire risk is also a consideration in this area (see section 3.4).

Ornamental Garden Zone character

4.2.2 Ornamental Gardens List of Existing Plants and their Locations (See Figure 7) While this is likely an incomplete list, these are the dominant species found in the ornamental garden areas of the site. 1 - South Lodge Whale Window Wisteria Vine

Wisteria sinensis

Boxwood

Buxus sempervirens

Lilac (can be removed)

Syringa vulgaris

Ivy

Hedera helix

Heather

Erica carnea

(Stinking or Bearsfoot) Hellebore

Helleborus foetidus

King

Frittilaria imperialis

Sedum

Sedum album

Blue oat grass

Helictotricon semperviron

CreepingThyme

Thymus sp.

Hosta

Hosta sp.

Daisy

Leucanthemum sp.

Sword ferns

Polystichum munitum

Variegated Holly

Ilex

Herbaceous perennials

various

Dwarf Alberta Spruce

Picea glauca albertiana ‘Conica’

Yucca

Yucca filamentosa

Escallonia

Escallonia sp

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2 - Puffin Lodge

Palm (donated)

Trachycarpus fortunei

Dwarf Alberta spruce

Picea glauca albertiana ‘Conica’

Rosemary

Rosmarius officinalis

Sweet olive

Osmanthus burkwoodii

Heather

Erica carnea

Iris

Iris germanica

Spurge

Euphorbia characias ssp. wulfenii

3 - Lodge - Handicap Door to Reception Lilac bush (can be removed)

Syringa vulgaris

Yucca

Yucca filamentosa

Large leaf perriwinkle*

Vinca major (invasive)

4 - Rock Garden Ivy (on the lattice)

Hedera helix

Dwarf Alberta spruce Mexican hair grass (concrete planter) Lavender Sedum Heather Rhododendron bush

Picea glauca albertiana ‘Conica’ Stipa tenuissima Lavendula angustifolia Sedum sp Erica carnea Rhododendron sp

Portugese Laurel

Prunus lusitanica

Poppies

Papaver oriental

Cotoneaster

Cotoneaster horizontalis var. perpusillus

Yucca

Yucca filamentosa

Sunshine flower

Senecio greyii

Weeping Birch Tree

Betula pendula ‘Youngii’

Sword Fern

Polystichum munitum

Assorted perennials spring bulbs

Narcissus sp

Assorted perennials Daisy

Leucanthemum x’Superbum’

Assorted perennials

Helianthus sp

Japanese quince

Chaenomeles japonica

5 - Grape Arbor - Joann’s Memorial Grape vine

Vitis vinifera

Bamboo

Phyllostachys aurea*

Holly

Ilex sp. (invasive)

Spring bulbs

Tulipa,

6 - Hexagonal Contained garden/Ben Wong Memorial

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Herbaceous perennials

mix

Weeping Birch Tree

Betula pendula ‘Youngii’

Heather

Erica carnea

Skimmia

Skimmia japonica

Rhododendron

Rhododendron sp

Daylily

Hemerocallis sp

Monkey Puzzle Tree

Auracarea auracana

Weeping Birch Tree

Betula pendula

7 - Hexagonal Contained garden with Ornamental Plum Corkscrew Hazel - Harry Lauder’s Walking Stick Portugese Laurel

Coryllus avellana ‘Contorta’

Sunshine flower

Senecio greyii

Yucca

Yucca filamentosa

Coltsfoot

Petasites palmatus

Flowering Plum Tree

Prunus pissardi nigra

Prunus lusitanica

8 - Corner Thunderbird Field garden Dwarf Albertiana Spruce

Picea glauca albertiana ‘Conica’

English Ivy

Hedera helix

Smoke Bush

Cotinus coggygria

Mahonia (mid field)

Mahonia x Charity

9 - Dry Garden (along side Orca) Sedum

Sedum album

Sedum

Sedum spathulifolium

Hens & Chicks

Sempervivum tectorum

Creeping Thyme

Thymus sp

California poppy

Eschscholzia californica

Lavendar cotton

Santolina chamaecyparissus

10 - Heather Garden (edge of Thunderbird Field Septic) Sword fern

Polystichum munitum

Heather

Erica carnea

Lavender

Lavandula angustifolia

Cedar

Thuja plicata

Boxleaf honeysuckle

Lonicera nitida

Barberry

Berberis thunbergii Cultivar

Hazelnut tree

Corylus avellana

Oak

Quercus rubra

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Juniper

Juniperus sp.

Holly

Ilex x variagatus*

Sedum

Sedum sp

Thyme

Thymus repens

Escallonia

Escallonia sp

Skimmia

Skimmia sp

Rhododendron

Rhododendron sp.

11 - Satir garden

Forsythia bush

Forsythia x

Bamboo

Phyllostachys aurea*

Rhododendron

Rhododendron sp

Hazelnut

Corylus avellana contorta

Mugo pine

Pinus mugo

Cotoneaster

Cotoneaster dammerii

Broom

Spartium junceum

Sage

Salvia officinalis

Weeping Atlas cedar

Cedrus atlantica glauca pendula

12 - Chickadee & Pond

Juniper

Juniperus sp

Creeping Thyme

Thymus sp.

Sunshine flower

Senecio greyii

Rhododendron

Rhododendron sp

Portugese laurel

Prunus lusitanica

Heather

Erica carnea

Skimmia

Skimmia japonica

Yellow flag iris

Iris pseudoacorus

Rhododendron bush (side Phoenix)

Rhododendron sp

13 - Phoenix Garden

Forsythia

Forsythia x intermedia

Fatsia

Fatsia japonica

Boxleaf honeysuckle

Lonicera nitida

Sword fern

Polystichum munitum

Mexican mock orange

Choisya ternata

Cotoneaster

Cotoneaster sp.

14 - Raven Garden

Pampas

Cortaderia selloana

Juniper

Juniperus sp T H E H AV E N L A N D S C A P E M A N AG E M E N T P L A N

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Cotoneaster

Cotoneaster dammerii

Sword fern

Polystichum munitum

Herbaceous perennials bulbs

Narcissus

15 - Kingfisher Garden

Spanish broom

Spartium junceum

Sedum

Sedum album

Bamboo

Phyllostachys aurea

16 - Kingfisher Back Garden Boxwood

Buxus sempervirens

Japanese maple

Acer palmatum

17 - Sandpiper Garden

Heath

Erica x veitchii

Lily

Lillium

Lemon Balm

Melissa officinalis

Crocosmia

Crocosmia sp

Rhubarb

Rheum sp.

