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PHI 220 David Hume and the virtue of benevolence

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Eactivity: Go to the American Philanthropic Website to read the article titled “David Hume and the virtue of benevolence”, dated December 9, 2011, located at http://www.philanthropydaily.com/?p=7752. (Note: Some believe that the “contextual character” of Hume’s approach to virtue has given rise to the accusation that he is the originator of modern relativism, and the view that what is “good” depends entirely on context and opinion.) Be prepared to discuss. Ethics Discussion Question: Debate It; Take a position for or against Harris’ proposal for a “Survival Lottery.” Provide reasons and examples to support your view. From the e-Activity, discuss your level of agreement or disagreement with the author’s view that benevolence and justice make a pair; that is, when benevolence cannot provide for social utility, cold justice ensures that social utility is served. Provide reasons and examples to support your view.


********************************************** PHI 220 Discussion A Critique of the Kantianism

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A Critique of the Kantianism" Please respond to the following: · Discuss your level of agreement or disagreement with Kant’s “categorical Imperative” and respond to this question: Can people determine in every circumstance what “the right thing to do” would be? Provide reasons and examples to support your view.

********************************************** PHI 220 Discussion Happiness and the Virtues

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"Happiness and the Virtues" Please respond to the following: eActivity: View the video titled “Ethical Theory: Aristotle's Virtue Ethics, Solitary Confinement, and Supererogatory Actions” on YouTube video, (5 min 11 s), located at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AJ83U1Nx_dI. From the e-Activity and Aristotle’s essay, analyze Aristotle’s claim that reason determines right action. Discuss how this process occurs and how it is related to the general principle that virtuous action is a “mean” between extremes. Then, discuss the prisoner’s views about isolation. Discuss your agreement or disagreement with Aristotle’s view of happiness. Provide reasons and examples to support your view. Debate It: Take a position for or against Augustine's claim: “Virtue gives perfection to the soul; the soul obtains virtue by following God; following God is the happy live.” Provide reasons and examples to support your view.

********************************************** PHI 220 Discussion Jealousy, Envy, and Grudge

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Jealousy, Envy, and Grudge" Please respond to the following: eActivity: Read Immanuel Kant’s views titled “Virtue and Vice”, located at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant-moral/#VirVic.

From the e-Activity and Kant’s essay, debate whether it is possible to envy others without begrudging their happiness. Describe how Kant views this issue. Provide reasons and examples to support your view. Kant’s claim: “Until one achieves a permanent change in the will's orientation . . . a revolution in which moral righteousness is the nonnegotiable condition of any of one's pursuits, all of one's actions that are in accordance with duty are nevertheless morally worthless.”

********************************************** PHI 220 Discussion Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God

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Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" Please respond to the following:


Compare Jonathan Edwards’ presentation, which claims that divine judgment will be brought down on a person who yields to vice, to Plutarch’s argument that there “is no pleasure in vice”. Discuss the issue, and provide examples of possible alternative incentives to avoid vice. Explain how, in your view, a belief in “original sin” might influence a person’s approach to moral education. Provide reasons and examples to support your view.

********************************************** PHI 220 Discussion Social Action and Fairness

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Debate It. Take a position for or against Singer’s claim that each person has a serious moral obligation to do something about world hunger. Provide reasons and examples to support your view. Evaluate Fullinwider’s claim that a company’s record of discrimination will keep reproducing itself in spite of its good intentions not to discriminate. Provide reasons and examples to support your view.


********************************************** PHI 220 Discussion The Holocaust and Moral Philosophy

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"The Holocaust and Moral Philosophy" Please respond to the following: ¡ Debate It: Take a position for or against this statement: The moral philosophy of the Holocaust suggests that morals are relative, not absolute. Provide reasons and examples to support your view.

********************************************** PHI 220 Discussion The Judeo-Christian Tradition


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"The Judeo-Christian Tradition and John Stuart Mill, "Utilitarianism" Please respond to the following: •Analyze the morality of behavior described in Psalms and in Luke "The Sermon on the Plain." Discuss at least three moral ideals with which you agree or disagree. Provide reasons and examples to support your view. •Discuss your level of agreement of disagreement with Mill's "Utilitarianism." Provide reasons and examples to support your view.

********************************************** PHI 220 Discussion Virtues and Vices

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"Virtues and Vices" Please respond to the following:


•Analyze and comment on Epictetus’ statement as it relates to behaving with virtue: “Some things are up to us and some are not up to us.” •Analyze the claim by Foot that “virtue belongs to the will.” Explain your understanding of the relationship between virtue and the will. Is virtue a relevant influence to our lives today? Provide reasons and examples to support your view.

********************************************** PHI 220 Midterm Exam

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Course Ethics

Question 1 .0 out of 2 points

In “From Cruelty to Goodness,” Hallie argues that the opposite of cruelty is __________.


. Question 2 .2 out of 2 points

Josiah Royce argues that ________ has fundamental moral significance in our relationship to our neighbor.

. Question 3 .2 out of 2 points

According to Hallie, the subtlest kind of cruelty is ________ cruelty. . Question 4 .2 out of 2 points

Philip Hallie’s approach to ethics emphasizes __________.

. Question 5 .0 out of 2 points

For Royce, we must come to realize that __________.

. Question 6 .2 out of 2 points

Which of the following does Hallie accuse Bennett of wrongly disregarding in his ranking of immoral actions?


