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Arabic A STEP BY STEP GUIDE PART 1

Hashim Muhammad

Al-Qalam Publications


Arabic: A Step By Step Guide Part 1 First Edition 2013

Author:

Hashim Muhammad

Contact:

Al-Qalam 28 Melbourne Road, Leicester, LE2 0DR, United Kingdom +44 7507859443 alqalampub@gmail.com

Azhar Academy 54-68 Little Ilford Lane Manor Park, London, E12 5QA

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Usmani Book Centre 129,The Broadway Perry Barr Birmingham,B20 3ED

Tel: 0208 9119797

Tel: 01924488082

Tel: 0121 3444165

If you see any mistakes in this book, have any comments or suggestions; please feel free to contact us. Jazakallah. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the author.


Contents Contents ...................................................................................................................4 Introduction..............................................................................................................6 Before Starting..........................................................................................................7 Lesson 1 Definite & Indefinite Article ........................................................................8

‫ َم ْع ِرفَة‬and ‫ نَ ِکَرة‬..................................................................................................................................... 8

Keywords & Checklist..................................................................................................................... 10

Lesson 2 Subject & Predicate .................................................................................. 11 Keywords & Checklist..................................................................................................................... 13

Lesson 3 Gender ..................................................................................................... 14 Lesson 4 Possession ................................................................................................ 17 Possession in Sentences................................................................................................................. 18 Keywords & Checklist..................................................................................................................... 20

Revision Lessons 1-4 .............................................................................................. 21 Vocab ............................................................................................................................................. 21 Grammar ........................................................................................................................................ 22

Lesson 5 Dual .......................................................................................................... 23 Dual in Possession .......................................................................................................................... 24 Dual in Sentences ........................................................................................................................... 26 Keywords & Checklist..................................................................................................................... 27

Lesson 6 Masculine Plurals...................................................................................... 28 Lesson 7 Feminine Plurals ....................................................................................... 32 Lesson 8 Broken Plurals........................................................................................... 34 Plural of Non-Human Things and Their ‫خرب‬.................................................................................... 34

‫غری املنصرف‬....................................................................................................................................... 35 Keywords & Checklist..................................................................................................................... 37

Lesson 9 Pronouns .................................................................................................. 38 Subject Pronouns ........................................................................................................................... 38 Keywords & Checklist..................................................................................................................... 41

Lesson 10 Possessive Pronouns ............................................................................... 42 Keywords & Checklist..................................................................................................................... 48

Lesson 11 Prepositions............................................................................................ 49 Keywords & Checklist..................................................................................................................... 53

Lesson 12 Indefinite Subjects (There Sentences) ..................................................... 54 Lesson 13 Adverbials .............................................................................................. 56 Revision Lessons .................................................................................................... 58 Vocab ............................................................................................................................................. 58 Grammar ........................................................................................................................................ 60 4


Vocab...................................................................................................................... 61 Arabic to English............................................................................................................................. 65 English To Arabic ............................................................................................................................ 70

Supplement ............................................................................................................ 61

‫من القرآن‬........................................................................................................................................... 61 ‫ من األحاديث‬..................................................................................................................................... 62 ‫ من کالم العرب‬.................................................................................................................................. 63 Glossary .................................................................................................................. 76

5


Introduction Alhamdulillah, through the grace of Allah S Arabic: A Step by Step Guide Part 1 has been completed. This book is aimed at beginners who wish to learn the Arabic language. This part of the series covers the basics of ‫اجلملة اإلمسیة‬. At the end of the book there is a supplement of Quranic verses, Ahadith and Arabic proverbs. These consist of sentences a student should be able to understand after completing the book. About The Book Here are some important points about this book 1. This book has been prepared especially for English speaking students, hence, there are many areas where special explanation has been given to help in translation. 2. One of the main points kept in mind whilst preparing the book was to ensure that there are enough exercises to assist the student. 3. The vocabulary has been repeated throughout the book. This makes it easier to remember the vocabulary. 4. Even though Arabic grammar rules are discussed, details which may cause confusion to a beginner have been avoided. (See the discussion of ‫ غری املنصرف‬as an example). 5. Simple rules which may cause confusion have been explained and reinforced via exercises. (See Lesson 1, ‫)احلروف القمرية والشمسیة‬ 6. We have used English grammar terms along with the Arabic where there is a common English term e.g. ‫( مبتدأ‬subject). However, where the function is unique to Arabic we have just used the Arabic term e.g. ‫حرکة‬, ‫غری منصرف‬. 7. Revision lessons have been included to assist in recapping and reinforcing learnt subjects. 8. Spelling tests, words searches etc. have been added to make learning vocabulary more enjoyable. Why are there no harakat on the words? We have placed the harakat on the words in the vocab list. Students should learn the words and their pronunciation from there. However, in the exercises there are no harakat. This is to help customize the students to reading without harakat, which is how classical and higher level texts are written. It may take time to get used to, but it is worth the effort. This book is very big yet it only covers a few topics? The book may seem voluminous, however it can be covered quite quickly as most of it consists of exercises to reinforce learnt lessons.

6


Before Starting This book does not cover the Arabic alphabet and other basic rules of reading Arabic. Hence it is necessary that the student be able to read Arabic before commencing this book. The Writing of Hamzah If a hamzah has a ‫ فتحه‬or ‫ضمة‬ ّ the hamzah will be written on an alif; and if it has a ‫ کسرة‬it will be written under an alif.

‫إَِمام‬

‫أ ْستَاذ‬

‫أَ َدب‬

The Writing of Yaa The letter yaa can be written in two ways. One is with two dots and one without any dots.

‫ی–ي‬ When the yaa is written with dots it will be pronounced, otherwise it will be pronounced as though it was an alif.

ِ َ‫ ِم ْفت‬،‫کِتَ ِاِب‬ ‫ إِلی‬،‫ َعلی‬،‫اح ْي – هدی‬ ْ

Writing Tips The letters of a single word join together.

ِ ‫ْمة‬ َ ‫حک‬

However, the following letters don’t join to the letters after them.

‫ادذرزو‬ ‫ أوراق‬،‫ درْوس‬،‫باب‬

7


Lesson 1 Definite & Indefinite Article I read a book yesterday. I read the book you were talking about. I read Arabic: A Step By Step Guide. In the first example, the word “a book” does not refer to any specific book. This is called a common noun. A common noun is a noun which is not particular and it is unidentifiable to the listener. It may be something that the speaker is mentioning for the first time. It carries an indefinite article. The indefinite article in English is “a” or “an”. The plural is “some”. Mass items (non-countable) such as “water” also come with “some” even in the singular. In the second two examples, “the book” and “Arabic: A Step By Step Guide” refer to two specific books. These are called proper nouns. A proper noun is either a name of someone / something, or it will have a definite article. A definite article indicates that its noun is a particular one which is identifiable to the listener. It may be something that the speaker has already mentioned. The definite article in English, for both singular and plural nouns, is “the”. Exercise 1 State whether the highlighted words are common or proper nouns. A man went to a village where he saw some boys. The man said to the boys, “Where is the masjid?” A boy said to the man, “The masjid is on that street.” The man went to the masjid and he saw a few people. He recognized one of the men because he was the tailor from his city.

‫ َم ْع ِرفٌَة‬and ٌ‫نَ ِک َرة‬

ِ َ‫ ن‬and the proper noun is called ٌ‫مع ِرفَة‬. In Arabic the common noun is called ٌ‫ک َرة‬ َْ

As mentioned before, the proper noun will either be a name or have a definite article, which in Arabic is "‫"اَ ْل‬.

‫ال ِکتَاب‬

‫الکتب‬ the books

the book

‫کت ب‬

‫کِتَاب‬

The indefinite article is ٌ‫( تَ ْن ِویْن‬tanwin). (ٌ‫ء‬, ٌ‫ء‬, ٌ‫)ء‬ some books (a few books)

a book

Notes: 1. In Arabic, names will have tanwin, but they will still be considered as ‫معرفة‬.

2.

‫ َع ِامر‬،‫ُمَ َّمد‬ Every noun in Arabic must have either "‫ "ال‬or tanwin; but no word can have both. (details will come in due course)

ِ / ‫کِتاب‬ ‫الکتاب‬ ِ  ‫ کِتَاب‬/ ‫الکتَاب‬

8


Exercise 2 Translation

Plural

‫أَقْ َالم‬

pen

‫کت ب‬ ‫ِمیَاه‬ ‫َمَر ِاسم‬ ‫َم َفاتِْیح‬

book water pencil key

Singular

‫قَلَم‬ ‫کِتَاب‬ ‫َماء‬ ‫ِم ْر َسم‬ ‫ِم ْفتَاح‬

Translation

Plural

human, man

Singular

‫إِنْ َسان‬

-

‫أَبْ َواب‬

door

‫بَاب‬ ‫ح ْجَرة‬ ‫َد ْرس‬ ‫َسبُّ ْوَرة‬

‫حجَرات‬ ‫درْوس‬ ‫َسبُّ ْوَرات‬

room lesson board

State which of the following words are ‫ معرفة‬and which are ‫نکرة‬. Thereafter translate accordingly.

‫) احلجرات‬13 ‫) باب‬14

‫) إنسان‬9 ‫) عامر‬11

‫) ماء‬15 ‫) املفاتیح‬16

‫) األقالم‬11 ‫) مرسم‬12

‫) کتب‬5 ‫) سبّورة‬6

‫) ُممد‬1 ‫) الکتاب‬2

‫) زيد‬7 ‫) املاء‬8

‫) دروس‬3 ‫) خالد‬4

Note:

‫ ;اَلْ ِکتَاب‬and sometimes it remains silent and the ‫ ا‬joins to the first letter of the word with a tashdid e.g. ‫ش ْمس‬ َّ ‫اَل‬. ‫و ه ي‬ ‫م‬ ‫ع غ ف ق ك‬ ‫ج ح خ‬ ‫أ ب‬ When the definite article

‫ن‬

‫ل‬

‫ ال‬is added to a noun, sometimes the ‫ ل‬is pronounced

‫د ذ ر ز س ش ص ض ط ظ‬

e.g.

‫ت ث‬

In the table above, the ‫ ل‬is pronounced before the letters from the first row,

،‫ اَلْبَاب‬،‫اَِْإلنْ َسان‬

and it remains silent before the letters from the second row.

ِ َّ‫اَلت‬ ‫ اَلثَّ ِم ْی‬،‫اجر‬

Exercise 3 Change the following common nouns to proper nouns by adding an ‫ال‬. Ensure you pronounce the ‫ال‬ correctly at the beginning, pronouncing it where it should be pronounced and keeping it silent where necessary. (Do not translate)

‫) کِتَاب‬22 ‫) لَْیل‬23 ‫) ُْمتَ ِهد‬24 ‫) نَ ِشْیط‬25 ‫) َهْن َد َسة‬26 ‫) َوالِد‬27 ‫) يَ ْوم‬28

‫ضعِْیف‬ َ )15 ‫) طَ ِويْل‬16 ‫) ظ ْفر‬17 ‫) َع ْذب‬18 ‫) َغ ِن‬19 ‫صل‬ ْ َ‫) ف‬21 ‫) قَ ْلب‬21

‫) َدار‬8 ‫) ِذ ْکر‬9 ‫) َرجل‬11 ‫) َزکِي‬11 ‫) َسیَّ َارة‬12

‫) ََشْس‬13 ‫صالِح‬ َ )14

‫) أ ََدب – اَْأل ََدب‬1 ‫بَْیت‬ ‫تِْل ِمْیذ‬ ‫ثَِقْیل‬ َِ ‫َجْیل‬

)2 )3 )4 )5

‫) ح ْجَرة‬6 ‫) َخ ِادم‬7 9


Exercise 4 Translation

Plural

lock exercise book chair paper, leaf child, boy

Singular

‫أَقْ َفال‬

Translation

‫ق ْفل‬

‫اسات‬ َ ‫کَّر‬ ‫َکَر ِاس ُّي‬ ‫أ َْوَراق‬ ‫أ َْوََلد‬

Plural

‫ب ی ْوت‬ ‫ِر َجال‬

house

‫اسة‬ َ ‫کَّر‬ ‫ک ْرِسي‬ ‫َوَرق‬

man

‫رسل‬ ‫َشبَابِْیك‬ ‫ط َّالب‬

prophet window

‫َولَد‬

Singular

student

Translate the following words into Arabic. 1) the book 5) a lesson 2) an exercise book 6) some men 3) a student 7) the child 4) the board 8) a human

9) the houses 10) some water 11) the key 12) a window

Keywords & Checklist    

Common noun Proper noun Definite article Indefinite article

‫معرفة‬

‫نکرة‬ ‫ال‬ ‫تنوين‬

 

Do you know how to … ?  Recognize a proper noun?  Recognize a common noun?  How to translate o Singular common nouns o Plural common nouns o Proper nouns

Differentiating Between ‫ معرفة‬and ‫نکرة‬ Recognizing Nouns Does it have ‫?ال‬

10

Yes

No

‫معرفة‬

Is it a name?

Yes

No

ٌ‫معرفة‬

ٌ‫نکرة‬

‫بَْیت‬

‫َرجل‬

‫َرس ْول‬

‫شبَّاﻙ‬ ‫طَالِب‬


Lesson 2 Subject & Predicate Allah S is one. Muhammad Q is a prophet. The above two are examples of simple sentences. To make a sentence in Arabic carry out the following steps: 1. Remove the linking word “is”; 2. Translate both words into Arabic; 3. Ensure the first word is ‫;معرفة‬ 4. Place a ‫ ضمة‬on both words. 5. Example 1 Example 2 a Step 1 Remove the word “is” Muhammad is The book is good prophet Step 2 Translate into Arabic. Ensure the first word is

Step 3 ‫ معرفة‬and the second ‫نکرة‬ Step 4

Place a ‫ضمة‬ ّ on both words

‫ُممد‬

‫رسول‬

‫کتاب‬

‫جید‬

-

‫الکتاب‬

‫جیّد‬

ٌ‫َر ُس ْول‬

ٌ‫َجیِّد‬

ِ ٌ‫اب‬ ُ َ‫اَلْکت‬

ٌ ‫ُم َح َّم ٌد‬

Remember: Arabic is written from right to left:

‫ُممد[صلی اهلل علیه وسلم] رسول‬

Notes: 1. The first word must be a proper noun, ‫معرفة‬, and the second a common noun ‫نکرة‬. Therefore if the subject is not a name, the definite article

"‫"ال‬must be added.

2. The first word is called ُ‫دٌأ‬ ٌَ َ‫ ٌاٌَلْ ٌُمٌْبٌت‬, subject; and the second ‫خ ْبٌ ٌُر‬ ٌَ ْ‫ٌاٌَل‬, predicate.

ِ

‫[واحد]خرب‬ َ ‫[ اَهلل]مبتدأ‬

3. There is no Arabic word for “is”. It is understood from the structure of the sentence. 4. If the predicate is an adjective it will be translated without an “a” even though it is ‫نکرة‬. The man is strong. However, if the predicate is a noun “a” must be added. Khalid is a teacher. Exercise 1 Translation

Plural

Singular

Sustainer

-

easy

-

honest

‫ص ِادقو َن‬ َ

‫َرا ِزق‬

‫َس ْهل‬ ‫ص ِادق‬ َ

Translation One sitting Creator

Plural

Singular -

‫َجالِسو َن‬ -

‫َحد‬ َ‫أ‬ ‫َجالِس‬ ‫َخالِق‬ 11


Translation

Plural

big

‫کِبَار‬

Owner

-

closed

-

open

-

clean

‫نظََفاء‬

dirty

-

Giver of all things

-

Singular

Translation

‫َکبِْی ر‬ ‫َمالِك‬ ‫م ْغلَق‬

‫َم ْفت ْوح‬ ‫نَ ِظْیف‬ ‫َو ِسخ‬ ‫َوَّهاب‬

Plural

‫ِص َعاب‬ ‫ِصغَار‬

difficult small weak

‫ض َع َفاء‬

sweet

-

‫قَائِم ْو َن‬ ‫أَقْ ِويَاء‬ ‫َک ِاذبو َن‬

standing strong liar

Singular

‫ص ْعب‬ َ ِ ‫صغْی ر‬ َ ‫ضعِْیف‬ َ ‫َع ْذب‬ ‫قَائِم‬

‫قَ ِوي‬ ‫َک ِاذب‬

Translate into English. Whilst translating 12-15 you will have to put the word “the” on the ‫خرب‬.

‫) اهلل أحد‬11 ‫) اهلل خالق‬12 ‫) اهلل مالك‬13

‫) الورق نظیف‬6 ‫) الباب مفتوح‬7 ‫الشبّاك مغلق‬ ّ )8

‫) اهلل رازق‬14 ‫وهاب‬ ّ ‫) اهلل‬15

‫الرجل صادق‬ ّ )1 ‫) الولد ضعیف‬2 ‫) ال ّدرس سهل‬3

‫) الطّالب قائم‬9 ‫) الولد جالس‬11

Exercise 2 Translate into Arabic. 1) The boy is a liar. 2) The man is strong. 3) The lesson is difficult. 4) The pencil is small. 5) The house is dirty.

‫) املاء عذب‬4 ‫) القلم كبری‬5

6) The window is open. 7) Zaid is standing. 8) The student is sitting. 9) The house is closed. 10) The chair is big.

Exercise 3 Fill in the blanks with an appropriate word from the words given below.

‫صادق‬

‫مفتوح‬ ‫قوي‬ ...... ‫) اهلل‬7 ...... ‫) الطّالب‬8

‫مغلق‬

..... ‫) القفل‬9

‫عذب‬ ‫جالس‬ ...... ‫) البیت‬4 ...... ‫) املاء‬5 ...... ‫) الشباك‬6

Exercise 4 Highlight the word with an odd meaning in the set of words below.

12

‫نظیف‬

‫أحد‬ ‫ضعیف‬ ...... ‫الرجل‬ ّ )1 ...... ‫) الولد‬2 ...... ‫الرسول‬ ّ )3

،‫ حجرات‬،‫ أقالم‬،‫ أوراق‬،‫) مرسم‬4 ،‫ جالس‬،‫ مفتوح‬،‫ ضعیف‬،‫) قوي‬5

‫ قفل‬،‫ رسول‬،‫ ولد‬،‫) رجل‬1 ،‫ مرسم‬،‫ طالب‬،‫ ماء‬،‫) درس‬2

‫وهاب‬ ّ ،‫ خالق‬،‫ عذب‬،‫) أحد‬6

،‫ قفل‬،‫ کتاب‬،‫ شباك‬،‫) مفتاح‬3


Keywords & Checklist ‫مْبتَ َدأ‬  ‫خبْ ر‬ َ  Subject  Predicate 

Do you know…?  Which part of the sentence is ‫?معرفة‬  Which is ‫?نکرة‬ 

The Arabic word for “is”?

What comes on the ‫ مبتدأ‬and ‫ ?خرب‬i.e. ‫ضمة‬ ّ , ‫ فتحة‬or ‫کسرة‬

Constructing Nominal Sentences

13


Lesson 3 Gender In English grammar non-living things are not considered to have a gender. For example, the words “book” and “chair” don’t have a gender. They are considered to have a neutral gender. However, in Arabic there is no neutral gender; all nouns are considered to be either masculine or feminine.

Identifying Gender The gender of nouns can be identified by the following: 1. Its meaning;

ِ َ‫ف‬ ‫اط َمة‬

‫َزيْنَب‬

Zainab 2. The letter ‫ ة‬at the end. This is called ‫الْ َم ْرب ْوطَة‬ Words ending in a long ‫ ت‬are not feminine.

Fatima

‫اَلتَّاء‬, the round taa.

‫َسیَّارة‬ ‫بَْیت‬

Similarly, words with masculine meanings are not feminine. e.g. ‫َساتِ َذة‬ َ ‫( أ‬male teachers) Note: A ‫ ة‬can be added to adjectives to make them feminine. A ‫ فتحة‬should be placed on the last letter before adding the ‫ة‬.

‫کبری – َکبِْی َرة‬

It is important to remember that this can only be done to adjectives. Nouns cannot be changed in this manner.

‫قلم – قلمة‬

If there is ambiquity in English as to whom is meant we will place a (f) after theword to indicate feminine. Exercise 1 Change the following adjectives into the feminine.

‫) صعب‬13

‫) جالس‬9

‫) صادق‬5

‫) عذب‬14 ‫) رجل‬15 ‫) وسخة‬16

‫) مفتوح‬11 ‫) مغلق‬11 ‫) سهل‬12

‫) کاذب‬6 ‫) قائم‬7 ‫) طويل‬8

‫قوي – قَ ِويَّة‬ ‫ضعیف‬ ‫کبری‬ ‫صغری‬

The Effect of Gender on ‫ مبتدأ‬and ‫خبر‬ If the subject, ‫مبتدأ‬, is a feminine word, the predicate, ‫خرب‬, must change to agree with it.

ِ ‫الطّالِبة ص‬ ‫احلَة‬ َ َ

14

ِ ‫صالِح‬ َ ‫الطّالب‬

)1 )2 )3 )4


Note: Most feminine names have only one ‫ضمة‬.

 Exercise 2 Translation

ِ َ‫ ف‬،‫مرَی‬ ‫اط َمة‬ َْ

Plural

ِ‫ص‬ ‫احل ْو َن‬ َ ‫ِط َوال‬ ِ ‫صار‬ َ‫ق‬ ‫لَیَال‬

pious tall, long short night

‫أَيَّام‬

day

Singular

‫صالِح‬ َ ‫طَ ِويْل‬ ِ َ‫ق‬ ‫صْی ر‬ ‫لَْی لَة‬ ‫يَ ْوم‬

ِ َ‫ ف‬،‫مرَی‬ ‫اط َمة‬ َْ

Translation slow beautiful garden quick

Plural

Singular

‫بَ ِط ْيء‬ َِ ‫َجْیل‬ ‫َح ِديْ َقة‬ ‫َس ِريْع‬ ‫َسیَّ َارة‬

‫بِطَاء‬ ‫َجَ َالء‬ ‫َح َدائِق‬ ‫ِسَراع‬

‫َسیَّ َارات‬

car

Translate the following sentences into English. Note how the predicate changes to agree with the subject.

‫) الولد صغری‬11 ‫السیّارة سريعة‬ ّ )12 ‫) احلديقة َجیلة‬13 ‫) الیوم طويل‬14

‫زينب صادقة‬ ‫مری جالسة‬ ‫الرجل طويل‬ ّ ‫آمنة قائمة‬

‫) اللّیلة قصریة‬15 Exercise 3 Translation light clever student (f) scholar lazy hardworking respectful

‫السبّورة نظیفة‬ ّ ‫احلجرة كبریة‬ ‫فاطمة صاحلة‬ ‫اإلنسان ضعیف‬

)6 )7 )8 )9

‫) خدجیة ضعیفة‬11

Plural

ِ ‫َخ َفاف‬ ْ ‫ أ‬،‫خ َفاف‬ ‫أَذْكِیَاء‬ ‫طَالِبَات‬ ‫َعالِم ْو َن‬ ‫ک َسالی‬ ‫ُْمتَ ِهد ْو َن‬ ‫م َؤَّدب ْو َن‬ ‫نِ َشاط‬

Singular

‫َخ ِفْیف‬ ‫ذَکِي‬

‫طَالِبَة‬ ِ‫ع‬ ‫ال‬ َ ‫َک ْس َالن‬ ‫ُْمتَ ِهد‬ ‫م َؤَّدب‬ ‫نَ ِشْیط‬

Translation

mother smiling daughter, girl heavy bag servant

active, energetic, servant (f) lively Translate the following sentences into Arabic. 1) The mother is pious. 6) Amina is clever. 2) The man is active. 7) The scholar is tall. 3) The daughter is lazy. 8) The boy is smiling. 4) The sister is active. 9) The car is slow. 5) Khadija is a scholar. 10) The bag is heavy.

‫الشبّاك مفتوح‬ ّ )5 Plural

‫َخ َوات‬ َ‫أ‬

sister

)1 )2 )3 )4

‫أ َّم َهات‬ ‫بَ ِامس ْو َن‬ ‫بَنَات‬ ‫ثَِقال‬ ‫َح َقائِب‬ ‫ خدَّام‬،‫َخ َدم‬ ‫َخ ِاد َمات‬

Singular

‫أ ْخت‬ ‫أم‬

ِ‫ب‬ ‫اسم‬ َ ‫بِْنت‬ ‫ثَِقْیل‬ ‫َح ِقْیبَة‬ ‫َخ ِادم‬ ‫َخ ِاد َمة‬

11) The night is long. 12) Fatima is honest. 13) The window is closed. 14) The student (f) is respectful. 15) The servant (f) is hardworking.

15


Exercise 4 Fill in the blanks with an appropriate word.

..... ‫) اخلادمة‬11 ..... ‫) الباب‬12 ..... ‫) احلديقة‬13

..... ‫) القفل‬6 ..... ‫) الطّالب‬7 ..... ‫) اإلنسان‬8

..... ‫األم‬ ّ )1 ..... ‫) الکتاب‬2 ..... ‫) األخت‬3

..... ‫السیّارة‬ ّ )14 ..... ‫الرجل‬ ّ )15

..... ‫الکرسي‬ )9 ّ ..... ‫الکراسة‬ ّ )11

..... ‫) الولد‬4 ..... ‫) الورق‬5

Unmarked Feminine Words We have previously studied two rules to identify feminine nouns. However, there are also some nouns in Arabic which have no rule by which they can be categorized as feminine. They must be learnt. The good thing is that these are only a few. Some common ones are written below. Translation Plural Singular Translation Plural Singular

‫عی ْون‬ ‫نِْی َران‬ ‫ن ف ْوس‬

eye fire soul

‫َع ْی‬ ‫نَار‬

‫أ َْرض ْو َن‬ ‫ِديَار‬ ‫ِريَاح‬

earth house, abode

‫نَ ْفس‬

wind

‫َش ْوس‬

sun

‫أ َْرض‬ ‫َدار‬ ‫ِريْح‬

‫ََشْس‬

Exercise 5 Study the following sentences carefully and identify the errors. The errors are grammar, spelling and meaning related.

‫ب اك ذكي‬ ّ )9 ّ ‫الش‬

‫) خادم َجیال‬5

‫) الولد قائم‬11 ‫) َشس اجملتهد‬11 ‫) احلجرة املغلك‬12

‫الرجل نشیط‬ ّ )1

‫) الدار کبری‬6 ‫) احلديکة صغری‬7 ‫) البیت قبریة‬8

‫) مری َک ْسالن‬2 ‫) الولد بامسة‬3 ‫) السیّارت عاملة‬4

Gender Does the word have a feminine meaning?