18 - East Sandpiper Garden Ornamental Plum (may be removed)

Prunus pissardi nigra

Black Bamboo

Phyllostachys nigra

Choisya

Choisya ternata

19 - Hot-tub Pampas Garden Pampas

Cortaderia selloana

Yucca

Yucca sp

Buddleia bush

Buddleia

20 - Stump Garden

Mexican Hair grass

Stipa tenuissima

Yucca

Yucca sp

Heather

Erica carnea

Sage

Salvia officinalis

Wall flower

Erysimum ‘Bowles Mauve’

Spanish Broom

Spartium junceum

Sunshine

Senecio greyii

Montbretia

Crocosmia sp.

Sedum

Sedum album

Escallonia

Escallonia sp

21 - Cormorant Garden

Cedar

Thuja plicata

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Italian plum tree

Prunus ‘Italian Plum’

Ginkgo tree

Gingko biloba

Yew tree

Taxus brevifolia

Cherry Tree

Prunus edible

Apple Tree

Malus edible

22 - Eagleview Garden (across from Lodge) Japanese flowering cherry

Prunus serrulata ‘Kanzan’

Mexican mockorange

Choisya ternata

Black bamboo

Phyllostachys nigra

Box honeysuckle

Lonicera nitida

23 - Rachel’s Tree

Monkey Puzzle Tree

Auracarea auracana

24 - Seagull Deck

Yew tree

Taxus brevifolia

4.2.3 Recommended Ornamental Garden Zone Species Select plants from Table 2 - Fire Resistant Species.

4.2.4 Special Management Considerations • Safety is a primary concern and monitoring overhead debris & cleaning up after storms is an important task of maintenance.

• Irrigation - knowledge of the location of water outlets and garden water taps should be reviewed with

garden and maintenance staff. Hoses should be properly stored after use not to interfere with guest experience and safety. Taps should be checked at the end of every shift to ensure all water is turned off and minimum leakage occurs. • Western red cedar should be phased out of the ornamental gardens as a hedging plant. Currently the existing trees are being pruned back severely. As the FMP is built out, remove these trees and consider using other suitable plants as an alternative • Lilacs have provided screening, fragrance and cut flowers in the past. They are susceptible to pests and disease and create extra work for the gardeners. As the FMP is built out, remove these plants and replace with suitable plants. • Plants near building and landscape devices which require maintenance should be pruned to allow crews access to the area without difficulty (eg. Honeycomb filters, electrical outlets, lights, etc).

4.3 Meadow Lawn Zone Management

4.3.1 Zone description and Maintenance Level

In areas of high use, (such as the play areas of the septic lawn and in front of the Lodge), an area of turf is able to withstand foot traffic and recreational activities such as: yoga, hacky-sac, frisbee and other activities. Yearly aeration and topdressing with compost or sandy loam and seed will continue to provide a dense lawn tolerant of foot traffic and activities. The level of maintenance is Level 3 – with mowing heights to be higher – 5 cm and trimming to be done each mowing (see BCSLA Landscape Standards). Plants are selected for toughness and low maintenance needs. Routine maintenance is moderate to low intensity. Vegetation is managed to accommodate activity. T H E H AV E N L A N D S C A P E M A N AG E M E N T P L A N

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4.3.2 Rejuvenation and Establishment in High Activity Meadow Lawn Zones • Turf areas will improve if aerated regularly and top-dressed with sand and weed free compost or loam. • Reseed after aeration in the early fall and use a mix of the following: • Include endophytes for drought tolerance and growth enhancement • Reseeding mix: 60% perennial rye, 30% fine fescue, 10% bluegrass, 3% Dutch white clover may be added • • • •

if bees are not a concern. (areas of low activity may use Garry Oak upland mix from Pick Seeds 70% Roemers Fescue & 30% California Oatgrass) Mowing- grass should be left to grow a minimum of 5 cm (two inches) in height. Clippings should be allowed to stay on the grass to add to humus and nitrogen to the soil. Fertilization and liming - dolomitic lime (except in clay areas where Agricultural lime should be used) may be incorporated into the top dressing after aeration in the spring, only in areas of high traffic. Edges of high use lawns may be let to grow longer, and could support spring bulbs for further interest. Native bulbs such as camas, nodding onion and fritillaria’s may be planted to enhance spring interest and move towards a more meadow type lawn. Lawns naturally go dormant in summer and the Haven has practiced this management strategy. Lawns will green up with rains as they occur. Topdressing with seed therefore should only be done in the fall when there is moisture to assist germination.

4.3.3 Special Management Considerations

Some lawn areas are septic fields. These should be monitored for signs such as patches of green, weedy growth during summer drought, which can indicate septic system problems.

4.4 Shoreline Zone Management

4.4.1 Zone Description and Maintenance Level

The Haven shoreline has different zones of ecology and vegetation: • Uplands (shrub and tree layer) • Backshore (beach sand, rock, grasses and driftwood) • Upper Intertidal (wrack line of seaweed and debris) • Intertidal and Subtidal. Limiting pedestrian access to the shoreline and allowing the Upland and Backshore areas to regenerate will create a healthier shoreline ecosystem. In the central shoreline area, views may be protected while increasing habitat value by installing a mixed groundcover and grass layer instead of lawn at the shoreline. In less central areas, allowing shrubby and tree vegetation will assist in erosion control during storm events, and increase shady shoreline habitat value. These areas a lower maintenance zone where the main objective is to preserve habitat and ecosystem functioning with passive activity along the shoreline.

4.4.2 Existing Shoreline Species

Trees Arbutus Arbutus menziesii Shore pine Pinus contorta Shrubs and Groundcovers Blackberry Rubus discolor Oceanspray Holodiscus discolor Snowberry Symphorocarpus alba Evergreen huckleberry Vaccinium ovatum

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Nutka Rose Salal Tall Oregon Grape Dune grass

Rosa nutkana Gaultheria shallon Mahonia aquifolium Elymus mollis

4.4.3 Recommended Shoreline Species

Allow the lower shrub layer to reestablish along the banks of the north and south shoreline with limited paths of access to the beach. Allow some trees to frame views to the ocean. The recommended species are included in the existing species list. In the central lawn area, consider converting lawn to an attractive and biodiverse mix of low growing groundcovers and grasses from the list in Table 2.

