RAFMAF 'Spirit of the Battle of Britain' Banquet 2022 - Space

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‘Spirit of the Battle of Britain’ Banquet Wednesday October 26, 2022 The Mayflower Hotel, Connecticut Avenue, Washington, D.C.

Celebrating achievements in space


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WELCOME AND INTRODUCTION Major General (Ret) Frederick F. Roggero USAF, Chairman, RAFMAF AIR CHIEF MARSHAL SIR MIKE WIGSTON KCB CBE ADC, Chief of the Air Staff, RAF

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A BRIEF HISTORY OF SPACE EXPLORATION Recalling landmark events and key developments in the fascinating story of our quest into space

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SERIOUSLY OUT OF THIS WORLD! The little-known role played in space exploration by M&M’s® chocolates

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BRIGADIER GENERAL (RET) CHARLES MOSS DUKE JR USAF Involved in five Apollo missions, serving as CapCom for both Apollo 10 and 11, Duke became the tenth and youngest person to walk on the lunar surface

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DR NICK PATRICK From learning to fly in a Scottish Aviation Bulldog and working in the aviation industry, Patrick was selected for two Space Shuttle missions

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THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AT 75 A look at the origins, importance and future role of the USAF as it celebrates its 75th birthday

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MAINTAINING THE LEADING EDGE A report on Air Chief Marshal Sir Mike Wigston’s speech at the Chief of the Air Staff’s Global Air & Space Chiefs’ Conference, held in London in July RAF MUSEUM REVIEW The RAF Museum reflects on its 50th anniversary year and shares its exciting plans for the future THE START OF A SPECIAL RELATIONSHIP The origins of the USAF/RAF Military Personnel Exchange Program LIEUTENANT J.R. PAYDEN – THE FIRST EXCHANGE OFFICER The story of a young American who served in Europe at the inception of the Royal Air Force THE ROYAL AIR FORCE MUSEUM AMERICAN FOUNDATION SWORDS OF HONOR Recognizing the most outstanding RAF and USAF officers on exchange this year SWORDS OF HONOR 2022 CITATIONS Flight Lieutenant Christopher Bradshaw RAF and Captain Kaitlin M. Ellwein USAF RAFMAF SWORDS OF HONOR WINNERS 2009-22

Cover: (top) Apollo 16 astronaut Charlie Duke salutes the U.S. flag on the surface of the Moon – April 21, 1972; (bottom) astronaut Nick Patrick embarks on one of three spacewalks during the STS-130 Space Shuttle mission in 2010 Produced by Harfield Media www.harfieldmedia.com RAF MUSEUM AMERICAN FOUNDATION

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Welcome and Introduction Major General (Ret.) Frederick F. Roggero, USAF, Chairman, Royal Air Force Museum American Foundation

THE ROYAL AIR FORCE MUSEUM AMERICAN Foundation (RAFMAF) is honored and proud to host the ‘Spirit of the Battle of Britain’ Banquet, and we would like to thank Air Chief Marshal Sir Mike Wigston, Chief of Staff of the Royal Air Force (RAF), for his, and the RAF’s, continued help in our efforts to promote the ties, friendship and common values between our two great nations and our air and space forces. This year, it is our great privilege to honor the achievements of the pioneering astronauts of the latter half of the past century. Since the launch of the first artificial satellite in 1957 and the formation of NASA in 1958, astronauts have travelled to the Moon, probes have explored the solar system, and instruments in space have discovered thousands of planets around other stars. The RAF and USAF have been working together in space for over 50 years, and great strides have been taken in recent years to expand our combined efforts. The first RAFMAF ‘Spirit of the Battle of Britain’ Banquet was held in 2009, when former Apollo 11 astronaut Colonel Buzz Aldrin was the guest of honor, who was then, and is still, an outspoken champion for the pursuit of space exploration. This year it is an honor to host Brigadier General (Ret.) Charlie Duke, USAF – the Apollo 16 Lunar Module pilot and the tenth and youngest man to walk on the Moon. Duke became a familiar voice worldwide when he served as CAPCOM (Capsule Communicator) for Apollo 11 who, following a long delay after the landing of the ‘Eagle’ on the Moon said, “You got a bunch of guys about to turn blue. We’re breathing again.” Duke will be joined by Dr Nicholas Patrick, a British-born NASA astronaut and mission

specialist on the International Space Station construction flights, who started his career in aviation as a cadet in the RAF’s University Air Squadron at Cambridge University. Dr Patrick now works for commercial space company Blue Origin. Together, these two space pioneers mirror the modern-day innovative sustainable programs of space exploration by commercial and international partnerships. Their courage and bravery in the face of unknown challenges is reminiscent of those same qualities shown to the world in 1940 and remembered here at this event as the ‘Spirit of the Battle of Britain.’ OUR SHARED VALUES It is also an honor for the Foundation to recognize the continued close association between our active-duty militaries by presenting two ceremonial Swords of Honor to the RAF and USAF Exchange Officers whose contributions have most reflected the values that our veterans, and the Foundation, share: Service, Excellence, Integrity and Courage. It is these values that we honor in our young women and men of today, and encourage in the young people of tomorrow. Even though Covid-19 forced us to cancel the previous two annual banquets, we still honored the 2020 and 2021 Exchange officers at specially arranged receptions. The presentation in 2020 was held at the National Museum of the USAF at Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, Ohio. Captain Katie Broyles, USAF, received her award from General Arnold Bunch, USAF, and Group Captain Andrew Lloyd, RAF, received his sword from Mr Alan Gogbashian, the British Consul General. Earlier this year at the RAF’s Birthday Party, hosted by the British Embassy, the 2021 Sword

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recipients were duly awarded by the Foundation. Squadron Leader Bonnie Posselt, RAF, received her award from Her Excellency Dame Karen Pierce, British Ambassador to the United States of America, and Captain Robert Ippolito, USAF, received his award from Mr Frank Kendall.