Yes ‫ فاطمة‬/ ‫ّأم‬

No Does it have ‫?التّاءٌالمربوطة‬

Feminine

Yes

‫سیّارة‬ Feminine

16

No

‫کتاب‬ Masculine


Lesson 4 Possession the man’s book the teacher’s pen In the above examples you would have noticed that the words “book” and “pen” are being attributed to its owners; “the man” and “the teacher”. The ’s shows the connection between the two words. To make such a phrase in Arabic the following steps must be carried out; 1. Change the English order around (i.e. place the owned first and the owner second); 2. Translate into Arabic, 3. Place a ‫ ضمة‬on the first word and ‫ کسرة‬on the second. The man’s book Step 1 Change the order around book the man Step 2

Translate into Arabic.

‫کتاب‬

Step 3

Place a ‫ضمة‬ ّ on the first word and a ‫کسرة‬on the

‫الرجل‬ ّ

‫کتاب‬

ِ ‫الر‬ ‫جل‬ ّ

second word.

‫املضاف إلیه‬

ِ ٌ‫الر ُج ِل‬ ٌَّ ٌ‫اب‬ ُ َ‫کت‬

]‫الرج ِل‬ َّ [ ‫[کِتَاب]املضاف‬

ٌ‫افٌٌإٌِلٌَْی ِه‬ ٌُ ‫ض‬ ٌَ ‫ ٌاٌَلْ ٌُم‬refers to the owner or the thing to which the first word is being attributed; and ‫اف‬ ٌُ ‫ض‬ ٌَ ‫ٌاٌَلْ ٌُم‬ refers to the owned or the thing being attributed. Notes: 1.

‫ املضاف‬will never have an ‫ ال‬nor a tanwin. ‫الرج ِل‬  َّ ‫کِتَاب‬

‫الرج ِل‬ َّ ‫اَلْ ِکتَاب‬

2. If the ‫إلیه‬

‫ مضاف‬is ‫نکرة‬, the ‫ مضاف‬will also be considered to be ‫ ;نکرة‬and if the ‫ مضاف إلیه‬is ‫معرفة‬ the ‫ مضاف‬will also be considered to be ‫معرفة‬. ‫معرفة‬

‫الرج ِل‬ َّ ‫کِتَاب‬

The man’s book

ٌ ‫نکرة‬

‫کِتَاب َرجل‬

A man’s book

3. In English there are two methods of showing possession; ‘s or of. The apostrophe s is usually used when the first noun is an animate item, a name or time. the boy’s pen the sahaba’s love for Rasulullah s, Madeenah’s beautiful scenery the lion’s mane today’s newspaper In other cases the phrase “of” is normally used. The door of the house. Sometimes the ‘s is omitted altogether car’s door: car door house’s key: house key 17


If the ‘s is used, the Arabic order is opposite to the English order. However when of is used the order will be the same as Arabic.

ِ ‫الر‬ ‫جل‬ َّ ‫کِتَاب‬

ِ ‫باب الْب ی‬ ‫ت‬ َْ َ

the door of the house Exercise 1 Translation

Plural

Singular

‫َم َدا ِرس‬

school, madrasah

the man’s book

‫َم ْد َر َسة‬

Translation

Plural

Singular

‫َساتِذة‬ َ‫أ‬

teacher

‫فصول‬

class

Translate the following sentences into English. Note how the possessive phrase is made.

‫) شبّاك احلجرة‬11 ‫) مفتاح القفل‬12

‫کراسة األ ّم‬ ّ )6 ‫) مدرسة الطّالب‬7

‫الرجل‬ ّ ‫) عی‬13 ‫) درس األستاذ‬14 ‫) قلم الطّالب‬15

‫) کتاب اَلستاذ‬1 ‫) خادمة البیت‬2

‫) باب احلديقة‬8 ‫) ريح األرض‬9 ‫) رسول اهلل‬11

Exercise 2 Translate into Arabic. 1) the door of the house 2) the Book of Allah 3) the student’s pencil 4) the board of the class 5) the man’s pen

‫أ ْستَاذ‬ ‫صل‬ ْ َ‫ف‬

‫) بیت اخلادم‬3 ‫) أساتذة الطّّالب‬4 ‫السیّارة‬ ّ ‫) باب‬5

6) the class teacher 7) the leaf of the book 8) the classes’ of the school 9) the wind of the earth 10) the girl’s room

11) the man’s eye 12) the door of the class 13) the lock of the window 14) the window of the car 15) the man’s daughter

Possession in Sentences The possessive phrase itself is not a complete sentence; rather it is used as either the subject or predicate of a sentence.

Possessive Phrase As ‫مبتدأ‬

ِ

‫[[بَاب]مضاف [الْبَ ْیت]مضاف إلیه]مبتدأ [ َم ْفت ْوح]خرب‬

[The door of the house]subject is [open]predicate.

ِ

َ [ ‫الرج ِل]مضاف إلیه]مبتدأ‬ ‫کبِْی ر]خرب‬ َّ [ ‫[[کتَاب]مضاف‬ [The man’s book] is [big].

Exercise 3 Translation

Plural

Singular

anger

-

regret

-

river

‫أَنْ َهار‬

‫ضب‬ َ ‫َغ‬ ‫نَ َدم‬

‫نَ ْهر‬

Translation son end beginning insanity

18

Plural

Singular

‫أَبْنَاء‬ ِ ‫أَو‬ ‫اخر‬ َ ِ ‫أ ََوائل‬ -

‫اِبْن‬ ِ ‫آخر‬ ‫أ ََّول‬

‫جن ْون‬


‫‪Translate the following sentences into English. The last two are proverbs.‬‬

‫‪ )1‬کتاب الطّالب مفتوح‬ ‫‪ )2‬باب البیت صغری‬ ‫‪ )3‬درس األستاذ سهل‬

‫‪ )6‬شبّاﻙ املسجد مغلق‬ ‫‪ )7‬کتاب الطّالب وسخ‬ ‫‪ )8‬کتاب األستاذ نظیف‬

‫‪ )11‬باب البیت مغلق‬ ‫‪ )12‬شبّاك البیت مفتوح‬ ‫‪ )13‬رسول اهلل صادق‬

‫‪ )4‬مفتاح البیت ثقیل‬ ‫‪ )5‬ماء النّهر عذب‬

‫الرجل کبری‬ ‫‪)9‬‬ ‫کرسي ّ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫‪ )11‬قلم الولد ثقیل‬

‫‪ّ )41‬أول الغضب جنون‬ ‫‪ )41‬آخر الغضب ندم‬ ‫‪Exercise 4‬‬ ‫‪Translate into Arabic.‬‬ ‫‪1) The scholar’s son is hardworking.‬‬ ‫‪2) The book's leaf is dirty.‬‬ ‫‪3) The student's classroom is clean.‬‬ ‫‪4) The window of the masjid is open.‬‬ ‫‪5) The key of the lock is heavy.‬‬

‫‪6) The teacher’s lesson is easy.‬‬ ‫‪7) The lock of the door is light.‬‬ ‫‪8) The student’s class is closed.‬‬ ‫‪9) The beginning of the lesson is easy.‬‬ ‫‪10) The ending of the lesson is difficult.‬‬

‫‪Note‬‬

‫‪.i.e. the first word, not the second.‬مضاف‬ ‫ارةِ] [م ْغلَق] ‪‬‬ ‫[بَاب َّ‬ ‫السیَّ َ‬ ‫ارةِ] [م ْغلَ َقة] ‪‬‬ ‫[بَاب َّ‬ ‫السیَّ َ‬

‫إلیه ‪, not the‬مضاف ‪ agrees with the‬خرب ‪The gender of the‬‬

‫الرج ِل] ص ِ‬ ‫احلَة‬ ‫[بِْنت َّ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫صالِح ‪‬‬ ‫[بِْنت َّ‬ ‫الرج ِل] َ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪Exercise 5‬‬ ‫‪.‬مضاف ‪ agrees with the‬خرب ‪Translate the following sentences into English. Notice how the‬‬

‫ِ‬ ‫اَلستاذ ثقیل‬ ‫‪ )1‬کِتَاب‬ ‫‪ )2‬خادمة البیت ُمتهدة‬

‫‪ )6‬عی البنت َجیلة‬ ‫‪ )7‬طالب املدرسة صاحل‬

‫‪ )3‬باب السیّارة مفتوح‬ ‫کراسة الطّالب وسخة‬ ‫‪ّ )4‬‬ ‫‪ )5‬طالبة املدرسة بامسة‬

‫‪ )8‬باب احلديقة مغلق‬ ‫‪ )9‬رسول اهلل صادق‬ ‫‪ )11‬شبّاك احلجرة مفتوح‬

‫‪ )11‬مفتاح القفل ثقیل‬ ‫الرجل قصریة‬ ‫‪ )12‬أخت ّ‬

‫‪ )13‬درس األستاذ سهل‬ ‫األم طويلة‬ ‫‪ )14‬بنت ّ‬ ‫‪ )15‬قلم الطّالب خفیف‬

‫‪Exercise 6‬‬ ‫‪Fill in the blanks and then translate into English.‬‬

‫‪ )1‬كتاب التّلمیذة ‪........‬‬ ‫الرجل ‪........‬‬ ‫كراسة ّ‬ ‫‪ّ )2‬‬ ‫السیّارة ‪........‬‬ ‫‪ )3‬باب ّ‬ ‫األم ‪........‬‬ ‫‪ )4‬قلم ّ‬ ‫‪ )5‬باب احلجرة ‪........‬‬

‫‪19‬‬

‫‪ )6‬سیّارة األستاذ ‪........‬‬ ‫‪َ )7‬شس األرض ‪........‬‬ ‫‪ )8‬حجرة البیت ‪........‬‬ ‫‪ )9‬باب احلديقة ‪........‬‬ ‫‪ )11‬خادم املدرسة ‪........‬‬

‫‪ )11‬ماء النّهر ‪........‬‬ ‫األم ‪........‬‬ ‫‪ )12‬ابن ّ‬ ‫‪ )13‬خادمة البیت ‪........‬‬ ‫‪ )14‬أخت الطّالب‪........‬‬ ‫‪ )15‬مرسم البنت ‪........‬‬


Possessive Phrase As ‫خبر‬ The ‫ خرب‬may also be made of a possessive phrase.

ِ ِ ‫[اَْألستاذ]مبتدأ [ص ِديق‬ َْ ْ َ

‫الْ َوالد]خرب‬

[The teacher] is [the father’s friend] Note: We have read that most feminine names don’t have a tanwin. Similarly, those masculine names which are not originally from Arabic don’t have tanwin either. (More details to will come later)

ِ ‫ إِ ْمس‬،‫إِب ر ِاهیم‬ ‫اعْیل‬ َ ْ َْ

Exercise 7 Translation

Plural

Singular

‫َزْو َجات‬ ‫َص ِدقَاء‬ ْ‫أ‬ -

wife friend father

‫َزْو َجة‬ ‫ص ِديْق‬ َ ِ ‫َوالد‬

Translation

Plural

‫ِجیَاد‬ ‫أ َِخ َّالء‬ ‫أ َْرِديَاء‬

good friend cheap (quality)

Singular

‫َجیِّد‬ ‫َخلِْیل‬ ‫َرِدي‬

Translate into English. ]‫[صلی اهلل علیه وسلّم‬

]‫[رضي اهلل عنه‬ ‫ُممد‬ ‫علي‬ ّ ‫صديق‬ ]‫[صلی اهلل علیه وسلّم‬ ]‫[رضي اهلل عنه‬ ‫ُممد‬ ‫أَب ْو بَ ْکر‬ ّ ‫صديق‬ ]‫[صلی اهلل علیه وسلّم‬ ]‫[رضي اهلل عنها‬ ‫ُممد‬ ‫فاطمة‬ ّ ‫بنت‬ ]‫[رضي اهلل عنه‬ ]‫[رضي اهلل عنها‬ ‫علي‬ ‫فاطمة‬ ّ ‫زوجة‬

]‫) [القرآن] [کتاب اهلل‬1

)6 )7 )8 )9

ّ ‫) إبراهیم [علیه‬11 ‫السالم] خلیل اهلل‬

]‫[صلی اهلل علیه وسلّم‬

‫ُممد[صلی اهلل علیه وسلّم] رسول اهلل‬ ّ )2 ]‫السالم‬ ّ ‫) نوح[علیه‬3 ‫نب اهلل‬ ّ ‫) الکعبة بیت اهلل‬4 ‫) عائشة [رضي اهلل عنها] زوجة ُممد‬5

Keywords & Checklist  

‫املضاف‬ ‫املضاف إلیه‬

Do you know how to … ? 

Use a possessive phrase as a ‫?مبتدأ‬

Use a possessive phrase as a ‫?خرب‬

The two ways to translate possession?

Which word of the possessive phrase the ‫ خرب‬agrees with.

20

Which Arabic names don’t have tanwin?


Revision Lessons 1-4 Vocab Note: Words with tashdid (ّ ّ ) are counted as one letter in all of the exercises. Exercise 1 Complete the following crossword using words for members of the family. There are 3 words in total

Complete the following crossword using words for stationary. There are 5 words in total.

‫م‬

‫ت‬ ‫ة‬

‫س‬

‫ک‬ Exercise 2 Find 8 words relating to the house in the following word search.

‫د‬

‫ح‬

‫د‬

‫ي‬

‫ق‬

‫ة‬

‫ء‬

‫ش‬

‫ك‬

‫ر‬

‫ت‬

‫م‬

‫ل‬

‫ل‬

‫ب‬

‫ي‬

‫ر‬

‫س‬

‫ح‬

‫ف‬

‫م‬

‫ا‬

‫ن‬

‫ر‬

‫س‬

‫ر‬

‫ا‬

‫ح‬

‫ك‬

‫خ‬

‫ط‬

‫ا‬

‫ي‬

‫ك‬

‫ت‬

‫و‬

‫س‬

‫ا‬

‫ج‬

‫د‬

‫ب‬

‫ق‬

‫ف‬

‫ل‬

‫ص‬

‫ش‬

‫ب‬

‫ر‬

‫ت‬

‫ي‬

‫م‬

‫ب‬

‫ف‬

‫ج‬

‫ا‬

‫ل‬

‫ش‬

‫ك‬

‫ب‬

‫ا‬

‫ت‬

‫ي‬

‫ب‬

‫م‬

Exercise 3 Unscramble the following words related to the planet and outdoors.

:‫) ة ح ق د ي‬5

:‫) ش س م‬3 :‫) ر ح ي‬4

:‫) ر ن ه‬1 :‫) ض أ ر‬2

Exercise 4 Write the antonym (opposites) of the following words.

‫) ثقیل‬11 ‫) قصری‬11 ‫) نظیف‬12

‫) ردي‬7 ‫) ّأول‬8 ‫) ُمتهد‬9

‫) قائم‬4 ‫) صعب‬5 ‫) سريع‬6

‫) مفتوح‬1 ‫) ضعیف‬2 ‫) صادق‬3 21


Exercise 5 Match the words in the two columns.

‫ابن‬ ‫کرسي‬ ّ ‫کراسة‬ ّ

‫جالس‬ ‫غضب‬ ‫والد‬

‫لیلة‬ ‫ندم‬

‫ورق‬ ‫يوم‬

Grammar Exercise 7 Briefly explain the following terms.

‫) معرفة‬7 ‫) مؤنث‬8 ‫) نکرة‬9 Exercise 8 Write the Arabic of the following terms. 1) Common noun 2) Predicate 3) Definite article 4) Feminine

‫) مذ ّکر‬4

‫) املضاف‬5 ‫) املضاف إلیه‬6 5) 6) 7) 8)

Indefinite article Masculine Proper noun Subject

Exercise 9 Answer the questions below. 1) How do you recognize a ‫?معرفة‬ 2) How do you recognize a ‫?نکرة‬ 3) How do you translate a ‫?معرفة‬ 4) How do you translate a ‫?نکرة‬ 5) Which part of the sentence is ‫ معرفة‬and which part is ‫?نکرة‬ 6) How do you translate the word “is” in Arabic? 7) What are the three ways to identify gender? 8) Which words don’t have an ‫ ال‬nor tanwin.

22

‫) التّاء املربوطة‬1 ‫) خرب‬2 ‫) مبتدأ‬3


Lesson 5 Dual two boys two girls In the above examples, the word “two” indicates a specific number. In Arabic there is a special form of noun which show that two are being referred to without actually having to add the word “two”. This is calledd ٌ‫تَثْنِیَة‬.

ِ . The ‫ تثنیة‬is made by placing a ‫ فتحة‬on the last letter, and then adding "‫"ان‬ ‫کِتَاب‬ ِ ‫ ِان‬+ ‫ب‬ َ ‫کتَا‬ ٌِ َ‫کِتَاب‬ ‫ان‬

‫اسة‬ َ ‫کَّر‬ ‫ ِان‬+ َ‫اسة‬ َ ‫کَّر‬ ٌِ َ‫است‬ ‫ان‬ َ ‫ُک َّر‬ Note:

Some Arabic words have ‫ ان‬as part of the original word. This should not be mixed up with the dual. Translation

Plural

‫ک َسالی‬

lazy

Singular

‫َک ْس َالن‬

Translation

Plural

‫بَ َساتِْی‬

garden

Singular

‫ب ْستَان‬

ٌ Dual ٌ Singular ِ َ‫َکس َالن‬ ‫ان‬ ‫َک ْس َالن‬ ْ ِ َ‫بستَان‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ب ْستَان‬ ْ Exercise 1 Complete the table below by changing the adjectives in the first column into the dual, then into feminine singular and feminine dual. Feminine Feminine Masculine Masculine Dual Singular Dual Singular

ِ َ‫س ِري عت‬ ‫ان‬ َْ َ

‫َس ِريْ َعة‬

ِ ‫س ِري ع‬ ‫ان‬ َْ َ

‫سريع‬ ‫جیّد‬ ‫کي‬ ّ ‫ذ‬

‫مؤدب‬ ّ

‫کسالن‬ Exercise 2 Translate the following words. Note how the dual is made.

‫) هنر‬13 ‫) خادمان‬14

‫) مفتاح‬9 ‫) مفتاحان‬11

‫) طالبتان‬5 ‫) دروس‬6

ِ )1 ‫بابان‬ ‫) باب‬2

‫) خادمتان‬15 ‫) کتابان‬16

‫) سبّورتان‬11 ‫) أستاذان‬12

‫) شبّاكان‬7 ‫) حجرتان‬8

‫) بنتان‬3 ‫) درسان‬4 23


Exercise 3 Make the following words dual.

‫الرسول‬ ّ )11 ‫) ّأم‬12 ‫) طالبة‬13

‫) بستان‬6 ‫کرسي‬ ّ ‫) ال‬7 ‫) أخت‬8

‫) أستاذ‬1 ‫) الطّالب‬2 ‫) مدرسة‬3

‫) لیلة‬14 ‫) القلمان‬15

‫الزوجة‬ ّ )9 ‫) صديق‬11

‫) البنت‬4 ‫) فصل‬5

Exercise 4 Translate into Arabic. 1) a friend 2) two wives 3) two sons 4) a daughter 5) a teacher

6) two classes 7) the mother 8) the two sisters 9) a night 10) two days

11) the two rivers 12) the two cars 13) two windows 14) a chair 15) two keys

Dual in Possession Dual as ‫مضاف‬ We have studied before that ‫ املضاف‬will never have a tanwin. In the dual, consider the "‫ "ن‬similar to the tanwin: it will drop in possessive phrases.   Exercise 5 Translation

Plural

‫طی ْور‬

bird wheel hand of a clock, dial

minaret

‫َع َج َالت‬ ‫َع َقا ِرب‬ ‫َمنَائِر‬

ِ ِ‫کِتَابَا الطَّال‬ ‫ب‬ ِ ِ‫کِتَابَا ِن الطَّال‬ ‫ب‬

Singular

‫طَْی ر‬

‫َع َجلَة‬ ‫َع ْقَرب‬

‫َمنَ َارة‬

Translation

Plural

‫بَِالد‬ ‫َجنِ َحة‬ ْ‫أ‬ ‫اجات‬ َ ‫َد َّر‬ ‫اعات‬ َ ‫َس‬ ‫ِسائِقو َن‬

city wing cycle clock driver

Translate into English.

‫) منارتا املسجد‬13 ‫) عجلتا ال ّد ّراجة‬14 ‫الکراسة‬ ّ ‫) ورقا‬15 ‫) رسوَل اهلل‬16 Exercise 6 Translate into Arabic.

24

‫) بابا البستان‬9 ‫الساعة‬ ّ ‫) عقربا‬11 ‫) درسا األستاذ‬11 ‫) جناحا الطّری‬12

‫حقیبتا الطّالب‬ ‫سبّورتا الفصل‬ ‫السائق‬ ّ ‫سیّارتا‬ ‫بیتا األخت‬

)5 )6 )7 )8

Singular

‫بَلَد‬ ‫َجنَاح‬

‫اجة‬ َ ‫َد َّر‬ ‫اعة‬ َ ‫َس‬ ‫َسائِق‬

‫خلیال خالد‬ ‫مسجدا البلد‬ ‫أختا الولد‬ ‫األم‬ ّ ‫ولدا‬

)1 )2 )3 )4


1) the two teachers of the madrasah 2) the student’s two books 3) the man’s two pens 4) the son’s two exercise books 5) the boy’s two friends 6) the classes of the madrasah 7) the two rivers of the earth

8) the two doors of the garden 9) the two teachers of the school 10) the man’s two cars 11) the boy’s two pens 12) the sister’s two exercise books 13) the student (f)’s two pencils 14) the two classes of the madrasah

Dual as ‫مضافٌإلیه‬ We have studied before that the ‫إلیه‬

‫ مضاف‬has a ‫کسرة‬. ‫الرج ِل‬ َّ ‫کِتَاب‬

However, there are some words in Arabic which express their ‫ کسرة‬in different ways to normal

ِ at the end of the word changes to "‫"ي ِن‬. words. The dual is one of them. To show its ‫ کسرة‬the "‫"ان‬ ْ ِ ْ َ‫ح ْجرة الطَّالِب‬ ‫ی‬ َ

the room of the two students Note: In English if a word is made plural by a s, the apostrophe will be placed after the s. The boy’s [singular] father The boys’[plural] father Exercise 7 Translation

Plural

nail place parents hand (feminine)

‫أَظْ َفار‬ ‫أ َْم ِکنَة‬ ‫أَيْ ِد ْي‬

Singular

‫ظ ْفر‬

‫َم َکان‬ ‫َوالِ َديْ ِن‬ ‫يَد‬

Translation finger

‫حقوق‬

tree

‫أَ ْش َجار‬

friendship

‫) مرمسا الولدين‬11 ‫) حقوق الوالدين‬12

‫املضاف‬. ‫) أظفار الیدين‬6 ‫) حقیبتا األختی‬7

‫السیّارتی‬ ّ ‫) أبواب‬13 ‫طالب الفصلی‬ ّ )14 ‫) أستاذا الطّالبی‬15

‫) أوراق الکتابی‬8 ‫) شبابیك البیتی‬9 ‫) أصابع الیدين‬11

Singular

‫َصابِع‬ َ‫أ‬

right

Translate into English. Notice how the dual is used as ‫إلیه‬

Exercise 8 Translate into Arabic. 1) the two sisters’ room 2) the two classes’ students 3) the two daughters’ mother 4) the friendship of the two boys 5) the regret of the two students (f)

Plural

‫صب ع‬ ْ ‫أ‬/‫صبَع‬ ْ ِ‫إ‬ ‫َحق‬

‫َش َجَرة‬ ‫ص َداقَة‬ َ

-

‫الو َلديْ ِن‬ َ ‫) أستاذ‬1 ‫الرجلی‬ ّ ‫) أم‬2

‫) مفتاح القفلی‬3 ‫) أساتذة املدرستی‬4 ‫) أشجار احلديقتی‬5

6) the teacher of the two classes 7) the sheets of the two books 8) the place of the two bags 9) the driver of the two cars 10) the key of the two locks

25


Dual in Sentences When the subject, ‫مبتدأ‬, is dual the predicate, ‫خرب‬, must also change to agree with subject. i.e. the

‫ خرب‬agrees with the ‫ مبتدأ‬in both number and gender. ‫الکتابان صغری‬ 

‫الکتابان صغریان‬

Notes: 1. the ‘‘‫ ’’ان‬is equivalent to the ‫ضمة‬ ّ .

2. When translating the dual or plural, the English linking word “are” is used. The man is sitting. The men are sitting. Exercise 9 Translation

Plural

‫ق َد َماء‬ ‫م َعلِّ َمات‬

old teacher (f)

Singular

Translation

ٌ

expensive

‫ِو َساع‬

wide

َ ٌ‫ق ِد ْیم‬ ‫م َعلِّ َمة‬ ‫َو ِسْیع‬

new

Plural

‫ِِثَان‬ ‫ج َدد‬

cheap (cost), low priced

-

high

-

Translate into English.

‫) اخلادمتان کسالنتان‬13 ‫الشبّاکان مغل َقان‬ ّ )14 ‫) الباب مفتوح‬15 ‫) الولدان بامسان‬16

‫) البیتان صغریان‬7 ‫) املسجد رفیع‬8 ‫السبّورة ِثینة‬ ّ )9 ‫السبورة رخیص‬ ّ ‫) قلم‬11

‫) األم طويلة‬17 ‫) البنتان قصریتان‬18

‫) الکتابان نظیفان‬11 ‫) اخلادم ُمتهد‬12

Exercise 10 Translate into Arabic. 1) The two doors are open. 2) The two windows are closed. 3) The two students are hard working. 4) The two cars are good. 5) The two lessons are easy.

Singular

‫َِثِ ْی‬ ‫َج ِديْد‬ ‫َرِخْیص‬ ‫َرفِْیع‬

‫) البنتان صادقتان‬1 ‫) اَلبنان بامسان‬2 ‫) األخت زکیة‬3 ‫) احلديقتان وسیعتان‬4 ‫الرجالن کاذبان‬ ّ )5 ‫) البیت کبری‬6

6) The man is a liar. 7) The two keys are heavy. 8) The two exercise books are new. 9) The two books are old. 10) The chair is light.

Exercise 11 Fill in the blanks with an appropriate word.

