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EDUCATION Dean’s Report 2015–2016 119

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120 Dean’s Report 2015–2016



1 Message from the Dean 4 Education 10 New Ventures 14 Discovery 18 Leadership and Service 20 Affiliates 22 Campaign for Harvard Medicine 23 HMS Leadership 24 Facts and Figures 25 Financial Report

On the cover: Isaac Kohane, the Marion V. Nelson Professor of Biomedical Informatics and chair of the department, stands within a projection of some of the annotated patterns of nucleotide variants in a long-term potentiated pathway, part of a large autism study.

Dean Jeffrey S. Flier In the early 1800s, French physician René Laennec was having difficulty examining a young female patient. She was suffering from heart disease but, because of her age and sex, he considered it unthinkable to put his ear to her chest. He suddenly recalled seeing two youngsters playing. One scratched the end of a long piece of wood with a pin as the other listened for “signals” at the other end. n Inspired, Laennec rolled a sheet of paper into a tube, and then placed one end on his patient’s chest and the other near his own ear. The sound of her heartbeat was surprisingly clear. From this simple moment of ingenuity, the stethoscope was invented. It is still in use 200 years later—the single most enduring and recognizable symbol of the medical profession. n Since 1782, Harvard Medical School physicians and scientists have been relying on their inventiveness to treat and heal the sick. Imagination serves as an impetus for the future, and it continues to inspire the nearly 12,000 faculty and 11,000 students and trainees on the Quad and at our 15 affiliated institutions today. n To prepare for the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead, we continue to imagine possibilities and solutions, creatively building foundations for the future as we seek to nurture a diverse community of leaders committed to alleviating human suffering caused by disease. ➣➣

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In 2015, HMS welcomed 165 new students from 33 states and six other countries. Fifty percent are women and 16 percent identify themselves as members of groups underrepresented in medicine. The newly launched curriculum, Pathways, will guide the education of 135 of these students, while the 30 Harvard-MIT Health Sciences and Technology students continue on the HST track. The Pathways curriculum differs from that offered to previous classes, leveraging new methods of teaching and learning as we prepare all our students for leadership in 21st-century medicine and science. In graduate education, HMS is expanding to meet the demands of our swiftly evolving profession. We now offer five Master of Medical Sciences degree programs; a sixth master’s program, the new Master of Bioethics degree program, began this fall. It explores the challenging ethical questions now arising in clinical and research settings. Our Office for External Education continues to provide innovative learning opportunities to students worldwide. Its global portfolio encompasses courses in clinical research methodology, patient safety, clinical informatics and health care leadership. Soon, individuals pursuing

health-related careers will have access to the transformative HMX experience, an engaging and immersive online program that teaches fundamental concepts in medicine and biology. VANGUARD OF DISCOVERY

Our scientists continue to make remarkable progress every day through extraordinary discoveries. They range from the identification of cellular culprits that appear to trigger metastasis in certain tumors to revelations about the atomic-level structure of a virus. Whether providing a better understanding of how RNA synthesis works or clearer insight into gene mutations associated with early-onset Parkinson’s disease, the work of HMS scientists is illuminating the causes of disease and pointing the way to new treatments and therapies. Investigations into new health care payment models, hospital readmission rates and the effect of hospital consolidation on the costs of care are guiding policies designed to improve the U.S. health care system. The burgeoning field of biomedical informatics reflects the speed with which huge volumes of data can now be collected and analyzed, allowing us to more closely study health and disease. To train future scientists in the acquisition and interpreta-

HMS students present their research findings during the 75th Annual Soma Weiss Research Day in the Tosteson Medical Education Center atrium.

tion of big data, this year we established a new academic Department of Biomedical Informatics. Of course, the more fully we understand complex diseases and new therapies, the better our chances of helping individual patients. The Harvard Program in Therapeutic Science (HiTS) is developing new computational and experimental methods for studying the therapeutic and toxic side effects of drugs. Harvard Catalyst | The Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center is also spurring the drive to decipher big data as it convenes cross-institutional teams through Reactor, a program designed to expedite clinical and translational research. And as part of the C3 Bioinformatics team, Harvard Catalyst continues to provide tools and training to researchers on the Quad and at our affiliated hospitals and research institutions. The Football Players Health Study at Harvard University, the largest study of living former NFL players to date, is funding projects that may reduce the severity of athletic injuries and associated long-term harm, for example, exploring a technique to encourage a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) to heal itself or examining the deleterious effects strength training may have on the heart.

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These efforts to better understand, treat and prevent disease are supported and enhanced by our extraordinary biomedical research enterprise. Whether we are designing a reliable and inexpensive test to rapidly detect Ebola virus and other dangerous microbes, or enhancing the use and precision of powerful CRISPR gene-editing tools, our HMS faculty is doing outstanding work. Among the many recognitions our faculty received this year, four were elected to the National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine), three to the National Academy of Sciences, four to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, two were appointed Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigators and one was elected to the National Academy of Engineering. One was named a 2015 MacArthur Fellow, and another was a co-recipient of the Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award. I am honored to work with such a brilliant group of colleagues. NATIONAL AND GLOBAL IMPACT

HMS exploration, discovery and teaching extend far beyond Boston. HMS faculty twice held congressional briefings in Washington, D.C., on the benefits and implications inherent in new genetic technologies and on the challenges that emerge when law enforcement intersects with personal

genomics. On a global scale, we established the Harvard Medical School Center for Global Health Delivery–Dubai to increase delivery research capacity in the United Arab Emirates, the Middle East, and parts of Africa, Asia and Europe. This year we inaugurated the Steven C. and Carmella R. Kletjian Professorship in Global Surgery, one of the first of its kind at an academic institution, taking a global leadership role in providing universal access to safe, affordable surgical care and anesthesia. Supported, in part, by a commitment from the Qatar Biomedical Research Institute, we have also embarked on a joint global initiative designed to disseminate cancer biology knowledge and improve cancer prevention and treatment worldwide. In Nepal, where a devastating earthquake struck in April, an HMS emergency medicine instructor was part of an international team working with the Himalayan Rescue Association in the village of Pheriche to treat more than 70 critically ill and wounded patients flown in from a Mount Everest base camp. FORTIFYING THE FUTURE

To learn how we might further strengthen our world leadership position in bioscience research, this year I asked a committee of esteemed scientists to conduct

an external review of six of our 10 basic science departments. In parallel, Harvard University is evaluating bioscience research university-wide. These recommendations will provide invaluable guidelines as HMS prepares for the opportunities of the next century. This year’s successful launch of The World Is Waiting: The Campaign for Harvard Medicine also ensures we will have the support needed to continue training the physicians and biomedical researchers of tomorrow. As of June 30, 2015, we had already achieved more than 60 percent of our $750 million fundraising goal. The skill and devotion of every individual at HMS make such outstanding achievement possible. As I prepare to step down as dean after nearly nine years, my appreciation for the remarkable work that takes place here is greater than ever before. It has been an extraordinary privilege to serve this superb institution and to work with so many truly exceptional people. I am proud to share, in this report, some of the highlights of their work this year. As always, I extend my deepest gratitude to every person at HMS whose commitment proves that we can make great progress in improving the health of people the world over when we combine intellect and dedication with a little imagination. n


HMS Students


After receiving their white coats in August, members of the Class of 2019 begin their careers as medical professionals by participating in the Introduction to Patient Clinics class at Brigham and Women’s Hospital.