Apollo 16’s Lunar Module makes its rendezvous with the

Command and Service Module in lunar orbit on April 23, 1972, after spending three days on the Moon’s surface

to individuals from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds, offering new experiences and paths to success in aerospace. With the help of our sponsors, the Foundation will continue to keep our combined and shared histories of air and space power alive, and continue to inspire the next generation by highlighting the shared values of the fighting Airmen, Airwomen and Guardians of the past and the present. Thank you for attending tonight and for your continued support of the Royal Air Force Museum American Foundation.

FOCUS ON EDUCATION Meanwhile, the Foundation’s philanthropic work continues, in spite of the pandemic and global economic challenges. We have maintained our focus on education by endowing an RAF Museum Educational Learning Fund and providing funding to expand the Museum’s apprenticeship program with the employment of a dedicated staff member. This new position will spearhead creative opportunities

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Air Chief Marshal Sir Mike Wigston KCB CBE ADC, Chief of the Air Staff, RAF

I AM DELIGHTED TO RETURN TO Washington D.C. and attend the RAF Museum American Foundation’s annual ‘Spirit of the Battle of Britain’ Banquet. This year’s Banquet will celebrate our many collective achievements in Space, and we have the privilege of dining with two distinguished Guests of Honor: Brigadier General Charlie Duke Jr, who was not only CapCom for Apollo 11, but also walked on the Moon with Apollo 16 – 50 years ago this year; and one of our own British-born NASA astronauts, Dr Nicholas Patrick, who was a mission specialist on the International Space Station’s construction flights and now works at the forefront of space exploration at Blue Origin. In the Combined Air and Space Power Shared Vision Statement I signed last year with my great friends General C.Q. Brown and General Jay Raymond, we acknowledged that the security of the Space domain has become essential to the maintenance of our way of life and our mutual national interests. When viewed through the lens of increased strategic competition, the need for international collaboration in this area has never been more important if we are to preserve and ensure our way of life.

We all remember President Kennedy’s acknowledgement that progress in the Space domain will be hard. Just like the architects of the Apollo Program and the International Space Station, it will require vision, innovative thinking and an ability to act at pace to meet emergent threats and challenges. My Service’s founding father, Lord Trenchard, had amazing foresight when he gave us our motto, Per Ardua Ad Astra, which translates as Through Adversity to the Stars. I do not know how he knew in 1918 what my challenges would be in 2022, but our motto has never been more apt. It will be hard work, but these are electrifying times. Recent advances in the Space domain are transforming lives now and will transform the lives of future generations, just as the Apollo programme did in its time. Whether in Government, Defence, Industry or our kindergartens, high schools or colleges, Space is once more capturing the imagination of a new generation. As leaders of today, one of our greatest legacies will be setting the conditions for those future generations to succeed in this exhilarating new era for humankind in Space.

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A brief history of space exploration From the first artificial satellites to manned Moon missions and a permanent space station, the story of our quest into space is only just beginning

HUMANS HAVE ALWAYS LOOKED UP INTO the night sky and dreamed about space. In the latter half of the 20th century, rockets were developed that were powerful enough to overcome the force of gravity to reach orbital velocities, paving the way for space exploration to become a reality. In the 1930s and 1940s, Nazi Germany saw the possibilities of using long-distance rockets as weapons. Late in the Second World War, London was attacked by 200-mile-range V-2 missiles,

which arched 60 miles high over the English Channel at more than 3,500 miles per hour. After the war, the United States and the Soviet Union created their own missile programs. In 1957, the Soviets launched the first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, into space. In April 1961, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first human to orbit Earth, beating Alan Shepard the first American to fly into space, by a month. Nine months later, John Glenn became the first American to orbit the Earth.

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LANDING ON THE MOON “Landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to Earth within a decade” was a national goal set by President John F. Kennedy in 1961. On July 20, 1969, astronaut Neil Armstrong took “one giant leap for mankind” as he stepped onto the Moon. Six Apollo missions were made to explore the Moon between 1969 and 1972. During the 1960s, unmanned spacecraft photographed and probed the moon before astronauts ever landed. By the early 1970s, orbiting communications and navigation satellites were in everyday use, and the Mariner spacecraft was orbiting and mapping the surface of Mars. By the end of the decade, the Voyager spacecraft had sent back detailed images of Jupiter and Saturn, their rings, and their moons. Skylab, America’s first space station, was a human-spaceflight highlight of the 1970s, and, by the 1980s, satellite communications had expaned and discovered an ozone hole over Antarctica, pinpointed forest fires, and gave us photographs of the nuclear power plant disaster at Chernobyl in 1986. Astronomical satellites found new stars and gave us a new view of the center of our galaxy.

Space Shuttle Columbia launches from Kennedy

Space Center on its final successful mission in 2002 

During the Apollo 11 mission in 1969, Buzz Aldrin

is photographed on the Moon by Neil Armstrong

SPACE SHUTTLE In April 1981, the launch of the Space Shuttle Columbia ushered in a period of reliance on the craft for most civilian and military space missions. The Space Shuttle was the first reusable spacecraft to carry people into orbit; launch, recover, and repair satellites; conduct cutting-edge research; and help in building the International Space Station. Twenty-four successful shuttle launches fulfilled many scientific and military requirements, until January 28, 1986, when, just 73 seconds after liftoff, Space Shuttle Challenger exploded. The crew of seven was killed, including Christa McAuliffe, a teacher from New Hampshire, who would have been the first civilian in space. The tragedy resulted in a suspension of space travel for two years. The space shuttle program lasted for 30 years, ending with the landing of Atlantis on July 21, 2011.

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The Gulf War proved the value of satellites in modern conflicts. During this war, allied forces were able to use their control of the ‘high ground’ of space to achieve a decisive advantage. Satellites were used to provide information on enemy troop formations and movements, early warning of enemy missile attacks, and precise navigation in the featureless desert terrain. The advantages of satellites allowed the coalition forces to quickly bring the war to a conclusion, saving many lives. Space systems continue to become more and more integral to homeland defense, weather surveillance, communication, navigation, imaging, and remote sensing for chemicals, fires, and other disasters.

