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AIR hao chen


Part a introduction Later, it become a major part in my travels and the more I learned, The more I become interested in becoming an architect.

Education

I am currently a student University of Melbourne majoring in Architecture. In my first year, during the study of Virtual Environments, I was introduced with Rhino. In the studio, I learned the advantages and disadvantages of computer-generated designs. After a few more studios in later stuies I became more and more confident towards computer-generated designs and I immediately became a fan of it.

About Me

My name is Hao Chen. I come from Shenzhen. A very young city of China.

I believe the accuracy and conviniency of digital medias will eventually replace traditional design methods in the future.

Its population had grown nearly 15 million in 30 years. It is a very dynamic city which there is always something new and exciting happening.

In this years study, I hope I can continue push myself further and gain more understanding in digital designs and hopefully contribute in the study of Architecture.

And it was where my first interest towards architecture come from.

Project

I had seen many buildings built and destroyed in these rapid changes. Driven by the curiousity of how some building survived in these changes and why some buildings were designed in certain ways, I started to pay more attentions to the details of these buildings.

This year's project is based on LAGI 2014 Competition. The competition is asking teams to design for the site at Refshaleøen in Copenhagen. Refshaleøen is a manmade island in Copenhagen’s harbor, which until 1996 housed the shipyard Burmeister & Wain—an icon of Danish industrial history.


Project of Designing Environemnts

Project of Studio Water

Part in a project in Shenzhen as intern


design futuring precedent

A1.1

Fresh Clouds

Artist Team: Thomas Kosbau, Joseph Hines, Brendan Warford, Chris Smith,

Sergio Saucedo, and Blanca Eleta

LAGI (Land Art Generator Initiative) Competition 2012

This design is closely related to the context of the site. From 1947 through 2001 the Fresh Kills Landfill received up to 29,000 tons of garbage a day1. The buried garbage is slowly digesting into poisonous and volatile methane gas deposits which is currently producing 19,000 cubic feet of methane gas per minute (CFM) and is estimated to continue producing large amounts of methane through 20502. Although a large portion of Fresh Kills Methane is piped to a 1988 era National Grid power generator but they cannot handle the methane load even with the generator running at full speed3. Therefore, the resultant methane is burned onsite which is a huge waste of energy. Firstly, this design is mainly focus on how to make use of the excessive methane on site which is a very straight forward approach towards energy efficiency. It is closely related to the context of the site as methane supply is well established on-site. Therefore, the research for practical energy supply will no longer be needed and make use of these “waste” methane is another form of generating new energies.

Secondly, The generation process of energies such as solar or biofuels are normally “unnoticeable”. Therefore It is a very creative way to use the up and downs of bolloons to indicate the energy generation process underneath the earth. The ballons were designed into a cloud shape with a portion of it filled with hot air3. It pumps the high temperatures air, generated from burning the excessive methane on-site, into the ballon. Which result in a tremendous amount of lift4. Similar to hot air ballon, it lifts passengers into the sky and slowly drops down when the air cooled. Maybe this design is still limited by the development of technologies today, but the design theme behind this project is very visionary. It based its design on the context of the site and maximized its potential in energy generation. Also, it creatively designed a new way for visitors to interact with the site and takes part in the generation process of the design.


Above: Fig1.1 Fresh Clouds Proposed Effect and Changes

The Fresh Clouds project is built upon the concept of harvesting the byproducts of human consumption.5 Artist Team of Fresh Clouds


design futuring precedent

A1.2

The Science of Light Artist: Sarah Hall Location: Grass Valley Elementary School, Camas, WA

“For a thousand years, architectural glass has been an art of light, whether reflecting or transmitting it, letting it pass through white and whole or splintering it into the colours of the rainbow. In her recent work, however, acclaimed Toronto glass artist Sarah Hall has added something modern to the repertoire of glazing’s near-Infinite play with light: the power to transfigure sunshine into electricity.� 6 ---John Bentley Mays, Architecture Critic This glass wall facade in Grass Valley ELementary School is not just colorful glass wall but Photovoltaic glass wall. It is a glass wall that not only can transmit the light but also transform the light into something different, such as electricity. The glass artist Sarah Hall is one of the most famous glass artist in North America7. The design of this wall is creative and pleasing in the eyes. It creates a unique shading and the pannels naturally intergrated into the facade. But only with the development of solar panels, that made it happen. The solar panels used in this glass facade is the only transparent panel in the world. It is also the only system that could combine with heat mirror glass and glass artworks8.

Although these panels could be transparent or coated with different colors. But in fact, these panels are very easy to spot as they are much thicker than ordinary glasses. As a result, how to locate them which allows them to form an individual pattern whithout blocking the view while providing sufficient power is the main problem faced by the designers. In this project, Sarah Hall used normal coated glass with coated panels to reduce the impact of the panels. By increasing the number and changes of color, the complexity of the pattern will reduce the attention put on the panels. Moreover, the panels were also located in certain pattern which helps to increase the complexity and reduces its impact.


Above: Fig1.2 The Science of Light Left: Fig 1.3 The Science of Light detail


conceptualization precedent

A2.1

FRAC Center Designer: JAKOB + MACFARLANE Architects Location: Orléans, France, Completed 2013

Client: Région Centre Surface: 3,400m2

JAKOB + MACFARLANE Architects is a very famous architecture firm which mainly use digital medias in their design process. Complex and abstract geometries are often found in their designs. The project FRAC Center in France is a very good example of their works. This complex and abstract volume locates in the middle of the square. Surrounded by its historical contexts. One of its design intension was to create not only a landscape but a topographic surface9. Which have to accomadate the natural slope of the site and work as an interception of the exhibition buildings. It would be a very time-consuming work to test different geometries and trys to fit the design into site with paper drawings. But using digital approaches would achieve this goal much easier.

thing”. The building itself became the representation of the site as all the important informations about the site had transformed into data and then some how translated into the building (at least the designer think so).

Firstly, the idea of the design was generated based on the concept of points. Since the building has to act as “the interception point” of the site, this refers not only to its physical location, but also the desigh has to be able to connect with the histories that surround it. Therefore, JAKOB + MACFARLANE managed to locate different points based on different measurements, such as height, middle point of two buildings, slope, distance and directions etc10. This is a design that translates the abstract datas into an “actual

Moreover, due to development of technologies, Some parts of the surfaces of the building are elctronic, which addressed to the city and, as such. The building surface transcribes flows of information into light images through an intervention of Electronic Shadow. These flows of information can be the weather, connections to their internet site or any capturable flow of real time information. This is a more direct connection to the site compare to the architectural language but is also very effective.