“I have seen veterans fall through the cracks of our health care system. As a fellow service member, I am committed to reducing these disparities so they can receive the care they deserve.”

“To help all those in need in places like Haiti, where I am from, I will need to go beyond the clinic to understand people’s lives in the context of their community, their society and their history.”

Jonathan Yong Kim

Phenide Beaussejour



“I hope to make substantial changes in the way health care is delivered to the most vulnerable.” Carlos Eduardo Estrada Alamo CLASS OF 2018—CANNON SOCIETY

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“I’m very passionate about what I want to do in the future, which is to work to reduce racial and ethnic health disparities in infant mortality.” Mary Tate CLASS OF 2017—PEABODY SOCIETY

“It was with the support of “I have a problem with the halfmany that I came to HMS. By million people who die from relentlessly pursuing excellence cigarette smoking each year in in patient care and maintaining the United States.... I feel like a dogged commitment to reI’m chasing after bad guys.” search, I hope to pay it forward.” Sana Raoof Cameron Waites CLASS OF 2018—CASTLE SOCIETY


“Cancer biology helped me to find that sweet balance between pure academic science and science that could impact people’s lives in important, positive ways.” Whitney Henry CLASS OF 2016—PHD STUDENT


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Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Richard Schwartzstein, the Ellen and Melvin Gordon Professor of Medical Education and director of The Academy at Harvard Medical School, creates and records a concept video that will be posted online. Advance preparation for learning sessions and closer alignment of basic science teaching and clinical experience are cornerstones of the Pathways curriculum.

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Launching a New Curriculum After three years of comprehensive planning, HMS launched the newly designed Pathways curriculum in August 2015. This year’s 170 incoming medical and dental students began a 14-month sequence in which basic, social and population sciences are complemented by a full day of clinical work each week. The goal: to provide optimal preparation for Principal Clinical Experience clerkships, which now start in the second year. Guided by Dean for Medical Education Edward Hundert, the Daniel D. Federman, M.D. Professor in Residence of Global Health and Social Medicine and Medical Education, the Pathways curriculum is the collective achievement of scores of HMS faculty, administrators and students. Highlights include: Year 1: Courses in basic, social and population sciences and clinical skills, as well as the study of normal and abnormal processes in organ systems Year 2: Principal Clinical Experience begins, with clerkships at HMS-affiliated hospitals informing the final two years of study Years 3 and 4: Advanced, integrated science courses and clinical electives, along with mentored scholarly research projects that reinforce clinical experience and align more closely with career paths Students who matriculated before 2015 assisted with planning the innovations in pilot classes. Care is being taken to ensure smooth transitions during overlapping years, with all HMS students benefiting from the teaching and learning space renovations that support the new curriculum.



Creating Support, Fostering Collaboration

Enhancing IT Infrastructure

With the launch of Pathways in 2015, second-year students studying under the previous curriculum helped to create a bridge of support for entering students. As the timing of HMS courses and clerkships shifts, MD students have worked to preserve and enrich the campus culture, building community across all classes. Under the guidance of Nancy Oriol, dean for students and associate professor of anaesthesia at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, students and academic societies have teamed with HMS/HSDM Student Council leadership to foster enhanced communication. This included a collaboration with HMS Information Technology to build a comprehensive calendar of events for every HMS organization and to shape a mechanism for real-time feedback on the new curriculum. Although the 2015 Second Year Show was the last to be produced by second-year students, in the future the popular student showcase will be staged by fourth-year students, promoting class cohesion during their final year at HMS.

To support the new curriculum, HMS has introduced a new learning management system. Canvas, a digital platform that allows students to access course materials, communicate with faculty and watch videos online in preparation for class discussions, became available to first-year students in 2015. Another new platform, OASIS, will provide course schedules, grades and transcripts; student evaluations will be included in a professional development portfolio for students to review with their advisors. To facilitate these changes, HMS has offered faculty and staff both in-person and self-paced online training. Students in the Class of 2018 and earlier will continue to use existing IT interfaces.

Photo, above: Vihang Nakhate and Michael Girouard examine a 19thcentury illustration of an anatomical manikin during Anatomy Day at the Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine.


Creating New Learning Spaces This year, the School fast-tracked renovations in the Tosteson Medical Education Center to be ready for implementation of the new curriculum. The result: four new learning suites. Each features a large learning studio, a lab room and a small classroom, all equipped with advanced digital technology. Supplementing existing anatomy labs are new collaborative learning rooms that allow students to use online resources to analyze biological data. The renovations are part of a 10-year plan that provides HMS leadership with development guidelines for the future.

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Expanding Programs Led by David Golan, the George R. Minot Professor of Medicine and dean for basic science and graduate education, the School continues to add new areas of graduate study, focusing on crucial biomedical questions and social challenges. Five Master of Medical Sciences (MMSc) degree programs are now offered. A sixth program, a Master of Bioethics, has recently been introduced. Joining existing two-year programs in biomedical informatics, clinical and translational investigation, and global health delivery are the following programs: MMSc in Medical Education: Six physicians and one PhD scientist enrolled in the first class. The program is designed to shape future leaders in medical education. MMSc in Immunology: Eighteen physicians and scientists joined the first class in this program, which explores how the immune system responds to disease and how it can be employed to restore health. Master of Bioethics: Launched in the fall of 2015, this program helps students explore the challenging ethical questions that arise in clinical and research settings, equipping them to shape policies and solutions.

Zachary Barbati is a graduate student pursuing a Master of Medical Sciences in Immunology. He is studying the impact that PD-1 signaling has on T cell metabolism. Barbati is pictured in the Sharpe lab standing before a projection of a T cell superimposed with the crystal structure of PD-1.