26

........ ‫) الطّالبة‬6 ‫ ِثینان‬........ )7 ‫ رخیصتان‬........ )8

........ ‫) فاطمة‬1 ........ ‫) األستاذ‬2 ........ ‫) األستاذان‬3

‫ صغریة‬........ )9 ‫ قدمیان‬........ )11

........ ‫) املعلّمة‬4 ........ ‫) املعلّمتان‬5


Note: The ‫ مضاف‬and ‫إلیه‬ plural.

‫ مضاف‬don’t have to agree in number; one may be singular and the other dual or ِ َ‫کِتاب الْب ن‬ ‫ات‬ َ َ

‫الرج ِل‬ َ ‫کَّر‬ ّ ‫اسات‬

The man’s exercise books Exercise 12 Translation

Plural

Singular

great

-

empty, free (not busy)

-

garage

-

Translate into English.

The girls’ book

‫َع ِظْیم‬ ‫فَا ِرغ‬

‫َکَراج‬

Translation mountain high, towering plane

‫) جناحا الطّائرة کبریان‬6 ‫) موسی وهارون [علیهما السالم] رسوَلن‬7 ‫) موسی وهارون [علیهما السالم] رسوَل اهلل‬8

]‫[صلی اهلل علیه وسلّم‬

]‫[رضی اهلل عنهما‬ ‫ُممد‬ ‫) رقیة وفاطمة‬9 ّ ‫بنتا‬ ]‫[صلی اهلل علیه وسلّم‬ ]‫[رضی اهلل عنهما‬ ‫ُممد‬ ‫) خدجیة و عائشة‬11 ّ ‫زوجتا‬

Exercise 13 Translate the following sentences into Arabic. 1) The house’s two doors are open. 2) The right of the teacher is great. 3) The man’s two friends are liars. 4) The friendship of the two boys is true. 5) The two windows of the room are closed.

Plural

‫ِجبَال‬ ‫طَائَِرات‬

Singular

‫َجبَل‬ ‫َش ِامخ‬

‫طَائَِرة‬

‫) سبّورتا الفصل نظیفتان‬1 ‫) بابا احلديقة مفتوحان‬2 ‫السیّارتی مغلق‬ ّ ‫) کراج‬3 ‫) قلما الطّالبتی خفیفان‬4 ‫) جبال البلد شاخمان‬5

6) The two trees of the garden are tall. 7) The two daughters’ father is pious. 8) The two boys’ mother is hardworking. 9) The place of the two cars is empty. 10) The two minarets of the two masjids are high.

Exercise 14 Correct the mistakes in the following sentences.

‫کراسة الطّالب قدی‬ ّ )5 ‫) شجرتا البستی طويلة‬6 ‫) سائقا ال ّسیّارة کسالن‬7

‫) خادما البیت کسالنان‬8

‫) احلديقتان کبریان‬1 ‫السبّورتا رخیصتان‬ ّ )2 ‫السیّارتان مفتوحان‬ ّ ‫) کراج‬3 ‫) کتابا األستاز جديدان‬4

Keywords & Checklist 

‫التثنیة‬

Do you know how to … ?  Make a dual? 

Use ‫ املضاف‬as dual?

Use ‫إلیه‬

‫ املضاف‬as dual?

Use dual in a sentence?

27


Lesson 6 Masculine Plurals Look at the following English plurals. book sheep man thief books sheep men thieves You will have noticed that there are different ways to make plurals. In Arabic there are three different ways to make nouns plural. 1. Masculine plural 2. Feminine plural 3. Broken plural We will discuss the feminine and broken plurals in the upcoming lessons. In this lesson we will discuss masculine plurals. The masculine plural is made by adding a ‫ ضمة‬to the last letter of the noun and then "‫"و َن‬ ْ.

ٌ‫ُم ْس ِل ُم ْو َن‬

‫ ْو َن‬+ ‫م ْسلِم‬

‫م ْسلِم‬

Notes: 1. This plural is used for certain words only, mostly masculine people and their adjectives i.e. any and every word cannot be made into the plural using this method.

‫ َم ْد َر َست ْو َن‬/ ‫َم ْد َر َسة‬

‫ َرجلو َن‬/ ‫َرجل‬

2. The indefinite article for plurals is “some”. The definite article for plurals is “the”. Singular Plural Indefinate Definate Indefinate Definate

‫َرجل‬

‫اَ َّلرجل‬

a man

the man

Exercise 1 Complete the table below. Feminine Feminine Dual Singular

ِ َ‫س ِري عت‬ ‫ان‬ َْ َ

‫سر َيعة‬

‫ِر َجال‬

some men

Masculine Plural

‫َس ِريْع ْون‬

‫اَ ِّلر َجال‬

the men

Masculine Masculine Dual Singular

ِ ‫س ِري ع‬ ‫ان‬ َْ َ

‫سريع‬ ‫عال‬ ‫ُمتهد‬ ‫صاحل‬ ‫نشیط‬ ‫معلّم‬ ‫خملص‬ ‫حاضر‬ ‫غائب‬

28


Masculine Plural in Sentences As mentioned before, the ‫ خرب‬must agree with the ‫ مبتدأ‬in number and gender.

ِ ‫اَلْمسلَمو َن ص‬ ‫احل ْو َن‬ َ ْ ْ

Exercise 2 Translation

Plural

cook absent expert, skillful sincere traveller Muslim engineer employee successful

‫طَبَّاخ ْو َن‬ ‫َغائِبو َن‬ ِ‫م‬ ‫اهرْو َن‬ َ ِ ‫خمْلص ْو َن‬ ‫م َسافِرْون‬ ‫م ْسلِم ْو َن‬ ‫م َهْن ِدس ْو َن‬ ‫م َؤظَّف ْو َن‬ ِ َ‫ن‬ ‫اجح ْو َن‬

ِ ‫ان‬ ِ ‫احل‬ ِ ِ ‫ان‬ َ ‫اَلْم ْسل َم‬ َ ‫ص‬

Singular

ِ ‫صالِح‬ َ ‫اَلْم ْسلم‬

Translation

‫طَبَّاخ‬ ‫َغائِب‬

ِ‫م‬ ‫اهر‬ َ ِ ‫خمْلص‬

‫م َسافِر‬ ‫م ْسلِم‬ ‫م َهْن ِدس‬ ‫م َؤظَّف‬ ِ َ‫ن‬ ‫اجح‬

Plural

‫إِطَالِیُّ ْو َن‬ ‫أ َمنَاء‬

Italian honest businessman tired present expert police journalist Chinese

Translate the following into English. Notice how the plural is used.

‫) املؤظّفون أمناء‬11 ‫) املسافرون غائبون‬12 ‫) اخل ّدام کسالی‬13 ‫) الطّبّاخون إطالیّون‬14 ‫) املهندسون صینیّون‬15

‫ُتَّار‬ ‫تَعِب ْو َن‬ ِ ‫ح‬ ‫اضرو َن‬ َ

‫خبَ َراء‬ ‫ش ْرطَة‬ ‫ص َح ِفیُّ ْو َن‬ َ ‫ِصْینِیُّ ْو َن‬

Singular

‫إِطَ ِال‬ ‫أ َِم ْی‬ ِ َ‫ت‬ ‫اجر‬

‫تَعِب‬ ِ ‫ح‬ ‫اضر‬ َ ‫َخبِْی ر‬ ‫ش ْر ِطي‬ ‫ص َح ِفي‬ َ ‫ِصْی ِن‬

‫) املسافرون تعبون‬6 ‫) املعلّمون ُمتهدون‬7

‫الرجال صاحلون‬ ّ )1 ‫) املسلمون صادقون‬2

........ ‫املرمسان‬ ........ ‫البنتان‬ ........ ‫األساتذة‬ ........ ‫اخل ّدام‬

........ ‫الرجل‬ ّ ........ ‫املسلمان‬ ........ ‫الطّالبتان‬ ........ ‫التّ ّجار‬

‫) الطّبّاخون ماهرون‬8 ‫) اخل ّدام کاذبون‬9 ‫) أساتذة املدرسة صاحلون‬11

‫طالب ناجحون‬ ّ ‫) ال‬3 ‫) التّ ّجار أمناء‬4 ‫) األوَلد غائبون‬5

Exercise 3 Fill in the blanks with an appropriate word.

........ ‫) املهندسون‬11 ........ ‫) املسافر‬12 ........ ‫الرسل‬ ّ )13 ........ ‫) املسافرون‬14 ........ ‫) األخت‬15 Exercise 4 Translate into Arabic. 1) The travellers are tired. 2) The teachers are hardworking. 3) The journalists are sitting. 4) The student is successful. 5) The employee is hardworking.

)6 )7 )8 )9

........ ‫) الطّبّاخان‬11

)1 )2 )3 )4

........ ‫) األوَلد‬5

6) The cooks are Chinese. 7) The workers are lazy. 8) The two journalists are experienced. 9) The teachers are present. 10) The cooks are expert.

29


Masculine Plural in Possession In possession, the masculine plural works very similar to the dual; i.e. the ‫ ن‬drops.

‫املسلمون‬ ‫مسلمو البلد‬ ِ Similarly, when a masculine plural becomes a ‫مضاف إلیه‬, the ‫ ون‬changes to ‫ن‬ َ ْ‫ّي‬. ‫م ْسلِم ْو َن‬ ِ ِِ ‫ی‬ َ ْ ‫َم ْسجد الْم ْسلم‬ Exercise 5 Translation ship religion company

Plural

‫سفن‬ ‫أ َْديَان‬ ‫َش ِرَکات‬ ‫قط ر‬

train

Singular

‫َس ِفْی نَة‬ ‫ِديْن‬ ‫ِش ِرَکة‬ ‫قِطَار‬

Translation passengers son restaurant newspaper

Plural

‫َراکِب ْو َن‬ ‫ أبناء‬،‫بَن ْو َن‬ ِ َ‫مط‬ ‫اعم‬ َ ‫َجَرائِد‬

Translate into English. Notice how the masculine plural is used as the ‫مضاف‬.

‫) مسافرو الطّائرة‬9 ‫) خ ّدام ال ّدين‬11 ‫الشرکة‬ ّ ‫) مهندسو‬11

‫) شرطیّو البلد‬5 ‫) معلّمو املدرسة‬6 ‫) سائقو السیّارة‬7

‫) بنو إسرائیل‬12

Exercise 7 Translation wage room story heart students office

30

Plural

‫َرَواتِب‬

‫غرفَات‬ ِ ‫صص‬ َ ‫ ق‬،‫صص‬ َ َ‫ق‬

‫ق ل ْوب‬ ‫متَ َعلِّمو َن‬ ‫َم َکاتِب‬

‫َراکِب‬ ‫اِبْن‬ ‫َمطْ َعم‬ ‫َج ِريْ َدة‬

‫السفینة‬ ّ ‫) راکبو‬1 ‫) راکبو الطّائرة‬2 ‫) معلّمو املدرستی‬3

‫املطعمی‬ ‫) طبّاخو‬8 َ

Exercise 6 Translate into Arabic. 1) the employees of the madrasah 2) the cooks of the restaurant 3) the drivers of the train 4) the policemen of the two cities 5) the passengers of the two planes

Singular

‫) صحفیّو اجلريدة‬4

6) the sons of Hashim 7) the employees of the two companies 8) the teachers of the school 9) the Muslims of al-Madeenah. 10) the passengers of the car Singular

‫َراتِب‬ ‫غ ْرفَة‬ ‫صة‬ َّ ِ‫ق‬

‫قَ ْلب‬ ‫متَ َعلِّم‬

‫َمکْتَب‬

Translation respect, manners ticket customs effort bus filing cabinet

Plural

‫آداب‬ َ ‫تَ َذاکِر‬ ‫تَ َقالِْید‬ ‫جه ْود‬ ‫َحافِ َالت‬ ‫ِخَزانَات‬

Singular

‫أ ََدب‬ ‫تَ ْذکَِرة‬ ‫تَ ْقلِْید‬ ‫َج ْهد‬ ‫َحافِلَة‬ ‫ِخَزانَة‬


‫‪Singular‬‬

‫ِملَف‬ ‫‪)1‬‬ ‫‪)2‬‬ ‫‪)3‬‬ ‫‪)4‬‬ ‫‪)5‬‬

‫‪Plural‬‬

‫ِملَفَّات‬

‫‪Translation‬‬ ‫‪file‬‬

‫‪Singular‬‬

‫نَِب‬

‫‪Plural‬‬

‫‪Translation‬‬

‫نَبِیُّ ْو َن‪ ،‬أَنْبِیَاء‬

‫‪prophet‬‬

‫‪.‬مضاف إلیه ‪Translate into English. Notice how the masculine plural is used as the‬‬

‫‪ )6‬غرفتا املسافرين‬

‫قصص النّبیّی‬ ‫تقالید الکافرين‬ ‫کراستا املتعلّمی‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫قلوب املسلمی‬ ‫صداقة املخلصی‬

‫‪ )7‬دروس املعلّمی‬ ‫‪ )8‬دين املسلمی‬ ‫‪ )9‬جهد املعلّمی‬ ‫‪ )11‬أوَلد املسلمی‬

‫‪6) the engineers’ folder‬‬ ‫‪7) the passengers’ ticket‬‬ ‫‪8) the policemen’s car‬‬ ‫‪9) the stories of the pious‬‬ ‫‪10) the efforts of the Muslims‬‬

‫‪ )11‬راتب املؤظّفی‬ ‫‪ )12‬بالد املسلمی‬ ‫‪ )13‬أدب املتعلّمی‬ ‫‪ )14‬حافلتا املسافرين‬ ‫الشرطة‬ ‫‪ )15‬خزانة ّ‬ ‫‪Exercise 8‬‬ ‫‪Translate into Arabic.‬‬ ‫‪1) the cooks’ room‬‬ ‫‪2) the office of the journalists‬‬ ‫‪3) the travellers’ bags‬‬ ‫‪4) the engineer’s houses‬‬ ‫‪5) the journalist’s pen‬‬ ‫‪Exercise 9‬‬ ‫‪Translate into English.‬‬

‫‪ )1‬سائقو القطار خبریون‬ ‫‪)2‬‬ ‫‪)3‬‬ ‫‪)4‬‬ ‫‪)5‬‬

‫أوَلد خالد ُمتهدون‬ ‫طالب الفصلی تعبون‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫رجال البلد تعبون‬ ‫السیّارة وسیع‬ ‫کراج ّ‬

‫‪ )6‬خ ّدام البیت أمناء‬

‫الرجال عاملون‬ ‫‪ّ )7‬‬ ‫‪ )8‬أصدقاء خالد کسالی‬ ‫‪ )9‬طبّاخو املطعم ماهرون‬ ‫‪ )11‬مسافر احلافلة تعبون‬

‫‪ )11‬طالب املدرسة حاضرون‬ ‫‪ُ )12‬تّار البلد أمناء‬ ‫‪ )13‬مهندسو الشرکة کسالی‬ ‫‪ )14‬املتعلمون مؤدبون‬ ‫‪ )15‬رجال البلد أزکیاء‬

‫‪Exercise 10‬‬ ‫‪Read the following sentences carefully. Identify the mistakes and correct them.‬‬

‫‪ )1‬قصص الْصاحلون‬

‫‪ )4‬طب ِ‬ ‫اخی املطعم أمناء‬ ‫ّ‬

‫‪ )5‬صحفیا اجلريدة کسالن‬

‫‪ )8‬املعلّمون غائبون‬

‫‪ )3‬سائقون احلافلة ماهرون‬

‫‪ )6‬مهندسو الشرکتان تعب‬

‫‪ )9‬طالب املدرسة ُمطهدون‬

‫الراتب املؤظفی‬ ‫‪ّ )2‬‬

‫‪31‬‬

‫‪ )7‬قطار السائقی تعبون‬


‫‪Lesson 7‬‬ ‫‪Feminine Plurals‬‬ ‫‪ on the last letter of the noun and then‬فتحة ‪, placing a‬ة ‪The feminine plural is made by removing the‬‬ ‫‪".‬ات"‪adding‬‬

‫م ْسلِمة ‪ ‬م ْسلِ َم ‪ +‬ات ‪ ‬م ْسلِ َمات‬ ‫‪Masculine Masculine‬‬ ‫‪Dual‬‬ ‫‪Singular‬‬

‫سريع‬ ‫مسلم‬

‫س ِري ع ِ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫َ َْ‬

‫‪Masculine‬‬ ‫‪Plural‬‬

‫َس ِريْع ْون‬

‫‪Exercise 1‬‬ ‫‪Complete the table below.‬‬ ‫‪Feminine Feminine Feminine‬‬ ‫‪Plural‬‬ ‫‪Dual‬‬ ‫‪Singular‬‬

‫سر َيعة‬

‫س ِري عتَ ِ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫َ َْ‬

‫َس ِريْ َعات‬

‫ناجح‬ ‫راکب‬ ‫مؤظف‬ ‫حاضر‬ ‫غائب‬ ‫مسافر‬ ‫ماهر‬ ‫تعب‬ ‫‪Feminine Plural In Sentences‬‬ ‫‪ in number and gender.‬مبتدأ ‪ must agree with the‬خرب ‪Remember: the‬‬

‫ِ‬ ‫صالِح‬ ‫اَلْم ْسلم َ‬ ‫اَلْمسلِمة ص ِ‬ ‫احلَة‬ ‫ْ َ َ‬

‫ان ِ‬ ‫احل ِ‬ ‫ِ ِ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫اَلْم ْسل َم َ‬ ‫ص َ‬ ‫ان ِ‬ ‫احلتَ ِ‬ ‫ِ ِ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫اَلْم ْسل َمتَ َ‬ ‫ص َ‬

‫اَلْمسلَمو َن ص ِ‬ ‫احل ْو َن‬ ‫ْ ْ َ‬ ‫اَلْمسلِمات ص ِ‬ ‫احلَات‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ْ َ‬

‫‪Exercise 2‬‬ ‫‪Translate the following into English.‬‬

‫‪ )1‬املؤظفات غائبات‬

‫‪ )6‬املتعلّمات زکیات‬

‫‪ )2‬املعلّمات ُمتهدات‬ ‫‪ )3‬املسافرات تعبات‬ ‫‪ )4‬املسلمات أمینات‬

‫الصحفیّات خبریات‬ ‫‪ّ )7‬‬ ‫األمهات صادقات‬ ‫‪ّ )8‬‬ ‫‪ )9‬األخوات قائمات‬

‫‪ )5‬الطّالبات ُمتهدات‬

‫‪ )11‬البنات جالسات‬

‫‪ )11‬اخلادمات کاذبات‬ ‫الزوجات بامسات‬ ‫‪ّ )12‬‬ ‫الصديقات نشیطات‬ ‫‪ّ )13‬‬ ‫‪ )14‬الشرطیّات قويات‬ ‫‪ )15‬العاملات ضعیفات‬

‫‪Exercise 3‬‬ ‫‪Translate the following into Arabic.‬‬

‫‪32‬‬


1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

The sisters are pious. The passengers (f) are tired. The daughters are lazy. The employees (f) are absent. The students (f) are present.

6) The business women are honest. 7) The cooks (f) are skillful. 8) The engineers (f) are expert. 9) The friends (f) are sincere. 10) The wives are active.

Feminine Plural in Possession Unlike the dual and masculine plural, the feminine plural behaves like normal nouns in possessive phrases; no letter drops and the ‫إلیه‬

‫ مضاف‬has a simple ‫کسرة‬. ِ ‫احلجر‬ ِ ِ‫اسات الطَّال‬ ‫ات‬ ‫ب‬ َ ‫کَّر‬ َ ْ ‫أَبْ َواب‬

Exercise 4 Translate into English. Notice how the feminine plural is used as the ‫مضاف‬.

‫) خزانة امللّفات‬11 ‫الشرکة‬ ّ ‫) حافالت‬12 ‫الشرکتی‬ ّ ‫) سیّارات‬13

‫) أمهات املؤمنی‬14 ‫) طائرات املسافرين‬15 Exercise 5 Translate into Arabic. 1) the teachers’ files 2) the buses of the school 3) the business man’s companies 4) the clocks of the houses 5) the children’s bicycles

‫) عجالت ال ّد ّراجات‬6 ‫الرجال‬ ّ ‫) حجرات‬7 ‫) ساعات احلجرتی‬8

‫) ّأمهات األوَلد‬1 ‫) شرکات البلدين‬2 ِ ‫السائقی‬ ‫کراسات‬ ّ )3

‫) مسافرات الطّائرة‬9 ‫دراجات الولدين‬ ّ )11

‫الشرطة‬ ّ ‫) مل ّفات‬4 ‫) صديقات األخت‬5

6) the man’s daughters 7) the students’ (f) chairs 8) the men’s cars 9) the students’ exercise books 10) the teachers’ room

Exercise 6 Translate into English. Notice how the feminine plural is used as the ‫إلیه‬

‫مضاف‬.

‫) أقالم الطّالبات‬11 ‫) مفتاحا اخلزانات‬12

‫الشرکات‬ ّ ‫) مؤظّفو‬6 ‫) دين املسلمات‬7

‫الصاحلات‬ ّ ‫) قصص‬1 ‫) تذاکر املسافرات‬2

‫) تذاکر احلافالت‬13 ‫الکراسات‬ ّ ‫) أوراق‬14 ‫) بابا احلجرات‬15

‫األمهات‬ ّ ‫) حقوق‬8 ‫السیّارات‬ ّ ‫) کراجا‬9 ‫) أجنحة الطّائرات‬11

‫) مل ّفات املعلمات‬3 ‫) راتب املؤظّفات‬4 ‫) جهد املعلّمات‬5

Exercise 7 Translate into Arabic. 1) the company buses 2) the keys of the filing cabinet 3) the office of the teachers (f) 4) the travellers’ bags 5) the chairs of the cooks (f)

6) the friends (f) friendship 7) the wives’ houses 8) the students’ (f) class 9) the door of the rooms 10) the pages of the exercise book

33


Lesson 8 Broken Plurals A broken plural is a plural in which the singular form is disturbed. There is no fixed rule for broken plurals. They must be learnt and memorized from the vocab list. Below are some patterns on which the broken plural comes.

‫أَفْعِ َالء‬ ‫أَنْبِیَاء‬

ِ ‫م َف‬ ‫اعل‬ َ ِ ‫َح َدائق‬ ‫َح َقائِب‬ ‫َمَر ِاسم‬

ِ ‫م َف‬ ‫اعْیل‬ َ ‫َشبَابِْیك‬ ‫َم َفاتِْیح‬

‫أَفْعِلَة‬ ‫أَ ْجنِ َحة‬ ‫أَْم ِکنَة‬

‫فِ َعال‬

‫بَِالد‬ ‫ِجبَال‬ ‫ِديَار‬ ‫ِريَاح‬

‫أَفْ َعال‬

‫أَبْ َواب‬ ‫أَقْ َفال‬ ‫أَقْ َالم‬ ‫أَيَّام‬

‫ف عل‬ ‫رسل‬ ‫سفن‬ ‫قط ر‬ ‫کت ب‬

‫ف ع ْول‬

‫رء ْوس‬ ‫طی ْور‬ ‫عی ْون‬ ‫فص ْول‬

There are no extra rules for broken plurals. They behave like normal nouns, i.e. in possession nothing drops and when it is ‫إلیه‬

‫ املضاف‬it will have a normal ‫کسرة‬.

Plural of Non-Human Things and Their ‫خبر‬ The feminine plural, unlike the masculine plural, can be used for non-human items as well.

‫ َسیَّ َارات‬- ‫َسیَّ َارة‬

However, it is very important to note that plural non-human things, weather they be on the pattern of feminine plurals or broken plurals, they are grammatically considered to be singular feminine. Therefore the ‫ خرب‬of such words will be singular feminine.

َِ ‫لسیَّارات‬ ‫َجْی لَة‬ َ َّ َ‫ا‬ َِ ‫لسیَّارات‬  ‫َجْی َالت‬ َ َّ َ‫ا‬ 

 

‫اَْألَبْ َواب م ْغلَ َقة‬

‫اِْألَبْ َواب م ْغلَ َقات‬

Exercise 1 Translate into English. Note how the ‫ خرب‬of non-living thinga are in the singular feminine form.

‫) األوراق وسخة‬11

‫) الساعات رخیصة‬6

‫) بیوت البلد ِثینة‬12 ‫) شبابیك الغرفة مغلقة‬13 ‫) مراسم الطّالبات جیّدة‬14 ‫) أبواب املسجد مفتوحة‬15

‫) العجالت صغریة‬7 ‫) ال ّدروس صعبة‬8 ‫) الکتب کبریة‬9 ‫اسي نظیفة‬ ّ ‫) الکر‬11

‫السبّورات کبریة‬ ّ )1

‫) احلجرات وسیعة‬2 ‫الکراسات ثقیلة‬ ّ )3 ‫السیّارات سريعة‬ ّ )4 ‫) ال ّد ّراجات ِثینة‬5

Exercise 2 Fill in the blanks with the correct words.

....... ‫الرجالن‬ ّ )5 ....... ‫الرجال‬ ّ )6 34

....... ‫) البیوت‬3 ....... ‫الرجل‬ ّ )4

....... ‫) البیت‬1 ....... ‫) البیتان‬2


....... ‫السیّارة‬ ّ )13 ....... ‫السیّارتان‬ ّ )14 ....... ‫السیّارات‬ ّ )15 Exercise 3 Translate into Arabic. 1) The gardens are wide. 2) The bags are heavy. 3) The classes are clean. 4) The buses are fast. 5) The cities are big.

....... ‫) ال ّدرس‬11 ....... ‫) ال ّدرسان‬11 ....... ‫) ال ّدروس‬12

....... ‫) الطّالبة‬7 ....... ‫) الطّالبتان‬8 ....... ‫) الطّالبات‬9

6) The birds are beautiful. 7) The minarets of the mosque are tall. 8) The wings of the plane are wide. 9) The trees of the garden are short. 10) The nails of the hands are clean.

Exercise 4 Fill in the blanks with an appropriate word to make them into complete sentences.

....... ‫دراجات األوَلد‬ ّ )11

....... ‫) منائر املساجد‬12 ....... ‫) طائرات املسافرين‬13 ....... ‫) مطاعم البلد‬14 ....... ‫) تذاکر القطار‬15

....... ‫) طبّاخو املطاعم‬6

....... ‫الرجل‬ ّ ‫) بیوت‬7 ....... ‫الشرکة‬ ّ ‫) مهندس‬8 ....... ‫) حقائب املسافرين‬9 ....... ‫) سائقو السیارات‬11

....... ‫) کتابا الطّالب‬1

....... ‫مدرستا البلد‬ ....... ‫ماء النهر‬ ....... ‫أقفال األبواب‬ ....... ‫حجرتا البیت‬

)2 )3 )4 )5

Exercise 5 Change the ‫ مبتدأ‬in the following sentences to plural. Adjust the ‫ خرب‬as necessary.