The architectural parti is to take the entire site, which determines the surface of intervention11. The architects identified two predominate grids emanating from the historic context of the site. Although how they translate this abstract idea of history context is hard to understand without really participated in their work. But at least it proves that every thing could have a unique algorithm which transform abstract concepts into real numbers. And based on these real numbers, we could generate symbolic forms.


Above: Fig 2.2 FRAC Centre Below: Fig 2.1 Design Process of FRAC Centre


conceptualization precedent

A2.2

Restaurant Georges Designer: JAKOB + MACFARLANE Architects Client: SNC Costes and Centre Georges Pompidou Location: Centre Georges Pompidou

Surface: 3,400m2 However, the success of this design is also related to the materials used in this design. The main challenge of the design was the use of aluminium sheet and how can it be intergrated with the floor and interior decoration. For example, due to the limitation of the material, the corner of two connecting point is very hard to be intergrated smoothly without any problem. As you can see in Fig 2.5, the corner of the edge was hollow as it is much easier to extend the aluminium sheet on one direction rather then covering the whole area.

Above: Fig 2.5 Restaurant Geoges side view

This is another project designed by JAKOB + MACFARLANE Architects, which mentioned in my introduction before. The whole project was designed through computation. The entire process, from design to fabrication, are all done digitally. Even the aluminuium tubes were fabricated as a whole by a boat making company based on digital models. Throughout the process, the designers have to solve many technical problems such as how to fit the reception desk into the wall, how to make the aluminium sheet continuous

into the ground etc. All these problems requires great understanding in space and be very precise in sizes. Also, the designer wanted the building to look like an organic cells in the Pompidou Center. They use a lot of reference lines to define the curved surfaces to avoid pointy curves on the surface. In this way the entire surface will be smooth and looks organic. Especially from outside, they look like some kind of futuristic jelly beans or some sort of enlarged cells.

If the material is different, for example polyster. Although polyster sheet can also be fabricated with computer controled machines, but the physical characteristic of polyster is still very hard to solve this issue. Materials such as concrete might solve this issue easily, but it could not match designer’s ideal outcome. Therefore, digital design models has certain disadvantages, it requires more cautious than traditional designs as shape and form might impact the construction method.


Below: Fig 2.4 Restaurant Geoges from outside

Above: Fig 2.3 Restaurant Geoges


Modeling Digital Fabrication

A3.1

ZERO/FOLD SCREEN Designer: Matsys Location: Kasian Gallery, University of Calgary, Canada Main Material: MDF Board As mentioned before, materiality is very importatnt in fabrication. Sometimes is to finish a good design first, and then look for a suitable material to fabricate. Sometime this order is reversed which materials are determined prior to the design. This project designed by Matsy is the latter. This project starting from the basic material dimensions and then generating a series of components that will minimize material waste during CNC cutting while still producing an undulating, light-filtering screen for the gallery12. in order to test and generate this pattern faster, digtal modeling is

very helpful as it could panel the pannel the pattern directly onto the MDF sheet and allows the designer to test it directly in 3D models. The success of this project showed how effective to understand materiality of the materials prior to the design could be. It not only saves material but also simplified the fabrication process13. However, this order is not always necessary as materiality could always be tested by making a smaller prototype or find an appropriate way to unfold the model.

Below: Fig 3.1 ZERO/FOLD SCREEN fabrication materials


Above: Fig 3.2 ZERO/FOLD Below: Fig 3.2 3D SCREEN Experimentation of Honeycomb


Modeling Digital Fabrication

A3.2

SHELLSTAR PAVILION Designer: Matsys Location: Wan Chai, Hong Kong, China Main Material: 4mm Translucent Coroplast, Project Shellstar Pavilion is a public project which its concept is to design a place where people come into the center and then sent out to a new direction14. The complex shape of this design was generated based on a simple flow drawing and evolved through a serious of factors and processes. WIth the help of Rhino and Grasshopper, the fabrication process of the design is what I am intersted in15. In the design, they used Grasshopper and some other plug-ins to generate the pattern. These computer generated “random” patterns are actually not random. Due to the limitation of its mechanism, there is always a certain algorithm for it to apply to generate a random pattern16.

Therefore, these patterns often can be “unfold”. It is like a reverse process of generating the patterns. In this project, they unfolded the design. Which they get a series of simple shapes. They documented them and labled them from A-O. These means that this complex geometry is formed by 15 simple shapes. With each shape labled and sequenced. All they have to do is to assemble these small pieces according to the sequences17. As shown below, before starting to actually produce all the pieces, it is often good to produce a reasonable portion of it to test its materiality and test how the parts will be connected. Some materials may fail due to certain angles of bending or folding.

Below: Fig 3.3 Design P


Process and Fabrication

Above: Fig 3.4 Shellstar Pavilion


design Sketchbook

Rhino exploration

WIND ROSES I used Wind Roses chart of Copenhagen from 2011-2013 as my data base. I choose 4 most significant points from each wind roses. Then use x-y-z coordinates to locate these points in Rhino with Grasshopper.

January

February

According to the chart, the longer the wind blows in that direction the further the point stretches. And the colors indicates the speed of the wind around that portion of time. Therefore, rather than creating a 2D wind rose chart, I decided to create a 3D model using the average speed of these 4 significant points as the z coordinate. Firstly, determine 4 basic point and make a surface with them. As you can see, the top view of these surface is similar to the wind roses from the chart.

March

April


May

September

June

October

July

November

August

December


design Sketchbook

Rhino exploration

WIND ROSES Then based on the average speed of the wind on that direction (z coordinate), I created twelv 3D simple wind roses representing the wind for the whole year. Then I started to layering the models according to the pattern of roses (layer over layer). Then I got this abstract complex geometry on the right. The single end point at the bottom is a representation of zero.

It is an abstract expression of the wind in Copenhagen in 2011-2013. The algorithm used in this model is simple, is just using simple x-y-z coordinates to simulate the actual wind roses and then from point to line, line to surface, surface to solid. This is just a simple exploration of parametric design using Grasshopper.