Training Innovators


The Program in Graduate Education welcomed 139 new students to its PhD programs this past year, bringing total enrollment to nearly 800. By training young innovators to creatively ask and solve complex scientific questions, HMS is preparing them for challenging careers in biomedical research, academia and industry. Within the Division of Medical Sciences—a collaboration between HMS and Harvard’s Graduate School of Arts and Sciences—625 students are working on pacesetting research projects in six disciplines: bioinformatics and integrative genomics, biological and biomedical sciences, immunology, neuroscience, speech and hearing bioscience and technology, and virology. Within separate HMS-based programs, another 172 doctoral students are enrolled in biophysics, chemical biology and systems biology. Unique enrichment opportunities are available to all PhD students, including a multidisciplinary therapeutics graduate program designed to encourage new drug discovery and the Leder

Human Biology and Translational Medicine Program, which supports the work of researchers who transform basic research discoveries into new ways to diagnose and treat disease. CANCER RESEARCH

Launching Collaborative Programs A gift in memory of C. Kevin Landry, a 1966 Harvard alumnus and donor, led to the creation of two new cancer research programs this year, encompassing HMS and the Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Landry Cancer Biology Consortium: In this enrichment pro-

gram, PhD students complement their studies beyond the focus of their doctoral program by participating in courses, seminars and poster sessions focusing on cancer research. Landry Cancer Biology Research Fellowships: Open

to any graduate life sciences student at Harvard working on a cancer biology dissertation, these two-year fellowships will be awarded annually to five students. n

new ventures


Leading in Precision Medicine Physicians, scientists and researchers can now access extensive bioinformatics databases to gain insights into broad health care patterns and issues. This in turn allows for more precise diagnosis and treatment of patients. Helping to shape this vibrant new era of precision medicine is the Department of Biomedical Informatics, which was launched in July 2015 and is chaired by Isaac Kohane, the Marion V. Nelson Professor of Biomedical Informatics. The field encompasses two big data communities: one that compiles massive amounts of health care data and one that can assemble data on molecular and biological systems. Sophisticated bioinformatics tools with analytic and predictive capabilities present clinicians with options that offer the greatest potential benefit to individual patients. In the future, clinicians will be able to enter patient-specific data into an “information commons” that will process and present clinical approaches for consideration. Visualization patterns emerging from these statistical analyses will be shaped by multiple factors—clinical observations, lab results, genetics, genomics and environmental influences—and combined with the latest knowledge from medical research. To train tomorrow’s leaders in biomedical informatics, the department is developing an array of elective courses and advanced degree programs that focus on helping students learn how to use these powerful tools.

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Expanding Learning Opportunities

From left: Daria Prilutsky, research fellow in biomedical informatics, and Nathan Palmer, a data scientist in the Department of Biomedical Informatics and instructor in pediatrics at Boston Children’s Hospital, look at data illustrating a dysregulated pathway. Photo, right: Jacqueline Kustan, medical and scientific illustrator in the Office for External Education, creates material for an HMX online lecture.

Under the direction of Dean for External Education David Roberts, this HMS office is providing innovative instructional opportunities to an expanding number of learners both nationally and globally. Individuals pursuing or contemplating careers in health care will soon have access to HMX, an engaging online education program that is teaching fundamental concepts—initially in immunology and physiology—through a pioneering digital platform. The Office for External Education has also developed several new courses in its global programming portfolio. Through a combination of online video lectures, webinars, in-person workshops and teambased projects, students around the world can now access HMS expertise in clinical research methodology, clinical informatics, patient safety, leadership, and preventive and therapeutic approaches to cancer. In addition, newly offered executive education programs are designed to meet the needs of medical and research decision-makers and nonmedical professionals whose work requires a deeper understanding of health care and science. Simultaneously, the HMS Department of Continuing Education is partnering with affiliate hospital departments to provide continuing medical education credits each year to more than 25,000 physicians from its nearly 350 live and online courses. The general public also benefits from the guidance of trusted Harvard Health Publications experts who, in addition to producing high-quality online and print publications, are now providing health information to more than 1 million Twitter followers.

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Linking Science and Ethics As neuroscientists wrestle with issues such as how to best define the ethical boundaries around brain implantation devices that may change behavior or enhance cognitive ability, reproductive medicine is pushing the boundaries of embryonic science and social belief systems. Meanwhile, scientists are testing the limits of possibility with gene-editing tools, and genomics is prompting a call

for guidelines addressing patient privacy issues. Technological advances, and rapidly expanding medical and scientific knowledge, are raising complex bioethical questions that the Center for Bioethics is helping to answer. New in fall 2015, the Master of Bioethics program covers questions arising within the areas of clinical care, research ethics and public policy. Directed by Robert Truog, the Frances Glessner Lee Professor of Legal Medicine and director of the HMS Center for

Bioethics, the center builds education bridges between HMS and its affiliates, preparing clinicians, researchers and policy advocates by sponsoring forums to discuss and resolve real and theoretical cases. The center is also collaborating with state public health experts to create crisis standards of care that can guide the ethical allocation of resources during major disasters or disease outbreaks.


Addressing Global Health Issues At the crossroads of three continents, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, is a major hub for countries in Asia, Africa, parts of Europe and the Middle East. The Harvard Medical School Center for Global Health Delivery–Dubai has formalized a partnership between HMS and the Dubai Healthcare City Authority. Based at the Mohammed Bin Rashid Academic Medical Center, this well-situated facility offers researchers and clinicians from the Middle East and nearby regions the opportunity to receive advanced training and conduct research that will help improve health care delivery and health outcomes for people in the Middle East and elsewhere. Their findings will also inform other health systems worldwide. Directed by Salmaan Keshavjee, associate professor of global health and social medicine, and funded by the Dubai Harvard Foundation for Medical Research, the center offers faculty and student exchanges, clinical and research training opportunities, and research funding. Each year, grants will be awarded to eight investigators in areas focusing on the center’s priorities: prevention and treatment of diabetes and obesity, delivery of surgical care, mental health care, and treatment of tuberculosis and hepatitis C.

A computer chip that helps people with paralysis control robotic arms using a brain-computer interface is one of the many new technologies raising bioethical questions.