. Question 7 .0 out of 2 points

In his “The Evil that Men Think – and Do,” Hallie argues that many contemporary analyzers of evil are misguided because they __________.

. Question 8 .2 out of 2 points

In “From Cruelty to Goodness,” Hallie states that ethics involves __________

. Question 9 .2 out of 2 points

Which of the following is a positive ethical rule? . Question 10 .0 out of 2 points

Fluehr-Leben was influenced by ________ in her rejection of relativism.

. Question 11 .2 out of 2 points


The ________ Thesis is the claim that morality derives its legitimacy from individual cultural acceptance.

. Question 12 .2 out of 2 points

Martin Luther King, Jr., in his “I Have a Dream� speech, appeals to ________ rights.

. Question 13 .2 out of 2 points

Which one of the following is not a right present in the UN Declaration of Human Rights?

. Question 14 .2 out of 2 points

Which one of the following does Herodotus refer to in support of relativism? . Question 15 .0 out of 2 points

Ethical pluralism is the view that __________. . Question 16 .0 out of 2 points


Fluehr-Leben argues that anthropologists __________. . Question 17 .0 out of 2 points

Heroditus believed that morality is based on __________. . Question 18 .2 out of 2 points

The person who believes in ethical relativism believes that there are __________.

. Question 19 .2 out of 2 points

Which of the following claims does Pojman not argue for? . Question 20 .0 out of 2 points

We should be virtuous because ________, argues Colin McGinn. . Question 21 .0 out of 2 points

James Rachels argues that a good response to the ethical egoist is to say that __________.

. Question 22 .2 out of 2 points


David Hume ________ the belief that those who appear benevolent, friendly, or faithful are really just doing so under false pretense in the pursuit of some private interest.

. Question 23 .0 out of 2 points

David Hume thinks that ________ refutes egoism.

. Question 24 .0 out of 2 points

Which of the following philosophers believes that altruistic ethics is responsible for immorality, injustice, and conflict?

. Question 25 .0 out of 2 points

James Rachels believes that there ________ to accept psychological egoism.

. Question 26 .2 out of 2 points


If a person has the virtue of ________, then she has the capacity to make up her own mind based on the relevant evidence and facts, and is not swayed by the pressure to conform.

. Question 27 .0 out of 2 points

The honest person ________ tells other people what she thinks about them.

. Question 28 .2 out of 2 points

The absolute altruist holds that __________.

. Question 29 .2 out of 2 points

The story of the Ring of Gyges is employed by Glaucon to illustrate the claim that __________.

. Question 30 .2 out of 2 points

Which of the following is not a confusion that helps remove the plausibility of psychological egoism?


. Question 31 .0 out of 2 points

The primary ethical focus of the Sermon on the Mount is ________.

. Question 32 .2 out of 2 points

What makes right acts right, according to the Divine Command Theory?

. Question 33 .0 out of 2 points

For Mill, when calculating the utility of any particular action, we must include the happiness it will produce for __________. .

. Question 34 .2 out of 2 points

Any moral theory that does not absolutely prohibit ________ is thereby to be rejected, according to Fred Sommers.

. Question 35 .2 out of 2 points


According to Hume, morality originates from __________.

. Question 36 .0 out of 2 points

According to Richard Taylor, the task of moral philosophy is to __________.

. Question 37 .2 out of 2 points

The Sermon on the Mount tells us that we should imitate ________.

. Question 38 .0 out of 2 points

According to Mill, the pleasures of the intellect have ________ the pleasures of the senses.

. Question 39 .0 out of 2 points

Which moral theory holds that the consequences of an action determine the moral worth of that action?

. Question 40 .2 out of 2 points


According to John Stuart Mill, ________ is the fundamental concern of ethics.

********************************************** PHI 220 Week 4 Assignment 1 Analysis Of A Philosopher’s Views

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Read “Egoism and Moral Skepticism” by James Rachels, located in Chapter 3: Morality and Self Interest. Discuss his views and provide a valid and logical analysis and response.

Write a two to three (2-3) page paper in which you: Analyze James Rachel’s arguments regarding psychological egoism and ethical egoism. Provide at least two (2) examples that support the idea of moral skepticism.


Discuss whether or not morality is possible in light of egoism, providing a rationale and examples to support your position. Include at least three (3) credible, academic references. (Do not use such open sources as Wikipedia, About, Ask.)

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements: Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA. Check with your professor for any additional instructions. Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are: Explain the views of the main philosophers and the primary ethical concepts associated with each of the major ethical theories presented in the course. Recognize basic ethical theories, such as Divine Command Theory, Relativism, Utilitarianism, Kantianism, Social Contract Theory, Egoism, and Virtue Ethics. Demonstrate an understanding of how to examine questions and issues from diverse ethical perspectives and how these different ethical perspectives can be applied to evaluate contemporary ethical dilemmas.


Demonstrate recognition of the role and function of moral arguments addressing traditional and contemporary moral issues. Present complex ethical ideas, theories, and perspectives fairly, objectively, and critically. Use technology and information resources to research issues in ethics. Write clearly and concisely about ethics using proper writing mechanics.

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PHI 220 Competitive Success--snaptutorial.com  

Eactivity: Go to the American Philanthropic Website to read the article titled “David Hume and the virtue of benevolence”, dated December 9,...

PHI 220 Competitive Success--snaptutorial.com  

Eactivity: Go to the American Philanthropic Website to read the article titled “David Hume and the virtue of benevolence”, dated December 9,...

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