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THE FASHION SYSTEM

AND THE ROLE OF THE SUSTAINABLE DESIGNER

HASMIK MATEVOSYAN | MA FASHION COMMUNICATION DESIGN


Paradigms, or the accepted models of how ideas relate to one another, are the sources of systems. If we influence things at the level of a paradigm, then a system can be totally transformed. Paradigms affect ideas and thoughts and are information led. Generally speaking, we resist changes to our paradigms more than any other type of change, although as Meadows states: ‘there’s nothing physical or expensive or even slow about paradigm change. In a single individual it can happen in a millisecond. All it takes is a click in the mind, a new way of seeing’. Fostering this new way of seeing is the ongoing biggest challenge of sustainability for the fashion and textile sector - to build a convincing, reflective and ethical paradigm that is more sustainable by design. (Kate Fletcher, Sustainable Fashion & Textiles, 2008)


CONTENTS PREFACE 5 SUSTAINABILITY 7 IMAGE 1 9 ETHICAL AND PREVAILING FASHION 11 IMAGE 2 11 IMAGE 3 15 HIGH QUALITY RELATIONSHIP 17 IMAGE 4 18 DESIGN IS KEY 21 IMAGE 5 23 MARITAL SYSTEM 27 IMAGE 6 28 TRANSLATION OF MARITAL SYSTEM INTO DESIGN 29 IMAGE 7 30 IMAGE8 30 IMAGE9 31-49 LAST WORDS 51 BIBLIOGRAPHY 53 FIELD RESEARCH 54


5 PREFACE

PREFACE We as designers shape our surroundings. We use the materials our environment offers us and give them back in a shape that represents our vision. People who buy or use our designs, have the choice of selecting what our surroundings will look like. Despite this dynamics, the relation between creators and users is very superficial these days. Economy seems to be the priority instead of responsiveness. For understanding our roles and the consequences of our behaviour we need a high quality relationship between creators and users. We should understand that we carry a huge responsibility and be careful not to destroy by creating. This essay deals with a number of issues in finding the balance between ethical manufacturing and psychology of fashion, offering a new adjusted system as a mainstay for design.


PREFACE 6


7 SUSTAINABILITY

SUSTAINABILITY Sustainability is about researching the issue of creating without destroying our environment. It seems to offer solutions for sustaining biodiversity. Sustainable design is about reusing resources, reducing pollution and recycling. Next to this sustainability also deals with working conditions, making sure that people work in humane conditions, without child labour and earning a fair income. Different certificates ensure that this is controlled and true. These certificates, for example Fair Trade, C2C and GOTS are meant to build trust. Cradle2Cradle is a certificate that reassures that companies work in a closed cycle, meaning no pollution, zero waste and biodegradable or reusable products. Cradle to Cradle suggests to ask one question before we start designing: How do we love all the children of all species for all times? The subject of sustainability itself is huge and it’s not part of the education of the students who will become future designers and users. This creates a threshold for working in a closed cycle. Designers do not know what the tools actually are and how they have to work. They also do not directly grasp their role in the cycle nor how influential their choices are. To gain information, designers need to invest tremendous amounts of time and money. Because of this, when some designers still choose to work in a sustainable way, they do not investigate the whole cycle, but only stick to the creation stage. How we wear the clothes and the ultimate disposal are often ignored. If those stages are being disregarded though, the impact of the investments put into the creation is almost nil (p.11-12).


SUSTAINABILITY

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9 SUSTAINABILITY

RECOGNISE THE VALUE OF BIODIVERSITY

UNDERSTANDING

UNDERSTAND THE KEY DRIVERS OF BIODIVERSITY LOSS

PRESSURE FACTOR + LOCATION = IMPACT

IDENTIFY IMPACT AND CONTRIBUTION TO BIODIVERSITY

RECOGNISE THAT ECOSYSTEM SERVICES HAVE STAKEHOLDERS

SUSTAINING BIODIVERSITY

ACTION

INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS/ CERTIFICATES

• IMAGE 1. Information obtained from: - Fieldresearch, Green Collective Symposium, Crem, Wijnand Broer, 2012 - Epea, Cradle to Cradle


SUSTAINABILITY

PREVENT OR REDUCE PRESSURE/ IMPACT

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DELIVER A POSITIVE CONTRIBUTION

TRANSPARENCY

SUSTAINABILITY

RAISING AWARENESS AMONGST KEY ISSUE PLAYERS

EMPOWERING CONSUMER, KNOWLEDGE AND PSYCHOLOGY


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ETHICAL AND PREVAILING PASHION

ETHICAL AND PREVAILING FASHION ETHICAL FASHION

BACK TO FACTORY

RAW MATERIAL/ RECYCLED MATERIAL

BACK TO THE SHOP/ DESIGNER

BIODEGRADABLE

RECYCLEABLE

SPINNING/ WEAVING/KNITTING

DYEING/FIXING

USE DESSIN/ LASERCUT SELL/ CONSUMER DESIGN MANUFACTURING ETHICAL WORKING CONDITIONS • IMAGE 2. Information obtained from: - Sustainable Fashion & Textiles, Design Journeys, Kate Fletcher, 2008 - Ethical Fashion Forum, www.ethicalfashionforum. - Forum For The Future, www.forumforthefuture.org - Mode ontwerp, Sue Jenkyn Jones, 2005


ETHICAL AND PREVAILING FASHION

Research from the Netherlands shows that the average piece of clothing stays in a Dutch person’s wardrobe for 3 years 5 months, is on the body for 44 days during this time and is worn between 2,4 and 3,1 days before being washed. Yet even though the typical garment is only washed and dried around 20 time in its life, most of its environmental impact comes from laundering and not from growing, processing and producing the fabric or disposing it at the end of its lifetime. The biggest gain in environmental performance for many fashion and textile pieces can be made by tackling the impact arising from their washing and drying. Choice of materials, production efficiency issues and waste also matter, but for frequently washed items they do not achieve resource savings on the same scale as can be done by influencing laundry practices (Kate Fletcher, Sustainable Fashion & Textiles, 2008).