NEW VENTURES Dean’s Report 2015–2016 13


Reinventing Drug Discovery The Harvard Program in Therapeutic Science (HiTS), home to the Laboratory of Systems Pharma­ cology, has been awarded more than $35 million in federal funding to help reinvent the science of drug discovery, with research focusing on safe, effective and affordable personalized therapies for cancer and neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease. With funding from the

National Institutes of Health, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and the Department of Energy, HiTS is the base for more than 80 trainees, including postdoctoral researchers from HMS and its affiliated hospitals and PhD candidates in the HMS therapeutics graduate program. Directed by Peter Sorger, the Otto Krayer Professor of Systems Pharmacology, HiTS initiatives include:

• Development of an open-source software platform that can assemble dynamic models of cancer networks to explain observed behaviors of cancer cells and predict how cells will respond to new drugs. • New measurement technologies and computational methods to improve the understanding of how individual cells and entire cell populations respond to drugs. • An FDA-supported investigation taking a network approach to learning how anticancer drugs may damage the heart. n

Home of the Harvard Medical School Center for Global Health Delivery–Dubai

discovery 14 Dean’s Report 2015–2016



Supporting Innovation Harvard Catalyst | The Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center, directed by Lee Nadler, the Virginia and D. K. Ludwig Professor of Medicine and dean for clinical and translational research, enables investigators to find answers to questions that affect the health of the nation. Clinical and population scientists are harnessing Harvard Catalyst’s powerful Shared Health Research Information Network (SHRINE) to identify patients eligible for clinical trials and to generate new hypotheses using aggregated, de-identified data from more than 6 million patients. Harvard Catalyst also provided pilot funding to a program using advanced microscopes at the Harvard Center for Biological Imaging to further develop an area of clinical investigation centered on pathology. The Football Players Health Study at Harvard University, a multiyear collaboration funded by the National Football League Players Association, is studying the causes of athletes’ physical and mental health challenges with an eye toward improving the health and well-being of former NFL players while advancing understanding of the benefits— and risks—of participating in football and other sports.


EDUCATION Dean’s Report 2015–2016 15


Building Foundations Whether visualizing a molecular switch that turns off pain, exploring precise ways to disarm cancer cells, or editing genes to recreate a normal cellular state, HMS scientists are pursuing bold ideas. The combined research efforts of HMS and Harvard School of Dental Medicine this year resulted in $306.8 million in funding for sponsored programs, which includes $245.5 million in federal grants representing 33 percent of Harvard University’s research portfolio. Of those grants, $232.7 million was awarded by the National Institutes of Health. Among this year’s initiatives, HMS conducted an external review of six of the School’s 10 basic science departments, seeking to identify strengths, synergies and future strategies to support its world-class research enterprise. The Ludwig Center at Harvard is building a diverse community of investigators focused on overcoming the resistance of cancer cells to current and emerging therapies. HMS Center for Primary Care researchers traveled to Alaska to help advance wellness initiatives there. The center’s new InciteHealth program attracted caregivers from across the nation to five interactive Boston-based boot camps designed to transform early-stage ideas into solutions that strengthen primary care. Below are a few more of this year’s discovery highlights. BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR PHARMACOLOGY

Thwarting the ‘Arms Race’ Viruses such as HIV or influenza mutate to evade host antibodies. Antibodyproducing B cells in turn mutate to increase antibody potency. This interplay creates a virus–antibody “arms race.” The laboratory of Stephen C. Harrison, the Giovanni Armenise–Harvard Professor of Basic Biomedical Science, studies this evolutionary competition. The goal: to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies against such pathogens as a foundation for making vaccines that impart lasting immunity. As published in Cell, his group identified a variety of influenza-neutralizing antibodies that bind to viral receptor

sites. These antibodies share distinct motifs that predict their capacity to block viral attachment and subsequent infection. BIOMEDICAL INFORMATICS

Undiagnosed Diseases Network People living with mysterious medical conditions often undertake protracted diagnostic odysseys in their search for effective treatment. The goal of the new NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Network (UDN) is to solve such cases and develop cutting-edge medicines that directly serve patients. The UDN Coordinating Center is based in the HMS Department of Biomedical Informatics led by Isaac Kohane, the Marion V. Nelson Professor of Biomedical Informatics. The network includes two genetic sequencing cores, a model organisms core, a biorepository and six clinical centers, and a consortium of HMS affiliates. The coordinating center both leads the central UDN informatics infrastructure and facilitates the interactions among this large, interdisciplinary and geographically dispersed set of sites. Benefits extend beyond the patients themselves, as solving these cases will generate additional human biology discoveries. The coordinating center is also leading the effort to share UDN data and information with the national research community. CELL BIOLOGY

Breathtaking An HMS discovery showed that a handful of sensory neurons control breathing in a powerful way. Studies in mice revealed that two neuron types that relay signals from lung to brain exert opposing effects on respiration. The team, led by Stephen Liberles, HMS associate professor of cell biology, deconstructed the vagus nerve, a key connection between body and brain that controls breathing, heart rate and feeding and illness responses. The findings, published in Cell, suggest new ways to study diseases of the autonomic nervous system.

Photo, left: A cytoskeleton of bovine endothelial cells captured with super-resolution light microscopy by Doug Richardson, director of imaging at the Harvard Center for Biological Imaging.


Biological Safety Lock Genetically modified organisms are raising both excitement and concern because they have the potential to upset delicate ecosystems. Attention is turning to biocontainment to secure extremely pathogenic organisms. As reported in Nature, a team led by George Church, the Robert Winthrop Professor of Genetics, modified E. coli to incorporate a synthetic amino acid throughout their genomes. Without this amino acid, the bacteria cannot perform the vital job of translating their RNA into properly folded, functional proteins. GLOBAL HEALTH AND SOCIAL MEDICINE

Mapping the Future of Global Surgery A 2015 report from The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery revealed that 5 billion people are unable to access safe, timely and affordable surgery, leading to 18.6 million preventable deaths each year around the world. Lead author John Meara, the Steven C. and Carmella R. Kletjian Professor of Global Health and Social Medicine in the Field of Global Surgery, and other scientists have calculated that 143 million more surgical procedures are needed annually to reduce preventable deaths. Untreated surgical conditions are expected to cause an estimated 2 percent decline in the gross domestic product of low- and middle-income countries over the next 15 years, making access to surgery a high-return investment that saves lives and prevents economic losses that far outweigh the costs of care. HEALTH CARE POLICY

Checking Up on Symptom Checkers Millions of people turn to online software called symptom checkers to self-diagnose and decide whether or where to seek care. But how good is the information these tools provide? In a study published in BMJ that focused on symptom checkers hosted by medical schools, insurance companies and government agencies, Ateev Mehrotra, associate professor of health care policy, found that online programs provide the correct diagnosis or triage advice only about half the time. Despite those low rates, the checkers are similar in performance to telephone triage lines staffed by nurses and are better than general Internet searches.

generation, result when our bodies cannot dispose of malfunctioning or damaged proteins. In a report in Science, a team led by Marc Kirschner, the John Franklin Enders University Professor of Systems Biology and chair of the department, revealed the molecular processes involved in the disposal of proteins. It showed how proteins are tagged with ubiquitin, signaling a cellular machine called the proteasome to pulverize the defective protein. HARVARD SCHOOL OF DENTAL MEDICINE

