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ROYAL AIR FORCE BATTLE of BRITAIN COMMEMORATIVE DINNER Honoring the 25th Anniversary of the Gulf War Thursday, October 6th, 2016 The Willard Hotel, Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, D.C.


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STANDING TOGETHER Air Chief Marshal Sir Stephen Hillier KCB CBE DFC ADC MA RAF, Chief of the Air Staff

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RAF CENTENARY PROGRAM The RAF Museum highlights its plans for celebrating 100 years of the Royal Air Force in 2018 and reflects on the service’s achievements

WELCOME AND INTRODUCTION Major General Frederick F. Roggero USAF (Ret); President, RAFMAF

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OPERATION GRANBY/ OPERATION DESERT STORM: 25 YEARS LATER Lieutenant General David A. Deptula USAF (Ret)

THE START OF A SPECIAL RELATIONSHIP Recalling the origins of the USAF/RAF Military Personnel Exchange Program

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OUR GUESTS OF HONOR Air Chief Marshal Sir Glenn Torpy GCB CBE DSO ADC RAF (Ret) and General Charles A. Horner USAF

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ROALD DAHL AND THE ROYAL AIR FORCE A look back at the celebrated author’s wartime exploits

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THE ROYAL AIR FORCE MUSEUM AMERICAN FOUNDATION SWORDS OF HONOR The background to tonight’s presentations recognizing the most outstanding RAF and USAF officers on exchange over the past year SWORDS OF HONOR 2016 CITATIONS Wing Commander Andrew Massie RAF and Lieutenant Colonel Jason R. Bartels USAF

Cover image: © Imperial War Museums (GLF 707) Produced by Harfield Media Edited by Barry Davies Designed by J-P Stanway

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Standing together Air Chief Marshal Sir Stephen Hillier KCB CBE DFC ADC MA RAF, Chief of the Air Staff

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n this, the 25th anniversary year of Operation same No 121 Squadron. Such things provide me Desert Storm, I am particularly delighted to with a constant reminder of just how intrinsically attend my first annual dinner of the Royal linked our two nations and Air Forces are and Air Force Museum American Foundation. always have been. As someone who fought alongside the United We flew together in the Second World War, States Air Force (USAF) in that conflict and in in both the European and Pacific theaters, subsequent operations, and who is immensely again in Korea, and 25 years ago when Saddam proud to have been awarded the United States Hussein invaded Kuwait. That same spirit of Bronze Star, I am especially keen to support cooperation was also vital in air operations in the partnership between the world’s two the Balkans throughout the 1990s, and in Iraq, pre-eminent Air Forces. Libya and Afghanistan. It is a partnership that is ever more vital in these troubled and uncertain times, and one that COMMON GOALS is exceptionally well supported by the work of the And tonight, over the skies of Iraq and Syria, Foundation. The Foundation also has a huge part our crews are once again flying alongside each to play in celebrating other. Thanks to the both the forthcoming extensive Exchange Our people have the same 70th anniversary of Program, we have ‘can do’ attitude – the will to the USAF and the personnel embedded “fly, fight and win” upcoming 100th across each other’s anniversary of the Air Forces and in the Royal Air Force (RAF) – seminal moments in most sensitive roles. Much of our equipment, the development and future of air power. doctrine and training is the same and our people History is written and the future is built have the same ‘can do’ attitude – the will to by people, by their actions and by their deeds. “fly, fight and win.” Together, we are also now Throughout our histories, our two Air Forces and developing and bringing into service the F-35 our people have stood together and faced down Lightning, a leap forward in technology that will tyranny. In my office hangs a painting of Spitfires keep both our nations at the cutting edge from No 121 (Eagle) Squadron – part of the RAF of fighting air power for years to come. in the early years of the Second World War, but I therefore offer my sincere thanks to the flown by volunteer pilots from the United States. Royal Air Force Museum American Foundation In 2003, I was deployed in the Gulf, working for its continued and invaluable support and with the F-15Es of the 335th Fighter Squadron, for honoring those who have served, and who which was constituted in 1942 from that very are still serving. RAF MUSEUM AMERICAN FOUNDATION

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Welcome and introduction Major General Frederick F. Roggero USAF (Ret); President, RAFMAF

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he Royal Air Force Museum American To commemorate the outstanding example Foundation (RAFMAF) is honored of the numerous veterans throughout the and proud to host the Battle of Britain generations – from the Second World War to Commemorative Dinner and would like the present day – RAFMAF presents ceremonial to thank Chief of the Air Staff, Air Chief Marshal Swords of Honor to the RAF and USAF Exchange Sir Stephen Hillier KCB CBE DFC ADC MA RAF for Officers whose contributions have most reflected his, and the Royal Air Force’s, continued support. the values that our veterans, and the Foundation, We are also delighted to welcome General share: service, excellence, integrity and courage. Paul J. Selva, the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs It is these values that we honor in our young men of Staff, and General David L. Goldfein, the 21st and women of today, and encourage in the young Chief of Staff of the U.S. Air Force, to help us honor people of tomorrow. the outstanding service of the top Royal Air Force This year, it is our great privilege to, once and U.S. Air Force Exchange Officers of 2016. again, present two Swords of Honor to Exchange This year it is a great privilege to recognize Officers from both countries in recognition of the 25th anniversary the roles they play in of the First Gulf promoting relations The First Gulf War unequivocally War, encompassing between the RAF demonstrated air power as Operation Desert and the USAF, and a decisive force in the Shield, Desert Storm in keeping with the and Operation Granby. principles and values modern era of warfare The war was waged by we endorse. coalition forces from 34 nations, led by the United The RAF Sword will be presented to Wing States and the United Kingdom, in response to Commander Andrew Massie, who as an Exchange Iraq’s invasion and annexation of Kuwait. Officer was appointed to be the Deputy Division The war unequivocally demonstrated air Chief within the Strategy Division of the power as a decisive force in the modern era of Directorate of Strategy, Concepts and Doctrine at warfare. First, by defending the Kingdom of the Headquarters of the USAF in the Pentagon. Saudi Arabia and the associated build-up of The USAF Sword is awarded to Lieutenant Colonel coalition troops in the region by air for nearly Jason R. Bartels, Tornado GR4 pilot. After a five months, and then, by achieving total air year attending a GR4 conversion course at RAF superiority in the entire region through air Lossiemouth in Scotland – learning tactics, operations during January and February techniques and procedures in Aerial Interdiction, 1991, the coalition air forces set the stage for Evasion and CAS – Lt Col Bartels was posted to a combined air/ground operation that required 31 Squadron, RAF Marham, as Chief of Exercise only 100 hours to push all of the Iraqi forces plans, where he has flown more than 100 combat out of Kuwait. sorties over the past year. RAF MUSEUM AMERICAN FOUNDATION