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ETHICAL AND PREVAILING PASHION

In our search for Sustainable Fashion we are risking losing sight of fashion itself, and just produce ethically made products called garments. I have found two reasons why Ethical Fashion has a different image than High Fashion. Firstly, Ethical Fashion does not fit into the systems through which fashion is being created and spread (Image 3). Prevailing fashion knows several downward spirals, going from high quality, exclusive, expensive and limited pieces to a mass dissemination of cheap, poor copies to final deterioration. The most important element of Sustainable Fashion is the way it has been manufactured, while in Prevailing Fashion the main focus is on the design, the way it looks and the vision it communicates. Because of this difference cheaper versions cannot be made in Ethical Fashion by bad copies and usage of cheap materials. So the downward spiral as it works in Prevailing Fashion is impossible in this case. Another way should be found. (p. 32) The second issue is that if high society film and popstars of today are wearing ethically made clothes, they are not wearing it for how it looks or the status of the style primarily, but for the support they give to the environmental matter*. It seems to be more of a charity statement than a fashion statement. This changes the reason of wearing an ethically manufactured garment. The two reasons I named are the main causes of why Ethical Fashion is not being spread as quickly as the polluting Prevailing Fashion. The downward spiral of Fashion today harms people, animals and the planet. Ethical Fashion is trying to stop this, but at the same time it is trying to be spread through the systems of Prevailing Fashion. A second problem that occurs next to the fact that it can’t be spread, is that the closing the cycle of Ethical Fashion itself is being blocked,


ETHICAL AND PREVAILING FASHION

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because most of the time the designers and manufacturers forget about the role of the consumers in the cycle. Here, as mentioned before, the use and disposal are being ignored and so the impact of all the effort is almost none and the garment ends up in the garbage or the clothing containers which then encumber the fashion industry of the countries where the garments are being sold for very cheap prices. What has happened for the use stage today is the development of biodegradable detergents and efficient washing machines. But as long as there is no mind switch on the consumer’s side, the effect will not be impressive. Two new developments are seen today for getting the garment back from the consumer. The first option is about motivating people to bring their unwanted, used clothes back to a shop and receive a discount on new garments. It is not clear yet what happens with the garments after they have been brought to the shop. The second option is to link a code with a garment made out of recyclable material to be able to track it and make sure that it doesn’t disappear out of the cycle. No developmentshave been recognized as yet which make the user an active participant of the cycle. There is no interaction with the consumer, which also means that no high quality relationship can be built, nor conscious appreciation or full awareness. This is the most intriguing part I want to focus on, because of the dynamics of the human behaviour, fashion psychology and the fact that most of the pollution happens in this stage.

* Ethical Fashion: celebraties with heart, 2012, www.tellusfashion.com


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ETHICAL AND PREVAILING PASHION

FASHION SYSTEMS

TRICKLE DOWN EFFECT

FROM ACCEPTANCE TO DETERIORATION

EXCLUSIVE HIGH SOCIETY FILM- AND POPSTARS

A NEW STYLE APPEARS ON THE CATWALK

THE PEOPLE WHO INTERACT WITH THEM, EARLY FOLLOWERS

SEEN IN NEWSPAPERS AND SPECIALIST JOURNALS

READERS OF NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES. INDEPENDENT SHOPS, FIRST COPIES MIDDLE CLASS, IN THE BETTER CLOTHING STORES FOR SALE GENERAL PUBLIC, CLOTHING AVAILABLE EVERYWHERE MASS DISSEMINATION EXPENSIVE VERSIONS APPEAR IN EXCLUSIVE STORES FASHION FREAKS ASK FOR A SPECIAL VERSION MAGAZINES, NEWSPAPERS AND TV INDICATE THE TREND MIDDLE CLASS GIVES THE TREND A NAME FASHION ON THE STREET AND IN THE LOWER CLASS BUBBLE UP EFFECT

ADOPTED BY LEADERS IN THE FASHION BE SEEN IN GLOSSY MAGAZINES AND TV WORN BY FASHION CONSCIOUS PEOPLE CHEAPER VERSIONS MADE SEEN IN MAGAZINES AND ON TV DEMAND FOR GREATER SUPPLY BAD COPIES MADE WORN BY FASHION FOLLOWERS THE CONSUMER LOSES INTEREST SALE LEADERS WANT NOTHING TO DO WITH IT AND CHANGE TO ANOTHER STYLE