The International Space Station has been occupied

continuously since Expedition 1 in November 2000 

Orion is a partially reusable crewed spacecraft to

be used in NASA’s Artemis Moon exploration program

THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION The International Space Station is a research laboratory in low Earth orbit. With many different partners contributing to its design and construction, this high-flying laboratory has become a symbol of cooperation in space exploration, with former competitors now working together, and has been visited by astronauts, cosmonauts and space tourists from 17 nations. Most U.S. military and scientific satellites are launched into orbit by a family of expendable launch vehicles designed for a variety of missions, and there is strong competition in the commercial launch market to develop the next generation of launch systems. THE FUTURE OF SPACE EXPLORATION Modern space exploration is reaching areas once only dreamed about. Mars is focal point of modern space exploration, and manned Mars exploration is a long-term goal of the United States. NASA is on a journey to Mars, with a goal of sending humans to the Red Planet in the 2030s.

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Seriously out of this world! Mars Inc. – a friend of the RAF Museum – describes the little-known role played in space exploration by its world-famous candy-coated chocolates, M&M’s® M&M’S HAVE BEEN SATISFYING MANY a sweet tooth since 1941. But, while famous around the world, their space-aged reputation is little known. For 41 years, M&Ms have quite literally been out of this world. On April 12, 1981, M&M’s or, as NASA deemed them, “candy-coated chocolates,” made their first voyage into space on the shuttle Columbia. In an effort to remove as much brand labelling as possible, NASA renamed the popular candy and put them in vacuum-sealed bags. The easily recognizable lower case ‘m,’ however, remained unchanged. In space, the astronauts took comfort in the familiar treat, and M&M’s soon became one of the most popular candies in orbit. Integral to the fun created by these tiny chocolatey drops was the way the astronauts could easily amuse themselves with a mere handful by tossing the 

candies in the zero-gravity environment in order to eat them, mid-air. These seemingly insignificant little candies provided more than just a chocolate fix to the men and women in space – they were a way to have fun amid the confines of the spacecraft. They were also a reminder of home, and a way to connect to the Earthly lives they had left behind. When NASA’s final shuttle Atlantis launched into space on July 8, 2011, M&Ms were on board, and, in fact, Mars made a special-edition M&M just for the flight. In red, silver, and blue, the commemorative candies were printed with either a picture of a space shuttle, the phrase ‘3-2-1 Lift Off’, or the launch date. Over the course of their space career, M&M’s flew on more than 130 missions, bringing smiles to the men and women above, while we enjoyed them down below.

Astronaut Loren J. Shriver, STS-46 commander, pursues floating M&M’s on the flight deck of Space Shuttle Atlantis RAF MUSEUM AMERICAN FOUNDATION

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Brigadier General (Ret) Charles Moss Duke Jr USAF Involved in five Apollo missions, serving as CapCom for both Apollo 10 and 11, Duke became the tenth and youngest person to walk on the lunar surface Following three years service in Ramstein, he was assigned to MIT and, on receiving a Master’s degree in Aero Astro Engineering, was assigned to the USAF test-pilot school at Edwards Air Force Base, California. On graduation in July 1965, he was assigned to the school as an instructor. Duke was selected as one of the fifth group of astronauts and his first assignment was to monitor the development of the Saturn V launch vehicle and the Lunar Module rocket engines. A FAMILIAR VOICE Duke was involved in five of the nine Apollo missions to the Moon. He served as support crew and CapCom (Capsule Communicator) on Apollo 10, and as CapCom on Apollo 11 for the first crewed lunar landing. His Southern drawl became familiar to audiences worldwide, as the voice of a Mission Control made nervous by a landing that used almost all of Lunar Module Eagle’s fuel. Duke’s first words to the crew on the Moon’s surface were flustered: “Roger, Twank... Tranquility, we copy you on the ground. You got a bunch of guys about to turn blue. We’re breathing again. Thanks a lot!” Duke served as back-up Lunar Module pilot on Apollo 13 and assisted in the recovery of the crew after an explosion caused an abort and return to Earth. In April 1972, he launched to the Moon as the Lunar Module pilot on Apollo 16, and became the tenth and youngest man to walk on the Moon as he and John Young spent 72 hours exploring the rough Descartes Highlands. He was promoted to Colonel and completed his Apollo career as the back-up Lunar Module pilot on Apollo 17.

CHARLIE DUKE BEGAN HIS MILITARY CAREER as a Midshipman at the United States Naval Academy in the summer of 1953. While there, he decided he wanted to be a pilot and because, at that time, there was no US Air Force Academy, he was allowed to take a commission as a Second Lieutenant in the USAF. In September 1957, Duke started flight training and received his wings the following year at Webb Air Force Base in Big Spring, Texas. After finishing his advanced training as a fighter interceptor pilot in early 1959, he was assigned to the 526th FIS at Ramstein AB in Germany.

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From January 1973 until his retirement from NASA in December 1975, Duke was assigned to the Space Shuttle program. Following his retirement he entered private business in San Antonio, TX and completed his USAF career in the USAF Reserves, retiring as a Brigadier General in June 1986 with 29 years’ total service. Since 1986, Duke has been involved in many businesses as a director, owner and investor. He is an active motivational speaker and, with his wife, Dorothy, is also involved in Christian ministry through Duke Ministry for Christ. The couple, who reside in New Braunfels, Texas, have been

(Clockwise, from top left) Charlie Duke, pictured

in September 1971; Duke salutes the U.S. fl ag on the surface of the Moon; the launch of Apollo 16 on 16 April 1972; the Apollo 16 crew (left to right) – Duke, John Young, and Ken Mattingly. (Centre) the off icial embroidered patch of the Apollo 16 mission

married for 59 years and have two adult sons, nine grandchildren and one great-grandchild. In 2020, Duke was named Texan of the Year by the Texas Legislative Conference, a non-partisan organization of business and political leaders.

