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ECM PRESTEL MUNICH • Lond on • New York


Manfred Eicher and Keith Jarrett, Amerika Haus, Munich, 1973 Photo: Roberto Masotti


Manfred Eicher, Jan Garbarek and Jack DeJohnette in Oslo, n.d. Photo: Roberto Masotti


TABLE OF CONTENT

25

Foreword Okwui Enwezor

30

Great Big Ears: ECM – A Cultural Archaeology – Notes Toward an Exhibition Okwui Enwezor

54

ECM in Context: Independent Record Companies and the Self – Determination of Musicians in the 1950s, ’60s, and ’70s MARKUS MÜLLER

66

Roundtable: Manfred Eicher, Okwui Enwezor, Steve L ake, Karl Lippegaus, AND Markus Müller

112

The Library of Sounds: ECM and the High Art of Publishing Music Wolfgang Sandner

122

Cold Stars, L azy Subjects, Well-Founded Negations – Paul Bley, Annette Peacock, and the Beckett Line at ECM Diedrich Diederichsen

176

Close Up, In Your Ear, and From a Distance: Musings on “Our” Music via ECM Renée Green

188

Codona: ReOrientation Point for New Planetary Values Kodwo Eshun

204

MultiTalents: Jean-Luc Godard and Manfred Eicher Jürg Stenzl

218

ECM, A Timeline Compiled by Steve L ake

248

ECM Discography, 1969 — 2012 …

290

BIOGRAPHIES OF ARTISTS AND AUTHORS ANNA SCHNEIDER


Great Big Ears: ECM – A Cultural Archaeology – Notes Toward an Exhibition Okwui Enwezor

Barbara Wojirsch, untitled, cover design, 1993 John Abercrombie Trio, Speak Of The Devil (ECM 1511)


ECM in Context: Independent Record Companies and the Self – Determination of Musicians in the 1950s, ’60s, and ’70s Markus Müller

Keith Rowe at AMM3 session in Ludwigsburg for It had Been An Ordinary Enough Day In Pueblo, Colorado (JAPO 60031), n.d., Photo: Signe Mähler


55

Introduction Since its beginning, the recording and music industry has been one with an oligopolistic structure, that is, a market condition controlled by a limited number of firms. A short history of the developments over what is almost 150 years could read like this: In 1887, Emile Berliner, an émigré from Germany, started by founding the United States Gramophone Company, the world’s first record company, followed by the Gramophone Company, Ltd., in London in 1897, and a year later the Deutsche Grammophon GmbH in his hometown of Hannover. At the beginning of the twentieth century, apart from the aforementioned Berliner ventures, there were several major record companies: Edison Amberol (1888), Columbia Records (1888), and the Victor Talking Machine Company (1901). Today, in 2012, three big companies are left: the Universal Music Group, the Warner Music Group, and Sony Music Entertainment, sharing a good seventy percent of the world recording market. Two of these companies, Universal and Sony, can be traced back directly to Emile Berliner’s companies. A more extensive history of these unbelievable developments and the later upheavals and shifts in the concen-tration of forces involved cannot be dealt with here. 1 However, in order to place the Edition of Contemporary Music (ECM, founded by Manfred Eicher in 1969) in the context of this history, it has to be remembered that the successful development of the recording industry has only been made possible through the underlying basso continuo of a never-ending loop of one particular story from the Bible. The oligopoly was and still is carried on by a multitude of other, smaller contributors. For example, some 500 competing record labels had emerged by 1914 in Germany alone. The history of the recording industry has also always been one of the Goliaths (commonly known as the major labels) and the Davids (commonly known as the independent labels) . And the distribution of roles in this history can normally also be reduced to two simple truths: The big ones make money (the big money, to be precise) and determine the “what, where, and how.” The small ones, however, repeatedly produce key productions of exceptional artistic quality, meaning how, in fact, it “should be.” In return, they get a certain kind of recognition; but make small change, if they earn anything at all. The fact that within this almost vulgar Marxist reductionist model there always have been and always will be exceptions is an essential part