Shoreline Zone Character - A healthy shrub vegetated and low maintenance shoreline edge

4.4.4 Special Management Considerations for the Shoreline Zone • Limit beach access points and establish a more

biodiverse shoreline habitat by defining pathways, such as along side the hot-tub and cistern which is a currently used access point with a gentle slope. • Sea-Level rise - As sea level rise occurs, the shrub layer will move back from the shoreline and may be part of a shoreline mitigation strategy as outlined in the FMP Appendix K. This strategy may include hard and soft strategies including walls and constructed berms. • Storm impacts - Allowing the shoreline to revegetate in strategic areas and limiting pedestrian access to the shoreline may assist in mitigating storm impacts and erosion.

Central Shoreline Zone Character - An attractive and biodiverse groundcover shoreline with defined pathways allows for both views and habitat

4.5 Forest Management Zone

4.5.1 Zone Description and Maintenance Level The forest zone is located on the edges of the Haven property surrounding the facility and includes The Haven owned residential properties along Malaspina Drive. These areas include large and small trees, but generally are a mix of trees that are 80 years of age and some that are older, approximately 2-300 years old. The main objectives in this area are to preserve trees, habitat and ecosystem functioning, allowing limited passive activity through the forest in designated pathways. Maintenance level is Level 5, Background and Natural Areas (BCSLA Landscape Standards) which includes the following maintenance:

• Annual invasive plant eradication. • Fire management to reduce the risk of ignition especially during the months of April to September. • Assessing tree hazards every 5 years or when reported. 4.5.2 Existing Forest Zone Species Trees Coastal Douglas Fir

Pseudotsuga menziesii ssp menziesii

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Grand fir Western red cedar Western hemlock Western yew Arbutus or Madrona Alder Understorey layer

Abies grandis Thuja plicata Tsuga heterophylla Taxus brevifolia Arbutus menziesii Alnus rubra

Broadleaf Evergreen Evergreen Huckleberry Tall Oregon grape Dull Oregon Grape Salal Kinickinnik

Vaccinium ovatum Mahonia aquifolium Mahonia nervosa Gaultheria shallon Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

Deciduous Red huckleberry Salmonberry Thimbleberry Baldhip rose Indian plum Snowberry Trailing snowberry Sword fern Ground cover Vanilla Leaf Wayfinding plant Alum root Twinflower Orchids & Oddballs Indian Pipe Coral root Rattlesnake plantain

Vaccinium parvifolium Rubus spectabilis Rubus parviflora Rosa gymnocarpa Oemleria ceraciformis Symphoricarpos albus Symphoricarpos mollis Polystichum munitum Achys triphylla Adenocaulon bicolor Heuchera micrantha Linnaea borealis   Monotropha uniflora Corallorhiza maculata ssp. merteniana Goodyera oblongifolia

4.5.3 Recommended Species for Forest Zone

Existing species should be maintained and replanted when necessary, especially shrubs and groundcover.

4.5.4 Special Forest Zone Management Considerations • In many areas the understory layer is sparse. Tree thinning and understorey enhancement measures are required to increase forest health. See Section 3.2.1.

• Establish clear routes for footpath circulation, particularly through the forested natural areas, and where

the understorey is currently sparse and foot traffic is random. Trail routes should consider existing desire

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• • • •

lines, future development plans, and special features to highlight or avoid disturbing. A simple stake-post and cable barrier system or log wheel stops and barriers can mark trails, parking areas and road edges. Construct a boardwalk trail segment and seating areas around or through the old-growth trees to protect them from compaction while highlighting them as site features. Alternatively, construct wood chip pathways that are raised rather than dug down below grade. Mulch areas that are sensitive to compaction with chippings from tree maintenance or leaves collected from the lawn areas. Create dense areas of groundcover by replanting, and reseeding existing and exposed areas of soil that are not used as circulation paths or parking. Define roadways and edges of roadways with mulch or ground cover and by using logs, stake-post and cable barrier system or low split rail fences to define edges to parking areas, and logs as wheel stops.

5 LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT WORK PLAN 5.1 Service model

Currently the head gardener is a seasonal employee of the Haven. Don Mattson has retained this role for the last 15 years. He now has an apprentice who will continue in his role into the future as Don prepares for retirement. This model of in-house maintenance will continue into the foreseeable future.

5.2 Personnel and Roles

The gardeners and maintenance staff work together to maintain the grounds over the course of the year. While the gardeners are on site from March to October, they are responsible for grounds responsibilities including horticulture, tree care, irrigation, planting, compost maintenance, and the vegetable garden. Maintenance staff assist the gardeners in the lawn care and debris clean up.

5.3 Seasonal Maintenance

See Appendix for the Annual Schedule at a Glance.

5.4 Record Keeping

• A weekly journal of tasks should be kept by the gardener and kept for reference. Items such as plants

installed and plants removed should be noted. Pests and pest locations, and treatment should be noted. Irrigation frequency and quantities should be noted for future reference. • Noting suspect tree locations and describing their appearance should be noted and summarized for the arborist. • A large plan of the tree map pinned up in an area where it can be monitored will help keep track of trees that require monitoring. • A monthly monitoring report should be created to follow up on areas of concern.

6 PLANT MAINTENANCE BEST PRACTICES 6.1 Tree Assessment and Monitoring Practices

Don Mattson has monitored the trees based on the PGE report since 2005. Hazard Trees have been removed as necessary and others have been monitored for changes in their condition. Twice per year, Don Mattson and Limber Tree Service monitor trees visually in areas along pathways and roads, buildings and structures to

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determine whether trees need further investigation. This visual assessment includes: review of the canopy and percentage health, limb and trunk assessment for wounds, growths or other structural issues, and overall vigor. As this method has been working well for the Haven, it is our recommendation this continue. If a condition is observed that requires additional attention, particularly for larger trees, it should be brought to the attention of the arborist in charge. Visual inspection and monitoring should include: • Changes to the foliage and dead branches in the canopy (noting % decrease or increase) • Lean (% increase or decrease over time) • Trunk and large branches (for cracks swelling and other changes). • Heavy coning (sign of stress)

6.2 Tree Pruning

Tree pruning should be performed by qualified workers who are familiar with the practices and hazards of arboriculture and the equipment used in such operations. This information is based on ANSI A300 pruning standard. Pruning objectives should be established prior to the work plan. Trees should be pruned to:

• • • • • • • • •

Reduce risk from falling branches Reduce risk from major structural defects Reduce disease and pests Reduce density of live branches Provide clearance for circulation Increase light levels below and reduce wind resistance Restore damaged trees Reduce height and/or spread Improve aesthetics or satisfy a specific need such as view management.