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Dr Nick Patrick From learning to fly in a Scottish Aviation Bulldog, Patrick went into the aerospace industry before being selected for two Space Shuttle missions DR NICHOLAS PATRICK WAS BORN IN North Yorkshire in the UK. After attending several schools in the UK and US, he received a bachelor’s degree in engineering from the University of Cambridge. It was there that he learned to fly in the Scottish Aviation Bulldog with the RAF’s Cambridge University Air Squadron. He continued to fly after moving to the US, becoming an instrument and multi-engine flight instructor. He has over 2,600 hours of flight time in airplanes and helicopters, including over

1,000 hours as a flight instructor, and about 900 hours in NASA’s T-38N. In the course of his human factors work, he has flown simulators for such diverse air- and spacecraft as the Boeing 737 and 777, the Space Shuttle, the Apollo Lunar Module and the HL-20. Following his graduation from Cambridge, Patrick moved to the US to pursue a career in aerospace and took a job as an engineer with GE Aircraft Engines. Hoping to change his focus to aerospace human factors, he attended MIT,

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Patrick made three spacewalks during the STS-130

complete the installation of the ISS’s Node 3 and its Cupola windows. When not training or flying, Patrick represented the Astronaut Office on human factors for several design projects, including an avionics and display upgrade for the aging Space Shuttle, and the Orion cockpit design, establishing display standards that are still in use today. Following his retirement from NASA in 2012, Patrick joined Blue Origin, where he is now the Senior Director of Human Integration. His group of human factors and operations experts is responsible for requirements for the comfort and safety of astronauts onboard all Blue Origin spacecraft and for defining Blue’s user interfaces for spacecraft control. He helped develop the suborbital spaceflight experience and astronaut training for the New Shepard spacecraft. Patrick has also had a major role developing and participating in New Shepard operations: as Safety Officer for the first eight missions, and then as Flight Director since March 2020, serving as roll-out Flight Director for Blue Origin’s first human flight in July, and as the lead Flight Director for six missions, one of which flew William Shatner to space. Patrick lives near Seattle with his wife and three children.

Space Shuttle mission in 2010, carrying out construction and maintenance on the International Space Station 

NASA’s official astronaut portrait of Nick Patrick

earning a master’s and doctorate in mechanical engineering, while conducting research in telerobotics and decision theory. From there, he moved to Seattle to work for Boeing Commercial Aircraft on flight-deck design for many of the company’s large commercial models. In 1998, Patrick was selected by NASA to join the 17th astronaut class as a mission specialist. Reporting to NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston that summer, he began several years of intensive training in Space Shuttle and Space Station systems, rendezvous, robotics, and extravehicular activity (EVA) training in NASA’s Neutral Buoyancy Lab, flight training in NASA’s T-38N and Russian language training. He flew as a mission specialist on two Space Shuttle missions to the International Space Station (ISS): STS-116 on Discovery in 2006 (which included the first night launch after the Columbia accident) and STS-130 on Endeavour in 2010, performing three spacewalks to

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The United States Air Force at 75 As the USAF celebrates its 75th birthday, we look at its origins, its importance during the Cold War and in more recent conflicts, and its expanding role in space

Establishment, led by a Secretary of Defense with three departments. These three departments were to be one for the U.S. Navy, one for the U.S. Army, and, most importantly, a new department for an independent U.S. Air Force (USAF). This bill became the U.S. National Security Act of July 26, 1947, signed by President Harry Truman, and took effect on September 18, 1947, thus creating the USAF and the position of the Secretary of the Air Force. Spaatz became the first Commanding General of the USAF. The USAF can trace its origins back to 1907, when the U.S. Army created an Aeronautical

“It is my earnest hope also that throughout the years our countries will not lose that spirit of kinship, with its mutual trust and close cooperation which was further developed and cemented during World War II.” THESE WERE THE WORDS WRITTEN BY General Carl Spaatz, Commanding General, US Army Air Forces (USAAF), to Marshal of the Royal Air Force (RAF) Lord Trenchard on July 29, 1947. Spaatz’s words were written in response to Trenchard’s congratulations after hearing about the passage of the ‘Unification Bill’. This bill called for the creation of a National Military 

A P-38 Lightning and F-35A Lightning II fly in formation as part of a U.S. Air Force Heritage Flight display RAF MUSEUM AMERICAN FOUNDATION

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In playing a vital role in defeating the Axis powers, the USAAF gained key support for independence. Vital amongst these was General Dwight Eisenhower, the Supreme Allied Commander in Europe and, in the early postSecond World War years, Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army. Eisenhower had experience of both the need for control of the air over the battlespace and the impact that the global reach of air power had on the outcome of the Second World War. Eisenhower also recognised the need for a unified command structure for U.S. armed forces, which was a view echoed by President Truman. As such, despite interservice debates, the lessons of the Second World War led to the passing of the National Security Act of 1947.

Division as part of its Signal Corps. The Division, created less than four years after the first heavierthan-air flight conducted by the Wright brothers, handled all matters about flight and, eventually, evolved into the U.S. Army Air Service in 1918. After the U.S. entry into the First World War in 1917, U.S. Army aviation played a major role in victory and proved its worth as an arm of service. The strategic potential of air power was not lost on its advocates, and the appointment of General Henry ‘Hap’ Arnold, Commanding General USAAF, to the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff in 1942 marked an important point in the march to independence for the USAF. During the Second World War, the USAAF became the largest air force in the world and played a significant role in the defeat of the Axis powers. Aircraft of the USAAF served on operations from Europe to the Pacific and formed part of a joint effort with the U.S. Army and Navy. The USAAF also worked in close partnership with allied air forces – in particular, the RAF. This relationship is best represented by the close working partnership developed between the two air forces in the conduct of the Combined Bomber Offensive against Germany.