‫) الولد ضعیف‬11 ‫) سبّورة الفصل نظیفة‬12 ‫) حقیبة املسافرة ثقیلة‬13 ‫) راکب الطّائرة تعب‬14 ‫) املعلم قائم‬15

‫) تذکرة احلافلة رخیصة‬6 ‫) تذکرة القطار ِثینة‬7 ‫الرجل صادقة‬ ّ )8 ّ ‫قصة‬ ‫) مکتب املهندس کبری‬9 ‫) درس األستاذ سهل‬11

‫الشرکة صغریة‬ ّ ‫) طائرة‬1 ‫الرجل صاحل‬ ّ ‫) ابن‬2

‫صحفي اجلريدة ماهر‬ )3 ّ ‫) طالب الفصل حاضر‬4 ‫) طالبة الفصل غائبة‬5

‫غیرٌالمنصرف‬ We had mentioned before (page 8) that every word must have either an ‫ ال‬or a tanwin. We then mentioned two cases which are exempt from this rule; feminine names and non-Arabic male names.

ِ ‫الْمْن‬ These types of words are called ‫ف‬ ٌِ ‫ص ِر‬ َ ‫غَْی ُرٌال ُْم ْن‬. Here are some more details for ‫ص ِرف‬ َ

‫ َغْی ر‬.

Which Words Are ‫?غیرٌمنصرف‬ 1. All feminine names.

ِ ِ ‫ص ِفیَّة‬ َ ،‫ َعائ َشة‬،‫َخد ْجیَة‬

This also includes masculine names with a feminine sign on them i.e. ‫ة‬.

35


‫ َحََْزة‬،‫طَْل َحة‬

2. Arabic names with ‫ ان‬at the end.

‫ ِع ْمَران‬،‫عثْ َمان‬

3. Non-Arabic names which are longer than 3 letters.

ِ ‫ إِ ْمس‬،‫إِب ر ِاهیم‬ ‫ يوسف‬،‫ إِ ْسحاق‬،‫اعْیل‬ َ ْ َْ ِ ِ ‫ َغی ر الْمْن‬. Tip: Other than ‫ُمَ َّمد‬, ‫صالح‬ ْ َ , ‫لوط‬, ‫عاد‬, ‫ ش َعْیب‬and ‫ نوح‬u names of all prophets are ‫ص ِرف‬ َ

4. Plurals on the following patterns:

‫أَفْعِ َالء‬ ‫أَنْبِیَاء‬

‫ف َع َالء‬ ‫فقراء‬

‫فَ َعالِلَة‬ ‫َساتِ َذة‬ َ‫أ‬

ِ ‫م َف‬ ‫اعْیل‬ َ ِ ‫َم َفاتْیح‬

ِ ‫م َف‬ ‫اعل‬ َ ِ ‫َمَراسم‬

These plurals are written with one ‫ضمة‬ ّ in the vocab list. Make sure you pay special attention to the plurals in the vocab list and make a mental note of which plurals are ‫املنصرف‬

‫غری‬.

Rules for ‫غیرٌمنصرف‬ 1.

2.

ِ ‫ َغی ر الْمْنص ِر‬names don’t have an ‫ ال‬or a tanwin. ‫ف‬ ْ َ

‫َخ ِد ْجیَة صاحلة‬ These also don’t carry a ‫کسرة‬. So in the case of ‫ املضاف إلیه‬they will have a ‫ فتحة‬instead. ‫أ ّم مر َی‬ ِ ‫ َغی ر الْمْنص ِر‬plurals don’t have a tanwin, however they can have ‫ال‬. ‫ف‬ ْ َ ‫هم أغنیاء‬ ‫املراسم صغریة‬ If they do have an ‫ ال‬they may carry a ‫کسرة‬. ‫مقلمة املراس ِم‬

Name

‫غری املنصرف‬

‫تنوین‬

‫کسرة‬

ِ ‫ص ِادقَة‬ َ ‫َخد ْجیَة‬

‫کِتَاب َخ ِد ْجیَ َة‬

‫ُّجار أ َمنَاء‬ َّ ‫الت‬

‫م ْقلَ َمة الْ َمَر ِاس ِم‬

Plural

Exercise 6 Translate the following. Notice how the ‫املنصرف‬

‫) يوسف بن يعقوب‬9 ‫النب‬ ّ ‫) آمنة ّأم‬11 ‫ب‬ ّ ّ‫) خدجیة زوجة الن‬11

‫) فاطمة بنت خدجیة‬12 36

‫ غری‬words are used. ‫) جبال مکة‬5 ‫) بنو عمران‬6 ‫) خزانة َحزة‬7

‫) إسحاق والد يعقوب‬8

‫) کتاب عائشة‬1 ‫) بیت خدجیة‬2 ‫قصة مری‬ ّ )3 ‫) أدب طلحة‬4


‫) إسحاق وإمساعیل ابنا إبراهیم‬19 ‫) إبراهیم وإمساعیل وإسحاق أنبیاء‬21 ‫وُممد أصدقاء‬ ّ ‫) خالد وعابد‬21

‫) سفینة نوح کبریة‬16 ‫) إمساعیل ابن إبراهیم‬17 ‫) إسحاق ابن إبراهیم‬18

‫) رقیّة أخت فاطمة‬13 ‫) لوط رسول اهلل‬14 ‫) مؤظفو الشرکة أمناء‬15

Keywords & Checklist Do you know how to … ?  Make the masculine plural?  Make the feminine plural?  What a broken plural is?  How to use masculine plural as ‫?املضاف‬

 Masculine Plural  Feminine Plural  Broken Plural  Non-Human Plurals

Use ‫ املضاف إلیه‬as dual?

Use dual in a sentence?

Plurals

Masculine Plurals

Feminine Plurals

‫م ْسلِم ْو َن‬

‫م ْسلِ َمات‬

Broken Plurals

‫غری املنصرف‬ ِ ‫مس‬ ‫اجد‬ ََ

Normal Broken Plurals

‫ِر َجال‬

37


Lesson 9 Pronouns A pronoun )ٌ‫ضمیِر‬ َ ( is a word that is used in place of a noun.

Zaid is a very good man. He helps the poor. Pronouns are used in place of a noun that has already been mentioned, as in the example above. It is also used when speaking to someone, or speaking about oneself. I am ill. You are a hardworking student.

Subject Pronouns Subject pronouns are used as subjects.

‫ه َو تَعِب‬

[He]subject is tired.

‫الرجل م َسافِر‬ ّ

[The man]subject is a traveller.

The subject pronouns are as follows. Learn them by heart as this will be very helpful. Subject Pronouns Singular Masculine

Dual Plural

Third Person Singular Feminine

Dual Plural Singular

Masculine

‫أَنْت َما‬

Dual Plural

Second Person Singular Feminine

Masculine / Feminine

Singular Plural

m: masculine s: singular d: dual First Person: Second Person: the speaker the person who is spoken to

38

‫أَنْت ْم‬ ِ ْ‫أَن‬ ‫ت‬

‫أَنْت َما‬

Dual Plural

First Person

‫ه َو‬ ‫ُهَا‬ ‫ه ْم‬ ‫ِه َي‬ ‫ُهَا‬ ‫ه َّن‬ ‫ت‬ َ ْ‫أَن‬

‫ت‬ َّ ْ‫أَن‬ ‫أَنَا‬ ‫ََْنن‬

He They (m/d) They (m/p) She They (f/d) They (f/p) You (m/s) You (m/d) You (m/p) You (f/s) You (f/d) You (f/p) I (m,f) We (m,f /d,p)

f: feminine p: plural Third Person: the person who is spoken about.


Notes: 1. The word ‫ أَنَا‬is written with an alif at the end. However, that alif is not pronounced.

‫أَنَا = أَ َن‬

2. The words ‫ أنا‬and ‫ َنن‬can be used for both masculine and feminine. The context of the sentence will determine which is meant.

ِ ‫ََْنن طَالِب‬ ‫ان‬ َ ‫ََْنن طَالِبَات‬ The same applies for ‫ أنتما‬and ‫ُها‬. ِ ‫ُها طَالِب‬ ‫ان‬ َ َ ِ َ‫ُها طَالِبت‬ ‫ان‬ َ َ

‫أَنَا طَالِب‬ ‫أَنَا طَالِبَة‬ ِ ‫أَنْتما طَالِب‬ ‫ان‬ َ َ ِ َ‫أَنْتما طَالِبت‬ ‫ان‬ َ َ

3. In English, the word “it” is used for inanimate things. i.e. it is used for the neutral gender. This is my pen. It is quite nice. In Arabic however, there is no word for it as there is no neutral gender. Instead, the pronouns for “he” and “she” will be used. If the noun is masculine ‫ هو‬will be used, and if it is feminine ‫هي‬ will be used.

ِِ ‫ ِه َي ثَِقْی لَة‬،‫اسة‬ َ ‫هذه کَّر‬

‫ ه َو َِثِ ْی‬،‫ه َذا قَلَم‬

This is an exercise book. It is heavy. 4. Pronouns do not change. i.e. if it is a ‫إلیه‬ the same.

This is a pen. It is expensive.

‫ مضاف‬it will not change to a ‫کسرة‬, rather it will remain

‫ك‬ َ ِ‫ك ِ ِْف کِتَاب‬ َ ‫کِتَاب‬

Exercise 1 Translate the following sentences into English. Notice how pronouns are used as subjects.

‫) أنا ضعیف‬13 ‫) أنا صغریة‬14 ‫) َنن قائمان‬15

‫مؤدب‬ ّ ‫) أنت‬7 ‫) أنتما ابنا خالد‬8 ‫) أنتم ُمتهدون‬9

‫) هو مسلم‬1 ‫) ُها تاجران‬2 ‫) هم أغنیاء‬3

‫) َنن والدا راشد‬16 ‫) َنن جالسون‬17 ‫) َنن خادمات‬18

‫) أنت بامسة‬11 ‫) أنتما حاضرتان‬11 ‫أنت تعبات‬ ّ )12

‫) هي ّأم عامر‬4 ‫) ُها طالبتان‬5 ‫هن غائبات‬ ّ )6

Exercise 2 Fill in the blanks with a suitable pronoun. Ensure the ‫ مبتدأ‬matches the ‫خرب‬. Thereafter translate into English.

‫ خالد‬....... )7 ‫ آمنة‬....... )8

‫مؤظّفان‬....... )4 ‫ غائبان‬....... )5

‫ مسلمون‬....... )1 ‫ ناجحتان‬....... )2

‫ کاذبان‬....... )9

‫ طبّاخة‬....... )6

‫ حاضر‬....... )3 39


‫ ضعیفتان‬....... )14 ‫ خرباء‬....... )15

‫ قائمات‬....... )12 ‫ قويّان‬....... )13

Exercise 3 Translate the following into Arabic. 1) They (m/p) are poor. 2) He is pious. 3) We (f/p) are sitting. 4) You (f/p) are liars. 5) They (m/d) are drivers. 6) I (m) am a student.

‫ صادقتان‬....... )11 ‫ کسالی‬....... )11

7) You (f/s) are a journalist. 8) They (f/d) are travellers. 9) She is honest. 10) They (f/p) are beautiful. 11) We (f/d) are short. 12) You (m/d) standing.

Notes: 1. First and second person pronouns show very clearly who is meant by it. i.e. I, we, you etc. However, third person pronouns must have an ‫ َعائِد‬,an antecedent (a preceding noun to determine who is being referred to). [Khalid] antecedent is a student. [He] third person pronoun referring to antecedent is hardworking. In this sentence, the pronoun ‘he’ refers to antecedent “Khalid”.

‫ ه َو ُْمتَ ِهد‬،‫َخالِد طَالِب‬

2. If there are both masculine and feminine antecedents the masculine will be given preference in terms of agreement.

.‫ هم ُمتهدون‬.‫أَحد وخدجیة وعائشة طالب‬ 3. The pronoun for a non-human plural antecedent will be singular feminine.

‫ هي ِثینة‬.‫الکتب جديدة‬ The books are new. They are expensive. When you are translating ensure you do not translate the ‫ هي‬which refers to non-human plural as “she”. 4. The pronoun must agree with its antecedent in both number and gender. The number and gender of the pronoun does not have to agree with the noun it is joint to.

‫اَلْم َعلِّ َمة َوبَْیت َها‬

‫اَلْم َعلِّم َوبَْیته‬

The teacher and her house

The teacher and his house

The teacher and her houses (d)

The teachers (d) and their house

The teacher and her houses

The teachers and their house

‫اها‬ َ َ‫اَلْم َعلِّ َمة َوبَْیت‬

‫اَلْم َعلِّ َمة َوب ی ْوت َها‬

ِ ‫اَلْمعلِّم‬ ‫ان َوبَْیت ه َما‬ ََ ‫اَلْم َعلِّم ْو َن َوبَْیت ه ْم‬

5. The particle ‫ َو‬is used to join two nouns or phrases together. It is translated as and. The ‫ و‬is written closer to the second word. In typesetting, there is no space after the ‫و‬.

‫الکتاب صغری َوالقلم کبری‬

The book is small and the pen is big. 6. When ‫ و‬comes before a noun with ‫ال‬, the ‫ الف‬will not be pronounced, it will be silent.

ِ ‫صغِْی ر َوالْ َقلَم َکبِْی ر‬ َ ‫اَلْکتَاب‬

40


We will discuss ‫ و‬and other conjunctions (joining particles) in more detail later on. Exercise 4 Translate into English.

.‫ ُها ُمتهدان‬.‫) مری وخدجیة طالبتان‬6 .‫ ُها جیّدان‬.‫الشبّاك مغلق‬ ّ ‫) الباب مفتوح و‬7

.‫ ُها رخیصان‬.‫الکراسة کبریة والکتاب صغری‬ ّ )8 .‫طالب‬ ّ ‫ هم‬.‫) إبراهیم وإمساعیل وخالد أصدقاء‬9 .‫ هم أصدقاء‬.‫) خالد وعمر وَحزة طالب املدرسة‬11

.‫ هو أمی‬.‫ُممد تاجر‬ ّ )1 .‫ هي ماهرة‬.‫) خدجیة طبّاخة‬2

.‫ هم تعبون‬.‫) التّ ّجار مسافرون‬3 .‫ ُها أمینان‬.‫) اَلبنان صاحلان‬4 .‫ ُها کسالنتان‬.‫) البنتان خادمتان‬5

Exercise 5 Translate into Arabic. 1) The servants (f/p) are sisters. They are honest. 2) The students are hardworking. They are successful. 3) The bags (d) are new. They are heavy. 4) The cars are old. They are slow. 5) The teachers are pious. They are well mannered. 6) The driver is old. He is experienced. 7) The cook (f) is new. She is skilful. 8) The boys (d) are absent. They are tired. 9) The mother is weak and the father is strong. They are honest. 10) Khalid, Khadijah and Aishah are Hamzah’s children. They are small.

Keywords & Checklist  

‫ِض ِمْی ر‬ ‫َعائِد‬

 Pronoun  Antecedent Do you know … ?  What a pronoun is? 

When pronouns are used?

Where subjects pronouns are used?

Where possessive pronouns are used?

How the word ‫ أَنا‬is pronounced?

How you would determine the meaing of pronouns like ‫ُها‬, ‫أنتما‬, ‫ أنا‬and ‫َنن‬.

What Arabic pronoun is used for non-human plurals.

What pronoun is used if there are both masculine and feminine antecedents?

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Lesson 10 Possessive Pronouns Possessive pronouns are used when you want to indicate who owns or is associated with an item i.e. it is used in place of ‫إلیه‬

‫املضاف‬. ‫کِتَابه‬

ِ ِ‫کِتَاب الطَّال‬ ‫ب‬

his book

the student’s books

These pronouns always come attached to a noun. They are as follows. Possessive Pronouns Singular Masculine

Dual Plural

Third Person Singular Feminine

Dual Plural Singular

Masculine

Dual Plural

Second Person

Singular Feminine

Masculine / Feminine

‫ُهَا‬ ‫ه ْم‬ ‫َها‬

‫ُهَا‬ ‫ه َّن‬ ‫َك‬ ‫ک َما‬ ‫ک ْم‬ ‫ِك‬

‫ک َما‬

Dual Plural

First Person

‫ه‬

Singular Plural

‫ک َّن‬ ‫ِّ ْي‬ ‫نَا‬

His Their (m/d) Their (m/p) Her Their (f/d) Their (f/p) Your (m/s) Your (m/d) Your (m/p) Your (f/s) Your (f/d) Your (f/p) My (m,f) Our (m,f /d,p)

Practice using these pronouns by adding them to different nouns. Remember, the first word is

‫املضاف‬, so it will have a ‫ضمة‬ ّ on it. .... ‫ کِتَاب ه ْم‬،‫ کِتَاب ه َما‬،‫ کِتَاب َها‬،‫کتاُبم‬،‫کتاب هما‬،‫کتابه‬ Note: When a feminine word is joint to a possessive pronoun, the ‫ ة‬is written just like a normal ‫ت‬.

‫کراستك‬ ّ – ‫کراسة‬ ّ Exercise 1 Translate the following possessive phrases into English. Notice how the possessive pronoun is used.

‫) مفتاحه‬5 ‫) مرامسهم‬6 42

‫) مائها‬3 ‫) قلمهما‬4

‫) کتاِب‬1 ‫) دروسنا‬2


‫) دينهم‬13 ‫) أصدقائك‬14 ‫) بلدكما‬15 Exercise 2 Translate into Arabic. 1) his story 2) their (m/d) house 3) their (m/p) wages 4) her office 5) their (f/d) train

‫عیونکن‬ )11 ّ ِ ّ‫) معل‬11 ‫متك‬ ‫) نبیّنا‬12

‫بیوهتن‬ )7 ّ ‫) ربّك‬8 ‫) أخواتکم‬9

6) their (f/p) hearts 7) your (m/s) cycle 8) your (m/d) friend 9) your (m/p) friendship 10) your (f/s) city

11) your (f/d) sister 12) your (f/p) houses 13) my hand 14) his mother 15) our prophet

Note: There are two sets of pronouns, subject pronouns and possessive pronouns. The subject pronoun is used as a subject and comes on its own. The possessive pronoun is used as ‫إلیه‬ attached to a noun. possessive pronoun

ِ ‫(کتاِب) کتا‬ ]‫ب[ي‬

‫ املضاف‬and comes

‫ رجل‬subject pronoun]‫[أنا‬

my book

I am a man.

The masculine dual and plural, and feminine dual and plural are the same in both subject and possessive pronouns. Subject Possessive Pronouns Pronouns Singular Masculine

Dual Plural

Third Person Singular Feminine

Dual Plural Singular

Masculine

Dual Plural

Second Person

Singular Feminine

Dual Plural

First Person

Masculine / Feminine

Singular Plural

‫ه َو‬ ‫ُهَا‬ ‫ه ْم‬ ‫ِه َي‬ ‫ُهَا‬ ‫ه َّن‬ ‫ت‬ َ ْ‫أَن‬

‫ه‬ ‫ُهَا‬ ‫ه ْم‬ ‫َها‬

‫أَنْت َما‬

‫ُهَا‬ ‫ه َّن‬ ‫َك‬ ‫ک َما‬

‫أَنْت َما‬

‫ک َما‬

‫ََْنن‬

‫نَا‬

‫أَنْت ْم‬ ِ ْ‫أَن‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ت‬ َّ ْ‫أَن‬ ‫أَنَا‬

‫ک ْم‬ ‫ِك‬

‫ک َّن‬ ‫ِّ ْي‬

43


Exercise 3 Translate into English. Notice the difference between the subject and possessive pronouns.

‫) أنا فقری‬13 ‫) بیيت‬14 ِ ‫) و‬15 ‫الدك‬

‫) ولدك‬9 ‫) أنتم کبار‬11 ‫) قطاركم‬11

‫) َنن معلّمون‬5 ‫) معلّمونا‬6 ‫) ُها مهندسان‬7

‫) أنت ّأمه‬16

‫کراستهما‬ ّ )12

‫) أنت راکب‬8

‫) هي أختك‬1 ‫) أختها‬2 ‫شرطي‬ ‫) هو‬3 ّ ‫) مکتبه‬4

Exercise 4 Translate into Arabic. Ensure you use the correct pronoun. 1) he is a driver 6) its (f) passengers 2) his driver 7) her son 3) you are a teacher (f/s) 8) you are his son 4) your (f/s) teacher 9) you (m/d) are present 5) she is a traveller 10) your wife Note: When the possessive pronoun is used the ‫ ن‬of the dual and masculine plural will drop as in normal possessive phrases.

‫کتابا الطّالب‬ ‫کتاباه‬ Exercise 5 Translate into English.

‫) بنونا‬11 ‫) مهندسوهم‬11 ‫) سائقوُها‬12

‫) صديقاه‬7 ‫) والداهم‬8 ‫) طبّاخوهم‬9

‫) جناحاها‬4 ‫) عجلتاه‬5 ‫) قلماك‬6

‫) قلماه‬1 ‫) معلّموهم‬2 ‫ماهتن‬ ّ ّ‫) معل‬3

Notes: 1. The word for “my” is a simple ‫ي‬. The last letter of the word before it is given a ‫ کسرة‬and the ‫ي‬ itself carries a ‫سکون‬.

2.

ِ َ‫کِت‬ ‫ ْي‬+ ‫اب‬ ِ ‫اِب‬ ْ ِ َ‫کت‬ However, if the ‫ املضاف‬is a dual the ‫ ي‬will carry a ‫فتحة‬. The Dhammah Form

‫ي‬ َ + ‫صديقا‬ ِ ‫خالِد وع ِامر‬ ‫ي‬ َ ََ َ َ ‫صديْ َقا‬

Khalid and Amir are my friends (d)

44

The Kasra Form

ِ ‫ي‬ َ ‫َحقْیبَتَ ْی‬ ِ ِ ‫يت‬ ََّ َ‫أَقْ َالم ْي ِف َحقْیب‬

My pens are in my two bags.


3. Similarly, if the ‫ املضاف‬is a masculine plural the ‫ ي‬will carry a ‫فتحة‬. However, the ‫ و‬will change to a ‫ ي‬to make pronunciation easier.

ِ ِ )‫ي‬ َ + ‫م َعلِّم َّي (م َعلِّم ْي‬

‫ي‬ َ + ‫م َعلِّم ْو‬

‫م َعلِّم ْو َن‬

In other words, if the ‫ املضاف‬has a dropped ‫ن‬, (the rules of which we have studied earlier) the ‫ي‬ will have a ‫ ;فتحة‬and in all other cases it will have a sakin (‫ي‬ ْ ).

4. Broken plurals with the possessive pronoun ‫ ي‬behave the same as normal singular nouns with the possessive pronoun ‫ي‬.

‫قَلَ ِم ْي أَقْ َال ِم ْي‬

Exercise 6 Translate into English. Ensure you pronounce the ‫ ي‬correctly.

‫) معلّمي‬11 ‫) معلّماي‬11 ‫مي‬ ّ ّ‫) معل‬12 Exercise 7 Translate into Arabic. 1) my cook 2) my two cooks 3) my cooks Exercise 8 Translation

‫) سیّارتاي‬7 ‫) سیارايت‬8 ‫) سیّاريت‬9

4) my house 5) my two houses 6) my houses Plural

‫کِ َالب‬

dog

‫أَقْ َوام‬

people

‫) سائقي‬4

‫) کتاِب‬1

‫) سائقاي‬5 ‫سائقي‬ )6 ّ

‫) کتاباي‬2 ‫) کتب‬3

7) my son 8) my two sons 9) my sons

Singular

‫َک ْلب‬ ‫قَ ْوم‬

Translation cave companion, people of

10) my plane 11) my two planes 12) my planes Plural

Singular

‫که ْوف‬

‫أص َحاب‬ ْ

‫َک ْهف‬ ِ‫ص‬ ‫احب‬ َ

Translate the following phrases into English. Notice how the pronoun agrees with its antecedent in number and gender.

‫) املدرسة وفصوهلا‬11

‫) الطّائرة وراکبوها‬6

‫) املسلمون ودينهم‬1

‫الرجل وزوجته‬ ّ )12 ‫ُممد [صلی اهلل علیه وسلم] وأصحابه‬ ّ )13 ‫) األنبیاء وأصحاُبم‬14

‫الصديقان وصداقتهما‬ ّ )7 ‫الساعة وعقرباها‬ ّ )8 ‫) النهر ومائه‬9

‫کراساهتم‬ ّ ‫) الطّالب و‬2 ‫) ال ّد ّراجة وعجلتاها‬3 ‫) املسافرون وحقائبهم‬4

‫) أصحاب الکهف وکلبهم‬15

‫) السائقان وحافلتهما‬11

‫) األختان و ّأمهما‬5

Exercise 9 Translation friend (f) kid

Plural

‫ص ِديْ َقات‬ َ

‫أَطْ َفال‬

Singular

‫ص ِديْ َقة‬ َ ‫ِط ْفل‬

Translation teachings sky (fem.)

Plural

‫تَ َعالِْیم‬

‫َمسََوات‬

Singular

‫تَ ْعلِْیم‬

‫َمسَاء‬

45


Translation

Plural

‫م ِديْرْون‬

director, principal star

Translate into Arabic. 1) the man and his friend 2) the boys and their sister 3) the kids and their toys 4) the house and it’s window 5) the lock and its keys 6) you (f/s) and your friends 7) the earth and its rivers

Singular

‫م ِديْر‬ ‫َُْنم‬

‫ُن ْوم‬

Translation enemy, foe toys

Plural

Singular

‫أ َْع َداء‬

‫َعدو‬

‫ل َعب‬

‫ل ْعبَة‬

8) the sky and its stars 9) we and our people 10) Islam and its teachings 11) the students (f) and their efforts 12) the company and its directors. 13) the principal and his teachers 14) the mother and her two daughters

Possessive Pronouns in Sentences Phrases with possessive pronouns in them can become either the subject or predicate of sentences. ‫[کتاِب]مبتدأ [صغری]خرب‬

Exercise 10 Translation

Plural

Singular

broken

-

O Allah

-

grandfather Translate into English.