ETHICAL AND PREVAILING FASHION

THE PRICE CYCLE

FASHION CYCLE

DEMAND FOR NEW STYLE REPLACES THE OLD

COLOR AND STYLE FORECASTERS

BEGINNING OF THE SEASON

FIBER SPINNERS AND DYERS THE FABRICS ARE WOVEN AND PRINTED

HIGHEST PRICE AND EXCLUSIVITY

TEXTILE EXHIBITIONS

HIGH PRICES AND BETTER VERSIONS IN STORES

FASHION DESIGNER

LOWERING THE PRICE THROUGH GREATER AVAILABILITY AFFORDABLE FOR THE GENERAL PUBLIC

PATTERN DEVELOPMENT INSPIRATION

BARGAINS AT MARKET STALLS SALE UNSOLD AWAY NEW STYLE ON THE CATWALK

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YARN SHOWS FASHION DESIGNER KNITWEAR INSPIRATION SAMPLE COLLECTION SHOWS AND ORDERS FROM BUYERS SALES ANALYSIS CUSTOMIZE PATTERNS

PURCHASING FABRICS

PRODUCTION OF CLOTHING AND QUALITY CHECK ALLOCATION, PACKING AND SHIPPING SHOP BUYER

• IMAGE 3. Information obtained from: - Mode ontwerp, Sue Jenkyn Jones, 2005

SALES ANALYSIS START OF NEXT CYCLE


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HIGH QUALITY RELATIONSHIP

HIGH QUALITY RELATIONSHIP The relationship people have with a brand today is of low quality. Consumers do not have a bond with the brand, especially since the digital revolution allows to find information about what happens behind the scenes, for example in sweatshops. Because of this low quality relationship brands need to strategically keep presenting themselves as desirable for ensuring the sustaining of the company. Also the relationship that people have with their clothes, is of low quality. People mostly don’t dwell on the fact that actual people have made it possible for one to participate in society dressed as chosen. People do not appreciate the garments because of the lack of actual understanding of their value*. The interaction with the creators of the garment (resource farmer, designer, producer, sewer) has become abstract and invisible today, causing the appreciation and the gratitude to almost have disappeared. The garment as well is being treated as a utensil which can easily be replaced by another most of the time, since there are so many cheap ones available. This is where the mind switch has to happen. The focus today is on Relational Design (Image 5). A designer always had to work in relation to a user and more or less pay attention to the function of a product. Fashion designers also had to incorporate modesty and decoration in their work, since fashion has more of a psychological side to it than the products we use only functionally. According to J.C. Flugel the tension between modesty and decoration is key in fashion. * De macht van mode, Mode als een tekensysteem, Kleding is een ding, Dirk Lauwaert


HIGH QUALITY RELATIONSHIP

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RELATIONSHIPS

HIGH QUALITY (CLOSE RELATIONSHIPS)

BOTH SIDED • RESPONSIVENESS • SEXUALITY • STABILITY/ SATISFACTION • LACK OF CONFLICT • TRUST • CARE • SYMMETRY BETWEEN PROVIDER AND RECIPIENT OF RESPONSIVENESS. • 2 PEOPLE UNDERSTAND, VALIDATE AND CARE FOR EACH OTHER.

LOW QUALITY

ONE SIDED • ONE PERSON HAS GREATER ABILITY AND MOTIVATION TO PROVIDE RESPONSIVENESS AND THE OTHER IS PRIMARILY A RECIPIENT OF RESPONSIVENESS.

• NO RESPONSIVENESS • MANIPULATION • USE OF THE PARTNER FOR OWN NEEDS • INDIFFERENCE • SLUGGISHNESS • INSTABILITY/ DISSATISFACTION • CONFLICT • ASYMMETRY BETWEEN PROVIDER AND RECIPIENT OF RESPONSIVENESS • TWO PEOPLE MISUNDERSTAND, DISAPPROVE/ INVALIDATE, IGNORE AND DISLIKE ONE ANOTHER • DISTRUST • NEGLECT

• IMAGE 4. Information obtained from: - Handbook of Social Psychology, Volume one, fifth petitiën, edited by T. Fiske Daniel,T. Gilbert Gardner Lindzey.


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HIGH QUALITY RELATIONSHIP

Acknowledging the fact that both designers and users have equal control over the decision making process and given the psychology behind fashion it is important not to just have a relationship between the two parties, but to have a high quality relationship between them for ensuring a long-lasting collaboration and effect. Responsiveness is key when it comes to relationships. Without relationship members being responsive to one another in the case of conflict the relationship would not be considered as high-quality, close relationship from the present perspective. Closeness goes along with the degree of motivation to respond supportively to the other’s welfare. This degree of motivation refers to the extent to which the person is willing to act, non-contingently, in ways that promote the others welfare, and is indexed by the costs in time, effort, money, and emotional investments the person is willing to incur to benefit the partner. (Mills, Clark, Ford & Johnson, 2004)

Closeness overlaps with intimacy, and with the concept of communal strength. It is also greatly facilitated by trust, because trust allows the fortitude to care for others unconditionally and is crucial for being willing to reveal one’s vulnerabilities and allow others to care for the self. It is also facilitated in important ways by commitment, because commitment keeps one in a relationship, allowing one to keep being responsive even in the face of a partner’s poor behaviour, and facilitates forgiveness and sacrifice. Commitment seems to promote maintenance in a relationship, as well as striving for responsiveness rather than continually strategically presenting oneself as a desirable partner, evaluating the other, and protecting oneself from risking dependence on the partner.