BREAKING THE BLOCKADE By the time the USAF was born it had served in the skies over Europe and the Pacific, and was poised to win the first battle of the Cold War when it and its western allies began flying tons of food and fuel over the Soviet blockade of Berlin in June 1948. Undeterred by Soviet harassment, airmen landed supplies day and night, eventually with an aircraft landing every three minutes and carrying 5,620 tons

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Citizens of West Berlin watch as a U.S. aircraft arrives

As communist expansion continued to threaten the West, the U.S. kept a forward presence in Europe, reflecting the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s (NATO) ‘Shield and Sword’ policy. Combat operations supporting South Vietnam shifted from close air support to bombing campaigns with retaliatory attacks in 1965. When, in the mid-1970s, it became clear that the South Vietnamese government would fall, the U.S. commenced evacuations, and by April 1975 the USAF had evacuated 45,774 people from Saigon. Always looking to the future, in the early 1980s the USAF established the first operational command to manage space capabilities. With the establishment of the United States Space Force within the Department of the Air Force in 2019, it carried forward the legacy and tradition of providing outstanding military space capabilities for the nation. Since gaining independence, the USAF has continued to deliver air power by providing global vigilance, global reach and global power. It has done this by exploiting the key characteristics of air power – speed, reach and height. Mastering these features has allowed the USAF to achieve control of the air, space and cyber domains to attain effects at all levels, in support of national security objectives. The USAF has seen action in all the main US conflicts from the Berlin Airlift of 1948 through to operations today in places such as Iraq, Afghanistan and Syria, and often in conjunction with principal partners such as the RAF.

with vital supplies during the Berlin Airlift of 1948-49 

A Tornado GR.1 of 14 Squadron is pictured on the

ground at Nellis Air Force Base in southern Nevada, as it is readied for a Red Flag combat training exercise

of supplies per day for 15 months to break the blockade and save Berlin from falling under Soviet control. “We now know,” said General William H Turner, “as we never knew it in the Air Force before, that we can fly anything, anywhere, anytime.” Strategic air power took on new importance in the Cold War as the Soviets challenged the West with communist expansion across the globe. In June 1950, responding immediately to the Soviet-backed North Korean invasion of the South, U.S. Far East Air Force fighters and bombers protected evacuating citizens, interdicted communist troops and supply lines, and delivered cargo to United Nations forces. In the 1950s, the U.S. Air Force also led the way in developing and fielding military capabilities for the Department of Defense, during the Cold War and beyond, and by the end of the decade the USAF had become an aerospace force. Through the 1960s and 1970s, the Air Force developed satellite communications, built missile-warning architectures, matured space situational awareness capabilities, and contributed to the development of satellite navigation.

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Maintaining the leading edge A report on Air Chief Marshal Sir Mike Wigston’s speech at the Chief of the Air Staff’s Global Air & Space Chiefs’ Conference, held in London in July THE GLOBAL AIR & SPACE CHIEFS’ ANNUAL conference brings together global leaders in Air and Space Power, industry and technology leaders and experts in international academia. This year’s conference theme was ‘Maintaining the Leading Edge’ and, in his keynote speech, Air Chief Marshal Sir Mike Wigston, the Chief of the Air Staff, used the backdrop of Russia’s ongoing aggression in Ukraine to reiterate the importance of forging and maintaining global partnerships. “Ukraine is a vital test of our shared resolve to counter unprovoked bullying and aggression,” 

he said. “It is a vital message around the world too – well beyond the security of Europe – where other allies and partners face constant and sometimes existential threats from state and non-state actors and proxies.” Paying tribute to the formidable tenacity of Ukranian forces and their harnessing of Air and Space technology, the Chief of the Air Staff illustrated that this is in stark contrast to the Russian aggressors, who have struggled to maintain Air Control, despite superior technology and resources. He explained that failure to invest

Air Chief Marshal Sir Mike Wigston delivers his keynote speech the Global Air & Space Chiefs’ Conference,

which was held at the Institute of Engineering and Technology in London on July 13-14, 2022 RAF MUSEUM AMERICAN FOUNDATION

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in their people has resulted in Russian forces lacking the war-fighting advantage that can only truly be gained through intensively working and training with partners. Referencing the close ties between the Royal Air Force and United States Air Force and United States Space Force, the Chief of the Air Staff congratulated the United States Air Force on reaching its 75th anniversary in 2022. He spoke about how it is not just training and working together that binds us to our allies, but also the moral and ethical like-mindedness that define our culture and standards. He continued: “As we look to the future as air and space forces, we know that to maintain our leading edge, we must be ready to understand, decide and then act faster, with even greater precision, lethality, and in more places around the world simultaneously than we do today; and sustainably too, in terms of both resource and environment.” Anticipating a future where the global Leading Edge in Air and Space Power is reliant on both technology and concepts, the Chief of the Air Staff announced the most fundamental review and reimagination of the RAF’s ‘Way in Warfare’ for over 30 years. Central to this work will be a new and reinvigorated approach to

The RAF’s Future Combat Air System Programme

will feature next-generation uncrewed and piloted aircraft, such as Tempest (above) 

General Charles Q. Brown, Jr USAF and Air Chief

Marshal Sir Mike Wigston RAF in conversation during the Global Air & Space Chiefs’ Conference

Air and Space Command and Control, which in turn depends on battlespace connectivity, and a functioning, interoperable, digital Command and Control network. SEAMLESS INTEGRATION The Chief of the Air Staff told the attendees that this would undoubtedly be one of the most important shared technological challenges for global Air and Space allies. “Our aircraft, spacecraft and systems must integrate seamlessly across all operational domains to allow the transfer and exploitation of information, rapid decision-making and timely delivery of effects,” he explained. The Chief of the Air Staff then introduced the conference participants to NEXUS and RAVEN, a Combat Cloud and virtual communications node respectively. Together, they will sit at the heart of the Royal Air Force’s Future Air

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in a climate-changed future environment. It will take decades and we need to start now,” he said. The declaration signals the global Air and Space leaders’ commitment to working together to reduce dependency on fossil fuels and existing supply chains, using new technologies including sustainable and synthetic aviation fuels and alternative sources of energy. This is the first such agreement on a global scale from the armed forces, and signals a wider commitment for international armed forces to be leading the way in terms of sustainability. The Chief of the Air Staff closed his speech by praising the “innovative and disruptive genes” in the global Air and Space Forces’ DNA, adding that they are behind our greatest collective successes: “That diversity in our conceptual thinking, in our technological breakthroughs, the diversity in the way we train together, as well as in the excellence of our mission execution, will ensure that we, as partner air and space forces, will always prevail, protecting our sovereignty, prosperity and security into the future, and above all ensuring the future defence of our skies and space.”