Signals Found Outside the Cell


Immune System Freed to Fight Cancer Immunotherapy studies by Arlene Sharpe, the George Fabyan Professor of Comparative Pathology in the Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology as well as the co-director of the Evergrande Center for Immunologic Diseases, along with Gordon Freeman, professor of medicine at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, show that cancer cells hijack the PD-1 pathway, turning off the immune system. These findings have been translated into new treatments that free the immune system to fight tumors: Pembrolizumab is used to treat advanced melanoma, while nivolu­ mab is used for treating advanced melanoma and metastatic squamous non-small cell lung cancer. Both have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for these indications. NEUROBIOLOGY

New Clues to Psychiatric Disease Sensory, motor and cognitive signals come from the brain’s cortex and are processed in the basal ganglia, which then route signals through the thalamus and back to the cortex. But the basal ganglia can also “talk” directly to the cortex, no thalamus required,

according to research by Bernardo Sabatini, the Alice and Rodman W. Moorhead III Professor of Neurobiology. Published in Nature, these findings in animal models overturn previous thinking on brain anatomy and provide possible insights into psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. STEM CELL AND REGENERATIVE BIOLOGY

Generating Cells in a Dish Offering hope for a better way to treat diabetes, a team led by Douglas Melton, the Xander University Professor of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, co-chair of the department and co-scientific director of the Harvard Stem Cell Institute, has successfully generated mature human insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells from stem cells in vitro. When transplanted into mice, these cells secreted insulin appropriately in response to glucose levels. This breakthrough, reported in Cell, potentially provides an unprecedented cell source for drug discovery and transplantation therapy in diabetes. SYSTEMS BIOLOGY

Photo, above: Frances Anastassacos, a student in the PhD Program in Biological and Biomedical Sciences, tests a pH-resistant coating that could be used to deliver therapeutics to the gut by oral ingestion. She is in the laboratory of Pamela Silver, the Elliott T. and Onie H. Adams Professor of Biochemistry and Systems Biology.

Protein phosphorylation, the addition of phosphate groups to proteins, is central to cell proliferation and differentiation. Known to occur inside cells, scientists recently learned that this process also occurs outside cells. In Cell, Malcolm Whitman, professor of developmental biology at HSDM, identified the first protein tyrosine kinase that is secreted outside the cell, thus enabling further studies on the role extracellular signals play in normal development of bones and teeth, and investigations into disease processes such as tumor invasion and chronic inflammation. OFFICE OF TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

Partnering with Industry Helping Harvard scientists transform discoveries into products that benefit patients, this year the Office of Technology Development entered into a number of key partnerships with industry, including: the development of oral drug therapies targeting the Ebola virus (H&P Labs); a vaccine against chlamydia (Selecta Biosciences); gene therapy for blindness caused by retinitis pigmentosa (Astellas Pharma US); therapies for fibrotic and autoimmune diseases (Allied-Bristol Life Sciences); and an alliance focused on neuroendocrine cancer and neuromuscular disorders (Ipsen). The HMS pipeline of products already under development also generated encouraging news, such as successful clinical trials of an immunotherapy drug in a number of cancer types, including bladder and lung cancer (Genentech). n

How to Kill a Protein In addition to protein production, cells also engage in protein destruction. Many conditions and diseases, such as neurode-



DISCOVERY Dean’s Report 2015–2016 17

Honors and Awards Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award Stephen Elledge, the Gregor Mendel Professor of Genetics and of Medicine and professor of medicine at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, was a co-recipient with Evelyn Witkin of Rutgers University MacArthur Foundation Fellow Beth Stevens, assistant professor of neurology at Boston Children’s Hospital National Academy of Sciences Elected to the academy in recognition of their distinguished achievements in original research: Alfred Goldberg, professor of cell biology Jeannie Lee, professor of genetics and Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) investigator Hao Wu, the Asa and Patricia Springer Professor of Structural Biology and professor of biological chemistry and molecular pharmacology National Academy of Medicine Elected to the National Academy of Medicine, formerly the Institute of Medicine: Friedhelm Hildebrandt, the Warren E. Grupe Professor of Pediatrics in the Field of Nephrology and chief of the Division of Nephrology at Boston Children’s Frank Hu, professor of medicine at Brigham and Women’s and professor of nutrition and epidemiology at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Joan Miller, the Henry Willard Williams Professor of Ophthalmology and chair of the HMS Department of Ophthalmology at Massachusetts Eye and Ear and chief of ophthalmology at Mass. Eye and Ear and Massachusetts General Hospital Kevin Struhl, the David Wesley Gaiser Professor of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology Appointed as an NAM Anniversary Fellow: Hanni Stoklosa, clinical instructor and emergency medicine physician at Brigham and Women’s National Academy of Engineering Elected as a fellow: Emery Brown, the Warren M. Zapol Professor of Anaesthesia at Mass General and the Edward Hood Taplin Professor of Medical Engineering and professor of computational neuroscience at MIT

American Academy of Arts and Sciences Four HMS faculty members were elected: Marcia Angell, corresponding member of the faculty of global health and social medicine David Ginty, the Edward R. and Anne G. Lefler Professor of Neurobiology and HHMI investigator Margaret Livingstone, the Takeda Professor of Neurobiology Gerhard Wagner, the Elkan Blout Professor of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology Howard Hughes Medical Institute Two HMS faculty members were among 26 HHMI investigators appointed: Levi Garraway, associate professor of medicine at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Tobias Walther, professor of cell biology at HMS and professor of genetics and complex diseases at the Harvard Chan School Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences Gary Ruvkun, professor of genetics and investigator at Mass General Welch Award in Chemistry Stephen C. Harrison, the Giovanni Armenise– Harvard Professor of Basic Biomedical Science and professor of pediatrics at Boston Children’s Gruber Neuroscience Prize Michael Greenberg, the Nathan Marsh Pusey Professor of Neurobiology and head of the Department of Neurobiology at HMS and professor of neurobiology at Boston Children’s InBev-Baillet Latour Fund Health Prize Bruce Spiegelman, the Stanley J. Korsmeyer Professor of Cell Biology and Medicine and director of the Center for Energy Metabolism and Chronic Disease at Dana-Farber Brinker Award for Scientific Distinction in Basic Science Joan Brugge, the Louise Foote Pfeiffer Professor of Cell Biology and co-director of the Ludwig Center at Harvard Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research Frederick Alt, the Charles A. Janeway Professor of Pediatrics and director of the Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine at Boston Children’s and professor of genetics