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Whereas in many close relationships partners are both the provider and recipient of responsiveness, a relationship does not have to be mutual and symmetrical for a sense of closeness to exist. Even though, at times, one party has greater ability, motivation, or both to provide responsiveness and the other is primarily a recipient of responsiveness, a sense of closeness can and often does exist in relationships that might be described as fairly ‘one-sided’. If we translate the theory of close relationship of social psychology to the relation between creators and users, we see that it is a mutual relationship because both parties have equal control in shaping our surroundings. One creates the options/ products and the other selects by purchasing. Creators and users should have symmetry in responsiveness regarding each other. The relationship between parties and products is one-sided, since the product is not able to interact and adjust to our desires. However, it does represent an outcome of the interaction between designers and buyers and it fulfils psychological and functional needs.

* De macht van mode, Mode als een tekensysteem, Kleding is een ding, Dirk Lauwaert * The psychology of Clothes, J.C. Flugel, 1930


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DESIGN IS KEY

DESIGN IS KEY Before a garment can be chosen and worn by buyers, it has to be designed and manufactured first. The designer’s role is crucial here, because he has to ensure that the garment is functional and desirable enough to be selected. Next to this he can also influence the amount of pollution created during the manufacturing and use of the designs. Design is also key for raising creativity and inspiring other future designers to follow the example. Over the last century design has known several waves going from shape to content to context. In 1900’s designers were searching for a language of form that was plastic and mutable, think of The Style and Constructivism. In the 60’s the focus shifted to the symbolic value of the product, Cultural Symbolism is an example of this change. In the 90’s the focus shifted again to the products effect on the user. Design explores the realm of contexts (social, cultural, political, geographical, technological and psychological). Designs today are meant for making designs, also known as Relational Design. The consumer today wants to be part of the creation or the decision making process. That is the core of Relational Design. User’s can find all the desired information about a product online and there are new developments enabling users to co-design a garment*, by deciding what print should be used or what the length of the garment should be. Since the relation between the creators and users has become so dynamic, and since the relation between a wearer and a worn garment


DESIGN IS KEY

has always been dynamic, it is time to implement the knowledge we have about high quality relations. Before doing so, I have looked into an existing powerful system that deals with building a relationship between people and providing trust, commitment, responsiveness, communal strength, forgiveness and sacrifice. This is The System of Marriage and it has existed for more than 6000 years.

* United Styles, www.unitedstyles.com

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DESIGN IS KEY

• IMAGE 5. Information obtained from: - This is service design thinking, Stickdorn/ Schneider, 2012 - Towards Relational Design, Andrew Bluvelt, 2008

HUMAN CENTRED DESIGN

RELATIONAL DESIGN

PROBLEM FRAMING INFORMATION GATHERING AND INTERPRETATION SOLUTION IDEATION DEVELOPMENT EVALUATION

DESIGNS FOR MAKING DESIGNS • SELF SERVICE • CO-PRODUCTION • SOCIAL NETWORKING

EXPLORING DESIGN EFFECTS: • ON THE USER • PRAGMATIC AND PROGRAMMATIC CONSTRAINS • RHETORIC IMPACT • ABILITY TO FACILITATE SOCIAL INTERACTION

EXPLORE TOOLS • STAKEHOLDERS MAPS • SERVICE SAFARIS • SHADOWING • CUSTOMER JOURNEY MAPS • CONTEXTUAL INTERVIEWS • THE 5 WHYS • CULTURAL PROBES • MOBILE ETHNOGRAPHY • A DAY IN THE LIFE • EXPECTATION MAPS • PERSONAS

INTERACTIVITY OPEN SOURCE COLLABORATION DESIRABILITY


DESIGN IS KEY

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LINKS THE USER TO POSITIVE EXPERIENCE

PRE-EMPT THE ACTUAL SERVICE PROCESS

CONTROL CUSTOMER EXPECTATION

CREATE & REFLECT

IMPLEMENT

• IDEA GENERATION • WHAT IF GAME • DESIGN SCENARIOS • STORYBOARDS • DESKTOP WALKTHROUGH • SERVICES PROTOTYPES • SERVICE STAGING • AGILE DEVELOPMENT • CO CREATION