Pruning techniques for trees:

• Pruning tools used in making cuts should be sharp and disinfected to prevent cross contamination. Anvil• • • • • • • •

type pruning tools should not be used. Climbing spurs should not be used when climbing trees, except on tree removals or in emergencies. Spurs may be used if tree bark is thick enough to prevent damage to the cambium. Prune trees for vehicular and pedestrian visibility and safety in areas of circulation. Cleaning the crown should consist of the selective removal of dead, diseased and broken branches to reduce risk and/or improve the tree’s appearance and health. Thinning the crown should consist of pruning to increase light penetration and air movement or to reduce the weight of the crown on the overall structure of the tree. Thinning should result in an even distribution of branches on individual limbs and throughout the crown. Raising the crown should consist of the selective pruning to provide vertical clearance from the ground. Reduction of the crown should consist of selective pruning to decrease height and/or spread. Consideration should be given to the ability of a species to sustain this type of pruning. Each species will have limitations such as birch and maples, which tend to bleed in the spring. Topping crowns should not be used for normal tree maintenance as it disrupts the normal growth of a tree and encourages the growth of weakly attached branches that become hazards. Not more than one/fourth of the foliage of a branch or limb should be removed when it is cut back to prevent excessive loss of foliage. Small branch pruning cuts: A collar cut should be made close to the trunk or parent limb without cutting into the branch bark ridge or collar and without leaving a stub. When reducing the length of a branch, a cut should bisect the angel between a branch bark ridge and an imaginary line perpendicular to the branch or stem. Ultimately the goal is to lessen the amount of surface area of the exposed cut. The final cut

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• • • • • • •

should result in one smooth surface with adjacent bark firmly attached. When removing a dead branch, the final cut should be made just outside the collar of the living tissue. The live collar should remain intact and uninjured. Large branch pruning cuts: To prevent damage to the parent limb when removing a large branch the branches should be removed in a way that does not cause damage to other parts of the tree. Branches too large to support with one hand, should be precut to avoid splitting or tearing of the bark. Where necessary, ropes or other equipment should be used to lower large branches or portions of branches to the ground. Newly planted trees: At planting time pruning should be limited to cleaning. Branches should be retained lower on the trunk to allow trunk taper to develop. Once the tree is established, depending on the species, a central leader should be developed. A strong scaffold branch structure should also be selected. Interfering branches, rubbing and poorly attached branches should be removed or reduced. Cleaning and thinning should be performed to improve tree balance and structure. Wound treatment: Wound dressings should not be used to cover wounds or pruning cuts. Bark wound repairs should consist of removing only damaged or loose bark. Restoration pruning: This consists of selective pruning to improve structure form and appearance of trees that have been severely headed, vandalized or damaged. View pruning may include spiral pruning to thin dense canopy trees to allow views through without removing the tree. Spiral pruning allows a balanced structural approach to pruning. Palm pruning: Palms should be pruned when fronds, fruit or loose petioles may create a dangerous condition. Live healthy fronds, at an angle of 45˚ + from the horizontal plane, should not be removed. Fronds removed should be severed close to the petiole base without damaging living trunk tissue. Palm peeling (shaving) should consist of the removal of the dead frond bases only at the point they make contact with the trunk without damaging tissue. Utility pruning: The purpose of utility pruning is to prevent the loss of service, to prevent damage to equipment, and to avoid impairment and uphold the intended use of the facility/utility space. Only a qualified line clearance tree trimmer should be assigned to line clearance work in accordance with ANSI Z 133.

6.3 Shrub Maintenance

The addition of shrubs and groundcover to borders, areas around trees and areas that have exposed soil is beneficial to the garden in a number of ways. Groundcovers provide natural mulch that helps to prevent soil erosion, provide cover for beneficial insects and add a duff (partially decomposed organic matter) layer to the soil. The use of native plants is strategic as they do not require extra water and can contend with summer drought and winter rain, once established. Choose shrubs and ground-covers to create living mulch that do not require raking or blowing and removal. Plants will provide shade and prevent erosion better than mulch. Delineate grass and forest edges with shrubs, ground cover and perennials along edges of structures, such as fences along the roadways to create an edge. Pruning techniques for shrubs: • A properly pruned shrub looks as though it has not been pruned. Pruning cuts should be hidden inside the plant where they will be covered by remaining leaves. The first step in pruning a shrub is to remove all dead, diseased or injured branches. Remove branches that cross or touch each other and those that look out of place. If the shrub is still too dense or large, remove some (up to a third) of the oldest branches, usually from the base of the shrub. Flowering shrubs should be pruned after flowering to ensure subsequent years flower buds develop. • Pruning shrubs by heading or thinning: When shrubs are headed back or sheared routinely (random cutting of the ends of twigs or young branches to a bud or node, usually with hedging shears), dense, thick new growth is produced near the outer portions of the canopy. As a result, less light reaches the T H E H AV E N L A N D S C A P E M A N AG E M E N T P L A N

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interior portions of the plant, leaves within the canopy become sparse and the plant appears top heavy. Air circulation is decreased and the potential for disease is increased. To avoid this problem, head back the shrub’s shoots to several different heights. When heading back, make the cut above a healthy outward pointing bud. • Thinning (cutting selected branches back to a side branch or main trunk) is usually preferred over heading back. Thinning encourages new growth within the interior portions of a shrub, reduces size and provides a fuller more attractive plant.

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Appendix A Green Thumb Wholesale nursery, 6261 – Hammond Bay Road Nanaimo, BC V9T 5M4 Phone: 250-758-0808 Fax: 250-758-1987 www.greenthumbwholesale.com User name: greenthumb Password: plants2011 Streamside Native Plants Division of Viking Marine/Outdoors Ltd 7455 Island Highway West Bowser, British Columbia V0R 1G0 Phone: 250-757-9999 Toll Free: 877-570-3138 Email: Richard@streamsidenativeplants.com http://members.shaw.ca/nativeplants/streamside_home. html Yellow Point Propagation Ltd. Don Piggot (Native plant seed supplier) 13735 Quennell Road P.O. Box 669 Ladysmith, BC V9G 1A5 Tel : 250.245.4635 Fax: 250.245.5935 ypprop@shaw.ca Contact: Don Pigott

Suppliers

Terralink Horticulture Inc. Distributors of RootSheild beneficial fungus for turf, trees, shrubs 464 Riverside Rd. S. Abbotsford, BC V2S 7M1 Phone: 604-864-9044 Toll Free: 1-800-661-4559 Van Noort Bulb Company 22264 Hwy. #10 Langley, BC V2Y 2K6 T: (604) 888-6555 F: (604) 888-7640 Toll Free: (888) 826-6667 www.vannoortbulb.com EMCO CORPORATION Distributer of TreeGator Andrew Templer Outside Account Manager 2253 McGarrigle Road Nanaimo, BC V9S-4M5 Cell 250-331-1632 Toll Free 1(877)585-6677

Pick Seed Garry Oak Upland Mix http://pickseed.com/WCanada/nativeSeed/d ocs/reclamation_info_2012.pdf NALT Native Plant Nursery 3145 Frost Road plants@nalt.bc.ca 250-714-1990 or 250-668-7670 http://www.nalt.bc.ca/index.php?p=1_24_Native-PlantNursery IPM Biologicals supply http://www.thebugfactory.ca/online-store/ Beneficial insects and more, Nanoose.