‫َج َداد‬ ْ‫أ‬

‫َمکْس ْور‬ ‫اَللّه َّم‬ ‫َجد‬

‫) الکعبة قبلتنا‬11

Exercise 11 Translate into Arabic. 1) You are my friend. 2) He is our teacher. 3) She is your (f) mother. 4) They are our friends. 5) My pen is small. 6) Your (f/d) bags are heavy. 7) Your (m/p) rooms are clean. 8) Our grandfather is pious.

food tasty 46

Translation servant rich, independent poor, needy

Plural

Singular

‫ َعبِْید‬،‫ِعبَاد‬ ‫أَ ْغنِیَاء‬ ‫ف َقراء‬

‫رِب‬ ّ ‫) اهلل‬6 ‫) اهلل ربّنا‬7 ‫) اهلل خالقنا‬8 ‫) اهلل رازقنا‬9 ‫عدونا‬ ّ )11 ّ ‫الشیطان‬

‫) اإلسالم ديننا‬12 ‫) القرآن کتابنا‬13 ‫غن وَنن فقراء‬ ّ ّ‫) الل‬14 ّ ‫هم أنت‬ ‫رِب وأنا عبدك‬ ّ ‫هم أنت‬ ّ ّ‫) ألل‬15

Exercise 12 Translation

‫أنت]مبتدأ [صديقي]خرب‬ َ [

‫َعْبد‬ ِ ‫ن‬ ّ ‫َغ‬ ‫فَِقْی ر‬ ‫) هو أستاذي‬1

‫هي ّأمي‬ ‫أنت ُمتهد‬ ‫أنتما ابناي‬ ‫َنن مسلمون‬

)2 )3 )4 )5

9) Your employees are lazy. 10) Her board is dirty. 11) Your (f/s) children are active. 12) His chair is broken. 13) Their (m/d) garden is clean. 14) Their cooks (m/p) are experienced. 15) He is your principal. 16) They are my friends.

Plural

‫أَطْعِ َمة‬ -

Singular

‫طَ َعام‬ ‫لَ ِذيْذ‬

Translation shoe curtain

Plural

‫َح ِذيَة‬ ْ‫أ‬ ‫َستَائِر‬

Singular

‫ِح َذاء‬ ‫ِستَ َارة‬


Translation partner, shareholder

Plural

Singular

ِ ‫مس‬ ‫اهم‬ َ

-

happy

-

well-mannered

-

Translation

‫َم ْسرْور‬ ‫م َه َّذب‬

Translate into English.

fruitful

Plural

Singular

‫غص ْون‬

Branch Shirt

‫قمص‬

Wet

-

(one who wears hijab) handkerchief

‫ُْمتَ ِجبَات‬ ‫َمنَ ِادل‬

‫صن‬ ْ‫غ‬ ‫قَ ِمْیص‬ ‫مْبتَل‬ ‫ُْمتَ ِجبَة‬ ‫ِمْن ِديْل‬

Translation

sock (one who doesn’t wear hijab) healthy

‫م ْربِح‬

.‫) الطّبّاخ ماهر وطعامه لذيذ‬1 .‫) العال صاحل وبنوه مثله‬2 .‫) املساجد کبریة ومنائرها شاخمة‬3 .‫السبّورة جیّدة وقلمها جیّد‬ ّ .‫احلديقة کبریة وأشجارها مثمرة‬ .‫يد الطّفل وسخة وأظفاره طويلة‬ .‫الزوجة مه ّذبة وحجرهتا نظیفة‬ ّ

)4 )5 )6 )7

.‫) الطّائرات کبریة وأجنحتها وسیعة‬8 Plural

dry trunk

‫ِمثْل‬ ‫مثْ ِمر‬

-

profitable

‫وُممد[صلی اهلل علیه وسلم] نبیّنا‬ ّ ‫) َنن مسلمون؛ اهلل ربّنا واإلسالم ديننا‬16

Singular

‫أ َْمثَال‬ -

like, similar to

.‫نب اهلل وابناه نبیّان‬ ّ )‫) إبراهیم (علیه السالم‬9 .‫) الشبّاك مفتوح وستائره وسخة‬11 .‫) املطعم جیّد ومؤظّفوه ُمتهدون‬11 .‫الشرکة مرحبة ومساُهوها مسرورون‬ ّ )12 .‫) تذاکر الطّائرة ِثینة وراکبوها أغنیاء‬13 .‫طالُبما ناجحون‬ ّ ‫) املعلّمان خبریان و‬14 .‫طالُبا غائبون‬ ّ ‫) أستاذ املدرسة حاضر و‬15

Exercise 13 Translation

Plural

Singular -

‫جذ ْوع‬ ‫َج َوا ِرب‬ ‫َسافَِرات‬ ِ‫أ‬ ‫ ِص َحاح‬،‫َص َّحاء‬

Translate into Arabic. 1) I (f) am ill and my sister is healthy. 2) The plane is big and its two wings are wide. 3) Zaid's shirt is dirty and his handkerchief is wet. 4) Khalid’s shoes are clean and his socks are dry. 5) She wears hijab and her sister doesn't wear hijab. 6) Allah S is our lord and Muhammad s is his prophet. 7) The house door is open and the windows are open. 8) The branches of the tree are long and its trunk is strong. 9) You (m/d) are well mannered and your exercise books are clean. 10) The teachers of the madrasah are skilled and the students are hardworking.

‫َجاف‬ ‫ِج ْذع‬

‫َج ْوَرب‬ ‫َسافَِرة‬ ‫ص ِحْیح‬ َ

Exercise 14 Identify the mistakes in the following sentences, explain the cause of the error and then correct them.

‫) ك عال‬5 ‫) طعام ِه َي لذيذة‬6

‫) الکلب وأظفارها‬3

‫) أخت أنت کبری‬1

‫) األقفال ومفاتیحهم‬4

‫) لعب األطفال وأصدقائه‬2 47


‫) البیوت وأبواُبم‬9

‫) َنن مساء‬8

‫) األخت وبیتها‬7

]‫[صلیٌاهللٌعلیهٌوسلم‬

Translation

Plural

Translation

Plural

‫م ْر ِض َعة‬/ ‫ م ْر ِضع‬uncle ‫أ َْع َمام‬ ‫ َم ْولِد‬Qiblah place of birth ِ ‫ مولده مکة‬.‫عمه أبو طالب ومرضعه حلیمة‬ ّ ‫ و‬،‫ وج ّده عبد الْمطَّلب‬،‫ و ّأمه آمنة‬،‫ والده عبد اهلل‬،‫نبیّنا‬ wet nurse

ِ ‫مر‬ ‫اضع‬ ََ

Singular

ٌ‫نبیّناٌمحمد‬

Keywords & Checklist Do you know …?  Both set of pronouns by heart?  The difference in their usage?  Which Arabic pronoun is used for it? 

How ‫ ي‬is pronounced as a possessive pronoun?

Pronouns

Subject Pronouns

48

Possessive Pronouns

Singular

‫َعم‬ ‫قِْب لَة‬ ‫ُممد‬ .‫والکعبة قبلته‬

]‫[صلی اهلل علیه وسلم‬


Lesson 11 Prepositions Prepositions are small words that can be used with nouns to give information about position or movement. in the house by the supermarket near his house towards the mosque In Arabic, prepositions are called ٌ‫ارة‬ َّ ‫( ُح ُرْوفٌٌ َج‬the plural of ‫َجار‬ The following are commonly used prepositions.

ٌ ٌُ‫ارة‬ ُ ‫الح ُرْو‬ َّ ‫ْج‬ َ ‫فٌال‬ ُ in on from to, towards for

‫ِ ِْف‬ ‫َعلی‬ ‫ِم ْن‬ ‫إِلی‬ ‫ِل‬

ٌ‫ف‬ ُ ‫الظٌ ٌُرٌْو‬ under above in front of behind behind

with

ِ ‫ب‬

with

like

‫َك‬

by

]

prepositional phrase noun

‫) َح ْرف‬, or ٌ‫( ظُُروف‬plural of ‫)ظَْرف‬.

‫ت‬ َ ‫َْت‬ ‫فَ ْو َق‬ ‫أََم َام‬

‫ف‬ َ ‫َخ ْل‬ َ‫َوَراء‬

‫َم َع‬ ‫ِعْن َد‬

]‫السیَّ َارِة‬ َّ [ preposition]‫[ [ِِف‬

in the car Notes 1. Words after prepositions behave like ‫إلیه‬ case with ‫ تثنیة‬and masculine plurals).

ِ ِ ‫ی‬ َ ْ ‫عْن َد الْم َعلِّم‬

ِ ْ َ‫َعلی البَاب‬ ‫ی‬

by the teachers 2.

‫ املضاف‬i.e. they have a ‫ کسرة‬or its equivalent (as in the ‫احل ْجرِة‬ ْ ‫ِِف‬

on the two doors

in the room

‫اجلارة‬ ّ ‫ احلروف‬remain as they are in all circumstances, i.e. it will not carry a ‫ضمة‬ ّ if it is a ‫خرب‬. ِ ‫لرجل]مبتدأ [ِِف الْبیت]خرب‬ َّ َ‫[ا‬ [The man] is [in the house].

‫ الظّروف‬usually have a ‫فتحه‬.

]‫[الطّیور] [فو َق البیت‬

[The birds] are [above the house]. 3. When the preposition ‫ ل‬is placed before a word with ‫ ال‬the ‫ ا‬is not written.

‫للرج ِل‬ ّ  ‫َللرجل‬ ّ 

‫الرجل‬ ّ

49


4. When the preposition ‫ ل‬is placed before the word ‫ اهلل‬the alif is dropped and no ‫ ل‬is added.

‫اهلل‬  ‫ للله‬ِ‫هلل‬ for Allah

5.

When ‫ ِم ْن‬is added to a word with ‫ ال‬the ‫ نون‬is given a ‫ فتحة‬to help pronunciation. ِ ‫ت ِمن الْب ی‬ ِ ‫ البِی‬+ ‫ِمن‬ ‫ت‬ َْ َ ْ ْ

Exercise 1 Translate the following into English. Notice how the prepositions are used and how the words after them are affected.

‫) إلی املدينة‬11 ‫) ِف الطّعام‬12 َّ )13 ‫للجدين‬ ‫) مع صاحبك‬14

‫الکراسات‬ ّ ‫) مع‬6 ‫) ِف احلافالت‬7 ‫الديك‬ َ ‫ ) لو‬8 ‫) من البلد‬9

‫الشجرة‬ ّ ‫) فوق‬15

‫) تت القطار‬11

Exercise 2 Translate into Arabic. 1) in the garage 2) on the books 3) from the office 4) towards the city 5) for the students (f)

6) above the mountains 7) under the car 8) in front of the fire 9) behind the driver 10) with a cycle

‫) فوق البیت‬1 ‫) عند البابی‬2 ‫الشبّاك‬ ّ ‫) أمام‬3 ‫) عند املعلّمات‬4 ‫للمسافرين‬ )5 َ

11) in the masjid 12) for a friend 13) on the toy 14) from the beginning 15) to the end

Notes: 1. Possessive pronouns can also be used with prepositions, just like nouns.

‫هن‬ ّ ‫َخ ْل َف‬

behind of them (f/p)

‫َأم َامه‬

in front of him

‫ك‬ َ ‫علی‬

upon you

2. As mentioned before pronouns don’t change to ‫ ضمة‬or ‫ ;کسرة‬they stay the same in all conditions. However, some pronouns do change when they are joint to prepositions or if they come after a ‫کسرة‬. This is to make pronunciation easier. The changes are highlighted in the table below.

50


‫ل‬ ‫لَه‬ ‫َهل َما‬ ‫َهل ْم‬ ‫َهلَا‬ ‫َهل َما‬ ‫َهل َّن‬

‫ك‬ ‫لَ َ‬ ‫لَک َما‬ ‫لَک ْم‬ ‫لَ ِ‬ ‫ك‬

‫لَک َما‬ ‫لَک َّن‬ ‫ِ ْل‬ ‫لَنَا‬

‫إلی‬ ‫إِلَْی ِه‬

‫من‬ ‫ِمْنه‬

‫ِمْن ه َما‬ ‫ِمْن ه ْم‬ ‫ِمْن َها‬ ‫ِمْن ه َما‬ ‫ِمْن ه َّن‬

‫إِلَْی ِه َما‬ ‫إِلَْی ِه ْم‬ ‫إِلَْی َها‬ ‫إِلَْی ِه َما‬ ‫إِلَْی ِه َّن‬

‫ك‬ ‫ِمْن َ‬ ‫ِمْنک َما‬ ‫ِمْنک ْم‬ ‫ِمْن ِ‬ ‫ك‬

‫ك‬ ‫إِلَْی َ‬ ‫إِلَْیک َما‬ ‫إِلَْیک ْم‬ ‫إِلَی ِ‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫إِلَْیک َما‬ ‫إِلَْیک َّن‬ ‫ل‬ ‫إِ ََّ‬

‫ِمْنک َما‬ ‫ِمْنک َّن‬ ‫ِم ِّن‬ ‫ِمنَّا‬

‫إِلَْی نَا‬

‫ِف‬ ‫فِْی ِه‬ ‫فِْی ِه َما‬ ‫فِْی ِه ْم‬ ‫فِْی َها‬ ‫فِْی ِه َما‬ ‫فِْی ِه َّن‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ك‬ ‫فْی َ‬ ‫فِْیک َما‬ ‫فِْیک ْم‬ ‫فِی ِ‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫فِْیک َما‬ ‫فِْیک َّن‬ ‫ِف‬ ‫ِ َّ‬ ‫فِْی نَا‬

‫علی‬ ‫َع ْلی ِه‬ ‫َع ْلی ِه َما‬ ‫َع ْلی ِه ْم‬ ‫َع ْلی َها‬ ‫َع ْلی ِه َما‬ ‫َع ْلی ِه َّن‬

‫ك‬ ‫َع ْلی َ‬ ‫َع ْلیک َما‬ ‫َع ْلیک ْم‬ ‫َعلی ِ‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫َع ْلیک َما‬ ‫َع ْلیک َّن‬ ‫لي‬ ‫َع َّ‬ ‫َع ْلی نَا‬

‫ب‬ ‫بِِه‬ ‫ُبِِ َما‬ ‫ُبِِ ْم‬ ‫ُِبَا‬ ‫ُبِِ َما‬ ‫ُبِِ َّن‬

‫ك‬ ‫بِ َ‬ ‫بِک َما‬ ‫بِک ْم‬ ‫بِ ِ‬ ‫ك‬ ‫بِک َما‬ ‫بِک َّن‬ ‫ِ ِْب‬ ‫بِنَا‬

‫مضاف إلیه‬ ‫علی کتابِِه‬ ‫علی کتاُبِِ َما‬ ‫علی کتاُبِِ ْم‬ ‫علی ِ‬ ‫کتاُبَا‬ ‫علی کتاُبِِ َما‬ ‫علی کتاُبِِ َّن‬

‫ك‬ ‫علی کتابِ َ‬ ‫علی کتابِک َما‬ ‫علی کتابِک ْم‬ ‫علی کتابِ ِ‬ ‫ك‬ ‫علی کتابِک َما‬ ‫علی کتابِک َّن‬ ‫کتاِب‬ ‫علی ِ ْ‬ ‫علی کتابِنَا‬

‫‪ doesn’t come with a pronoun.‬ك ‪Note that the preposition‬‬

‫أَنْ ِ‬ ‫ت كها‬

‫‪You are like her.‬‬ ‫‪ when there is a noun after it.‬کسرة ‪ comes with a‬ل ‪3. The preposition‬‬

‫جل‪ ،‬لِلو ِ‬ ‫لِ ّلر ِ‬ ‫الد‬

‫‪.‬کسرة ‪ stays with a‬ل ‪ِ the‬ل ‪. In‬فتحة ‪ is added to a pronoun it comes with a‬ل ‪However, when‬‬

‫ْ‬

‫ك‬ ‫لَه‪ ،‬لَ َ‬ ‫‪Exercise 3‬‬ ‫‪Translate into English. Ensure you pronounce the words correctly.‬‬

‫‪ )1‬له‬ ‫‪ )2‬فینا‬ ‫ألمه‬ ‫‪ّ )3‬‬ ‫‪ )4‬إلی ِهما‬

‫‪ )8‬علیهما‬ ‫‪ )9‬لألستاذ‬ ‫‪ )11‬علی قلمهما‬ ‫‪ )11‬معهم‬

‫أمامكن‬ ‫‪)15‬‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫‪ )16‬تتنا‬ ‫هن‬ ‫‪ )17‬عند ّ‬ ‫‪ِ )18‬ف سیارهتم‬

‫‪ )22‬علیهم‬ ‫‪ )23‬فیه‬ ‫‪ِ )24‬‬ ‫منك‬ ‫‪ )25‬إلیکم‬

‫‪ )29‬عنده‬ ‫‪ )31‬ورائهما‬ ‫‪ )31‬ل‬ ‫‪ )32‬لك‬

‫‪ )5‬هلل‬ ‫‪ )6‬منه‬ ‫‪ )7‬إلیهما‬

‫‪ُ )12‬بم‬ ‫‪ )13‬منهم‬ ‫‪ )14‬هلم‬

‫‪ )19‬معنا‬ ‫‪ )21‬خلفه‬ ‫‪ )21‬لربّه‬

‫بکن‬ ‫‪ّ )26‬‬ ‫‪ )27‬فوقهم‬ ‫کتبهن‬ ‫‪ )28‬تت ّ‬

‫‪ )33‬للمسلم‬ ‫‪ )34‬إلی اهلل‬ ‫‪ )35‬معي‬

‫‪51‬‬


Note: If a possessive phrase comes after a preposition, the ‫ املضاف‬will carry a ‫کسرة‬.

ِ ‫بیت الرجل – ِف بی‬ ‫ت الرجل‬ We did mention before that the ‫ املضاف‬has a ‫ضمة‬ ّ . That was just as a guide. In reality the ‫املضاف‬

doesn’t have its own harakat; it takes the harakat according to its position. So as a ‫ مبتدأ‬or ‫ خرب‬it will have a ‫ضمة‬ ّ , after a preposition it will have a ‫ کسرة‬etc.

‫ املضاف‬as ‫مبتدأ‬ ‫الرج ِل]مبتدأ کبری‬ َّ ‫[بَْیت‬

‫ املضاف‬as ‫خرب‬

‫األخت]خرب‬

‫ املضاف‬in Prepositional Phrase ِ ‫ََنن ِ[ِف د َّکا ِن الت‬ ]‫َّاج ِر‬ ْ ْ

‫خالد [والد‬

Exercise 4 Translate into English. Notice the state of the ‫املضاف‬. All are not complete sentences.

‫) مسافرو القطار أغنیاء‬6 ‫) ملساف ِري القطار‬7 ‫) طالبة املدرسة‬8

‫) طعام الطّبّاخ لذيذ‬1 ِ ‫) ِف‬2 ‫طعام الطّبّاخ‬ ‫) مسافر القطار غن‬3

‫) ِف سیّارة الرجل‬9 ‫الرجال‬ ّ ‫) ِف سیّارات‬11

‫) ملسافر القطار‬4 ‫) مسافرا القطار غنیان‬5

Prepositional Phrases as Predicates A prepositional phrase may be used as a predicate, ‫خرب‬.

ِِ

‫سجد]خرب‬ ْ ‫الْ َم‬

‫الرجل]مبتدأ [ِِف‬ ّ[

[The man] is [in the masjid]. In this case the predicate does not have any agreement with its subject.

‫األم مع األوَلد‬ ّ Exercise 5 Translation

Plural

pole, pillar

‫أ َْع ِم َدة‬

electricity

-

airport library table people centre, middle

‫َمطَ َارات‬ ‫َم َکاتِب‬ ‫طَا ِوََلت‬ ‫أنَاس‬ ‫أ َْو َساط‬

‫الرجل عند الولدين‬ ّ Singular

‫َعم ْود‬

‫َك ْهَربَاء‬ ‫َمطَار‬

‫َم ْکتَبَة‬ ‫طَا ِولَة‬ ‫نَاس‬ ‫َو ْسط‬

Translation sofa imam ladies grocers side shop shelf street

Translate into English. 52

‫املسلمون ِف املسجد‬ Plural

‫أ ََرائِك‬ ‫أَئِ َّمة‬ ‫نِ َساء‬ -

‫َج َوانِب‬ ‫َد َکاکِ ْی‬ ‫رف ْوف‬ ‫َش َوا ِرع‬

Singular

‫أَ ِريْ َکة‬ ‫إَِمام‬ ‫اِ ْمَرأة‬ ‫بَ َّقالَة‬ ‫َجانِب‬ ‫د َّکان‬ ‫َرف‬ ‫َشا ِرع‬


‫) والداي مع أخيت‬13 ‫کراستك‬ ّ ‫) کتاِب مع‬14 ِ ‫حقیبتك‬ ‫) أقالمها ِف‬15

‫ف‬ ّ ‫الر‬ ّ ‫) الکتب علی‬7 ‫الشجرة‬ ّ ‫) الطّری فوق‬8 ‫) اإلمام أمام النّاس‬9

‫) الطّائرة فوق املطار‬16 ِ ‫) السبورة أمام‬17 ‫مناضد الطّالب‬ ّّ ‫دراجيت عند عمود الکهرباء‬ ّ )18 Exercise 6 Translation fasting person London pencil case Japan

Plural

‫صائِمو َن‬ َ ِ ‫مق‬ ‫ال‬ ََ -

Translate into Arabic. 1) The sun is in the sky. 2) We are in the bus. 3) The gift is for the wife. 4) The book is for my father. 5) My sister is on the platform. 6) The train is by the platform. 7) The dog is in the garden. 8) Your books are on the shelf. 9) The airport is in the city. 10) Your house is next to the library.

‫) النّاس خلفه‬11 ‫) األستاذ عند الطاولة‬11 ‫) الکلب تت األريکة‬12

Singular

‫صائِم‬ َ

‫لَْن َد ْن‬ ‫ِم ْقلَ َمة‬ ‫يَابَا ْن‬

‫الرجل ِف املکتبة‬ ّ )1 ‫) النّساء ِف الب ّقالة‬2 ‫) الطّائرات ِف املطار‬3

‫الشوارع‬ ّ ‫) السیّارات علی‬4 ‫الشارع‬ ّ ‫) سیّاريت ِف وسط‬5 ‫الشارع‬ ّ ‫) سیّارتك علی جانب‬6

Translation gift date walking path, platform cloud

Plural

‫تَف‬ ‫َتَََرات‬ ‫ رصف‬،‫أ َْر ِص َفة‬ ‫سحب‬

Singular

‫ْت َفة‬

‫َتََْرة‬ ‫َر ِصْیف‬ ‫َس َحاب‬

11) The sky is above the mountains. 12) The mountain is under the clouds. 13) The two drivers are in the two cars. 14) The teachers are in the classes. 15) The pens and pencils are in the pencil case. 16) I am from London and you are from Japan. 17) He is on the side of the street. 18) They are on their bikes. 19) His bike is on the pavement. 20) The dates and water are for the fasting people.

Keywords & Checklist  Prepositions    

‫ظَْرف‬ ‫ظرْوف‬ ‫حروف َج َّارة‬ ‫َح ْرف َجار‬

Do you know … ?  What happens to words after prepsotions?  What change ‫جارة‬ ّ ‫ حروف‬undergo?  

What harakat comes on ‫?ظروف‬ What happens to the ‫ ال‬when the preposition ‫ ل‬comes before it.

 

Which set of pronouns are used after prepositions? What change occurs to pronouns to aid pronunciation?

53


Lesson 12 Indefinite Subjects (There Sentences) As mentioned previously, the ‫ مبتدأ‬is always ‫ معرفة‬and comes at the beginning of the sentence. The

‫ خرب‬is usually ‫ نکرة‬and follows the ‫مبتدأ‬. ‫معرفة [ِف البیت] خرب‬/‫الرجل] مبتدأ‬ ّ[

‫نکرة‬/‫معرفة [صاحل]خرب‬/‫الرجل]مبتدأ‬ ّ[

The man is in the house

The man is pious

However, a speaker may wish to simply state the existence of a subject without stating any information about it. There is [a man]subject [in the house]predicate. In this example, the speaker is merely informing that a man is present in the house. In Arabic, this type of sentence differs from normal nominal sentences in two ways: 1. the subject is indefinite (‫)نکرة‬ 2. the predicate precedes the subject

ٌُ ‫البیت]خرب [ٌَر‬ )‫جلٌ]مبتدأ (نکرة‬

‫[ِف‬

These types of sentences are used when the predicate is a prepositional clause. When translating them, the word “there” must be brought at the beginning of the sentence followed by the ‫ مبتدأ‬then the ‫ خرب‬.

ِّ ‫الر‬ ]ٌ‫ف] [ ُکتُب‬ َ ّ ‫[علی‬

There are [books]subject [on the shelf]predicate. Exercise 1 Translation juice mouse, rat Translate into English.

Plural

‫فِْی َران‬

‫السماء سحب وُنوم‬ ّ ‫) ِف‬13 ‫دراجتان‬ ّ ‫) عند عمود الکهرباء‬14 ‫) ِف املقلمة أقالم ومراسم‬15 ‫الرصیف رجال ونساء‬ ّ ‫) علی‬16 ‫) علی الطاولة طعام وعصری‬17 ‫) علی شبّاك الغرفة ستارة‬18

Exercise 2 Translate into Arabic. 1) There are some sofas in his room. 2) There is a branch on the tree. 3) There is a lady on the bus.