• STORYTELLING • SERVICE BLUEPRINT • SERVICE ROLEPLAY • CUSTOMER LIFECYCLE MAPS • BUSINESS MODEL CANVAS

PROMOTE TRUST DURING INTERACTION

UNDERSTAND THE WORLD OF THE TARGET AUDIENCE

ARTICULATE VISUAL APPEARANCE USER RESEARCHER

DESIGN ENGINEER

PLEASURABILITY UTILITY USABILITY

DESIGNERS ROLE


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MARITAL SYSTEM

The effect of marriage on people’s individual lives has always depended on its function in economic and social life, functions that have changed over time. A theory about marriage in the Palaeolithic era, described in Stephany Coontz’ book (Marriage, a History) suggests that it was meant to forge networks of cooperation beyond the immediate family groups or local band. The establishment of marriage and kinship ties in both camps would reassure that the cooperation would last for a lifetime. Gradually marriage exchanges became a way of consolidating resources rather than creating cycle of reciprocal obligations and connections. With the growth of inequality in society, the definition of an acceptable marriage narrowed. Wealthy kin groups refused to marry with poorer ones and disavowed any children born to couples whose marriage they hadn’t authorized. Marriage became a way for powerful kin groups to accumulate people and property. It became the primary vehicle for transmitting status and property. In the eighth century B.C. politics and the system of justice of aristocrats, as well as the military was still based on family ties and marital alliances. This changed when the foundation of Athens democracy was laid in 508 B.C. The gender roles kept changing and being registered according to law. The marital system has always adjusted to the changes in society. The Roman Empire (64 B.C. – 330 A.C) left behind a model for organising political life, military campaigns and the administration of justice in ways that did not allow powerful aristocrats to manipulate marriage ties and personal loyalties to gain power. It introduced mechanisms for organising military affairs, tax collection and legal right that didn’t depend on marital alliances, blood descent or local allegiances. Christianity changed the history of marital politics in the West from 330 A.C on. It became the

• Information obtained from: - Marriage, a History, Stephany Coontz


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empire’s official religion and church officials began to act as tax collectors, record keepers and legal representatives of the state as well as spiritual leaders. With no army and no state officials to keep order and administer justice, individuals again had to rely on their broader kin groups for protection and support, just as in Homer’s Greece. Marriage once again became central to the conduct of politics and wars. Laws and prohibitions, such as the one of Pope Gregory II in 721 A.C, which forbade to marry with the godmother of one’s child or with the mother of one’s godchild, for preventing incest from happening became a useful political weapon in the power struggles. Aristocrats had to take the Church’s definition of incest into account when planning a marriage. Religion (Catholics and later Protestants) narrowed their criteria for a valid marriage in the 16th century, increasing the number of illegitimate children. The marriage of the 17th century knew strict divorce laws, individual freedom to choose or refuse a partner, concubines with no legal status, couples that married later and were closer to each other in age and establishment of independent household upon marriage. The market economy and ideas of Enlightenment changed marriage and the roles of husband and wife. The husband became the family’s economic motor and the wife its sentimental core. By the end of the 1700’s personal choice of partner had replaced arranged marriage as a social ideal, and individuals were encouraged to marry for love. For the first time in 5000 years, marriage became to be seen as a private relationship, between two individuals rather than a link in a larger system of political and economic alliances.


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MARITAL SYSTEM

MARITAL SYSTEM For understanding why the Marital System has survived through such a long time and what its base elements are, which I could implement into the idea mapping as a mainstay for design (Image 9), I have made a timeline from 2012 till 4000 B.C. The system was actually a communication funnel through which people were being told what was expected of them in the society, regarding gender roles and reproduction. Because marriage included all the fundaments of society (Politics, Economy, Jurisdiction and Religion/ Faith) and communicated them to the personal lives of people, marriage became the base of society and was no longer only meant for survival. Once the subjective element of Emotions was introduced into the Marital System it started to lose its dictating power. Society noticed that the system started changing from the inside out. The participants of the system, namely the husband and wife, in-laws, the children, mistresses and suitors, friends and neighbours started acting on a base of uncontrollable, subjective motives. Many feared that this might destroy marriage and with it society. The only thing that got destroyed though, was the dictating power, now people were deciding themselves what they wanted their marriage to be like, and this in turn influenced the base of society. Today we are not choosing for marriage primarily to strengthen our relationship or to survive, but instead we have the choice of marrying when we have a high quality relationship with someone. It has become a personal choice.


MARITAL SYSTEM

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• CHILDREN • MEMORIES • FORGIVENESS AND SACRIFICE NO LEGAL RIGHTS BINDING RELATION/ ENGAGEMENT

ADULTERY

MEN

WOMEN BASE OF THE SOCIETY

GENDERROLES

MARRIAGE

ECONOMY

POLITICS

JURISDICTION

• PERSONAL CHOICE • STATUS • PRIVATE PROPERTY • FAMILY PROPERTY • CONSUMPTION

EMOTION

PURPOSE • LOVE • RELIGION • SURVIVAL

• INHERITANCE • LEGAL RIGHTS • VOWS • SEXUALITY • RESPONSIVENESS • STABILITY • TRUST

• IMAGE 6. Information obtained from: - Marriage, a History, Stephany Coontz, 2005 - Een goed huwelijk bestaat uit sleur, NRC Weekend, Ger Groots, 2012 - Liefde is...... Evalueren, NRC Weekend, Joke Hermsen, 2012


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TRANSLATION OF MARITAL SYSTEM INTO DESIGN

TRANSLATION OF MARITAL SYSTEM INTO DESIGN When I analysed the Marital System I realized that what makes this system so powerful is the fact that it is linked with the fundaments of society and the fact that it is a flexible system always adjusting to social changes. These are crucial elements to make a system sustain through time. I have translated the system of marriage with it’s core elements into idea mapping for the fashion industry in the following way. It consist of two sides, the macro side (Politics, Economy, Jurisdiction and Purpose) and the micro side (Manufacturing, Choice, Product and Interaction). In-between (Design) all the information is being translated, designed and communicated. The two sides are influencing each other accordingly and maintain in balance, promising a sustaining effect. On the following pages I will show the Idea map unclosed step by step, Starting with Economy and finishing with Interaction. I will explain how we can implement the knowledge discussed above into design.