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JOHNNY SAUNDERSON/ALAMY

The Boeing Chinook, pictured above in action during the First Gulf War, can now be viewed at the RAF Museum in Hendon

The directors of the Foundation convey their heartiest congratulations to this current generation of “Brothers and Sisters in arms,” and wish them every success in their future careers. In pursuing its mission, RAFMAF is also focused on education by supporting a number of key exhibits within the RAF Museum, from the magnificent P-51 Mustang Donald Duck – generously donated by Mr Bob Tullius, a RAFMAF director emeritus – to a more recent acquisition for the National Cold War Exhibition, the Sikorsky MH-53 Pave Low. The iconic Miles Mohawk – also owned by RAFMAF, and once owned by Charles Lindbergh and eventually requisitioned by the RAF in the UK while he was on tour – is a prize

exhibit in the Milestones of Flight gallery at Hendon. The aircraft was acquired in the U.S. and was painstakingly restored by the conservation craftsmen of the Sir Michael Beetham Conservation Centre. Moreover, the Hendon site has greatly benefited from the addition of the Boeing Chinook exhibit – a custom-made recreation of the RAF Chinook Bravo November, the sterling service of which has included Distinguished Flying Cross awards to its pilots in both the Falklands campaign and in Operation Desert Storm. Thank you for attending tonight, and for your continued support of RAFMAF and the RAF Museum.

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Operation Granby/ Operation Desert Storm: 25 years later Lieutenant General David A. Deptula USAF (Ret)

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he hour 0300 Baghdad time on January 17th, 2016 marked the 25th anniversary of the start of Operation Granby/Operation Desert Storm. Granby/Desert Storm was a turning point in the conduct of warfare, as it set the conditions for modern warfare in five major ways: 1. it set expectations for low casualties on both sides of the conflict; 2. it presaged precision in the application of force; 3. it introduced prosecution of a combined/ joint air campaign integrating all coalition/service air operations under the functional command of an airman; 4. it established desired effects as the focus of strategy and in the planning and conduct of operations; and 5. for the first time in history, air power was used as the key force – or centerpiece – in the strategy and execution of a war.

saw an inversion in the paradigm of traditional force application. Long-time military expert Dr Ben Lambeth has observed that, today, “...the classic roles of air power and land power have changed places in major combat... Fixedwing air power has, by now, proven itself to be far more effective than ground combat capabilities in creating the necessary conditions for rapid offensive success.” The opening attacks of Granby/Desert Storm signaled a radical departure in the conduct of war. More than 150 discrete targets – in addition to regular Iraqi Army forces and SAM sites – made up the master attack plan for the opening 24 hours. The war began with more targets attacked in one day than the total number of targets hit by all of the Eighth Air Force in 1942 and 1943 combined. That is more separate targets attacked in less time than ever before. Those involved in the Granby/Desert Storm air campaign applied force, not just across the entire country geographically, but also across all the key strategic and operational level centers of gravity. How was that accomplished? And what was different from previous conflicts? Technological advances in conjunction with an effects-based approach to planning and execution allowed us to institute a new concept of operations that has been described as “parallel” war. This is the simultaneous application of force across the totality of the enemy system.

Granby/Desert Storm was a 43-day war. Air power operated throughout the conflict from start to finish, and ground forces acted as a blocking force for almost the entire war as air power destroyed enemy forces and achieved desired effects against key systems from above. Only in the final days of the conflict were ground forces committed to combat and used to reoccupy Kuwait. In this respect, Granby/Desert Storm

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TRINITY MIRROR/MIRRORPIX/ALAMY

An RAF Tornado F3 fighter taxis in front of a USAF Galaxy transport aircraft in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia

While simultaneous attack has always been effects-based planning allowed the targeting a desired element of offensive warfare, it never of 36 stealth aircraft armed with precisionevolved to the parallel war demonstrated in guided munitions against more separate targets Granby/Desert Storm for three reasons: first, than the complete non-stealth/non-precision the requirement for mass to compensate for a air and missile force launched from the entire lack of precise weapons delivery; second, the high complement of six aircraft carriers and all the number of resources required to suppress enemy other ships in the theater combined. air defenses; and, The stealthy F-117 third, the absence of a force flew fewer than For the first time in history, focus on effects, rather two percent of the air power was used as the than destruction, combat sorties, but centerpiece in the strategy and to achieve control over struck more than an opponent. 40 percent of the execution of a war The first two fixed targets. challenges required technological solutions, and The leverage that stealth demonstrated were simply not mature before the mid 1980s. during the First Gulf War is further illustrated Those two solutions were stealth and precision. by the following example. This involves the first To provide insight into the significance of those non-stealthy attack on one target with three aim two elements, during the first 24 hours of points in the Basrah area – Shaibah Airfield to Granby/Desert Storm, stealth, precision and be exact. The attack package consisted of four RAF MUSEUM AMERICAN FOUNDATION

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USAF F-15C Eagles are lined up at the King Faisal Airbase in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia

US Navy A-6s dropping bombs, along with four Saudi Tornado bomb-droppers; five US Marine EA-6Bs jamming acquisition radars; four US Air Force F-4Gs taking out one type of surface-toair missile system; 17 US Navy F-18s taking out another; four F/A-18s as escort; and three drones to cause the enemy radars to radiate. That adds up to a total of 41 aircraft – eight dropping bombs on three aim points on one target. At approximately the same time we had 20 F-117s, all of which were were dropping bombs on 38 aim points on 28 separate targets. That is fewer than half the aircraft hitting more than 12 times the number of aim points. Stealth and precision facilitated the actualization of the third, and perhaps most important, component of that conflict – a concept of operations to achieve control over an enemy’s essential systems. It is a methodology that realizes that an adversary’s ability to operate

as desired is ultimately as important, or even more so, than the destruction of the forces it relies on for conquest. LOCATING MISSILE SITES The early stages of Granby saw Tornado GR1s involved in low-level anti-airfield and suppression of enemy air defense operations, before moving to medium-level missions using 1,000lb bombs and, later, Paveway II laser-guided bombs against other targets. The GR1As carried out low-level tactical reconnaissance sorties, and one of their main objectives was locating mobile Scud missile sites. RAF Tornado F3s shared the responsibility of air defense with Tornado F3s of the Royal Saudi Air Force (RSAF) and F-15 Eagles of the RSAF and US Air Force. Jaguars from all three squadrons at Coltishall deployed initially to Thumrait in Oman in August 1990, before transferring to Muharraq in Bahrain.

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Initially deployed to provide laser designation for Tornado GR1s, RAF Buccaneer S2Bs also undertook bombing missions

The main area of operations for Jaguars These aircraft delivered more than 3,000 tons of was Kuwait, where tactical targets such as ordnance, including some 6,000 1,000lb bombs artillery and missile sites, coastal defenses and (over 1,000 of which were laser-guided), more military installations were attacked. Mobilized than 100 anti-radar missiles and nearly 700 airfor combat inside two weeks, Blackburn to-ground rockets. The support helicopter force Buccaneer S2Bs were the last RAF aircraft flew nearly 900 sorties during the period, while to deploy to the region. Initially tasked with the tanker force offloaded some 13,000 tons providing laser of fuel to RAF and designation for coalition aircraft. The RAF deployed 158 aircraft Tornado GR1s, The air transport in support of Operation Granby, the Buccaneers began force carried 25,000 and flew more than 6,000 sorties their own bombing passengers and some missions towards the 50,000 tons of freight. end of the conflict. We built the air attack strategy of Granby/ The RAF deployed 158 aircraft in support of Desert Storm by treating Iraq and the Saddam Operation Granby, and flew over 6,000 sorties in regime as a system of systems, and designed Granby between the start of hostilities on January the operation to achieve paralysis of Saddam’s 17th, 1991, and the cessation on February 28th key strategic centers of gravity: leadership; key the same year. Offensive sorties by Tornado essential systems; infrastructure; information; GR1s and Jaguars totaled more than 2,000. and fielded military forces. RAF MUSEUM AMERICAN FOUNDATION

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Ground crew arm Tornado GR1s jets with bombs at the King Faisal Airbase in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia

The campaign had five key objectives aimed at targeting these centers of gravity: 1. Gain and maintain air supremacy to permit unhindered air operations 2. Isolate and incapacitate Hussein regime 3. Destroy Iraqi nuclear, biological and chemical warfare capability 4. Eliminate Iraq’s offensive military capability 5. Render Iraqi Army in Kuwait ineffective, causing its collapse

of Kuwait. The coalition leadership and their military commanders built a strategy; formed a partnership; deployed the forces required to execute that strategy; garnered United Nations backing; executed the strategy; and accomplished their declared objectives by February 28th, 1991 – seven months from start to finish 2. A comprehensive, coherent campaign plan that focused on dismantling the key centers of gravity – leadership; key essential systems; infrastructure; population perceptions; and military forces – that paralyzed Iraq as a state, along with its military regime 3. Putting a coalition force air component commander in charge of the air campaign, and treating each aircraft, missile and air defense element for the capability they brought, regardless of the service or country from which they came

These objectives were all achieved rapidly and decisively. The tenets that made Granby/Desert Storm such a success were: 1. Strong political will of the coalition leadership involved. Then Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher exhorted then President George H W Bush to be firm against Iraqi aggression. On August 5th, 1990, the President stated, “This will not stand” in response to the invasion

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A pair of RAF Tornado F3 fighters on patrol. The same aircraft from the Saudi Air Force also took a share in air defense

4. Reversing the errors of Vietnam by replacing the gradualism of the Rolling Thunder air campaign with the Instant Thunder of the Desert Storm air campaign 5. Adopting a true coalition approach to the effort using the right force at the right place at the right time – not a traditional land-centric plan that only focused on the opponent fielded military forces

civilian, at home and abroad. While, inevitably, it is impossible to refer to all of those whose contribution would otherwise merit it, the relative brevity of this dispatch should not detract from the highest esteem in which we all should hold our participants in Operation Granby, whether those in the theater of operations or those who supported them from bases in the United Kingdom, British Forces Germany and Cyprus.” It may be wise to apply the tenets of what made Operation Granby/Operation Desert Storm such a success to our adversaries of today and tomorrow. For air power to be effective, it needs to be applied like a thunderstorm aimed at the head and heart of our adversaries, not just a drizzle against their hands and feet.

SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTION The RAF was directly involved in the planning and operations that lead to the successful outcome of the challenge posed by the raw aggression of Saddam Hussein in 1990. The RAF’s contribution was significant and distinguished, as was stated so well by Air Chief Marshal Sir Patrick Hine, Joint Commander of Operation Granby, in his dispatch of June 29th, 1991: “A full-length epic would be required to do justice to the endeavors, bravery and resolve of all those involved, military and

Lt Gen David A. Deptula USAF (Ret) was the principal air attack planner for the First Gulf War air campaign and constructed the master air attack plans for each day of that operation. He is currently the Dean of the Mitchell Institute for Aerospace Studies.