Above: Basic 3D model of Wind Roses of Copenhagen


Above: Combined 3D model of Wind Roses of Copenhagen Below: Combined 3D model of Wind Roses of Copenhagen


Part a summary

Conclusion

Like our daily lives, the development of technology also had changed the environment of Architecture. Buildings designed with new technologies and using new materials is a great part of postmodern architecture. From what I learned from LAGI 2012, is that even the most craziest design have inspiring ideas which we should learn from it. I realized that the intension of this design competition is to challenge the limitation of technology, it challenge certain common senses about energy generation. And maybe this is because technologies is developed due to the need of future, rather than the past. By studying these computational design precedents, you can see most of the precedents has complex forms or structures. And this is very typical in computation models. This is because digital modeling allows architects to experiment their ideas much more flexible compare to the past. As in the past, these experimentation might cause months of work in redrawing the plans and setions. But now, a few changes in data through computer could have instant changes on models. This is a revolutionary development in design method.


Learning Outcomes Learned from these precedents and have a glimpse of the possibilities that computation could achieve, I think it will help me a lot in the design of this project. Studied from the previous LAGI entries, the aim of the competition is not about how to creat a green energy plant but to have a new way of generating green energy, although the outcome might have some uncommon aspects, but as long as the idea is creative, it will still be a great learning exprerience. By playing with Grasshopper in Rhino, I found out that many complex shapes could be achieved easily and accurately through Rhino. This gives me more confidence in trying new things. Also, I found that most of the winning entries are designs that have considered the context of the site and allows visitors to be involved in the educational or decorational activities on site. According to LAGI 2014's design guide, the size of the site is pretty big and the terrain is very flat. Consider the site is an man-made land and there are no obvious high-rise buildings around. Therefore it would be an ideal site for wind and solar powers and this will be my first design intend.


Part b


“

T

he call is to envision public art that generates utility-scale clean energy for the City of Copenhagen.1� Land Art Generator Initiative 2014


Part b elements

Futuristic Appearance Public Art Tourist Attraction Clean Energy Ultility Scale Energy Generation Public Recreational Space Educational Space for Public


Computation Design The following precedents are examples of computation designs using geometry and structure material system. The use of different materials and different scales lead to very different outcome in design. These precedents also demostrated the possibilities of computation design could achieve which learning from them could help the design of our project.


Research Field Part B1.1

Geometry

Green Void Geometry The Green Void is a spectacular 20 metrehigh installation fabricated with green lycra. This lightweight complex is a great example of computation design2.

Below: Fig 1.1 Green Void

This geometry was automatically generated under certain algorithmn through computation. Although the form look complex, but with digital fabrication and engineering technique, all these could be achieved in accuracy. The entire curved surface could be unfold and divided into smaller segments (Figure 1.3) for easier fabrication purpose. Moreover, although there is a limitation of what we can learn from this precedent. This is because its computation process is mainly focus on the form of the design and how to fabricate it rather than the supporting structure. But it would still be a useful precedents as it could help to improve any designs with membrane components. For example, this could help in the designs such as complex surfaces to install solar panels.

Above: Fig 1.2 & 1.3 Green Void


Part B1.2

Geometry + Structure

Grid Shell Structure The Grid Shell is the design of a four days workshop in SmartGeometry 2012. The requirement is to design and construction of a wooden gridshell using only straight wood members bent along geodesic lines on a relaxed surface3. Using parametric tools, they are able to minimize the material used while still be able to maximize the architectural presence in space4. They used Curvature Analysis to determine the smallest bending radii in structure(Figure 1.5). Based on this analyze, any parts with too small bending radii would be redesigned to avoid structural failure. This is a very useful analyze as it could help to identify any potential structural problem prior to fabrication. Combine with the use of parametric tools, which the form could be self generated in computers if given enough referencing datas. Designers were able to generate this design in four days. The experiences learned from this project is very helpful in building structural component in our designs.

Above: Fig 1.5 & 1.6 Grid Shell

Below: Fig 1.4 Grid Shell


Case Study Part B2.0 Geometry

Green Void

The definition given in the Green Void involved the use of Kangaroo plugin in Grasshopper. I played around with the definitions using different different references. By changing the input I can immediately see the relationship between each references. Also, it allows me to interactive simulation and optimization directly with the model. For example, by changing the number of the node or sides, I can immediately see the differences from the model. This is a way to imagine how the material would react with forces and improve understanding of the potential of the model.


Using the similar definition for Green Void. Provided with different referencing points and lines. The form maybe similar to the green void in some aspect, but it is a different model for sure. I discovered that if the referencing datas are more defined or simple, the form it generates would be more controlable. There will not be many weirdly twisted surface compare to the previous practice. Especially with the branch like form. You can see the differences more clearly and have even better understanding in their relationships. Later I discovered that the experimentation of these branches helped me with the making of my design proposal.


Case Study Part B3.0

Allianz Arena Case Study 2.0 The Allianz Arena was designed by Herzog & de Meuron, like the Water Cube in Beijing, it is widely known for its exterior of inflated ETFE plastic panels. Due to the special materiality of this material, it is the first stadium in the world with a full color-changing exterior5. Below: Fig 3.1 Allianz Arena

ETFE plastic is a plastic membrane with a thickness of only 0.2mm. It looks white from distance and almost transparent from close. These ETFE panels can be independently lit with white, red, or blue light. Allianz Arena's innovative stadium-facade lighting concept has been subsequently adopted in other newly built venues, like MetLife Stadium near New York City, which lights up in blue for the NFL's Giants, green for the Jets, and red for a concert6. The light system is formed by LED lights which consume very little energy. According to its official website, the electricity cost of these lights is as low as 75 USD per hour and could be seen from a distance of 50 miles in a clear night. These ETFE panels were formed under certain algorithmn. Each panel is a diamond shape and which nested around the stadium. Also, in order to create this organic look, more definitions needed to be added. Also, since this diamond shape could be both structural and decorational. Therefore, the Reverse-Engineer of this stadium is very helpful in improving my understanding of nesting membrane and creating structure frames along a curved surface.