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Appendix BDateMonthly Maintenance Report1

Haven Gardens Monthly Report

Elements

Work Done this month

Problems needing attention

Perennials

Shrubs and Ground cover

Trees & Specimen plants

Lawns

Pathways and circulation

Other

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Completed


THE HAVEN LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT PLAN 2015 _ ANNUAL SCHEDULE AT A GLANCE M=Maintenance Staff

Appendix C

G=Gardener Staff

MEADOW LAWN CARE Mow and Trim

Turf should be managed to look neat. It is not irrigated, and allowed to go dormant in summer. JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC M☐M☐ M☐M☐ M☐M☐ M☐M☐ M☐M☐ M☐M☐ M☐ M☐M☐ M☐ M☐ M☐M☐ M☐

Edging Aeration Top dress and seed

G☐

HORTICULTURE

G☐

G☐

G☐

G☐

G☐

G☐

G☐

M☐ G☐ Management level varies by zone. Refer to Landscape Management Plan JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP G☐

G☐G☐

G☐

G☐

Pruning trees Perennial plant care Ornamental grasses Fertilize (topdressing)

G☐

G☐ G☐ G☐ G☐

G☐ G☐

G☐ G☐ G☐

Dead heading

G☐

G☐

G☐

Monitor for Pest and disease

G☐

G☐

G☐

Winterize sensitive plants Enhancement and new planting

NOV

DEC

G☐

MANAGEMENT COMMENTS to be done early as soon as weeds appear Winter damage, fruit trees, ornamental shrubs Cut back and deadhead as needed Tidy or crop as part of fall clean-up

G☐

Varies by zone and species, can be left to birds in Forest Zone Tent caterpillar on fruit, poplars and ornamentals, powdery mildew on roses, wooly aphids on stressed firs, leaf miners & borers on lilacs.

G☐ G☐

G☐ G☐ G☐

G☐

G☐

G☐

G☐

G☐ G☐

REGULAR TREE CARE

G☐ G☐ See below for forest management schedule JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN

Fire ladder removal

M☐

G☐

G☐ JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

Fruit tree harvest Fruit tree treatment Disease and hazard review Storm debris clean-up

M☐

M☐

G☐ G☐

G☐

G☐

G☐

G☐

G☐

G☐ G☐

G☐

M☐

M☐

IRRIGATION CARE

JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

G☐

G☐

G☐

G☐

G☐

G☐ G☐

Handwatering Temp Irrigation system start-up Temp Irrigation system winterize

G☐

OTHER CARE Litter clean-up Inspect for pests Compost turning Compost maintenance Plant/Construction interface & monitoring Vegetable Garden

JAN M☐

FEB M☐

G☐

G☐

G☐

G☐

G☐

MAR G☐

APR G☐

MAY G☐

JUN G☐

JUL G☐

AUG G☐

SEP G☐

OCT G☐

G☐ G☐

G☐ G☐

G☐ G☐

G☐ G☐

G☐ G☐

G☐ G☐

G☐ G☐

G☐ G☐

G☐

G☐

G☐

Vacuumed by Maintenance & composted by gardener. Gardener observes & communicates to Maintenance NOTES

see LMP Section 6.2

Lilacs and chronically ill plants to be removed and replaced with suitable plants.

MANAGEMENT COMMENTS see LMP Section 3.4 and 3.2. Chip debris Harvest fruit as ripe to prevent deer and insect attraction. Spray with Dormant oil in late winter In conjunction with arborist see LMP Section 3.9. Chip debris

NOTES In conjunction with arborist and maintenance

In conjunction with arborist and maintenance

MANAGEMENT COMMENTS NOTES Check taps hoses for leaks at the end of each day of use. see LMP Section X. Check for leaks

G☐

Irrigation system monitor

NOTES

Uncover winterized plants in March, winterize plants in October Larger projects may be done by landscape contractor in fall preferrably Forest dispersal septic bed replanted. Applications of Seasoil, wood chips & fine mulch can be done in collaboration with Maintenance

G☐

G☐

LMP Section 4.3 LMP Section 4.3 LMP Section 4.3 LMP Section 3.10. Arbutus leaves require clean-up all year. LMP Section 4.3

see LMP Section 4.3.3 OCT

Annual Maintenance Schedule at a Glance

see LMP Section 4.3 see see see see can see

G☐ M☐

M☐

Weeding + cultivating

Compost + Mulch

G☐

M☐ M☐

Leaf clean-up Liming / fertilizing Monitor for septic issues

G☐

MANAGEMENT COMMENTS

G☐

G☐

G☐

G☐

G☐

Check for reservoir refills, leaks,& plant response. NOV M☐

DEC M☐

MANAGEMENT COMMENTS

NOTES

Once per month

Gardener monitors carbon nitrogen ratio

Ensures Tree trunks & root zones are protected & monitored for health. Prepares beds, plants, monitors and harvests produce

In conjuction with arborist and maintenance. In conjuction with kitchen staff

DRAFT December 14, 2014


Appendix D

Fertilizers

Fish fertilizer, compost, well rotted manures, and Seasoil are acceptable fertilizers. Use sea kelp for micronutrients, and alfalfa meal for nitrogen (if necessary, to not encourage alfafa as weeds). There are also organic complete fertilizers available commercially, such as Gaia Green. Top dressing with compost, Seasoil or Nutri-mulch in early summer is a good practice to replenish organic material- to 2 inches or 5 cm depth, taking care to keep it away from the trunks of trees, shrubs and soft perennial stems.