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Our guests of honor Recalling the Gulf War experiences of our two honored guests: Air Chief Marshal Sir Glenn Torpy and General Charles A. Horner

Operation Allied Force, the NATO intervention operation in Kosovo, for which he was made a Commander of the British Empire. He spent a short time as Director of Air Operations in the Ministry of Defense before taking over as Assistant Chief of the Defense Staff (Operations). Sir Glenn became Air Officer Commanding No 1 Group in March 2001, with responsibility for all RAF Strike Attack, Offensive Support, Air Defense and Reconnaissance forces. During his time at No 1 Group he commanded the 22,000 British Forces participating in Exercise Saif Sareea II in Oman, and in 2003 was the UK Air Commander for Operation Iraqi Freedom. For this, he was awarded the United States Legion of Merit for his part in the coalition operation. In July 2003, he became Deputy Commanderin-Chief Strike Command before being appointed Chief of Joint Operations at the Permanent Joint Headquarters in July 2004. Here, he was responsible for all the UK’s overseas operations, including those in Iraq and Afghanistan. Sir Glenn became Chief of the Air Staff on April 13th, 2006. During his flying career Sir Glenn has amassed some 4,300 hours of fast-jet flying, predominately on Jaguar, Hawk and Tornado, but also on Typhoon. He retired from the RAF in July 2009 and joined BAE Systems as their Senior Military Advisor in January 2011.

AIR CHIEF MARSHAL SIR GLENN TORPY GCB CBE DSO ADC RAF (RET)

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ir Chief Marshal Sir Glenn Torpy’s operational flying career included two tours flying the Jaguar in the reconnaissance and attack roles, and a tour as a Qualified Weapons Instructor on the Hawk and command of No 13 Squadron, a Tornado GR1A tactical reconnaissance squadron. In this latter role he saw active service during the First Gulf War, for which he was awarded the Distinguished Service Order. In 1994, he assumed command of Royal Air Force Bruggen in Germany, the largest Tornado base in the RAF. Sir Glenn graduated from the Royal College of Defense Studies in December 1997 and the Higher Command and Staff Course in April 1998. He subsequently moved to the UK Permanent Joint Headquarters as Assistant Chief of Staff J3 (Operations), where he was involved in ongoing US/UK operations in the No-Fly Zones and Operation Desert Fox in Iraq, as well as

LOOKING BACK Sir Glenn spent most of his career involved in operations, much of it associated with coalition operations in the Middle East. He reflects very fondly on his memories of commanding No 13 Squadron. This was the last of 11 Tornado

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The aircrew of No 13 Squadron, which was commanded by Sir Glenn Torpy during the Gulf War and flew Tornado GR1As

Special Operations units, undertaking Battle Damage Assessment and gathering intelligence in preparation for the final ground offensive. Uniquely, the detachment operated for the whole of its time in Iraq at night and low level, typically at 200 feet, to maximize the potential of the reconnaissance sensors and improve survivability. The detachment was fortunate not to suffer any casualties – but Sir Glenn recalls that there were some interesting moments. Having been involved at the tactical level in the First Gulf War, Sir Glenn considers himself very fortunate to have had the opportunity – as the UK’s Air Component Commander for the Second Gulf War in 2003 – to see a major air campaign executed at the operational level from the Coalition Air Operations Centre in Saudi Arabia. Working alongside General Buzz Moseley, the overall Coalition Air Commander, provided a privileged insight into the immense capability of the USAF, the benefits that the Royal Air Force had gained from operating and exercising with the USAF for many years and, most importantly, the critical role of air power in shaping and enabling the battle space for the maritime and land components. This shared experience continues today and ensures that our two Air Forces are able to face the increasingly complex security challenges of the future.

squadrons to form in the RAF and was one of only two dedicated to the tactical reconnaissance and attack roles. The Squadron stood up on January 1st, 1990, with new GR1A aircraft equipped with a state-of-the-art infra-red tactical reconnaissance system that exploited the Tornado’s low-level night capability and allowed information gathered by the sensors to be reviewed in the air and data linked back to ground headquarters. Despite the embryonic status of the capability, when Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait in August 1990 No 13 Squadron started a comprehensive work-up program to prepare for potential operations in the Gulf. However, it was not until January 1991 that a decision was finally taken to deploy a combined detachment of Tornado GR1As from No 13 Squadron and No 2 Squadron to Dhahran in Saudi Arabia. LITTLE TIME TO PREPARE The detachment arrived in Dhahran on 15 January, which meant there was little opportunity for air crew to familiarise themselves with the theater before operations started on two days later; indeed, the first sortie that many air crew undertook was an operational mission into Iraq! Nonetheless, over the following weeks the GR1A detachment acquitted itself extremely well, particularly in searching for Scud missile launchers in the Western Desert, supporting

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“Many of us here who are in this position now were in Vietnam, and that war left a profound impact on our feelings about how our nation ought to conduct its business,” the general said at the time. A war in Iraq, he said, “should not be dragged out in an effort to achieve some politcal objective.” As events proved, General Horner’s views – shared by many senior commanders and by millions of Americans – have become a cornerstone of American policy in the Gulf. And the 54-year-old three-star general is orchestrating the air war with a skill and an enthusiasm that have won high praise from the White House, the Pentagon and old friends at home. “We are extremely proud that he’s over there and doing the job,” James W. Alexander, a longtime friend, said in a telephone interview yesterday from Sumter, S.C., where he is a Chamber of Commerce official and General Horner is commander of the Ninth Tactical Air Force at nearby Shaw Air Force Base.