Above: Fig 3.2 & 3,3 Allianz Arena


Case Study Part B3.0

Reverse-Engineer

curve curve curve curve

divide surface merge

loft

shift list

series

polyline

flip matrix

explode

flatten tree

graft tree

shift list flatten tree

graft tree

flip matrix

shift list

curve curve divide surface

flip matrix

surface divide domain

isotrim

explode

series series

polyline polyline brep area list item list item list item list item

surface CP

domain

sub list

evaluate surface amplitude

flip

move

polyline polyline line


The shape of Allianz Arena was determined by certain radious and the number of strips outside the surface. If all thse are in a fair porpotion, it would be the ideal outcome ( left enlarged). If the number of strips outside is too small, the ETFE panel would be too big (top enlarged) which challenge the material too much. If the ratio between the raidous of inner ring and outer ring are too big. It will shift into a different direction which fail to provide a closed stadium. Segmenting these factors and then combine it together with different definitions, there are no limits to the possibilities of the shape it could achieve. Understand how complex shapes could be formed based on some simple geometry would help me to design my prototype.

curve

pipe

end points

cull pattern cull pattern

polyline polyline polyline

edge surface

area

evaluate surface

cull pattern

polyline

cull pattern

merge 3

polyline

merge 3

polyline

move

surface CP amplitude

merge 3

interpolate curve

merge 3

loft


technique Part B4.1

Site Analysis The site Refshaleøen is a man-made island which once was a part of the harbor in Copenhagen, Denmark. The Southern side waterway and southwest corner should be remained for water taxi. Also, the northern side waterway also needed to be maintained for boat access. Moreover, not far from its west, across the water is the famous Little Mermaid sculpture.

this site has to fulfill the following criteria7:

Nowadays, Refshaleøen is no longer a major industrial harbor. Many shipyard workers haved been replaced with a "mixture of creative entrepreneurships, small crafts facilities, flea markets, warehouses, and cultural and recreational venues." Therefore, this site has transformed from a commercial area to a public space

3. Recommend to use pragmatic technologies for energy generation and can be scalable and tested.

In order to adapt to this change and meet the aim of carbon neutural in 2025, the design of

1. A sculpture which could be accessed by the public and able to stimulate and challenge the mind of visitors to the site. 2. An utility scale green energy generator. No emission of greenhouse gas and no polution to its surroundings

4. Consider place for electricity to store/ transform without endanger the visitors Based on the criterias and the context provided by LAGI, we start to analyze the site to look for the best power solution and a form that can reflect the site history as well as fit into context.


Energy Because the site is situated in a mixed context area. There are commercial and residential areas within 500m radious. Therefore, it is crucial that the design of the power plant should not affect its surroundings. Based on this principle, we abandoned the idea of using wind power. This is because commercial grade wind turbines are very easy to generate noises if not maintained properly or due to certain weathers8. Moreover, there has not been any pragmic example of non-blade wind turbine in reality yet. As a result, it seems reasonable to use solar power as the power source as it is quiet and fairly developed. According to SolarChoice, we decide to use polycrystalline solar panels for our power generation reference. Although this panel do not have the strongest power output, but it has fairly lower requirements to direction and weather. Since Denmark is neither a dessert nor Equatorial country, a more flexible panel is a more practical choice for the design.

Above: Fig 4.2 Solar Panels

Above: Fig 4.1 Solar Panels


T

P

D

Form

Since we decided to use solar power as power source, and in order to meet with the requirement of building a utility scale power plant, we have to maximize the facing-sun surface in our design. In this case, the surface towards south has to be maximized due to the location of Denmark. Moreover, the form has to be able to connect with the history of the site9. By learning the history of the site we learned that the site was once a busy harbor and now all the glory were buried it is still at the stage of repositioning itself. This Process Reminds me of Wave. It turns from just some wrinkles on the sea into a wall of water and then smashes down on the beach into wrinkles again and then start over the process. Therefore we think Circulation

the shape of the wave on the beach is a good symbol to represent the condition of Refshaleøen and the wavy form is ideal for maximize the surface. Another inspiration of the form was came from site analysis, the predicted circulation indicates the ideal path visitors would like to go. According to the analysis, Visitors would prefer the southern side more than the northern side due to the views and water taxi terminal. As a result, the plan of the design has to adapt to the circulation so that more accessible entrance could be provided to the visitors. Also during busy times, these curved entrances could help to seperate the flow and provide more impact on design outcomes.


Technique

Part B4.2

Development

First I created some referencing curves in Rhino based on the space of the site and previous design intension to set a tone for later work.

Curves---Offset+Move---Sweep Then manually adjust some surface till met with the ideal outcome.

Curves---Shift+Move---Surface--Pipe(Boundary)---Flatten Then by setting boundaries and using shit and move I gained a frame work or lines. Then with pipe and some changes, I got a triangular frame work along the surface.


technique Part B5.1

Prototype


Prototype We encountered many difficulties while making the model. At first, we thought the steel strings are stong enough to reach to the other end. However, in reality it failed as the span is too big. Then we realized that we need to add some columns in the middle to support it. Then is the problem of framing. In reality, this kind of steel frame is welded in construction, but while we are making the prototype. We did not have machines to weld it. Therefore, the steel strings has to overlap on each other which is impossible to hold its shape. As a result, we failed to achieve the actual triangular frame that we designed in the model as the nodes do not match together. However, we did managed to achieve the overall form after columns installed and tunnel(indicated by the black plasticine). We shifted the wall of the tunnel higher so that it will help to support the roof frame. Learned from this experience, we believe that it would be better if we try to use digital fabrication such as 3D printing for the roof frame next time. And both columns and tunnels will be added and altered for better design.


technique Part B5.2

Prototypes After the model was finished in Rhino, through surface area tool, the total roof surface is 23,409.8m2. 1/3 of the roof is in north side which is not suitable for solar panels. Also, 1/4 of the remaining area are roof openings for natural sunlight. Then minus the 10% of the surface for connections and extreme angle. This left me with an area of 10,534m2. Using the Solar Panel Calculator found online10, the solar panels could generate around 2MW per year in Denmark. This could provide 800 households a year.

Therefore, This design can provide enough surface for solar panels to generate power at a ultility scale. However, as mentioned before, during the construction of prototype, I found that some spans are too far, without any support, it would be hard to construct. Therefore columns are needed in order to support the roof. Nevertheless, in order to save energy, the top areas that lean toward north will have random openings to allow natural sunlight pass through during the day


I think the most innovated part of this design is the roof structure. As it intergrated many GH techniques and it is a very good solution to the installation problem of the solar panels. The tree columns are also generated with GH. These branches are "self generation" according to the algorithmn in GH. the branches are able to reach to the nodes of the roof frame and stop at its height. Also, since They all follow the same algorithmn, which means the height and the point which it should be extended have to refer to the frame directly in GH. I spend very long time working on it and finally solved it.

Another reasone why my design is more preferable is because it is practical in energy generation, which in stimulation, the power generated from this design could easily support hundreds of households. It is very pragmatic in terms of technology. However, since these triangular shapes are not regular and identical. And we do fail to achieve any information on whether solar panels could be digital fabricated or not. However, these can still be solved by installing the pannels on top of the frame rather than in the frame. So it should not be a problem.


technique Part B5.3

Prototypes The extended tentacles on top of the nodes of the frame is the frame of the membrane on the roof. These tentacles could provide fixed points for the membrane to sit on and its a good way to segementing the membrane as well. From the reverse engineering process of Green Void, I found that the use of more specific references could help to create more accurate forms. Although in one hand it might limite the possibilities of computation design. However, the designer will have more control on the form of the shape and details rather than expecting computers to finish all the work.