NIH Director’s Pioneer Award Chenghua Gu, associate professor of neurobiology Forbes 400 Lifetime Achievement Award for Social Entrepreneurship Paul Farmer, the Kolokotrones University Professor of Global Health and Social Medicine and head of the Department of Global Health and Social Medicine; professor of medicine at Brigham and Women’s Endowed Professorships The following newly established professorships at HMS were celebrated, recognizing the generosity of their respective benefactors and the accomplishments of their inaugural incumbents: S. Jean Emans, the Mary Ellen Avery Professor of Pediatrics Eden Evins, the William Cox Family Associate Professor of Psychiatry in the Field of Addiction Medicine James L. Januzzi Jr., the Hutter Family Professor of Medicine in the Field of Cardiology Philip Kantoff, the Jerome and Nancy Kohlberg Professor of Medicine Scott G. Kennedy, the Philip and Aya Leder Professor of Genetics Wayne I. Lencer, the Longwood Professor of Pediatrics John G. Meara, the Steven C. and Carmella R. Kletjian Professor of Global Health and Social Medicine in the Field of Global Surgery Rachel Wilson, the Martin Family Professor of Basic Research in the Field of Neurobiology Junying Yuan, the Elizabeth D. Hay Professor of Cell Biology Incumbent to be named, the Shlomo BenHaim, MD, Professorship in Medicine in the Field of Cardiac Electrophysiology American Association for the Advancement of Science This year, nine HMS faculty were named fellows: Myles Brown, professor of medicine at Dana-Farber Lynn DeLisi, professor of psychiatry at VA Boston Healthcare System Jules Dienstag, the Carl W. Walter Professor of Medicine at Mass General

Jeffrey Drazen, the Parker B. Francis Distinguished Professor of Medicine at Brigham and Women’s Alan Engelman, professor of medicine at Dana-Farber Rakesh Jain, the A. Werk Cook Professor of Radiation Oncology (Tumor Biology) and director of the Edwin L. Steele Laboratory for Tumor Biology at Mass General Jay Loeffler, the Herman and Joan Suit Professor of Radiation Oncology and head of the Department of Radiation Oncology at Mass General Joseph Loscalzo, the Hersey Professor of the Theory and Practice of Physic and head of the Department of Medicine at Brigham and Women’s Barrett Rollins, the Linde Family Professor of Medicine at Dana-Farber Outstanding Scientific Achievement Award, American Diabetes Association Pere Puigserver, professor of cell biology Distinguished Teacher Award, American Association of Medical Colleges Randall King, the Harry C. McKenzie Professor of Cell Biology Massachusetts General Physicians Organization Trustees Medal Katharine Treadway, the Gerald S. Foster Academy Associate Professor of Medicine at Mass General António Champalimaud Vision Award Anthony Adamis, lecturer on ophthalmology at Mass. Eye and Ear Lloyd Paul Aiello, professor of ophthalmology at Joslin Diabetes Center Patricia d’Amore, the Charles L. Schepens Professor of Ophthalmology at Mass. Eye and Ear | Schepens Eye Research Institute Evangelos Gragoudas, the Charles Edward Whitten Professor of Ophthalmology at Mass. Eye and Ear George King, professor of medicine at Joslin Joan Miller, the Henry Willard Williams Professor of Ophthalmology at Mass. Eye and Ear


leadership and service 18 Dean’s Report 2014 I 2015


Progress and Potential By shaping pioneering initiatives that promote diversity and excellence in medicine and biomedical research, HMS strives to provide a wide spectrum of career access points, from programs that introduce schoolchildren to opportunities in science and medicine to high-level professional advancement programs. Directed by Dean for Diversity and Community Partnership Joan Reede, the Office for Diversity Inclusion and Community Partnership (DICP) nurtures a broad group of individuals who more closely reflect the general U.S. population, creating exceptional opportunities in which every individual can reach his or her highest potential. This year, the School celebrated the 25th anniversary of the Visiting Clerkship Program. Since its inception, the program has attracted 1,158 minority medical students to HMS, all exploring careers in academic medicine or residency opportunities at HMS affiliates. In research, seven aspiring scientists were accepted into the Dean’s Postdoctoral Fellowship Program, which opens doors to high-achieving scientists from groups underrepresented in medicine. DICP is also expanding the use of an innovative analytic tool that evaluates career data, such as minority promotion rates and participation in biomedical disciplines, and can chart diversity inclusion progress in medical schools nationwide.

Dean’s Report 2015–2016 19

Kathryn Hall, instructor in medicine in the Division of Preventive Medicine at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, is a fellow in the Harvard Catalyst Program for Faculty Development and Diversity Inclusion, which supports exceptional clinical and translational researchers. She has made pioneering discoveries in the study of how genes influence the placebo response.



Advancing Educational Excellence

Supporting a Vibrant Faculty

Charged with upholding academic excellence and ethical standards at HMS—as well as supporting thousands of its researchers, teachers and clinicians—this year the Office for Academic and Clinical Affairs rolled out a junior faculty development program specifically geared toward Quad faculty. It includes an intensive leadership training course, biannual development seminars and a peer-mentoring group. HMS affiliates advance the School’s mission through research, education, train­­ing and patient care. Led by Dean for Academic and Clinical Affairs Nancy Tarbell, the C. C. Wang Professor of Radiation Oncology, rigorous clinical reviews of all academic hospitalbased departments are completed approximately every eight years. Ensuring alignment with HMS standards of excellence in education, research and patient care, the office conducts eight reviews a year. Two new departments, neurosurgery and emergency medicine, now bring the total number of hospital-based academic departments to 56. The office also supports initiatives that promote the School’s culture of collaboration and innovation. In 2015, a new Arts and Humanities Initiative was established to serve as a national model that will complement existing programs in bioethics and social medicine by promoting creativity and community in medical education.

Dean for Faculty Affairs Maureen Connelly is spearheading comprehensive efforts to support nearly 12,000 HMS faculty. Among key milestones in 2015 are the following: • The time to process professorial promotions now averages 10 months, down from an average of more than two years in 2011. • Faculty promotions and appointments totaled 590, with 72 promoted to professor, 175 to associate professor and 343 to assistant professor. • This year, the 250th woman was appointed to full professor at HMS. In 1980 there were six. Today, approximately 26 percent of promotions to professor go to women. Work continues to develop guidelines aimed at recruiting more exceptional junior and senior faculty. • The Eleanor and Miles Shore 50th Anniversary Fellowship Program for Scholars in Medicine marked 20 years of providing grants that help junior faculty balance career objectives with family obligations. • The new HMS faculty governance, appointment and promotions handbook will provide guidelines on eligibility rules and appointments for all faculty, including policy changes related to the need for mentorship for all junior faculty on academic career paths. n