Organic Mix Recipe

Buy the meal at Raven Feed and lime and rock dust, bone meal at Sharcare or Buckerfields in Nanaimo; Wheelbarrel or Wildrose Garden Centres on Gabriola. Use a big garbage container with a lid to mix it in and storage (30 litre or so). This Recipe is from Steve Solomon’s book, Growing Vegetables West of the Cascades, Updated 6th Edition: The Complete Guide to Organic Gardening meant for vegetables but suitable for ornamental plants. Evenly distribute 4 litres per 100 square feet or a ¼ cup per medium sized plant 1x per year and cultivate into the soil. Measure all materials by volume — by the scoop, bucketful, jarful, or whatever container you want to use, as long as it’s the same for each ingredient. Proportions can vary 10 percent either way and still produce the desired results. Mix uniformly: 4 parts alfalfa meal 1/3 part ordinary agricultural lime, best finely ground 1/3 part gypsum (or double the agricultural lime) 1/3 part dolomitic lime (leave this out in clay soils) Plus, for best results: 1 part bone meal, rock phosphate 1/2 to 1 part kelp meal

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Appendix E Tree Protection Zones TRUNK DIAMETER MINIMUM PROTECTION REQUIRED AROUND TREE Trunk diameter (BH) 20 cm 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 75 90 100

Distance from trunk 1.2 m 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.0 3.3 3.6 4.5 5.0 6

Tree root protection criteria: Douglas fir - Pseudotsuga menziesii Generally these trees have good to moderate tolerance for construction, tolerant of some grade change, to 25% of root zone. Mature trees need 1.00 ft per inch diameter of trunk at 4.5ft breast height. Young trees need .75 ft per inch diameter of calliper. Grand fir - Abies grandis Generally moderate to poor construction tolerance Mature trees need 1.25 ft per inch diameter Young trees .75 to 1’ per inch diameter Western hemlock - Tsuga heterophylla Generally poor to moderate tolerance susceptible to wind throw, intolerant of grade changes Young trees need 1’ per inch diameter Mature trees need 1.25’ per inch diameter Western red cedar - Thuja plicata Generally these trees have poor to moderate, sensitive to grade changes & water table change. Mature trees need 1.25 ft per inch diameter young trees need 1’ per inch diameter

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Root Zone protection criteria; Protect root zones from: compaction & changes in grade. Use a thick layer of mulch (wood chips 6-12 “ deep) to protect trees from drought and reduce compaction of soil. Water trees well before mulching. Erect barriers to the extent of the root protection zone (as stated above based on a combination of tree type and tolerance and size of tree). Barriers should be sturdy and must limit any access to the root zone. Remove mulch after construction. Limit access to the construction site to one access route to limit soil and root zone disturbance. Further criteria may be developed on a tree by tree basis: for example some tree roots may be pruned to allow for footings etc, if excavation is done with an air spade to expose roots and cleanly prune without damaging the structural integrity of the roots.

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Appendix F

COMMON NAME

Maintenance Needs of Existing Plants

BOTANICAL NAME

South Lodge Whale Window Wisteria sinensis Wisteria Vine Boxwood Buxus sempervirens Syringa vulgaris Lilac Ivy

Hedera helix

Heather

Erica carnea

(Stinking or Bearsfoot) Hellebore King Sedum Blue oat grass

Helleborus foetidus Frittilaria imperialis Sedum album Helictotricon semperviron Thymus sp Hosta sp. Leucanthemum sp. Polystichum munitum

COMMENTS

Prune Late Fall Prune as necessary for size Do not replace, retain till renovation, disease prevalent Remove or control to prevent flowerin and seed set Ammend with fine composted wood chips Prune after flowering Deadhead after flowering Remove old leaves in late winter Prune back as it dies back Remove flower stalks in high visibility areas Cut back in late winter before new shoots arrive

Cut back as necessary to rejuvinate growth Cut back as necessary Deadhead for repeat flowers, cut back hard in fall Prune old leaves in spring in Ornamental Garden zone Ilex sp. Prune as necessary for size (invasive plant) Variegated Holly Herbaceous perennials various Prune as necessary Dwarf Alberta Srpuce Picea glauca albertiana No pruning necessary 'Conica' Do not replace, retain till renovation, disease Lilac (can be removed) Syringa vulgaris prevalent Yucca filamentosa Remove lower leaves as necessary Yucca Escallonia Escallonia sp. Prune after flowering for size Puffin Lodge Palm - Donated Trachycarpus fortunei Prune when fronds brown: see report pruning Dwarf Alberta Srpuce Picea glauca albertiana No pruning necessary 'Conica' Rosemary Rosmarius officinalis Prune as necessary for size/shape Sweet Olive Osmanthus burkwoodii Prune after flowering for size Heather Erica carnea Ammend wi fine composted wood chips, Prune after flowering Iris Iris germanica May need dividing to renew every 2 years Spurge Euphorbia characias Prune as necessary for size after flowering (seeds ssp. wulfenii are prolific and may need to be removed to prevent spread) CreepingThyme Hosta Daisy Sword ferns

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COMMON NAME

BOTANICAL NAME

SW Lodge - Handicap Door to Reception Lilac Bush (can be Syringa vulgaris removed) Yucca Yucca filamentosa Lilac Bush ( can be Syringa vulgaris removed ) Large leaf perriwinkle* Vinca major Rock Garden - Key Map 4 Ivy on the lattice

COMMENTS

Do not replace, retain till renovation, disease prevalent Remove lower leaves as yellowed Do not replace, retain till renovation, disease prevalent Prune back to control as necessary, considered invasive

Remove or control so it does not flower and set seed Dwarf Alberta Srpuce Picea glauca albertiana No pruning necessary 'Conica' Concrete planter with Stipa tenuissima Cut back as necessary to rejuvinate growth Mexican Hair Grass Lavender Lavendula angustifolia Prune after flowering & in late winter Sedum Sedum sp Deadhead in highly visible zones Heather Erica carnea Ammend with fine composted wood chips, Prune after flowering Rhododendron Bush Rhododendron sp Prune after flowering to control size, deadhead in high visibility areas Prunus lusitanica Prune as necessary for size, thin to allow light into Portugese Laurel the canopy Poppies Papaver oriental Prune as it dies back Cotoneaster Cotoneaster Prune as necessary for size horizontalis var. perpusillus Yucca Yucca filamentosa Remove lower leaves as yellowed Sunshine flower Senecio (Brachyglottus) Prune after flowering & in late winter to control greyii size Weeping Birch Tree Betula pendula 'Youngii' Prune as necessary for size & to allow air circulation in canopy Sword Fern Polystichum munitum Prune back old leaves in spring Assorted perennials Narcissus sp,Tulipa, Remove leaves as it dies back spring bulbs Allium Leucanthemum Assorted perennials Deadhead - pruneback as it dies back Daisy x'Superbum' Assorted perennials Helianthus sp Deadhead - pruneback as it dies back Japanese quince Chaenomeles japonica Prune after flowering Hedera helix