GENERAL CHARLES A. HORNER USAF In the following article, first published in the New York Times on January 19th, 1991, writer Robert D McFadden profiled the then commander of the American Air Force in the Persian Gulf

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he lush green jungles of Vietnam were far from the Saudi desert and from the tactical demands weighing on Lieut. Gen. Charles A. Horner, commander of TOUGH. POPULAR COMMANDER the American Air Force in the Persian Gulf, as A tough, popular commander with a jovial, his jets streaked over Iraq yesterday, pounding easygoing manner off duty that reflects his missile sites, command centers, radar stations smalltown boyhood in Iowa, General Horner is and other targets. regarded by subordinates and fellow commanders But, friends and colleagues of the front-line as a hard-driving, task-oriented field officer officer say, the American experience in Vietnam, who regularly takes to the skies, not to bomb or where General Horner flew 111 combat missions strafe, but to keep up his flying proficiency and to as a highly decorated F-105 fighter pilot, heavily understand the problems of pilots. influenced the Since 1987, general’s perceptions when he was promoted Asked who was to blame for of modern warfare, to general, he has been bringing the Middle East to the just as it has shaped in charge of the the strategies pursued Central Command brink of war... he smiled wearily and by the United States Air Forces, which replied, “Mankind is responsible” in the Gulf war. are based in South In August, when Carolina but Iraq invaded Kuwait and General Horner was responsible for the Middle East Theater that sent to Saudi Arabia as Air Force commander and stretches from Kenya to Pakistan and contains briefly as acting commander of all American forces 70 percent of the world’s oil reserves. there, he argued forcefully against a protracted He was named commander of American war, if one had to be fought, against any gradual forces in Saudi Arabia on Aug. 9, but held the escalation, as in Vietnam, and for swift decisive post for only a few weeks, until he was succeeded strikes to win as quickly as possible. by Gen. H. Norman Schwarzkopf. Since the war RAF MUSEUM AMERICAN FOUNDATION

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General Horner (back row, second left) joined senior officials to discuss U.S. military intervention in the Gulf. These included (front row, from second left): General Colin Powell, Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney and General Norman Schwarzkopf

began three days ago, General Horner has largely stayed out of the limelight. But yesterday, after another day of battle successes, he appeared at a news conference in Riyadh, told how his pilots had downed eight enemy aircraft, showed videotapes with dramatic pilot’s-eye views of bombing runs and spoke of the task of bringing thousands of details together to fight a complex air war.

over North Vietnam – 41 in his first tour of duty and 70 in a second. After his two tours of duty in Vietnam, General Horner served as an F-105 instructor at Nellis Air Force Base in Nevada and went on to hold a number of positions at the Tactical Air Command at Langley Air Force Base in Virginia. Since May 1, 1987, he and his wife, the former Mary Jo Gitchell, have lived at Shaw Air Base, his headquarters. The couple have three children, Susan Ann, John Patrick and Nancy Jo. In an interview last month with The Christian Science Monitor, the general declared that the technology of war – the speed of planes, the electronic precision of cruise missiles and night combat, the enormous destructiveness of modern weapons – had become so efficient that peace was the only hope for any rational person. “War is mankind in its most ludicrous state,” he said. Asked who was to blame for bringing the Middle East to the brink of war, he said nothing of Saddam Hussein or Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait. He smiled wearily and replied, “Mankind is responsible.”

DISTINGUISHED CAREER Charles Albert Horner was born in Davenport, Iowa, on Oct. 19, 1936, and attended high school in Des Moines. He joined the Air Force with a second lieutenant’s commission in 1958, shortly after graduating from the University of Iowa. In a 32-year career as a pilot and officer, he served in Europe, Southeast Asia and the United States and has amassed 4,500 hours of flying time. A year after his parents, his sister and her husband and their two children died in a car crash in 1964, the young officer went to war in Vietnam, joining a tactical fighter wing at Korat Royal Air Force Base in Thailand, from which he flew scores of combat missions

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Roald Dahl and the Royal Air Force As the RAF Museum marks the 100th anniversary of the celebrated author’s birth, Sqn Ldr Graham Laurie MVO RAF (Ret) highlights the writer’s wartime exploits

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t the outbreak of the Second World War, Roald Dahl was working for Shell in Tanganyika, now part of Tanzania. He saw action on the first day of the war as a temporary Army officer while guarding the road south of the capital, Dar es Salaam, when he arrested 70 Germans trying to escape what had once been German East Africa. Less than two months into the war he decided he wanted to become a pilot. Following a medical he was accepted and trained in Nairobi, Kenya, on Tiger Moths. Advanced training on the Hawker Hart followed in Habbanyiah, Iraq. After being awarded his wings, Dahl was made a Pilot Officer in the RAF Volunteer Reserve and was posted to No 80 Squadron on Gloster Gladiators in North Africa. While delivering an aircraft he carried out a forced landing in the desert and overturned, resulting in severe head injuries, blindness and back injuries. After four months’ hospitalization in Alexandria, Egypt, he was passed fit to rejoin his squadron, which was now in Greece flying the Hurricane Mk1. Dahl had two kills in his first three sorties and was later one of the few to survive the famous Battle of Athens. No 80 Squadron was decimated, but reformed in Palestine in mid 1941, However, Dahl was grounded after he suffered headaches when pulling ‘G’ and was sent back to the UK. After nearly a year, Dahl was posted as Assistant Air Attaché to the US, where he met the writer C.S. Forester, and his first short story was published in the Saturday Evening Post. His

Roald Dahl’s literary career began to take flight after he was posted to Washington, D.C. as Assistant Air Attaché in 1942

children’s book Gremlins followed, but a proposed Walt Disney film adaptation never materialized. In 1944, Dahl returned to the UK briefly for two security courses, before returning to the US to work for William Stephenson, head of British Security Coordination, and becoming a spy. He became a regular at the White House, playing tennis and cards, and it is said that what was spoken there on a Monday evening was on Winston Churchill’s desk the next morning. The end of the war saw the start of Dahl’s career as a full-time writer, as he became one of the world’s bestselling authors, with more than 250 million books sold in 59 languages.