54

Singular

ِ‫ع‬ ‫صْی ر‬ َ ‫فَأْر‬

Translation sign, verse box

‫) ِف بلدنا مسجدان‬7 ‫) أمام الطّالب سبّورة‬8 ‫الصندوق لعب‬ ّ ‫) ِف‬9 ‫) ِف املکتبة رفوف‬11 ‫) علی الشارع سیّارات‬11 ‫) ِف مطار البلد طیّارات‬12

Plural

Singular

‫آيَات‬ ‫صنَ ِاديق‬ َ

‫آيَة‬ ‫صْندوق‬

‫لألوَلد تف‬ ‫ِف القرآن آيات‬ ‫ِف اخلزانة أوراق‬ ‫ِف کتابه قصص‬

)1 )2 )3 )4

‫) تت األريکة فأر‬5 ‫کراسات‬ ّ ‫) علی رفّك‬6


‫‪4) There are socks in your shoes.‬‬ ‫‪5) There are poor people on the street.‬‬ ‫‪6) There are two kids in my garden.‬‬ ‫‪7) There is a pencil case on the handkerchief.‬‬ ‫‪8) There are planes and passengers in the airport.‬‬ ‫‪9) There are bicycles and cars in the middle of the road.‬‬ ‫‪10) There is a train by the platform and there are travellers in the train.‬‬ ‫‪Plural‬‬

‫‪Singular‬‬

‫ک ْوب‬ ‫ِِبَانِ ِ‬ ‫ب (بِ ‪َ +‬جانِ ِ‬ ‫ب)‬

‫أَ ْک َواب‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪Translation‬‬ ‫‪cup‬‬

‫‪Plural‬‬

‫‪Singular‬‬

‫ص ْحن‬ ‫َ‬

‫‪Exercise 3‬‬ ‫‪Translation‬‬

‫صحون‬

‫‪plate‬‬

‫‪next to‬‬

‫‪Translate into English. Ensure you differentiate between normal sentences and sentences with‬‬ ‫‪indefinite subjects.‬‬

‫‪ )1‬الطّائرة ِف املطار‬ ‫‪ )2‬کتب علی رفّك‬

‫الشارع سیّارات‬ ‫‪ِ )3‬ف ّ‬ ‫‪ )4‬بیتك ِبانب ال ّد ّکان‬ ‫‪ِ )5‬بانب ال ّد ّکان بیوت‬

‫الصحن علی الطاولة‬ ‫‪ّ )11‬‬ ‫‪ )12‬احلذاء تت األريکة‬

‫‪ )6‬الب ّقالة عند املکتبة‬ ‫‪ )7‬عند املکتبة د ّکان‬

‫‪ )13‬علی األريکة قمیصان‬ ‫الصندوق‬ ‫‪ )14‬اللّعب ِف ّ‬ ‫الصندوق َجوارب‬ ‫‪ِ )15‬ف ّ‬

‫‪ )8‬الطّری علی الغصن‬ ‫‪ )9‬علی الغصن أوراق‬ ‫‪ِ )11‬ف الکوب ماء‬ ‫مکةٌوالمدینة‬

‫‪Plural‬‬

‫‪Singular‬‬

‫َم َقام‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫مقربة‬

‫َم َقابِر‬

‫احلََرام ‪-‬‬ ‫اَلْ َم ْس ِجد ْ‬ ‫فَنَ ِادق‬ ‫ف ْندق‬ ‫آبار‬ ‫بِْئ ر‬

‫‪Translation‬‬ ‫‪place‬‬ ‫‪the sacred‬‬ ‫‪mosque‬‬ ‫‪hotel‬‬ ‫‪well‬‬ ‫‪graveyard‬‬

‫‪Plural‬‬

‫‪Singular‬‬

‫َح ْو َل‬ ‫طَائِف‬

‫(الظّرف)‬ ‫طَائِف ْو َن‬ ‫ق بور‬

‫َم ْه َجر‬ ‫اِ ْسم‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫قَ ْب ر‬

‫أ َْمسَاء‬

‫‪Translation‬‬ ‫‪around‬‬ ‫‪person‬‬ ‫‪performing tawaaf‬‬ ‫‪grave‬‬ ‫‪place of Hijrah‬‬ ‫‪name‬‬

‫اهیم [علیه السالم] أمامها‪ ،‬املسجد احلرام حوهلا‪ ،‬حول الکعبة طائفون‪ ،‬بئر زمزَم ِف املسجد‬ ‫الکعبة ِف م ّکةَ‪ ،‬مقام إبر َ‬ ‫احلرام‪ِ ،‬ف مکة مقربة‪ ،‬امسها ’جنّة املعلّی‘‪ ،‬فیها قرب خدجیةَ [رضی اهلل عنها]‪ ،‬علی املسجد احلرام منائر‪ ،‬املنائر شاخمة‪ ،‬حول‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫الساعة کبریة‪.‬‬ ‫املسجد فنادق‪ ،‬والفنادق شاخمة‪ ،‬علی فندق ساعة‪ّ ،‬‬ ‫[صلی اهلل علیه‬ ‫[صلی اهلل علیه وسلم]‬ ‫ِ ِ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ب [صلی اهلل علیه وسلم] ‪ ،‬قربه‬ ‫ب‪ ،‬قرب عبد اهلل (والد النّ ّ‬ ‫ِف مسجد النّ ّ‬ ‫املدينة مهجر النّ ّ‬ ‫وسلم]‬ ‫ب[صلی اهلل علیه وسلم]‪ ،‬وقرب سیّدنا عثما َن ِف ’جنّة البقیع‘‪.‬‬ ‫) ِف املدينة‪ ،‬قرب سیّدنا ع َمَر عند قرب النّ ّ‬

‫‪55‬‬


Lesson 13 Adverbials As mentioned before a prepositional phrase can be used as a predicate (‫)خرب‬,

A prepositional phrase can also be used as an adverbial, a ‫متَ َعلِّق‬. An adverbial is an extra part of a sentence which gives us additional information about either the subject or predicate.

]‫هو [[قائم]خرب [فيٌالفصل] متَ َعلِّق اخلَِْرب‬

[He] is [standing] [in the class]adverbial. Exercise 1 Translation

Plural

Singular

‫َسواق‬ ْ‫أ‬

market, town close

-

engineering

-

‫س ْوق‬ ‫قَ ِريْب‬

‫َهْن َد َسة‬

‫فيٌالمدینة]متَ َعلِّق الْمْبتَ َدأِ] جیّد‬ ٌِ [ ‫[[الطّْقس]مبتدأ‬

[The weather] [in Madeenah]adverbial is [good]. Translation

Plural

Singular

‫أم ْور‬

matter, issue

‫بَع َداء‬

far

-

business

‫َج ِام َعات‬

university

‫أَْمر‬ ‫بَعِْید‬ ‫ُِتَ َارة‬ ‫َج ِام َعة‬

Note: ‫ سوق‬can be used as both masculine and feminine. Translate into English. Ensure you translate the adverbials correctly.

‫) جامعتنا بعیدة من البلد‬11 ‫هن حاضرات ِف الفصل‬ ّ )12 ‫) هي طبّاخة ِف مطعم اجلامعة‬13

‫) هم ُتّار من لندن‬1 ‫) اجل ّد مسرور بابنه‬2 ‫) َنن فقراء إلی اهلل‬3

‫) الطّّالب جالسون ِف الفصل‬14 ‫) األختان قائمتان عند ال ّد ّکان‬15 ‫) التّ ّجار مساُهون ِف الشرکة‬16 ‫) املسافرون راکبون ِف القطار‬17

‫ّأمي خملصة ِف أمري‬ ‫أنت مدير ِف املکتب‬ َ ‫ُها خبریان ِف التّجارة‬ ‫خالد متعلّم ِف اجلامعة‬

‫) املهندسون ماهرون ِف اهلندسة‬18 ‫) الطّّالب ناجحون ِف امتحان املدرسة‬19 ‫مبتل باملاء وقمیصه وسخ بالعصری‬ ّ ‫) منديلها‬21 Exercise 2 Translation

Singular

writing

-

busy

-

filled

-

Translate into Arabic. 1) He is quick in writing. 56

Plural

‫کِتَابَة‬ ‫َم ْشغ ْول‬ ‫َمَْل ْوء‬

Translation

)4 )5 )6 )7

‫السوق‬ ّ ‫) بیيت قريب من‬8 ‫) هو مؤظّف ِف املکتبة‬9 ‫) رقیّة مديرة ِف مدرستها‬11

Plural

Singular

service

-

from (preposition)

-

saying, speech

2) The cups are filled with water.

‫أَقْ َوال‬

‫ِخ ْد َمة‬ ‫َع ْن‬ ‫قَ ْول‬


3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9)

The plate is filled with food. The boy is standing by the table. Allah is independent from people. My house is close to your shop. His office is far from the grocers. Your (m) sister is sitting in her room. The food in your restaurant is tasty.

10) They are drivers in the bus company. 11) We (f/d) are teachers in the school. 12) They (f/p) are untruthful in their speech. 13) The prophets are truthful in their speech. 14) She is busy in the service of deen (religion). 15) The boy is standing by the electricity pole. 16) The student (f) is sitting by the library shelf.

Exercise 3 Translate the following sentences into English. Ensure you differentiate between the adverbial prepositional phrases and predicative prepositional phrases.

‫) العصری ِف الکوب‬6

‫) ال ّد ّکان قريب من املکتبة‬1

‫) الوالد قائم ِف الفصل‬7 ‫) األوَلد ِف الفصل‬8 ‫) البنت جالسة علی األريکة‬9

‫) الد ّکان وراء املکتبة‬2 ‫السوق بعیدة من املقربة‬ ّ )3 ‫السوق خلف املقربة‬ ّ )4

‫) البنات عند أمهاهتم‬11

‫) الکوب َملوء بعصری‬5

Differentiating Between "NORMAL SENTENCES" & "THERE" Sentences

Does the sentence start with a preposition?

No ‫زيد ِف البیت‬ Normal

Sentence

Yes ِ ‫ِِف الْب ی‬ ‫ت َرجل‬ َْ "THERE" sentence

57


Revision Lessons Vocab Exercise 1 Complete the crossword below without using any dual words.

‫ا‬

‫ا‬

‫ا‬

‫ا‬

‫ن‬

‫ا‬

4

4

Exercise 2 Match the items with their places.

‫أعمدة الکهرباء‬ ‫إمام‬ ‫دکاکی‬ ‫راکبون‬

‫جامعة‬ ‫رصیف‬ ‫سوق‬ ‫شارع‬

‫طائرات‬ ‫طائفون‬ ‫طعام‬

‫صحن‬ ‫کوب‬ ‫مسجد‬

‫طالب‬ ّ ‫قرب‬ ‫ماء‬ ‫مراسم‬

‫املسجد احلرام‬ ‫مطار‬ ‫مقربة‬ ‫مقلمة‬

‫کتاب‬

‫مکتبة‬

Exercise 3 Write an appropriate word to match the words below. One is done for you.

‫ هندسة‬:‫مهندس‬ : ‫کتاب‬ 58


‫تاجر‪:‬‬ ‫‪Exercise 4‬‬ ‫‪Circle the odd word.‬‬

‫‪ )5‬قلب‪ ،‬يد‪ ،‬عجلة‪ ،‬ظفر‪ ،‬قلوب‬ ‫‪ )6‬متعلم‪ ،‬معلّم‪ ،‬جامعة‪ ،‬حافلة‪ ،‬أستاذ‬

‫‪ )1‬حذاء‪ ،‬جورب‪ ،‬منديل‪ ،‬قمیص‪ ،‬غصن‬ ‫‪ )2‬غصن‪ ،‬طعام‪ ،‬شجرة‪ ،‬جذع‪ ،‬ورق‬

‫رف‬ ‫‪ )7‬طاولة‪ ،‬نساء‪ ،‬کرسي‪ ،‬أريکة‪ّ ،‬‬ ‫‪ )8‬راکب‪ ،‬قطار‪ ،‬طائرة‪ ،‬طری‪ ،‬مطار‬

‫‪ )3‬سوق‪ُ ،‬تارة‪ ،‬راکب‪ ،‬راتب‪ ،‬شرکة‬ ‫‪ )4‬قوم‪ ،‬ريح‪ُ ،‬نم‪ ،‬جبل‪ ،‬مساء‬

‫‪Exercise 5‬‬ ‫‪Unscramble the following words.‬‬

‫‪ )1‬د ب ل‬

‫‪ )6‬ك ب ر ا‬

‫‪ )11‬ك ش ر ة‬

‫‪ )2‬ح ن ج ا‬ ‫‪ )3‬د ج ة ّر ا‬ ‫‪ )4‬ةع ل ج‬

‫‪ )7‬ص أ ب ع‬ ‫‪ )8‬ل ب ج‬ ‫‪ )9‬ب ا ن‬

‫‪ )12‬ن س ي ف ة‬ ‫‪ )13‬ذ ک ر ت ة‬ ‫‪ )14‬ف ك ه‬

‫‪ )5‬ر ت ب ا‬

‫‪ )11‬ر ق ط ا‬

‫‪ )15‬ب ك ل‬

‫‪ )1‬قريب‬ ‫‪ )2‬فوق‬

‫جاف‬ ‫‪ّ )4‬‬ ‫عدو‬ ‫‪ّ )5‬‬

‫‪Exercise 6‬‬ ‫‪Write the opposites of the following words.‬‬

‫‪ )3‬أمام‬

‫‪ )7‬حاضر‬ ‫‪ )8‬رخیص‬ ‫‪ )9‬قدی‬

‫‪ )6‬أغنیاء‬

‫‪Exercise 7‬‬ ‫‪Write the translation of the following words.‬‬

‫‪ )1‬عقرب‬ ‫‪ )2‬عجلة‬

‫‪ )6‬مطار‬ ‫‪ )7‬طائرة‬

‫‪ )11‬راتب‬ ‫‪ )12‬راکب‬

‫‪ )16‬خبری‬ ‫‪ )17‬تاجر‬

‫‪ )21‬کلب‬ ‫‪ )22‬مکسور‬

‫‪ )3‬معلّم‬ ‫‪ )4‬متعلم‬ ‫‪ )5‬طری‬

‫‪ )8‬صادق‬ ‫‪ )9‬صديق‬ ‫‪ )11‬صداقة‬

‫‪ )13‬مکتب‬ ‫‪ )14‬مکتبة‬ ‫‪ )15‬کبری‬

‫‪ُ )18‬تّار‬ ‫‪ُ )19‬تارة‬ ‫‪ )21‬قلب‬

‫‪ )23‬مسرور‬ ‫‪ )24‬إمام‬ ‫‪ )25‬أمام‬

‫‪Spelling / Vocab Test‬‬ ‫‪Write the Arabic of the following words. Ensure you spell them correctly. Place the harakat on them‬‬ ‫‪as well.‬‬

‫‪59‬‬

‫‪bird‬‬

‫‪parents‬‬

‫ک‬

‫‪wide‬‬

‫‪plane‬‬

‫‪two boys‬‬

‫ک‬

‫‪dirty‬‬

‫‪car‬‬

‫‪boy‬‬

‫ک‬

‫‪friend‬‬

‫‪board‬‬

‫‪father‬‬

‫ک‬

‫‪friendship‬‬

‫‪good‬‬

‫‪new‬‬

‫ک‬

‫‪truthful‬‬


Grammar Exercise 8 1) What is a dual? 2) How is the dual made? 3) What happens to the dual when it is ‫?املضاف‬ 4) What happens to the dual when it is ‫?إلیه املضاف‬ 5) Which word of the sentence does the ‫ خرب‬agree with if the subject is made of a possessive phrase. 6) How is the masculine plural made? 7) Which words can be made into the masculine plural? 8) What happens to the masculine plural when it is ‫?املضاف‬ 9) What happens to the masculine plural when it is ‫?إلیه املضاف‬ 10) How is the feminine plural made? 11) Which letter of the feminine plural drops off in possessive phrase? 12) What special rule applies to non-human plurals? 13) Which names are ‫?غری املنصرف‬ 14) What is the difference between the usage of subject pronouns and possessive pronouns? 15) How is the English word “it” translated into Arabic? 16) What does a preposition do? 17) What happens to the word after a preposition. 18) What two forms can a prepositional phrase take in a sentence? 19) How are sentences with indefinite subjects made? 20) How are they translated? 21) What is an adverbial?

60


Supplement This section contains verses from the Quran, Ahadith and Arabic proverbs and sayings. It will be very useful to memorize the proverbs. The vocab in this section is very intensive. Try your best to cover as much as you can. However, upcoming lessons will not be based on this vocab so don’t worry too much if you can’t cover it all. Notes: 1. If a sentence relates to a future event, like the hereafter, heaven or hell, then instead of using the present tense linking words “is” and “are” you will have to use the future tense linking words such as “will be”.

‫َهل ْم َجنّات‬

There will be gardens for them. 2. In some cases the ‫ خرب‬may be ‫ معرفة‬and have ‫ال‬. Don’t worry too much about it at the moment. This will be discussed in due course.

ٌ ‫منٌالقرآن‬ The following are some verses from the Quran. Translate them. Translation Plural Singular Translation dark night

-

morning

‫أَفْ یَال‬ ‫أَقْ َدار‬ ‫أ َْم َوال‬

elephant worth, power wealth

‫ُْمرومو َن‬ ‫أ َْمَراض‬

deprived illness

-

forgiveness those who believe whisper, whisperer

friend

‫م ْوقِن ْو َن‬ ‫َو َسا ِوس‬ ‫أ َْولِیَاء‬

ِ ‫َغ‬ ‫اسق‬ ‫فَلَق‬ ‫فِْیل‬

‫قَ ْدر‬

‫َمال‬

‫َُْمرْوم‬

‫َمَرض‬ ‫َم ْغ ِفَرة‬ ‫م ْوقِن‬

‫َو ْس َواس‬ ‫َوِل‬

army praise journey sustenance respectful provision

the one who asks winter evil chest summer punishment mighty punishment

‫) ل َْیل َ ُة الْق َْد لر‬5 ‫) م ْلن َش ّ لر غَا لس ٍق‬6

‫) ل َُه ْم َّم ْغ لف َرةٌ َّو لر ْز ٌق ک لَر ْی ٌم‬7 َ ‫اب الْ لف ْی لل‬ ‫) لبأ ْص َح ل‬8

Plural

Singular

‫جنود‬ ‫ِر ْح َالت‬

‫جْند‬

‫َحَْد‬ ‫ِر ْحلَة‬

‫أ َْرَزاق‬ ِِ ‫ی‬ َ ْ ‫َسائل‬ ‫أَ ْشتِیَة‬

‫ِرْزق‬ ‫ِرْزق َک ِرْی‬ ‫َسائِل‬ ‫ِشتَاء‬

‫صدور‬

‫ص ْدر‬ َ

‫شرور‬

‫َشر‬

‫َصیَاف‬ ‫صْیف‬ ْ‫أ‬ َ ‫أ َْع ِذبَة‬ ‫َع َذاب‬ - ‫َع َذاب َع ِظْیم‬ ‫ِل‬ ‫) ا َل َْح ْم ُد ل ّٰ ل‬1 ‫لل‬ ‫) أ َ ْو لل َیا ُء ا ل‬2 ‫اس‬ ‫) لِفْ ُص ُد ْو لر ال َّن ل‬3 ‫) لب َر ّلب الْ َفل َ لق‬4

61


‫ات َواأل َ ْر لض‬ ‫‪ )14‬ل ّٰ ل‬ ‫ِل ُج ُن ْو ُد َّ‬ ‫الس ٰم َو ل‬ ‫نی‬ ‫آی ٌ‬ ‫‪ )15‬لِفْ ْاأل َ ْر لض َ‬ ‫ات للل ُْم ْوقل لن ْ َ‬ ‫اس‬ ‫‪ )16‬م ْلن َش ّ لر ال َْو ْس َو ل‬ ‫واأل َ ْر لض‬ ‫ات ْ‬ ‫‪َ )17‬ربُّ َنا َر ُّب َّ‬ ‫الس ٰم َو ل‬ ‫لسائ للل َوال َْم ْح ُر ْو ُم‬ ‫‪ )18‬لِفْ أ َ ْم َوا لل له ْم [المتقنی] َح ٌّق لل َّ‬

‫الس َما لء لر ْزقُ ُ‬ ‫ك ْم‬ ‫‪َ )9‬و لِف َّ‬ ‫لل ف َْو َق أ َ ْی لد ْی له ْم‬ ‫‪َ )11‬ی ُد ا ل‬

‫اب َع لظ ْی ٌم‬ ‫‪ )11‬لللْکَافل لر ْی َن عَذَ ٌ‬ ‫ض‬ ‫‪ )12‬لِفْ قُل ُْو لب له ْم [المنافقنی] َّم َر ٌ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫الش َتا لء َو َّ‬ ‫‪ )13‬لر ْحل َ َة ل ّ‬ ‫الص ْی ل‬

‫منٌاألحادیث ٌ‬ ‫‪Singular‬‬

‫إِ ْشَراك‬ ‫ِِ‬ ‫صاد‬ ‫اقْت َ‬ ‫اَلدُّنْیَا‬ ‫أَنَاة‬ ‫ْت َفة‬

‫َجَرس‬

‫‪Plural‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪to ascribe partners‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪to adopt a middle course,‬‬ ‫‪to economize‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪world‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪patience, judgement,‬‬ ‫‪equanimity‬‬

‫تَف‬ ‫َجَراس‬ ‫أْ‬

‫اعة‬ ‫ََجَ َ‬

‫اعات‬ ‫ََجَ َ‬

‫ح َّجة‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ْمة‬ ‫حک َ‬ ‫َخ ْلق‬ ‫د َعاء‬ ‫َرأْس‬ ‫ِرضی‬ ‫ِس ْجن‬ ‫َس َخط‬

‫ح َجج‬ ‫ِح َکم‬

‫َجنَّة‬

‫َسیِّد‬ ‫َشطْر‬

‫‪Below are some ahadith. Translate them into English.‬‬ ‫‪Translation‬‬ ‫‪Plural‬‬ ‫‪Singular‬‬ ‫‪Translation‬‬

‫َجنَّات‬

‫خل ْوق‬ ‫أ َْد ِعیَة‬ ‫رء ْوس‬

‫‪gift, present‬‬ ‫‪bell‬‬ ‫‪group‬‬ ‫‪heaven‬‬ ‫‪proof, evidence‬‬ ‫‪wisdom‬‬ ‫‪creation‬‬ ‫‪supplication, prayer‬‬

‫‪head, root‬‬ ‫‪pleasure, approval‬‬

‫سجون‬

‫‪prison‬‬ ‫‪anger, displeasure‬‬

‫َسیَاد‬ ‫أْ‬ ‫شطور‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫طَلَب‬ ‫‪ )1‬املؤمن مألف‬ ‫‪ )2‬ال ّدنیا سجن املؤمن‬

‫‪leader‬‬ ‫‪half‬‬ ‫‪to search, to try to‬‬ ‫‪obtain‬‬

‫طَه ْور‬

‫َع َجلَة‬ ‫َعق ْوق‬ ‫ِع ْلم‬ ‫َعیِّل‬ ‫فَ ْر َحة‬ ‫قَ ْتل‬ ‫قَ َدم‬

‫قَ ْوم‬ ‫َکبِْی َرة‬ ‫َمألَف‬ ‫مخ‬ ‫َخمَافَة‬ ‫ِم ْزَمار‬ ‫َمعِْی َشة‬ ‫َم ْوت‬ ‫نَ ْفس‬ ‫نَ َف َقة‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪cleansing‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪hurry, haste‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪disobedience‬‬

‫عل ْوم‬ ‫ِعیَال‬ ‫‬‫‬‫أَقْ َدام‬

‫أَقْ َوام‬ ‫َکبَائِر‬ ‫‬‫ِخمَاق‬ ‫‬‫َمَز ِامْی ر‬ ‫َم َعايِش‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫ن ف ْوس‬

‫نَ َف َقات‬

‫‪knowledge‬‬ ‫‪dependant‬‬ ‫‪happiness, joy‬‬ ‫‪murder‬‬ ‫‪foot‬‬ ‫‪nation, people‬‬ ‫‪major sin‬‬ ‫‪treasure of love‬‬ ‫‪brain, marrow, core,‬‬ ‫‪essence‬‬ ‫‪fear‬‬ ‫‪pipe, flute‬‬ ‫‪style of living,‬‬ ‫‪income‬‬ ‫‪death‬‬ ‫‪soul‬‬ ‫‪expenditure‬‬

‫‪ )3‬ال ّدنیا جنّة الکافر‬ ‫‪ )4‬رأس احلکمة خمافة اهلل‬ ‫‪62‬‬


‫الشیطان‬ ‫‪ )5‬اجلرس مزامری ّ‬ ‫‪ )6‬اخللق عیال اهلل‬ ‫الشیطان‬ ‫‪ )7‬األناة من اهلل والعجلة من ّ‬

‫‪ )8‬الطّهور شطر اإلمیان‬ ‫‪ )9‬تفة املومن املوت‬ ‫مخ العبادة‬ ‫‪ )11‬ال ّدعاء ّ‬ ‫حجة لك أو علیك‬ ‫‪ )11‬القرآن ّ‬

‫السفر خادمهم‬ ‫‪ )12‬سیّد القوم ِف ّ‬

‫‪ )13‬اجلنة تت أقدام األمهات‬ ‫‪ )14‬طلب العلم فريضة‬ ‫‪ )15‬يد اهلل علی اجلماعة‬ ‫‪ )16‬اَلقتصاد ِف النّفقة نصف املعیشة‬ ‫‪[ )17‬الکبائر] [اإلشراك باهلل‪ ،‬وعقوق الوالدين و قتل النّفس ‪...‬‬ ‫للصائم فرحتان‪ ،‬فرحة عند فطره وفرحة عند لقاء ربّه‬ ‫‪ّ )18‬‬ ‫ب ِف سخط الوالد‬ ‫الر ّ‬ ‫الر ّ‬ ‫ب ِف رضی الوالد‪ ،‬وسخط ّ‬ ‫‪ )19‬رضی ّ‬

‫منٌکالمٌالعرب‬ ‫‪Below are some Arabic proverbs and useful sentences. Translate them into English.‬‬ ‫‪Translation‬‬ ‫‪Plural‬‬ ‫‪Singular‬‬ ‫‪Translation‬‬ ‫‪Plural‬‬

‫‪Singular‬‬

‫إِ ْث‬ ‫اِ ْجتِنَاب‬ ‫إِ ْح َسان‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫اآلخَرة‬ ‫إِ ْدبَار‬ ‫اِ ْشتِغَال‬ ‫إِقْ بَال‬ ‫إِنْ َسان‬ ‫بَار‪ ،‬بَر‬ ‫َُْت ِربَة‬ ‫تَ َعلُّم‬

‫تَ ْقوی‬

‫َِثَرة‬ ‫جِ‬ ‫اهل‬ ‫َ‬ ‫جسم‬

‫َج ْهل‬ ‫ِح ْرص‬ ‫َحَرَکة‬ ‫‪63‬‬

‫آثَام‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪sin‬‬ ‫‪abstain‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪favour, kind act‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪hereafter‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪backward‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪to be engaged,‬‬ ‫‪to be occupied‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪forward‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪human‬‬

‫أَبْ َرار‬ ‫َُتَا ِرب‬

‫‪devout, pious‬‬ ‫‪experience,‬‬ ‫‪tribulation‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪seeking knowledge‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫)‪taqwa (fear of Allah‬‬

‫َِثََرات‬ ‫ج َه َالء‬ ‫َج َسام‬ ‫أْ‬

‫‪fruit‬‬ ‫‪ignorant‬‬ ‫‪body‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪ignorance‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪greed‬‬

‫َحَرَکات‬

‫‪movement‬‬

‫َحرَکة ِْ‬ ‫اإل ْدبَا ِر ‪-‬‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫َحرَکة ِْ‬ ‫اإلقْ بَال ‪-‬‬ ‫َ‬