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COMMON NAME

BOTANICAL NAME

COMMENTS

Grape Arbor - Joann's Memorial Grape vine Vitis vinifera Bamboo Phyllostachys aurea*

Prune in late winter Prune old culms as necessary, remove new shoots to control growth (considered invasive) Holly Ilex sp. Do not replace, considered invasive Tulipa, Spring bulbs remove leaves as it dies back Hexagonal Contained garden - (Ben's Memorial Garden) Deadhead - pruneback as it dies back Herbaceous perennials mix Weeping Birch Tree Betula pendula 'Youngii' Prune as necessary for size & to allow air circulation in canopy Heather Erica carnea Ammend soil with finer composted wood chips, Prune after flowering Skimmia Skimmia japonica prune to control size if necessary Rhododendron Rhododendron sp Prune back after flowering to control size if necessary Daylily Hemerocallis sp Deadhead and divide as necessary Monkey Puzzle Tree Auracarea auracana Top up mulch as necessary, prune dead branches as necessary Weeping Birch Tree Betula pendula Prune to allow air circulation and trim length of branches as necessary in fall Hexagonal Contained garden with Ornamental Plum Corkscrew Hazel Coryllus avellana Prune old canes to the ground to renew, prune - Harry Lauder's suckers and watersprouts as required 'Contorta' Walking Stick Portugese Laurel Prunus lusitanica Prune to control size in late spring Sunshine flower Senecio greyii Prune after flowering & in late winter to control size Yucca Yucca filamentosa Remove lower leaves as necessary Coltsfoot Petasites palmatus Remove lower leaves as necessary Flowering Plum Tree Prunus pissardi nigra Prune back after flowering Corner Thunderbird Field garden Dwarf Albertiana Picea glauca albertiana No pruning necessary Spruce 'Conica' English Ivy Hedera helix Invasive remove Smoke Bush Cotinus coggygria Prune to control size Mahonia x Charity Prune to control size Mahonia (mid field) Dry Garden (along side Orca) Sedum Sedum album Deadhead and divide as necessary Sedum Sedum spathulifolium Deadhead and divide as necessary

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COMMON NAME

BOTANICAL NAME

COMMENTS

Hens & Chicks Creeping Thyme California poppy

Sempervivum tectorum Deadhead and divide as necessary Thymus sp Cut back as necessary to rejuvinate growth Eschscholzia californica Allow to reseed and weed out as necessary (collect seed heads to redistribute as necessary) Lavendar cotton Santolina Cut back as necessary to rejuvinate growth chamaecyparissus Heather Garden (edge of Thunderbird Field Septic) Sword fern Polystichum munitum Cut back old fronds in late winter to rejuvinate Heather Erica carnea Ammend with fine composted wood chips, Prune after flowering Lavandula angustifolia Cut back in late winter to rejuvinate growth Lavender Thuja plicata Trim as necessary - remove and replace with Cedar appropriate plant Boxleaf honeysuckle Lonicera nitida Prune to control size after new growth appears Barberry Berberis thunbergii Prune in late winter to control size Cultivar Hazelnut tree Corylus avellana Remove old stems from the ground in July August to prevent sucker formation Oak Quercus rubra Prune to raise canopy or to thin canopy Juniper Juniperus sp. Prune as necessary to control spread and cut out dead or dying branches Holly Ilex x variagatus Prune to control size - remove and replace with appropriate plant (invasive) Sedum Sedum sp Deadhead and divide as necessary Thyme Thymus repens Cut back as necessary to rejuvinate growth Escallonia Escallonia sp Prune after flowering to control size Skimmia Skimmia sp Prune after flowering to control size Rhododendron Rhododendron sp. Deadhead in highly visible zones, prune for size after flowering Satir garden Forsythia bush Forsythia x Prune for size after flowering, remove old branches from base Bamboo Phyllostachys aurea Remove old culms and new culms to control spread, (considered invasive and flammable) Rhododendron Rhododendron sp Deadhead in highly visible zones, prune for size after flowering Hazelnut Corylus avellana Remove old stems from the ground in July August to prevent sucker formation contorta Pinus mugo Remove candles in spring to control growth Mugo pine Cotoneaster Cotoneaster dammerii Cut back as necessary to control size T H E H AV E N L A N D S C A P E M A N AG E M E N T P L A N

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COMMON NAME

BOTANICAL NAME

Broom

Spartium junceum

Sage Weeping Atlas cedar

Considered a noxious weed & is highly flamable, should be replaced with a suitable plant Salvia officinalis Cut back in late winter to rejuvinate growth Cedrus atlantica glauca Plant in poor health remove and replace with a pendula suitable plant

Chickadee & Pond Juniper

Juniperus sp

Creeping Thyme Sunshine flower

Thymus sp. Senecio greyii

Rhododendron

Rhododendron sp

Portugese laurel

Prunus lusitanica

Heather

Erica carnea

Skimmia Yellow flag iris Rhododendron Bush (side Phoenix) Phoenix Garden Forsythia

Skimmia japonica Iris pseudoacorus Rhododendron sp

Fatsia Boxleaf honeysuckle Sword fern

Fatsia japonica Lonicera nitida Polystichum munitum

Mexican mock orange

Choisya ternata

Forsythia x intermedia

Cotoneaster Cotoneaster sp. Havenside No Maintenance items Havenhaus - No Key Map Wisteria Vine Wisteria sinensis Holly Mahonia Oregon Mahonia aquifolium Grape vine Raven Garden Pampas Cortaderia selloana

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COMMENTS

Prune as necessary to control spread and cut out dead or dying branches Cut back as necessary to rejuvinate growth Cut back in late winter to control size & rejuvinate growth Deadhead in highly visible zones, prune for size after flowering Prune to control size in early spring or late summer ammend soil with finer composted wood chips, Prune after flowering Male female plants produce berries Invasive. Remove (replace with Native Iris setosa) Memorial to Don Ernie and Joann