The membrane I create here has not yet determined the material yet. However, it would be a lightweight material that is compatible with solar panels.

The EFTE panels explored in the Allianz Arena is a good choice. It can be overlayed on solar panels without affecting its rate much8. However, it has never being tested in such big scale. However, use membrane is good option at the moment as it is cheaper and much lighter than traditional transparent materials such as glass.


g

The idea of this design is to create a public space. Therefore there should places where people can rest. In order to increase the possibilities of the inside, I had added plaza steps around the tree columns. Not only it can emphasis the appearance of the growing tree, but is also a good way to hide the foundation of the columns. Allow its foundations to extend above ground can avoid too much digging in foundations. Like the tree columns, these steps are generated in GH as well. By defining a certain offset distance and height of each

step. Using shift and radiant to alter the shape. We can generate these organic steps using grasshopper directly. In conclusion, although intergrating a solar plant into a public space is a great challange. Especially in this form. However, the idea of this design competition is to envision a land of art that can generates utility scale power. Therefore, an innovative form and scale is required. Thanks to the computation design techniques we learned past weeks, we are able to achieve this design in a fast and accurate way.


technique Part B6.1

Proposals

The design is to create a public art that can generate ultility sclae power which looks like a futuristic public park. This design can generate electricity that can support at least 800 household a year. Also, the large interior space could work as a public gathering place and land of art with its unique form that response to the site circulation as well as the history of the site.


Part b Summary Objectives & outcomes Before the design, we did a great number of works in determining power sources. Based on the informations we gather, we believe that solar power is the most pragmatic and suitable power source on site. During this process, we learned the limitation of other powers as well as solar. We discovered that solar power is not yet well developed which its power efficiency is not very high and its panels have shorter lifespan compare to other power generators. But because the size of our site, it is still possible to design a good solar plant as the number of solar panels increased, the disadvantage of shorter lifespan is not that important. Based on this idea of creating large surfaces, we start to analyze the site and study the history of the site. We have to come up with a form that response to the site but have innovative form compare to traditional solar plants (this is because tutors mentioned not to use repetition of seperate generators). This is a challenge for us as all commercial solar plants are repetition of solar panels. It is impossible to create a ultility scale solar plant without repeating the panels. As a result, we decided to hide the panels from visitors, since it would not be efficient to go underneath (block the sun), we can only thinking of design a surface that is above the visitors.

And thats how this cra Pavilion come to alive with different Grasshop plug-ins' definitions. Tr how algorithmn works experimented with en I was able to build som geometrys or structure Youtube and Forum.

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project or the computer "designed" this project since there is no way we can know why designer choose this form. As a result, we design something based that responses to our analysis. We will use comtational design methods in all process but all of the algorithmns are strictly defined so we have better control in our design. I used GH in nearly all aspect of the design, such as the roof frame, roof membrane, tree collumn, plaza steps, roof patterning and even the grass. I gained more experiences during these process and fascinated by the possibilities it could achieve. Also, through the use of Lumion, I can play around with the light and see what is the effect of the roof during the day. These three dimensional tools helps me to improve my understanding of the model. However, it is not all perfect about computation designs. During the physical modeling process of the prototype, we discovered that the initial design needed to be improved due to structural problems. This is often occured in computation designs as it is very hard to test the outcome. From the Gridshell precedent, I learned that there are some tools we can use to estimate the response of the material. Even so, it is only appliable for simple structural problems.


Part C


Part C

Design Highlight “A design of public space for future urban development” “An Eye Catching and Unique form” “Large open space for multiple events” “Energy effecient design based on site analysis ” “Actual commercialized technology for energy generation” “Intergrated Ultility Scale Solar Power according to the design brief” “A new form of power plant” “Precedented structure and use of material”


design The Wave Pavilion, is a large scaled steel frame structure. 155m at its widest and spans 262m covering almost the entire length of the Copenhagen LAGI site. The design was molded by a combination of factors, the site, nature, design requirement and the renewable energy source. The site Refshaleøen is a man made island of an industrial harbor in Copenhagen. The harbor's role for commercial transportation is becoming less and less important due to urban development. Threrefore, our design was aimed to redefine the site. A design that will meet the need of future Copenhagen as well as the current design brief. Using the information from the research and skills developed in Part A and Part B, we tested different forms using digital tools, and through a series of rationalization, we decided our basic form and source of energy. Based on these, we will test the materiality of the design through fabrication and come up with a more perfected design.


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Part C 1.1 Design Development Structure As mentioned in Part B5.2, the roof was supported by a series of triangular frame generated from grasshopper. These triangular frames were defined by the isocurves along the roof. As a result, at some edges, such as entrances, where curves intercept with each other, the triangular frames became less regular. According to the feedbacks from the presentation, these iregular triangles will be problematic in fabrication. As they are not just iregular in size but also iregular in curves. For example, the highlighted part looks very messy which has more than 3 triangular in 2 square metter. This is due to the nature of the algorithmn. And we tested a few materials (Refer to Part 5.1, such as small steel bar, strings, paper etc.). But the outcomes are not good. In order to change it, we had to come up a new way of paneling which might involve a new algorithmn.

Development In order to solve this problem. We tested a few materials and found that the best way to solve this problem is to reduce the iregularity of the frames. In order to do so, we come up with a new system. We decide to limite the curvature of each beam. Therefore we redefine the allocation of the beams. We create a grid that is strictly located along the roof under same X and Y axis. In each beam, the only varieble is the Z value which will change according to the up and downs of the roof. By doing so, not only it simplified the frame of the roof but also greatly reduced erros along the edges. Moreover, it allows us to use laser cutter for the fabrication of these beams at a certain scale. This will greatly reduce the time needed for the model. We will try to combine the skills we developed and learned in Part A and Part B to help us refine the model.


Y X


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Part C 1.2 Design Development openings Besides the structure problem, some details of the design needs to be rationalized as well. In Part B, the openings of the roof were randomly spread out the entire surface. From the advice of the tutors, it would be more energy efficient if we change the openings according to the solar radiant analysis (on the right). Where we could place the openings at the less efficient areas so that the more solar rich area could be paneled with solar panels.