‫َح َسنَة‬ ‫ِح ْفظ‬ ‫َح َال َوة‬ ‫َحي‬

‫َخ ْوف‬ ‫َدار‬ ‫ذل‬

‫احة‬ ‫َر َ‬

‫رأي‬

‫رْوح‬ ‫َزلَّة‬

‫ِزيَ َادة‬

‫َزيْن‬ ‫سرْور‬

‫َس َال َمة‬ ‫س َؤال‬ ‫َسیِّئَة‬

‫‪regress‬‬ ‫‪progress‬‬

‫َح َسنَات‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪protection,‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪sweetness‬‬

‫َحیَاء‬ ‫أْ‬ ‫‬‫ِديَار‬ ‫‬‫‬‫َآراء‬ ‫أ َْرَواح‬ ‫َزََّلت‬ ‫ِزيَ َادات‬

‫‪good deed‬‬

‫‪living‬‬ ‫‪fear‬‬ ‫‪home, abode, place,‬‬ ‫‪disgrace‬‬ ‫‪comfort, rest‬‬ ‫‪opinion, view, idea‬‬ ‫‪soul‬‬ ‫‪slip, lapse‬‬ ‫‪increase‬‬ ‫‪beauty, adornment‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪happiness, joy‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪safety, wellbeing‬‬

‫َسئِلَة‬ ‫أْ‬

‫َسیِّئَات‬

‫‪question‬‬ ‫‪misdeed, fault‬‬


‫‪Singular‬‬

‫َشأن‬

‫صْب ر‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ِص َّحة‬

‫ط ْول‬ ‫َعاقِل‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫عال‬ ‫َعا َل‬ ‫َعْبد‬

‫ع ْجلَة‬ ‫َع ْقل‬ ‫َعلِْیل‬ ‫غرْور‬ ‫فَ َراغ‬ ‫فَ َرج‬ ‫فَ ْقر‬

‫‪)1‬‬ ‫‪)2‬‬ ‫‪)3‬‬ ‫‪)4‬‬ ‫‪)5‬‬ ‫‪)6‬‬ ‫‪)7‬‬ ‫‪)8‬‬

‫‪Plural‬‬

‫شئ ْون‬

‫‪Translation‬‬ ‫‪case, state,‬‬ ‫‪character, quality‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪patience‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪health‬‬

‫أَطْ َوال‬

‫ع َق َالء‬ ‫َعالِم ْو َن‬ ‫َعالَمو َن‬ ‫ِعبَاد‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫عقول‬ ‫أ َِع َّالء‬ ‫‬‫‪-‬‬

‫‪length, size‬‬ ‫‪intelligent‬‬ ‫‪scholar‬‬ ‫‪world‬‬ ‫‪servant‬‬ ‫‪haste‬‬ ‫‪understanding,‬‬ ‫‪intelligence‬‬ ‫‪sick‬‬ ‫‪deception,‬‬ ‫‪delusion, conceit‬‬ ‫‪void, vacancy,‬‬ ‫‪idleness, inactivity‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪relief‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪poverty, need,‬‬ ‫‪lack‬‬

‫الذل‬ ‫احلرص مفتاح ّ‬ ‫الراحة‬ ‫القناعة مفتاح ّ‬ ‫الصرب مفتاح الفرج‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫القرض مقراض احملبّة‬

‫الدنیا مزرعة اآلخرة‬ ‫اإلنسان عبد اإلحسان‬ ‫الدنیا دار الغرور‬ ‫السرور‬ ‫اآلخرة دار ّ‬

‫‪ )9‬رأي العلیل علیل‬ ‫‪ )11‬حرکة اإلقبال بطیئة‬ ‫‪ )11‬حرکة اإلدبار سريعة‬ ‫‪ِ )12‬ف العجلة الندامة‬ ‫‪ )13‬زلّة ِ‬ ‫العال زلّة العا َل‬

‫‪Singular‬‬

‫قَ ْرض‬ ‫قِلَّة‬ ‫اعة‬ ‫قَنَ َ‬

‫َحلْد‬ ‫لِ َسان‬

‫َُمَبَّة‬ ‫مرارة‬

‫َم ْزَر َعة‬ ‫ِم ْقَراض‬ ‫م َقَّرب‬ ‫َم ْهد‬ ‫َمیِّت‬ ‫نَ َد َامة‬

‫نطْق‬ ‫َو ِسْی لَة‬ ‫َوقْت‬

‫‪ )14‬العلم وسیلة إلی التَّ ْقوی‬ ‫‪ِ )15‬ثرة العجلة النّدامة‬ ‫السؤال نصف العلم‬ ‫‪ّ )16‬‬ ‫‪ )17‬اجلهل موت األحیاء‬

‫‪Plural‬‬

‫ق رْوض‬ ‫قِلَل‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫حل ْود‬ ‫أَلْ ِسنَة‬

‫‪Translation‬‬ ‫‪loan, debt‬‬ ‫‪littleness, less‬‬ ‫‪contentment‬‬ ‫‪grave‬‬ ‫‪tongue‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫َمَرائِر‬

‫َمَزا ِرع‬ ‫َم َقا ِريْض‬ ‫م َقَّرب ْو َن‬ ‫مه ْود‬ ‫أ َْم َوات‬

‫‪love‬‬ ‫‪bitterness‬‬ ‫‪harvest‬‬ ‫‪scissors‬‬ ‫‪intimate companion‬‬

‫‪cradle‬‬ ‫‪lifeless, dead‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪regret‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪speech‬‬

‫َو َسائِل‬

‫‪means, medium,‬‬

‫أ َْوقَات‬

‫‪time‬‬

‫‪ )18‬النّاس ِف فقر من خوف الفقر‬ ‫‪ )19‬طول التّجارب زيادة ِف العقل‬ ‫السکوت سالمة‬ ‫‪ )21‬النّطق زين و ّ‬ ‫املقربی‬ ‫‪ )21‬حسنات األبرار سیّئات ّ‬

‫‪ )22‬وقت التعلّم من املهد إلی اللّحد‬ ‫‪ )23‬سالمة اإلنسان ِف حفظ اللّسان‬ ‫‪ )24‬حالوة ال ّدنیا للجهالء ومرارهتا للعقالء‬

‫‪ )25‬الفراغ من شأن األموات واَلشتغال من شأن األحیاء‬ ‫وصحة الروح ِف اجتناب اآلثام‬ ‫صحة اجلسم ِف قلّة الطّعام‪ّ ،‬‬ ‫‪ّ )26‬‬ ‫‪64‬‬


Vocab Arabic to English Translation

Plural

Singular

‫ب‬

ٌ ‫ب‬ ِ ‫ب‬

with door smiling

‫أَبْ َواب‬ ‫بَ ِامس ْو َن‬

next to garden slow far

-

‫بَ َساتِْی‬ ‫بِطَاء‬ ‫بَع َداء‬

grocers

‫بَِالد‬

city

‫بَنَات‬ ‫ب ی ْوت‬

daughter house

‫آبار‬

well

‫ت‬ ‫ُتَّار‬

businessman

-

business under

‫تَف‬ ‫تَ َذاکِر‬

gift ticket

‫تَعِب ْو َن‬ ‫تَ َعالِْیم‬ ‫تَ َقالِْید‬ ‫َتور‬

tired teachings customs date

‫ث‬ heavy expensive

‫ثَِقال‬ ‫ِِثَان‬

‫بَاب‬ ِ‫ب‬ ‫اسم‬ َ ِ ِ‫ِِبَان‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ب ْستَان‬ ‫بَ ِط ْيء‬ ‫بَعِْید‬ ‫بَ َّقالَة‬ ‫بَلَد‬ ‫بِْنت‬

‫بَْیت‬ ‫بِْئ ر‬

ٌ ‫ت‬ ِ َ‫ت‬ ‫اجر‬

‫ُِتَ َارة‬ ‫ت‬ َ ‫َْت‬ ‫ْت َفة‬ ‫تَ ْذکَِرة‬ ‫تَعِب‬

‫تَ ْعلِْیم‬ ‫تَ ْقلِْید‬ ‫َتَْر‬ ٌ ‫ث‬ ‫ثَِقْیل‬ ‫َِثِ ْی‬

Translation

son son One sister end respect, manners earth sofa teacher name finger Italian O Allah the sacred mosque to, towards mother

Plural

Singular

‫أ‬

‫أ‬

‫أَبْنَاء‬ ‫ أبناء‬،‫بَن ْو َن‬ -

‫َخ َوات‬ َ‫أ‬ ِ ‫أَو‬ ‫اخر‬ َ ‫آداب‬ َ

matter, issue ladies honest human, man beginning sign, verse

‫َحد‬ َ‫أ‬

‫أ ْخت‬ ِ ‫آخر‬ ‫أ ََدب‬

‫أ َْرض ْو َن‬ ‫أ ََرائِك‬ ‫َساتِذة‬ َ‫أ‬ ‫أ َْمسَاء‬ ‫َصابِع‬ َ‫أ‬ ‫إِطَالِیُّ ْو َن‬ -

‫أ َْرض‬ ‫أَ ِريْ َکة‬

‫أ َّم َهات‬

‫أم‬

‫أ ْستَاذ‬ ‫اِ ْسم‬ ‫صب ع‬ ْ ‫أ‬/‫صبَع‬ ْ ِ‫إ‬ ‫إِطَ ِال‬ ‫اَللّه َّم‬ - ‫احلََرام‬ ْ ‫اَلْ َم ْس ِجد‬ ‫إِلی‬

in front of imam

‫اِبْن‬ ‫اِبْن‬

‫أَئِ َّمة‬

‫أم ْور‬ ‫نِ َساء‬ ‫أ َمنَاء‬ -

‫أ ََوائِل‬

‫آيَات‬

‫أََم َام‬ ‫إَِمام‬

‫أَْمر‬ ‫إِ ْمَرأة‬ ‫أ َِم ْی‬ ‫إِنْ َسان‬ ‫أ ََّول‬ ‫آيَة‬

65


‫‪Plural‬‬

‫‪Singular‬‬

‫ج‬

‫ج‬ ‫َجاف‬ ‫َجالِس‬ ‫َج ِام َعة‬ ‫َجانِب‬ ‫َجبَل‬ ‫َجد‬ ‫َج ِديْد‬ ‫ِج ْذع‬ ‫َج ِريْ َدة‬ ‫َِ‬ ‫َجْیل‬ ‫َجنَاح‬ ‫جن ْون‬ ‫َج ْهد‬

‫َج ْوَرب‬ ‫َجیِّد‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ح ِ‬ ‫اضر‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َحافِلَة‬ ‫ح ْجَرة‬ ‫َح ِديْ َقة‬ ‫ِح َذاء‬ ‫َحق‬ ‫َح ِقْیبَة‬ ‫َح ْو َل‬ ‫خ ٌ‬ ‫َخ ِادم‬ ‫َخ ِاد َمة‬ ‫َخالِق‬

‫‪Translation‬‬

‫‪dry‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫َجالِسو َن‬ ‫َج ِام َعات‬ ‫َج َوانِب‬ ‫ِجبَال‬ ‫َج َداد‬ ‫أْ‬ ‫ج َدد‬ ‫جذ ْوع‬ ‫َجَرائِد‬ ‫َجَ َالء‬ ‫َجنِ َحة‬ ‫أْ‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪sitting‬‬ ‫‪university‬‬ ‫‪side‬‬ ‫‪mountain‬‬ ‫‪grandfather‬‬ ‫‪new‬‬ ‫‪trunk‬‬ ‫‪newspaper‬‬ ‫‪beautiful‬‬ ‫‪wing‬‬ ‫‪insanity‬‬

‫جه ْود‬ ‫َج َوا ِرب‬ ‫ِجیَاد‬ ‫ح ٌ‬ ‫ح ِ‬ ‫اضرو َن‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َحافِ َالت‬ ‫حجَرات‬ ‫َح َدائِق‬ ‫َح ِذيَة‬ ‫أْ‬ ‫حقوق‬ ‫َح َقائِب‬ ‫(الظّرف)‬

‫‪effort‬‬ ‫‪sock‬‬ ‫‪good‬‬

‫‪present‬‬ ‫‪bus‬‬ ‫‪room‬‬ ‫‪garden‬‬ ‫‪shoe‬‬ ‫‪right‬‬ ‫‪bag‬‬ ‫‪around‬‬

‫خ ٌ‬

‫َخ َدم‪ ،‬خدَّام‬ ‫َخ ِاد َمات‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪servant‬‬ ‫)‪servant (f‬‬ ‫‪Creator‬‬

‫‪Singular‬‬

‫َخبِْی ر‬ ‫ِخ ْد َمة‬ ‫ِخَزانَة‬

‫َخ ِفْیف‬ ‫ف‬ ‫َخ ْل َ‬ ‫َخلِْیل‬ ‫د ٌ‬ ‫َدار‬

‫اجة‬ ‫َد َّر َ‬

‫َد ْرس‬ ‫د َّکان‬ ‫ِديْن‬ ‫ر ٌ‬ ‫َراتِب‬ ‫َرا ِزق‬ ‫َراکِب‬ ‫َرجل‬ ‫َرِخْیص‬ ‫َرِدي‬

‫َرس ْول‬ ‫َر ِصْیف‬ ‫َرف‬ ‫َرفِْیع‬ ‫ِريْح‬ ‫ز ٌ‬ ‫ذَکِي‬ ‫َزْو َجة‬

‫‪Plural‬‬

‫خبَ َراء‬ ‫‬‫ِخَزانَات‬ ‫ِخ َفاف‪،‬‬ ‫َخ َفاف‬ ‫أْ‬

‫‪Translation‬‬ ‫‪expert‬‬ ‫‪service‬‬ ‫‪filing cabinet‬‬ ‫‪light‬‬ ‫‪behind‬‬

‫أ َِخ َّالء‬

‫‪friend‬‬

‫د ٌ‬

‫ِديَار‬ ‫اجات‬ ‫َد َّر َ‬ ‫درْوس‬ ‫َد َکاکِ ْی‬ ‫أ َْديَان‬ ‫ر ٌ‬ ‫َرَواتِب‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪cycle‬‬ ‫‪lesson‬‬ ‫‪shop‬‬ ‫‪religion‬‬

‫‪wage‬‬ ‫‪sustainer‬‬

‫َراکِب ْو َن‬ ‫ِر َجال‬

‫‪passengers‬‬ ‫‪man‬‬

‫‬‫أ َْرِديَاء‬ ‫رسل‬ ‫أ َْر ِص َفة‪ ،‬رصف‬ ‫رف ْوف‬ ‫‬‫ِريَاح‬

‫‪house, abode‬‬

‫‪cheap (cost), low‬‬ ‫‪priced‬‬

‫)‪cheap (quality‬‬ ‫‪prophet‬‬ ‫‪walking path,‬‬ ‫‪platform‬‬ ‫‪shelf‬‬ ‫‪high‬‬ ‫‪wind‬‬

‫ز ٌ‬

‫أَذْکِیَاء‬ ‫َزْو َجات‬

‫‪clever‬‬ ‫‪wife‬‬

‫‪66‬‬


‫‪Plural‬‬

‫‪Singular‬‬

‫س ٌ‬ ‫اعة‬ ‫َس َ‬ ‫َسافَِرة‬ ‫َسائِق‬ ‫َسبُّ ْوَرة‬ ‫ِستَ َارة‬

‫َسافَِرات‬ ‫ِسائِقو َن‬

‫س ْوق‬

‫َسبُّ ْوَرات‬ ‫َستَائِر‬ ‫سحب‬ ‫ِسَراع‬ ‫سفن‬ ‫َمسََوات‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫َسواق‬ ‫أْ‬

‫َسیَّ َارة‬ ‫ش ٌ‬ ‫َشا ِرع‬ ‫َش ِامخ‬

‫َش َوا ِرع‬

‫َش َجَرة‬ ‫ش ْر ِطي‬ ‫ِش ِرَکة‬ ‫ََشْس‬ ‫ص ٌ‬ ‫صِ‬ ‫احب‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ص ِادق‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫صالح‬ ‫َ‬ ‫صائِم‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ص َح ِفي‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ص ْحن‬ ‫َ‬

‫‪(one who‬‬ ‫‪doesn’t wear‬‬ ‫)‪hijab‬‬ ‫‪driver‬‬ ‫‪board‬‬ ‫‪curtain‬‬ ‫‪cloud‬‬ ‫‪quick‬‬ ‫‪ship‬‬ ‫)‪sky (fem.‬‬

‫‪market, town‬‬ ‫‪car‬‬

‫‪street‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪high, towering‬‬

‫َشبَابِْیك‬

‫أَ ْش َجار‬

‫ش ْرطَة‬ ‫َش ِرَکات‬

‫َش ْوس‬

‫‪clock‬‬

‫‪easy‬‬

‫َسیَّ َارات‬ ‫ش ٌ‬

‫شبَّاﻙ‬

‫‪67‬‬

‫س ٌ‬ ‫اعات‬ ‫َس َ‬

‫َس َحاب‬ ‫َس ِريْع‬ ‫َس ِفْی نَة‬ ‫َمسَاء‬ ‫َس ْهل‬

‫‪Translation‬‬

‫‪window‬‬ ‫‪tree‬‬ ‫‪police‬‬ ‫‪company‬‬ ‫‪sun‬‬

‫ص ٌ‬

‫أص َحاب‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ص ِادقو َن‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫صاحل ْو َن‬ ‫َ‬ ‫صائِمو َن‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ص َح ِفیُّ ْو َن‬ ‫َ‬ ‫صحون‬

‫‪companion,‬‬ ‫‪people of‬‬

‫‪honest‬‬ ‫‪pious‬‬ ‫‪fasting person‬‬ ‫‪journalist‬‬ ‫‪plate‬‬

‫‪Singular‬‬

‫ص ِحْیح‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ص َداقَة‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ص ِديْق‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ص ِديْ َقة‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ص ْعب‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫صغْی ر‬ ‫َ‬

‫صْندوق‬ ‫ِصْی ِن‬ ‫ض ٌ‬ ‫ضعِْیف‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ط ٌ‬ ‫طَالِب‬

‫طَالِبَة‬ ‫طَا ِولَة‬ ‫طَائَِرة‬ ‫طَائِف‬

‫ظ ْفر‬ ‫عِ‬ ‫ال‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َعْبد‬

‫َع َجلَة‬

‫أِ‬ ‫َص َّحاء‪،‬‬ ‫ِص َحاح‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫َص ِدقَاء‬ ‫أْ‬ ‫ص ِديْ َقات‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ِص َعاب‬ ‫ِصغَار‬ ‫صنَ ِاديق‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ِصْینِیُّ ْو َن‬

‫ع ٌ‬

‫‪friend‬‬ ‫)‪friend (f‬‬ ‫‪difficult‬‬ ‫‪small‬‬ ‫‪box‬‬ ‫‪Chinese‬‬

‫ض ٌ‬

‫ض َع َفاء‬

‫‪weak‬‬

‫ط ٌ‬

‫ط َّالب‬ ‫طَالِبَات‬ ‫طَا ِوََلت‬ ‫طَائَِرات‬

‫طَبَّاخ ْو َن‬ ‫أَطْعِ َمة‬

‫ظ ٌ‬

‫‪healthy‬‬ ‫‪friendship‬‬

‫طَائِف ْو َن‬

‫طَبَّاخ‬ ‫طَ َعام‬ ‫ِط ْفل‬

‫طَ ِويْل‬ ‫طَْی ر‬

‫‪Plural‬‬

‫‪Translation‬‬

‫أَطْ َفال‬ ‫ِط َوال‬ ‫طی ْور‬ ‫أَظْ َفار‬

‫‪student‬‬ ‫)‪student (f‬‬ ‫‪table‬‬ ‫‪plane‬‬ ‫‪Person‬‬ ‫‪performing‬‬ ‫‪tawaaf‬‬ ‫‪cook‬‬ ‫‪food‬‬ ‫‪Kid‬‬ ‫‪tall, long‬‬ ‫‪bird‬‬

‫ظ ٌ‬ ‫‪nail‬‬

‫ع ٌ‬

‫َعالِم ْو َن‬ ‫ِعبَاد‪َ ،‬عبِْید‬ ‫َع َج َالت‬

‫‪scholar‬‬ ‫‪servant‬‬ ‫‪wheel‬‬


Translation

Plural

Singular

-

Qiblah

‫ق َد َماء‬

old close story short train

ِ ‫صص‬ َ ‫ ق‬،‫صص‬ َ َ‫ق‬ ِ ‫صار‬ َ‫ق‬ ‫قط ر‬ ‫أَقْ َفال‬

lock

‫ق ل ْوب‬

heart

‫أَقْ َالم‬

pen shirt

‫قمص‬

saying, speech

‫أَقْ َوال‬

people strong

ٌ ‫ك‬ like

-

electricity

-

liar big

‫َک ِاذبو َن‬ ‫کِبَار‬ ‫کت ب‬

book writing

-

garage

-

exercise book chair lazy Dog cave

‫اسات‬ َ ‫کَّر‬ ‫َکَر ِاس ُّي‬ ‫ک َسالی‬ ‫کِ َالب‬ ‫که ْوف‬

cup

ٌ ‫ل‬ for

68

‫أَقْ َوام‬ ‫أَقْ ِويَاء‬

‫أَ ْک َواب‬ -

ٌ

‫قِْب لَة‬ َ ٌ‫ق ِد ْیم‬ ‫قَ ِريْب‬ ‫صة‬ َّ ِ‫ق‬ ِ َ‫ق‬ ‫صْی ر‬ ‫قِطَار‬ ‫ق ْفل‬

‫قَ ْلب‬

‫قَلَم‬ ‫قَ ِمْیص‬ ‫قَ ْول‬ ‫قَ ْوم‬ ‫قَ ِوي‬

ٌ ‫ك‬

‫َك‬ ‫َك ْهَربَاء‬ ‫َک ِاذب‬ ‫َکبِْی ر‬ ‫کِتَاب‬

‫کِتَابَة‬ ‫َکَراج‬ ‫اسة‬ َ ‫کَّر‬ ‫ک ْرِسي‬ ‫َک ْس َالن‬ ‫َک ْلب‬ ‫َک ْهف‬ ‫ک ْوب‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ِل‬

Translation

Plural

Singular

‫أ َْع َداء‬

enemy, foe sweet

-

juice

-

great hand of a clock, dial

‫َع َقا ِرب‬ -

on

‫أ َْع َمام‬ ‫أ َْع ِم َدة‬

uncle pole, pillar from (preposition)

-

by

‫عی ْون‬

eye

ٌ ‫غ‬ absent room

‫َغائِبو َن‬ ‫غرفَات‬ ‫غص ْون‬

branch

-

anger rich, independent

ٌ ‫ف‬ mouse, rat empty, free (not busy)

‫ف َقراء‬ ‫فَنَ ِادق‬ -

poor, needy hotel above

-

in

ٌ ‫ق‬ grave

‫فِْی َران‬ ‫فصول‬

class

standing

‫أَ ْغنِیَاء‬

‫قَائِم ْو َن‬ ‫ق بور‬

‫َعدو‬

‫َع ْذب‬ ِ‫ع‬ ‫صْی ر‬ َ ‫َع ِظْیم‬

‫َع ْقَرب‬ ‫َعلی‬ ‫َعم‬ ‫َعم ْود‬ ‫َع ْن‬ ‫ِعْن َد‬

‫َع ْی‬ ٌ ‫غ‬ ‫َغائِب‬ ‫غ ْرفَة‬ ‫صن‬ ْ‫غ‬

‫ضب‬ َ ‫َغ‬ ‫َغ ِن‬

ٌ ‫ف‬ ‫فَأْر‬ ‫فَا ِرغ‬

‫صل‬ ْ َ‫ف‬ ‫فَِقْی ر‬ ‫ف ْندق‬

‫فَ ْو َق‬ ‫ِ ِْف‬ ‫ق‬ ‫قَائِم‬ ‫قَ ْب ر‬


Translation teacher (f)

Plural

‫م َعلِّ َمات‬

closed

-

‫َم َفاتِْیح‬

key open

-

place

-

graveyard pencil case place office library broken file

‫َم َقابِر‬ ِ ‫مق‬ ‫ال‬ ََ ‫أ َْم ِکنَة‬ ‫َم َکاتِب‬ ‫َم َکاتِب‬ ‫ِملَفَّات‬ -

filled from

‫َمنَائِر‬ ‫َمنَ ِادل‬ -

minaret handkerchief place of Hijrah

-

well-mannered engineer respectful employee

‫م َهْن ِدس ْو َن‬ ‫م َؤَّدب ْو َن‬ ‫م َؤظَّف ْو َن‬

place of birth

‫ن‬ successful fire people prophet star regret

ِ َ‫ن‬ ‫اجح ْو َن‬ ‫نِْی َران‬

‫أنَاس‬ ‫ أَنْبِیَاء‬،‫نَبِیُّ ْو َن‬ ‫ُن ْوم‬ -

Singular

‫م َعلِّ َمة‬

‫م ْغلَق‬ ‫ِم ْفتَاح‬

‫َم ْفت ْوح‬ ‫َم َقام‬ ‫َم ْقبَ َرة‬ ‫ِم ْقلَ َمة‬ ‫َم َکان‬

‫َمکْتَب‬ ‫َم ْکتَبَة‬

‫َمکْس ْور‬ ‫ِملَف‬

‫َمَْل ْوء‬ ‫ِم ْن‬ ‫َمنَ َارة‬ ‫ِمْن ِديْل‬ ‫َم ْه َجر‬ ‫م َه َّذب‬ ‫م َهْن ِدس‬ ‫م َؤَّدب‬ ‫م َؤظَّف‬ ‫َم ْولِد‬ ‫ن‬ ِ َ‫ن‬ ‫اجح‬ ‫نَار‬ ‫نَاس‬ ‫نَِب‬

‫َُْنم‬

‫نَ َدم‬

Translation

Plural

Singular

tasty

-

Toys

‫ل َعب‬ -

London night

‫م‬ water Owner expert, skillful wet students like, similar to fruitful hardworking (one who wears hijab) sincere school, madrasah director, principal profitable pencil wet nurse traveller partner, shareholder happy Muslim busy airport restaurant with

‫لَ ِذيْذ‬ ‫ل ْعبَة‬

‫لَیَال‬ ‫ِمیَاه‬ -

ِ‫م‬ ‫اهرْو َن‬ َ -

‫متَ َعلِّمون‬

‫أ َْمثَال‬ ‫ُْمتَ ِهد ْو َن‬ ‫ُْمتَ ِجبَات‬ ‫خمْلِص ْو َن‬ ‫َم َدا ِرس‬ ‫م ِديْرْون‬ -