TRANSLATION OF MARITAL SYSTEM INTO DESIGN

ECONOMY

POLITICS

JURISDICTION

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PURPOSE

MARRIAGE BASE OF THE SOCIETY

EMOTION

GENDERROLES

BINDING RELATION/ ENGAGEMENT

• IMAGE 7. - See image 6.

‘There’s nothing physical or expensive or even slow about paradigm change. In a single individual it can happen in a millisecond. All it takes is a click in the mind, a new way of seeing’. (D. H. Meadows, Places to intervene in a system, Whole Earth, 1997)

ECONOMY

POLITICS

JURISDICTION

PURPOSE

DESIGN

MANUFACTURING • IMAGE 8. - See image 7 and image 9.

PRODUCT

CHOICE

INTERACTION


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TRANSLATION OF MARITAL SYSTEM INTO DESIGN

ECONOMY

FASHION CYCLE COLOR AND STYLE MATERIAL CONCEPT DESIGN SAMPLE COLLECTION SHOW AND REACTIONS ANALYSIS AND IMPLEMENTATION PRODUCTION SALE REUSE RECYCLE/ BIODEGRADE

PRICE CYCLE NEW STYLE HIGHEST PRICE/ OWN HIGH PRICE RENT MID PRICE/ OWN REUSE LOW PRICE/ RENT REUSE RECYCLE/ BIO DEGRADE

• IMAGE 9. - Linked with image 3 and image 7.


TRANSLATION OF MARITAL SYSTEM INTO DESIGN

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The elements of Economy include the general meaning within society, but also the translation into fashion, such as the Fashion Cycle and the Fashion Price cycle. Here I suggest a new way of disseminating Ethical Fashion. Since it is not possible to make the garments cheaper by producing poor copies and since it is desired to make the lifecycle of a garment last for a longer time I suggest 4 choices: • Buy new, which means exclusivity, highest quality and ownership. • Buy used, which can be linked with the vintage-feeling and the buyer will still be able to own an affordable design piece. The price can be lower because it has been sold already once, so the desired income is already received once. • Rent new, means the feeling of affordable exclusivity and high quality service. Since the garment will be reused by renting it again, the price can be divided over multiple uses. This means that the price would be lower, even lower than when buying vintage. The reason is that renting implies that the garment will be returned and rented again. When it is being bought, it is not clear in what condition it will be returned when the garment is no longer desired. It can be worn out and only suitable for recycling. The crux of the matter of return must be communicated and motivated. People can for example receive a discount when returning used garments. The garments can also be tracked with their unique code. • Rent vintage, the lowest price option. The Fashion Cycle as we know it from the Prevailing Fashion (image 3) is unlike suggested by the name linear and creates pollution after every go. I suggest to keep the system by only replacing the element ‘away’ with ‘reuse’ and ‘recycle/biodegrade’ to turn it into a real fashion cycle.


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TRANSLATION OF MARITAL SYSTEM INTO DESIGN

POLITICS TRICKLE DOWN EFFECT EXCLUSIVE PEOPLE EARLY FOLLOWERS FOLLOWERS OF FOLLOWERS MIDDLE CLASS GENERAL PUBLIC MASS DISSEMINATION

RELATIONAL DESIGN DESIGN FOR MAKING DESIGN • SELF SERVICE • CO-PRODUCTION • SOCIAL NETWORKING OPEN SOURCE COLLABORATION DESIGNERS ROLE • DESIGN ENGINEER • USER RESEARCH • ARTICULATE VISUAL APPEARANCE USER’S ROLE • INTERACTIVITY • FEEDBACK DESIRABILITY

• PLEASURABILITY • UTILITY • USABILITY


TRANSLATION OF MARITAL SYSTEM INTO DESIGN

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Politics contains ideas about how to integrate the status element of fashion. This is much linked with the Price Cycle and the amount of items produced. It also contains the democratic relational design, meaning a way of designing and co-creating together with the users, instead of forcing an idea or product upon its users.

• IMAGE 9. - Linked with image 3, image 5 and image7.


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TRANSLATION OF MARITAL SYSTEM INTO DESIGN

JURISDICTION LAWS TAXES INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATS TRANSPARENCY COPYRIGHT

• IMAGE 9. - Linked with image 6 and image 7.


TRANSLATION OF MARITAL SYSTEM INTO DESIGN

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Jurisdiction deals with the rules according to which people can work, the contract that will ensure that people can trust the situation, the user and the creator. This section indicates the legal obligations and guidelines which we should not ignore when making decisions regarding design, manufacturing, price, use, disposal and recycling, and it also provides safety.


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TRANSLATION OF MARITAL SYSTEM INTO DESIGN

PURPOSE SUSTAINING BIODIVERSITY UNDERSTANDING • RECOGNISE THE VALUE OF BIODIVERSITY • UNDERSTAND THE KEY DRIVERS OF BIODIVERSITY LOSS • PRESSURE FACTOR + LOCATION = IMPACT • RECOGNISE THAT ECOSYSTEM SERVICES HAVE STAKEHOLDERS ACTION • IDENTIFY IMPACT AND CONTRIBUTION TO BIODIVERSITY • PREVENT OR REDUCE PRESSURE/ IMPACT • DELIVER A POSITIVE CONTRIBUTION

• IMAGE 9. - Linked with image 1 and image 7.