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RAF Centenary Program Looking ahead to the 100th anniversary of the Royal Air Force, the RAF Museum reflects on the Service’s achievements and the people who made them possible

To mark the 100th anniversary of the RAF in 2018, the RAF Museum aims to raise £23.5 million to transform its London site

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orged in the crucible of the First World War, the Royal Air Force (RAF) will commemorate its Centenary on April 1st, 2018. By inspiring technological development, pioneering cultural change and pushing the boundaries of human achievement, the RAF has touched the lives of millions around the globe. The Centenary provides the RAF Museum with the opportunity to reflect on these 100 years of history and, by sharing the stories of its men and women, to tell the story of the RAF as an essential part of a global community. The story of the RAF began before the First World War with the formation of the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) in 1912. However, the First World War demonstrated the growing importance of air

power to the conduct of war. These lessons remain as relevant today to many of the world’s air forces, including the United States Air Force (USAF), as they did to those serving at the time. Indeed, if by 1918 the character of war had changed, then air power in part was a fundamental aspect of the change that occurred – leading to victory on the battlefield, on the high seas and in the air. For example, during the First World War, the chief weapon was artillery; however, once static warfare emerged in 1915, it fell to air power to provide the intelligence and situational awareness that supported the increasing effectiveness of artillery. As well as intelligence and situational awareness, the RAF and its forebears, the RFC

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and the Royal Naval Air Service, undertook The fundamental transformation came key doctrinal roles that are recognizable today. with the creation and formation of the RAF. Control of the air, both over the battlefield and During the First World War, it was recognized in defense of the UK, became of paramount that the requirements to efficiently conduct air importance, as it was necessary to defend warfare needed better management, and attempts critical assets. were made in the UK to do just that. However, Furthermore, attack operations, both at it took Germany’s bombing of the UK in 1917 to the tactical and, later, strategic levels became force through real change. increasingly utilized during the First World War to support ground operations and to take the war BEGINNINGS OF THE RAF to the enemy. While these varied in success, The publication of the so-called Smuts Report, they illustrated the potential of air power, which which was commissioned as an outcome of the would come to the German attacks, fore during the Second was far-reaching “I urge you all to support this World War through and recommended exciting program, which will the combined efforts the creation of an provide an enduring legacy as of the RAF and the independent air US Army Air Force. service with an we look to the future” Even air mobility associated government AIR CHIEF MARSHAL SIR STEPHEN HILLIER got a look-in during body to manage their KCB CBE DFC MA RAF the First World War, requirements. The CHIEF OF THE AIR STAFF with No 30 Squadron British Government RFC undertaking airborne resupply missions accepted these findings, and in late 1917 the Air during the Siege of Kut in 1916. This developing Force Constitution Act was passed. capability has consistently been brought to the On April 1st, 1918, the RAF was formed. In fore by the RAF in support of global operations, as creating the third service, the British Government well as in delivering humanitarian aid throughout made an environment whereby the ideas related the Service’s history. When the RFC deployed to to the use of air power were not subordinated to France in 1914, it could be described as the world’s the needs of the other services. It allowed, and first expeditionary air force – an idea very much continues to allow, for innovative thinking about still with us today. While history does not repeat the use of aircraft as a means of military power. itself, there is a degree of symmetry and the First This innovative thinking continues to this day in World War proved the efficacy of air power. conjunction with principal allies such as the US. RAF MUSEUM AMERICAN FOUNDATION

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The RAF Museum’s London site, once known as the London Aerodrome, was the pioneering home of aviation in the early 20th century. The first UK airmail, parachute jump from an airplane, night flights and aerial defense of a city all took place here. Millions flocked to the Hendon site to enjoy the aerial displays and dramatic exploits of the early pilots. Requisitioned during the First World War, the London Aerodrome played a key role in aircraft production and the subsequent development of North London. Later, as RAF Hendon, it was the setting for the Hendon Air Pageants of the 1920s and 1930s, the forerunners of the great air shows of today, which mobilized public support behind the fledgling RAF. During the Second World War, RAF Hendon was an operational fighter station, playing a role in the Battle of Britain, before acquiring hard runways and becoming a transport base. Ahead of the RAF’s historic anniversary in 2018, the RAF Museum is seeking to raise £23.5 million, enabling the transformation of our London site, creating a program of new exhibitions that explore the story of the RAF across its first 100 years, and inviting visitors to imagine its future. The RAF Museum’s RAF Centenary Program will commemorate 100 years of service and sacrifice, courage and honor, while celebrating the spirit and values of the people who have contributed to the RAF story. This

will include the many nations that have either supported or been supported by the RAF since its formation. Engineers, pilots, ground crew, explorers, entrepreneurs, medical staff and many others have played their role in building this most respected Service. The RAF Centenary Program will celebrate their achievements and inspire a new generation of pioneers, inventors and leaders. These stories are of ordinary men and women whose spirit and values have upheld the RAF motto – Per Ardua ad Astra (Through adversity to the stars) – both through the theatre of war and in establishing and maintaining peace. The Royal Air Force Museum’s RAF Centenary Program will deliver: • A new welcoming Visitor Centre • Three new innovative exhibitions • A new restaurant in a historic RAF building • STEM (science, engineering, technology and mathematics) and heritage learning program • Volunteering and training opportunities We will tell the special, shared RAF and USAF story through our new digital project, My RAF Story, and we encourage you all to participate in this project when its launches in 2018. Visit www.rafmuseum.org.uk/centenaryprogramme to stay informed about our RAF Centenary Program progress and the exciting developments at the RAF Museum.