Command and Control system and create a Common Operational Picture by fusing data from multiple sources to provide real-time battlespace intelligence. This data will be integral for the next generation of fighter aircraft, and the Chief of the Air Staff reiterated the importance of the Royal Air Force’s Future Combat Air System Programme, which will deliver an advanced combat air system capable of fighting and winning in the most hostile air environments. As with other future combat air programmes, it features a mix of swarming drones, and mixed formations of uncrewed combat aircraft, as well as nextgeneration piloted aircraft, such as Tempest. CLIMATE CHANGE COLLABORATION In a rallying call to those present, the Chief of the Air Staff spoke of his delight that so many had signed up to the declaration of intention on Climate Change Collaboration. “As air and space leaders, we must also understand how our people, aircraft, equipment, critical resources and supply chains will need to adapt to operate

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RAF Museum review The RAF Museum reflects on its 50th anniversary year and shares its exciting plans for the future THE ROYAL AIR FORCE MUSEUM’S PURPOSE is to share the story of the RAF – past, present and future – using the stories of its people and the Museum’s collections to engage, inspire and encourage learning. Established as a legacy of the RAF’s 50th anniversary, the Museums was officially opened by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II on November 15, 1972. The celebration of this 50th anniversary was enhanced by the granting of a Royal Charter by Her Late Majesty, along with the donation of HRH The Duke of Edinburgh’s RAF uniform, and the Museum is delighted to be able to showcase the uniform of its supportive Patron. In June 2018, a major transformation to mark the RAF’s centenary was opened at the London site, and both museums, London and Cosford, recorded their most successful year ever. Visitor numbers rose by 989,600, up 39%. Of equal importance, the visitor profile broadened and

diversified significantly, and the partnerships – and friendships – that developed over the period give a firm and inspiring foundation on which to build for the next chapter in the Museum’s history. In March this year, the RAF Museum Midlands Development Programme was launched, continuing engagement and investment across both sites, focusing on immersive RAF storytelling. The ambition is to encourage reflection and debate across all the Museum’s spaces and programmes. As the only National Museum in the Midlands, the ambitious plans for the site will harness global storytelling to support economic regeneration through transformative skills development, health and well-being and community resilience programmes. The Museum’s currently inaccessible stored collection will be opened to inspire visitors with the RAF story and provide a springboard for taking the collections out into communities.

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As new storytelling is developed on site and online to mark the 80th anniversary of the Dambusters Raid in 2023, the Museum will harness augmented reality to engage people more closely with the collection. Equally, representing the brilliance of the RAF men and women of today and tomorrow is at the forefront of the Musuems’ plans, exploring the RAF’s technological advances, including cyber and Space Command. The Museum is focused on carbon-reduction opportunities across all planning and will share its activity and progress with visitors, as well as the ambition of the RAF to meet its own Carbon Net Zero goals. This will be done across all exhibitions and through a new outdoor woodland landscape on site that will offer a green environment for discovery and contemplation. Earlier this year, commemorating the 40th anniversary of the Falklands conflict, the Museum acquired legendary CH-47 Chinook Bravo November, the only survivor of the sinking of the SS Atlantic Conveyor. With the crew, numbering four Distinguished Flying Crosses among them, Bravo November is witness to incredible stories, and further reminiscences were captured at an event to honour the Chinook force for people who had served on her over the past 40 years. Other RAF Stories collected this year include documenting the development of Space Command

and the RAF’s support for Covid operations. More details can be found at www.rafstories.org Going forward, the Museum will continue to inspire everyone with the RAF story through public programmes on site, off site and online. May 2023, the 80th anniversary of the Dambusters raid, will see the opening of Bomber Command exhibitions. In London, visitors will be invited to explore the iconic Lancaster for the first time through augmented reality, view the recently acquired medals of Sqn Ldr Benny Goodman of 617 Squadron, and see the Museum’s Hampden bomber, which has undergone a major conservation project. At the Midlands site, one of only two surviving Wellington bombers will be unveiled, following a major restoration project. At the London site, the home of RAF Hendon, a new Inter-War Years exhibition will be launched, telling the story of the RAF during the critical years between the First and Second World Wars. The RAF Museum team offers warm thanks to its friends at the Royal Air Force Museum American Foundation for its continued support, and are honored to be present at its annual ‘Spirit of the Battle of Britain’ Banquet. It is an honor to remember the RAF men and women who have defended our skies for the past 104 years, and to pay tribute to the people of the RAF today, who continue to stand for Britain in a complex and troubled world.

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The start of a special relationship The origins of the USAF/RAF Military Personnel Exchange Program, which continues to enhance mutual understanding between the two Air Forces “Neither the sure prevention of war, nor the continuous rise of world organization will be gained without what I have called the fraternal association of the English-speaking peoples. This means a special relationship between the British Commonwealth and Empire and the United States of America. Fraternal association requires the continuance of the intimate relations between our military advisers, leading to common study of potential dangers, the similarity of weapons and manuals of instructions, and to the interchange of officers and cadets.”

Leader J A G Slessor, son of Air Marshal Sir John Slessor. In his end-of-tour report, he concluded: “I can only add that I hope that the frequent interchange of personnel between our two countries will be the means of our maintaining the friendship of so many officers, their families and civilians whom we have come to know so well. I share the conviction shared by my predecessor that the Exchange Scheme is an invaluable program and it is clearly vital that the presence of exchange officers should be continued.” Seventy years on from Churchill’s speech, his vision of “intimate relations between our military advisers, leading to common study of potential dangers, the similarity of weapons and manuals of instructions, and to the interchange of officers and cadets” remains valid and will do so for many years into the future.