RAISING AWARENESS • KEY ISSUE PLAYERS • STAKEHOLDERS


TRANSLATION OF MARITAL SYSTEM INTO DESIGN

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Purpose offers the motivation for people to participate in this adjusted way of designing and using the product/ garment. This is the idea of sustainability itself and the sustaining of biodiversity. It’s also about providing future generations with the same or even a better environment. It is necessary to motivate the key issue players (producers, designers and buyers) and other stakeholders (sellers and communicators) because they are the role models for others.


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TRANSLATION OF MARITAL SYSTEM INTO DESIGN

DESIGN EXPLORE • STAKEHOLDERS MAPS • SERVICE SAFARIS • CUSTOMER JOURNEY MAPS • SHADOWING • CONTEXTUAL INTERVIEWS • THE 5 WHYS • CULTURAL PROBES • MOBILE ETHNOGRAPHY • A DAY IN THE LIFE • EXPECTATION MAPS • PRESONAS

CREATION AND REFLECT • IDEA GENERATION • WHAT IF GAME • DESIGN SCENARIOS • STORYBOARDS • DESKTOP WALKTHROUGH • SERVICE PROTOTYPES • SERVICE STAGING • AGILE DEVELOPMENT • CO-CREATION

IMPLEMENT • STORYTELLING • SERVICE BLUEPRING • SERVICE ROLEPLAY • CUSTOMER LIFECYCLE MAPS • CONTEXTUAL INTERVIEWS • BUSINESS MODEL CANVAS • IMAGE 9. - Linked with image 3, image 6 and image 7.


TRANSLATION OF MARITAL SYSTEM INTO DESIGN

40

COMMUNICATE • PYYSICAL PRESENTATION • SPECIAL JOURNALS • NEWSPAPERS • ADOPTED BY LEADERS • GLOSSY MAGAZINES

This is the creation/ translation stage. This is where decisions are being made about what the realization of the section just discussed, and the section yet to be reviewed (see the following of the idea mapping), will look like and how this will be communicated. This is a toolbox, divided into 4 sections: Explore, Create & Reflect, Implement and Communicate. Not all tools are necessarily used together, but depending on which tool fits the situations best. In the stage of Exploring, the focus is on gathering and interpreting information for problem framing and solution ideation. This is being followed by the development of the first steps of creation, namely moodboards and prototypes. All this is being evaluated before taking the next step. Here designers try to understand the user’s desires and needs and the context of design. During the next stage, the interaction with the users begins, meaning the actual service or product is being tested. It is crucial to promote trust during the first interactions and to control consumers expectations. The feedback can be used to articulate visual appearance of the design.


41

TRANSLATION OF MARITAL SYSTEM INTO DESIGN

When the preceding steps have worked out well, it’s time for the actual Implementation of the design into our surroundings and to explore its effects on the user. Does the garment satisfy the expectations of the key issue players? Is nobody getting hurt? Have we created without destruction? Are the users being linked with a positive experience? When Implementing, we are also communicating what has been created, how it is designed to be used and how it is designed to be disposed. At the same time we as designers are also listening to the reactions, we are observing human behaviour and body language. All this information is useful for the next cycle.


TRANSLATION OF MARITAL SYSTEM INTO DESIGN

42


43

TRANSLATION OF MARITAL SYSTEM INTO DESIGN

MANUFACTURING CLOSED CYCLE

RECYCLE

RECYCLEABLE

BIO DEGRADABLE

MATERIAL

BACK TO THE FACTORY REUSE

SPINNING/ WEAVING/KNITTING DYEING/ FIXING

BACK TO THE CREATOR SELL/ RENT MANUFACTURING ETHICAL WORKING CONDITIONS

• IMAGE 9. - Linked with image 1, image 2 and image 7.

DESSIN/ LASERCUT DESIGN


TRANSLATION OF MARITAL SYSTEM INTO DESIGN

44

The Manufacturing shows the steps of the closed cycle. To assure the closing of the cycle and minimal pollution during usage, the relationship between the participants within the cycle (resource farmers, producers, transporters, sewers, designers, photographers, brand communicators, marketers, consumers, recycling team) and the products of fashion (garments, shoes, accessories) should be of high quality, built on trust, responsiveness and commitment.


45

TRANSLATION OF MARITAL SYSTEM INTO DESIGN

PRODUCT NEW TO BUY

• BIO DEGRADABLE • RECYCLEABLE

• MODESTY • DECORATION • PROTECTION

NEW TO RENT

VINTAGE TO BUY

VINTAGE TO RENT

• IMAGE 9. - Linked with image 1, image 2 and image 7.


TRANSLATION OF MARITAL SYSTEM INTO DESIGN

46

The garments creation is linked with several conditions of ethical manufacturing and fashion psychology as you can find on the left. There are 4 options of using the garment (p.32), which also should be considered when designing. For example if a garment is meant to have a long lifecycle by it being rented, it is safe to manufacture it in a high quality and the design to be inspired by timeless garments. What a long lifecycle also means is that the amount of times that it will be washed is higher. To prevent this designers can make decisions regarding the material used or ventilation in the garment.