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The start of a special relationship The USAF/RAF Military Personnel Exchange Program

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exchange position to be occupied. Moreover, the individual must have demonstrated capabilities for future positions of greater responsibility and must possess the grade, skill, training, and academic qualifications required. One of the early exchange officers at the USAF Academy in Colorado Springs (April 1960June 1962) was Squadron Leader J A G Slessor, son of Sir John. In his end-of-tour report, he concluded: “I can only add that I hope that the frequent interchange of personnel between our two countries will be the means of our maintaining

ow, while still pursuing the method of realizing our over-all strategic concept, I come to the crux of what I have travelled here to say. Neither the sure prevention of war, nor the continuous rise of world organization will be gained without what I have called the fraternal association of the English-speaking peoples. This means a special relationship between the British Commonwealth and Empire and the United States of America. Ladies and gentlemen, this is no time for generality, and I will venture to the precise. Fraternal association requires not only the growing friendship and mutual understanding between our two vast but kindred systems of society, but the continuance of the intimate relations between our military advisers, leading to common study of potential dangers, the similarity of weapons and manuals of instructions, and to the interchange of officers and cadets.” The above words are taken from Winston Churchill’s ‘Iron Curtain’ speech, delivered in Fulton, Missouri, on March 5th, 1946, in which he clearly articulated the need for an exchange of personnel in order to glean mutual understanding. Five years later, under the watchful eyes of General Hoyt Vandenberg and Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir John Slessor, the USAF/ RAF Military Personnel Exchange Program was created. Initially, the program permitted 50 exchange posts in each Air Force. These are regularly reviewed and, in recent years, that figure has reduced to 36 posts in each force. Participation in the Program is on a selective basis. To be considered, an individual must be well versed in the current practices, technical training and doctrine of their organization, and be particularly qualified through experience for the

Air Marshal Sir John Slessor and General Hoyt Vandenberg were the first guardians of the Military Personnel Exchange Program

the friendship of so many officers, their families and civilians whom we have come to know so well. I share the conviction shared by my predecessor that the Exchange Scheme is an invaluable program and it is clearly vital that the presence of exchange officers should be continued.” Seventy years on from Churchill’s speech, his vision of “intimate relations between our military advisers, leading to common study of potential dangers, the similarity of weapons and manuals of instructions, and to the interchange of officers and cadets” remains valid and will do so for many years into the future.

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The Royal Air Force Museum American Foundation

Swords of Honor

The 2015 Swords of Honor winners, Sqn Ldr Ryan Wyn Beynon and Capt Rosemary Perez-Howell, proudly hold their awards

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n 2009, the Foundation instituted the Sword of Honor, to be presented annually to the RAF Officer on exchange with the United States Air Forces (USAF) who has contributed most in the previous year to relations between our two great nations and their air forces. In 2012, another Sword was added to recognize the most outstanding USAF officer on exchange with the RAF. The Swords, donated by RAFMAF Board member Tim Manna, are an embodiment of the Foundation’s mission to strengthen and educate present and future generations about the importance of the special UK/US relationship within the field of aviation. They symbolize the excellent work of Exchange Officers on both sides of the Atlantic. The original Sword is the same as that of a Royal Air Force Officer, made by British specialist Pooley’s Swords. It has a single-edged straight blade with a gold-plated brass hilt, white fish-skin grip, and a brass pommel in the form of an eagle. A stamped, gold-plated brass cartouche bears the bird emblem of the RAF. The Sword also bears the

inscription: “Oh, thus be it ever when freemen shall stand”, a line from Francis Scott Key’s 1814 poem, The Star-Spangled Banner. It was flown from England to Everett, Washington, by RAFMAF Board member John Sessions in his Consolidated B-25 Mitchell Grumpy. This sword now hangs in the British Embassy in Washington, D.C. The second Sword, displayed in the Pentagon, is an exact duplicate apart from the inscription from Winston Churchill regarding the RAF pilots, who came from many nations including the United States, to fly in the Battle of Britain. It reads, “Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few.” Each winner of the Sword receives a miniature replica. Last year’s RAF Sword recipient was Squadron Leader Ryan Wyn Beynon, an HH-60G pilot on 66th Rescue Squadron, part of the 563rd Rescue Group at Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada. The USAF Sword was awarded to Captain Rosemary Perez-Howell, who served as the first-ever UK Operational Test and Evaulation exchange officer from the RC-135 C/W Rivet Joint Community.

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SWORDS OF HONOR 2016 Wing Commander Andrew Massie RAF Lieutenant Colonel Jason R. Bartels USAF

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S WO R D S O F H O N O R 2 0 1 6

Wing Commander Andrew Massie RAF 2016 Royal Air Force Museum American Foundation RAF Sword of Honor Recipient

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ing Commander Andy Massie completed his Advanced Staff Training in the United States at the Air Command and Staff College, Maxwell AFB, and was subsequently selected for the prestigious CAS’ SPAATZ Fellowship at the School of Advanced Air and Space Studies, also at Maxwell AFB. Graduating at the head of his year group on both courses, he was subsequently posted as an Exchange Officer to be the Deputy Division Chief within the Strategy Division of the Directorate of Strategy, Concepts and Doctrine at the Headquarters of the United States Air Force (USAF) in the Pentagon. On arrival at the Pentagon in June 2015, Wing Commander Massie quickly integrated into the team and established himself as a leading light among those responsible for delivering innovative and challenging approaches to the USAF’s pressing issues and predicted future challenges. Of particular note, his ideas were influential in the development of the new USAF Mission Statement adopted by the Chief of Staff of the USAF and which will likely endure as the conceptual fulcrum for the USAF for the next two decades. Separately, he was involved in reconceiving the USAF forward basing model and designed a new ‘adaptive basing concept’. This effectively allows Combined Forces Air Component Commanders to maneuver air forces at a theatre level. Both Pacific and European Air Force Commands have already seized on this model as a future scheme for basing and maneuver in a contested environment.