More than 100 years ago, Harvard Medical School moved to the Longwood area of Boston and constructed its now iconic quadrangle on rolling farmland known as the Francis estate. Today, the Quad is the epicenter of one of the world’s most renowned biomedical research and education communities. In addition to the more than 151 faculty based on the HMS campus, there are nearly 12,000 faculty at the School’s 15 affiliated hospitals and research institutions who provide patient care and clinical training while mentoring aspiring physicians

and scientists in research programs that transform medical care. This year alone, researchers at HMS affiliates attained a remarkable range of achievement. In cancer research, investigators at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center discovered that a pseudogene, an RNA subclass that has lost the ability to produce proteins, has a role in causing cancer. On the bioengineering front, investigators at Boston Children’s Hospital developed a proteinbased scaffolding that can help the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair itself. In neurologic studies, researchers at Brigham and Women’s Hospital discov-

The Longwood Medical Area is home to three Harvard graduate schools, including Harvard Medical School; a number of the School’s affiliated teaching hospitals; and world-renowned medical science and research organizations.

ered a gene variant that may help patients with multiple sclerosis better respond to a certain medication. As a result of its efforts to improve health care systems, Cambridge Health Alliance ranked among the top performers in a national pilot program aimed at reducing hospital readmission rates. Early results of a clinical immunotherapy trial at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute revealed that a cancer vaccine combined with an anti-angiogenic drug improved survival in certain patients with relapsed glioblastoma tumors. Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute has been chosen by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to lead the Sentinel System, a program that uses health care data to monitor the safety of FDA-regulated drugs and other medical products.

Dean’s Report 2015–2016 21

Investigators in the Institute for Aging Research at Hebrew SeniorLife found that imperceptible vibrations applied to the soles of feet improved balance and gait in elderly study participants. At Joslin Diabetes Center, studies focusing on bacteria in the digestive system’s microbiome showed that the host’s genes interact with microbial genes to boost insulin resistance and other metabolic disorders. Judge Baker Children’s Center is working on multiple initiatives with the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and others to improve mental health care for children. Massachusetts Eye and Ear | Schepens Eye

Research Institute researchers computationally reconstructed the ancestral state of a viral capsid that is highly effective as a synthetic vector to deliver gene therapies to the liver, muscles and the retina. A team at Massachusetts General Hospital created a bioartificial replacement forelimb suitable for transplantation in humans. McLean Hospital investigators uncovered a potential treatment for Parkinson’s disease that involves existing antimalarial drugs. Mount Auburn Hospital opened a multidisciplinary program to track patients with lung nodules, aiming to identify and treat cancerous lesions earlier. Researchers at Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital found that a medicine to treat attention

deficit hyperactivity disorder may also help patients with post-traumatic stress disorder. Studies at the VA Boston Healthcare System showed signs of accelerated aging in the brains of U.S. veterans injured by bomb blasts. The scope and breadth of the impressive accomplishments that HMS partners have realized in the past year are truly extraordinary. n


22 Dean’s Report 2015–2016




In the past year, Harvard Medical School launched The World Is Waiting: The Campaign for Harvard Medicine, a $750 million fundraising initiative that empowers us in our mission to alleviate human suffering caused by disease. “This campaign is about helping people live longer, healthier lives,” said Dean Jeffrey S. Flier. “We are using our most effective tools—education, discovery, service and leadership—to attack disease and address the biggest health care challenges of our time,” he said. “Our success is critical to the health of our loved ones and of the whole human family.” As of June 30, 2015, HMS had raised more than $461 million toward the campaign goal in gifts and pledges from 6,887 alumni, faculty, staff and friends. “Only bold institutions—those willing to do things differently, build on strengths, take risks and create new paths— will meet expectations deserving of even more support,” said campaign chair Joshua Boger. “Today, in every building, down every hallway, in every lab, I see young medical students dreaming what I dreamed,” said Flier. “In many cases, all they need is one person with the resources to help. You can be that person.”


HMS LEADERSHIP Dean’s Report 2015–2016 23

Jeffrey S. Flier, MD Dean of the Faculty of Medicine

ACADEMIC DEANS Gretchen Brodnicki, JD Dean for Faculty and Research Integrity Maureen Connelly, MD, MPH Dean for Faculty Affairs David Golan, MD, PhD Dean for Basic Science and Graduate Education Edward Hundert, MD Dean for Medical Education Lee Nadler, MD Dean for Clinical and Translational Research Nancy Oriol, MD Dean for Students Joan Reede, MD, MS, MPH, MBA Dean for Diversity and Community Partnership David Roberts, MD Dean for External Education Nancy Tarbell, MD Dean for Academic and Clinical Affairs


ADMINISTRATIVE DEANS John Czajkowski Executive Dean for Administration

PRECLINICAL DEPARTMENT CHAIRS Stephen Blacklow, MD, PhD Gustavus Adolphus Pfeiffer Professor of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology Chair, Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology

Nathalie Apchin Interim Chief Financial Officer (July 2014 – )

Paul Farmer, MD, PhD Kolokotrones University Professor of Global Health and Social Medicine Chair, Global Health and Social Medicine

Lisa Boudreau Interim Dean for Resource Development (Aug. 2015 – )

Michael Greenberg, PhD Nathan Marsh Pusey Professor of Neurobiology Chair, Neurobiology

Pamela Caudill Chief Research Operations Officer

Wade Harper, PhD Bert and Natalie Vallee Professor of Molecular Pathology Chair, Cell Biology

Susan Dale Chief of Staff Rainer Fuchs Chief Information Officer Judith Glaven Associate Dean for Basic and Interdisciplinary Research (July 2008 – Oct. 2015) Lisa Muto Associate Dean for ​ Institutional Planning and Policy Susan Rapple Dean for Resource Development (May 2008 – Sept. 2015) Richard Shea Associate Dean for Campus Planning and Facilities Julie Stanley Chief Human Resources Officer Gina Vild Associate Dean for Communications and External Relations and Chief Communications Officer

Marc Kirschner, PhD John Franklin Enders University Professor of Systems Biology Chair, Systems Biology Isaac Kohane, MD, PhD Marion V. Nelson Professor of Biomedical Informatics Chair, Biomedical Informatics Barbara McNeil, MD, PhD Ridley Watts Professor of Health Care Policy Chair, Health Care Policy John Mekalanos, PhD Adele Lehman Professor of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics Chair, Microbiology and Immunobiology Douglas Melton, PhD Xander University Professor of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology Co-chair, Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology David Scadden, MD Gerald and Darlene Jordan Professor of Medicine Co-chair, Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology Clifford Tabin, PhD George Jacob and Jacqueline Hazel Leder Professor of Genetics Chair, Genetics