THE ABOVE WORDS ARE TAKEN FROM Winston Churchill’s ‘Iron Curtain’ speech, delivered in Fulton, Missouri, on 5th March, 1946, articulating the need for an exchange of personnel in order to glean mutual understanding. Five years later, the USAF/RAF Military Personnel Exchange Program was created with the creation of 50 exchange posts in each Air Force. Participation in the Program is on a selective basis. To be considered, an individual must be well versed in the current practices, technical training and doctrine of their organization, and be particularly qualified through experience for the exchange position to be occupied. Moreover, the individual must have demonstrated capabilities for future positions of greater responsibility and must possess the grade, skill, training and academic qualifications required. One of the early exchange officers at the USAF Academy in Colorado Springs was Squadron

Air Marshal Sir John Slessor and General Hoyt

Vandenberg were the first guardians of the Military Personnel Exchange Program

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Lieutenant J.R. Payden – the First Exchange Officer Joseph Raymond Payden enlisted in the forces as the United States entered the First World War, and was serving in Europe at the inception of the Royal Air Force IN JUNE 1917, J.R. PAYDEN ENLISTED IN the U.S. Army Signal Corps Aviation Division, which was attached to the Royal Flying Corps. Two months later, he crossed the Atlantic to begin final training at Oxford University with the ‘American Aviation Detachment’, which consisted of men from all over the United States whose main purpose was to join a flying force. In the summer of 1918, J.R. received his wings and was posted to Courbon, France. His role involved testing aircraft and assembling planes for bombing, along with ferrying planes to front-line squadrons. The initial experience of pilots with combat aircraft brought home to the Americans what the veterans from advanced training had tried to tell them – it took courage just to fly the machines, let alone fight in them. Structural failures were common. J.R continued to fly Sopwith Camels, as well as the De Havilland, with the Royal Air Force after its formation on April 1, 1918. The Sopwith Camel was one of the best-known British fighters during the First World War and shot down 1,294 enemy aircraft during the conflict. It was, however, particularly infamous for its extremely vicious spinning characteristics, which resulted in 3,285 pilots dying from non-combat incidents. The pilots jokingly said they would receive a ‘wooden cross, Red Cross or a Victoria Cross’. At times, American squadrons would be invited to dine at British airfields. These were enjoyable affairs because the allies not only had the best planes, but also the best food and best pianos. From these meetings came the traditions

J.R. Payden received his wings during the summer

of 1918 and was posted to Courbon, France

the American pilots borrowed for their own. They noted their allied counterparts had a certain style and chivalry – they saw the flag-raising and lowering ceremonies as a show of pride, and they instituted strict observance of such rituals in their own squadrons. Some even copied toasts ‘to the King’ at evening meals, because ‘raising one’s glass to the president’ did not seem ‘nearly so grand’. After the war, J.R. graduated from Yale in 1920 and took up a role with Union Carbide. He traveled extensively in the Far East for the company, seeing the region’s countries emerge from their colonial pasts, before the turmoil of the Second World War. J.R Payden died in 1976, aged 79.

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Swords of Honor This year we are honored to present the 24th and 25th Royal Air Force Museum American Foundation (RAFMAF) Swords of Honor EVERY YEAR, RAFMAF RECOGNIZES THE contributions of the top Royal Air Force (RAF) and United States Air Force (USAF) Officers serving on exchange assignments on both sides of the Atlantic. In 2009, the Foundation instituted the Sword of Honor, to be presented annually to the RAF Officer on exchange with the United States Air Forces who has contributed most in the previous year to relations between our two great nations and their air forces. In 2012, another Sword was added to recognize the most outstanding USAF officer on exchange with the RAF. The Swords, donated by RAFMAF Board Member Tim Manna, are an embodiment of the Foundation’s mission to strengthen and educate present and future generations about the importance of the special UK-US relationship within the field of aviation. The swords symbolize the excellent work of our current Exchange Officers as they serve within each other’s Air Forces. The original Sword is the same as that of an RAF Officer, having a single-edged straight

2021

blade with a gold-plated brass hilt, white fishskin grip and a brass pomel in the form of an eagle. A stamped, gold-plated brass cartouche bears the bird emblem of the RAF. The Sword was flown from England to Everett, Washington, by RAFMAF Board Director John Sessions in his Consolidated B-25 Mitchell ‘Grumpy’, and now hangs in the British Embassy in Washington, D.C. The second USAF Sword is a duplicate, displayed in the Pentagon, and each winner receives a miniature replica. Since 2009, the Foundation has honored 23 RAF and USAF Exchange Officers and, this year, we offer our congratulations to Flight Lieutenant Christopher Bradshaw, Director of Operations at the 820th Base Defense Group at Moody Air Force Base, and Captain Caitlin Ellwein, Ground Exploitation Director, RAF Rivet Joint Aircraft, RAF Digby, as they become this year’s recipients of these significant awards. Within the Exchange Officer corps of 2022, their outstanding contributions clearly reflected the values that our veterans and the Foundation share: Service, Excellence, Integrity and Courage.

2020

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Swords of Honor 2022 Flight Lieutenant Christopher Bradshaw RAF Captain Kaitlin M. Ellwein USAF

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Flight Lieutenant Christopher Bradshaw 2022 Royal Air Force Museum American Foundation RAF Sword of Honor Recipient

FLIGHT LIEUTENANT CHRIS BRADSHAW, currently serving as the Director of Operations on the 820th Combat Operations Squadron within the 820th Base Defense Group at Moody Air Force Base, is held at extremely high readiness to deploy globally to provide Air Force Protection to USAF installations and high-value assets. Bradshaw has been a shining example of US and UK relations, epitomising the Shared Vision for 21st Century Cooperation for the Royal Air Force, the United States Air Force, and the United States Space Force. Bradshaw’s output this year, and his ability to deliver exceptional results, was pivotal to the 820th Combat Operations Squadron receiving, for the second consecutive year, the Air Combat Command’s Small Security Forces Squadron of the Year accolade. He has been indispensable to the 820th Base Defense Group in leading the planning for the entire unit’s Agile Combat Employment innovation, which culminated in Exercise Agile Flag in summer 2022. Bradshaw, using his abundant operational experience as an Air Force Protection and Terminal Attack Control specialist, has planned multiple high-intensity,

realistic red force scenarios to stress dislocated Base Defense Group elements to ensure they are ready to deploy into any theater. A significant achievement this year was Bradshaw’s drive to deliver the Base Defense Group’s first-ever participation in Exercise Red Flag-Nellis. The opening of the aperture for wider ground defense participation in future Red Flag exercises will have far-reaching benefits for the Air Forces of both our Nations. Bradshaw’s efforts will undoubtedly enhance our Nations’ abilities to protect our exquisite and high-value assets by providing agile, flexible and prepared force protection in the future contested environment, thus ensuring we can maintain dominance in the air and space domains. More broadly, it will also deepen cooperation and understanding between combat air and airbase ground defense force elements. In so doing, Bradshaw personifies the essence and purpose of the Exchange Program. In recognition of his outstanding contribution, Flight Lieutenant Chris Bradshaw is considered a most worthy recipient of the 2022 RAF Museum American Foundation RAF Sword of Honor.