of the narrative. ECM‘s history is also causally related to the emancipation of a certain group of people in these production processes, that is, the emancipation of the musicians. In the context of this essay, this particular history, one of the infinite other possible stories, is to be put into context. I shall attempt to place the background and early history of ECM into an extended history of jazz, starting in the United States in the 1940s. Among other things, that history has to do with the fact that musicians in the years to follow did not only see themselves as entertainers. From that point on, and rightly so I think, they claimed their roles as artists within the framework of responsibility of a yet-unwritten African-American history of music. Or, as it was stated by AACM (the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians, founded in 1965) and by one of its member ensembles, the Art Ensemble of Chicago, on ECM records: Great Black Music: From the Ancient to the Future. Salt Peanuts on Saturn Salt Peanuts is a composition by Dizzy Gillespie and Kenny Clarke from 1942. It was first recorded in 1945, but its most famous version appears on Jazz at Massey Hall, and was recorded live in Toronto on May 15, 1953. Bass player Charles Mingus is accorded responsibility for that recording. Mingus, along with fellow musicians Dizzy Gillespie, Bud Powell, Max Roach, and Charles Parker Jr., had all been invited by the New Jazz Society of Toronto to play the biggest jazz concert of all times with this bebop all-star ensemble. 2 With these recordings, Mingus— together with his former wife Celia and fellow musician Max Roach—started his own record label, Debut Records, in 1953. All the musicians involved were mentioned on the record cover; all of them had been put into an exciting and dynamic, nicely balanced collage, typical of the time. The biggest photo by far showed a slightly stubby man playing alto saxophone. His face is unrecognizable. Charles Parker Jr., the alto player on the photo, was under contract with Mercury Records at the time the album was published, which meant that he should not have allowed this concert to be recorded, let alone allow the recording to be released by his colleagues, Mingus and Roach. In order to avoid contractual problems, the name of the musician put on the record cover was not Charles (or Charlie) Parker, the most famous alto saxophone player in the world, as everybody knew. Instead, he was identified as “Charlie Chan.”


109

Keith Jarrett, n.d. Photo: Andreas Raggenbass


111

LP-Box Sun Bear Concerts (ECM 1110) , 1976


The Library of Sounds: ECM and the High Art of Publishing Music Wolfgang Sandner

Andrรกs Schiff, n.d. Photo: Nan Melville


Cold Stars, Lazy Subjects, Well –Founded Negations: Paul Bley, Annette Peacock, and the Beckett Line at ECM Diedrich Diederichsen

Palle Danielsson, n.d. Photo: Ralph Quinke


123

To such unacknowledged abstraction, Beckett affixes the caustic antithesis by means of acknowledged subtraction. He does not leave out the temporality of existence—all existence, after all, is temporal— but rather removes from existence what time, the historical tendency, attempts to quash in reality. Theodor W. Adorno It is no coincidence that the first ECM release was of music by Mal Waldron. This man not only represented a connection to all the important jazz musicians that he had played with, musicians who were just then beginning to be forgotten. In 1970, he was also a man of the future, who, open to all kinds of new music, had even played with German prog (progressive) rockers like Embryo. He was, as the album title proclaimed, “free at last,” but at the same time he symbolized a connection to the greatest era of African-American composition, such as his association with Charles Mingus. All of these are very important components of the source code for what ECM was intended to become. Most importantly, however—and this will ultimately be decisive for my argumentation in this essay—Waldron was the regular piano accompanist for Billie Holiday for many years. The lady who sang the blues. Who sang the blues like a lady. In the early 1970s, a friend sold me a whole stack of records for a ridiculously small amount of money. He wanted to get rid of them quickly because he was in the middle of changing his life. He had joined the Communist Party in West Germany that promoted the teachings of Enver Hoxhas, the Communist leader of Albania. I later heard that this friend was supposed to bequeath all of his possessions to the Party, perhaps also the couple of deutschmarks he received from me when he sold me the collection which included, among others, Girl from Martinique by Robin Kenyatta; Sart by Jan Garbarek; Music For Two Basses by Dave Holland and Barre Philips; Paris-Concert, a live double album by Circle—a band with Anthony Braxton, Chick Corea, Dave Holland and Barry Altschul; and much, much more free jazz, new music, and, as it was called at the time, progressive rock—like Frank Zappa and Captain Beefheart.