24 Dean’s Report 2015–2016




Harvard Medical School counts on a generous philanthropic community to empower our mission to alleviate human suffering caused by disease. The highlight of the fiscal year was the launch of The World Is Waiting: The Campaign for Harvard Medicine, a transformative $750 million fundraising initiative focused on helping people live longer, healthier lives. The School’s circle of supporters—made up of more than 3,500 alumni, board members, volunteers, faculty, staff, foundations, corporations and friends—gave nearly $95 million in fiscal year 2015 to support the campaign’s four priorities: education, discovery, service and leadership. In education, these gifts are making it possible for us to continue to attract and accept the best and brightest students, regardless of their ability to pay; they enable us to create modern, sophisticated spaces for teaching and learning and help us expand our post-graduate and external and global education programs. In the area of discovery, these gifts propel the largest biomedical research engine in the world, from rethinking the basic and clinical science needed to discover, develop and deliver better drugs to advancing pathbreaking investigations in the areas of biochemistry, biomedical informatics, cell biology, genetics, immunology, molecular pharmacology, neurobiology and systems biology. HMS service initiatives are being amplified through gifts that are helping us strengthen and transform health systems in the U.S. and abroad, including advancing the field of telemedicine, launching the new HealthCare Markets and Regulation Lab and addressing the unmet need for global surgical care. Finally, in the area of leadership, discretionary gifts provide the dean with the flexibility to invest in innovative ideas that have the greatest potential to improve human health.


Discovery 42% Service 27% n Leadership 20% n Education 11% n





Learn more about the impact of philanthropy through the School’s Honor Roll of Donors at:



Total faculty 11,751 Tenured and tenure-track faculty on HMS campus in 10 preclinical departments 151 Voting faculty on campus and at affiliates 5,686 Full-time faculty on campus and at affiliates 9,443



Nobel Prizes (cumulative) Physiology or Medicine, Peace: 9 prizes, 15 recipients | National Academy of Sciences members (current) 68 National Academy of Medicine members (current) 147 Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigators (current) 37





Total MD students 710 Total PhD students 799 MD-PhD students 181: basic sciences 167, social sciences 14 (total included in MD and PhD counts) Total DMD students 142 Total MMSc students 141 Total DMSc students 32 Trainees (residents and postdoctoral fellows) 9,071








MD applicants 6,113 Admitted 225 (3.7%) MD entering 2015 165 (includes 14 MD-PhD students) Men 82 (50%) | Women 83 (50%) Underrepresented in medicine (African-American, Native American, Hispanic, Mexican-American) 27 (16%) Asian 57 (35%)






Entering 2015: PhD 139 DMD 35 MMSc 58 DMSc 6 Additional joint degree programs: MD-MBA; MD-MPH; MD-MPP





Medical school living alumni: 9,850 (MD and MMSc degrees)

Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard Harvard Catalyst | The Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center 4% Harvard Stem Cell 8%Institute Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering




Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center 27% Boston Children’s Hospital Brigham and Women’s Hospital Cambridge Health Alliance Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Forsyth Institute (HSDM affiliate) Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute Hebrew SeniorLife Joslin Diabetes Center Judge Baker Children’s Center Massachusetts Eye and 7%Ear | Schepens Eye Research Institute 13%General Hospital Massachusetts McLean Hospital 37% Mount Auburn Hospital Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital 13% VA Boston Healthcare System







FINANCIAL REPORT Dean’s Report 2015–2016 25

n Research grants and contracts n Endowment distribution for operations n Other revenues* n Gifts for current use n Rental income n Tuition (net)




FY 2015 OPERATING REVENUE $248,776,047 40% $165,258,859 27% $74,493,115 12% $54,512,116 9% $51,593,518 8% $21,837,347 4% $616,471,006


9% 8%


9% 12% 12%

40% 27% 27%

* Includes continuing medical education, publications, service income and royalties

$242,136,578 37% $191,785,219 30% $85,934,666 13% $83,212,035 13% $45,206,202 7% $648,274,700

7% 13%

7% 37%

13% 13%



$87,107,000 $87,107,000

$97,603,850 $97,603,850

Harvard Medical School has achieved remarkable progress in advancing its mission while continuing to improve its FY financial standing. The School made 11 promising new investments in greater FY learning opportunities through the newly 11 created Office for External Education; in a redesign of our medical education curriculum, Pathways; and in the establishment of our new academic Department of Biomedical Informatics. In May 2015, the School completed the closing of the New England Primate Research Center (NEPRC), and the as-

$113,763,436 $113,763,436


$ 94,685,992 $ 94,685,992

FY 2015 OPERATING EXPENSES n Personnel costs n Supplies and other expenses n Research subcontracts and affiliates n Plant operations and interest n Depreciation Total

sociated financial results were reported as discontinued operations. HMS ended FY 2015 with a $31.8 million operatFY FY FY ing deficit compared to a $45.0 million 10 09 08 deficit in 2014. We are pleased with the FY FY FY progress achieved and intend to continue 10 09 08 to develop exciting programs within a sustainable financial model. In FY 2015, operating revenues totaled $616 million, a decrease of $0.7 million compared to the previous year. While revenue from research grants decreased by 6 percent—a result of the NEPRC’s closing—the School benefited

30% 30%

from generous current-use gifts, greater distribution of the endowment and new course tuition revenue. Total operating expenses in FY 2015 decreased by $13.8 million, or 2.1 percent, to $648 million, attributable to the NEPRC closing. The School invested in new programs and in maintenance of the HMS campus infrastructure. It also has expanded support for information technology through a bold multiyear project that will reshape the School’s IT foundation, streamline service and create a more sustainable IT environment that

will support both our medical curriculum and our pioneering biomedical research. The unrestricted nature of gifts received in FY 2015 has allowed for the allocation of funds to support the School’s most strategic priorities and has enabled us to educate future leaders, advance science for the benefit of all, and maintain recognition as the leading academic medical center in the world.

Credits: Writing and editing by M.R.F. Buckley and Christine Paul; design and art direction by Paul

Produced by the HMS Office of Communications and External Relations: Gina Vild, Associate

DiMattia; copyediting by Bobbie Collins, Susan Karcz and Ann Marie Menting; research assistance by Savannah Young. Photography by Above Summit, Steve Lipofsky, Tony Rinaldo, John Soares and Bethany Versoy. Additional photos courtesy of BrainGate, Douglas Richardson/Harvard Center for Biological Imaging, iStock/Danil Melekhin and A. Pakieka/Science Source. Printed by Kirkwood Printing.

Dean of Communications and External Relations and Chief Communications Officer, 107 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Suite 111, Boston, MA 02115, (617) 432-0442,

25 Shattuck Street Boston, Massachusetts 02115

Dean's Report 2015-16  

Harvard Medical School

Dean's Report 2015-16  

Harvard Medical School