Prune after flowering to control size, prune out old canes to rejuvinate Prune in late winter to control size Prune to control size after new growth appears Prune back old leaves in spring in Ornamental garden zone Prune after flowering to control size, prune out old canes to rejuvinate Prune in late winter to control size

Prune back hard in late fall Prune to control size in early spring

Prune back in early spring

T H E H AV E N L A N D S C A P E M A N AG E M E N T P L A N


COMMON NAME

BOTANICAL NAME

COMMENTS

Juniper

Juniperus sp

Cotoneaster Sword fern

Cotoneaster dammerii Polystichum munitum

Prune as necessary to control spread and cut out dead or dying branches Prune to control size if necessary Prune back old leaves in spring in Ornamental garden zone Deadhead & remove leaves as they die back

Herbaceous perennials Narcissus bulbs Kingfisher Garden Spanish broom Spartium junceum Sedum Bamboo

Sedum album Phyllostachys aurea

Kingfisher Back Garden Boxwood Buxus sempervirens Japanese maple Acer palmatum Sandpiper Garden Heath Erica x veitchii Lily Lemon Balm

Lillium Melissa officinalis

Crocosmia Crocosmia sp Rhubarb Rheum sp. East Sandpiper Garden Ornamental Plum (may Prunus pissardi nigra be removed as health & maintenance is an issue) Black Bamboo Phyllostachys nigra Choisya

Choisya ternata

Hot-tub Pampas Garden Pampas Cortaderia selloana Yucca Yucca sp Buddleia bush Buddleia

Considered a noxious weed & is highly flamable, should be replaced with a suitable plant Prune old culms as necessary, remove new shoots to control growth (considered invasive) Prune to control size after new growth appears Prune to control size in late summer or fall Ammend soil with finer composted wood chips, Prune after flowering Deadhead & remove leaves as they die back Control growth by cutting blooms and preventing seed dispersal Deadhead & remove leaves as they die back remove leaves as it dies back Remove as required

Prune old culms as necessary, remove new shoots to control growth prune after flowering to control size, prune out old canes to rejuvinate Prune back in early spring Remove lower leaves as yellowed, or spotted Prune back hard in fall to prevent seed spread (considered invasive)

Stump Garden

T H E H AV E N L A N D S C A P E M A N AG E M E N T P L A N

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COMMON NAME

BOTANICAL NAME

COMMENTS

Mexican Hair grass

Stipa tenuissima

Yucca Heather

Yucca sp Erica carnea

Sage Wall flower Spanish Broom

Salvia officinalis Erysimum 'Bowles Mauve' Spartium junceum

Cut back in late winter to control size & rejuvinate growth, it will reseed itself Remove lower leaves as yellowed, or spotted Ammend soil with finer composted wood chips, Prune after flowering Cut back in late winter to rejuvinate growth Shear in midsummer to encourage repeat blooms

Sunshine

Senecio greyii

Montbretia Sedum Escallonia Cormorant Garden Cedar

Crocosmia sp. Sedum album Escallonia sp Thuja plicata

Italian plum tree Prunus 'Italian Plum' Ginkgo tree Gingko biloba Taxus brevifolia Yew tree Prunus edible Cherry Tree Apple Tree Malus edible Eagleview Garden (across from Lodge) Japanese flowering Prunus serrulata cherry 'Kanzan' Mexican mockorange Choisya ternata

Considered a noxious weed & is highly flamable, should be replaced with a suitable plant Prune after flowering & in late winter to control size Deadhead & remove leaves as they die back Remove flower stalks in high visibility areas Prune after flowering for size Trim as necessary - remove and replace with appropriate plant Prune in early spring & apply dormant oil Prune to control size Prune as necessary for size Prune in early spring & apply dormant oil Prune in early spring & apply dormant oil

Black bamboo

Phyllostachys nigra

Box honeysuckle Rachel's Tree Monkey Puzzle Tree Seagull Deck Yew tree

Lonicera nitida

Prune as necessary for size, thin to allow light into the canopy, early spring or late fall Prune after flowering to control size, prune out old canes to rejuvinate Prune old culms as necessary, remove new shoots to control growth Prune to control size after new growth appears

Auracarea auracana

Prune dead branches or lower branches as needed

Taxus brevifolia

Carefully remove deck from damaging tree Protect bark from construction with burlap or cardboard

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T H E H AV E N L A N D S C A P E M A N AG E M E N T P L A N

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References Meidinger, Dellis Vern, and Jim Pojar. Ecosystems of British Columbia.Victoria, B.C.: Research Branch, Ministry of Forests, 1991. Print. Environmental Stewardship Division, M. (2014). Natural History of the Study Area - East Vancouver Island & Gulf Islands - Technical Report - Appendix 10. [online] Env.gov.bc.ca. Available at: http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/sei/ van_gulf/technical/appendix10.html [Accessed 11 Nov. 2014]. Firesmart Guide to Landscaping. (2014). 1st ed. Canadian Forest Service. Hc-sc.gc.ca, (2010). Canadian Guidelines for Domestic Reclaimed Water for Use in Toilet and Urinal Flushing [Health Canada, 2010]. [online] Available at: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/pubs/water-eau/reclaimed_water-eaux_recyclees/index-eng.php#executive. [Accessed 11 Nov. 2014]. Pottinger Gaherty Environmental Consultants, (2005).Vegetation Management Plan for The Haven Foundation. Swift, K. and Ran, S. (2014). Successional Responses to Natural Disturbance, Forest Management, and Climate Change in British Columbia’s Forests.. [online] Jem.forrex.org. Available at: http://jem.forrex.org/index.php/jem/ article/viewFile/171/113 [Accessed 11 Nov. 2014]. The Home Owners FireSmart Manual, B.C. Edition. (2011). 1st ed. BC Ministry of Environment. Www2.gov.bc.ca, (2014). Climate Change Impacts - Reports & Data. [online] Available at: http://www2.gov. bc.ca/gov/topic.page?id=BE3D1E436EE14ADE8255FA0AD060659C [Accessed 11 Nov. 2014] British Columbia Landscape Standard.Vancouver, B.C.: British Columbia Society of Landscape Architects, 2008. Print. Gilkeson, Linda A. West Coast Gardening: Natural Insect, Weed & Disease Control. Salt Spring Island, B.C.: Linda A. Gilkeson, 2013. Print. Stanley Park Forest Management Plan. Rep.Vancouver: Park Board, 2009. Print. “Fire-Resistant vs. Highly Flammable Plants.” Grants Pass, Oregon. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 June 2015.

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The Haven Landscape Management Plan 2015  
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