Most of all, I couldn’t hear enough of the Circle double album; I still know every phrase by heart and, along the way, was initiated into becoming familiar with things like label politics. After all, all of the records just listed, and even more, were releases from the relatively new label, ECM—and that was, I believe, the first time I had the opportunity to understand the creative flavor of different covers as a uniform gesture through the collection of the same or similar tunes. I learned to make a correlation between musical expressions that do not initially cohere because they come from different artists and temperaments, understanding them as the business of a label, as a curatorial signature. Added to this was a series of tours, Terje Rypdal performed at the Jazzhaus at Brandstwiete in 1971, while Chick Corea was frequently in Hamburg, and Derek Bailey was a guest at the NDR Jazz Workshop. In my case, the experience with the ECM collection, as well as the uniform and innovative presentation of the label in general, led me and my contemporaries to attribute everything possible that was new and/or not yet present in Germany at the time in international jazz to the authorship of the label, even if ECM was only the first to support a couple of artists in Germany who had already made their marks elsewhere. I was as little aware of the fact that Jan Garbarek had a history with George Russell and releases on the Flying Dutchman label as I was of Paul Bley’s time with Ornette Coleman or Charles Mingus or of his sessions with, again, George Russell. ECM, of course, was not the first label to have such an individual character, to compose itself of a certain musical taste, creative gestures, and even production standards and principles. I had already been enamored of Impulse! before then, followed Harvest and Vertigo for a time, had been aware of Chess, and later, at the beginning of the 1980s, graduated to Rough Trade or Ralph, and then to various labels such as International Artists, Trojan SST, or Qbico. Nevertheless, these earlier and later loyalties came about completely differently in one regard. I followed certain artists for musical reasons and thus gradually began to notice associations in the production style and graphic design of a label—and here was a package with which I was familiar with almost nothing and was forced to deal with the music and the strict, non-pop packaging as two unknowns explaining each other. The fact that this was even possible naturally increased my interest in the label ECM even more.


133

Paul Bley, 1970s Photo: Jochen Mรถnch


Keith Jarrett, concert in Perugia at Umbria Jazz, 1974 Photo: Roberto Masotti


Close Up, In Your Ear, and From a Distance: Musings on “Our” Music via ECM Renée Green


181

Renée Green, “Blutopia,” from Space Poem #3 (Media Bicho) for MoMA Media Lounge, 2012


Renée Green, “A Power Stronger Than Itself,” from Space Poem #3 ( Media Bicho) for MoMA Media Lounge, 2012


Codona: ReOrientation Point for New Planetary Values Kodwo Eshun

Codona (Don Cherry, Colllin Walcott, Nanรก Vasconcelos ) in Stuttgart, 1978, Photo: Roberto Masotti


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Manfred Eicher and Don Cherry, recording session for Codona 2 ( ECM 1177), Ludwigsburg, 1978 Photo: Roberto Masotti


199

Don Cherry, in concert at the Auditorium de Lyon, 1979 Photo: GĂŠrard Amsellem, Lyon-France


MultITalents: Jean – Luc Godard and Manfred Eicher Jürg Stenzl


205

One should not only see Jean-Luc Godard’s more than sixty feature-length films and his considerable number of short films; one should consciously hear them as well. This makes it clear that the most creative cinéaste of the second half of the twentieth century is much more than a filmmaker. One thing is certain: when it comes to thinking, reflecting, and posing questions with the medium of film, there is scarcely anyone who has explored this so thoroughly and with such consistently new questions as he has. But Jean-Luc Godard is much more than a cinematic philosopher. Whoever looks at and listens to the images, the language, the sounds, and the music in his films discovers an incomparable connoisseur, not only of painting (Godard himself paints occasionally), but also an incredibly well-read man whose films quote hundreds of texts. In addition, he is also an outstanding expert of music, even if he has occasionally disputed that description. He spoke with some reserve about the use of music in his films at a relatively late point in his career: “Music expresses the spiritual, and it provides inspiration. When I’m blind, music is my little Antigone; it helps [me] to see the unbelievable. And what has always interested me is the fact that musicians have no need for the image although people involved with images need music. I’ve wanted […] music to take over at the moment when there is no more need to see the images. For music to express something else. What interests me is to see music, to try to see what one is hearing and to hear what one is seeing.” 1 Let us remain with the filmmaker and his use of music. It is not sufficient to simply know as many types of music as possible in order to use them in a film so that they function there as more than a repetition and reinforcement of what the image already says. Godard has gone beyond what the Russian filmmaker Sergei Eisenstein, together with Vsevolod Pudovkin and Grigori Alexandrov, called for in a visionary manifesto in 1928: Music in sound films must act “contrapuntally” to the images. This was nothing less than an appeal to filmmakers to compose with their music—be it with new music composed especially for the films or be it with already existing music from many different centuries and countries—understanding music as an integral part of a whole. Godard did this not only with music, but also with other forms of art as well. From the very beginning he quoted from different literary works, until at one point there was a film in which practically every line of dia-