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Captain Kaitlin M. Ellwein 2022 Royal Air Force Museum American Foundation USAF Sword of Honor Recipient

CAPTAIN KAITLIN ELLWEIN was posted to 54 Signals Unit, RAF Digby, in July 2020 as the lead Ground Exploitation Director. Ellwein and her team were responsible for the processing, exploitation, and dissemination of timely, relevant intelligence from the RAF’s RC-135 Rivet Joint aircraft to front-line forces and national decision-makers. Spearheading integration between the USAF and the RAF, her efforts drove USAF and RAF operational exchanges, both in onboard co-manning programs and analytical liaison, delivering invaluable opportunities to share best practices in tactics, techniques and procedures during live missions. Additionally, Ellwein created an online intelligence hub for the RAF Rivet Joint Enterprise, generating new analytical partnerships and operational collaboration between the RAF Enterprise and partner nations. Throughout her tour of duty, Ellwein was responsible for providing near-real-time processing, exploitation and dissemination of critical intelligence to UK, US, and Coalition leadership, including the passage of reporting directly to the UK Prime Minister. Ellwein and her team played a critical role in sustaining, protecting and bolstering the UK’s presence overseas, delivering Rivet Joint’s first operational

integration with HMS Queen Elizabeth and her Task Force, supporting UK and USMC F-35 operations in the Mediterranean, and providing threat warning and force protection to UK, US, and Allied forces across the Middle East. During her leadership of the RAF team, Ellwein made lasting, significant impacts to the RAF Rivet Joint’s intelligence processes and formalized the primary means of intelligence, reporting for the Ministry of Defence’s premier collection capability. Because of her efforts, the unit’s analysts were able to further refine and deepen their reporting, providing clear, concise, and relevant intelligence to military decisionmakers and the UK Government, and instituted an additional, effective type of time-sensitive intelligence reporting never before accomplished by the RAF Rivet Joint Enterprise. The Sword of Honor represents the eternal bond of RAF and USAF officers who answered their nation’s call, and Ellwein personifies the spirit and purpose of the Exchange Program. Her seamless integration into the RAF has furthered this bond and strengthened the ties between our two nations. In recognition of her efforts, Captain Ellwein has been selected as this year’s winner of the RAF Museum American Foundation Sword of Honor.

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RAFMAF Swords of Honor Winners 2009-22 2009

2016

Flt Lt Atila Batu RAF 2010

Wg Cdr E.S. Kendall RAF 2011

Sqn Ldr Sally Courtnadge RAF 2012

Flt Lt Si Holden RAF Maj Jeff Mrazik USAF

2016

2013

Wg Cdr Andrew Massie RAF Lt Col Jason Bartels USAF

Flt Lt Guy Butler RAF Maj Heather Fox USAF

2017

2014

Sqn Ldr Wesley Pead RAF Maj James Rodgers USAF

Flt Lt Drew Buxton RAF Maj Timothy Kipp USAF

2018

2015

Sqn Ldr Benjamin Durham RAF Lt Col T. Gwyddon Owen USAF

Sqn Ldr Ryan Wyn Beynon RAF Capt Rosemary Perez-Howell USAF

2019

Flt Lt Dave Finn RAF Lt Col Tyler B. Smith USAF

2015

2020

Grp Capt Andrew Lloyd RAF Capt Katie Broyles USAF 2021

Sqn Ldr Bonnie Posselt RAF Capt Robert Ippolito USAF (above) 2022

Flt Lt Christopher Bradshaw RAF Capt Kaitlin M. Ellwein USAF RAF MUSEUM AMERICAN FOUNDATION

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Board of directors CHAIRMAN Major General (Ret) Frederick F. Roggero USAF President and CEO, Resilient Solutions Ltd PRESIDENT Stuart K. Archer Dean of Administration, College of Information and Cyberspace, National Defense University VICE-PRESIDENT AND TREASURER Scott Thompson Partner, Assurance Leader, PricewaterhouseCoopers DIRECTORS Gary L. Halbert Partner, Holland & Knight LLP; Colonel (Ret) USAF

Kevin W. Billings Chief Executive, Legation Strategies; Honorary Group Captain, 601 Squadron, Royal Auxiliary Air Force

Nicola “Niki” Johnson Vice President, Government Affairs, Strategic Communications & Marketing, General Atomics – Aeronautical Systems (GA-ASI)

Heidi Grant President of Business Development, Boeing Defense Space & Security and Global Services

Matt Keegan President and CEO, SELEX Galileo Inc. – a Leonardo company

Roberto I. (Bert) Guerrero Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force, Operational Energy

Tim Manna

Sir Stuart Matthews Fellow, Royal Aeronautical Society Lt Col (Ret) Christine Mau USAF F-35 Contract Instructor Pilot, Lockheed Martin Jane Middleton Chairman, Airlines UK and Hon Air Commodore, 606 (Chiltern) Squadron John Sessions Chairman, Historic Flight Foundation

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Angela M. Coleman MRAeS

Craig McVay

DIRECTORS EMERITUS John Michaelson Charles S Scaperotto Alan Spence Robert Tullius

EX-OFFICIO DIRECTORS Air Commodore Jez Attridge OBE MSc RAF Maggie Appleton MBE Air Attaché, British Embassy Chief Executive, Royal Air Force Museum RAF MUSEUM AMERICAN FOUNDATION

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Royal Air Force Museum American Foundation One Metro Center, 700 12th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005 Tel: +1 (202) 558 5121 Email: usfoundation@rafmuseum.org Web: www.rafmaf.com

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