Polycrystalline Solar Panels

This could help us to increase the efficiency of the solar system installed on the roof. However, as you can see, the openings only covers 1/5 of the entire roof. Considering the size of the design, this will not be enough to illuminate the entire building. In order to maximize the use of natural lights, and reduce the use of lights during the day, we used two different panels - Polycrystalline Solar Panels - GreenSun Energy tinted glass solar panels The first one is a fully developed product that has being used for years, as mentioned in Part B4.1. The second one is the panel used in Part A1.2. It is a new technology which is cheaper and more efficient than the previous one. However, its size is limited due to its mechanism. Moreover, it is more complicated in installation but has the quality to transfer light.

GreenSun Energy tinted glass solar panels


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Part C 1.3 Design Development

openings On the right is the prospective view of the inside. The use of the glass-like solar panels will allow more sunlight shine through the roof during the day. Also, these panels will be installed at the yellow and orange area according to the solar radiant map(refer to Part C1.2). This is because these panels are more efficient but unable to cover the entire surface. On the contrary, traditonal Polycrystalline Solar Panels could be made into large scales, which can cover the whole area. Putting them in more solar rich area can generate more energy due to its size. So placing the glass solar panels at the less efficient area can help to increase the number of power generated due to higher efficiency. Also these areas also have enough direct sunlight during the day to illuminate the interior which is a very good choice. However, we do not hope the interior would be filled with colorful sunbeams, this is not suitable for a public space. So although the solar panel itself is color tinted glass, but the normal reinforced glass that it installed on is not all colored.


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Part C 1.4 Design Development

Landmark The idea of this design is mke it a land of art. To adapt to the site and its surroundings. Like many industrial buildings, the whole metal like roof will help this building blend into the surroundings. Also, with the redevelopment of this area. The Wave Pavalion will create many indoor spaces for local restaurants, stores, culture exhibition and many other possibilities. Moreover, it can redefine the function of power plant. Not only the users could use the energy generated from this building directly, but also could be a part of it. We intentionally not define the use of these spaces right now because the direction of this site has not yet being determined. Leave enough space creates more potentials and flexibility for the future, and the future is also what our design aimed for.


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Part C 1.5 Design Development

Energy According to our design and calculation, the size that can be used to install solar panels is around 1/3 of the entire roof. Since the glass solar panels are more efficient but covers less surface, we assume that the energy generation of two panels are the same. Using the solar calculator and the average solar power efficiency on site. We estimated the energy generation could is over 1 million kwh per year. This is the output of a small ultility scale solar plant. As a result, we believe even with the technology of today, our design can provide enough energy for the city grid at a ultility scale.

Also, based on the research, the number of illumination needed is around 100 LED lights. The generated energy is more than enough to power the LED tube lights operating at 8 hours per day, 7 days a week, which 100 lights would use approximately 6426kWh. The rest of the power could be directed back to the grid and support over 2000 households according to the data of energy consumption of Copenhagen. Although this is only a very rough estimation of energy, but at least it shows prospective outcome with available technology. So energy wise, our design should be able to fulfill the need of a ultility scale power plant.


1/3

= 11,705 sqm = 11,705 sqm Solar Panels = 1,076,166 kWh per year Minus

x100 = 6426 KWh needed to illuminate the interior during the night

= 1069740 kWh excess = Over 2000 households


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Part C 2.1 tectonic elements


Waffel Structure In order to fabricate the model, we also changed the connection mechanism of the beams. We decide to adapt a waffel strucuture into the x and y axis beams. From our test prototype, it is a detail model at a scale of 1:20, each of our little rectangular frame can be divided into this small rectangle. Although from an overall view, the whole roof is a crved surface, but every rectangle frame thats ought to install solar panels will be specifically altered into a same level. Which means the whole roof frame will no longer be a long curved line but a series of small straight lines. Inside the frame, will be installed with solar panels, each beam will be reinforced using bolts. On top of the beam, a layer of EFTE board will be installed for insulation. Using this light EFTE, will reduce the weight of the structure compare to glass. The beams will be 400x600mm hollow beams.

However, because our form is not very regular and is a two curve surface, which cannot use grasshopper to generate these rectangles. The system cannot identify them. As a result, I had to manually remake these rectangles I did not forseen this problem when designing the form. Which cause me great deal of time trying to waffle these beams. Even when these alterations only require basic Rhino command such as "Editpointon, Move, Trim, Offset, Boolean", but it is a time consuming work asmost parts are different from each other, therefore different values are needed. With all these values, it is very hard to define all of them and input them into the Grasshopper for a new algorithmn. Also, it requires detail measuring and modification along each intercepting point. So I had to do it manually.


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Part C 3.1 Final Model

Finally, we managed to alter all the parts, however, when submitted into the fablab, the material that we required is out of stock. We were plan to use MDF or Perspex, but in the end, we have to use paper with a different thickness. Therefore, the edges that were suppose to fit failed to combine. We can only use glue to stick them.


We divide the model into four parts due to its scale. All parts were carefully labled and installed accordingly. According to our estimation, the frame should be able to self support if using the right material. Therefore, Although we used a much softer and thinner material, the frame was able to self support most of its parts. Which is a great success for us.


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Part C 3.2 Final Model

Scale Although the scale of the model is 1:200, but the size of the model is not small. The entire model is around 1.3m long and 1.1m wide. Some of the columns inside is not actually supporting the roof. This is because when we redesign it, we were trying to make it self-supporting. This is because the more self support it can be, the less structural difficulty it will get. Although our frame did not have the right dimension and the right material. But the final outcome proves that our design is actually pretty strong. When scale it up to 200 times more. With the help of the columns. We believe this "crazy" pavilion might be practical to built. However, we did face a lot of difficulties when building it, especially when the material is not exactly what we designed. We have to build a long plasticine base (to stimulate concrete) to support these beams. It did work well in terms of building the model, but in the end, the palsticine affects the whole appearance of the model as it is very hard to smoothen its surface.


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Part C 3.3 Final Model


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Part C 4 The wave pavilion Description The Wave Pavilion is a new form of solar plant which aimed to redefine the impression of power plants. It is a large scaled steel frame structure. 155m at its widest and spans 262m covering almost the entire length of the Copenhagen LAGI site. The design was molded by a combination of factors, the site, nature, and the renewable energy source.