logue was a quote, not to speak of countless references to other films. Only on the basis of such a composed diversity could his great work, Histoires(s) du cinéma (Histories of Cinema, Gallimard, 1998), a film history of the twentieth century, have been made—and it is not only a matter of film history. Jean-Luc Godard is what one could call multitalented, but even more than that, he is a composer: One of his critical film texts was entitled “Montage, mon beau souci” (Montage, my beautiful care, Cahiers du cinéma, no 65 [December 1956])—even before he had shot his first feature-length film: “If film directing is a glimpse, montage is the heartbeat,” he said. Godard is a composer, even if he has never composed a single note himself, never sung or played an instrument in public and perhaps has never mastered any instrument better than the tennis racket. Jean-Luc Godard and Manfred Eicher: “Spiegel im Spiegel” (Mirror in the Mirror) When one asks how the close collaboration between Godard and Eicher came about and what the cinéaste— the “Vaudois,” the Vaud from Rolle on Lake Geneva and Paris—could have in common with the recordproducer born in Lindau and based in Munich, the answer seems obvious. Much as the film director in question is much more than simply someone who makes movies, the producer is much more than someone who facilitates and manages the recording of music. Just as Godard functions as a musician and a theoretician, a technician and a critic with regard to his films, Eicher is simultaneously an ensemble musician, a conductor, and a listener. Eicher was inspired from an early age by Kind of Blue, Miles Davis’s 1959 album on which John Coltrane, Cannonball Adderley, Bill Evans, and Jimmy Cobb appeared with Paul Chambers—a giant in every regard—on the bass, whose style heavily influenced Eicher as a bassist. How a music enthusiast, however, acquired the indispensable financial, legal, and managerial competencies needed to avoid quickly careening into bankruptcy as a record producer of the most demanding music is a completely different story. It was the year 1984, fifteen years after the founding of the label, when Eicher decided to make a bold expansion to the successful jazz program. The ECM New Series,


comprising both old and very old music, from Johann Sebastian Bach to contemporary music, largely ignoring the profitable canon of concert-hall music of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. It must have been shocking to the record industry that this musician/producer not only survived with his decidedly individual ideas and demands but that he was also able to become internationally successful. Not even Eicher would have dreamed that the jazz label and then the New Series would create not a worldwide “social network” ( in today’s pretentious language ) but instead a “musical network”—in the words of Godard and Anne-Marie Miéville—an “ECM family” of musicians and their listeners. How he discovered the films of Godard is one of the few biographical details that Eicher has ever spoken about publicly: “A love for music drove my life from childhood on, later, gradually, accompa-nied by a growing interest in cinema. The simultaneous involvement in music and film marked the time I spent studying music in Berlin. The places for both passions were located across the street from each other: The music academy on the north side of Hardenbergstraße, Kino Am Steinplatz on the south side, with a four-lane highway between them. It was in this theater that I first saw films by Roberto Rossellini, Ingmar Bergman, Jean-Luc Godard, and Robert Bresson. There was one film that especially engaged me: Godard’s Vivre sa vie with Anna Karina 2: a quiet, rhythmically composed film with a pronounced design concept for light, sound, and music and a self-will for the art of omission that Godard mastered so rigorously even at the start of his career. I sent him records as musical messages for twenty years that then would appear in his erratic later work. His Histoire(s) du cinéma is also a history of music.” 3 Godard’s multiple talents unmistakably showed themselves in his third feature film, Vivre sa vie (1962). The film does not primarily tell the story of the central character, Nana. Instead, it illuminates “sa vie,” her life, in twelve scenes separated by intertitles (as in silent films). At Godard’s request, the composer for the film, Michel Legrand, wrote a theme with eleven variations in a pastoral, “neo-Bach” style. Yet Godard used no music at all for three of the twelve scenes; a song by Jean Ferrat, “Ma Môme,” for the sixth and the ninth; and a piece of dance music, “Swing, je t’aime,” for an unusual dance scene by Anna Karina. In both cases, the music in the