‫َمَر ِاسم‬ ِ ‫مر‬ ‫اضع‬ ََ ‫م َسافِرْون‬ -

‫م ْسلِم ْو َن‬ ‫َمطَ َارات‬ ِ َ‫مط‬ ‫اعم‬ َ

‫م‬

‫لَْن َد ْن‬ ‫لَْی لَة‬ ‫َماء‬ ‫َمالِك‬ ِ‫م‬ ‫اهر‬ َ

‫مْبتَل‬ ‫متَ َعلِّم‬ ‫ِمثْل‬

‫مثْ ِمر‬ ‫ُْمتَ ِهد‬

‫ُْمتَ ِجبَة‬ ‫خمْلِص‬ ‫َم ْد َر َسة‬ ‫م ِديْر‬

‫م ْربِح‬ ‫ِم ْر َسم‬ ‫م ْر ِض َعة‬/ ‫م ْر ِضع‬ ‫م َسافِر‬ ِ ‫مس‬ ‫اهم‬ َ ‫َم ْسرْور‬ ‫م ْسلِم‬ ‫َم ْشغ ْول‬ ‫َمطَار‬ ‫َمطْ َعم‬ ‫َم َع‬ 69


Translation

Plural

‫أ َْوَراق‬

paper, leaf dirty centre, middle wide

Singular

-

‫أ َْو َساط‬ ‫ِو َساع‬ ‫أ َْوََلد‬

child, boy giver of all things

‫ي‬ -

Japan

day

‫أَيْ ِد ْي‬ ‫أَيَّام‬

‫َوَّهاب‬ ‫يَابَا ْن‬ ‫يَد‬ ‫يَ ْوم‬

Plural

‫نِ َشاط‬

active, energetic, lively

clean

Singular

‫نظََفاء‬

‫نَ ِشْیط‬ ‫نَ ِظْیف‬

‫أَنْ َهار‬

‫نَ ْهر‬

‫ن ف ْوس‬

soul river

‫َولَد‬

-

‫ي‬ hand (feminine)

‫َوَرق‬ ‫َو ِسخ‬ ‫َو ْسط‬ ‫َو ِسْیع‬

Translation

ٌ ‫ه‬

‫نَ ْفس‬

ٌ ‫ه‬

-

engineering

‫و‬

‫و‬

father

-

parents

-

behind

‫َهْن َد َسة‬ ‫َوالِد‬ ‫َوالِ َديْ ِن‬ َ‫َوَراء‬

English To Arabic Translation

Singular

absent

‫َغائِبو َن‬

‫فَ ْو َق‬ ‫َغائِب‬

active, energetic, lively

‫نِ َشاط‬

‫نَ ِشْیط‬

‫َمطَ َارات‬ -

‫َمطَار‬ ‫ضب‬ َ ‫َغ‬

above

airport anger around bag beautiful beginning behind behind big bird board book box

70

Plural

-

)‫(الظّرف‬ ‫َح َقائِب‬ ‫َجَ َالء‬ ‫أ ََوائِل‬ -

‫کِبَار‬ ‫طی ْور‬

‫َسبُّ ْوَرات‬ ‫کت ب‬ ‫صنَ ِاديق‬ َ

‫َح ْو َل‬ ‫َح ِقْیبَة‬ َِ ‫َجْیل‬ ‫أ ََّول‬

‫ف‬ َ ‫َخ ْل‬ َ‫َوَراء‬ ‫َکبِْی ر‬

‫طَْی ر‬

‫َسبُّ ْوَرة‬ ‫کِتَاب‬ ‫صْندوق‬

Translation branch broken bus business businessman

Plural

Singular

‫غص ْون‬ -

‫َحافِ َالت‬ -

‫ُتَّار‬

busy

-

by

-

car cave centre, middle chair cheap (cost), low priced

cheap (quality) child, boy Chinese city class

‫َسیَّ َارات‬ ‫که ْوف‬ ‫أ َْو َساط‬ ‫َکَر ِاس ُّي‬ ‫أ َْرِديَاء‬ ‫أ َْوََلد‬ ‫ِصْینِیُّ ْو َن‬ ‫بَِالد‬ ‫فصول‬

‫صن‬ ْ‫غ‬

‫َمکْس ْور‬ ‫َحافِلَة‬ ‫ُِتَ َارة‬ ِ َ‫ت‬ ‫اجر‬ ‫َم ْشغ ْول‬ ‫ِعْن َد‬ ‫َسیَّ َارة‬ ‫َک ْهف‬ ‫َو ْسط‬ ‫ک ْرِسي‬ ‫َرِخْیص‬ ‫َرِدي‬ ‫َولَد‬ ‫ِصْی ِن‬ ‫بَلَد‬ ‫صل‬ ْ َ‫ف‬


Translation clean clever clock close closed cloud companion, people of

company cook Creator cup curtain customs cycle date daughter day difficult director, principal dirty dog door driver dry earth easy effort electricity employee

Plural

Singular

‫نظََفاء‬ ‫أَذْکِیَاء‬ ‫اعات‬ َ ‫َس‬ -

‫نَ ِظْیف‬ ‫ذَکِي‬

-

‫م ْغلَق‬ ‫َس َحاب‬ ِ‫ص‬ ‫احب‬ َ ‫ِش ِرَکة‬ ‫طَبَّاخ‬ ‫َخالِق‬

‫سحب‬ ‫أص َحاب‬ ْ ‫َش ِرَکات‬

‫طَبَّاخ ْو َن‬ -

‫أَ ْک َواب‬ ‫َستَائِر‬ ‫تَ َقالِْید‬ ‫اجات‬ َ ‫َد َّر‬ ‫َتور‬ ‫بَنَات‬ ‫أَيَّام‬ ‫ِص َعاب‬ ‫م ِديْرْون‬ ‫کِ َالب‬

‫أَبْ َواب‬ ‫ِسائِقو َن‬ -

‫أ َْرض ْو َن‬ ‫جه ْود‬ -

‫م َؤظَّف ْو َن‬

‫اعة‬ َ ‫َس‬ ‫قَ ِريْب‬

‫ک ْوب‬ ‫ِستَ َارة‬ ‫تَ ْقلِْید‬ ‫اجة‬ َ ‫َد َّر‬ ‫َتَْر‬ ‫بِْنت‬ ‫يَ ْوم‬

‫ص ْعب‬ َ ‫م ِديْر‬ ‫َو ِسخ‬

‫َک ْلب‬

Translation empty, free (not busy)

end enemy, foe engineer engineering exercise book expensive expert expert, skillful eye far fasting person father file filing cabinet filled finger fire food for friend

Plural

Singular

-

‫فَا ِرغ‬ ِ ‫آخر‬

‫أ َْع َداء‬ ‫م َهْن ِدس ْو َن‬ -

‫َعدو‬ ‫م َهْن ِدس‬ ‫َهْن َد َسة‬ ‫اسة‬ َ ‫کَّر‬ ‫َِثِ ْی‬ ‫َخبِْی ر‬ ِ‫م‬ ‫اهر‬ َ ‫َع ْی‬ ‫بَعِْید‬ ‫صائِم‬ َ ‫َوالِد‬ ‫ِملَف‬ ‫ِخَزانَة‬ ‫َمَْل ْوء‬ ‫صب ع‬ ْ ‫أ‬/‫صبَع‬ ْ ِ‫إ‬

ِ ‫أَو‬ ‫اخر‬ َ

‫اسات‬ َ ‫کَّر‬ ‫ِِثَان‬ ‫خبَ َراء‬ ِ‫م‬ ‫اهرْو َن‬ َ ‫عی ْون‬

‫بَع َداء‬ ‫صائِمو َن‬ َ ‫ِملَفَّات‬

‫ِخَزانَات‬ ‫َصابِع‬ َ‫أ‬ ‫نِْی َران‬ ‫أَطْعِ َمة‬ ‫أ َِخ َّالء‬ ‫َص ِدقَاء‬ ْ‫أ‬ ‫ص ِديْ َقات‬ َ -

‫بَاب‬ ‫َسائِق‬ ‫َجاف‬

friend

from

-

‫َس ْهل‬

from (preposition)

-

fruitful

-

garage

-

‫أ َْرض‬

‫َج ْهد‬

‫َك ْهَربَاء‬ ‫م َؤظَّف‬

friend (f) friendship

garden

‫بَ َساتِْی‬

‫نَار‬ ‫طَ َعام‬ ‫ِل‬ ‫َخلِْیل‬ ‫ص ِديْق‬ َ ‫ص ِديْ َقة‬ َ ‫ص َداقَة‬ َ ‫ِم ْن‬ ‫َع ْن‬ ‫مثْ ِمر‬

‫َکَراج‬ ‫ب ْستَان‬ 71


Translation garden gift giver of all things good grandfather grave graveyard great grocers hand (feminine) hand of a clock, dial

handkerchief happy hardworking healthy heart heavy

‫َح َدائِق‬

‫تَف‬ ‫ِجیَاد‬ ‫َج َداد‬ ْ‫أ‬ ‫ق بور‬ ‫َم َقابِر‬ -

‫أَيْ ِد ْي‬ ‫َع َقا ِرب‬ ‫َمنَ ِادل‬ ‫ُْمتَ ِهد ْو َن‬ ِ‫أ‬ ،‫َص َّحاء‬ ‫ِص َحاح‬ ‫ق ل ْوب‬ ‫ثَِقال‬

high

-

high, towering

-

hijabi (one who wears hijab) honest honest hotel house house, abode human, man imam

72

Plural

‫ُْمتَ ِجبَات‬ ‫ص ِادقو َن‬ َ ‫أ َمنَاء‬ ‫فَنَ ِادق‬ ‫ب ی ْوت‬ ‫ِديَار‬ ‫أَئِ َّمة‬

Singular

‫َح ِديْ َقة‬

‫ْت َفة‬

‫َوَّهاب‬

‫َجیِّد‬ ‫َجد‬ ‫قَ ْب ر‬

‫َم ْقبَ َرة‬ ‫َع ِظْیم‬ ‫بَ َّقالَة‬

Translation

-

in front of

-

insanity Italian Japan journalist juice key kid ladies

‫ص ِحْیح‬ َ

light

‫قَ ْلب‬ ‫ثَِقْیل‬ ‫َرفِْیع‬ ‫َش ِامخ‬

like

‫بَْیت‬

‫َدار‬ ‫إِنْ َسان‬ ‫إَِمام‬

Singular

in

‫يَد‬ ‫َع ْقَرب‬ ‫ِمْن ِديْل‬ ‫َم ْسرْور‬ ‫ُْمتَ ِهد‬

‫ُْمتَ ِجبَة‬ ‫ص ِادق‬ َ ‫أ َِم ْی‬ ‫ف ْندق‬

Plural

lazy lesson liar library

like, similar to lock London man market, town matter, issue minaret mother mountain mouse, rat Muslim nail

‫إِطَالِیُّ ْو َن‬ -

‫ص َح ِفیُّ ْو َن‬ َ ‫َم َفاتِْیح‬ ‫أَطْ َفال‬ ‫نِ َساء‬ ‫ک َسالی‬ ‫درْوس‬ ‫َک ِاذبو َن‬

‫َم َکاتِب‬ ،‫ِخ َفاف‬ ‫َخ َفاف‬ ْ‫أ‬ -

‫أ َْمثَال‬ ‫أَقْ َفال‬ ‫ِر َجال‬

‫َسواق‬ ْ‫أ‬

‫أم ْور‬ ‫َمنَائِر‬ ‫أ َّم َهات‬ ‫ِجبَال‬ ‫فِْی َران‬ ‫م ْسلِم ْو َن‬ ‫أَظْ َفار‬

‫ِ ِْف‬ ‫أََم َام‬ ‫جن ْون‬ ‫إِطَ ِال‬

‫يَابَا ْن‬ ‫ص َح ِفي‬ َ ِ ‫َعصْی ر‬ ‫ِم ْفتَاح‬ ‫ِط ْفل‬

‫إِ ْمَرأة‬ ‫َک ْس َالن‬ ‫َد ْرس‬ ‫َک ِاذب‬ ‫َم ْکتَبَة‬

‫َخ ِفْیف‬ ‫َك‬ ‫ِمثْل‬

‫ق ْفل‬

‫لَْن َد ْن‬ ‫َرجل‬

‫س ْوق‬

‫أَْمر‬

‫َمنَ َارة‬ ‫أم‬ ‫َجبَل‬ ‫فَأْر‬ ‫م ْسلِم‬

‫ظ ْفر‬


Translation name new newspaper next to night non-hijabi (one who doesn’t wear hijab) O Allah office old on

Plural

Singular

‫أ َْمسَاء‬ ‫ج َدد‬ ‫َجَرائِد‬ -

‫لَیَال‬

‫َسافَِرة‬

-

‫اَللّه َّم‬ ‫َمکْتَب‬ َ ٌ ٌ‫ق ِد ْیم‬ ‫َعلی‬

‫َم َکاتِب‬ ‫ق َد َماء‬ -

open Owner

-

paper, leaf parents partner, shareholder passengers pen pencil pencil case people people Person performing tawaaf pious place place place of birth

‫لَْی لَة‬

‫َسافَِرات‬

-

One

‫اِ ْسم‬ ‫َج ِديْد‬ ‫َج ِريْ َدة‬ ِ ِ‫ِِبَان‬ ِ ِ‫ َجان‬+ ِ‫ب (ب‬ )‫ب‬

‫أ َْوَراق‬ -

‫َحد‬ َ‫أ‬

‫َم ْفت ْوح‬ ‫َمالِك‬

‫َراکِب ْو َن‬ ‫أَقْ َالم‬ ‫َمَر ِاسم‬ ِ ‫مق‬ ‫ال‬ ََ ‫أَقْ َوام‬ ‫أنَاس‬

‫َوَرق‬ ‫َوالِ َديْ ِن‬ ِ ‫مس‬ ‫اهم‬ َ ‫َراکِب‬ ‫قَلَم‬ ‫ِم ْر َسم‬ ‫ِم ْقلَ َمة‬ ‫قَ ْوم‬ ‫نَاس‬

‫طَائِف ْو َن‬

‫طَائِف‬

ِ‫ص‬ ‫احل ْو َن‬ َ ‫أ َْم ِکنَة‬ -

‫صالِح‬ َ ‫َم َکان‬

-

-

‫َم َقام‬ ‫َم ْولِد‬

Translation place of Hijrah plane plate pole, pillar police poor, needy present profitable prophet prophet Qiblah quick regret religion respect, manners respectful restaurant rich, independent right river room room saying, speech scholar school, madrasah servant servant servant (f)

Plural

Singular

-

‫طَائَِرات‬ ‫صحون‬ ‫أ َْع ِم َدة‬

‫ش ْرطَة‬ ‫ف َقراء‬ ِ ‫ح‬ ‫اضرو َن‬ َ ‫رسل‬ ‫ أَنْبِیَاء‬،‫نَبِیُّ ْو َن‬ ‫ِسَراع‬ -

‫أ َْديَان‬ ‫آداب‬ َ

‫َم ْه َجر‬ ‫طَائَِرة‬ ‫ص ْحن‬ َ ‫َعم ْود‬ ‫ش ْر ِطي‬ ‫فَِقْی ر‬ ِ ‫ح‬ ‫اضر‬ َ ‫م ْربِح‬ ‫َرس ْول‬ ‫نَِب‬ ‫قِْب لَة‬ ‫َس ِريْع‬ ‫نَ َدم‬ ‫ِديْن‬ ‫أ ََدب‬

‫م َؤَّدب ْو َن‬ ِ َ‫مط‬ ‫اعم‬ َ ‫أَ ْغنِیَاء‬ ‫حقوق‬

‫م َؤَّدب‬

‫أَنْ َهار‬

‫نَ ْهر‬

‫حجَرات‬ ‫غرفَات‬

‫أَقْ َوال‬ ‫َعالِم ْو َن‬ ‫َم َدا ِرس‬

‫ خدَّام‬،‫َخ َدم‬ ‫ َعبِْید‬،‫ِعبَاد‬ ‫َخ ِاد َمات‬

‫َمطْ َعم‬ ‫َغ ِن‬

‫َحق‬ ‫ح ْجَرة‬ ‫غ ْرفَة‬ ‫قَ ْول‬ ِ‫ع‬ ‫ال‬ َ ‫َم ْد َر َسة‬ ‫َخ ِادم‬ ‫َعْبد‬ ‫َخ ِاد َمة‬ 73


‫‪Singular‬‬

‫نَ ِ‬ ‫اجح‬

‫ََشْس‬ ‫َرا ِزق‬ ‫َع ْذب‬ ‫طَا ِولَة‬ ‫طَ ِويْل‬ ‫لَ ِذيْذ‬ ‫أ ْستَاذ‬ ‫م َعلِّ َمة‬ ‫تَ ْعلِْیم‬ ‫احلََرام‬ ‫اَلْ َم ْس ِجد ْ‬ ‫تَ ْذکَِرة‬ ‫تَعِب‬ ‫إِلی‬ ‫ل ْعبَة‬ ‫قِطَار‬ ‫م َسافِر‬ ‫َش َجَرة‬ ‫ِج ْذع‬ ‫َعم‬

‫ت‬ ‫َْت َ‬ ‫َج ِام َعة‬ ‫َراتِب‬ ‫َر ِصْیف‬ ‫َماء‬ ‫ضعِْیف‬ ‫َ‬ ‫بِْئ ر‬ ‫م َه َّذب‬

‫‪Plural‬‬

‫نَ ِ‬ ‫اجح ْو َن‬ ‫َش ْوس‬

‫‪Translation‬‬ ‫‪successful‬‬ ‫‪sun‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪Sustainer‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪sweet‬‬

‫طَا ِوََلت‬ ‫ِط َوال‬ ‫‬‫َساتِذة‬ ‫أَ‬ ‫م َعلِّ َمات‬ ‫تَ َعالِْیم‬ ‫‬‫تَ َذاکِر‬ ‫تَعِب ْو َن‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫ل َعب‬ ‫قط ر‬

‫م َسافِرْون‬ ‫أَ ْش َجار‬

‫جذ ْوع‬ ‫أ َْع َمام‬ ‫‬‫َج ِام َعات‬ ‫َرَواتِب‬ ‫أ َْر ِص َفة‪ ،‬رصف‬ ‫ِمیَاه‬ ‫ض َع َفاء‬

‫آبار‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪table‬‬ ‫‪tall, long‬‬ ‫‪tasty‬‬ ‫‪teacher‬‬ ‫)‪teacher (f‬‬ ‫‪teachings‬‬ ‫‪the sacred‬‬ ‫‪mosque‬‬ ‫‪ticket‬‬ ‫‪tired‬‬ ‫‪to, towards‬‬ ‫‪toys‬‬ ‫‪train‬‬ ‫‪traveller‬‬ ‫‪tree‬‬ ‫‪trunk‬‬ ‫‪uncle‬‬ ‫‪under‬‬ ‫‪university‬‬ ‫‪wage‬‬ ‫‪walking path,‬‬ ‫‪platform‬‬ ‫‪water‬‬ ‫‪weak‬‬ ‫‪well‬‬ ‫‪well-mannered‬‬

‫‪Singular‬‬

‫ِخ ْد َمة‬

‫َرف‬ ‫َس ِفْی نَة‬ ‫قَ ِمْیص‬ ‫ِح َذاء‬ ‫د َّکان‬ ‫قَ ِ‬ ‫صْی ر‬ ‫َجانِب‬

‫آيَة‬ ‫خمْلِص‬

‫أ ْخت‬ ‫َجالِس‬ ‫َمسَاء‬ ‫بَ ِط ْيء‬ ‫صغِْی ر‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫بَاسم‬

‫َج ْوَرب‬ ‫أَ ِريْ َکة‬ ‫اِبْن‬ ‫اِبْن‬ ‫نَ ْفس‬ ‫قَائِم‬ ‫َُْنم‬ ‫صة‬ ‫قِ َّ‬

‫َشا ِرع‬ ‫قَ ِوي‬ ‫طَالِب‬

‫طَالِبَة‬ ‫متَ َعلِّم‬

‫‪Plural‬‬

‫‬‫رف ْوف‬ ‫سفن‬

‫قمص‬ ‫َح ِذيَة‬ ‫أْ‬ ‫َد َکاکِ ْی‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫صار‬ ‫قَ‬ ‫َج َوانِب‬ ‫آيَات‬ ‫خمْلِص ْو َن‬ ‫َخ َوات‬ ‫أَ‬ ‫َجالِسو َن‬ ‫َمسََوات‬ ‫بِطَاء‬ ‫ِصغَار‬ ‫بَ ِامس ْو َن‬ ‫َج َوا ِرب‬ ‫أ ََرائِك‬ ‫أَبْنَاء‬ ‫بَن ْو َن‪ ،‬أبناء‬ ‫ن ف ْوس‬ ‫قَائِم ْو َن‬ ‫ُن ْوم‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫صص‬ ‫صص‪ ،‬ق َ‬ ‫قَ َ‬ ‫َش َوا ِرع‬ ‫أَقْ ِويَاء‬ ‫ط َّالب‬ ‫طَالِبَات‬ ‫متَ َعلِّمون‬

‫‪Translation‬‬ ‫‪service‬‬ ‫‪shelf‬‬ ‫‪ship‬‬ ‫‪shirt‬‬ ‫‪shoe‬‬ ‫‪shop‬‬ ‫‪short‬‬ ‫‪side‬‬ ‫‪sign, verse‬‬ ‫‪sincere‬‬ ‫‪sister‬‬ ‫‪sitting‬‬ ‫)‪sky (fem.‬‬ ‫‪slow‬‬ ‫‪small‬‬ ‫‪smiling‬‬ ‫‪sock‬‬ ‫‪sofa‬‬ ‫‪son‬‬ ‫‪son‬‬ ‫‪soul‬‬ ‫‪standing‬‬ ‫‪star‬‬ ‫‪story‬‬ ‫‪street‬‬ ‫‪strong‬‬ ‫‪student‬‬ ‫)‪student (f‬‬ ‫‪students‬‬

‫‪74‬‬


Translation wet wet nurse wheel wide wife wind

Plural

Singular

-

ِ ‫مر‬ ‫اضع‬ ََ

‫َع َج َالت‬ ‫ِو َساع‬

‫َزْو َجات‬ ‫ِريَاح‬

‫مْبتَل‬ ‫م ْر ِض َعة‬/ ‫م ْر ِضع‬ ‫َع َجلَة‬ ‫َو ِسْیع‬ ‫َزْو َجة‬ ‫ِريْح‬

Translation

Plural

with

‫َشبَابِْیك‬ ‫َجنِ َحة‬ ْ‫أ‬ -

with

-

writing

-

window wing

Singular

‫شبَّاﻙ‬

‫َجنَاح‬ ‫َم َع‬ ِ ‫ب‬ ‫کِتَابَة‬

75


‫‪Glossary‬‬ ‫‪Term‬‬

‫ضافَة‬ ‫إِ َ‬ ‫تَثْنِیَة‬ ‫تَ ْش ِديْد‬ ‫تَْن ِويْن‬ ‫تَاء َم ْرب ْوطَة‬

‫َجَْع‬ ‫َح ْرف َجار‬ ‫َحَرَکة‬ ‫َخبَ ر‬

‫ض َّمة‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ض ِمْی ر‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ظَْرف‬ ‫َعاِئِد‬

‫َغی ر الْمْنص ِر ِ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫فَ ْت َحة‬

‫َک ْسَرة‬ ‫مْبتَ َدأ‬ ‫متَ َعلِّق‬ ‫م َذ َّکر‬

‫مضاف‬

‫مضاف إِلَْی ِه‬

‫َم ْع ِرفَة‬ ‫م َؤنَّث‬ ‫نَ ِکَرة‬

‫‪Plural‬‬

‫‬‫‬‫‬‫‬‫‬‫‬‫َح ْروف َج َّارة‬ ‫َحَرَکات‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫ض َّمات‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ض َمائِر‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ظرْوف‬ ‫‬‫‬‫فَ ْت َحات‬

‫َک ْسَرات‬ ‫‬‫متَ َعلِّ َقات‬

‫)‪Translation/Explanation (page reference‬‬

‫الرج ِل‬ ‫)‪ possession (17‬كِتَاب َّ‬ ‫)‪ dual (23‬کِتَاب ِ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ّّ ‪-‬‬

‫حة ‪two‬‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ض َّمة ‪َ or‬کسرة ‪,‬فَ ْت َ‬

‫َْ‬

‫)‪Round taa (14‬‬

‫اسة‬ ‫كَّر َ‬

‫ّ ‪-‬‬

‫ك‬ ‫ت َرجل؛ کِتَاب َ‬ ‫)‪ pronoun (38‬أَنْ َ‬ ‫)‪ preposition (49‬فَو َق الْب ی ِ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ْ َْ‬ ‫صالِح‬ ‫)‪َ antecedent (40‬زيْد م َعلِّم‪ ،‬ه َو َ‬ ‫)‪ - (35‬عثْ َمان‪َ ،‬خ ِدجیَ َة‬ ‫َّ ‪-‬‬ ‫ِّ ‪-‬‬ ‫)‪subject (11‬‬ ‫)‪adverbial (56‬‬

‫‬‫‪-‬‬

‫)‪the owned or the thing being attributed (17‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪the owner or the thing to which the first word is‬‬ ‫)‪being attributed (17‬‬

‫‬‫نَ ِکَرات‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫)‪ plural (28‬کتب‬ ‫)‪ِْ ِ preposition (49‬ف‬ ‫ض َّمة ‪َ or‬ک ْسَرة ‪,‬فَ ْت َحة ‪-‬‬ ‫َ‬ ‫)‪ predicate (11‬الکتاب َکبِْی ر‬

‫‪masculine‬‬

‫َم َعا ِرف‬

‫‪Example‬‬

‫)‪definite noun (8‬‬

‫َزيْد م َعلِّم‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ص ِل‬ ‫َزيْد قَائم ِِف الْ َف ْ‬ ‫‬‫الرج ِل‬ ‫كِتَاب َّ‬ ‫الرج ِل‬ ‫كِتَاب َّ‬ ‫الَّرجل‬

‫)‪feminine (14‬‬

‫سیارة‬

‫)‪indefinite noun (8‬‬

‫َرجل‬

‫‪adjective‬‬ ‫‪noun‬‬

‫‪76‬‬

Arabic A Step By Step Guide Part 1  

A book to learn Arabic

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