Site The LAGI site has a panoramic view of the sea and the opposite shore where the famous tourist attraction, The Little Mermaid sculpture locates. The site itself is a flat piece of land located next to an industrial area and other low rise buildings, creating a general overall openness to the site. Incorporating and inspired by the themes of the ocean and openness, the Wave Pavilion adopted an organic crested shape that resembles the undulating ocean waves surrounding the site. Also it is a symbolic form for the changing history of the harbor. Due to the change of economical environments, transportation is no longer the key element for the harbor. Due to the need of change, the harbor is eagerly looking for its new role for future challenges. Our design aimed to redefine the function of the harbor, to make it into a new and trendy place for public gathering.

As a result, when designing this project, we were looking for innovative ideas that might help to redefine this area. A building that can help to regain the glory of this site. In order to do so, the idea was to create a public space that can hold more permannent buildings. Therefore it has to be a large and sheltered place.

Design The scale of this design was dictated by the choice of using solar power as the renewable energy source. In choosing solar energy, maximizing efficiency is of top priority. In helping achieving this criteria, the design has a rather flat roof to allow for maximum exposure to sunlight. Based on the research we did on solar power, and the information of the site. If we need to build a ultility scale solar plant, and assuming all the panels are on the ground. that at least half of the surface needs to be covered with solar panels in order to generate a ultility scale energy. But too much space occupied will reduce the potential of this site. Therefore, as mentioned before, our design was generated from the form of wave. The shape sprawls across the site which directs visitors to the ocean front towards the view and the mermaid sculpture. It also directs circulation to the water taxi terminal at the South of the LAGI site.

This form creates m compare to the fla an open ground pl

The Wave Pavilion a piece of ‘Land A space to allow for congregation and due to its large ope easily transformed local restrauants, fi cultural exhibition. future cultural or co for the community.

Technology in D

The Wave Pavilion two types of solar p polycrystalline sola GreenSun Energy t panel.

The polycrystalline silicon semiconduc form, making it che monocrystalline co it is one of the mor panels available. I on site, as it comes which can be easi pavilion’s framing s

The solar glass pan Energy, is a new pr to reduce the use o composition, henc cost.

The glass coated w nanoparticlesand d light to the outer ed


more surface at site while leave lan.

aims to become Art’, a public any visitors to socialize. Also en area, it could d into a space for fisher market or . It can be the ommercial center .

Design

features panels, the ar panel and the tinted glass plate

e solar panels uses ctors in a wafer eaper than its ounterpart, and re efficient solar It is easy to install s in squares, ily slotted into the system.

nels by GreenSun roduct developed of silicon in its ce decreasing

with dyes to diffuse dges of the plate.

The silicons at the edges will absorb the energy and turn it into electricity. This method makes the solar glass a much more efficient product as it can absorb light from different colour spectrums due to its different dyes. Polycrystalline solar panels are ideal choice for the LAGI site as it performs the best under Refshaleøen’s average weather. While the solar glass panels can increase both energy conversion efficiency and aesthetic value. Casting colored light into the interior not only improves the aesthetic of the interior but also allows more sunlight during the day. Moreover, the site itself does not have any high rise buildings around it, making it an ideal site for harvesting solar energy. The energy collected from the solar panels is directed towards the battery room via wires. The pavilion is lit on the interior with LEDs and sunlight that penetrates through the ETFE and solar glass panels during the day. ETFE was chosen as the pavilion façade, because it do not affect solar panels and it is very light in weight. LED tube lights were chosen, as it suits commercial or large scaled structures. It is a low maintenance lighting option, saving cost on cleaning and changing in the long run. LED has an efficacy of 60-140Lm/W, and a lifespan of approximately 40,000 hours, which is 2.6 times longer than a compact fluorescent (CFLs), and 13.3 times more than an incandescent or halogen bulbs.

Energy Generation The approximate surface area of the roof of the design is 23409.8 sqm, of which half are transparent ETFE panels or angled North. Leaving 11704.9 sqm to be fitted with solar panels. If the entire available surface were to be fitted with approximately 1000x1000mm polycrystalline panels with an efficiency of 14%, in Denmark’s average insolation and air quality condition. The approximate amount of energy generated would be 1076166 kWh. The generated energy is more than enough to power the LED tube lights operating at 8 hours per day, 7 days a week. Which 100 lights would use approximately 6426kWh a year. The additional excess power can be directed to the grid to support over 2000 househoulds.

Environmental Impact The Wave Pavilion was designed to reduce visual impact, featuring an organic wave shape, which aims to integrate easily with the surroundings. It will also provide an interesting addition to the shoreline of the site. The pavilion harvest solar energy at a ultility scale. This gives the city a source of renewable energy. Also the ultility scale of the design means it can create a substantial amount of green energy for the city which will help Copenhagen to achieve its goal on Carbon neutral.


Summary Objectives & outcomes During Part C, I was confused by the requirements. This is because we were more focused on rationalized energy generation using practical technology during Part A and Part B. As a result, we though the prototype was mainly focus on the "Form" of the design rather than the generation of energy. Maybe this is because we choose solar as our energy source and solar panels are too "high-tech" for us to play around. Therefore we never though of design a new device for solar powers. And without proper equipments, it is always very hard to evaluate how the new device perform. Anyway, luckily we went through the prototype stage and managed to get our model into fabrication. We finalized the form of the design very early, but the detail cannot be determined. We tested a few frames for the roof in Rhino, but only one seemed possible for Fablab to print it. So we had no choice but to change the frame of the roof into this rectangular shape. And because this rectangular shape was created under a different algorithmn in Grasshopper, it cannot be waffeled. So, at this stage, the problem seemed unsolvable. Maybe this is the disadvantage of using computational tools in design. You never know the limitation of the tool until you reach it. The algorithmn used for generating this design conflicts with the waffle command. The computer cannnot generate the waffles automatically.

Even though you know command is just a com simple commands suc unroll etc. But you just with an "universal" com you finish the job.

Maybe this is the pote parametric design, wh in details. So I have to using Rhino rather than more control in details

Finally when I finished, the Fablab, the materi out of stock. We actua pretty early, but some luck. I started wonderi to a place next to a fa good way to solve this

However, we still have pass this thing as new come in less than a m change the material fr to paper.

Luckily, because the u manually altered, it wa precise. Therefore exc the waffles did not fit ( due to the thickness o different from our desig able to be assembled

Through these series o outcome looks fairly o


w the waffle mbination of series ch as trim, offset, cannot come up mmand that will help

ential risk of hich is lack of controls o remake the model n GH. Cuz it gives you s.