film is played from a jukebox. For the rest of the film, as the composer later noted with astonishment, Godard used “only the first eight beats of the first variation. In other words, the filmmaker played with the music, manipulated it, cut it apart, pasted it back together, and extended its pauses. This was a kind of remaking of a new creation, always intelligent and inventive. With Godard, I was voluntarily joined in a sort of mutual emulation (émulation réciproque).” 4 In Legrand‘s description of the use of music in Vivre sa vie, one can recognize the constellation that would emerge much later between the filmmaker/musician Godard and the music-maker/cinéaste Eicher and that one could describe with the title of a famous work by Arvo Pärt: “Spiegel im Spiegel” (Mirror in the Mirror). Only decades later did the film connoisseur Eicher make his first film Holozän (Holocene, 1992), adapted from Max Frisch’s late novel Der Mensch erscheint im Holozän (Man in the Holocene, 1978), together with the Swiss filmmaker Heinz Bütler, who made a name for himself with his subtle film portraits of such artists as Alberto Giacometti, Ferdinand Hodler, Balthus or Félix Valloton. Frisch contributed actively to the screenplay. Holozän is not a filmic novel, but instead a haunting, artistic, and acoustic realization of Frisch’s spare language, and in the process he exhibits a thoroughly filmic montage technique. At the center is an old man, played by Erland Josephson, who became famous in the films of Ingmar Bergman and who scarcely says a word in the entire film. His, and by extension the author Max Frisch’s, fictitious world is drawn from the pictures shot in Ticino and Iceland, the persistent sounds of rain and wind, and especially the music. It begins with the instrumental introduction to “Wir setzen uns in Tränen nieder” (We sit down in tears, from Bach’s Johannes-Passion [St. John’s Passion]), followed by music from Jan Garbarek, Keith Jarrett, Paul Hindemith, and Dmitri Shostakovich. In this film, we are again brought into the world of sound of the late period of Jean-Luc Godard, again brought into one of his “emulations,” of which Michel Legrand spoke. Godard’s late films are parables of end-times, no different from Frisch’s farewell to all utopias when faced with a Nature that knows no catastrophes. Holozän is not a literary adaptation, but instead the transposition of a literary masterwork into the genuinely different form of expression of this essentially wordless film.