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TRANSLATION OF MARITAL SYSTEM INTO DESIGN

CHOICE CREATION • SELF SERVICE • CO-PRODUCTION • SOCIAL NETWORKING

USE • BUY • RENT • RECEIVE ATTENTION • BLEND IN WITH THE CROWD • FUNCTIONAL GARMENTS

• IMAGE 9. - Linked with image 2 and image 7.


TRANSLATION OF MARITAL SYSTEM INTO DESIGN

We have freedom in choosing our role and the way we want to interact with both creator and product. This is linked with the four choices of the Fashion Cycle mentioned above. Choice is a very important element of the realization side, because it replaced the downward dictating spiral of current Prevailing Fashion. This also enables building a relationship because there is room for personal decisions and freedom.

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49

TRANSLATION OF MARITAL SYSTEM INTO DESIGN

INTERACTION KEY ISSUEPLAYERS • GOVERNMENT • PRODUCERS • DESIGNERS • CONSUMERS • COMMUNICATORS

RELATIONSHIPS ONE SIDED

• ONE PERSON HAS GREATER ABILITY AND MOTIVATION TO PROVIDE RESPONSIVENESS AND THE OTHER IS PRIMARILY A RECIPIENT OF RESPONSIVENESS.

• IMAGE 9. - Linked with image 2, image 4 and image 7.

BOTH SIDED

• RESPONSIVENESS • SEXUALITY • STABILITY/ SATISFACTION • LACK OF CONFLICT • TRUST • CARE • SYMMETRY BETWEEN PROVIDER AND RECIPIENT OF RESPONSIVENESS. • 2 PEOPLE UNDERSTAND, VALIDATE AND CARE FOR EACH OTHER.


TRANSLATION OF MARITAL SYSTEM INTO DESIGN

50

There are several key issue players without whom a lasting change is not possible. Those participants have an important role in the decision-making and realization process. For everyone to stay motivated it’s crucial to maintain a good mutual relationship amongst each other and feel appreciated.


51

LAST WORDS

LAST WORDS Several conclusions were reached and discoveries made during my research which have helped me to create an idea mapping that can be used by sustainable designers in the Fashion System. The most important lesson may be to understand the context of what we are doing, for whom and why. It is about understanding our roles, recognising other key issue players and building a high quality relationship with each other for a long-lasting collaboration and effect. We know now what the weakest link in the chain is, namely the usage of the garments, why this is the case and how we can improve this. A high quality relationship with the piece of clothing/ brand makes users appreciate the garment and use it with a greater sense of awareness. Aware in this context means more careful, meaning less cleaning and maintenance (ironing etc) which in turn means less energy spent on the clothing after purchase, in the usage phase. This is how a high quality relationship is key in minimizing pollution and closing the chain.


LAST WORDS

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53 BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIBIOGRAPHY HIGH QUALITY RELATIONSHIP • Handbook of Social Psychology, Volume one, fifth petitiën, edited by T. Fiske Daniel,T. Gilbert, Gardner Lindzey. SUSTAINABILITY • Making sense of climate change: How to avoid the next big Flood, Gail Whiteman, 2011 • www.cradletocradle • Fair Trade is een westers speeltje, De Volkskrant, Evelien Gronink, 2011 • De planeet is niet meer te redden, De Volkskrant, Gerard Reijn, 2012 • De aarde heeft dorst, NRC Weekend, Marianna Heselman, 2011 ETHICAL AND PREVAILING FASHION • The Fashioned Body, Joanne Entwistle • Consumer ready for style with substance, www.marketwatch.com, 2012 • Sustainable Fashion and textiles, Kate Fletcher, 2008 • Fashioning Sustainability, Forum For the future, 2007 • www.ethicalfashionforum.com • Mode Ontwerp, Sue Jenkyn Jones, 2005 • The Psychology of Clothes, J.C. Flugel, 1930 • De macht van mode, Mode als een tekensysteem, Kleding is een ding, Dirk Lauwaert DESIGN IS KEY • Towards relational design, Andrew Bluvelt, 2008 • ‘Twee Gucci-tassen, pas de problem. Maar meer dan dat?’, De Groene Amsterdammer, Marijn Kruk & Pepijn Vloemans, 2011 • Human centred design processes For interactive systems, www.usabilitynet.org


FIELD RESEARCH

• • •

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Hoe maak je inzet social media voor B2B accountable?, Mart Harhuis, Thomas Pastink, Berend Kamps, 2012 www.retail2020.n This is service design thinking, Stickdorn/ Schneider, 2011

MARITAL SYSTEM • Een goed huwelijk bestaat uit sleur, NRC Weekend, Ger Groots, 2012 • Liefde is...... Evalueren, NRC Weekend, Joke Hermsen, 2012 • Marriage, a History: How love concuered marriage, Stephanie Coontz, 2005

FIELD RESEARCH • •

Work at DutchSpirit, www.dutchspirit.com, 2011 Work at Awearness Fair Fashion, www.awearness-fashion.nl, 2011-12

• • • • •

The Green Collective Symposium, 2012 The Essence of Cool Symposium, 2012 Finale Green Fashion Competition, 2012 AmChamb day, 2011 Interview with Rossitza Krueger, Textiles Policy Manager of Fair Trade, 2011


The Fashion System and the role of the sustainable designer  

This is my master essay. After researching fashion and sustainability for 3 years I am able to offer a new adjusted system as a mainstay for...

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