, and submitted to ial we required was ally submit the job etimse is just pure ing, maybe move abrication store is a s kind of thing.

e to find a way to get materials will not month. So we have to rom wood or perspex

unroll job was as actually pretty cepet the edges of (refer to Part C3.1) of the new material is gn, the beams were d.

of problems, the okay, is not easy to

say that I had learned a lot compare to Part A and Part B as most of the time were used on solving these technical problems. This really reduced my enthusiastic on parametric design(I was a huge fan of it in Part A and B). But I guess this might be a good thing as in most cases, parametric design is used for the paneling or the skin of a building rather than the structures. Maybe this is because it is not easy to control all aspects of the design when using tools like Grasshopper. And this time with a blind enthusiastic, I try to solve the structural problems using Grasshopper, limited by the skill and limited by the tool, I can't consider this practice as a success. As a result, I started to rethink the problem, I had a very good run with the form, with the shape, but failed with the structure. Maybe it is because when trying organic forms, it would be better not to adapt structural parts using parametric tools as the iregularity of the form will cause problems. This is because computer do not know how to rationalize the design but to follow strict rules. When using organic forms, the details at some complex edges still need people to manually alter. In conclusion, this whole project taught me to be more cautious with parametric design and help me realize that architecture is not just about creating crazy geometries.


The end


Reference List Part A: Ferry, Robert & Elizabeth Monoian, ‘A Field Guide to Renewable Energy Technologies’’, Land Art Generator Initiative, Copenhagen, 2014. pp 1 - 71, abstracted from University of Melbourne ABPL30048 Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25 Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10, abstracted from University of Melbourne ABPL30048 1-5: Kosbau, Thomas, 2012, LAGI Competition 2012: Fresh Clouds, extracted from http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/cloud120/# on 23-03-2014 6-8: Artist: Hall, Sarah, The Science of Light, extracted from http://www.sarahhallstudio.com/solar-photovoltaic on 21-03-2014 9-11: The Plan, ‘JAKOB + MACFARLANE: THE TURBULENCES FRAC CENTRE’, extracted from http://www.theplan.it/J/index. php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5661%3Athe-turbulences-frac-centre&catid=1027%3Aarchitettura-internazionale018&lang=en on 19-03-2014 JAKOB + MACFARLANE, Geoges, extracted from http://www.jakobmacfarlane.com/en/project/georges/ on 19-03-2014 12-13: Matsys, 2010, ZERO/FOLD SCREEN, extracted from http://matsysdesign.com/category/projects/zerofold-screen/ on 21-03-204 14-15, 17: Matsys, 2004, HONEYCOMB MORPHOLOGIES, extracted from http://matsysdesign.com/category/projects/honeycombmorphologies/ on 21-03-204 16: Wilson, Robert A. and Frank C. Keil, eds (1999).”Definition of ‘Algorithm’”in The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences, ‘ (London: MIT Press), abstracted from University of Melbourne ABPL30048. Figure 1.1 extracted from http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/cloud120/#, on 23-03-2014 Figure 1.2-1.3 extracted from from http://www.sarahhallstudio.com/solar-photovoltaic on 21-03-2014 Figure 2.1 credits to Tibo, extracted from http://www.theplan.it/J/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5661%3At he-turbulences-frac-centre&catid=1027%3Aarchitettura-internazionale-018&lang=en on 19-03-2014 Figure 2.2 credits to N. Borel, extracted from http://www.jakobmacfarlane.com/en/project/frac-centre/ on 19-03-2014 Figure 2.3-2.5 credits to N. Borel, extracted from http://www.jakobmacfarlane.com/en/project/georges/ on 19-03-2014 Figure 3.1-3.2 extracted from http://matsysdesign.com/category/projects/zerofold-screen/ on 21-03-204 Figure 3.3-3.4 extracted from http://matsysdesign.com/category/projects/honeycomb-morphologies/ on 21-03-204


Reference List Part B:

Ferry, Robert & Elizabeth Monoian, ‘A Field Guide to Renewable Energy Technologies’’, Land Art Generator Initiative, Copenhagen, 2014. pp 1 - 71, abstracted from University of Melbourne ABPL30048 Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25 Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10, abstracted from University of Melbourne ABPL30048 Land Art Generator Initiative, Copenhagen, 2014, abstracted from University of Melbourne ABPL30048 1,7,9: Land Art Generator Initiative, Copenhagen, 2014, abstracted from University of Melbourne ABPL30048 2: LAVA, Green Void, extracted from http://www.l-a-v-a.net/projects/green-void/ 3-4: The Gridshell, extracted from http://matsysdesign.com/2012/04/13/sg2012-gridshell/ 5-6: Herzog & de Meuron, Allianz Arena, extracted from http://www.herzogdemeuron.com/index/projects/complete-works/201225/205-allianz-arena.html 8: Adam Vaughan, extracted from http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2013/dec/16/turbine-noise-windfarm 10: Solar Power Caulculator, http://www.matthewb.id.au/solar/solar-panel-calculator.html Figure 1.1-3 extracted from http://www.l-a-v-a.net/projects/green-void/ Figure 1.4-1.6 extracted from from http://matsysdesign.com/2012/04/13/sg2012-gridshell/ Figure 3.1-3, 4.1-2 extracted from WIkipedia

Part C: Copenhagen Energy Usage Data extracted from http://subsite.kk.dk/sitecore/content/Subsites/CityOfCopenhagen/ SubsiteFrontpage/LivingInCopenhagen/ClimateAndEnvironment/CopenhagensGreenAccounts/EnergyAndCO2/Consumption. aspx Solar Panel Composition Reference extracted from http://solarlove.org/panasonic-hit-solar-cell-sets-world-efficiency-record/ previous solar energy/LED stuff LED Watt Conversion Table & Light Replacement Guide 2014, Stateline eco Electric, viewed 27 April 2014, < http://www. statelineeco.com/resources-eco-education/lighting-basics/led-watt-conversion-table-light-types-guide.html> Thin Film vs. Mono/Polycrystalline Panels 2012, Energy Matters, viewed 20 April 2014, <http://www.energymatters.com.au/ renewable-energy/solar-power/thin-film-monocrystalline.php> Savings Calculator 2014, Spectrum Lighting, viewed 1 May 2014, <http://spectrumlighting.com.au/savings_calculator.php> Solar Power Calculator 2014, MatthewB, viewed 1 May 2014, <http://www.matthewb.id.au/media/Solar_Power_Calculator. html> Energy Efficient Lighting 2012, Earth Easy, viewed April 30 2014, < http://eartheasy.com/live_energyeff_lighting.htm>


Chen hao 397001 design1