211


ECM, A chronology COMPILED BY STEVE L AKE


219

1969 The 26-year-old bassist Manfred Eicher, increasingly interested in the recording of music, has already produced a number of albums for small jazz labels and helped as a production assistant at classical sessions for Deutsche Grammophon. The discipline and concentration of the classical session are, he notes, qualities that could usefully be imported into improvised recordings. Encouraged by Munich businessman Karl Egger, Eicher establishes the Edition Zeitgenössischer Musik GmbH—the Edition of Contemporary Music [later ECM]— as a production company and record label. “The idea to have a label came gradually. I’d done some freelance production, but it seemed to make sense to have one place where I could develop these experiments.”. . . The first of ECM’s experiments is with pianist Mal Waldron. As a former sideman for Charles Mingus and Gene Ammons and accompanist / musical director for Billie Holiday, Waldron had been a Munich resident since 1967; his approach to improvising, rooted in the percussive approach of Thelonious Monk and Bud Powell, fascinates local players. Eicher takes Waldron to Ludwigsburg’s Tonstudio Bauer in November. “Mal comes into the studio with a concept, sits in his chair and plays his very definite music. There aren’t too many changes to make. He knows what he is doing” (early Eicher interview in New Musical Express). Martin Wieland, assistant engineer on the Waldron session, will be a dependable ally through the early years of ECM. 1970 On New Year’s Day, Mal Waldron’s Free At Last is issued in a first pressing of 500 copies. Enthusiasm for Mal in faraway Japan ensures that this album sells out and there are two further pressings before year’s end. ECM is in business. . . . Eberhard Weber makes his first label appearance in the eruptive trio of Wolfgang Dauner on Output. Dauner drummer Fred Braceful, who is sometimes also Mal Waldron’s drummer, recommends that Eicher check out the Music Improvisation Company, a new collective that brings free music innovators Evan Parker and Derek Bailey together with former Stockhausen associate and live electronics player Hugh Davies. Their ECM disc maps territory that Parker will explore in detail with his Electro-Acoustic Ensemble a quarter-century later. . . . ECM licenses two 1960s recordings from Paul Bley and releases them as the LP Paul Bley with Gary Peacock. . .. In September, Eicher travels to Oslo to record Jan Garbarek, the striking young saxophonist who has been touring the European festivals with George Russell. It’s a first recording encounter not only with Garbarek, Terje Rypdal, Arild Andersen, and Jon Christensen—the Big Four of Norwegian jazz, as the press will call them—but also with engineer Jan Erik Kongshaug. 1971 Garbarek’s Afric Pepperbird released to extremely positive reviews, with DownBeat magazine writing, “Not since Django Reinhardt has there been a European musician as forward looking as this young Norwegian.” By midsummer, the UK’s Melody Maker is writing that “ECM is rapidly becoming the best label around,” a judgment based upon three new releases: Chick Corea’s solo Piano Improvisations Vol. 1; A.R.C. by the trio of Corea, Dave Holland, and Barry Altschul; and Music from Two Basses by Holland and Barre Phillips. These pioneering releases introduce some key members of the ECM family, and Corea’s unaccompanied disc sets the stage for the label’s important series of solo piano discs. . . . Another landmark recording is Facing You, the solo piano debut of Keith Jarrett, recorded in Oslo. . . . Making albums is one thing, getting them distributed another. In Germany, LPs are still sold primarily by mail order from Gleichmannstrasse 10 in Munich.


ECM Discography 1969 — 2012 …


249 ECM New Series John Adams Harmonium San Francisco Symphony Orchestra and Chorus Edo de Waart: conductor Part 1 – Negative Love Part 2 – Because I Could Not Stop For Death – Wild Nights Recorded January 1984 ECM 1277 Johann Sebastian Bach The Sonatas and Partitas for Violin Solo John Holloway: baroque violin Recorded July and September 2004 ECM 1909/10 2-CD Set Johann Sebastian Bach The Sonatas and Partitas for Violin Solo Gidon Kremer: violin Recorded September 2001 and March 2002 ECM 1926/27 2-CD Set Johann Sebastian Bach Das Wohltemperierte Klavier, Buch I Till Fellner: piano Recorded September 2002 ECM 1853/54 2-CD Set Johann Sebastian Bach Inventionen und Sinfonien / Französische Suite V Till Fellner: piano Inventionen BWV 772 — 786 Sinfonien BWV 787 — 801 Französische Suite V in G-Dur BWV 816 Recorded July 2007 ECM 2043 Johann Sebastian Bach Ich hatte viel Bekümmernis Konzerte und Sinfonien für Oboe Heinz Holliger: oboe, oboe d’amore Camerata Bern Erich Höbarth: violin, conductor Kantate “Ich hatte viel Bekümmernis” BWV 21 Konzert in c-Moll BWV 1060 Oster-Oratorium “Kommt, eilet und laufet” BWV 249 Konzert in A-Dur BWV 1055 Konzert in d-moll Kantate „Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen“ BWV 12 Konzert d-Moll BWV 1059 Recorded December 2010 ECM 2229 András Schiff Johann Sebastian Bach Goldberg Variations András Schiff: piano Recorded October 2001 ECM 1825 Johann Sebastian Bach Six Partitas András Schiff András Schiff: piano Six Partitas BWV 826 — 830 Recorded September 2007 ECM 2001/02 Johann Sebastian Bach Das Wohltemperierte Clavier András Schiff András Schiff: piano Das Wohltemperierte Clavier - Buch I & II Recorded August 2011 ECM 2270 — 73 Johann Sebastian Bach Christoph Poppen The Hilliard Ensemble Morimur Christoph Poppen: baroque violin The Hilliard Ensemble Monika Mauch: soprano David James: countertenor John Potter: tenor