A genuine air power strategist with significant intellect and insight, he produces compelling written and verbal arguments and his articles have been published by the Mitchell Institute for Aerospace Studies, War on the Rocks and Strategic Studies Quarterly. He critiqued the Third Offset Strategy in a well-respected online forum, suggesting that the concept failed to adequately address the risk of escalation to nuclear conflict. In his next speech on the subject, the Deputy Secretary of Defense addressed the issue headon, reflecting that he had read and heeded Wing Commander Massie’s critique. Representing the USAF to critical acclaim, he impressively presented his thesis on Domain Control and Central Purpose of the USAF at the prestigious Mitchell Institute on Capitol Hill. A member of the bespoke Strategy PhD program offered by the Air University at Maxwell AFB, he hopes to complete his dissertation in the near future. In August 2016, Wing Commander Massie took command of No 39 Squadron, a Royal Air Force (RAF) Reaper/MQ-9 squadron based at Creech AFB in Nevada. Wing Commander Massie is an exceptional strategist who has delivered innovative ideas and concepts to address a number of current and emerging issues. He epitomizes the RAF ‘Thinking to Win’ approach and he is an outstanding Ambassador for both the RAF and wider UK defense. In recognition of his efforts over the past 12 months, Wing Commander Massie has been selected as this year’s winner of the RAF Museum American Foundation RAF Sword of Honor.

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S WO R D S O F H O N O R 2 0 1 6

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S WO R D S O F H O N O R 2 0 1 6

Lieutenant Colonel Jason R. Bartels USAF 2016 Royal Air Force Museum American Foundation USAF Sword of Honor Recipient

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t Col Jason R. Bartels is currently serving as a Tornado GR4 pilot and the Chief of Exercise Plans in 31 Squadron, RAF Marham. Over the past year he has flown more than 100 combat sorties on Operation Shader, amassing over 700 combat hours and 950 on type. In addition to operational flying, he has focused on high-impact, low-cost total force training and USAF participation in RAF Marham Families and Friends Day. His contributions to the RAF are unmatched by any other Exchange Officer. Lt Col Bartels was integral to improving RAF combat operations in two different theaters, on five combat deployments. Beginning in 2014, he deployed on the final combat air mission on Operation Herrick, Kandahar, Afghanistan. His achievements included flawless support to Troops in Contact (TIC). Returning from Herrick, he was chosen to meet the Prime Minister to discuss the strategic impacts of air power. He then deployed to RAF Akrotiri, Cyprus, to join the campaign against ISIS, where he was awarded the prestigious Arthur Barrett Prize. In November 2015, Lt Col Bartels returned to Akrotiri. His expertise as an A-10 instructor pilot proved pivotal in the stand-up of the RAF Typhoon’s first combat operations and he is widely regarded as the Operation Shader expert. During this deployment he distinguished himself in combat operations in Iraq and Syria. Additionally, he recognized a shortcoming in air-air tanking standards and worked with USAF units to improve ATP-56 procedures. Finally,

Lt Col Bartels worked to improve Link-16 CAS procedures in the CENTCOM AOR, ultimately saving coalition lives. As Chief of Exercise plans, Lt Col Bartels developed a series of exercises that included the RAF Regiment, USAF CV-22s, C-130s and HH-60s. This training is unparalleled in recent RAF history, made positive news headlines, improved capability and strengthened the special UK-US relationship. Shortly after, he and his squadron were using that training as they flew over Iraq in support of C-130 humanitarian aid drops to the Yazidi people. Lt Col Bartels has been pivotal in organizing the air component of the last two RAF Marham Families and Friends Days (with more than 10,000 personnel in attendance). He secured thousands of tickets for UK-based US Airmen and their families to attend the event, further enhancing the UK-US partnership. In addition, Lt Col Bartels recently married Sqn Ldr H Reade, an RAF Medical Officer, and together they have worked to increase the focus on aircrew mental health issues arising from frequent combat missions. In summary, the Sword represents the eternal brotherhood of RAF and USAF officers who answered their nations’ call. Lt Col Bartels has been a tireless performer and personifies the spirit and purpose of the Exchange Program. His seamless integration into the RAF has furthered this brotherhood and strengthened the ties between our two nations. In recognition of his efforts, Lt Col Bartels is the 2016 winner of the RAF Museum American Foundation Sword of Honor.

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S WO R D S O F H O N O R 2 0 1 6

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BOARD OF DIRECTORS CHAIRMAN Hon John C. Michaelson Managing Partner, Michaelson Capital PRESIDENT Major General Frederick F. Roggero USAF (Ret) President and CEO, Resilient Solutions VICE-PRESIDENT Stuart K. Archer Executive Officer, Army Headquarters Service, Department of the Army DIRECTORS Gary Halbert Partner, Holland & Knight LLP

John Sessions Chairman, Historic Flight Foundation

Matt Keegan Chief of Staff/Chief Strategy Officer, Selex Galileo Inc.

Alan Spence Chief Executive, Integrative Media LLP

Tim Manna Scott Thompson Partner, Assurance Leader, PricewaterhouseCoopers

Sir Stuart Matthews Fellow, Royal Aeronautical Society

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Angela M. Coleman MRAeS DIRECTOR EMERITUS Bob Tullius EX-OFFICIO DIRECTOR Air Commodore R.J.C. Powell CBE MBA MA RAF Air Attaché, British Embassy

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A shared history based on shared principles. Proud to stand together -- then, and now.


The Royal Air Force Museum American Foundation One Metro Center, 700 12th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005 Tel: +1 (202) 558 5121 Email: usfoundation@rafmuseum.org Web: www.rafmaf.com

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RAFMAF Battle of Britain Commemorative Dinner 2016  

Royal Air Force Museum American Foundation Battle Of Britain Commemorative Dinner 2016 – Honoring the 25th Anniversary of the Gulf War

RAFMAF Battle of Britain Commemorative Dinner 2016  

Royal Air Force Museum American Foundation Battle Of Britain Commemorative Dinner 2016 – Honoring the 25th Anniversary of the Gulf War