Gordon Jones: baritone Johann Sebastian Bach: Partita d minor BWV 1004 Ciaccona Recorded September 2000 ECM 1765 Johann Sebastian Bach Anton Webern Ricercar Münchener Kammerorchester Christoph Poppen The Hilliard Ensemble Johann Sebastian Bach: Fuga (Ricercata) (orchestrated by Anton Webern) Cantata No. 4 “Christ lag in Todesbanden” Anton Webern: String Quartet 1905 (orchestrated by Christoph Poppen) Five Movements op. 5 Recorded January 2001 ECM 1774 Johann Sebastian Bach Motetten The Hilliard Ensemble Joanne Lunn, Rebecca Outram: sopranos David James, David Gould: countertenors Rogers Covey-Crump: tenor and organ Steven Harrold: tenor Gordon Jones: baritone Robert Macdonald: bass Motets, BMW 225 — 230 Recorded November 2003 ECM 1875 Johann Sebastian Bach Die Kunst der Fuge Keller Quartett András Keller: violin János Pilz: violin Zoltán Gál: viola Ottó Kertész: violoncello Recorded May 1997 ECM 1652 Johann Sebastian Bach Das Wohltemperierte Klavier, Buch I Keith Jarrett: piano Recorded February 1987 ECM 1362/63 2-CD Set Johann Sebastian Bach Goldberg Variations Keith Jarrett: harpsichord Recorded January 1989 ECM 1395 Johann Sebastian Bach Das Wohltemperierte Klavier, Buch II Keith Jarrett: harpsichord Recorded May 1990 ECM 1433/34 2-CD Set Johann Sebastian Bach The French Suites Keith Jarrett: harpsichord Recorded September 1991 ECM 1513/14 2-CD Set Johann Sebastian Bach 3 Sonaten für Viola da Gamba und Cembalo Kim Kashkashian: viola Keith Jarrett: cembalo Sonata G major, BWV 1027 Sonata D major, BWV 1028 Sonata g minor, BWV 1029 Recorded September 1991 ECM 1501 Werner Bärtschi Mozart/Scelsi/Pärt/Busoni/Bärtschi Werner Bärtschi: piano Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Fantasie c minor KV 475 | Adagio b minor KV 540 | Sonata B-flat major KV 333 Giacinto Scelsi: Vier Illustrationen zu den Verwandlungen Vishnus Arvo Pärt: Für Alina Werner Bärtschi: Frühmorgens am Daubensee

Ferruccio Busoni: Toccata Recorded July 1988 ECM 1377 Juliane Banse / András Schiff Songs of Debussy and Mozart Juliane Banse: soprano András Schiff: piano Claude Debussy: Beau soir | Clair de lune | Pierrot Apparition| Pantomime Fêtes galantes, 1er livre: En sourdine | Fantoches | Clair de lune Ariettes oubliées: C’est l’extase langoureuse | Il pleure dans mon cœur | L’ombre des arbres Chevaux de bois | Green | Spleen Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Dans un bois solitaire KV 308 Oiseaux, si tous les ans KV 307 Warnung KV 433 | Der Zauberer KV 472 Das Veilchen KV 476 Sehnsucht nach dem Frühlinge KV 596 Als Luise die Briefe ihres untreuen Liebhabers verbrannte KV 520 Abendempfindung KV 523 Recorded January 2001 ECM 1772 Jean Barraqué Sonata pour piano Herbert Henck: piano Recorded July 1996 ECM 1621 Béla Bartók 44 Duos for Two Violins András Keller, János Pilz: violins Béla Bartók: 44 Duos for Two Violins György Ligeti: Ballad and Dance György Kurtág: Ligatura – Message to Frances-Marie op. 31b Recorded October 1999 ECM 1729 Ludwig van Beethoven Complete Music for Piano and Violoncello András Schiff/Miklós Perényi András Schiff: piano Miklós Perényi: violoncello Sonata F major, op. 5, No. 1 Variations on a theme from Händel’s Oratorio “Judas Maccabaeus” G major WoO 45 Sonata g minor op. 5, No. 2 Sonata F major op. 17 (Horn Sonata) 12 Variations on “Ein Mädchen oder Weibchen“ F major op. 66 Sonata A major op. 69 7 Variations on “Bei Männern, welche Liebe fühlen“ E-flat major WoO 46 Sonata C major op. 102, No. 1 Sonata D major op. 102, No. 2 Recorded December 2001 and August 2002 ECM 1819/20 2-CD Set Ludwig van Beethoven The Piano Sonatas, Volume I András Schiff András Schiff: piano Sonatas opp. 2 and op.7 Recorded March 2004 ECM 1940/41 2-CD Set Ludwig van Beethoven The Piano Sonatas, Volume II András Schiff András Schiff: piano Sonatas opp. 10 and 13 Recorded November 2004 ECM 1942 Ludwig van Beethoven The Piano Sonatas, Volume III András Schiff András Schiff: piano Sonatas opp. 14, 22 and 49 Recorded February 2005 ECM 1943

Ludwig van Beethoven The Piano Sonatas, Volume IV András Schiff András Schiff: piano Sonatas opp. 26, 27 and 28 Recorded April 2005 ECM 1944 Ludwig van Beethoven The Piano Sonatas, Volume V András Schiff András Schiff: piano Sonatas opp. 31 and 53 Recorded December 2005 ECM 1945/46 Ludwig van Beethoven The Piano Sonatas, Volume VI András Schiff András Schiff: piano Sonatas opp. 54, 57, 78, 79 and 81a Recorded April 2006 ECM 1947 Ludwig van Beethoven The Piano Sonatas, Volume VII András Schiff András Schiff: piano Sonatas opp. 90, 101 and 106 Recorded May 2006 ECM 1948 Ludwig van Beethoven The Piano Sonatas, Volume VIII András Schiff András Schiff: piano Sonatas opp. 109, 110 and 111 Recorded September 2007 ECM 1949 Ludwig van Beethoven Piano Concertos Nos. 4 & 5 Till Fellner: piano Orchestre symphonique de Montréal Kent Nagano: conductor Piano Concertos No. 4, op. 58, and No. 5, op. 73 Recorded May and November 2008 ECM 2114 Alban Berg Karl Amadeus Hartmann Tief in der Nacht Juliane Banse: soprano Aleksandar Madžar: piano Alban Berg: Sieben frühe Lieder / Jugendlieder Zwei Lieder nach Theodor Storm Karl Amadeus Hartmann: Lamento Recorded March 2009 ECM 2153 Harald Bergmann Scardanelli Soundtrack from the film by Harald Bergmann Walter Schmidinger: voice Peter Schneider: Scardanelli-piano Noël Lee, Christian Ivaldi: piano Recorded December 1997 and May 1998 ECM 1761 Luciano Berio Voci Kim Kashkashian Kim Kashkashian: viola Radio Symphonieorchester Wien Dennis Russell Davies: conductor Robyn Schulkowsky: percussion Luciano Berio: Voci Sicilian folk music Luciano Berio: Naturale Recorded November 1999 and May 2000 ECM 1735 Biber / Muffat Der Türken Anmarsch John Holloway John Holloway: violin Alosia Assenbaum: organ Lars Ulrik Mortensen: harpischord


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COLOPHON This book was published in conjunction with the exhibition ECM – A Cultural Archaeology held at the Haus der Kunst in Munich from November 23, 2012, to February 10, 2013. Stiftung Haus der Kunst München, gemeinnützige Betriebsgesellschaft mbH Director Okwui Enwezor Team Daniela Burkart, Sylvia Clasen, Arnulf von Dall’Armi, Patrizia Dander, Elena Heitsch, Tina Köhler, Anton Köttl, Isabella Kredler, León Krempel, Teresa Lengl, Anne Leopold, Julienne Lorz, Iris Ludwig, Karin Mahr, Marco Graf von Matuschka, Miro Palavra, Glenn Rossiter, Andrea Saul, Anna Schüller, Cassandre Schmid, Martina Schmid, Ulrich Wilmes Prinzregentenstr. 1 80538 Munich Tel: +49 89 21127 113 www.hausderkunst.de  



ECM - A Cultural Archaeology